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Sample records for temperature increases terpenoid

  1. Increased Terpenoid Accumulation in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Foliage is a General Wound Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Grit; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The subepidermal pigment glands of cotton accumulate a variety of terpenoid products, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and terpenoid aldehydes that can act as feeding deterrents against a number of insect herbivore species. We compared the effect of herbivory by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars, mechanical damage by a fabric pattern wheel, and the application of jasmonic acid on levels of the major representatives of the three structural classes of terpenoids in the leaf foliage of 4-week-old Gossypium hirsutum plants. Terpenoid levels increased successively from control to mechanical damage, herbivory, and jasmonic acid treatments, with E-β-ocimene and heliocide H1 and H4 showing the highest increases, up to 15-fold. Herbivory or mechanical damage to older leaves led to terpenoid increases in younger leaves. Leaf-by-leaf analysis of terpenes and gland density revealed that higher levels of terpenoids were achieved by two mechanisms: (1) increased filling of existing glands with terpenoids and (2) the production of additional glands, which were found to be dependent on damage intensity. As the relative response of individual terpenoids did not differ substantially among herbivore, mechanical damage, and jasmonic acid treatments, the induction of terpenoids in cotton foliage appears to represent a non-specific wound response mediated by jasmonic acid. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-008-9453-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18386096

  2. Microbial conversions of terpenoids

    OpenAIRE

    Parshikov, Igor A

    2015-01-01

    The monograph describes examples of the application of microbial technology for obtaining of derivatives of terpenoids. Obtaining new derivatives of terpenoids, including artemisinin derivatives with increased antimalarial activity, is an important goal of research in microbial biotechnology and medicinal chemistry.

  3. Biomass and terpenoids produced by mutant strains of Arthrospira under low temperature and light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Shen, Songdong; Wu, Hao; Liu, Xin; Shen, Weijie; He, Yuan; Duan, R

    2017-02-01

    The filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira is commercially produced and is a functional, high-value, health food. We identified 5 low temperature and low light intensity tolerant strains of Arthrospira sp. (GMPA1, GMPA7, GMPB1, GMPC1, and GMPC3) using ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis and low temperature screening. The 5 Arthrospira strains grew rapidly below 14 °C, 43.75 μmol photons m -2  s -1 and performed breed conservation at 2.5 °C, 8.75 μmol photons m -2  s -1 . We used morphological identification and molecular genetic analysis to identify GMPA1, GMPA7, GMPB1 and GMPC1 as Arthrospira platensis, while GMPC3 was identified as Arthrospira maxima. Growth at different culture temperatures was determined at regular intervals using dry biomass. At 16 °C and 43.75 μmol photons m -2  s -1 , the maximum dry biomass production and the mean dry biomass productivity of GMPA1, GMPB1, and GMPC1 were 2057 ± 80 mg l -1 , 68.7 ± 2.5 mg l -1  day -1 , 1839 ± 44 mg l -1 , 60.6 ± 1.8 mg l -1  day -1 , and 2113 ± 64 mg l -1 , 77.7 ± 2.5 mg l -1  day -1 respectively. GMPB1 was chosen for additional low temperature tolerance studies and growth temperature preference. In winter, GMPB1 grew well at mean temperatures terpenoids, and the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway is the only terpenoid biosynthetic pathway in Cyanobacteria. The 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene from GMPB1 was cloned and phylogenetic analysis showed that GMPB1 is closest to the Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC711. Low temperature tolerant Arthrospira strains could broaden the areas suitable for cultivation, extend the seasonal cultivation time, and lower production costs.

  4. Oligo-carrageenan kappa-induced reducing redox status and increase in TRR/TRX activities promote activation and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Cutiño, Marlen; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-06-05

    In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin(TRX) system induced by oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa in Eucalyptus globulus activate secondary metabolism increasing terpenoid synthesis, trees were sprayed on the leaves with water, with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC) and (GSH) synthesis and TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and auranofine, respectively, and with OC kappa and cultivated for four months. The main terpenoids in control Eucalyptus trees were eucalyptol (76%), α-pinene (7.4%), aromadendrene (3.6%), silvestrene (2.8%), sabinene (2%) and α-terpineol (0.9%). Treated trees showed a 22% increase in total essential oils as well as a decrease in eucalyptol (65%) and sabinene (0.8%) and an increase in aromadendrene (5%), silvestrene (7.8%) and other ten terpenoids. In addition, treated Eucalyptus showed seven de novo synthesized terpenoids corresponding to carene, α-terpinene, α-fenchene, γ-maaliene, spathulenol and α-camphenolic aldehyde. Most increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids have potential insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. Trees treated with CHS-828, lycorine, BSO and auranofine and with OC kappa showed an inhibition of increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids. Thus, OC kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system enhance secondary metabolism increasing the synthesis of terpenoids and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

  5. Oligo-Carrageenan Kappa-Induced Reducing Redox Status and Increase in TRR/TRX Activities Promote Activation and Reprogramming of Terpenoid Metabolism in Eucalyptus Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR/thioredoxin(TRX system induced by oligo-carrageenan (OC kappa in Eucalyptus globulus activate secondary metabolism increasing terpenoid synthesis, trees were sprayed on the leaves with water, with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of NAD(PH, ascorbate (ASC and (GSH synthesis and TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO and auranofine, respectively, and with OC kappa and cultivated for four months. The main terpenoids in control Eucalyptus trees were eucalyptol (76%, α-pinene (7.4%, aromadendrene (3.6%, silvestrene (2.8%, sabinene (2% and α-terpineol (0.9%. Treated trees showed a 22% increase in total essential oils as well as a decrease in eucalyptol (65% and sabinene (0.8% and an increase in aromadendrene (5%, silvestrene (7.8% and other ten terpenoids. In addition, treated Eucalyptus showed seven de novo synthesized terpenoids corresponding to carene, α-terpinene, α-fenchene, γ-maaliene, spathulenol and α-camphenolic aldehyde. Most increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids have potential insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. Trees treated with CHS-828, lycorine, BSO and auranofine and with OC kappa showed an inhibition of increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids. Thus, OC kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system enhance secondary metabolism increasing the synthesis of terpenoids and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

  6. Terpenoids from Curcuma wenyujin increased glucose consumption on HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chang-Xin; Zhang, Li-Sha; Chen, Fei-Fei; Wu, Hao-Shu; Mo, Jian-Xia; Gan, Li-She

    2017-09-01

    Thirty four terpenoids, including two new cadinane-type sesquiterpenoids containing conjugated aromatic-ketone moieties, curcujinone A (1) and curcujinone B (2), were isolated from 95% ethanol extract of the root tubers of Curcuma wenyujin. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR and HRMS techniques. The relative and absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were identified by quantum chemical DFT and TDDFT calculations of the 13 C NMR chemical shifts, ECD spectra, and specific optical rotations. All compounds and extracts were evaluated for their anti-diabetic activities with a glucose consumption model on HepG2 Cells. The petroleum fraction CWP (10μg/mL) and compounds curcumenol (4), 7α,11α-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-9-guaiaen-8-one (5), curdione (17), (1S, 4S, 5S 10S)-germacrone (18), zederone (20), a mixture of curcumanolide A (25) and curcumanolide B (26), gajutsulactone B (27), and wenyujinin C (30) showed promising activities with over 45% increasing of glucose consumption at 10μM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. CRISPR interference-guided balancing of a biosynthetic mevalonate pathway increases terpenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Keun; Han, Gui Hwan; Seong, Wonjae; Kim, Haseong; Kim, Seon-Won; Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Seung-Goo

    2016-11-01

    Methods for simple and efficient regulation of metabolic pathway genes are essential for maximizing product titers and conversion yields, and for minimizing the metabolic burden caused by heterologous expression of multiple genes often in the operon context. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) interference (CRISPRi) is emerging as a promising tool for transcriptional modulation. In this study, we developed a regulatable CRISPRi system for fine-tuning biosynthetic pathways and thus directing carbon flux toward target product synthesis. By exploiting engineered Escherichia coli harboring a biosynthetic mevalonate (MVA) pathway and plant-derived terpenoid synthases, the CRISPRi system successfully modulated the expression of all the MVA pathway genes in the context of operon and blocked the transcription of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the MVA pathway. This CRISPRi-guided balancing of expression of MVA pathway genes led to enhanced production of (-)-α-bisabolol (C15) and lycopene (C40) and alleviation of cell growth inhibition that may be caused by expression of multiple enzymes or production of toxic intermediate metabolites in the MVA pathway. Coupling CRISPRi to cell growth by regulating an endogenous essential gene (ispA) increased isoprene (C5) production. The regulatable CRISPRi system proved to be a robust platform for systematic modulation of biosynthetic and endogenous gene expression, and can be used to tune biosynthetic metabolic pathways. Its application can enable the development of microbial 'smart cell' factories that can produce other industrially valuable products in the future. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K.

    2014-07-12

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was light dependent and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions which explicitly accounts for the physico-chemical properties of emitted compounds, we are able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced through experimentation or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light dependent monoterpenes can comprise a large fraction of emissions. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  9. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishko, V. V.; Nogovitsina, Y. M.; Ivshina, I. B.

    2014-04-01

    Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references.

  10. Terpenoids: natural products for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Lu, Jin-Jian; Huang, Ming-Qing; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Terpenoids constitute the largest class of natural products and are a rich reservoir of candidate compounds for drug discovery. Recent efforts into the research and development of anti-cancer drugs derived from natural products have led to the identification of a variety of terpenoids that inhibit cancer cell proliferation and metastasis via various mechanisms. Despite the increasing number of research reports, there lacks a comprehensive review of anti-cancer activity of terpenoids. The present article provides an overview of the recent progress in the anti-cancer studies on terpenoids. Over a dozen naturally originated terpenoid compounds, in particular those derived from traditional Chinese medicine, were classified into five categories according to the structures, namely monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids and tetraterpenoids. The anti-cancer activities and relevant mechanistic insights of these compounds are discussed in this review. The anti-cancer activity of terpenoids appears promising and will potentially open more opportunities for cancer therapy. However, current studies are restricted to descriptive findings and lack mechanistic insights and systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Future efforts into the systematic identification of the targets of terpenoids are believed to increase chances of gaining breakthrough insights in the field.

  11. Terpenoids from Endophytic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucimar Jorgeane de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews the production of terpenoids by endophytic fungi and their biological activities, in period of 2006 to 2010. Sixty five sesquiterpenes, 45 diterpenes, five meroterpenes and 12 other terpenes, amounting to 127 terpenoids were isolated from endophytic fungi.

  12. Nematicidal activity of terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Alaniz, Nina M; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2013-01-01

    Thirty four phytoterpenoids were evaluated for their nematicidal effect using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematicidal activities of the tested compounds at concentrations of 50 μg/mL showed wide variation in their effects ranging from no effect, weak, moderate and strong effects. Terpenoids exerting 50% or higher mortality at 50 μg/mL were further tested at five different concentrations to calculate the concentration that will kill 50% of the nematode population (LC(50)). Among the most effective terpenoids were carvacrol, thymol, nerolidol, α-terpinene, geraniol, citronellol, farnesol, limonene, pseudoionone and eugenol in a descending order. These compounds exhibited a dose-dependent effect. The results suggest that the selected monoterpenoids and essential oils with a high concentration of these compounds mayprovide potential natural nematicides and merit further study as botanical nematicides for the control of both plant and animal parasitic nematodes. In general, oxygenated terpenoids and phenolic terpenoids exhibited higher nematicidal activity than hydrocarbons terpenoids.

  13. Terpenoid biosynthesis in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, Albert; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Prokaryotic organisms (archaea and eubacteria) are found in all habitats where life exists on our planet. This would not be possible without the astounding biochemical plasticity developed by such organisms. Part of the metabolic diversity of prokaryotes was transferred to eukaryotic cells when endosymbiotic prokaryotes became mitochondria and plastids but also in a large number of horizontal gene transfer episodes. A group of metabolites produced by all free-living organisms is terpenoids (also known as isoprenoids). In prokaryotes, terpenoids play an indispensable role in cell-wall and membrane biosynthesis (bactoprenol, hopanoids), electron transport (ubiquinone, menaquinone), or conversion of light into chemical energy (chlorophylls, bacteriochlorophylls, rhodopsins, carotenoids), among other processes. But despite their remarkable structural and functional diversity, they all derive from the same metabolic precursors. Here we describe the metabolic pathways producing these universal terpenoid units and provide a complete picture of the main terpenoid compounds found in prokaryotic organisms.

  14. Terpenoids for medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischedick, Justin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is concerns research on monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpenoids with medicinal properties. Terpenoids from commond herbs as well as Cannabis sativa, Inula britannica, Tanacetum parthenium, and Salvia officinalis were investigated

  15. Plant metabolic engineering strategies for the production of pharmaceutical terpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical terpenoids belong to the most diverse class of natural products. They have significant curative effects on a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malaria and Alzheimer’s disease. Nowadays, elicitors, including biotic and abiotic elicitors, are often used to activate the pathway of secondary metabolism and enhance the production of target terpenoids. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, several plant metabolic engineering strategies hold great promise to regulate the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical terpenoids. Overexpressing terpenoids biosynthesis pathway genes in homologous and ectopic plants is an effective strategy to enhance the yield of pharmaceutical terpenoids. Another strategy is to suppress the expression of competitive metabolic pathways. In addition, global regulation which includes regulating the relative transcription factors, endogenous phytohormones and primary metabolism could also markedly increase their yield. All these strategies offer great opportunities to enhance the supply of scarce terpenoids drugs, reduce the price of expensive drugs and improve people's standards of living.

  16. Genetic engineering approach using early Vinca alkaloid biosynthesis genes led to increased tryptamine and terpenoid indole alkaloids biosynthesis in differentiating cultures of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay Kumar

    2017-08-14

    Catharanthus roseus today occupies the central position in ongoing metabolic engineering efforts in medicinal plants. The entire multi-step biogenetic pathway of its very expensive anticancerous alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine is fairly very well dissected at biochemical and gene levels except the pathway steps leading to biosynthesis of monomeric alkaloid catharanthine and tabersonine. In order to enhance the plant-based productivity of these pharma molecules for the drug industry, cell and tissue cultures of C. roseus are being increasingly tested to provide their alternate production platforms. However, a rigid developmental regulation and involvement of different cell, tissues, and organelles in the synthesis of these alkaloids have restricted the utility of these cultures. Therefore, the present study was carried out with pushing the terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway metabolic flux towards dimeric alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine production by over-expressing the two upstream pathway genes tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase at two different levels of cellular organization viz. callus and leaf tissues. The transformation experiments were carried out using Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA1119 strain having tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase gene cassette. The callus transformation reported a maximum of 0.027% dry wt vindoline and 0.053% dry wt catharanthine production, whereas, the transiently transformed leaves reported a maximum of 0.30% dry wt vindoline, 0.10% catharanthine, and 0.0027% dry wt vinblastine content.

  17. Biosynthesis and biological functions of terpenoids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholl, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids (isoprenoids) represent the largest and most diverse class of chemicals among the myriad compounds produced by plants. Plants employ terpenoid metabolites for a variety of basic functions in growth and development but use the majority of terpenoids for more specialized chemical interactions and protection in the abiotic and biotic environment. Traditionally, plant-based terpenoids have been used by humans in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries, and more recently have been exploited in the development of biofuel products. Genomic resources and emerging tools in synthetic biology facilitate the metabolic engineering of high-value terpenoid products in plants and microbes. Moreover, the ecological importance of terpenoids has gained increased attention to develop strategies for sustainable pest control and abiotic stress protection. Together, these efforts require a continuous growth in knowledge of the complex metabolic and molecular regulatory networks in terpenoid biosynthesis. This chapter gives an overview and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the organization, regulation, and diversification of core and specialized terpenoid metabolic pathways, and addresses the most important functions of volatile and nonvolatile terpenoid specialized metabolites in plants.

  18. Methyl jasmonate treatment of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees increases the accumulation of terpenoid resin components and protects against infection by Ceratocystis polonica, a bark beetle-associated fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeneli, Gazmend; Krokene, Paal; Christiansen, Erik; Krekling, Trygve; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2006-08-01

    When conifers such as Picea abies Karst. (Norway spruce) are attacked by insects or pathogens, they often respond by producing increased quantities of terpenoid oleoresin. This response can be mimicked in young P. abies seedlings by treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ). In this study, we determined the effects of MJ on terpenoids and other chemical defenses of mature P. abies, and investigated whether this treatment protected trees against attack by the blue-stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau, the most important fungal associate of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus L. Methyl jasmonate treatment induced the formation of traumatic resin ducts in the developing xylem, enhanced resin flow and stimulated increased accumulation of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpene resin acids. However, only minor changes were detected in terpene composition in response to MJ treatment and no changes in soluble phenolic concentration were measured. There was much variability in the timing and degree of response to MJ among clones. The observed chemical and anatomical changes in response to MJ treatment were correlated with increased resistance to C. polonica, suggesting that terpenoid oleoresin may function in defense against this pathogen.

  19. Increased Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larval feeding on a RNAi construct CYP82D109 that blocks gossypol-related terpenoid synthesis in cotton plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glandled cotton plants, Gossypium hirsutum L., have long been known to be more resistant to insect pests compared to their glandless counterparts. This resistance has been mainly attributed to the presence of terpenoid aldehydes such as gossypol, hemigossypolone, and heliocides in the glands. We p...

  20. Increased Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larval feeding on cotton plants with RNAi construct CYP82D109 that blocks gossypol-related terpenoid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glandled cotton plants, Gossypium hirsutum L., have long been known to be more resistant to insect pests compared to their glandless counterparts. This resistance has been mainly attributed to the presence of terpenoid aldehydes such as gossypol, hemigossypolone, and heliocides in the glands. We p...

  1. Stomatal conductance increases with rising temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Josef; Ingwers, Miles; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2017-08-03

    Stomatal conductance directly modifies plant water relations and photosynthesis. Many environmental factors affecting the stomatal conductance have been intensively studied but temperature has been largely neglected, even though it is one of the fastest changing environmental variables and it is rising due to climate change. In this study, we describe how stomata open when the temperature increases. Stomatal conductance increased by ca 40% in a broadleaf and a coniferous species, poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) when temperature was increased by 10 °C, from 30 °C to 40 °C at a constant vapor pressure deficit of 1 kPa. The mechanism of regulating stomatal conductance by temperature was, at least partly, independent of other known mechanisms linked to water status and carbon metabolism. Stomatal conductance increased with rising temperature despite the decrease in leaf water potential, increase in transpiration, increase in intercellular CO2 concentration and was decoupled from photosynthesis. Increase in xylem and mesophyll hydraulic conductance coming from lower water viscosity may to some degree explain temperature dependent opening of stomata. The direct stomatal response to temperature allows plants to benefit from increased evaporative cooling during the heat waves and from lower stomatal limitations to photosynthesis but they may be jeopardized by faster depletion of soil water.

  2. Spatiotemporal variability of biogenic terpenoid emissions in Pearl River Delta, China, with high-resolution land-cover and meteorological data

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    Wang, Xuemei; Situ, Shuping; Guenther, Alex; Chen, Fei; Wu, Zhiyong; Xia, Beicheng; Wang, Tijian

    2011-04-01

    This study intended to provide 4-km gridded, hourly, year-long, regional estimates of terpenoid emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. It combined Thematic Mapper images and local-survey data to characterize plant functional types, and used observed emission potential of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from local plant species and high-resolution meteorological outputs from the MM5 model to constrain the MEGAN BVOC-emission model. The estimated annual emissions for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene are 95.55 × 106 kg C, 117.35 × 106 kg C and 9.77 × 106 kg C, respectively. The results show strong variabilities of terpenoid emissions spanning diurnal and seasonal time scales, which are mainly distributed in the remote areas (with more vegetation and less economic development) in PRD. Using MODIS PFTs data reduced terpenoid emissions by 27% in remote areas. Using MEGAN-model default emission factors led to a 24% increase in BVOC emission. The model errors of temperature and radiation in MM5 output were used to assess impacts of uncertainties in meteorological forcing on emissions: increasing (decreasing) temperature and downward shortwave radiation produces more (less) terpenoid emissions for July and January. Strong temporal variability of terpenoid emissions leads to enhanced ozone formation during midday in rural areas where the anthropogenic VOC emissions are limited.

  3. Suppression of terpenoid synthesis in plants by a virus promotes its mutualism with vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Yao, Dan-Mei; Zhang, Tong; Walling, Linda L; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Vectors often perform better on plants infected with pathogens, and this promotes the spread of pathogens. However, few studies have examined how plant defensive compounds mediate such mutualistic relationships. Although tobacco plants are relatively poor host plants for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, tobacco's suitability to the whitefly was substantially increased when infected by the begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus. The change in suitability was associated with induced terpenoid synthesis in whitefly-infested plants and repressed terpenoid synthesis in virus-infected plants. Elevation of terpenoid levels via exogenous stem applications reduced the performance of whiteflies. In contrast, suppression of terpenoid synthesis via gene silencing improved whitefly fitness. By integrating genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, this study demonstrated that virus infection depleted the terpenoid-mediated plant defence against whiteflies, thereby favouring vector-virus mutualism. These data suggest that plant terpenoids play a key role in shaping vector-pathogen relationships. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  4. A Glimpse into the Biosynthesis of Terpenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdallah, Ingy; Quax, Wim J.

    Terpenoids represent the largest class of natural products with a diverse array of structures and functions. Many terpenoids have reported therapeutic properties such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and chemotherapeutic properties making them of great interest in the medical

  5. A fragrant introduction to terpenoid chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Sell, Charles

    2003-01-01

    ... expertise, we will concentrate on the monoand sesquiterpenoids and primarily those of interest as fragrance ingredients. Higher terpenoids will be mentioned and the reader will be able to extrapolate the basic principles of terpenoid chemistry from the more detailed examples using lower terpenoids to these higher homologues. Chemistry i...

  6. Microbial production strategies and applications of lycopene and other terpenoids.

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    Ma, Tian; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids are a large class of compounds that have far-reaching applications and economic value, particularly those most commonly found in plants; however, the extraction and synthesis of these compounds is often expensive and technically challenging. Recent advances in microbial metabolic engineering comprise a breakthrough that may enable the efficient, cost-effective production of these limited natural resources. Via the engineering of safe, industrial microorganisms that encode product-specific enzymes, and even entire metabolic pathways of interest, microbial-derived semisynthetic terpenoids may soon replace plant-derived terpenoids as the primary source of these valuable compounds. Indeed, the recent metabolic engineering of an Escherichia coli strain that produces the precursor to lycopene, a commercially and medically important compound, with higher yields than those in tomato plants serves as a successful example. Here, we review the recent developments in the metabolic engineering of microbes for the production of certain terpenoid compounds, particularly lycopene, which has been increasingly used in pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, and cosmetics. Furthermore, we summarize the metabolic engineering strategies used to achieve successful microbial production of some similar compounds. Based on this overview, there is a reason to believe that metabolic engineering comprises an optimal approach for increasing the production of lycopene and other terpenoids.

  7. Bioinspired total syntheses of terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugelshofer, Cedric L; Magauer, Thomas

    2016-12-20

    Nature's highly efficient routes for constructing natural products have inspired chemists to mimic these processes in a laboratory setting. This Perspective presents some recent examples of conceptually different bioinspired total syntheses of complex terpenoids and thereby aims to highlight the vast benefits offered by bioinspired strategies.

  8. Chrysolina herbacea modulates terpenoid biosynthesis of Mentha aquatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsbaha Zebelo, Simon; Bertea, Cinzia M; Bossi, Simone; Occhipinti, Andrea; Gnavi, Giorgio; Maffei, Massimo E

    2011-03-09

    Interactions between herbivorous insects and plants storing terpenoids are poorly understood. This study describes the ability of Chrysolina herbacea to use volatiles emitted by undamaged Mentha aquatica plants as attractants and the plant's response to herbivory, which involves the production of deterrent molecules. Emitted plant volatiles were analyzed by GC-MS. The insect's response to plant volatiles was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. Total RNA was extracted from control plants, mechanically damaged leaves, and leaves damaged by herbivores. The terpenoid quantitative gene expressions (qPCR) were then assayed. Upon herbivory, M. aquatica synthesizes and emits (+)-menthofuran, which acts as a deterrent to C. herbacea. Herbivory was found to up-regulate the expression of genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. The increased emission of (+)-menthofuran was correlated with the upregulation of (+)-menthofuran synthase.

  9. Chrysolina herbacea modulates terpenoid biosynthesis of Mentha aquatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Atsbaha Zebelo

    Full Text Available Interactions between herbivorous insects and plants storing terpenoids are poorly understood. This study describes the ability of Chrysolina herbacea to use volatiles emitted by undamaged Mentha aquatica plants as attractants and the plant's response to herbivory, which involves the production of deterrent molecules. Emitted plant volatiles were analyzed by GC-MS. The insect's response to plant volatiles was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. Total RNA was extracted from control plants, mechanically damaged leaves, and leaves damaged by herbivores. The terpenoid quantitative gene expressions (qPCR were then assayed. Upon herbivory, M. aquatica synthesizes and emits (+-menthofuran, which acts as a deterrent to C. herbacea. Herbivory was found to up-regulate the expression of genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. The increased emission of (+-menthofuran was correlated with the upregulation of (+-menthofuran synthase.

  10. Terpenoids in plant and arbuscular mycorrhiza-reinforced defence against herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Esha; Anand, Garima; Kapoor, Rupam

    2017-03-01

    Plants, though sessile, employ various strategies to defend themselves against herbivorous insects and convey signals of an impending herbivore attack to other plant(s). Strategies include the production of volatiles that include terpenoids and the formation of symbiotic associations with fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). This constitutes a two-pronged above-ground/below-ground attack-defence strategy against insect herbivores. Terpenoids represent an important constituent of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that deter herbivores and/or attract their predators. Terpenoids serve as airborne signals that can induce defence responses in systemic undamaged parts of the plant and also prime defence responses in neighbouring plants. Colonization of roots by AM fungi is known to influence secondary metabolism in plants; this includes alteration of the concentration and composition of terpenoids, which can boost both direct and indirect plant defence against herbivorous insects. Enhanced nutrient uptake facilitated by AM, changes in plant morphology and physiology and increased transcription levels of certain genes involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway result in alterations in plant terpenoid profiles. The common mycorrhizal networks of external hyphae have added a dimension to the two-pronged plant defence strategy. These act as conduits to transfer defence signals and terpenoids. Improved understanding of the roles of terpenoids in plant and AM defences against herbivory and of interplant signalling in natural communities has significant implications for sustainable management of pests in agricultural ecosystems.

  11. Assessment of Biogenic Terpenoid Emission Inventories in Asia using Remotely Sensed Spatial and Temporal Surrogate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. K.; Woo, J. H.; Choi, K. C.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Among biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) species, the most comprehensively studied species are isoprene and monoterpene (terpenoid) due to their significant impacts on global and regional total VOC emission budget and ozone and aerosol formation mechanisms. Biogenic terpenoid emission inventories have been often assessed on a global basis and consistently available on model grid system units to support climate and chemical transport modeling. However, little of these have been assessed based on the political units such as countries and provinces. On the basis of political boundaries in Asia, we assembled and compared a large number of terpenoid emission estimates including currently published or reported sources. We assessed these terpenoid emission estimates in the context of the spatial and temporal consistency. Since the biogenic terpenoid emission inventories commonly use leaf biomass density, solar radiation and temperature as driving variables, we used the MODIS Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) datasets as surrogates to correlate with the terpenoid emission estimates in Asia. Based on our current assessment, we will discuss about the current status of the biogenic terpenoid emission inventories in Asia.

  12. Terpenoids and Their Biosynthesis in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagmi Pattanaik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, or isoprenoids, are a family of compounds with great structural diversity which are essential for all living organisms. In cyanobacteria, they are synthesized from the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP pathway, using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate produced by photosynthesis as substrates. The products of the MEP pathway are the isomeric five-carbon compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, which in turn form the basic building blocks for formation of all terpenoids. Many terpenoid compounds have useful properties and are of interest in the fields of pharmaceuticals and nutrition, and even potentially as future biofuels. The MEP pathway, its function and regulation, and the subsequent formation of terpenoids have not been fully elucidated in cyanobacteria, despite its relevance for biotechnological applications. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about cyanobacterial terpenoid biosynthesis, both regarding the native metabolism and regarding metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for heterologous production of non-native terpenoids.

  13. Drought effects on root and needle terpenoid content of a coastal and an interior Douglas fir provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, Anita; Duan, Qiuxiao; Jansen, Kirstin; Verena Junker, Laura; Kammerer, Bernd; Rennenberg, Heinz; Ensminger, Ingo; Gessler, Arthur; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is a conifer species that stores large amounts of terpenoids, mainly monoterpenoids in resin ducts of various tissues. The effects of drought on stored leaf terpenoid concentrations in trees are scarcely studied and published data are partially controversial, since reduced, unaffected or elevated terpenoid contents due to drought have been reported. Even less is known on the effect of drought on root terpenoids. In the present work, we investigated the effect of reduced water availability on the terpenoid content in roots and needles of Douglas fir seedlings. Two contrasting Douglas fir provenances were studied: an interior provenance (var. glauca) with assumed higher drought resistance, and a coastal provenance (var. menziesii) with assumed lower drought resistance. We tested the hypothesis that both provenances show specific patterns of stored terpenoids and that the patterns will change in response to drought in both, needles and roots. We further expected stronger changes in the less drought tolerant coastal provenance. For this purpose, we performed an experiment under controlled conditions, in which the trees were exposed to moderate and severe drought stress. According to our expectations, the study revealed clear provenance-specific terpenoid patterns in needles. However, such patterns were not detected in the roots. Drought slightly increased the needle terpenoid contents of the coastal but not of the interior provenance. We also observed increased terpenoid abundance mainly in roots of the moderately stressed coastal provenance. Overall, from the observed provenance-specific reactions with increased terpenoid levels in trees of the coastal origin in response to drought, we conclude on functions of terpenoids for abiotic stress tolerance that might be fulfilled by other, constitutively expressed mechanisms in drought-adapted interior provenances. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  14. Biosynthesis of terpenoid natural products in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Tens of thousands of terpenoid natural products have been isolated from plants and microbial sources. Higher fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are known to produce an array of well-known terpenoid natural products, including mycotoxins, antibiotics, antitumor compounds, and phytohormones. Except for a few well-studied fungal biosynthetic pathways, the majority of genes and biosynthetic pathways responsible for the biosynthesis of a small number of these secondary metabolites have only been discovered and characterized in the past 5-10 years. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on fungal terpenoid biosynthesis from biochemical, genetic, and genomic viewpoints. Enzymes involved in synthesizing, transferring, and cyclizing the prenyl chains that form the hydrocarbon scaffolds of fungal terpenoid natural products are systematically discussed. Genomic information and functional evidence suggest differences between the terpenome of the two major fungal phyla--the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota--which will be illustrated for each group of terpenoid natural products.

  15. Developing fermentative terpenoid production for commercial usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavell, Michael D; McPhee, Derek J; Paddon, Chris J

    2016-02-01

    Terpenoids comprise a large (>55000) family of compounds, very few of which have been used commercially due to low and economically unpractical production in their native hosts (generally plants and microorganisms). Two examples of natural terpenoid production are described (rubber and astaxanthin), but the advent of metabolic engineering has allowed the development of fermentative production processes using heterologous microorganisms. The two biochemical pathways responsible for terpenoid production are described, along with manipulations that enable production of terpenoids at economically viable levels. Finally, this article reviews some terpenoids that are currently in commercial production or development, ranging from semisynthetic production of the antimalarial drug artemisinin, through fragrance molecules, to commodity chemicals such as isoprene and β-farnesene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural and Chemical Biology of Terpenoid Cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, David W

    2017-09-13

    The year 2017 marks the twentieth anniversary of terpenoid cyclase structural biology: a trio of terpenoid cyclase structures reported together in 1997 were the first to set the foundation for understanding the enzymes largely responsible for the exquisite chemodiversity of more than 80000 terpenoid natural products. Terpenoid cyclases catalyze the most complex chemical reactions in biology, in that more than half of the substrate carbon atoms undergo changes in bonding and hybridization during a single enzyme-catalyzed cyclization reaction. The past two decades have witnessed structural, functional, and computational studies illuminating the modes of substrate activation that initiate the cyclization cascade, the management and manipulation of high-energy carbocation intermediates that propagate the cyclization cascade, and the chemical strategies that terminate the cyclization cascade. The role of the terpenoid cyclase as a template for catalysis is paramount to its function, and protein engineering can be used to reprogram the cyclization cascade to generate alternative and commercially important products. Here, I review key advances in terpenoid cyclase structural and chemical biology, focusing mainly on terpenoid cyclases and related prenyltransferases for which X-ray crystal structures have informed and advanced our understanding of enzyme structure and function.

  17. Biosynthetic studies on terpenoids produced by Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuyama, Tomohisa

    2017-07-01

    Terpenoids are a large and highly diverse group of natural products. All terpenoids are biosynthesized from isoprenyl diphosphate formed by the consecutive condensation of the five-carbon monomer isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Two distinct biosynthetic pathways produce the essential primary metabolites IPP and DMAPP: the 2-C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway and the mevalonate pathway. The isoprenyl substrates can be cyclized by terpene cyclase into single-ring or multi-ring products, which can be further diversified by subsequent modification reactions, such as hydroxylation and glycosylation. This review article describes the biosynthetic pathways of terpenoids produced by Streptomyces and their related novel enzymes.

  18. Differences in shoot and root terpenoid profiles and plant responses to fertilisation in Tanacetum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific chemical diversity is a common phenomenon especially found in shoots of essential oil-accumulating plant species. Abiotic factors can influence the concentration of essential oils, but the effects are inconsistent and little is known in how far these may vary within an individual and within species between chemotypes. Tanacetum vulgare L. occurs in various chemotypes that differ in the composition of mono- and sesquiterpenoids in their shoot tissues. We investigated how far shoot chemotype grouping is mirrored in root terpenoid profiles. Furthermore, we studied whether different fertilisation amounts influence the plant growth and morphological traits as well as the constitutive terpenoid concentration of leaves and roots of three chemotypes, trans-carvyl acetate, β-thujone, and camphor, to different degrees. Shoot terpenoids were dominated by monoterpenoids, while the roots contained mainly sesquiterpenoids. The clear grouping in three chemotypes based on leaf chemistry was weakly mirrored in the root terpenoid composition. Furthermore, the leaf C/N ratio and the stem height differed between chemotypes. All plants responded to increased nutrient availability with increased total biomass and specific leaf area but decreased C/N and root/shoot ratios. Leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased with increasing fertiliser supply, independent of chemotype. In contrast to the leaves, the terpenoid concentrations of the roots were unaffected by fertilisation. Our results demonstrate that aboveground and belowground organs within a species can be under different selection pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal differences in human responses to increasing temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitazawa, Sachie; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    to be sleepier. Heart rate slightly increased during exposure, and SpO2 and ETCO2 began to decrease while core temperature started to increase. Performance of Tsai-partington test and addition test improved during exposures due to learning though lesser in winter. Results show negative effects of the temperature......Experiments were conducted in late summer and winter with 80 young and elderly Danish subjects exposed for 3.5 hours in a climate chamber to the temperature increasing from 24°C to 35.2°C at a rate of 3.7K/h. Psychological and physiological measurements were performed during exposure and subjects...... with increasing temperature. Difficulty to concentrate increased with increased temperature and the self-estimated ability to perform work decreased; subjects reported being sleepier. Severity of headache and difficulty to concentrate was in winter slightly but systematically higher, subjects reporting also...

  20. New terpenoids from Resina Commiphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lu; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Li-Zhi; Yan, Yong-Ming; Cheng, Yong-Xian; Wang, Shu-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Three new eudesmane sesquiterpenoids, commiphoranes E1-E3 (1-3), a new podocarpane diterpenoid, commiphorane F (4), three new triterpenoids, commiphoranes G1-G3 (5-7), and fourteen known terpenoids (8-21) were isolated from Resina Commiphora. The structures and relative configurations of new compounds were mainly assigned by spectroscopic methods. In particular, the absolute configuration of 3 was clarified by computational methods. Renoprotective effects of all these isolates were evaluated by using an ELISA assay in TGF-β1-induced rat kidney tubular epithelial cells. The present findings add new facets for chemical profiling of plant resins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating terpene and terpenoid emissions from conifer oleoresin composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2015-07-01

    The following algorithm, which is based on the thermodynamics of nonelectrolyte partitioning, was developed to predict emission rates of terpenes and terpenoids from specific storage sites in conifers: Ei =xoriγoripi∘ where Ei is the emission rate (μg C gdw-1 h-1) and pi∘ is the vapor pressure (mm Hg) of the pure liquid terpene or terpenoid, respectively, and xori and γori are the mole fraction and activity coefficient (on a Raoult's law convention), respectively, of the terpene and terpenoid in the oleoresin. Activity coefficients are calculated with Hansen solubility parameters that account for dispersive, polar, and H-bonding interactions of the solutes with the oleoresin matrix. Estimates of pi∘ at 25 °C and molar enthalpies of vaporization are made with the SIMPOL.1 method and are used to estimate pi∘ at environmentally relevant temperatures. Estimated mixing ratios of terpenes and terpenols were comparatively higher above resin-acid- and monoterpene-rich oleoresins, respectively. The results indicated a greater affinity of terpenes and terpenols for the non-functionalized and carboxylic acid containing matrix through dispersive and H-bonding interactions, which are expressed in the emission algorithm by the activity coefficient. The correlation between measured emission rates of terpenes and terpenoids for Pinus strobus and emission rates predicted with the algorithm were very good (R = 0.95). Standard errors for the range and average of monoterpene emission rates were ±6 - ±86% and ±54%, respectively, and were similar in magnitude to reported standard deviations of monoterpene composition of foliar oils (±38 - ±51% and ±67%, respectively).

  2. Terpenoids in plant signaling, chemical ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, I.F.; Dicke, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Terpenoids constitute the largest class of secondary metabolites in the plant kingdom. Because of their immense structural diversity and the resulting diversity in physiochemical properties, these molecules are particularly important for plant communication with other organisms. In this article, we

  3. Increased Stream Temperature in Response to Extreme Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Gooseff, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystem temperature regulation is essential to the survival of riverine fish species restricted to limited water temperature ranges. Dissolved oxygen levels, similarly necessary to fish health, are decreased by rising temperatures, as warmer waters can hold less oxygen than colder waters. Climate change projections forecast increased precipitation intensities, a trend that has already been observed in the past decade. Though extreme events are becoming more common, the stream temperature response to high-intensity rainfall is not yet completely understood. Precipitation and stream temperature records from gages in the Upper Midwestern United States were analyzed to determine whether there exists a positive relationship between high-intensity rainfall and stream temperature response. This region was chosen for its already observed trends in increasing precipitation intensity, and rural gages were used in order to minimize the effect of impervious surfaces on runoff amounts and temperature. Days with recorded precipitation were divided by an intensity threshold and classified as either high-intensity or low-intensity days. While the effects of rain events on temperature are variable, increases in stream temperature in response to high-intensity rainfall were observed. For some basins, daily maximum rates of stream temperature increase were, on average, greater for higher intensity events. Similarly, the average daily stream temperature range was higher in streams on days of high-intensity precipitation, compared to days of low-intensity events. Understanding the effect of increasing precipitation intensity in conjunction with rising air temperatures will provide insight into the future of aquatic ecosystems and their adaptation to climate change.

  4. Predation life history responses to increased temperature variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Barbosa

    Full Text Available The evolution of life history traits is regulated by energy expenditure, which is, in turn, governed by temperature. The forecasted increase in temperature variability is expected to impose greater stress to organisms, in turn influencing the balance of energy expenditure and consequently life history responses. Here we examine how increased temperature variability affects life history responses to predation. Individuals reared under constant temperatures responded to different levels of predation risk as appropriate: namely, by producing greater number of neonates of smaller sizes and reducing the time to first brood. In contrast, we detected no response to predation regime when temperature was more variable. In addition, population growth rate was slowest among individuals reared under variable temperatures. Increased temperature variability also affected the development of inducible defenses. The combined effects of failing to respond to predation risk, slower growth rate and the miss-match development of morphological defenses supports suggestions that increased variability in temperature poses a greater risk for species adaptation than that posed by a mean shift in temperature.

  5. Identification of novel knockout targets for improving terpenoids biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiqiang; Meng, Hailin; Li, Jing; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Qian; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Many terpenoids have important pharmacological activity and commercial value; however, application of these terpenoids is often limited by problems associated with the production of sufficient amounts of these molecules. The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) for the production of heterologous terpenoids has achieved some success. The objective of this study was to identify S. cerevisiae knockout targets for improving the synthesis of heterologous terpeniods. On the basis of computational analysis of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network, we identified the knockout sites with the potential to promote terpenoid production and the corresponding single mutant was constructed by molecular manipulations. The growth rates of these strains were measured and the results indicated that the gene deletion had no adverse effects. Using the expression of amorphadiene biosynthesis as a testing model, the gene deletion was assessed for its effect on the production of exogenous terpenoids. The results showed that the dysfunction of most genes led to increased production of amorphadiene. The yield of amorphadiene produced by most single mutants was 8-10-fold greater compared to the wild type, indicating that the knockout sites can be engineered to promote the synthesis of exogenous terpenoids.

  6. DEVELOPING A YEAST CELL FACTORY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TERPENOIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios C. Kampranis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments over the past century have made microbes the work-horses of large scale industrial production processes. Current efforts focus on the metabolic engineering of microbial strains to produce high levels of desirable end-products. The arsenal of the contemporary metabolic engineer contains tools that allow either targeted rational interventions or global screens that combine classical approaches with –omics technologies. Production of terpenoids in S. cerevisiae presents a characteristic example of contemporary biotechnology that integrates all the variety of novel approaches used in metabolic engineering. Terpenoids have attracted significant interest as pharmaceuticals, flavour and fragrance additives, and, more recently, biofuels. The ongoing metabolic engineering efforts, combined with the continuously increasing number of terpene biosynthetic enzymes discovered will enable the economical and environmentally friendly production of a wide range of compounds.

  7. Developing a yeast cell factory for the production of terpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios C Kampranis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments over the past century have made microbes the work-horses of large scale industrial production processes. Current efforts focus on the metabolic engineering of microbial strains to produce high levels of desirable end-products. The arsenal of the contemporary metabolic engineer contains tools that allow either targeted rational interventions or global screens that combine classical approaches with –omics technologies. Production of terpenoids in S. cerevisiae presents a characteristic example of contemporary biotechnology that integrates all the variety of novel approaches used in metabolic engineering. Terpenoids have attracted significant interest as pharmaceuticals, flavour and fragrance additives, and, more recently, biofuels. The ongoing metabolic engineering efforts, combined with the continuously increasing number of terpene biosynthetic enzymes discovered will enable the economical and environmentally friendly production of a wide range of compounds.

  8. Progress in renewable polymers from natural terpenes, terpenoids, and rosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbon, Perry A; Chu, Fuxiang; Tang, Chuanbing

    2013-01-11

    The development of sustainable renewable polymers from natural resources has increasingly gained attention from scientists, engineers as well as the general public and government agencies. This review covers recent progress in the field of renewable bio-based monomers and polymers from natural resources: terpenes, terpenoids, and rosin, which are a class of hydrocarbon-rich biomass with abundance and low cost, holding much potential for utilization as organic feedstocks for green plastics and composites. This review details polymerization and copolymerization of terpenes such as pinene, limonene, and myrcene and their derivatives, terpenoids including carvone and menthol, and rosin-derived monomers. The future direction on the utilization of these natural resources is discussed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Expression of MEP Pathway Genes and Non-volatile Sequestration Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm of Dominant Terpenoids Emission in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riru Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Osmanthus fragrans Lour. is one of the top 10 traditional ornamental flowers in China famous for its unique fragrance. Preliminary study proved that the terpenoids including ionone, linalool, and ocimene and their derivatives are the dominant aroma-active compounds that contribute greatly to the scent bouquet. Pollination observation implies the emission of aromatic terpenoids may follow a circadian rhythm. In this study, we investigated the variation of volatile terpenoids and its potential regulators. The results showed that both volatile and non-volatile terpenoids presented circadian oscillation with high emission or accumulation during the day and low emission or accumulation during the night. The volatile terpenoids always increased to reach their maximum values at 12:00 h, while free and glycosylated compounds continued increasing throughout the day. The depletion of non-volatile pool might provide the substrates for volatile emission at 0:00–6:00, suggesting the sequestration of non-volatile compounds acted like a buffer regulating emission of terpenoids. Further detection of MEP pathway genes demonstrated that their expressions increased significantly in parallel with the evident increase of both volatile and non-volatile terpenoids during the day, indicating that the gene expressions were also closely associated with terpenoid formation. Thus, the expression of MEP pathway genes and internal sequestration both played crucial roles in modulating circadian rhythm of terpenoid emission in O. fragrans.

  10. Expression of MEP Pathway Genes and Non-volatile Sequestration Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm of Dominant Terpenoids Emission in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Riru; Liu, Cai; Wang, Yanli; Luo, Jing; Zeng, Xiangling; Ding, Haiqin; Xiao, Wei; Gan, Jianping; Wang, Caiyun

    2017-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour. is one of the top 10 traditional ornamental flowers in China famous for its unique fragrance. Preliminary study proved that the terpenoids including ionone, linalool, and ocimene and their derivatives are the dominant aroma-active compounds that contribute greatly to the scent bouquet. Pollination observation implies the emission of aromatic terpenoids may follow a circadian rhythm. In this study, we investigated the variation of volatile terpenoids and its potential regulators. The results showed that both volatile and non-volatile terpenoids presented circadian oscillation with high emission or accumulation during the day and low emission or accumulation during the night. The volatile terpenoids always increased to reach their maximum values at 12:00 h, while free and glycosylated compounds continued increasing throughout the day. The depletion of non-volatile pool might provide the substrates for volatile emission at 0:00-6:00, suggesting the sequestration of non-volatile compounds acted like a buffer regulating emission of terpenoids. Further detection of MEP pathway genes demonstrated that their expressions increased significantly in parallel with the evident increase of both volatile and non-volatile terpenoids during the day, indicating that the gene expressions were also closely associated with terpenoid formation. Thus, the expression of MEP pathway genes and internal sequestration both played crucial roles in modulating circadian rhythm of terpenoid emission in O. fragrans.

  11. Neutrophil elastase-mediated increase in airway temperature during inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Annika; Belaaouaj, Azzaq; Bissinger, Rosi

    2014-01-01

    Background How elevated temperature is generated during airway infections represents a hitherto unresolved physiological question. We hypothesized that innate immune defence mechanisms would increase luminal airway temperature during pulmonary infection. Methods We determined the temperature......, under anaerobic conditions at 38 °C vs 30 °C revealed increased virulence traits and characteristic cell wall changes. Conclusion Neutrophil elastase mediates increase in airway temperature, which may contribute to P. aeruginosa selection during the course of chronic infection in CF....... in the exhaled air of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To further test our hypothesis, a pouch inflammatory model using neutrophil elastase-deficient mice was employed. Next, the impact of temperature changes on the dominant CF pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth was tested by plating method and RNAseq. Results...

  12. Enantiomeric and quantitative analysis of volatile terpenoids in different teas (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Shao, Chen-Yang; Lv, Hai-Peng; Zhang, Yue; Dai, Wei-Dong; Guo, Li; Tan, Jun-Feng; Peng, Qun-Hua; Lin, Zhi

    2017-03-24

    Volatile terpenoids play important roles in the formation of tea aroma quality due to their pleasant scents and low odor thresholds. Most volatile terpenoids contain stereogenic centers, which results in various stereo distributions of their enantiomers and diastereoisomers in different types of tea. However, the distribution characteristics of terpenoid enantiomers in teas were still unclear, which poses an obstacle to the scientific understanding of tea aroma. In this work, a new and efficient analysis approach based on headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-chiral gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was established to analyze 12 pairs of familiar terpenoid enantiomers in different teas. The extraction efficiency of the HS-SPME method to extract volatile terpenoids in teas was the greatest when using CAR-DVB-PDMS (50/30μm) fibers and 1:10 proportions between tea and boiling water at a 50°C extraction temperature for 40min, and the stability observation of enantiomeric ratios of the terpenoids well proved the feasibility of the extraction method. The favorable limits of detection, limits of quantitation, repeatability, linearity, and concentration ranges of each terpenoid enantiomer demonstrated the repeatability and reliability of the analytical approach. The enantiomeric and quantitative analyses indicated that S-limonene, S-linalool, (2S, 5S)-linalool oxide A, (2S, 5R)-linalool oxide B, R-4-terpineol, (2S, 5R)-linalool oxide C, (2S, 5S)-linalool oxide D, S-α-terpineol, R-α-ionone, peak 1 of theaspirane A and peak 2 of theaspirane B were the major terpenoid components in most Chinese teas; instead, higher proportions of the opposite enantiomers of the above terpenoids were frequently detected in black teas with large leaf origin and Indonesia white teas. Besides, great diversities of enantiomeric ratios and concentrations among different teas were observed. Furthermore, partial least-squares discriminant analyses were performed to

  13. Increasing influence of air temperature on upper Colorado River streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Morino, Kiyomi; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study examines the influence of precipitation, temperature, and antecedent soil moisture on upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) water year streamflow over the past century. While cool season precipitation explains most of the variability in annual flows, temperature appears to be highly influential under certain conditions, with the role of antecedent fall soil moisture less clear. In both wet and dry years, when flow is substantially different than expected given precipitation, these factors can modulate the dominant precipitation influence on streamflow. Different combinations of temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture can result in flow deficits of similar magnitude, but recent droughts have been amplified by warmer temperatures that exacerbate the effects of relatively modest precipitation deficits. Since 1988, a marked increase in the frequency of warm years with lower flows than expected, given precipitation, suggests continued warming temperatures will be an increasingly important influence in reducing future UCRB water supplies.

  14. Increasing Temperature Extremes during the Recent Global Warming Hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N. C.; Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Although the recent global warming hiatus has featured a slowdown in the annual, global mean surface air temperature trend, temperature extremes have exhibited contrasting changes, as both wintertime cold and summertime hot extremes have increased over Northern Hemisphere (NH) land from 2002-2014. To investigate the sources of NH temperature extreme variability, we use multiple linear regression analysis that includes as predictors the typical drivers of global-scale climate variability - tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST), volcanic aerosols, solar variability, and the linear time trend. This analysis suggests that natural forcings, including tropical SSTs and solar variations, have contributed to the recent increase in NH winter cold extremes. The magnitude of the recent increase in summer hot extremes is only captured after including an additional SST predictor for a pattern that resembles the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, which suggests the importance of Atlantic Ocean SSTs for recent increases in hot extremes. When the regression models are applied to local, grid point scales, they indicate the promise for substantial skill in seasonal predictions of extreme temperature over some NH regions. Overall, this work reveals important sources of natural variability in extreme temperature trends superimposed upon the long-term increase of hot extremes and decrease of cold extremes.

  15. Extraction and Analysis of Terpenes/Terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zuodong; Kempinski, Chase; Chappell, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Terpenes/terpenoids constitute one of the largest classes of natural products, this is due to the incredible chemical diversity that can arise from the biochemical transformations of the relatively simple prenyl diphosphate starter units. All terpenes/terpenoids comprise a hydrocarbon backbone that is generated from the various length prenyl diphosphates (a polymer chain of prenyl units). Upon ionization (removal) of the diphosphate group, the remaining allylic carbocation intermediates can be coaxed down complex chemical cascades leading to diverse linear and cyclized hydrocarbon backbones, which can then be further modified with a wide range of functional groups ( e.g . alcohol, ketones, etc .) and substituent additions ( e.g . sugars, fatty acids). Because of this chemical diversity, terpenes/terpenoids have great industrial uses as flavors, fragrances, high grade lubricants, biofuels, agricultural chemicals and medicines. The protocols presented here focus on the extraction of terpenes/terpenoids from various plant sources and have been divided into extraction methods for terpenes/terpenoids with various levels of chemical decoration, from the relative small, nonpolar, volatile hydrocarbons to substantially large molecules with greater physical complexity due to their chemical modifications.

  16. Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, P.; Moseley, C.; Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko

    2013-01-01

    and stratiform precipitation events by cloud observations. We find that for stratiform precipitation, extremes increase with temperature at approximately the Clausius-Clapeyron rate, without characteristic scales. In contrast, convective precipitation exhibits characteristic spatial and temporal scales, and its...... intensity in response to warming exceeds the Clausius-Clapeyron rate. We conclude that convective precipitation responds much more sensitively to temperature increases than stratiform precipitation, and increasingly dominates events of extreme precipitation.......Precipitation changes can affect society more directly than variations in most other meteorological observables, but precipitation is difficult to characterize because of fluctuations on nearly all temporal and spatial scales. In addition, the intensity of extreme precipitation rises markedly...

  17. Functional responses of North Atlantic fish eggs to increasing temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    -days and survival of fish eggs from 32 populations of 17 species in the North Atlantic to different temperatures in order to determine potential consequences of global warming for these species. The response of development time exhibited a similar decreasing trend with respect to temperature across species......Temperature increase associated with global climate change can be expected to directly influence the spawning success of fish species, with implications for abundance and distribution. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate and compare responses of development time, cumulative degree....... There was an overall decrease, across species, in an index of thermal requirement (cumulative degree-days) for egg development with increasing temperature. Within an empirically derived optimal thermal range for egg survival, the thermal requirement was more variable in species adapted to cold waters compared...

  18. Effect of increasing growth temperature on yeast fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of increasing growth temperature on yeast fermentation was studied at approximately 5 oC intervals over a range of 18 – 37 oC, using one strain each of ale, lager and wine yeast. The ale and wine yeasts grew at all the temperatures tested, but lager yeast failed to grow at 37 oC. All these strains gave lower ...

  19. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-11-13

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory 'easy' foraging environment and a 'hard' semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an 'easy' laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species.

  20. Proteomic Insights on the Metabolism of Penicillium janczewskii during the Biotransformation of the Plant Terpenoid Labdanolic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel; Varela, Adélia; Frija, Luís M T; Estevão, Mónica A S; Planchon, Sébastien; Renaut, Jenny; Afonso, Carlos A M; Silva Pereira, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Plant terpenoids compose a natural source of chemodiversity of exceptional value. Many of these compounds own biological/pharmacological activity, others are regarded as unique chemical skeletons for the synthesis of derivatives with improved properties. Functional chemical modification of terpenoids through biotransformation frequently relies on the use of Ascomycota strains, but information on major cellular responses is still largely lacking. Penicillium janczewskii mediates a stereo-selective hydroxylation of labdanolic acid (LA)-terpenoid found abundantly in Cistus ladanifer-producing 3β-hydroxy-labdanolic acid with yields >90%. Herein, combined analyses of mycelial and extracellular differential proteomes demonstrated that the plant terpenoid increased stress responses, especially against oxidative stress (e.g., accumulation of superoxide dismutase) and apparently altered mitochondria functioning. One putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase differentially accumulated in the secretome and the terpenoid bioconversion was inhibited in vivo in the presence of a P450 inhibitor. The stereo-selective hydroxylation of the plant terpenoid is likely mediated by P450 enzymes, yet its unequivocal identity remains unclear. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that proteomics was used to investigate how a plant terpenoid impacts the metabolism of a filamentous fungus during its efficiently biotransformation. Our findings may encourage the development of new strategies for the valorization of plant natural resources through biotechnology.

  1. Proteomic Insights on the Metabolism of Penicillium janczewskii during the Biotransformation of the Plant Terpenoid Labdanolic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant terpenoids compose a natural source of chemodiversity of exceptional value. Many of these compounds own biological/pharmacological activity, others are regarded as unique chemical skeletons for the synthesis of derivatives with improved properties. Functional chemical modification of terpenoids through biotransformation frequently relies on the use of Ascomycota strains, but information on major cellular responses is still largely lacking. Penicillium janczewskii mediates a stereo-selective hydroxylation of labdanolic acid (LA—terpenoid found abundantly in Cistus ladanifer—producing 3β-hydroxy-labdanolic acid with yields >90%. Herein, combined analyses of mycelial and extracellular differential proteomes demonstrated that the plant terpenoid increased stress responses, especially against oxidative stress (e.g., accumulation of superoxide dismutase and apparently altered mitochondria functioning. One putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase differentially accumulated in the secretome and the terpenoid bioconversion was inhibited in vivo in the presence of a P450 inhibitor. The stereo-selective hydroxylation of the plant terpenoid is likely mediated by P450 enzymes, yet its unequivocal identity remains unclear. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that proteomics was used to investigate how a plant terpenoid impacts the metabolism of a filamentous fungus during its efficiently biotransformation. Our findings may encourage the development of new strategies for the valorization of plant natural resources through biotechnology.

  2. Transcriptome and metabolite analyses reveal the complex metabolic genes involved in volatile terpenoid biosynthesis in garden sage (Salvia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed; Li, Penghui; She, Guangbiao; Chen, Daofu; Wan, Xiaochun; Zhao, Jian

    2017-11-22

    A large number of terpenoid compounds have been extracted from different tissues of S. officinalis. However, the molecular genetic basis of terpene biosynthesis pathways is virtually unknown. In this study, approximately 6.6 Gb of raw data were generated from the transcriptome of S. officinalis leaves using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. After filtering and removing the adapter sequences from the raw data, the number of reads reached 21 million, comprising 98 million of high-quality nucleotide bases. 48,671 unigenes were assembled de novo and annotated for establishing a valid database for studying terpenoid biosynthesis. We identified 135 unigenes that are putatively involved in terpenoid metabolism, including 70 mevalonate and methyl-erythritol phosphate pathways, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis genes, and 65 terpene synthase genes. Moreover, five terpene synthase genes were studied for their functions in terpenoid biosynthesis by using transgenic tobacco; most transgenic tobacco plants expressing these terpene synthetic genes produced increased amounts of terpenoids compared with wild-type control. The combined data analyses from the transcriptome and metabolome provide new insights into our understanding of the complex metabolic genes in terpenoid-rich sage, and our study paves the way for the future metabolic engineering of the biosynthesis of useful terpene compounds in S. officinalis.

  3. Trinuclear Metal Clusters in Catalysis by Terpenoid Synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron, Julie A.; Christianson, David. W.

    2010-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the formation of structurally and stereochemically diverse isoprenoid natural products. Many isoprenoid coupling enzymes and terpenoid cyclases from bacteria, fungi, protists, plants, and animals share the class I terpenoid synthase fold. Despite generally low amino acid sequence identity among these examples, class I terpenoid synthases contain conserved metal binding motifs that coordinate to a trinuclear metal cluster. This cluster n...

  4. Cross-sectional area of the murine aorta linearly increases with increasing core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, A Colleen; Manders, Adam B; Cao, Amos A; Scheven, Ulrich M; Greve, Joan M

    2017-11-06

    The cardiovascular (CV) system plays a vital role in thermoregulation. To date, the response of core vasculature to increasing core temperature has not been adequately studied in vivo. Our objective was to non-invasively quantify the arterial response in murine models due to increases in body temperature, with a focus on core vessels of the torso and investigate whether responses were dependent on sex or age. Male and female, adult and aged mice were anaesthetised and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were acquired from the circle of Willis (CoW), heart, infrarenal aorta and peripheral arteries at core temperatures of 35, 36, 37 and 38 °C (±0.2 °C). Vessels in the CoW did not change. Ejection fraction decreased and cardiac output (CO) increased with increasing temperature in adult female mice. Cross-sectional area of the aorta increased significantly and linearly with temperature for all groups, but at a diminished rate for aged animals (p core temperature are biologically important because they may affect conductive and convective heat transfer. Leveraging non-invasive methodology to quantify sex and age dependent vascular responses due to increasing core temperature could be combined with bioheat modelling in order to improve understanding of thermoregulation.

  5. Terpenoids from the Octocoral Sinularia gaweli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wun-Jie Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two eudesmane sesquiterpenoids, verticillatol (1 and 5α-acetoxy-4(14-eudesmene-1β-ol (2 and two cembrane diterpenoids, (–-leptodiol acetate (3 and sinulacembranolide A (4 were isolated from the octocoral Sinularia gaweli and compounds 2–4 are new isolates. The structures of new terpenoids 2–4 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison the spectral data with those of known analogues. Terpenoid 4 was found to inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 marcophage cells.

  6. Methods and materials for production of terpenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention provide novel methods for production of terpenoids. The methods take advantage of combinations of enzymes, which are not present in nature. Thus the methods involves use of host organisms expressing a diTPS of class II, diTPS of class I, and one or more CYPs.......The invention provide novel methods for production of terpenoids. The methods take advantage of combinations of enzymes, which are not present in nature. Thus the methods involves use of host organisms expressing a diTPS of class II, diTPS of class I, and one or more CYPs....

  7. Flavonoids and terpenoids from Croton muscicarpa (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Milena B.; Gomes, Clerton L.; Freitas, Joao Vito B. de; Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Gramosa, Nilce V., E-mail: nilce@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Centro de Ciencias, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Torres, Daniela S. Carneiro [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas Jequie, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    A new sesquiterpene and twelve known compounds comprising eight flavonoids and four terpenoids, were isolated from the leaves, stems, roots and exudate of Croton muscicarpa Muell.. Arg.. Their structures were identified as the terpenoids 6{alpha}-methoxy-cyperene, dammaradienol, squalene, acetyl aleuritolic acid and spathulenol, and as the flavonoids retusin, 3,7,4'-trimethoxy kaempferol, ombuine, pachipodol, kaempferol, casticin, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin. All isolated compounds were characterized based on IR, MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, including 2D analyses (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) and comparison with data from the literature. (author)

  8. Temperature increases on the external root surface during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... the chip space of these instruments is greater than that of the WaveOne.[25] Although there were no statistically significant differences between the single file rotary systems found in this study, the WaveOne file caused higher temperature increases than the Reciproc file. We hypothesize that because the ...

  9. Enhanced Stability of a Protein with Increasing Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Joachim Møllesøe; Kristensen, Søren M; Led, Jens J

    2010-01-01

    unfolding, ¿C(p), increases the change in the Gibbs free energy, ¿G(unfold), and stabilizes the protein at high temperatures. A similar decrease in flexibility is found near other salt bridges in hGH and in Calmodulin and may be of general importance for the thermostability of proteins and, in particular...

  10. Temperature increases on the external root surface during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the highest temperature increases. However, there were no significant differences between the Reciproc and WaveOne files. Conclusions: The single file rotary systems used in this study may be recommended for clinical use. Key words: Infrared thermometer, one file systems, reciprocating motion, root canal preparation, ...

  11. Increasing Water Temperature Triggers Dominance of Small Freshwater Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasconi, Serena; Gall, Andrea; Winter, Katharina; Kainz, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change scenarios predict that lake water temperatures will increase up to 4°C and rainfall events will become more intense and frequent by the end of this century. Concurrently, supply of humic substances from terrestrial runoff is expected to increase, resulting in darker watercolor (“brownification”) of aquatic ecosystems. Using a multi-seasonal, low trophic state mesocosm experiment, we investigated how higher water temperature and brownification affect plankton community composition, phenology, and functioning. We tested the hypothesis that higher water temperature (+3°C) and brownification will, a) cause plankton community composition to shift toward small sized phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, and, b) extend the length of the growing season entailing higher phytoplankton production later in the season. We demonstrate that the 3°C increase of water temperature favored the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and small sized autotrophic picophytoplankton cells with significantly higher primary production during warmer fall periods. However, 3X darker water (effect of brownification) caused no significant changes in the plankton community composition or functioning relative to control conditions. Our findings reveal that increased temperature change plankton community structure by favoring smaller sized species proliferation (autotrophic phytoplankton and small size cladocerans), and increase primary productivity and community turnover. Finally, results of this multi-seasonal experiment suggest that warming by 3°C in aquatic ecosystems of low trophic state may cause planktonic food web functioning to become more dominated by fast growing, r-trait species (i.e., small sizes and rapid development). PMID:26461029

  12. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on terpenoids in Isodon adenantha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing-Yang; Wang, Ke-Dong; Zhou, Nong; Jiang, Bei

    2013-02-01

    To observe the effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on terpenoids in Isodon adenantha. Three different treated plant groups were divided as followings: indoor inoculation with AM fungi, non-inoculation with AM fungi, and outdoor natural growth, the effects of AM fungi on the major terpenoids in Isodon adenantha were evaluated. AM fungi had little influence on the content of terpenoids in underground part of Isodon adenantha, but they showed great impact on the content of terpenoids in the aerial part of the plant. The content of terpenoids in the aerial part of Isodon adenantha is positively correlated with AM fungi.

  13. Secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone reactions with single terpenoids and terpenoid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Michael S.; Wells, J. Raymond; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2011-08-01

    Ozone reacts with indoor-emitted terpenoids to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Most SOA research has focused on ozone reactions with single terpenoids or with consumer products, and this paper reports the results from an investigation of SOA formation from ozone reactions with both single terpenoids and mixtures of D-limonene, α-pinene, and α-terpineol. Transient experiments were conducted at low (25 ppb) and high (100 ppb) initial concentrations of ozone. The three terpenoids were tested singly and in combinations in a manner that controlled for their different reaction rates with ozone. The SOA formation was assessed by examining the evolution in time of the resulting number size-distributions and estimates of the mass concentrations. The results suggest that at higher ozone and terpenoid concentrations, SOA number formation follows a linear trend as a function of the initial rate of reaction. This finding was valid for both single terpenoids and mixtures. Generally speaking, higher ozone and terpenoid concentrations also led to larger geometric mean diameters and smaller geometric standard deviations of fitted lognormal distributions of the formed SOA. By assuming a density, mass concentrations were also assessed and did not follow as consistent of a trend. At low ozone concentration conditions, reactions with only D-limonene yielded the largest number concentrations of any experiment, even more than experiments with mixtures containing D-limonene and much higher overall terpenoid concentrations. This finding was not seen for high ozone concentrations. These experiments demonstrate quantifiable trends for SOA forming reactions of ozone and mixtures, and this work provides a framework for expanding these results to more complex mixtures and consumer products.

  14. Increased Risk of Drug-Induced Hyponatremia during High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Jönsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA. Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1–5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 °C. The change in sodium per 1 °C increase in temperature was estimated to be −0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.02, −0.72. Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia

  15. Increased Risk of Drug-Induced Hyponatremia during High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Anna K.; Lövborg, Henrik; Lohr, Wolfgang; Ekman, Bertil; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA). Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR) reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR) with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1–5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 °C. The change in sodium per 1 °C increase in temperature was estimated to be −0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.02, −0.72). Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia. PMID:28737683

  16. Sterols and terpenoids from Melia azedarach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qin-Gang; Li, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Hao; Feng, Tao; Cai, Xiang-Hai; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2010-04-23

    Three new sterols (1-3) including an unprecedented ring A-seco natural product (1), five new terpenoids (4-8), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the bark of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic data, and the structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  17. Volatile terpenoids from aeciospores of Cronartium fusiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Identification of the terpenoids present in the volatile fraction from aeciospores of the gall rust fungus Cronartium fusiforme. The major monoterpenoid hydrocarbons found to be present with only traces of camphene include alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene, myrcene, linonene, beta-phellandrene, and delta-terpinene. A number of monoterpenoid alcohols, acyclic sesquiterpenes, and aromatic compounds were also present.

  18. Metabolic engineering of terpenoid biosynthesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Kim, T.Y.; Ri, M.B.; Giri, A.P.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Schwab, W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic engineering of terpenoids in plants is a fascinating research topic from two main perspectives. On the one hand, the various biological activities of these compounds make their engineering a new tool for improving a considerable number of traits in crops. These include for example enhanced

  19. Elevated increases in human-perceived temperature under climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Yongqin David; Gan, Thian Yew; Lau, Ngar-Cheung

    2018-01-01

    Changes in air temperature (AT), humidity and wind speed (Wind) affect apparent temperature (AP), the human-perceived equivalent temperature1-3. Here we show that under climate warming, both reanalysis data sets and Global Climate Model simulations indicate that AP has increased faster than AT over land. The faster increase in AP has been especially significant over low latitudes and is expected to continue in the future. The global land average AP increased at 0.04 °C per decade faster than AT before 2005. This trend is projected to increase to 0.06 °C (0.03-0.09 °C; minimum and maximum of the ensemble members) per decade and 0.17 °C (0.12-0.25 °C) per decade under the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 scenario (RCP4.5) and RCP8.5, respectively, and reduce to 0.02 °C (0-0.03 °C) per decade under RCP2.6 over 2006-2100. The higher increment in AP in summer daytime is more remarkable than in winter night-time and is most prominent over low latitudes. The summertime increases in AT-based thermal discomfort are projected to balance the wintertime decreases in AT-based discomfort over low and middle latitudes, while the summertime increases in AP-based thermal discomfort are expected to outpace the wintertime decreases in AP-based thermal discomfort. Effective climate change mitigation efforts to achieve RCP2.6 can considerably alleviate the faster increase in AP.

  20. Large Increase of the Curie Temperature by Orbital Ordering Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoc, Aymeric; Mercey, Bernard; Simon, Charles; Grebille, Dominique; Prellier, Wilfrid; Lepetit, Marie-Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Using first principle calculations we showed that the Curie temperature of manganites thin films can be increased by far more than an order of magnitude by applying appropriate strains. Our main breakthrough is that the control of the orbital ordering responsible for the spectacular TC increase cannot be imposed by the substrate only. Indeed, the strains, first applied by the substrate, need to be maintained over the growth direction by the alternation of the manganite layers with another appropriate material. Following these theoretical findings, we synthesized such superlattices and verified our theoretical predictions.

  1. Increased costs to US pavement infrastructure from future temperature rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, B. Shane; Guido, Zack; Gudipudi, Padmini; Feinberg, Yarden

    2017-10-01

    Roadway design aims to maximize functionality, safety, and longevity. The materials used for construction, however, are often selected on the assumption of a stationary climate. Anthropogenic climate change may therefore result in rapid infrastructure failure and, consequently, increased maintenance costs, particularly for paved roads where temperature is a key determinant for material selection. Here, we examine the economic costs of projected temperature changes on asphalt roads across the contiguous United States using an ensemble of 19 global climate models forced with RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. Over the past 20 years, stationary assumptions have resulted in incorrect material selection for 35% of 799 observed locations. With warming temperatures, maintaining the standard practice for material selection is estimated to add approximately US$13.6, US$19.0 and US$21.8 billion to pavement costs by 2010, 2040 and 2070 under RCP4.5, respectively, increasing to US$14.5, US$26.3 and US$35.8 for RCP8.5. These costs will disproportionately affect local municipalities that have fewer resources to mitigate impacts. Failing to update engineering standards of practice in light of climate change therefore significantly threatens pavement infrastructure in the United States.

  2. Increasing temperature exacerbated Classic Maya conflict over the long term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, W. Christopher; Campbell, David; Collard, Mark

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on conflict is an important but controversial topic. One issue that needs to be resolved is whether or not climate change exacerbates conflict over the long term. With this in mind, we investigated the relationship between climate change and conflict among Classic Maya polities over a period of several hundred years (363-888 CE). We compiled a list of conflicts recorded on dated monuments, and then located published temperature and rainfall records for the region. Subsequently, we used a recently developed time-series method to investigate the impact of the climatic variables on the frequency of conflict while controlling for trends in monument number. We found that there was a substantial increase in conflict in the approximately 500 years covered by the dataset. This increase could not be explained by change in the amount of rainfall. In contrast, the increase was strongly associated with an increase in summer temperature. These finding have implications not only for Classic Maya history but also for the debate about the likely effects of contemporary climate change.

  3. Catabolism of citronellol and related acyclic terpenoids in pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster-Fromme, Karin; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2010-07-01

    Terpenes are a huge group of natural compounds characterised by their predominantly pleasant smell. They are built up by isoprene units in cyclic or acyclic form and can be functionalised by carbonyl, hydroxyl or carboxyl groups and by presence of additional carbon-carbon double bonds (terpenoids). Currently, much more than 10,000 terpenoid compounds are known, and many thereof are present in different iso- and stereoforms. Terpenoids are secondary metabolites and can have important biological functions in living organisms. In many cases, the biological functions of terpenoids are not known at all. Nevertheless, terpenoids are used in large quantities as perfumes and aroma compounds for food additives. Terpenoids can be also precursors and building blocks for synthesis of complex chiral compounds in chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Unfortunately, only few terpenoids are available in large quantities at reasonable costs. Therefore, characterisation of suited biocatalysts specific for terpenoid compounds and development of biotransformation processes of abundant terpenoids to commercially interesting derivates becomes more and more important. This minireview summarises knowledge on catabolic pathways and biotransformations of acyclic monoterpenes that have received only little attention. Terpenoids with 20 or more carbon atoms are not a subject of this study.

  4. Contrasting ontogenetic trajectories for phenolic and terpenoid defences in Eucalyptus froggattii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q. D.; Heskes, Allison M.; Woodrow, Ian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant defence metabolites are considered costly due to diversion of energy and nutrients away from growth. These costs combined with changes in resource availability and herbivory throughout plant ontogeny are likely to promote changes in defence metabolites. A comprehensive understanding of plant defence strategy requires measurement of lifetime ontogenetic trajectories – a dynamic component largely overlooked in plant defence theories. This study aimed to compare ontogenetic trajectories of foliar phenolics and terpenoids. Phenolics are predicted to be inexpensive to biosynthesize, whereas expensive terpenoids also require specialized, non-photosynthetic secretory structures to avoid autotoxicity. Based on these predicted costs, it is hypothesized that phenolics would be maximally deployed early in ontogeny, whereas terpenoids would be maximally deployed later, once the costs of biosynthesis and foregone photosynthesis could be overcome by enhanced resource acquisition. Methods Leaves were harvested from a family of glasshouse-grown Eucalyptus froggattii seedlings, field-grown saplings and the maternal parent tree, and analysed for total terpenoids and phenolics. Key Results Foliar phenolics were highest in young seedlings and lowest in the adult tree. Indeed the ratio of total phenolics to total terpenoids decreased in a significantly exponential manner with plant ontogeny. Most individual terpene constituents increased with plant ontogeny, but some mono- and sesquiterpenes remained relatively constant or even decreased in concentration as plants aged. Conclusions Plant ontogeny can influence different foliar defence metabolites in directionally opposite ways, and the contrasting trajectories support our hypothesis that phenolics would be maximally deployed earlier than terpenoids. The results highlight the importance of examining ontogenetic trajectories of defence traits when developing and testing theories of plant defence, and

  5. Inter-Population Variability of Terpenoid Composition in Leaves of Pistacia lentiscus L. from Algeria: A Chemoecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Mevy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Three different altitudes were selected to study the variability of terpenoid composition from leaves of female plants of Pistacia lentiscus L. throughout the elevation gradient. GC-MS analyses showed that terpenoid contents change with altitude. Forty nine compounds were identified with a high interpopulation variability for low- and midaltitude sites that also exhibited the same major components when data were expressed on dry weight basis. However, Two-Way-ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test showed that monoterpene hydrocarbons increased with elevation, giving values of 21.7, 37.5 and 221.5 µg g−1 dw for low- mid- and highlands, respectively. On the other hand, applying P.C.A. with data expressed in percentage of the chromatogram of the volatile extract led to the identification of three chemotypes associated with altitudinal levels. In highlands (Group I, the major compounds were b-caryophyllene (12%, δ-cadinene (9.3% and a-pinene (6.3% while in midlands (Group II, b-caryophyllene (11.5%, δ-cadinene (8.6% and caryophyllene oxide (6.8% were the main components. In lowlands (Group III δ-cadinene (10.9%, cubebol (10.5% and β-bisabolene (7.7% were chiefly present. Hence, the involvement of genetic factors, temperature and drought in the chemical polymorphism of P. lentiscus associated with elevation is discussed in this report.

  6. Inter-population variability of terpenoid composition in leaves of Pistacia lentiscus L. from Algeria: a chemoecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Samir Ait; Fernandez, Catherine; Greff, Stéphane; Torre, Franck; Derridj, Arezki; Gauquelin, Thierry; Mevy, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-22

    Three different altitudes were selected to study the variability of terpenoid composition from leaves of female plants of Pistacia lentiscus L. throughout the elevation gradient. GC-MS analyses showed that terpenoid contents change with altitude. Forty nine compounds were identified with a high interpopulation variability for low- and midaltitude sites that also exhibited the same major components when data were expressed on dry weight basis. However, Two-Way-ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test showed that monoterpene hydrocarbons increased with elevation, giving values of 21.7, 37.5 and 221.5 µg g⁻¹ dw for low- mid- and highlands, respectively. On the other hand, applying P.C.A. with data expressed in percentage of the chromatogram of the volatile extract led to the identification of three chemotypes associated with altitudinal levels. In highlands (Group I), the major compounds were β-caryophyllene (12%), δ-cadinene (9.3%) and a-pinene (6.3%) while in midlands (Group II), β-caryophyllene (11.5%), δ-cadinene (8.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.8%) were the main components. In lowlands (Group III) δ-cadinene (10.9%), cubebol (10.5%) and β-bisabolene (7.7%) were chiefly present. Hence, the involvement of genetic factors, temperature and drought in the chemical polymorphism of P. lentiscus associated with elevation is discussed in this report.

  7. Bioengineering of plant (tri)terpenoids: from metabolic engineering of plants to synthetic biology in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Thevelein, Johan M; Goossens, Alain

    2013-10-01

    Terpenoids constitute a large and diverse class of natural products that serve many functions in nature. Most of the tens of thousands of the discovered terpenoids are synthesized by plants, where they function as primary metabolites involved in growth and development, or as secondary metabolites that optimize the interaction between the plant and its environment. Several plant terpenoids are economically important molecules that serve many applications as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, etc. Major challenges for the commercialization of plant-derived terpenoids include their low production levels in planta and the continuous demand of industry for novel molecules with new or superior biological activities. Here, we highlight several synthetic biology methods to enhance and diversify the production of plant terpenoids, with a foresight towards triterpenoid engineering, the least engineered class of bioactive terpenoids. Increased or cheaper production of valuable triterpenoids may be obtained by 'classic' metabolic engineering of plants or by heterologous production of the compounds in other plants or microbes. Novel triterpenoid structures can be generated through combinatorial biosynthesis or directed enzyme evolution approaches. In its ultimate form, synthetic biology may lead to the production of large amounts of plant triterpenoids in in vitro systems or custom-designed artificial biological systems. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. On extreme rainfall intensity increases with air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The water vapour holding capacity of air increases at about 7% per degree C according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This is one of the arguments why a warmer future atmosphere, being able to hold more moisture, will generate higher extreme precipitation intensities. However, several empirical studies have recently demonstrated an increase in extreme rain intensities with air temperature above CC rates, in the range 7-14% per degree C worldwide (called super-CC rates). This was observed especially for shorter duration rainfall, i.e. in hourly and finer resolution data (e.g. review in Westra et al., 2014). The super-CC rate was attributed to positive feedbacks between water vapour and the updraft dynamics in convective clouds and lateral supply (convergence) of moisture. In addition, mixing of storm types was shown to be potentially responsible for super-CC rates in empirical studies. Assuming that convective events are accompanied by lightning, we will show on a large rainfall dataset in Switzerland (30 year records of 10-min and 1-hr data from 59 stations) that while the average rate of increase in extreme rainfall intensity (95th percentile) is 6-7% in no-lightning events and 8-9% in lightning events, it is 11-13% per degree C when all events are combined (Molnar et al., 2015). These results are relevant for climate change studies which predict shifts in storm types in a warmer climate in some parts of the world. The observation that extreme rain intensity and air temperature are positively correlated has consequences for the stochastic modelling of rainfall. Most current stochastic models do not explicitly include a direct rain intensity-air temperature dependency beyond applying factors of change predicted by climate models to basic statistics of precipitation. Including this dependency explicitly in stochastic models will allow, for example in the nested modelling approach of Paschalis et al. (2014), the random cascade disaggregation routine to be

  9. Plant terpenoid synthases: Molecular biology and phylogenetic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlmann, Jörg; Meyer-Gauen, Gilbert; Croteau, Rodney

    1998-01-01

    This review focuses on the monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and diterpene synthases of plant origin that use the corresponding C10, C15, and C20 prenyl diphosphates as substrates to generate the enormous diversity of carbon skeletons characteristic of the terpenoid family of natural products. A description of the enzymology and mechanism of terpenoid cyclization is followed by a discussion of molecular cloning and heterologous expression of terpenoid synthases. Sequence relatedness and phylogeneti...

  10. Toward a photosynthetic microbial platform for terpenoid engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Fiona K; Jinkerson, Robert E; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-03-01

    Plant terpenoids are among the most diverse group of naturally-occurring organic compounds known, and several are used in contemporary consumer products. Terpene synthase enzymes catalyze complex rearrangements of carbon skeleton precursors to yield thousands of unique chemical structures that range in size from the simplest five carbon isoprene unit to the long polymers of rubber. Such chemical diversity has established plant terpenoids as valuable commodity chemicals with applications in the pharmaceutical, neutraceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. More recently, terpenoids have received attention as a renewable alternative to petroleum-derived fuels and as the building blocks of synthetic biopolymers. However, the current plant- and petrochemical-based supplies of commodity terpenoids have major limitations. Photosynthetic microorganisms provide an opportunity to generate terpenoids in a renewable manner, employing a single consolidated host organism that is able to use solar energy, H2O and CO2 as the primary inputs for terpenoid biosynthesis. Advances in synthetic biology have seen important breakthroughs in microbial terpenoid engineering, traditionally via fermentative pathways in yeast and Escherichia coli. This review draws on the knowledge obtained from heterotrophic microbial engineering to propose strategies for the development of microbial photosynthetic platforms for industrial terpenoid production. The importance of utilizing the wealth of genetic information provided by nature to unravel the regulatory mechanisms of terpenoid biosynthesis is highlighted.

  11. Terpenoid emissions from fully grown east Siberian Larix cajanderi trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajos, M. K.; Hakola, H.; Holst, T.; Nieminen, T.; Tarvainen, V.; Maximov, T.; Petäjä, T.; Arneth, A.; Rinne, J.

    2013-07-01

    While emissions of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), such as terpenoids, have been studied quite intensively in North American and Scandinavian boreal forests, the vast Siberian boreal forests have remained largely unexplored by experimental emission studies. In this study the shoot-scale terpenoid emission rates from two mature Larix cajanderi trees growing in their natural habitat in eastern Siberia were measured at the Spasskaya Pad flux measurement site (62°15´18.4" N, 129°37´07.9" E) located on the western bank of the Lena river. The measurements were conducted during three campaigns: 3-24 June, 8-26 July, and 14-30 August, in the summer of 2009. A dynamic flow-through enclosure technique was applied for adsorbent sampling, and the samples were analysed offline with a gas chromatograph. Between 29 and 45 samples were taken from each shoot during all three campaigns. Seven different monoterpenes, six different sesquiterpenes, linalool isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) were identified. The monthly median value of the total terpenoid emissions varied between 0.006 and 10.6 μg gdw-1 h-1. The emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, which constituted between 61 and 92% of the total emissions. About half of the monoterpene emissions were comprised of Δ 3-carene; α- and β-pinene had significant emissions as well. Linalool emissions were also substantial, comprising 3-37% of the total emissions, especially in June. Sesquiterpenes accounted for less than 3% and isoprene less than 1% of the total emissions. Based on the measured emission rates, the relative atmospheric concentration of each compound was estimated. Monoterpenes were the species with the highest relative concentration, while linalool and sesquiterpenes had a notably smaller contribution to the estimated atmospheric concentration than to the emission rates. A temperature-dependent pool algorithm with a constant β (0.09 °C-1 for monoterpenes and 0.143 °C-1 for

  12. Terpenoid emissions from fully grown east Siberian Larix cajanderi trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Kajos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While emissions of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, such as terpenoids, have been studied quite intensively in North American and Scandinavian boreal forests, the vast Siberian boreal forests have remained largely unexplored by experimental emission studies. In this study the shoot-scale terpenoid emission rates from two mature Larix cajanderi trees growing in their natural habitat in eastern Siberia were measured at the Spasskaya Pad flux measurement site (62°15´18.4" N, 129°37´07.9" E located on the western bank of the Lena river. The measurements were conducted during three campaigns: 3–24 June, 8–26 July, and 14–30 August, in the summer of 2009. A dynamic flow-through enclosure technique was applied for adsorbent sampling, and the samples were analysed offline with a gas chromatograph. Between 29 and 45 samples were taken from each shoot during all three campaigns. Seven different monoterpenes, six different sesquiterpenes, linalool isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO were identified. The monthly median value of the total terpenoid emissions varied between 0.006 and 10.6 μg gdw−1 h−1. The emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, which constituted between 61 and 92% of the total emissions. About half of the monoterpene emissions were comprised of Δ 3-carene; α- and β-pinene had significant emissions as well. Linalool emissions were also substantial, comprising 3–37% of the total emissions, especially in June. Sesquiterpenes accounted for less than 3% and isoprene less than 1% of the total emissions. Based on the measured emission rates, the relative atmospheric concentration of each compound was estimated. Monoterpenes were the species with the highest relative concentration, while linalool and sesquiterpenes had a notably smaller contribution to the estimated atmospheric concentration than to the emission rates. A temperature-dependent pool algorithm with a constant β (0.09 °C−1 for monoterpenes

  13. Improving yeast strains using recyclable integration cassettes, for the production of plant terpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Terpenoids constitute a large family of natural products, attracting commercial interest for a variety of uses as flavours, fragrances, drugs and alternative fuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers a versatile cell factory, as the precursors of terpenoid biosynthesis are naturally synthesized by the sterol biosynthetic pathway. Results S. cerevisiae wild type yeast cells, selected for their capacity to produce high sterol levels were targeted for improvement aiming to increase production. Recyclable integration cassettes were developed which enable the unlimited sequential integration of desirable genetic elements (promoters, genes, termination sequence at any desired locus in the yeast genome. The approach was applied on the yeast sterol biosynthetic pathway genes HMG2, ERG20 and IDI1 resulting in several-fold increase in plant monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The improved strains were robust and could sustain high terpenoid production levels for an extended period. Simultaneous plasmid-driven co-expression of IDI1 and the HMG2 (K6R variant, in the improved strain background, maximized monoterpene production levels. Expression of two terpene synthase enzymes from the sage species Salvia fruticosa and S. pomifera (SfCinS1, SpP330 in the modified yeast cells identified a range of terpenoids which are also present in the plant essential oils. Co-expression of the putative interacting protein HSP90 with cineole synthase 1 (SfCinS1 also improved production levels, pointing to an additional means to improve production. Conclusions Using the developed molecular tools, new yeast strains were generated with increased capacity to produce plant terpenoids. The approach taken and the durability of the strains allow successive rounds of improvement to maximize yields.

  14. Improving yeast strains using recyclable integration cassettes, for the production of plant terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Terpenoids constitute a large family of natural products, attracting commercial interest for a variety of uses as flavours, fragrances, drugs and alternative fuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers a versatile cell factory, as the precursors of terpenoid biosynthesis are naturally synthesized by the sterol biosynthetic pathway. Results S. cerevisiae wild type yeast cells, selected for their capacity to produce high sterol levels were targeted for improvement aiming to increase production. Recyclable integration cassettes were developed which enable the unlimited sequential integration of desirable genetic elements (promoters, genes, termination sequence) at any desired locus in the yeast genome. The approach was applied on the yeast sterol biosynthetic pathway genes HMG2, ERG20 and IDI1 resulting in several-fold increase in plant monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The improved strains were robust and could sustain high terpenoid production levels for an extended period. Simultaneous plasmid-driven co-expression of IDI1 and the HMG2 (K6R) variant, in the improved strain background, maximized monoterpene production levels. Expression of two terpene synthase enzymes from the sage species Salvia fruticosa and S. pomifera (SfCinS1, SpP330) in the modified yeast cells identified a range of terpenoids which are also present in the plant essential oils. Co-expression of the putative interacting protein HSP90 with cineole synthase 1 (SfCinS1) also improved production levels, pointing to an additional means to improve production. Conclusions Using the developed molecular tools, new yeast strains were generated with increased capacity to produce plant terpenoids. The approach taken and the durability of the strains allow successive rounds of improvement to maximize yields. PMID:21276210

  15. Cryptic indole hydroxylation by a non-canonical terpenoid cyclase parallels bacterial xenobiotic detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Susann; Baunach, Martin; Baer, Philipp; Ishida-Ito, Mie; Sundaram, Srividhya; Xu, Zhongli; Groll, Michael; Hertweck, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Terpenoid natural products comprise a wide range of molecular architectures that typically result from C-C bond formations catalysed by classical type I/II terpene cyclases. However, the molecular diversity of biologically active terpenoids is substantially increased by fully unrelated, non-canonical terpenoid cyclases. Their evolutionary origin has remained enigmatic. Here we report the in vitro reconstitution of an unusual flavin-dependent bacterial indoloterpenoid cyclase, XiaF, together with a designated flavoenzyme-reductase (XiaP) that mediates a key step in xiamycin biosynthesis. The crystal structure of XiaF with bound FADH2 (at 2.4 Å resolution) and phylogenetic analyses reveal that XiaF is, surprisingly, most closely related to xenobiotic-degrading enzymes. Biotransformation assays show that XiaF is a designated indole hydroxylase that can be used for the production of indigo and indirubin. We unveil a cryptic hydroxylation step that sets the basis for terpenoid cyclization and suggest that the cyclase has evolved from xenobiotics detoxification enzymes.

  16. Increasing water temperature and disease risks in aquatic systems: Climate change increases the risk of some, but not all, diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Karvonen A.; Rintamäki P.; Jokela J.; Valtonen E. T.

    2010-01-01

    Global warming may impose severe risks for aquatic animal health if increasing water temperature leads to an increase in the incidence of parasitic diseases. Essentially this could take place through a temperature driven effect on the epidemiology of the disease. For example higher temperature may boost the rate of disease spread through positive effects on parasite fitness in a weakened host. Increased temperature may also lengthen the transmission season leading to higher total prevalence o...

  17. Increasing Precision Of Temperature Sensors Of Liquid H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Fabik, Richard H.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial silicon-diode temperature sensors intended for use in boiling or nearly boiling liquid hydrogen at temperatures near 37 degrees R recalibrated to greater precision by method involving careful attention to details of design, operation, and computation. Method based on fundamental electrical and thermodynamic principles and good engineering practice, also applicable to recalibration of other temperature sensors intended for use in other boiling or nearly boiling liquids.

  18. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2011-08-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest. Innovative conventional plant breeding has yielded cannabis chemotypes expressing high titres of each component for future study. This review will explore another echelon of phytotherapeutic agents, the cannabis terpenoids: limonene, myrcene, α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol. Terpenoids share a precursor with phytocannabinoids, and are all flavour and fragrance components common to human diets that have been designated Generally Recognized as Safe by the US Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory agencies. Terpenoids are quite potent, and affect animal and even human behaviour when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng·mL(-1) . They display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. Particular focus will be placed on phytocannabinoid-terpenoid interactions that could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Scientific evidence is presented for non-cannabinoid plant components as putative antidotes to intoxicating effects of THC that could increase its therapeutic index. Methods for investigating entourage effects in future experiments will be proposed. Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy, if proven, increases the likelihood that an extensive pipeline of new therapeutic products is possible from this venerable plant. http

  19. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest. Innovative conventional plant breeding has yielded cannabis chemotypes expressing high titres of each component for future study. This review will explore another echelon of phytotherapeutic agents, the cannabis terpenoids: limonene, myrcene, α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol. Terpenoids share a precursor with phytocannabinoids, and are all flavour and fragrance components common to human diets that have been designated Generally Recognized as Safe by the US Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory agencies. Terpenoids are quite potent, and affect animal and even human behaviour when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng·mL−1. They display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. Particular focus will be placed on phytocannabinoid-terpenoid interactions that could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Scientific evidence is presented for non-cannabinoid plant components as putative antidotes to intoxicating effects of THC that could increase its therapeutic index. Methods for investigating entourage effects in future experiments will be proposed. Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy, if proven, increases the likelihood that an extensive pipeline of new therapeutic products is possible from this venerable plant. LINKED ARTICLES

  20. Terpenoid antifeedants against insects : a behavioural and sensory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messchendorp, L.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes a study on the behavioural and sensory effects of terpenoid antifeedants on several insect species. The main aim was to elucidate the mechanisms of action of terpenoid antifeedants. From a fundamental point of view, this will yield insight in the role of these

  1. Metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis for terpenoid production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, Zheng; Xue, Dan; Abdallah, Ingy I; Dijkshoorn, Linda; Setroikromo, Rita; Lv, Guiyuan; Quax, Wim J

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids are the largest group of small-molecule natural products, with more than 60,000 compounds made from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). As the most diverse group of small-molecule natural products, terpenoids play an important role in the

  2. An overview of the non-mevalonate pathway for terpenoid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Terpenoids are known to have many important biological and physiological functions. Some of them are also known for their pharmaceutical significance. In the late nineties after the discovery of a novel non-mevalonate (non-MVA) pathway, the whole concept of terpenoid biosynthesis has changed. In higher plants, the ...

  3. Volatile science? Metabolic engineering of terpenoids in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Terpenoids are important for plant survival and also possess biological properties that are beneficial to humans. Here, we describe the state of the art in terpenoid metabolic engineering, showing that significant progress has been made over the past few years. Subcellular targeting of enzymes has

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: effects on plant terpenoid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, M T; Liu, L; Rose, T J; Waters, D L E; Benkendorff, K

    2016-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a diverse group of soil-dwelling fungi that form symbiotic associations with land plants. AMF-plant associations promote the accumulation of plant terpenoids beneficial to human health, although how AMF mediate terpenoid accumulation is not fully understood. A critical assessment and discussion of the literature relating to mechanisms by which AMF influence plant terpenoid accumulation, and whether this symbiosis can be harnessed in horticultural ecosystems was performed. Modification of plant morphology, phosphorus availability and gene transcription involved with terpenoid biosynthetic pathways were identified as key mechanisms associated with terpenoid accumulation in AMF-colonised plants. In order to exploit AMF-plant symbioses in horticultural ecosystems it is important to consider the specificity of the AMF-plant association, the predominant factor affecting terpenoid accumulation, as well as the end use application of the harvested plant material. Future research should focus on resolving the relationship between ecologically matched AMF genotypes and terpenoid accumulation in plants to establish if these associations are effective in promoting mechanisms favourable for plant terpenoid accumulation. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Plant terpenoid synthases: Molecular biology and phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Jörg; Meyer-Gauen, Gilbert; Croteau, Rodney

    1998-01-01

    This review focuses on the monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and diterpene synthases of plant origin that use the corresponding C10, C15, and C20 prenyl diphosphates as substrates to generate the enormous diversity of carbon skeletons characteristic of the terpenoid family of natural products. A description of the enzymology and mechanism of terpenoid cyclization is followed by a discussion of molecular cloning and heterologous expression of terpenoid synthases. Sequence relatedness and phylogenetic reconstruction, based on 33 members of the Tps gene family, are delineated, and comparison of important structural features of these enzymes is provided. The review concludes with an overview of the organization and regulation of terpenoid metabolism, and of the biotechnological applications of terpenoid synthase genes. PMID:9539701

  6. DIETARY TERPENOIDS AND PROSTATE CANCER CHEMOPREVENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Thangaiyan; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention by phytochemicals may be one of the most feasible approaches for cancer control. Phytochemicals obtained from vegetables, fruits, spices, teas, herbs and medicinal plants, such as terpenoids and other phenolic compounds, have been proven to suppress experimental carcinogenesis in various organs in pre-clinical models. Recent studies have indicated that mechanisms underlying chemopreventive potential may be a combination of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune-enhancing, and hormone modulation effects, with modification of drug metabolizing enzymes, influence on cell cycle and cell differentiation, induction of apoptosis, suppression of proliferation and angiogenesis playing roles in the initiation and secondary modification stages of neoplastic development. Specific features of prostate cancer, such as high prevalence and long latency period provides ample opportunities for chemopreventive agents to work at various stages of disease progression. Finally, suitable populations with appropriate risk factors, including the presence of pre-malignant lesions and genetic predispositions, need to be well characterized for future chemopreventive interventions. Here we review naturally occurring dietary terpenoids as useful agents for prostate cancer chemoprevention with reference to their classes and sources. PMID:18508447

  7. Terpenes and terpenoids in chemical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, William J; Restrepo, Carolina; Pan, Yaqin

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT : Terpenes and terpenoids are a diverse class of organic compounds produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers. Chemically sensitive patients can be targeted by terpenes and terpenoids, resulting in a triggering of symptoms and pathology. Often patients cannot clear their symptoms from exposure to chemicals unless terpenes and terpenoids are avoided and neutralized along with chemical avoidance and treatment. This article evaluates the presence, diagnosis, and treatment of terpenes exposure in chemically sensitive patients. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-part study was designed to establish the chemically sensitive state of the patients in part 1, followed by a second set of challenges to determine each patient's concurrent sensitivity to terpenes and terpenoids in part 2. In all of the challenges, normal saline was used as a control. A case report illustrates the history of 1 patient and describes the authors' treatment methods. The study was developed and conducted at the Environmental Health Center of Dallas (EHC-D) because the environment within the center is 5 times less polluted than the surrounding environments, as determined by quantitative air analysis and particulate counts. A total of 45 chemically sensitive patients at EHC-D with odor sensitivity to terpenes. The cohort included 18 males and 27 females, aged 24-62 y.Intervention • Patients were deadapted (4 d) and evaluated in a 5-times-less-polluted environment, which was evaluated using air analysis and particulate counts. After deadaptation, the patients were challenged by inhalation in a controlled, less-polluted glass steel booth inside an environmentally controlled room with an ambient air dose of the toxics in the order of parts per billion (PPB) and parts per million (PPM). These toxics included formaldehyde, pesticide, cigarette smoke, ethanol, phenol, chlorine, new sprint, perfume, and placebo. They were also challenged intradermally with extracts of volatile

  8. Metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis for terpenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zheng; Xue, Dan; Abdallah, Ingy I; Dijkshoorn, Linda; Setroikromo, Rita; Lv, Guiyuan; Quax, Wim J

    2015-11-01

    Terpenoids are the largest group of small-molecule natural products, with more than 60,000 compounds made from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). As the most diverse group of small-molecule natural products, terpenoids play an important role in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. For decades, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were extensively studied to biosynthesize terpenoids, because they are both fully amenable to genetic modifications and have vast molecular resources. On the other hand, our literature survey (20 years) revealed that terpenoids are naturally more widespread in Bacillales. In the mid-1990s, an inherent methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway was discovered in Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). Since B. subtilis is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) organism and has long been used for the industrial production of proteins, attempts to biosynthesize terpenoids in this bacterium have aroused much interest in the scientific community. This review discusses metabolic engineering of B. subtilis for terpenoid production, and encountered challenges will be discussed. We will summarize some major advances and outline future directions for exploiting the potential of B. subtilis as a desired "cell factory" to produce terpenoids.

  9. Global increase in record-breaking monthly-mean temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Robinson, Alexander; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    The last decade has produced record-breaking heat waves in many parts of the world. At the same time, it was globally the warmest since sufficient measurements started in the 19th century. Here we show that, worldwide, the number of local record-breaking monthly temperature extremes is now on

  10. Increase in skin temperature after spinal anesthesia in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetzek-Zader, Martin; Hermanns, Henning; Freynhagen, Rainer; Lipfert, Peter; Stevens, Markus F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relatively stable hemodynamics during spinal anesthesia in infants have been attributed to a less active sympathetic nervous system in comparison with adults. Thus, the authors evaluated sympathetic block primarily by measurement of skin temperature and secondarily by

  11. Citrate increases glass transition temperature of vitrified sucrose preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Lipelaar, P.J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Vromans, H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium citrate on the properties of dried amorphous sucrose glasses. Addition of sodium citrate to a sucrose solution followed by freeze-drying or convective drying resulted in a glass transition temperature (T-g) that was higher than the

  12. Temperature Increase Enhances Aedes albopictus Competence to Transmit Dengue Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuanzhuan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that has been an epidemic in China for many years. Aedes albopictus is the dominant Aedes mosquito species and the main vector of dengue in China. Epidemiologically, dengue mainly occurs in Guangdong Province; it does not occur or rarely occurs in other areas of mainland China. This distribution may be associated with climate, mosquito density, and other factors in different regions; however, the effect of temperature on the vector competence of Ae. albopictus for dengue viruses (DENV remains unclear. In this study, Ae. albopictus was orally infected with dengue virus 2 (DENV-2 and reared at constant temperatures (18, 23, 28, and 32°C and a fluctuating temperature (28–23–18°C. The infection status of the midguts, ovaries, and salivary glands of each mosquito was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days post-infection (dpi. DENV-2 RNA copies from positive tissues were quantified by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. At 18°C, DENV-2 proliferated slowly in the midgut of Ae. albopictus, and the virus could not spread to the salivary glands. At 23 and 28°C, DENV-2 was detected in the ovaries and salivary glands at 10 dpi. The rates of infection, dissemination, population transmission, and DENV-2 copies at 28°C were higher than those at 23°C at any time point. At 32°C, the extrinsic incubation period (EIP for DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus was only 5 dpi, and the vector competence was the highest among all the temperatures. Compared with 28°C, at 28–23–18°C, the positive rate and the amount of DENV-2 in the salivary glands were significantly lower. Therefore, temperature is an important factor affecting the vector competence of Ae. albopictus for DENV-2. Within the suitable temperature range, the replication of DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus accelerated, and the EIP was shorter with a higher temperature. Our results provide a guide for vector control and an experimental basis for

  13. The Terpenoid Biosynthesis Toolkit of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravindra; Mukherjee, Prasun Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The widely used biotechnologically important fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma are rich sources of secondary metabolites. Even though the genomes of several Trichoderma spp. have been published, and data are available on the genes involved in biosynthesis of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases, no genome-wide data are available for the terpenoid biosynthesis machinery in these organisms. In the present study, we have identified the genes involved in terpene biosynthesis in the genomes of three Trichoderma spp., viz., T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei. While the genes involved in the condensation steps are highly conserved across the three species, these fungi differed in the number and organization of terpene cyclases. T. virens genome harbours eleven terpene cyclases, while T. atroviride harbours seven, and T. reeseisix in their genomes; seven, three and two being part of putative secondary metabolism related gene clusters.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of 27 selected terpenoid compounds tested through modulating Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion profiles using murine primary splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chi-Mei; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2013-11-15

    This study investigated 27 selected terpenoid compounds, including 8 monoterpenoids, 7 sesqui-terpenoids, 3 di-terpenoids, 8 tri-terpenoids, and 1 tetra-terpenoid, for their Th1/Th2 immunomodulatory potential using mouse primary splenocytes. Changes in Th1 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, secreted by terpenoid-treated splenocytes were measured using the ELISA method. The results showed that triptolide, a diterpenoid, was most cytotoxic, reflecting an IC50 value of 46nM. Eucalyptol, limonene, linalool, thymol, parthenolide, andrographolide, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid and β-sitosterol showed a strong Th2-inclination and anti-inflammation potential in vitro. In addition, (-)-trans-caryophyllene, oridonin, triptolide, diosgenin, betulinic acid, escin, and β-sitosterol treatments significantly inhibited both IL-2 (Th1) and IL-10 (Th2) cytokine production at the same time, suggesting that these terpenoid compounds have an anti-inflammation potential through the inhibition of T-cell immune responses. Diosgenin treatments significantly increased IFN-γ secretion levels using mouse splenocytes, suggesting that diosgenin may be useful in treating a viral infection through the stimulation of IFN-γ production. Menthone, farnesol and oridonin treatments did not markedly increase IL-10/IL-2 (Th2/Th1) cytokine secretion ratios, suggesting that menthone, farnesol and oridonin may have a relative Th1-inclination property, compared to the other selected terpenoid compounds. The relative Th1-inclination property of menthone, farnesol and oridonin may be applied to improve Th2-skewed allergic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elizabeth Harman-Ware

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β- pinene, camphene and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic and neoabietic acids.

  16. Plant Metabolic Engineering Strategies for the Production of Pharmaceutical Terpenoids

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xu; Tang, Kexuan; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical terpenoids belong to the most diverse class of natural products. They have significant curative effects on a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malaria and Alzheimer’s disease. Nowadays, elicitors, including biotic and abiotic elicitors, are often used to activate the pathway of secondary metabolism and enhance the production of target terpenoids. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, several plant metabolic engineering strategies ho...

  17. Perceived air quality, thermal comfort, and SBS symptoms at low air temperature and increased radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Foldbjerg, P.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated if low air temperature, which is known to improve the perception of air quality, also can reduce the intensity of some SBS symptoms. In a low-polluting office, human subjects were exposed to air at two temperatures 23 deg.C and 18 deg.C both with and without a pollution so.......C suggested an improvement of the perceived air quality, while no systematic effect on symptom intensity was observed. The overall indoor environment was evaluated equally acceptable at both temperatures due to local thermal discomfort at the low air temperature.......This study investigated if low air temperature, which is known to improve the perception of air quality, also can reduce the intensity of some SBS symptoms. In a low-polluting office, human subjects were exposed to air at two temperatures 23 deg.C and 18 deg.C both with and without a pollution...... source present at the low temperature. To maintain overall thermal neutrality, the low air temperature was partly compensated for by individually controlled radiant heating, and partly by allowing subjects to modify clothing insulation. A reduction of the air temperature from 23 deg.C to 18 deg...

  18. Yeast metabolic engineering--targeting sterol metabolism and terpenoid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriessnegger, Tamara; Pichler, Harald

    2013-07-01

    Terpenoids comprise various structures conferring versatile functions to eukaryotes, for example in the form of prenyl-anchors they attach proteins to membranes. The physiology of eukaryotic membranes is fine-tuned by another terpenoid class, namely sterols. Evidence is accumulating that numerous membrane proteins require specific sterol structural features for function. Moreover, sterols are intermediates in the synthesis of steroids serving as hormones in higher eukaryotes. Like steroids many compounds of the terpenoid family do not contribute to membrane architecture, but serve as signalling, protective or attractant/repellent molecules. Particularly plants have developed a plenitude of terpenoid biosynthetic routes branching off early in the sterol biosynthesis pathway and, thereby, forming one of the largest groups of naturally occurring organic compounds. Many of these aromatic and volatile molecules are interesting for industrial application ranging from foods to pharmaceuticals. Combining the fortunate situation that sterol biosynthesis is highly conserved in eukaryotes with the amenability of yeasts to genetic and metabolic engineering, basically all naturally occurring terpenoids might be produced involving yeasts. Such engineered yeasts are useful for the study of biological functions and molecular interactions of terpenoids as well as for the large-scale production of high-value compounds, which are unavailable in sufficient amounts from natural sources due to their low abundance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days),

  20. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Traumatic Resin Ducts, Terpenoid Resin Biosynthesis, and Terpenoid Accumulation in Developing Xylem of Norway Spruce Stems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diane Martin; Dorothea Tholl; Jonathan Gershenzon; Jörg Bohlmann

    2002-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens...

  1. Long-term measurement of terpenoid flux above a Larix kaempferi forest using a relaxed eddy accumulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Tani, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Ueyama, Masahito

    2014-02-01

    Terpenoids emitted from forests contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols and affect the carbon budgets of forest ecosystems. To investigate seasonal variation in terpenoid flux involved in the aerosol formation and carbon budget, we measured the terpenoid flux of a Larix kaempferi forest between May 2011 and May 2012 by using a relaxed eddy accumulation method. Isoprene was emitted from a fern plant species Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the forest floor and monoterpenes from the L. kaempferi. α-Pinene was the dominant compound, but seasonal variation of the monoterpene composition was observed. High isoprene and monoterpene fluxes were observed in July and August. The total monoterpene flux was dependent on temperature, but several unusual high positive fluxes were observed after rain fall events. We found a good correlation between total monoterpene flux and volumetric soil water content (r = 0.88), and used this correlation to estimate monoterpene flux after rain events and calculate annual terpenoid emissions. Annual carbon emission in the form of total monoterpenes plus isoprene was determined to be 0.93% of the net ecosystem exchange. If we do not consider the effect of rain fall, carbon emissions may be underestimated by about 50%. Our results suggest that moisture conditions in the forest soil is a key factor controlling the monoterpene emissions from the forest ecosystem.

  2. Adsorption sites, adsorption enthalpies and potential removal of terpenoids by atmospheric ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Christian; Hammer, Sonja M.; Bonn, Boris; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2011-01-01

    Ice crystal formation and its effect on atmospheric trace gases are currently an important area of research because of its radiation and climate effects. However, the processes of adsorption of trace gases on ice surfaces and absorption into ice crystals are poorly understood. Both processes are investigated by lattice-energy minimisation for a selected number of atmospherically relevant volatile organic compounds, i.e. isoprene, methacrolein, acetone, methylbutenol, perillyl alcohol and 2,10-pinanediol, which can be considered as exemplary substances for similar structured compounds. Adsorption and absorption geometries and enthalpies are computed and the potential uptake strength is approximated. According to our calculations non-polar terpenes like isoprene are not significantly adsorbed by ice crystals. Oxidized terpenoids have stronger interactions with the ice surface (at least two hydrogen bonds) leading to larger adsorption enthalpies. Absorption into the ice crystal plays only a minor role. Correspondingly, in the atmosphere terpenoid compounds are increasingly adsorbed to ice surfaces with increasing oxygen numbers. Subsequently this process can contribute to the wet removal of terpenoids by ice, which is so far ignored in global transport models.

  3. Drought stress and leaf herbivory affect root terpenoid concentrations and growth of Tanacetum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    Plant responses of both shoots and roots to combined abiotic and biotic stress have been rarely investigated. However, stresses such as drought and aboveground herbivory might lead to conflicting resource allocation patterns and pronounced shifts in shoot vs. root defenses. In the present study, the effects of water availability and leaf herbivory by caterpillars of a generalist on various shoot and root traits of the aromatic plant Tanacetum vulgare L. were investigated. This species contains terpenoids in leaves and roots, which can differ in composition among individuals, forming so-called chemotypes. To test for intraspecific variation, responses were investigated in two chemotypes, the thujone and the carvyl acetate chemotype. Furthermore, effects of differences in plant quality on the herbivores were studied. Shoot biomass significantly decreased due to drought and herbivory, whereas the root/shoot ratio increased following drought but was unaffected by herbivory. No shifts in C/N ratios were found. In contrast to our expectation, leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased only slightly due to drought, whereas root terpenoids were significantly induced by both drought and herbivory. Chemotypes showed distinct responses to drought at least in the root/shoot ratio, with a higher drought sensitivity of the carvyl acetate chemotype. The body mass of the caterpillars was unaffected by the irrigation treatment but depended on chemotype and terpenoid concentration of the plants. Thus, both qualitative and quantitative defenses strongly affect herbivore development. The present results offer new insights into the above- and belowground organ-specific responses of plants. They highlight the importance of roots in response to various environmental challenges.

  4. Body temperature increases during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shan Chuang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Body temperature transiently increased during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery. The increase in body temperature was associated with operation duration. The etiology is uncertain. Continuous body temperature monitoring and the application of both heating and cooling devices during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery should be mandatory.

  5. Response of fish to different simulated rates of water temperature increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1992-08-01

    We initiated this study to define the limits of effluent-temperature rate increases during reactor restart, which will help minimize fish kills. We constructed an apparatus for exposing fish to various temperature-increase regimens and conducted two experiments based on information from system tests and scoping runs. In the rate experiment, we acclimated the fish to 20{degree}C, and then raised the temperature to 40{degree}C at varying rates. Because scoping runs and literature suggested that acclimation temperature may affect temperature-related mortality, we conducted an acclimation experiment. We acclimated the fish to various temperatures, then raised the temperatures to 39--40{degree}C at a rate of 2{degree}C every 12 hours. Based on the analysis of the data, we recommend temperature-increase rates during reactor restart of 2.5{degree}C every nine hours if ambient water temperatures are over 20{degree}C. If water temperatures are at or below 20{degree}C, we recommend temperature-increase rates of 2.5{degree}C every 12 hours. No regulation of temperature is required after effluent temperatures reach 40{degree}C. We recommend further studies, including expanded testing with the simulation system and behavioral and bioenergetic investigations that may further refine acceptable rates of effluent-temperature increases.

  6. Increasing water temperature and disease risks in aquatic systems: climate change increases the risk of some, but not all, diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anssi; Rintamäki, Päivi; Jokela, Jukka; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2010-11-01

    Global warming may impose severe risks for aquatic animal health if increasing water temperature leads to an increase in the incidence of parasitic diseases. Essentially, this could take place through a temperature-driven effect on the epidemiology of the disease. For example, higher temperature may boost the rate of disease spread through positive effects on parasite fitness in a weakened host. Increased temperature may also lengthen the transmission season leading to higher total prevalence of infection and more widespread epidemics. However, to date, general understanding of these relationships is limited due to scarcity of long-term empirical data. Here, we present one of the first long-term multi-pathogen data sets on the occurrence of pathogenic bacterial and parasitic infections in relation to increasing temperatures in aquatic systems. We analyse a time-series of disease dynamics on two fish farms in northern Finland from 1986 to 2006. We first demonstrate that the annual mean water temperature increased significantly on both farms over the study period and that the increase was most pronounced in the late summer (July-September). Second, we show that the prevalence of infection (i.e. proportion of fish tanks infected each year) increased with temperature. Interestingly, this pattern was observed in some of the diseases (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Flavobacterium columnare), whereas in the other diseases, the pattern was the opposite (Ichthyobodo necator) or absent (Chilodonella spp.). These results demonstrate the effect of increasing water temperature on aquatic disease dynamics, but also emphasise the importance of the biology of each disease, as well as the role of local conditions, in determining the direction and magnitude of these effects. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estrogenic terpenes and terpenoids: Pathways, functions and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2017-11-15

    Terpenes are made of the isoprene unit (C 5 ), and along with their derivatives, terpenoids, they are widely distributed in plants as active ingredients involved in anti-inflammation, anti-carcinogenesis and neuroprotection. Estrogenic terpenes and terpenoids are an important category of phytoestrogens and have been used as traditional medicines. The comprehensive list of estrogenic terpenes and terpenoids includes hemi-, mono-, sesqui-, di-, tri-, tetra- and polyterpenes, their derivatives, and meroterpenes, along with the signaling pathways and cellular functions on which their estrogenicity is exerted. Signaling pathways are further classified as bidirectional or unidirectional, the latter being further divided into two types depending upon the presence of both ligands, or the absence of one or both ligands. Although estrogenic activity of terpenes and terpenoids was evaluated by ligand-binding assays, yeast two-hybrid assays, reporter-gene assays, transcription assays, protein assays, cell assays and animal testing, the mechanism of estrogenic activity is still not fully understood. Applications of estrogenic terpenes and terpenoids are categorized into cancer treatment and prevention, cardioprotection, endocrine toxicity/reproductive dysfunction, food/supplement/traditional medicine, immunology/inflammation, menopausal syndromes and neuroprotection, where their benefits are discussed based on their availability, stability and variations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-Temperature Zone, Droplet-based Microreactor for Increased Temperature Control in Nanoparticle Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Erdem, E. Yegân

    2013-12-12

    Microreactors are an emerging technology for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The Multi-Temperature zone Microreactor (MTM) described in this work utilizes thermally isolated heated and cooled regions for the purpose of separating nucleation and growth processes as well as to provide a platform for a systematic study on the effect of reaction conditions on nanoparticle synthesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The effect of air velocity on heat stress at increased air temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Wang, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Guoqiang

    to the temperature difference between the surfaces of animals and the surrounding air, and this temperature difference declines when the air temperature approaches the animal body temperature. Consequently it can it by expected that the effect of air velocity decreases at increased air temperature. The literature...... on different categories of farm animals to determine how the effect of air velocity depends on the air temperature. A new expression to calculate the chilling effect of increased air velocity was suggested. In addition to the parameters air velocity and air temperature this new expression included three......Increased air velocity is a frequently used method to reduce heat stress of farm animals housed in warm conditions. The main reason why the method works is that higher air velocity increases the convective heat release from the animals. Convective heat release from the animals is strongly related...

  10. Characterization of three novel isoprenyl diphosphate synthases from the terpenoid rich mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ram; Pandit, Sagar; Chidley, Hemangi; Nagel, Raimund; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Pujari, Keshav; Giri, Ashok; Gupta, Vidya

    2013-10-01

    Mango (cv. Alphonso) is popular due to its highly attractive, terpenoid-rich flavor. Although Alphonso is clonally propagated, its fruit-flavor composition varies when plants are grown in different geo-climatic zones. Isoprenyl diphosphate synthases catalyze important branch-point reactions in terpenoid biosynthesis, providing precursors for common terpenoids such as volatile terpenes, sterols and carotenoids. Two geranyl diphosphate synthases and a farnesyl diphosphate synthase were isolated from Alphonso fruits, cloned for recombinant expression and found to produce the respective products. Although, one of the geranyl diphosphate synthases showed high sequence similarity to the geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases, it did not exhibit geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthesizing activity. When modeled, this geranyl diphosphate synthase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase structures were found to be homologous with the reference structures, having all the catalytic side chains appropriately oriented. The optimum temperature for both the geranyl diphosphate synthases was 40 °C and that for farnesyl diphosphate synthase was 25 °C. This finding correlated well with the dominance of monoterpenes in comparison to sesquiterpenes in the fruits of Alphonso mango in which the mesocarp temperature is higher during ripening than development. The absence of activity of these enzymes with the divalent metal ion other than Mg(2+) indicated their adaptation to the Mg(2+) rich mesocarp. The typical expression pattern of these genes through the ripening stages of fruits from different cultivation localities depicting the highest transcript levels of these genes in the stage preceding the maximum terpene accumulation indicated the involvement of these genes in the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable heterologous expression of biologically active terpenoids in green plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Khairul Ikram, Nur Kusaira; Zhan, Xin; Pan, Xiwu

    2015-01-01

    Plants biosynthesize a great diversity of biologically active small molecules of interest for fragrances, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. Among specialized metabolites, terpenoids represent the greatest molecular diversity. Many terpenoids are very complex, and total chemical synthesis often requires...... heterologous expression for production of valuable plant-derived natural products. In this review, our primary focus is on small terpenoids and we discuss the benefits of plant expression platforms and provide several successful examples of stable production of small terpenoids in plants....

  12. Ferutinin, an apoptosis inducing terpenoid from Ferula ovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Maryam Moghaddam; Nakhaeizadeh, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahamd Reza; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Arghiani, Nahid; Rassouli, Fatemeh Behnam

    2014-01-01

    A current hurdle in cancer management is the intrinsic or acquired resistance of cancer cells to chemical agents that restricts the efficacy of therapeutic strategies. Accordingly, there is an increasing desire to discover new natural compounds with selective toxicity to combat malignancies. In present study, the cytotoxic and apoptosis- inducing activities of ferutinin, a terpenoid derivative from Ferula ovina, were investigated on human breast (MCF7) and bladder (TCC) cancer cells as well as normal fibroblasts (HFF3).The toxicity and DNA damage inducing effects of ferutinin were studied by MTT and comet assays, DAPI and PI staining and DNA laddering. The IC50 values of ferutinin were identified and compared with routine prescribed drugs, doxorubicin and vincristine, by MTT test. Alkaline comet assay and DAPI staining revealed DNA damage due to ferutinin, which was significantly (p<0.001) higher in MCF7 and TCC than HFF3 cells. Apoptosis induction was evidenced by PI staining and DNA laddering. Our results suggest that ferutinin could be considered as an effective anticancer agent for future in vivo and clinical experiments.

  13. Terpenoids from Euphorbia soongarica and Their Multidrug Resistance Reversal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Aisa, Haji A

    2017-06-23

    Ten new terpenoids, including five diterpenoids (1-5), three nortriterpenoids (6-8), and two triterpenoids (9, 10), and 15 known terpenoids (11-25) were isolated from an acetone extract of Euphorbia soongarica. Sooneuphoramine (1) is the first example of a euphoractine B-type diterpenoid alkaloid, while sooneuphanones A-C (6-8) are rare nortriterpenoids from the Euphorbia genus. The isolated terpenoids were tested for their cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity, 10 of which showed moderate cytotoxicity against the KB and KBv200 cell lines, while 11 compounds exhibited P-gp modulating potential. The triterpenoid sooneuphanone D (9) possessed a remarkable MDR reversal activity much higher than the positive control, verapamil.

  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of terpenoid aphid antifeedants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongde; Song, Jie; Han, Zhaojiu; Jiang, Zhikuan; Zheng, Weiqing; Chen, Jinzhu; Song, Zhanqian; Shang, Shibin

    2008-12-10

    A series of terpenoid compounds containing a six-member-ring were synthesized from alpha- and beta-pinenes. Antifeedant activity of these terpenoid compounds were tested on the aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.), with promising results. Stepwise regression was applied to study the quantitative structure-activity relationship of these compounds. The statistically best model showed that the relative number of O atoms, molecular volume, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, and total charge on the positively charged fragments were the most statistically significant descriptors to predict the antifeedant activity. The possible mechanism of interaction between the antifeedant and aphid chemoreceptor was discussed.

  15. Increased Temperatures Have Dramatic Effects on Growth and Grain Yield of Three Maize Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry L. Hatfield

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures under climate change are projected to have negative impacts on crop growth and production. These conclusions are not based on direct observations but on projected model results. A study conducted comparing normal seasonal temperatures (1980–2010 for Ames, IA, to a normal + 4°C environment with the same water vapor deficit evaluated the impacts of temperature on maize ( L. development and production. The rate of phenological development increased at higher temperatures; however, the relationship of leaf collar and leaf tip appearance to growing degree days was the same between temperature regimes. There was no effect on total leaf area or vegetative dry matter production, but grain yields decreased from 84 to 100% because of exposure to high nighttime temperatures and disruption of the pollination process as evidenced by the large reduction in kernels per ear. Projected increases in temperature will negatively affect grain production and threaten food security.

  16. County-level analysis of the impact of temperature and population increases on California wildfire data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Schoenberg, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which the apparent increase in wildfire incidence and burn area in California from 1990 to 2006 is affected by population and temperature increases is examined. Using generalized linear models with random effects, we focus on the estimated impacts of increases in mean daily temperatures and populations in different counties on wildfire in those counties, after essentially controlling for the overall differences between counties in their overall mean temperatures and populations. We find that temperature increase appears to have a significant positive impact on both total burn area and number of observed wildfires. Population growth appears to have a much less pronounced impact on total burn area than do annual temperature increases, and population growth appears to be negatively correlated with the total number of observed wildfires. These effects are especially pronounced in the winter season and in Southern California counties.

  17. Temperature-induced increase in erbium electroluminescence of epitaxially grown Si:Er diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmagin, V.B. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shm@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Lyutov, A.V.; Remizov, D.Yu.; Kudryavtsev, K.E.; Stepikhova, M.V.; Krasilnik, Z.F. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    Electroluminescence (EL) at 1.54 {mu}m of reverse biased Si:Er diodes grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy has been investigated as a function of temperature in the range of 80-300 K. An erbium electroluminescence trend versus temperature is shown to be determined by the p-n junction breakdown mechanism: we observe the EL quenching in light emitting diodes (LEDs) exhibiting a tunnel p-n junction breakdown and EL increase with temperature in diodes exhibiting an avalanche one. LEDs exhibiting a mixed p-n junction breakdown show rather weak dependence of erbium EL on temperature. We connect the temperature-induced increase in erbium EL observed in the avalanche LEDs with increase in EL pumping efficiency due to improved p-n junction breakdown homogeneity at higher temperatures.

  18. Hairy root biotechnology of Rauwolfia serpentina: a potent approach for the production of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Goel, Manoj K; Srivastava, Vikas; Rahman, Laiq Ur

    2015-02-01

    Hairy root cultures of Rauwolfia serpentina induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes have been investigated extensively for the production of terpenoid indole alkaloids. Various biotechnological developments, such as scaling up in bioreactors, pathway engineering etc., have been explored to improve their metabolite production potential. These hairy roots are competent for regenerating into complete plants and show survival and unaltered biosynthetic potential during storage at low temperature. This review provides a comprehensive account of the hairy root cultures of R. serpentina, their biosynthetic potential and various biotechnological methods used to explore the production of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids. The review also indicates how biotechnological endeavors might improve the future progress of research for production of alkaloids using Rauwolfia hairy roots.

  19. Temperature is the evil twin: effects of increased temperature and ocean acidification on reproduction in a reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G M; Kroon, F J; Metcalfe, S; Mundayi, P L

    2015-04-01

    Reproduction in many organisms can be disrupted by changes to the physical environment, such as those predicted to occur during climate change. Marine organisms face the dual climate change threats of increasing temperature and ocean acidification, yet no studies have examined the potential interactive effects of these stressors on reproduction in marine fishes. We used a long-term experiment to test the interactive effects of increased temperature and CO2 on the reproductive performance of the anemonefish, Amphiprion melanopus. Adult breeding pairs were kept for 10 months at three temperatures (28.5°C [+0.0°C], 30.0°C [-1.5°C] and 31.5°C [+3.0°C]) cross-factored with three CO2 levels (a current-day control [417 µatm] and moderate [644 µatm] and high [1134 µatm]) treatments consistent with the range of CO2 projections for the year 2100. We recorded each egg clutch produced during the breeding season, the number of eggs laid per clutch, average egg size, fertilization success, survival to hatching, hatchling length, and yolk provisioning. Adult body condition, hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index, and plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations were measured at the end of the breeding season to determine the effect of prolonged exposure to increased temperature and elevated. CO2 on adults, and to examine potential physiological mechanisms for changes in reproduction. Temperature had by far the stronger influence on reproduction, with clear declines in reproduction occurring in the +1.5°C treatment and ceasing altogether in the +3.0°C treatment. In contrast, CO2 had a minimal effect on the majority of reproductive traits measured, but caused a decline in offspring quality in combination with elevated temperature. We detected no significant effect of temperature or Co2 on adult body condition or hepatosomatic index. Elevated temperature had a significant negative effect on plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations, suggesting that declines in reproduction with

  20. The relation between skin temperature increase and sensory block height in spinal anaesthesia using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, F G A M; Driessen, J J; Kadic, L; van Egmond, J; Booij, L H D J; Scheffer, G J

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of determining the extent of sympathetic blockade by skin temperature measurement with infrared thermography and relate the cranial extent of the temperature increase to that of the sensory block after spinal anaesthesia. Before and 5, 10 and 20 min after the administration of spinal anaesthesia, skin temperatures were measured with infrared thermography at the dermatomes T2-L3, in 12 male patients scheduled for lower limb surgery. The most cephalad dermatome at which sensory blockade occurred was related to the dermatome at which the largest temperature jump (corrected for baseline temperature) occurred. The baseline temperatures showed considerable variation across the dermatomes, being lower below T12 than at the thoracic dermatomes. The mean difference between the level of the cephalad skin temperature elevation front (mean 1.03 °C, SD 0.8 °C) and cranial sensory block height was 0.10 dermatomes (SD 1.16), correlation coefficient (0.88, P<0.001). The varying baseline temperatures across the trunk, the limited sympathetic block-induced increase in skin temperature at the trunk and the difficult control of influences from the surroundings partly obscured the extent of the skin temperature increase and its correlation to sensory block height. These factors have to be controlled to improve the use of infrared cameras as an easy bedside tool for predicting the cranial extent of (sympathetic blockade during) spinal anaesthesia.

  1. Volatile non-terpenoid hydrocarbons from Ligusticum grayi roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root essential oil of Ligusticum grayi Coult. & Rose (Apiaceae) contains three volatile non-terpenoid hydrocarbons: the known C11 compound viridene, whose structure is hereby corrected to 1-[(2Z)-pent-2-en-1-yl]cyclohexa-1,3-diene; and the heretofore unreported C10 compounds 1-[(2Z)-but-2-en-1-y...

  2. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis attacked by caterpillars and aphids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Anneke; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Cappai, Francesco; Dicke, Marcel; Loon, van Joop J.A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the responses of plants to insect attack is the production of volatile organic compounds that mediate indirect defence of plants by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivores. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) include terpenoids that play key roles in the attraction of

  3. Identification of genes in Thuja plicata foliar terpenoid defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Adam J; Hall, Dawn E; Mortimer, Leanne; Abercromby, Shelley; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Bohlmann, Jörg; Russell, John; Mattsson, Jim

    2013-04-01

    Thuja plicata (western redcedar) is a long-lived conifer species whose foliage is rarely affected by disease or insect pests, but can be severely damaged by ungulate browsing. Deterrence to browsing correlates with high foliar levels of terpenoids, in particular the monoterpenoid α-thujone. Here, we set out to identify genes whose products may be involved in the production of α-thujone and other terpenoids in this species. First, we generated a foliar transcriptome database from which to draw candidate genes. Second, we mapped the storage of thujones and other terpenoids to foliar glands. Third, we used global expression profiling to identify more than 600 genes that are expressed at high levels in foliage with glands, but can either not be detected or are expressed at low levels in a natural variant lacking foliar glands. Fourth, we used in situ RNA hybridization to map the expression of a putative monoterpene synthase to the epithelium of glands and used enzyme assays with recombinant protein of the same gene to show that it produces sabinene, the monoterpene precursor of α-thujone. Finally, we identified candidate genes with predicted enzymatic functions for the conversion of sabinene to α-thujone. Taken together, this approach generated both general resources and detailed functional characterization in the identification of genes of foliar terpenoid biosynthesis in T. plicata.

  4. Iodine, a Mild Reagent for the Aromatization of Terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Victoriano; Prieto, Consuelo; Silva, Lucia; Rodilla, Jesús M L; Quílez del Moral, José F; Barrero, Alejandro F

    2016-04-22

    Efficient procedures based on the use of iodine for the aromatization of a series of terpenoids possessing diene and homoallylic or allylic alcohol functionalities are described. Different examples are reported as a proof-of-concept study. Furthermore, iodine also proved to mediate the dehydrogenation of testosterone.

  5. The biosynthesis of C5-C25 terpenoid compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewick, Paul M

    2002-04-01

    This review covers recently-published experimental information on the biosynthesis of terpenoids in the range C5-C25. In addition to sections on the mevalonate and mevalonate-independent (deoxyxylulose phosphate) pathways, the review considers in turn hemiterpenoids, polyprenyl diphosphate synthases, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, and sesterterpenoids. The literature from January 1998 to December 2000 is reviewed, with 248 references cited.

  6. Terpenoids of Sinularia soft corals: chemistry and bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ting Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft corals of the genus Sinularia are one of the most widespread soft corals. They are a rich source of bioactive substances with intriguing and unique structural features. The present paper reviews the latest progress in the chemistry and pharmacological activities of terpenoids from Sinularia soft corals and provides a perspective on future areas of research interest.

  7. Terpenoid composition and class of Tertiary resins from India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mallick, Monalisa; Mathews, Runcie Paul [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); Bertram, Norbert [LTA-Labor fuer Toxikologie und Analytik, Friedrichshoeher Str. 28, D-53639 Koenigswinter (Germany); Greenwood, Paul F. [John De Laeter Mass Spectrometry and WA Biogeochemitry Centres (M090), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA, 6009 (Australia); WA - Organic and Isotope Geochemistry Centre, Curtin University of Technology, Kent St., Bentley 6102 (Australia)

    2009-10-01

    The terpenoid composition and class of Tertiary resins preserved within lignites of Cambay, Kutch and Cauvery Basins of India have been characterized using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Major pyrolysis products include cadalene-based C{sub 15}-bicyclic sesquiterpenoids with some C{sub 30} and C{sub 31} bicadinanes and bicadinenes typical of Class II or dammar resin. The occurrence of these terpenoids in Early Eocene sediments may extend the first appearance of Dipterocarpaceae angiosperms, the predominant source of this resin class, back to the Early Eocene epoch in India. The same terpenoid biomarkers have been detected in many SE Asian oils reflecting a close source relationship with these resins. Strong CH{sub 3} (1377 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) and other CH{sub x} (3000-2800 and 1460-1450 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) aliphatic absorptions of much larger intensity than the aromatic C = C (1560-1650 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) absorption were detected in the Indian resins by FTIR Spectroscopy, confirming the quantitative significance of the terpenoid pyrolysates. (author)

  8. Transcriptional profiling of three key genes of terpenoid indole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of three key genes: strictosidine synthase (str1), tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) and secologanin synthase (cyp72A1) of the wild plant species, Catharanthus roseus to different plant tissue culture treatments was studied. These genes encode enzymes acting early in the biosynthetic pathway of terpenoid ...

  9. Inhibition of tumor progression by naturally occurring terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttan, Girija; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Manu, Kanjoormana Aryan; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2011-10-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in India and many other parts of the world. Its two main characteristics are uncontrolled cell growth and metastasis. Natural products represent a rich source of compounds that have found many applications in various fields of medicines and therapy including cancer therapy. Effective ingredients in several plant-derived medicinal extracts are terpenoid compounds and many terpenes have biological activities and are used for the treatment of human diseases. This review attempted to collect all available published scientific literature of eight naturally occurring terpenoids and their effect on inhibition of tumor progression. The present review is about eight potent naturally occurring terpenoids that have been studied for their pharmacological properties in our lab and this review includes 130 references compiled from all major databases. Literature survey revealed that triterpenoids, such as glycyrrhizic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and nomilin, the diterpene andrographolide, and the monoterpenoids like limonene and perillic acid had shown immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. All of them could induce apoptosis in various cancer cells by activating various proapoptotic signaling cascades. Many of these terpenoids found to inhibit metastatic progression and tumor-induced angiogenesis. The molecular mechanisms that involved in these activities include inhibition of various oncogenic and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways and suppression or nuclear translocation of various transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). The chemopreventive and chemoprotective effects of these compounds point toward their possible role in modern anticancer therapies.

  10. Terpenoid compounds from the latex of Euphorbia drupifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at the isolation and characterization of terpenoid compounds from the latex of Euphorbia drupifera. Methylated spirit extract of the latex was suspended in aqueous methanol and partitioned with petroleum spirit. The aqueous methanol residue was washed with ether. The ethereal fraction was subjected to ...

  11. Rising air temperatures will increase intertidal mussel abundance in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin E.; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2017-01-01

    sites in 5 fjords. We also compared tolerance to sub-zero temperatures between seasons and latitudes. Since 1958, atmospheric temperatures have increased signifi- cantly in all fjords. Consequently, the number of days with temperatures below the lower lethal temperature, LT50 (−13°C), has decreased...... between climate warming and population structure and abundance of intertidal mussels along a latitudinal climate gradient in west Greenland. We analysed trends in air temperatures, collected seasonal temperature data from intertidal microhabitats, and quantified abundance, growth and age structure at 73...... by up to 57%, suggesting that constraint by low tempera- ture is weakening. Abundance declined >95% with increasing latitude from an average of 23.67 to 0.71 ind. 0.0625 m−2 in mid-intertidal habitats. However, no latitudinal differences in growth, aver- age size (6.3−9 cm), age (1.5−2.5 yr...

  12. Increasing temperature decreases the predatory effect of the intertidal shanny Lipophrys pholis on an amphipod prey

    KAUST Repository

    South, J.

    2017-11-15

    Interactions between Lipophrys pholis and its amphipod prey Echinogammarus marinus were used to investigate the effect of changing water temperatures, comparing current and predicted mean summer temperatures. Contrary to expectations, predator attack rates significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Handling times were significantly longer at 19° C than at 17 and 15° C and the maximum feeding estimate was significantly lower at 19° C than at 17° C. Functional-response type changed from a destabilizing type II to the more stabilizing type III with a temperature increase to 19° C. This suggests that a temperature increase can mediate refuge for prey at low densities. Predatory pressure by teleosts may be dampened by a large increase in temperature (here from 15 to 19° C), but a short-term and smaller temperature increase (to 17° C) may increase destabilizing resource consumption due to high maximum feeding rates; this has implications for the stability of important intertidal ecosystems during warming events.

  13. Temperature increase during orthodontic bonding with different curing units using an infrared camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakalli, Sertac; Demir, Abdullah; Selek, Murat; Tasdemir, Sakir

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of different curing units and light-tip tooth surface distances on the temperature increase generated during orthodontic bonding, using an infrared camera (IR) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Fifty-two freshly extracted human premolar teeth were used. Metallic orthodontic brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of the teeth and thermal records were taken using an IR camera and ANN. Brackets were cured with a light-emitting diode (LED) and high intensity halogen (HQTH). Teeth were divided into four groups according to the curing units (LED and HQTH) and curing distances (from tooth surface and 10 mm away from tooth surface). The results were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey HSD test. The ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests revealed that temperature changes were influenced by the type of light source and exposure times. All groups revealed significant differences between each other (p < 0.001). The highest surface temperature increase was gained from curing with a LED unit from the tooth surface (11.35°C ± 0.91°C). The lowest surface temperature increase was gained from curing with a HQTH unit 10 mm away from the tooth surface (2.57°C ± 0.6°C). The LED unit induced significantly higher temperature changes than did the HQTH. The temperature increase during orthodontic bonding was increased with long exposure time. A shorter light-tip tooth surface distance leads to greater increases in temperature.

  14. The relation between skin temperature increase and sensory block height in spinal anaesthesia using infrared thermography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.G. van; Driessen, J.J.; Kadic, L.; Egmond, J. van; Booij, L.H.D.J.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of determining the extent of sympathetic blockade by skin temperature measurement with infrared thermography and relate the cranial extent of the temperature increase to that of the sensory block after spinal anaesthesia. METHODS: Before and 5,

  15. Diabetes incidence and glucose intolerance prevalence increase with higher outdoor temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauw, Lisanne L; Aziz, N Ahmad; Tannemaat, Martijn R; Blauw, C Alexander; de Craen, Anton J; Pijl, Hanno; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2017-01-01

    Objective Rising global temperatures might contribute to the current worldwide diabetes epidemic, as higher ambient temperature can negatively impact glucose metabolism via a reduction in brown adipose tissue activity. Therefore, we examined the association between outdoor temperature and diabetes incidence in the USA as well as the prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide. Research design and methods Using meta-regression, we determined the association between mean annual temperature and diabetes incidence during 1996–2009 for each US state separately. Subsequently, results were pooled in a meta-analysis. On a global scale, we performed a meta-regression analysis to assess the association between mean annual temperature and the prevalence of glucose intolerance. Results We demonstrated that, on average, per 1°C increase in temperature, age-adjusted diabetes incidence increased with 0.314 (95% CI 0.194 to 0.434) per 1000. Similarly, the worldwide prevalence of glucose intolerance increased by 0.170% (95% CI 0.107% to 0.234%) per 1°C rise in temperature. These associations persisted after adjustment for obesity. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the diabetes incidence rate in the USA and prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide increase with higher outdoor temperature. PMID:28405341

  16. Cardiac frequency compensation responses of adult blue crabs exposed to moderate temperature increases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, D.T.; Richardson, L.B.; Moore, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Cardiac frequency patterns of Callinectes sapidus Rathbun were used to evaluate potential thermal stress after exposure to 5/sup 0/C increases over a range of acclimation temperatures from 5/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/C. An acclimated rate-temperature curve (R-T curve), acute R-T curves of the stabilized rates at the increased temperatures and Q/sub 10/ temperature coefficients were used to assess the significance of the changes in rate frequency. The acclimated R-T curve showed that blue crabs go through a series of seasonal adaptation types characterized by a plateau of perfect adaptation for both cold and warm adapted organisms. Paradoxical adaptation occurred between the transition from cold to warm acclimation temperatures. The acute R-T curves showed that cardiac frequency was highly responsive to a 5/sup 0/C increase when the organisms were acclimated to low temperatures. The Q/sub 10/'s of the acute R-T curves at the warm acclimation temperatures approximated those values derived for the acclimated R-T curve. This suggests that the temperature increase had a negligible effect on the warm adapted crabs, that is, little or no thermal stress occurred.

  17. Changes in floral bouquets from compound-specific responses to increasing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Filella, Iolanda; Llusià, Joan; Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-12-01

    We addressed the potential effects of changes in ambient temperature on the profiles of volatile emissions from flowers and tested whether warming could induce significant quantitative and qualitative changes in floral emissions, which would potentially interfere with plant-pollinator chemical communication. We measured the temperature responses of floral emissions of various common species of Mediterranean plants using dynamic headspace sampling and used GC-MS to identify and quantify the emitted terpenes. Floral emissions increased with temperature to an optimum and thereafter decreased. The responses to temperature modeled here predicted increases in the rates of floral terpene emission of 0.03-1.4-fold, depending on the species, in response to an increase of 1 °C in the mean global ambient temperature. Under the warmest projections that predict a maximum increase of 5 °C in the mean temperature of Mediterranean climates in the Northern Hemisphere by the end of the century, our models predicted increases in the rates of floral terpene emissions of 0.34-9.1-fold, depending on the species. The species with the lowest emission rates had the highest relative increases in floral terpene emissions with temperature increases of 1-5 °C. The response of floral emissions to temperature differed among species and among different compounds within the species. Warming not only increased the rates of total emissions, but also changed the ratios among compounds that constituted the floral scents, i.e. increased the signal for pollinators, but also importantly altered the signal fidelity and probability of identification by pollinators, especially for specialists with a strong reliance on species-specific floral blends. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Effect of Drought on the Vulnerability of Leaves to Increasing Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, R.; Feeley, K.

    2016-12-01

    One predicted effect of global climate change is an increasing likelihood of drought combined with hotter temperatures. Hotter droughts are expected to increase tree mortality by increasing the vapor pressure deficit (VPD), which in turn negatively impacts net primary productivity and transpiration. However, the effects of higher temperatures on water stressed trees apart from this increase in VPD is unknown. Here we present results from ten South American tree species whose leaves were exposed to drought conditions and then to high temperatures. Tree branches were dried down over a period of days and leaves were harvested at intervals to measure percent water content and heat tolerance. Measurements were compared to control branches that were harvested but had their stems continuously submerged in water baths. The heat tolerance (CTmax) of watered vs. drought-stressed leaves was tested by exposing leaves to water baths of temperatures ranging from 32 - 54 °C and calculating the temperature at which leaf death occurred (Fv/Fm drought stressed have a CTmax between 8 and 20 °C lower than the CTmax of well-watered leaves. Hotter droughts, as predicted to occur more extensively and frequently under climate change, may impact trees through more than just increasing VPD; hotter droughts may also lead to increased leaf damage and death through increased temperature sensitivity of stressed leaves.

  19. Influence of increasing temperature and salinity on herbicide toxicity in estuarine phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Danese, Loren E; Baird, Thomas D

    2013-07-01

    Ecological risk assessments are, in part, based on results of toxicity tests conducted under standard exposure conditions. Global climate change will have a wide range of effects on estuarine habitats, including potentially increasing water temperature and salinity, which may alter the risk assessment of estuarine pollutants. We examined the effects of increasing temperature and salinity on the toxicity of common herbicides (irgarol, diuron, atrazine, and ametryn) to the phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta. Static 96-h algal bioassays were conducted for each herbicide under four exposure scenarios: standard temperature and salinity (25°C, 20 ppt), standard temperature and elevated salinity (25°C, 40 ppt), elevated temperature and standard salinity (35°C, 20 ppt), and elevated temperature and elevated salinity (35°C, 40 ppt). The endpoints assessed were algal cell density at 96 h, growth rate, chlorophyll a content, lipid content, and starch content. Increasing exposure temperature reduced growth rate and 96-h cell density but increased the cellular chlorophyll and lipid concentrations of the control algae. Exposure condition did not alter starch content of control algae. Herbicides were found to decrease growth rate, 96 h cell density, and cellular chlorophyll and lipid concentrations, while starch concentrations increased with herbicide exposure. Herbicide effects under standard test conditions were then compared with those observed under elevated temperature and salinity. Herbicide effects on growth rate, cell density, and starch content were more pronounced under elevated salinity and temperature conditions. To encompass the natural variability in estuarine temperature and salinity, and to account for future changes in climate, toxicity tests should be conducted under a wider range of environmental conditions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The effect of increased temperature and nitrogen deposition on decomposition in bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Limpens, J.; Berendse, F.

    2008-01-01

    Despite their low primary production, ombrotrophic peatlands have a considerable potential to store atmospheric carbon as a result of their extremely low litter decomposition rates. Projected changes in temperature and nitrogen (N) deposition may increase decomposition rates by their positive

  1. Phytoplankton responses to temperature increases are constrained by abiotic conditions and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striebel, Maren; Schabhüttl, Stefanie; Hodapp, Dorothee; Hingsamer, Peter; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    Effects of temperature changes on phytoplankton communities seem to be highly context-specific, but few studies have analyzed whether this context specificity depends on differences in the abiotic conditions or in species composition between studies. We present an experiment that allows disentangling the contribution of abiotic and biotic differences in shaping the response to two aspects of temperature change: permanent increase of mean temperature versus pulse disturbance in form of a heat wave. We used natural communities from six different sites of a floodplain system as well as artificially mixed communities from laboratory cultures and grew both, artificial and natural communities, in water from the six different floodplain lakes (sites). All 12 contexts (2 communities × 6 sites) were first exposed to three different temperature levels (12, 18, 24 °C, respectively) and afterward to temperature pulses (4 °C increase for 7 h day(-1)). Temperature-dependent changes in biomass and community composition depended on the initial composition of phytoplankton communities. Abiotic conditions had a major effect on biomass of phytoplankton communities exposed to different temperature conditions, however, the effect of biotic and abiotic conditions together was even more pronounced. Additionally, phytoplankton community responses to pulse temperature effects depended on the warming history. By disentangling abiotic and biotic effects, our study shows that temperature-dependent effects on phytoplankton communities depend on both, biotic and abiotic constraints.

  2. Variations in terrigenous matter transport evaluated by plant terpenoid analysis in the Neogene eastern equatorial Pacific sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H.; Sawada, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Kobayashi, M.

    2012-12-01

    We analyze land plant biomarkers in sediments recovered during the IODP Expeditions 320/321, the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT), to reconstruct variations in terrestrial input in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, as well as to evaluate transport systems of terrigenous matter from land to ocean. We used the Neogene sediments (23-0.23 Ma) recovered from site U1337. We could identify cadalene (sesquiterpenoid), as well as series of aromatic abietane type diterpenoids (e.g. retene) from most samples. These terpenoids are derived from biomolecules that constitute plant resin and supportive tissues. Plant-derived compounds in deep-sea sediments are considered that initially transported via fluvial process, followed by redistribution by gravity flow to the deeper part. Although, the typical pelagic setting of site U1337, even far from land across the mid-ocean-ridge, exclude such pathway. Therefore, the variations in mass accumulation rate (MAR) of plant terpenoids in this site depend eolian transportation and can be used as an indicator of change in atmospheric circulation. The increasing spikes in MAR of plant terpenoids were observed in the horizons of 16 Ma, 14 Ma, 12 Ma, 10 Ma, 9 - 8 Ma, 7 Ma and 2.5 - 1Ma. It is found that some of the spikes, 14 Ma, 7 Ma, 2.5 - 1 Ma correspond to the East Antarctica Ice Sheet event (EAIS), the Biogenic bloom event, and the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG), respectively. Furthermore, the degree of aromatization in diterpenoids, which represented by retene to the sum of abietane type diterpenoids, tends to increase concurrently with the MAR of total plant terpenoids. The aromatization of plant terpenoids take place under thermal maturation after deposition as well as in earlier processes such as biomass burning. In the U1337 sediments, the degree of aromatization of diterpenoids was uncorrelated with the age or depositional depth, suggesting its variations retain potential for paleoclimatic application. For example

  3. Production test PTA-002, increased graphite temperature limit -- B, C and D Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, A.

    1965-12-17

    The fundamental objective of the graphite temperature limit is to prevent excessive oxidation of the graphite moderator blocks with carbon dioxide and water vapor in the reactor atmosphere. Laboratory tests have shown that 10% uniform oxidation of graphite results in a loss in strength of approximately 50%. Production Test IP-725 was conducted at F Reactor for a period of six months at graphite temperatures approximately 50 and 100 C higher than the present graphite temperature limit of 650 C. The results from the F Reactor test suggest that an increase in the graphite temperature limit from 650 C to 700 C is technically feasible from the standpoint of oxidation of the graphite moderator with CO{sub 2}. Any significant additional increase was shown to lead to excessively high oxidation rates and is therefore not considered feasible. The objective of this test, therefore, is to extend the higher temperature investigations to B, C, and D Reactors. For the duration of this test, the graphite temperature limit will be increased from 650 C and 700 C, corresponding to an increase in the graphite stringer temperature limit from 735 C to 790 C. The test is expected to last for approximately six months but may be terminated early on any or all the reactors.

  4. Neurocognitive and somatic components of temperature increases during g-tummo meditation: legend and reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kozhevnikov

    Full Text Available Stories of g-tummo meditators mysteriously able to dry wet sheets wrapped around their naked bodies during a frigid Himalayan ceremony have intrigued scholars and laypersons alike for a century. Study 1 was conducted in remote monasteries of eastern Tibet with expert meditators performing g-tummo practices while their axillary temperature and electroencephalographic (EEG activity were measured. Study 2 was conducted with Western participants (a non-meditator control group instructed to use the somatic component of the g-tummo practice (vase breathing without utilization of meditative visualization. Reliable increases in axillary temperature from normal to slight or moderate fever zone (up to 38.3°C were observed among meditators only during the Forceful Breath type of g-tummo meditation accompanied by increases in alpha, beta, and gamma power. The magnitude of the temperature increases significantly correlated with the increases in alpha power during Forceful Breath meditation. The findings indicate that there are two factors affecting temperature increase. The first is the somatic component which causes thermogenesis, while the second is the neurocognitive component (meditative visualization that aids in sustaining temperature increases for longer periods. Without meditative visualization, both meditators and non-meditators were capable of using the Forceful Breath vase breathing only for a limited time, resulting in limited temperature increases in the range of normal body temperature. Overall, the results suggest that specific aspects of the g-tummo technique might help non-meditators learn how to regulate their body temperature, which has implications for improving health and regulating cognitive performance.

  5. Enhanced carbon overconsumption in response to increasing temperatures during a mesocosm experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taucher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are projected to lead to an increase in sea surface temperatures, potentially impacting marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling. Here we conducted an indoor mesocosm experiment with a natural plankton community taken from the Baltic Sea in summer. We induced a plankton bloom via nutrient addition and followed the dynamics of the different carbon and nitrogen pools for a period of one month at temperatures ranging from 9.5 °C to 17.5 °C, representing a range of ±4 °C relative to ambient temperature. The uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and the net build-up of both particulate (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC were all enhanced at higher temperatures and almost doubled over a temperature gradient of 8 °C. Furthermore, elemental ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C : N in both particulate and dissolved organic matter increased in response to higher temperatures, both reaching very high C : N ratios of > 30 at +4 °C. Altogether, these observations suggest a pronounced increase in excess carbon fixation in response to elevated temperatures. Most of these findings are contrary to results from similar experiments conducted with plankton populations sampled in spring, revealing large uncertainties in our knowledge of temperature sensitivities of key processes in marine carbon cycling. Since a major difference to previous mesocosm experiments was the dominant phytoplankton species, we hypothesize that species composition might play an important role in the response of biogeochemical cycling to increasing temperatures.

  6. Cold temperatures increase cold hardiness in the next generation Ophraella communa beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Shi Zhou

    Full Text Available The leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, has been introduced to control the spread of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in China. We hypothesized that the beetle, to be able to track host-range expansion into colder climates, can phenotypically adapt to cold temperatures across generations. Therefore, we questioned whether parental experience of colder temperatures increases cold tolerance of the progeny. Specifically, we studied the demography, including development, fecundity, and survival, as well as physiological traits, including supercooling point (SCP, water content, and glycerol content of O. communa progeny whose parents were maintained at different temperature regimes. Overall, the entire immature stage decreased survival of about 0.2%-4.2% when parents experienced cold temperatures compared to control individuals obtained from parents raised at room temperature. However, intrinsic capacity for increase (r, net reproductive rate (R 0 and finite rate of increase (λ of progeny O. communa were maximum when parents experienced cold temperatures. Glycerol contents of both female and male in progeny was significantly higher when maternal and paternal adults were cold acclimated as compared to other treatments. This resulted in the supercooling point of the progeny adults being significantly lower compared to beetles emerging from parents that experienced room temperatures. These results suggest that cold hardiness of O. communa can be promoted by cold acclimation in previous generation, and it might counter-balance reduced survival in the next generation, especially when insects are tracking their host-plants into colder climates.

  7. Do hotter temperatures increase the incidence of self-harm hospitalisations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matt N; Hill, Stephen R; Spicer, John

    2016-01-01

    A relationship between air temperature and the incidence of suicide has been established in a number of previous studies. Interestingly, the relationship between geographical variation in temperature and suicide incidence has generally been found to be negative, while the relationship between temporal variation in temperature and suicide incidence has generally been found to be positive. It is less clear, however, how temperature relates to the incidence of self-harm. This topic is of particular importance given the presence of ongoing global warming. This study investigated the relationship between temperature and the incidence of self-harm resulting in hospitalisation in New Zealand. Self-harm hospitalisations by date and district for 1993-2009 were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Meteorological data was obtained from NIWA. Generalised linear mixed models were used to estimate the effects of three different components of variation in temperature: geographical, seasonal and irregular. Irregular (random) daily variation in temperature had a modest positive relationship with the incidence of acts of self-harm resulting in hospitalisation, with about 0.7% extra incidents for every 1 °C increase in temperature. However, there was no strong evidence for a positive effect of either seasonal or geographical variation in temperature. We conclude that temperature does appear to bear some relation to the incidence of self-harm, with irregular daily variation in temperature having a positive effect. However, inconsistencies in the effects of different components of variation in temperature make it challenging to accurately predict how global warming will influence the incidence of self-harm.

  8. [The relationship between the temperature increase caused by phacoemulsification and the damage to the corneal endothelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschschlüter, S; von Eicken, J; Wilhelm, U; Wilhelm, F; Werschnik, C; Schlüter, R; Koch, C; Höh, H

    2014-08-01

    Endothelial cell damage can be found after a phacoemulsification. The reason for this cell damage is not yet known. The temperature rise inside the anterior chamber during the emulsification of the lens is considered as a potential damage mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the temperature increase and the cell damage. This study was performed with 86 enucleated porcine eyes, which were divided into six groups A-F. Group A served as control group. Phacoemulsification was simulated in the groups B-E with different surgically relevant system settings. The temperature change was measured simultaneously with temperature sensors inside the anterior chamber. Inside the eyes of group F, the instruments were positioned and irrigation and aspiration were activated, but no ultrasound was applied. For all 86 corneas, the endothelial cell damage was quantified with a standardised evaluation protocol using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A potential correlation was checked between the observed cell damage and the measured temperature rise. The highest temperature increase in group E with an obstructed aspiration line and an output power setting of 50 % was 17.77 °C. The temperature increase in group D with an output power setting of 100 % and unblocked fluid flow was significantly lower (p = 0.006). The highest temperature increase in group D was 8.89 °C. In contrast, the cells in group D were rated with a significantly lower score value than the cells in group E (p < 0.001). No significant correlation between the temperature rise and the cell damage could be obtained in due consideration of all measured data. However, an increase of the output power setting was connected with a non-linear increase of the cell loss. The temperature rise was not the main reason for the endothelial cell damage in the performed experiments. Therefore, there seems to be no causal relationship between the temperature increase inside the

  9. Temperature rise and parasitic infection interact to increase the impact of an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Ciaran; Brenner, David; McIlwaine, Christopher; Lennon, Jack J; Dick, Jaimie T A; Lucy, Frances E; Christian, Keith A

    2017-04-01

    Invasive species often detrimentally impact native biota, e.g. through predation, but predicting such impacts is difficult due to multiple and perhaps interacting abiotic and biotic context dependencies. Higher mean and peak temperatures, together with parasites, might influence the impact of predatory invasive host species additively, synergistically or antagonistically. Here, we apply the comparative functional response methodology (relationship between resource consumption rate and resource supply) in one experiment and conduct a second scaled-up mesocosm experiment to assess any differential predatory impacts of the freshwater invasive amphipod Gammarus pulex, when uninfected and infected with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae, at three temperatures representative of current and future climate. Individual G. pulex showed Type II predatory functional responses. In both experiments, infection was associated with higher maximum feeding rates, which also increased with increasing temperatures. Additionally, infection interacted with higher temperatures to synergistically elevate functional responses and feeding rates. Parasitic infection also generally increased Q10 values. We thus suggest that the differential metabolic responses of the host and parasite to increasing temperatures drives the synergy between infection and temperature, elevating feeding rates and thus enhancing the ecological impact of the invader. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Postmortem Increase in Body Core Temperature: How Inaccurate We Can Be in Time Since Death Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtíšek, Tomáš; Kučerová, Štěpánka; Krajsa, Jan; Eren, Bülent; Vysočanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr

    2017-03-01

    Postmortem increase in body core temperature is a well-known phenomenon in forensic practice. Despite this, cases of reliably documented postmortem hyperthermia are rarely reported in the forensic literature, and it is still not clear how frequently postmortem hyperthermia occurs and in which cases we may it predict. In routine forensic practice, the standard course of body cooling is expected, and the prediction of normal body core temperature in the time of death is used for back-calculating the time of death by Henssge method. The unexpected rising in body core temperature may considerably misguide the estimation of time since death in the early postmortem period. We present a rare case of nonviolent death in the hospital with exactly recorded unusual elevation of body core temperature after death, although the body temperature shortly before the death was normal. In the presented case, the "standard" cooling of the body began up to 4 hours after death.

  11. Climate warming may increase aphids' dropping probabilities in response to high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gang; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2012-11-01

    Dropping off is considered an anti-predator behavior for aphids since previous studies have shown that it reduces the risk of predation. However, little attention is paid to dropping behavior triggered by other external stresses such as daytime high temperatures which are predicted to become more frequent in the context of climate warming. Here we defined a new parameter, drop-off temperature (DOT), to describe the critical temperature at which an aphid drops off its host plant when the ambient temperature increases gradually and slowly. Detailed studies were conducted to reveal effects of short-term acclimation (temperature, exposure time at high-temperature and starvation) on DOT of an aphid species, Sitobion avenae. Our objectives were to test if the aphids dropped off host plant to avoid high temperatures and how short-term acclimation affected the aphids' dropping behavior in response to heat stress. We suggest that dropping is a behavioral thermoregulation to avoid heat stress, since aphids started to move before they dropped off and the dropped aphids were still able to control their muscles prior to knockdown. The adults starved for 12 h had higher DOT values than those that were unstarved or starved for 6 h, and there was a trade-off between behavioral thermoregulation and energy acquisition. Higher temperatures and longer exposure times at high temperatures significantly lowered the aphids' DOT, suggested that the aphids avoid heat stress by dropping when exposed to high temperatures. Climate warming may therefore increase the aphids' dropping probabilities and consequently affect the aphids' individual development and population growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integration of Residue Attributes for Sequence Diversity Characterization of Terpenoid Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shun; Ono, Naoaki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md.; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-01-01

    Progress in the “omics” fields such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has engendered a need for innovative analytical techniques to derive meaningful information from the ever increasing molecular data. KNApSAcK motorcycle DB is a popular database for enzymes related to secondary metabolic pathways in plants. One of the challenges in analyses of protein sequence data in such repositories is the standard notation of sequences as strings of alphabetical characters. This has created lack of a natural underlying metric that eases amenability to computation. In view of this requirement, we applied novel integration of selected biochemical and physical attributes of amino acids derived from the amino acid index and quantified in numerical scale, to examine diversity of peptide sequences of terpenoid synthases accumulated in KNApSAcK motorcycle DB. We initially generated a reduced amino acid index table. This is a set of biochemical and physical properties obtained by random forest feature selection of important indices from the amino acid index. Principal component analysis was then applied for characterization of enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenoids. The variance explained was increased by incorporation of residue attributes for analyses. PMID:24900985

  13. Climate change and biological control: the consequences of increasing temperatures on host-parasitoid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael J; Zalucki, Myron P

    2017-04-01

    The relative thermal requirements and tolerances of hymenopteran parasitoids and their hosts were investigated based on published data. The optimal temperature (Topt) for development of parasitoids was significantly lower than that for their hosts. Given the limited plasticity of insect responses to high temperatures and the proximity of Topt to critical thermal maxima, this suggests that host-parasitoid interactions could be negatively affected by increasing global temperatures. A modelling study of the interactions between the diamondback moth and its parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum in Australia indicated that predicted temperature increases will have a greater negative impact on the distribution of the parasitoid than on its host and that they could lead to its exclusion from some agricultural regions where it is currently important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural Diversity and Biological Activity of the Genus Pieris Terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Huan; Yan, Xi-Tao; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2017-11-22

    Secondary metabolites, particularly the grayanane diterpenoids produced by the members of genus Pieris, have been investigated in past decades for their remarkable antifeedant and insecticidal activities and toxicity. Grayanoids exhibit diverse biological properties such as antifeedant, insecticidal, cAMP regulatory, and sodium-channel-modulating activities. Structural complexity and diverse bioactivity of grayanoids have made them attractive targets for chemical, biological, and synthetic purposes. The current review synthesized findings published from 1966 to 2017, which include 135 reports that describe 130 terpenoids, including 103 grayanoids. The distribution, structure, skeleton, as well as the antifeedant and insecticidal activity of terpenoids, particularly the grayanane diterpenoids, are discussed in detail in this review. In cases where sufficient information is available, the structure-activity relationships of their antifeedant activity are also presented. We hope that this contribution will prompt more scientists to pay attention to these diterpenoids, which may be potentially applied in the agricultural field.

  15. Terpenoids as Potential Anti-Alzheimer’s Disease Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Young Park

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is one of the most well-known neurodegenerative diseases and explains 50–60% of dementia in patients. The prevalence rate of AD is positively correlated with age and AD affects ≥ 40% of those over 85 years old. The major AD therapeutics available on the market are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as tacrine and donepezil. New therapeutic agents that can block the disease-inducing mechanisms are essential. Diverse efforts have been made to discover anti-AD agents from natural sources. In this review article, we describe some representative terpenoids such as ginsenosides, gingkolides, and canabinoids as potential anti-AD agents. These compounds exhibit promising in vitro and in vivo biological activities, but are still waiting clinical trials. Additionally, we also discuss some terpenoids including cornel iridoid glycoside, oleanolic acid, tenuifolin, cryptotanshinone, and ursolic acid, which are under investigation for their in vitro and in vivo animal studies.

  16. Production of Aromatic Plant Terpenoids in Recombinant Baker's Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerstorfer-Augustin, Anita; Pichler, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Plant terpenoids are high-value compounds broadly applied as food additives or fragrances in perfumes and cosmetics. Their biotechnological production in yeast offers an attractive alternative to extraction from plants. Here, we provide two optimized protocols for the production of the plant terpenoid trans-nootkatol with recombinant S. cerevisiae by either (I) converting externally added (+)-valencene with resting cells or (II) cultivating engineered self-sufficient production strains. By synthesis of the hydrophobic compounds in self-sufficient production cells, phase transfer issues can be avoided and the highly volatile products can be enriched in and easily purified from n-dodecane, which is added to the cell broth as second phase.

  17. Metabolic and cellular stress responses of catfish, Horabagrus brachysoma (Günther) acclimated to increasing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Rishikesh S; Das, Tilak; Debnath, Dipesh; Yengkokpam, Sona; Baruah, Kartik; Tiwari, Lalchand R; Pal, Asim K

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the metabolic and cellular stress responses in an endemic catfish Horabagrus brachysoma acclimated to ambient (26°C), 31, 33 and 36°C for 30 days. After acclimation, fish were sampled to investigate changes in the levels of blood glucose, tissue glycogen and ascorbic acid, activities of enzymes involved in glycolysis (LDH), citric acid cycle (MDH), gluconeogenesis (FBPase and G6Pase), pentose phosphate pathway (G6PDH), protein metabolism (AST and ALT), phosphate metabolism (ACP and ALP) and energy metabolism (ATPase), and HSP70 levels in various tissues. Acclimation to higher temperatures (33 and 36°C) significantly increased activities of LDH, MDH, ALP, ACP, AST, ALT and ATPase and blood glucose levels, whereas decreased the G6PDH enzyme activity and, tissue glycogen and ascorbic acid. Results indicated an overall increase in the carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism implying increased metabolic demands for maintaining homeostasis in fish acclimated to higher temperatures (33 and 36°C). We observed tissue specific response of HSP70 in H. brachysoma, with significant increase in gill and liver at 33 and 36°C, and in brain and muscle at 36°C, enabling cellular protection at higher acclimation temperatures. In conclusion, H. brachysoma adjusted metabolic and cellular responses to withstand increased temperatures, however, these responses suggest that the fish was under stress at 33°C or higher temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chrysolina herbacea Modulates Terpenoid Biosynthesis of Mentha aquatica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Atsbaha Zebelo; Bertea, Cinzia M.; Simone Bossi; Andrea Occhipinti; Giorgio Gnavi; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between herbivorous insects and plants storing terpenoids are poorly understood. This study describes the ability of Chrysolina herbacea to use volatiles emitted by undamaged Mentha aquatica plants as attractants and the plant's response to herbivory, which involves the production of deterrent molecules. Emitted plant volatiles were analyzed by GC-MS. The insect's response to plant volatiles was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. Total RNA was extracted from control plants,...

  19. Hyperjapones A-E, Terpenoid Polymethylated Acylphloroglucinols from Hypericum japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Wei; Li, Yan-Ping; Su, Jia; Ma, Wei-Guang; Xu, Gang

    2016-04-15

    Hyperjapones A-E (1-5), novel terpenoid polymethylated acylphloroglucinols (TPAPs) with unusual architectures, were characterized from Hypericum japonicum. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic data and X-ray diffractions. Compound 1 was obtained as a racemic mixture and was separated by a column coated with cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) after attempts with various chiral materials. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 exhibited moderate antitumor activities in vitro.

  20. Engineering yeast metabolism for production of terpenoids for use as perfume ingredients, pharmaceuticals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueping; Nielsen, Jens; Liu, Zihe

    2017-12-01

    Terpenoids represent a large class of natural products with significant commercial applications. These chemicals are currently mainly obtained through extraction from plants and microbes or through chemical synthesis. However, these sources often face challenges of unsustainability and low productivity. In order to address these issues, Escherichia coli and yeast have been metabolic engineered to produce non-native terpenoids. With recent reports of engineering yeast metabolism to produce several terpenoids at high yields, it has become possible to establish commercial yeast production of terpenoids that find applications as perfume ingredients, pharmaceuticals and advanced biofuels. In this review, we describe the strategies to rewire the yeast pathway for terpenoid biosynthesis. Recent advances will be discussed together with challenges and perspectives of yeast as a cell factory to produce different terpenoids. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Comparative analysis of four terpenoids in root and cortex of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix by different drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuanjie; Shen, Fei; Su, Shulan; Bai, Yongliang; Guo, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Ji, Tao; Wang, Yanyan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-11-23

    Tripterygium wilfordii Radix, a well-known traditional medicine in china which is used for treatment of inflammation, pain, tumor and immune regulation for centuries in china, accompany with the serious toxic side effects. This study was carried out for simultaneously analyzing the four main components (triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral and celastrol) in Tripterygium wilfordii Radix under different drying processes, which was important for reducing the toxicity and quality control of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix in future. The terpenes were extracted by using ultrasonic method with ethyl acetate from root or cortex of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix, and the sensitive and rapid HPLC-PDA method was developed for simultaneous quantification of triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral and celastrol in root and cortex of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix for evaluation of the impacts by different drying processes. The four compounds in their respective determined arrange had good linearity of 0.9998≦R 2 ≦0.9999 and the average recoveries were range from 94.69 to 100.28%, RSDs were within 0.27 to 2.42%, respectively. The contents of triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral and celastrol in different Tripterygium wilfordii Radix individuals were varied greatly at different drying temperatures. Under different temperatures, the contents of triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral, and celastrol were 37.94-70.31 mg/g, 0-1.807 mg/g, 0.3513-9.205 mg/g, 3.202-15.31 mg/g, respectively. The suitable drying temperature of terpenoids in root of wild and cultivate are 80 °C and 60 °C, the suitable drying temperature of terpenoids in cortex is 40 °C. The method established is high sensitivity, accuracy, reliability and suitable for the simultaneous analysis of terpenoids in Tripterygium wilfordii Radix. The data provide a scientific basis and reference for the quality control of herb and preparations related to Tripterygium wilfordii

  2. General base-general acid catalysis by terpenoid cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Travis A; Christianson, David W

    2016-07-01

    Terpenoid cyclases catalyze the most complex reactions in biology, in that more than half of the substrate carbon atoms often undergo changes in bonding during the course of a multistep cyclization cascade that proceeds through multiple carbocation intermediates. Many cyclization mechanisms require stereospecific deprotonation and reprotonation steps, and most cyclization cascades are terminated by deprotonation to yield an olefin product. The first bacterial terpenoid cyclase to yield a crystal structure was pentalenene synthase from Streptomyces exfoliatus UC5319. This cyclase generates the hydrocarbon precursor of the pentalenolactone family of antibiotics. The structures of pentalenene synthase and other terpenoid cyclases reveal predominantly nonpolar active sites typically lacking amino acid side chains capable of serving general base-general acid functions. What chemical species, then, enables the Brønsted acid-base chemistry required in the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes? The most likely candidate for such general base-general acid chemistry is the co-product inorganic pyrophosphate. Here, we briefly review biological and nonbiological systems in which phosphate and its derivatives serve general base and general acid functions in catalysis. These examples highlight the fact that the Brønsted acid-base activities of phosphate derivatives are comparable to the Brønsted acid-base activities of amino acid side chains.

  3. Reproductive gene expression in a coral reef fish exposed to increasing temperature across generations

    KAUST Repository

    Veilleux, Heather D

    2017-12-07

    Reproduction in marine fish is generally tightly linked with water temperature. Consequently, when adults are exposed to projected future ocean temperatures, reproductive output of many species declines precipitously. Recent research has shown that in the common reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, step-wise exposure to higher temperatures over two generations (parents: +1.5°C, offspring: +3.0°C) can improve reproductive output in the F2 generation compared to F2 fish that have experienced the same high temperatures over two generations (F1 parents: +3.0°C, F2 offspring: +3.0°C). To investigate how a step-wise increase in temperature between generations improved reproductive capacity, we tested the expression of well-known teleost reproductive genes in the brain and gonads of F2 fish using quantitative reverse transcription PCR and compared it among control (+0.0°C for two generations), developmental (+3.0°C in second generation only), step (+1.5°C in first generation and +3.0°C in second generation), and transgenerational (+3.0°C for two generations) treatments. We found that levels of gonadotropin receptor gene expression (Fshr and Lhcgr) in the testes were reduced in developmental and transgenerational temperature treatments, but were similar to control levels in the step treatment. This suggests Fshr and Lhcgr may be involved in regulating male reproductive capacity in A. polyacanthus. In addition, lower Fshb expression in the brain of females in all temperature treatments compared to control, suggests that Fshb expression, which is involved in vitellogenesis, is sensitive to high temperatures. Our results help elucidate key genes that facilitate successful reproduction in reef fishes when they experience a gradual increase in temperature across generations consistent with the trajectory of climate change.

  4. Decline in temperature and humidity increases the occurrence of influenza in cold climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Both temperature and humidity may independently or jointly contribute to the risk of influenza infections. We examined the relations between the level and decrease of temperature, humidity and the risk of influenza A and B virus infections in a subarctic climate. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study among military conscripts (n = 892) seeking medical attention due to respiratory symptoms during their military training period and identified 66 influenza A and B cases by PCR or serology. Meteorological data such as measures of average and decline in ambient temperature and absolute humidity (AH) during the three preceding days of the onset (hazard period) and two reference periods, prior and after the onset were obtained. Results The average temperature preceding the influenza onset was −6.8 ± 5.6°C and AH 3.1 ± 1.3 g/m3. A decrease in both temperature and AH during the hazard period increased the occurrence of influenza so that a 1°C decrease in temperature and 0.5 g decrease per m3 in AH increased the estimated risk by 11% [OR 1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)] and 58% [OR 1.58 (1.28 to 1.96)], respectively. The occurrence of influenza infections was positively associated with both the average temperature [OR 1.10 per 1°C (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.19)] and AH [OR 1.25 per g/m3 (1.05 to 1.49)] during the hazard period prior to onset. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that a decrease rather than low temperature and humidity per se during the preceding three days increase the risk of influenza episodes in a cold climate. PMID:24678699

  5. In silico profiling of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as terpenoid factories

    OpenAIRE

    Gruchattka, Evamaria; H?dicke, Oliver; Klamt, Steffen; Sch?tz, Verena; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Background Heterologous microbial production of rare plant terpenoids of medicinal or industrial interest is attracting more and more attention but terpenoid yields are still low. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the most widely used heterologous hosts; a direct comparison of both hosts based on experimental data is difficult though. Hence, the terpenoid pathways of E. coli (via 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate, DXP) and S. cerevisiae (via mevalonate, MVA), the impact of the re...

  6. Estimation of total Terpenoids concentration in plant tissues using a monoterpene, Linalool as standard reagent.

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Narayan Ghorai, Sondipon Chakraborty, Shamik Gucchait, Samir Kumar Saha & Suman Biswas ### Abstract Terpenes and terpenoids are primary constituents of essential oils of different type of plants and flowers. Some qualitative estimation methods of terpenoids in plant tissue have been previously described but there is no protocol of estimating the same quantitatively till date. In the present study a protocol has been attempted to estimate the total terpenoids concentrati...

  7. Soil warming increases metabolic quotients of soil microorganisms without changes in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Soong, Jenniffer L.; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Dauwe, Steven; Fransen, Erik; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures can accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and release large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially inducing climate change feedbacks. Alterations to the temperature sensitivity and metabolic pathways of soil microorganisms in response to soil warming can play a key role in these soil carbon (C) losses. Here, we present results of an incubation experiment using soils from a geothermal gradient in Iceland that have been subjected to different intensities of soil warming (+0, +1, +3, +5, +10 and +20 °C above ambient) over seven years. We hypothesized that 7 years of soil warming would led to a depletion of labile organic substrates, with a subsequent decrease of the "apparent" temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Associated to this C limitation and more sub-optimal conditions for microbial growth, we also hypothesized increased microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), which is associated with increases in the relative amount of C invested into catabolic pathways along the warming gradient. Soil respiration and basal respiration rates decreased with soil warming intensity, in parallel with a decline in soil C availability. Contrasting to our first hypothesis, we did not detect changes in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration with soil warming or on the availability of nutrients and of labile C substrates at the time of incubation. However, in agreement to our second hypothesis, microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass) increased at warmer temperatures, while the C retained in biomass decreased as substrate became limiting. Long-term (7 years) temperature increases thus triggered a change in the metabolic functioning of the soil microbial communities towards increasing energy costs for maintenance or resource acquisition, thereby lowering the capacity of C retention and stabilization of warmed soils. These results highlight the need

  8. T-DNA insertion alters the terpenoid content composition and bioactivity of transgenic Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaket, Netiya; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the interference of T-DNA insertion upon Agrobacterium-mediated transformation on the biochemical expression of the host genome is discussed. Plant extracts of transgenic Artemisia annua L. with or without an overexpressed famesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene have been investigated for their bioactivity and metabolic profile in comparison with wild type A. annua. The highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans was observed in the T253 transgenic lines. Moreover, the crude extract from T253 showed higher antimalarial activity against the Plasmodium faciparum K1 strain than those of the others. The terpenoid constituents and antimicrobial properties of the plant samples were grouped by hierarchical clustering analysis. The clustering showed that squalene is a putative compound that might be involved in increasing the bioactivity of the transgenic line. In addition, T253 had a triterpene content that was about twice as great as that of the T253-2 line, which had a higher content of sesquiterpenes. However, both lines were transformed by the same FPS gene. These results suggested that the different bioactive properties observed in each transgenic line may be caused by variations in their terpenoid composition, which is affected by T-DNA insertion at different positions in the host plant.

  9. Increased temperature variation poses a greater risk to species than climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, David A; DeLong, John P; Gilbert, Benjamin; Greig, Hamish S; Harley, Christopher D G; McCann, Kevin S; Savage, Van; Tunney, Tyler D; O'Connor, Mary I

    2014-03-22

    Increases in the frequency, severity and duration of temperature extremes are anticipated in the near future. Although recent work suggests that changes in temperature variation will have disproportionately greater effects on species than changes to the mean, much of climate change research in ecology has focused on the impacts of mean temperature change. Here, we couple fine-grained climate projections (2050-2059) to thermal performance data from 38 ectothermic invertebrate species and contrast projections with those of a simple model. We show that projections based on mean temperature change alone differ substantially from those incorporating changes to the variation, and to the mean and variation in concert. Although most species show increases in performance at greater mean temperatures, the effect of mean and variance change together yields a range of responses, with temperate species at greatest risk of performance declines. Our work highlights the importance of using fine-grained temporal data to incorporate the full extent of temperature variation when assessing and projecting performance.

  10. Terpenoids of plant origin inhibit morphogenesis, adhesion, and biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Jayant S; Shinde, Ravikumar B; Chauhan, Nitin M; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm-related infections caused by Candida albicans and associated drug resistant micro-organisms are serious problems for immunocompromised populations. Molecules which can prevent or remove biofilms are needed. Twenty-eight terpenoids of plant origin were analysed for their activity against growth, virulence attributes, and biofilms of C. albicans. Eighteen molecules exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations of terpenoids resulted in significant (p terpenoids were identified as inhibitors of mature biofilms. This study demonstrated the antibiofilm potential of terpenoids, which need to be further explored as therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated infections of C. albicans.

  11. Heterologous stable expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes using the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Søren Spanner; King, Brian Christopher; Zhan, Xin; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Hamberger, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Heterologous and stable expression of genes encoding terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes in planta is an important tool for functional characterization and is an attractive alternative to expression in microbial hosts for biotechnological production. Despite improvements to the procedure, such as streamlining of large scale Agrobacterium infiltration and upregulation of the upstream pathways, transient in planta heterologous expression quickly reaches limitations when used for production of terpenoids. Stable integration of transgenes into the nuclear genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens has already been widely recognized as a viable alternative for industrial-scale production of biopharmaceuticals. For expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes, and reconstruction of heterologous pathways, Physcomitrella has unique attributes that makes it a very promising biotechnological host. These features include a high native tolerance to terpenoids, a simple endogenous terpenoid profile, convenient genome editing using homologous recombination, and cultivation techniques that allow up-scaling from single cells in microtiter plates to industrial photo-bioreactors. Beyond its use for functional characterization of terpenoid biosynthetic genes, engineered Physcomitrella can be a green biotechnological platform for production of terpenoids. Here, we describe two complementary and simple procedures for stable nuclear transformation of Physcomitrella with terpenoid biosynthetic genes, selection and cultivation of transgenic lines, and metabolite analysis of terpenoids produced in transgenic moss lines. We also provide tools for metabolic engineering through genome editing using homologous recombination.

  12. Terpenoids in Buddleja: relevance to chemosystematics, chemical ecology and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Peter J; Mensah, Abraham Y; Iessa, Noha; Hong, Liao Yong

    2003-09-01

    The terpenoids reported from Buddleja species are described. The antifungal activity of chloroform extracts of B. cordata and B. davidii stembark against the soil fungi Fusarium culmorum and Sordari fimicola is reported, with buddledin A shown to be the major compound responsible. The terpenoids present support the view that the Buddlejaceae should be classified in a taxon with Scrophulariaceae rather than Loganiaceae. Ecological aspects of the terpenoids are considered in relation to insects and soil fungi and the role of terpenoids in the chemical basis of the use of Buddleja in traditional medicine is also discussed, especially with regard to their anti-inflammatory properties.

  13. Acute Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Terpenoids and Essential Oils on the Predator Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, R V; Grützmacher, A D; Coats, J R

    2017-07-31

    The search for new safer insecticides has increased in recent agriculture. Botanical compounds such as terpenoids and plant essential oils with insecticidal activity could represent important tools in pest management, and their risk assessment against non-target organisms is necessary since they may serve as a precursor for the synthesis of new insecticide active ingredients. For this study, the acute toxicity and sublethal effects of seven terpenoids and three essential oils with recognized insecticidal activity were evaluated on the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in laboratory bioassays. Results indicate that these compounds feature relative selectivity to the predator C. externa; however, sublethal effects on reproduction were recorded for some compounds. The phenolic monoterpenoids carvacrol and thymol were more acutely toxic than other terpenoids screened, with LD 50 <20,000 μg/g; however, they were less toxic than natural pyrethrins (toxicity standard) in these bioassays. Sublethal effects on fecundity and fertility were observed for R-(+)-limonene, while oregano oil only affected fecundity. The compounds evaluated here have potential to be used as insecticides and can serve as backbone for future synthesis of selective active ingredients; however, a complete risk assessment to C. externa and other non-target organisms is necessary for their incorporation in future crop protection paradigms.

  14. In silico discovery of terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Massimino

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their efficacy, cannabis based therapies are currently being prescribed for the treatment of many different medical conditions. Interestingly, treatments based on the use of cannabis flowers or their derivatives have been shown to be very effective, while therapies based on drugs containing THC alone lack therapeutic value and lead to increased side effects, likely resulting from the absence of other pivotal entourage compounds found in the Phyto-complex. Among these compounds are terpenoids, which are not produced exclusively by cannabis plants, so other plant species must share many of the enzymes involved in their metabolism. In the present work, 23,630 transcripts from the canSat3 reference transcriptome were scanned for evolutionarily conserved protein domains and annotated in accordance with their predicted molecular functions. A total of 215 evolutionarily conserved genes encoding enzymes presumably involved in terpenoid metabolism are described, together with their expression profiles in different cannabis plant tissues at different developmental stages. The resource presented here will aid future investigations on terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa.

  15. Increased temperature and entropy production in cancer: the role of anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    Some cancers have been shown to have a higher temperature than surrounding normal tissue. This higher temperature is due to heat generated internally in the cancer. The higher temperature of cancer (compared to surrounding tissue) enables a thermodynamic analysis to be carried out. Here I show that there is increased entropy production in cancer compared with surrounding tissue. This is termed excess entropy production. The excess entropy production is expressed in terms of heat flow from the cancer to surrounding tissue and enzymic reactions in the cancer and surrounding tissue. The excess entropy production in cancer drives it away from the stationary state that is characterised by minimum entropy production. Treatments that reduce inflammation (and therefore temperature) should drive a cancer towards the stationary state. Anti-inflammatory agents, such as aspirin, other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and also thyroxine analogues have been shown (using various criteria) to reduce the progress of cancer.

  16. Extreme temperatures increase the deleterious consequences of inbreeding under laboratory and semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Barker, J. Stuart F.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The majority of experimental studies of the effects of population bottlenecks on fitness are performed under laboratory conditions, which do not account for the environmental complexity that populations face in nature. In this study, we test inbreeding depression in multiple replicates of inbred...... show inbreeding depression for egg-to-adult viability. The level of inbreeding depression is highly dependent on test temperature and is observed only at low and high temperatures. Inbreeding did not affect the developmental time or the sex ratio of emerging adults. However, temperature affected...... increases at stressful temperatures. Our results contribute to knowledge on the environmental dependency of inbreeding under different environmental conditions and emphasize that climate change may impact negatively on fitness through synergistic interactions with the genotype....

  17. Influence of increasing combustion temperature on the AMS 14C dating of modern crop phytoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinhui; Yang, Xue; Zheng, Yonggang

    2014-10-07

    Several attempts have been made to directly date phytoliths, but most (14)C results are not consistent with other independent chronologies. Due to the limited dataset, there is not a clear explanation for these discrepancies. Herein, we report the (14)C ages of phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) from contemporary rice and millet crops that were combusted at different temperatures to investigate the relationship between the combustion temperature and resulting (14)C age. Our results show that the (14)C age of PhytOC increases directly with combustion temperature (up to 1100°C) and results in age overestimations of hundreds of years. Considerably older ages are observed at higher temperatures, suggesting that it may be possible to distinguish between two fractions of organic carbon in phytoliths: labile and recalcitrant carbon. These findings challenge the assumption that PhytOC is homogeneous, an assumption made by those who have previously attempted to directly date phytoliths using (14)C.

  18. The effect of cold temperature on increased exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a nationwide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Min Tseng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seasonal variations in the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have been reported. However, the influence of air temperature and other meteorological factors on COPD exacerbation remains unclear. METHODS: National Health Insurance registry data from January 1, 1999 to December 1, 2009 and meteorological variables from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau for the same period were analyzed. A case-crossover study design was used to investigate the association between COPD exacerbation and meteorological variables. RESULTS: A total of 16,254 cases who suffered from COPD exacerbation were enrolled. We found that a 1°C decrease in air temperature was associated with a 0.8% increase in the exacerbation rate on event-days (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.015-1.138, p = 0.015. With a 5°C decrease in mean temperature, the cold temperature (28-day average temperature had a long-term effect on the exacerbation of COPD (odds ratio (OR, 1.106, 95% CI 1.063-1.152, p<0.001. In addition, elderly patients and those who did not receive inhaled medication tended to suffer an exacerbation when the mean temperature dropped 5°C. Higher barometric pressure, more hours of sunshine, and lower humidity were associated with an increase in COPD exacerbation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the effect of cold temperatures on the COPD exacerbation rate. Elderly patients and those without inhaled medicine before the exacerbation event were affected significantly by lower mean temperatures. A more comprehensive program to prevent cold stress in COPD patients may lead to a reduction in the exacerbations rate of COPD.

  19. Temperature increases on the external root surface during endodontic treatment using single file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkocak, I; Taşkan, M M; Gökt Rk, H; Aytac, F; Karaarslan, E Şirin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate increases in temperature on the external root surface during endodontic treatment with different rotary systems. Fifty human mandibular incisors with a single root canal were selected. All root canals were instrumented using a size 20 Hedstrom file, and the canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution. The samples were randomly divided into the following three groups of 15 teeth: Group 1: The OneShape Endodontic File no.: 25; Group 2: The Reciproc Endodontic File no.: 25; Group 3: The WaveOne Endodontic File no.: 25. During the preparation, the temperature changes were measured in the middle third of the roots using a noncontact infrared thermometer. The temperature data were transferred from the thermometer to the computer and were observed graphically. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance at a significance level of 0.05. The increases in temperature caused by the OneShape file system were lower than those of the other files (P temperature increases. However, there were no significant differences between the Reciproc and WaveOne files. The single file rotary systems used in this study may be recommended for clinical use.

  20. Increasing oxygen radicals and water temperature select for toxic Microcystis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dziallas

    Full Text Available Pronounced rises in frequency of toxic cyanobacterial blooms are recently observed worldwide, particularly when temperatures increase. Different strains of cyanobacterial species vary in their potential to produce toxins but driving forces are still obscure. Our study examines effects of hydrogen peroxide on toxic and non-toxic (including a non-toxic mutant strains of M. aeruginosa. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide diminishes chlorophyll a content and growth of cyanobacteria and that this reduction is significantly lower for toxic than for non-toxic strains. This indicates that microcystins protect from detrimental effects of oxygen radicals. Incubation of toxic and non-toxic strains of M. aeruginosa with other bacteria or without (axenic at three temperatures (20, 26 and 32°C reveals a shift toward toxic strains at higher temperatures. In parallel to increases in abundance of toxic (i.e. toxin gene possessing strains and their actual toxin expression, concentrations of microcystins rise with temperature, when amounts of radicals are expected to be enhanced. Field samples from three continents support the influence of radicals and temperature on toxic potential of M. aeruginosa. Our results imply that global warming will significantly increase toxic potential and toxicity of cyanobacterial blooms which has strong implications for socio-economical assessments of global change.

  1. Increasing temperature reduces the coupling between available nitrogen and phosphorus in soils of Chinese grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Baumann, Frank; Song, Chao; Zhang, Mi; Shi, Yue; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas; He, Jin-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Changes in climatic conditions along geographical gradients greatly affect soil nutrient cycling processes. Yet how climate regimes such as changes in temperature influence soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and their stoichiometry is not well understood. This study investigated the spatial pattern and variability of soil N and P availability as well as their coupling relationships at two soil layers (0-10 and 10-20 cm) along a 4000-km climate transect in two grassland biomes of China, the Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands and the Tibetan alpine grasslands. Our results found that in both grasslands, from cold to warm sites the amounts of soil total N, total P and available P all decreased. By contrast, the amount of available N was positively related to mean annual temperature in the Tibetan grasslands. Meanwhile, with increasing temperature ratio of available N to P significantly increased but the linear relationship between them was considerably reduced. Thus, increasing temperature may not only induce a stoichiometric shift but also loose the coupling between available N and P. This N-P decoupling under warmer conditions was more evident in the Tibetan alpine grasslands where P limitation might become more widespread relative to N as temperatures continue to rise.

  2. Simulation of the temperature increase in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Kurtz, Ronald M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2012-03-01

    As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. The temperature increase induced by a 60 kHz iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser (AMO Inc., Santa Ana, CA) in porcine cadaver iris was simulated using COMSOL (Comsol Inc., Burlington, MA) finite element software. Temperature increases up to 2.45 °C (corresponding to 2 μJ laser pulse energy and 24 second illumination) were observed in the porcine cadaver iris from the simulation with little variation in temperature profiles compared with specimens for the same laser energy illumination in experiment. : The commercial iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser operating with pulse energies at approximately the lower limit of the range evaluated in this study would be expected to result in a 1.23 °C temperature increase and, therefore, does not present a safety hazard to the iris.

  3. Douglas-fir seedlings exhibit metabolic responses to increased temperature and atmospheric drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Jansen

    Full Text Available In the future, periods of strongly increased temperature in concert with drought (heat waves will have potentially detrimental effects on trees and forests in Central Europe. Norway spruce might be at risk in the future climate of Central Europe. However, Douglas-fir is often discussed as an alternative for the drought and heat sensitive Norway spruce, because some provenances are considered to be well adapted to drier and warmer conditions. In this study, we identified the physiological and growth responses of seedlings from two different Douglas-fir provenances to increased temperature and atmospheric drought during a period of 92 days. We analysed (i plant biomass, (ii carbon stable isotope composition as an indicator for time integrated intrinsic water use efficiency, (iii apparent respiratory carbon isotope fractionation as well as (iv the profile of polar low molecular metabolites. Plant biomass was only slightly affected by increased temperatures and atmospheric drought but the more negative apparent respiratory fractionation indicated a temperature-dependent decrease in the commitment of substrate to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The metabolite profile revealed that the simulated heat wave induced a switch in stress protecting compounds from proline to polyols. We conclude that metabolic acclimation successfully contributes to maintain functioning and physiological activity in seedlings of both Douglas-fir provenances under conditions that are expected during heat waves (i.e. elevated temperatures and atmospheric drought. Douglas-fir might be a potentially important tree species for forestry in Central Europe under changing climatic conditions.

  4. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Traumatic Resin Ducts, Terpenoid Resin Biosynthesis, and Terpenoid Accumulation in Developing Xylem of Norway Spruce Stems1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane; Tholl, Dorothea; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens. Oleoresin accumulates constitutively in resin ducts in the cortex and phloem (bark) of Norway spruce stems. De novo formation of traumatic resin ducts (TDs) is observed in the developing secondary xylem (wood) after insect attack, fungal elicitation, and mechanical wounding. Here, we characterize the methyl jasmonate-induced formation of TDs in Norway spruce by microscopy, chemical analyses of resin composition, and assays of terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes. The response involves tissue-specific differentiation of TDs, terpenoid accumulation, and induction of enzyme activities of both prenyltransferases and terpene synthases in the developing xylem, a tissue that constitutively lacks axial resin ducts in spruce. The induction of a complex defense response in Norway spruce by methyl jasmonate application provides new avenues to evaluate the role of resin defenses for protection of conifers against destructive pests such as white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi), bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae), and insect-associated tree pathogens. PMID:12114556

  5. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Temperature Increases on the Photosynthesis of Tropical Reef Calcified Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Pereira, Cristiano Macedo; Duarte, Gustavo; Horta, Paulo Antunes; E Castro, Clovis Barreira; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon that is considered an important threat to marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification and increased seawater temperatures are among the consequences of this phenomenon. The comprehension of the effects of these alterations on marine organisms, in particular on calcified macroalgae, is still modest despite its great importance. There are evidences that macroalgae inhabiting highly variable environments are relatively resilient to such changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and temperature rises on the photosynthesis of calcified macroalgae inhabiting the intertidal region, a highly variable environment. The experiments were performed in a reef mesocosm in a tropical region on the Brazilian coast, using three species of frondose calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda cuneata, Padina gymnospora, and Tricleocarpa cylindrica) and crustose coralline algae. The acidification experiment consisted of three treatments with pH levels below those occurring in the region (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9). For the temperature experiment, three temperature levels above those occurring naturally in the region (+1, +2, +4°C) were determined. The results of the acidification experiment indicate an increase on the optimum quantum yield by T. cylindrica and a decline of this parameter by coralline algae, although both only occurred at the extreme acidification treatment (-0.9). The energy dissipation mechanisms of these algae were also altered at this extreme condition. Significant effects of the temperature experiment were limited to an enhancement of the photosynthetic performance by H. cuneata although only at a modest temperature increase (+1°C). In general, the results indicate a possible photosynthetic adaptation and/or acclimation of the studied macroalgae to the expected future ocean acidification and temperature rises, as separate factors. Such relative resilience may be a result of the

  6. Impact of drought and increasing temperatures on soil CO2 emissions in a Mediterranean shrubland (gariga)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dato, Giovanbattista Domenico; De Angelis, Paolo; Sirca, Costantino

    2010-01-01

    In arid and semiarid shrubland ecosystems of the Mediterranean basin, soil moisture is a key factor controlling biogeochemical cycles and the release of CO2 via soil respiration. This is influenced by increasing temperatures. We manipulated the microclimate in a Mediterranean shrubland to increase......) by covering the vegetation during the night (Warming treatment) and during rain events (Drought treatment). Soil CO2 effluxes were monitored in the treatments and compared to a control over a 3-year period. Along with soil respiration measurements, we recorded soil temperature at 5 cm depth by a soil...... on only three of 10 occasions during 2004. The variation of soil respiration with temperature and soil water content did not differ significantly among the treatments, but was affected by the season. The annual CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by the treatments. In the semi-arid Mediterranean...

  7. Crop growth and nitrogen turnover under increased temperatures and low autumn and winter light intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2010-01-01

    The rise in mean annual temperatures under the projected climate change will affect both soil organic matter turnover and cropping patterns in agriculture. Nitrogen (N) mineralization may be higher during autumn and winter and may increase the risk of nitrate leaching. Our study tested whether...... pots in November, December and February. Reference pots with bare soil were included. N mineralization clearly increased with higher temperatures with, respectively, 22% and 80% more N mineralized in bare soil at T+4 and T+8 than at T0 after 136 days. The ryegrass catch crop emptied the soil...... a soil cover of winter wheat or a ryegrass catch crop would be able to take up the extra N mineralized during autumn and winter under the low light conditions in Northern Europe, both at current average temperatures (T0) and at 4 °C (T+4) and 8 °C (T+8) above average. The crops were grown in pots...

  8. Magnesia-zircon brick: Evolution of microstructure, properties and performance with increasing sintering temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on phase components and densification, Magnesia-Zircon brick varies in appearance from white to veined and then brown with increasing sintering temperature. Properties including bulk density, apparent porosity and hot modulus of rupture as well as performance embodied with creep resistance and refractoriness continue to improve with sustaining enhancement of sintering temperature. Exceptionally, cold crushing strength first increases then decreases with rising sintering temperature and a peak exists at 1550oC. Microstructural evolution suffers zircon decomposition companying by silica escape, forsterite formation, matrix solidification and zirconia coagulation, until a zirconia/forsterite composites belt tightly coating on magnesia aggregates. Excessive coagulation of zirconia caused by oversintering probably results in microcracks formation and defects enlargement thereby degrades cold crushing strength.

  9. The Effect of Increased Temperature on Flowering Behaviour of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flowering in saffron requires a period of incubation at high temperatures for flower differentiation followed by a period of low temperatures for flower emergence. Global warming could adversely affect the flowering of saffron because of its high sensitivity to temperature. Flowering behaviour of saffron in response to rising temperature was studied in an experiment conducted in controlled environment. Corms with identical sizes were collected form green or fully withered field grown plants and sown in plastic pots. Pots were incubated in 25, 27 and 30 °C for 70, 90 and 120 days. By the end of each incubation period, pots incubated in 25, 27 and 30 °C were transferred to 17, 19 and 21 °C, respectively. Days to flowering, development rate and growth characteristics of saffron were measured in alternative temperature regimes of 25/17, 27/19 and 30/21 °C in combination with 3 incubation periods and in 3 replications. The results indicated that increasing incubation temperature up to 27 °C had no significant effects on saffron flowering behaviour however, no flower was appeared from corms incubated in 30°C. Increased duration of incubation period had adverse effects on flower emergence and corms incubated for 120 days were only flowered in 27/19 °C temperature regime. The optimal flowering response and the highest number of vegetative buds was obtained when 90 days incubation period at 27 °C was followed by a period for flower emergence at 17°C. Corms lifted from green or withered plants showed similar response to temperature regimes and incubation periods. However, in average duration of sowing to flowering was 5 days longer in corms lifted from green plants. Comparing the results of this research with daily temperature in the main saffron production areas of Khorasan provinces showed that increasing mean daily temperature by 2 °C during summer and autumn results in a considerable delay in flowering of saffron.

  10. Interactive effect of temperature and CO2 increase in Arctic phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eCoello-Camba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was performed in order to analyze the effects of the increase in water temperature and CO2 partial pressure expected for the end of this century in a present phytoplankton community inhabiting the Arctic Ocean. We analyzed both factors acting independently and together, to test possible interactions between them. The arctic planktonic community was incubated under 6 different treatments combining three experimental temperatures (1 ºC, 6 ºC and 10 ºC with two different CO2 levels of 380 ppm or 1000 ppm, at the UNIS installations in Longyearbyen (Svalbard, in summer 2010. Under warmer temperatures, a decrease in chlorophyll a concentration, biovolume and primary production was found, together with a shift in community structure towards a dominance of smaller cells (nano-sized. Effects of increased pCO2 were more modest, and although interactions were weak, our results suggest antagonistic interactive effects amongst increased temperature and CO2 levels, as elevated CO2 compensated partially the decrease in phytoplankton biomass induced by temperature in some groups. Interactions between the two stressors were generally weak, but elevated CO2 was observed to lead to a stepper decline in primary production with warming. Our results also suggest that future increases in water temperature and pCO2 would lead to a decrease in the community chl a concentration and biomass in the Arctic phytoplankton communities examined, leading to communities dominated by smaller nano-phytoplankton groups, with important consequences for the flow of carbon and food web dynamics.

  11. Screen level temperature increase due to higher atmospheric carbon dioxide in calm and windy nights revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; McNider, R.T.; Pielke sr., R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term surface observations over land have shown temperature increases during the last century, especially during nighttime. Observations analyzed by Parker [2004] show similar long-term trends for calm and windy conditions at night, and on basis of this it was suggested that the possible effect

  12. Temperature-Induced Increase in Methane Release from Peat Bogs: A Mesocosm Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, J.F.; Reichart, G.J.; McNamara, N.P.; Benthien, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and

  13. Temperature-induced increase in methane release from peat bogs: A mesocosm experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winden, J.F. van; Reichart, G.-J.; McNamara, N.P.; Benthien, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and

  14. Effects of Temperature Rise and Increase in CO2 Concentration on Simulated Wheat Yields in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine

    1996-01-01

    A crop-growth-simulation model based on SUCROS87 was used to study effects of temperature rise and increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration on wheat yields in several regions in Europe. The model simulated potential and water-limited crop production (growth with ample supply of nutrients and in the

  15. Evidence of increasing drought severity caused by temperature rise in southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Serrano, Sergio M.; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Beguería, Santiago; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Sánchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; García-Ruiz, José María; Azorín-Molina, César; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Revuelto, Jesús; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Coelho, Fatima; Espejo,Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We use high quality climate data from ground meteorological stations in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and robust drought indices to confirm that drought severity has increased in the past five decades, as a consequence of greater atmospheric evaporative demand resulting from temperature rise. Increased drought severity is independent of the model used to quantify the reference evapotranspiration. We have also focused on drought impacts to droughtsensitive systems, such as river di...

  16. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m-2, i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  17. Synergistic interaction between UVB radiation and temperature increases susceptibility to parasitic infection in a fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Rebecca L; Reid, Stefanie; Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2014-09-01

    Levels of UVB radiation (UVB) and mean temperatures have increased substantially over recent decades in many regions of the world. Both stressors independently can compromise immune function, disease resistance and fitness in fish. The impact of UVB can also be exacerbated by interactions with environmental temperatures. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that UVB and temperature act synergistically to influence patterns of energy consumption and susceptibility to disease. We exposed mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, to a factorial design of low and high UVB levels and low (18°C) and high (25°C) temperatures. The combination of high UVB and high temperature interacted synergistically to suppress metabolism and exacerbate infection intensity by the fish pathogen whitespot (Ichtyhophthirius multifiliis). Given the rapid changes in the thermal environment globally, the interaction between UVB and temperatures on energy use and disease resistance could pose significant problems for aquatic animal health in the context of both pre-existing and emerging diseases. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of non-equilibrium angle fluctuation on F1-ATPase kinetics induced by temperature increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Yuji; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki; Li, Chun-Biu; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2018-01-17

    F 1 -ATPase (F 1 ) is an efficient rotary protein motor, whose reactivity is modulated by the rotary angle to utilize thermal fluctuation. In order to elucidate how its kinetics are affected by the change in the fluctuation, we have extended the reaction-diffusion formalism [R. Watanabe et al., Biophys. J., 2013, 105, 2385] applicable to a wider range of temperatures based on experimental data analysis of F 1 derived from thermophilic Bacillus under high ATP concentration conditions. Our simulation shows that the rotary angle distribution manifests a stronger non-equilibrium feature as the temperature increases, because ATP hydrolysis and P i release are more accelerated compared with the timescale of rotary angle relaxation. This effect causes the rate coefficient obtained from dwell time fitting to deviate from the Arrhenius relation in P i release, which has been assumed in the previous activation thermodynamic quantities estimation using linear Arrhenius fitting. Larger negative correlation is also found between hydrolysis and P i release waiting time in a catalytic dwell with the increase in temperature. This loss of independence between the two successive reactions at the catalytic dwell sheds doubt on the conventional dwell time fitting to obtain rate coefficients with a double exponential function at temperatures higher than 65 °C, which is close to the physiological temperature of the thermophilic Bacillus.

  19. High temperature increases the masculinization rate of the all-female (XX rainbow trout "Mal" population.

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    Karina Valdivia

    Full Text Available Salmonids are generally considered to have a robust genetic sex determination system with a simple male heterogamety (XX/XY. However, spontaneous masculinization of XX females has been found in a rainbow trout population of gynogenetic doubled haploid individuals. The analysis of this masculinization phenotype transmission supported the hypothesis of the involvement of a recessive mutation (termed mal. As temperature effect on sex differentiation has been reported in some salmonid species, in this study we investigated in detail the potential implication of temperature on masculinization in this XX mal-carrying population. Seven families issued from XX mal-carrying parents were exposed from the time of hatching to different rearing water temperatures ((8, 12 and 18°C, and the resulting sex-ratios were confirmed by histological analysis of both gonads. Our results demonstrate that masculinization rates are strongly increased (up to nearly two fold at the highest temperature treatment (18°C. Interestingly, we also found clear differences between temperatures on the masculinization of the left versus the right gonads with the right gonad consistently more often masculinized than the left one at lower temperatures (8 and 12°C. However, the masculinization rate is also strongly dependent on the genetic background of the XX mal-carrying families. Thus, masculinization in XX mal-carrying rainbow trout is potentially triggered by an interaction between the temperature treatment and a complex genetic background potentially involving some part of the genetic sex differentiation regulatory cascade along with some minor sex-influencing loci. These results indicate that despite its rather strict genetic sex determinism system, rainbow trout sex differentiation can be modulated by temperature, as described in many other fish species.

  20. The effect of increased temperature and altered precipitation on plants in an arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, T. M.; Reed, S.; Belnap, J.

    2011-12-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to strongly affect arid and semi-arid landscapes where plant communities are assumed to already experience high temperatures and low water availability. Here we investigated the effect of elevated temperature and altered precipitation regimes on plant physiology, community composition, phenology and growth on the Colorado Plateau. The ecosystem is dominated by the native perennial grasses Pleuraphis jamesii and Achnatherum hymenoides and the shrub Atriplex confertifolia and has well-formed biological soil crusts. The invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum is also present. In 2005, five blocks of four 2m by 2.5m plots were established, and within each block plots were randomly assigned to ambient or elevated temperature (soil surface temperature of +2°C above ambient) and ambient or elevated precipitation (1.5 mm precipitation pulses applied three times weekly during summer) in full-factorial. In 2009 the temperature treatment was increased to +4°C. Additionally, five new blocks were established with the plots randomly assigned ambient or elevated temperature (again, +2°C was used) and ambient or elevated precipitation (summertime large bi-weekly watering to counteract negative effects the lamps may have had on soil moisture) in full-factorial. Throughout 2010 and 2011 the phenological state of the dominate plant species was recorded weekly. At the end of May 2010 and 2011 biomass accumulation, reproductive output and vegetative cover were assessed. Additionally, diurnal foliar gas exchange, foliar fluorescence and xylem pressure potential were measured on the dominant plant species three times throughout the spring and summer of 2011. Elevated temperature had no effect on carbon fixation or foliar physiology of A. confertifolia or P. jamesii, though A. hymenoides carbon fixation was negatively affected by elevated temperature with the +4°C treatment causing a greater reduction in fixation than the +2°C treatment. The

  1. Evaluation of temperature increase with different amounts of magnetite in liver tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, I; Andrä, W; Bähring, R; Daum, A; Hergt, R; Kaiser, W A

    1997-11-01

    The biologic effects of magnetically induced heating effects using iron oxide, magnetite, were examined in vitro in liver tissue samples as a first step toward potential applications in cancer therapy. For the determination of the temperature profile around an iron oxide sample, a cylinder containing 170 mg of magnetite was constructed and placed into pureed liver tissue from pig, together with thermocouples of copper and constantan wires positioned at defined distances from it. Temperature measurements were performed during the exposure to an alternating magnetic field (frequency: 400 kHz; amplitude: approximately 6.5 kA/m) generated by a circular coil (90 mm of diameter). Moreover, variable amounts of magnetite (dissolved in approximately 0.2 mL physiologic saline) were injected directly into carrageenan gels. During the exposure to a magnetic field for 4 minutes the temperature increase was determined in the area of iron oxide deposition using a thermocouple. Additionally, variable amounts of magnetite were injected directly into isolated liver tissue samples (diameter: 20 mm; height: 30 mm) and exposed to a magnetic field for 2 minutes. The extent of the induced macroscopically visible tissue alterations (light brown colorations caused by heating) was examined by means of volume estimations. The degrees of cellular necrosis were investigated by histopathologic studies. The temperature profile around a magnetite cylinder revealed a significant decrease of temperature difference between the beginning and the end of heating, depending on increasing distance from the sample center. The extent of the temperature difference correlated with increasing heating time. No significant variations of temperature were observed at a distance of approximately 12 mm from the sample center. A good correlation (r = 0.98) between the injected amounts (31 to 200 mg) and the temperature increase since the start of heating (6.8-33.7 degrees C) in the area of iron oxide deposits was

  2. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis.

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    Soundarya Srirangan

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0 into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis.

  3. Temperature Increase Reduces Global Yields of Major Crops in Four Independent Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuang; Liu, Bing; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Xuhui; Lobell, David B.; Huang, Yao; Huang, Mengtian; Yao, Yitong; Bassu, Simona; Ciais, Philippe; hide

    2017-01-01

    Wheat, rice, maize, and soybean provide two-thirds of human caloric intake. Assessing the impact of global temperature increase on production of these crops is therefore critical to maintaining global food supply, but different studies have yielded different results. Here, we investigated the impacts of temperature on yields of the four crops by compiling extensive published results from four analytical methods: global grid-based and local point-based models, statistical regressions, and field-warming experiments. Results from the different methods consistently showed negative temperature impacts on crop yield at the global scale, generally underpinned by similar impacts at country and site scales. Without CO2 fertilization, effective adaptation, and genetic improvement, each degree-Celsius increase in global mean temperature would, on average, reduce global yields of wheat by 6.0%, rice by 3.2%, maize by 7.4%, and soybean by 3.1%. Results are highly heterogeneous across crops and geographical areas, with some positive impact estimates. Multi-method analyses improved the confidence in assessments of future climate impacts on global major crops and suggest crop- and region-specific adaptation strategies to ensure food security for an increasing world population.

  4. The potential impacts of increasing temperatures on old-growth forest biomass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, M.; Muller-Landau, H. C.

    2012-04-01

    climates, the high maintenance cost lowers the ratio of GPP to maintenance cost, and makes it energetically impossible to support very large trunks. In continental temperate climates, warm summers and cold winters lower the GPP to maintenance cost ratio, and thus old-growth forest biomass. Our predictions explained 50% of global variation in old-growth forest biomass density in an independent dataset. In this paper, we use our previously fitted models of temperature effects on GPP and maintenance costs to project the impacts of increasing temperatures on old-growth forest biomass in humid climates. Model projections suggest that old-growth biomass per area of forest will increase significantly in temperate and boreal climates due to longer growing seasons, and decrease significantly in tropical climates due to the increasing energetic costs of temperatures above 30˚C. Field measurements have found, on average, increasing old-growth forest biomass worldwide, in agreement with our projections for temperate and boreal forests but contrary to our projections for tropical forests. Our projections do not consider the impacts of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and increasing nitrogen deposition, which are both likely to positively impact old-growth forest biomass, and may outweigh the negative impacts of temperature alone in tropical forests.

  5. Greater increases in temperature extremes in low versus high income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Nicholas; Alexander, Lisa; Green, Donna; Donat, Markus

    2017-03-01

    It is commonly expected that the world’s lowest income countries will face some of the worst impacts of global warming, despite contributing the least to greenhouse gas emissions. Using global atmospheric reanalyses we show that the world’s lowest income countries are already experiencing greater increases in the occurrence of temperature extremes compared to the highest income countries, and have been for over two decades. Not only are low income countries less able to support mitigation and adaptation efforts, but their typically equatorial location predisposes them to lower natural temperature variability and thus greater changes in the occurrence of temperature extremes with global warming. This aspect of global warming is well known but overlooked in current international climate policy agreements and we argue that it is an important factor in reducing inequity due to climate impacts.

  6. Does maternal exposure during pregnancy to higher ambient temperature increase the risk of hypospadias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Cakmak, Sedat; Demir, Demirhan Orsan; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Yildiz, Yildiray; Horasanli, Kaya; Dalkilic, Ayhan

    2016-12-01

    The association between ambient temperature that the mother is exposed to during pregnancy and hypospadias has not been investigated by the studies, although the recent studies showed the correlation between some congenital malformations (congenital heart disease, neural tube defect, etc.) and ambient temperature. The aim was to investigate the relation between hypospadias and the ambient temperatures that the mother is exposed to during her pregnancy. The data of patients with hypospadias that had their gestational periods in Ankara and Istanbul regions, and had other urological treatments (circumcision, urinary tract infection, pyeloplasty, nephrolithotomy, etc.) between January 2000 and November 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The ambient temperature at 8-14 weeks of gestation was investigated for each patient by reviewing the data of the General Directorate of Meteorology, since this period was risky for development of hypospadias. The data including ambient temperature that the pregnant mother was exposed to, maternal age, parity, economical status, gestational age at birth, and birth weight were compared between two groups. The retrospective nature of the study may be a potential source for selection bias. The data of 1,709 children that had hypospadias repair and 4,946 children that had other urological treatments between 2000 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were no differences between the groups for maternal age, parity, economical status, gestational age at birth, and birth weight (Table). Analysis of exposed maximum and average ambient temperatures at 8-14 weeks of gestation revealed that July and August, hot periods in summer time, were more prevalent in the hypospadias group (p = 0.01). The average and maximum monthly ambient temperatures during summer increased the risk for hypospadias (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52; and OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.99-1.54, respectively. In this paper, we evaluated the relation between hypospadias and the

  7. Cold temperature and low humidity are associated with increased occurrence of respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M; Juvonen, Raija; Jokelainen, Jari; Harju, Terttu H; Peitso, Ari; Bloigu, Aini; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, Sylvi; Leinonen, Maija; Hassi, Juhani

    2009-03-01

    The association between cold exposure and acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) has remained unclear. The study examined whether the development of RTIs is potentiated by cold exposure and lowered humidity in a northern population. A population study where diagnosed RTI episodes, outdoor temperature and humidity among conscripts (n=892) were analysed. Altogether 643 RTI episodes were diagnosed during the follow-up period. Five hundred and ninety-five episodes were upper (URTI) and 87 lower (LRTI) RTIs. The mean average daily temperature preceding any RTIs was -3.7+/-10.6; for URTI and LRTI they were -4.1+/-10.6 degrees C and -1.1+/-10.0 degrees C, respectively. Temperature was associated with common cold (p=0.017), pharyngitis (p=0.011) and LRTI (p=0.048). Absolute humidity was associated with URTI (pcold by 2.1% (p=0.004), for pharyngitis by 2.8% (p=0.019) and for LRTI by 2.1% (p=0.039). A decrease of 1g/m(-3) in absolute humidity increased the estimated risk for URTI by 10.0% (pcold. The temperature for the preceding 14 days also showed a linear decrease for any RTI, URTI or common cold. Absolute humidity decreased linearly during the preceding three days before the onset of common cold, and during the preceding 14 days for all RTIs, common cold and LRTI. Cold temperature and low humidity were associated with increased occurrence of RTIs, and a decrease in temperature and humidity preceded the onset of the infections.

  8. The Scaling of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise with Increasing Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity with increasing jet stagnation temperature has eluded investigators. An explanation is proposed for this phenomenon with the use of an acoustic analogy. For this purpose the acoustic analogy of Morris and Miller is examined. To isolate the relevant physics, the scaling of BBSAN at the peak intensity level at the sideline ( = 90 degrees) observer location is examined. Scaling terms are isolated from the acoustic analogy and the result is compared using a convergent nozzle with the experiments of Bridges and Brown and using a convergent-divergent nozzle with the experiments of Kuo, McLaughlin, and Morris at four nozzle pressure ratios in increments of total temperature ratios from one to four. The equivalent source within the framework of the acoustic analogy for BBSAN is based on local field quantities at shock wave shear layer interactions. The equivalent source combined with accurate calculations of the propagation of sound through the jet shear layer, using an adjoint vector Green s function solver of the linearized Euler equations, allows for predictions that retain the scaling with respect to stagnation pressure and allows for the accurate saturation of BBSAN with increasing stagnation temperature. This is a minor change to the source model relative to the previously developed models. The full development of the scaling term is shown. The sources and vector Green s function solver are informed by steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. These solutions are examined as a function of stagnation temperature at the first shock wave shear layer interaction. It is discovered that saturation of BBSAN with increasing jet stagnation temperature occurs due to a balance between the amplification of the sound propagation through the shear layer and the source term scaling.A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity

  9. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

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    Russell G. DEATH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring- or run-off-fed joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (rs = 0.8. Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km

  10. Head and neck cooling decreases tympanic and skin temperature, but significantly increases blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Julia; Kollmar, Rainer; Cimpianu, Camelia-Lucia; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Moeller, Sebastian; Schwab, Stefan; Hilz, Max J

    2012-08-01

    Localized head and neck cooling might be suited to induce therapeutic hypothermia in acute brain injury such as stroke. Safety issues of head and neck cooling are undetermined and may include cardiovascular autonomic side effects that were identified in this study. Ten healthy men (age 35±13 years) underwent 120 minutes of combined head and neck cooling (Sovika, HVM Medical). Before and after onset of cooling, after 60 and 120 minutes, we determined rectal, tympanic, and forehead skin temperatures, RR intervals, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), laser-Doppler skin blood flow at the index finger and cheek, and spectral powers of mainly sympathetic low-frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and parasympathetic high-frequency (0.15-0.5 Hz) RR interval oscillations and sympathetic low-frequency oscillations of BP. We compared values before and during cooling using analysis of variance with post hoc analysis; (significance, Pskin temperature dropped by 5.5±2.2°C with cooling onset and by 12.4±3.2°C after 20 minutes. Tympanic temperature decreased by 4.7±0.7°C within 40 minutes, and rectal temperature by only 0.3±0.3°C after 120 minutes. Systolic and diastolic BP increased immediately on cooling onset and rose by 15.3±20.8 mm Hg and 16.5±13.4 mm Hg (P=0.004) after 120 minutes, whereas skin blood flow fell significantly during cooling. RR intervals and parasympathetic RR interval high-frequency powers increased with cooling onset and were significantly higher after 60 and 120 minutes than they were before cooling. Head and neck cooling prominently reduced tympanic temperature and thus might also induce intracerebral hypothermia; however, it did not significantly lower body core temperature. Profound skin temperature decrease induced sympathetically mediated peripheral vasoconstriction and prominent BP increases that are not offset by simultaneous parasympathetic heart rate slowing. Prominent peripheral vasoconstriction and BP increase must be considered as

  11. Monitoring of vulcanization process using measurement of electrical properties during linear increasing temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliga, E.; Bošák, O.; Koštial, P.; Dvořák, Z.; Kubliha, M.; Minárik, S.; Labaš, V.

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the possibilities of diagnostics of irreversible chemical reaction - vulcanization in case of laboratory prepared rubber mixture based on styrene - butadiene (SBR) using measurements of selected physical parameters. Our work is focused on the measurement of current rheologic parameters (torque at defined shear deformation) and selected electrical parameters (DC conductivity) during linear increasing temperature. The individual steps of vulcanization are well identified by means of measurements of rheologic parameters, while significantly affecting the value of the electrical conductivity. The value of the electrical conductivity increases with the increasing of rate of the crossbridging reactions during vulcanization. The rate of the heating affects both types of measurements. When the rate of the heating is increasing the temperature of the beginning of networking step of reactions and also the rate of vulcanization grow. The sensitivity of the both types of measurements allows a good mathematical description of the temperature dependence of the torque and the electric conductivity during the vulcanization of rubber mixtures based on SBR.

  12. Potential impact of increased temperature and CO2 on particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the Southeastern Bering Sea

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    Peter A. Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of elevated sea surface temperature (SST and pCO2 on algal community structure and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp concentrations in the southeastern Bering Sea was examined using a shipboard “Ecostat” continuous culture system. The ecostat system was used to mimic the conditions projected to exist in the world's oceans by the end of this century (i.e. elevated pCO2 (750 ppm and elevated SST (ambient + 4°C. Two experiments were conducted using natural phytoplankton assemblages from the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC central basin and from the middle domain of the southeastern continental shelf. At the HNLC site, the relative abundances of haptophytes and pelagophytes were higher and the relative abundance of diatoms lower under “greenhouse” conditions (i.e. combined 750 ppm CO2 and elevated temperature than control conditions (380 ppm CO2 and ambient temperature. This shift in algal community structure was accompanied by increases in DMSPp (2–3 fold, DMSPp:Chl a (2–3 fold and DMSP:PON (2 fold. At the continental shelf site, the changes in the relative abundances of haptophytes, pelagophytes and diatoms under “greenhouse” conditions were similar to those observed at the HNLC site, with 2.5 fold increases in DMSPp, 50–100% increases in DMSPp:Chl a and 1.8 fold increases in DMSP:PON. At both locations, changes in community structure and the DMSPp parameters were largely driven by increasing temperature. The observed changes were also consistent with the phytoplankton-DMS-albedo climate feedback mechanism proposed in the Charlson-Lovelock-Andreae-Warren (CLAW hypothesis.

  13. Photoprotective responses in a brown macroalgae Cystoseira tamariscifolia to increases in CO2 and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Plá, Paula S M; Martínez, Brezo; Korbee, Nathalie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Figueroa, Félix L

    2017-09-01

    Global warming and ocean acidification are increasingly affecting coastal ecosystems, with impacts that vary regionally depending upon local biogeography. Ocean acidification drives shifts in seaweed community dominance that depend on interactions with other factors such as light and nutrients. In this study, we investigated the photophysiological responses in the brown macroalgae species Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss with important structural role in the coastal Mediterranean communities. These algae were collected in the Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park in ultraoligotrophic waters (algae exposed under high irradiance and less nutrient conditions) vs. those collected in the La Araña beach in oligotrophic waters (algae exposed at middle nutrient and irradiance conditions) in the Mediterranean Sea. They were incubated in mesocosms, under two levels of CO2; ambient (400-500 ppm) and high CO2 (1200-1300 ppm), combined with two temperatures (ambient temperature; 20 °C and ambient temperature + 4 °C; 24 °C) and the same nutrient conditions of the waters of the origin of macroalgae. Thalli from two sites on the Spanish Mediterranean coast were significantly affected by increases in pCO2 and temperature. The carotenoids (fucoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-carotene) contents were higher in algae from oligotrophic than that from ultraoligotrophic water, i.e., algae collected under higher nutrient conditions respect to less conditions, increase photoprotective pigments content. Thalli from both locations upregulated photosynthesis (as Fv/Fm) at increased pCO2 levels. Our study shows that ongoing ocean acidification and warming can increase photoprotection and photosynthesis in intertidal macroalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Higher temperature variability increases the impact of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and shifts interspecific interactions in tadpole mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Phineas T; Richardson, Jean ML; Govindarajulu, Purnima; Anholt, Bradley R

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to the decline and extinction of numerous amphibian species. Multiple studies have observed links between climatic factors and amphibian declines apparently caused by Bd. Using outdoor experimental mesocosms, we tested the response of red-legged frog (Rana aurora) tadpoles to increased variation in temperature, a component of climate linked to amphibian declines, and Bd exposure. We included tadpoles of a sympatric competitor species, Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla), in a fully factorial design to test the effects of Bd and temperature on interspecific interactions. We found that higher variation in temperature had numerous effects in mesocosms, including interacting with Bd presence to decrease the condition of R. aurora, shifting the relative performance of competing P. regilla and R. aurora, and accelerating the development of P. regilla relative to R. aurora. Our results demonstrate that increased variation in temperature can affect amphibians in multiple ways that will be contingent on ecological context, including the presence of Bd and competing species. PMID:23145331

  15. Increasing temperature causes flowering onset time changes of alpine ginger Roscoea in the Central Himalayas

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    Dharmalingam Mohandass

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent herbarium-based phenology assessments of many plant species have found significant responses to global climate change over the previous century. In this study, we investigate how the flowering phenology of three alpine ginger Roscoea species responses to climate change over the century from 1913 to 2011, by comparing between herbarium-based phenology records and direct flowering observations. According to the observations, flowering onset of the three alpine ginger species occurred either 22 days earlier or was delayed by 8–30 days when comparing the mean peak flowering date between herbarium-based phenology records and direct flowering observations. It is likely that this significant change in flowering onset is due to increased annual minimum and maximum temperatures and mean annual temperature by about 0.053°C per year. Our results also show that flowering time changes occurred due to an increasing winter–spring minimum temperature and monsoon minimum temperature, suggesting that these Roscoea species respond greatly to climate warming resulting in changes on flowering times.

  16. Significance of terpenoids in induced indirect plant defence against herbivorous arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mumm, R.; Posthumus, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Many plants respond to herbivory by arthropods with an induced emission of volatiles such as green leaf volatiles and terpenoids. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) can attract carnivores, for example, predators and parasitoids. We investigated the significance of terpenoids in

  17. New HPLC methods to quantitate terpenoid aldehydes in foliage of cotton (Gossypium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton plant (Gossypium) produces protective terpenoid aldehydes in lysigenous pigment glands. These terpenoids include hemigossypolone, hemigossypolone-6-methyl ether, gossypol, gossypol-6-methyl ether, gossypol-6,6'-dimethyl ether, heliocides H1, H2, H3 and H4, and heliocides B1, B2, B3 and B4...

  18. Evaluating protective terpenoid aldehyde compounds in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has epidermal glands containing terpenoid aldehyde (TA) compounds that help protect the cotton plant from pests and diseases. One terpenoid aldehyde called gossypol, is found predominantly in seed and roots and has two forms, plus (+) and minus (-) present in varying a...

  19. Volatile terpenoids: multiple functions, biosynthesis, modulation and manipulation by genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Farhat; Ke, Yanguo; Yu, Rangcai; Yue, Yuechong; Amanullah, Sikandar; Jahangir, Muhammad Muzammil; Fan, Yanping

    2017-11-01

    Terpenoids play several physiological and ecological functions in plant life through direct and indirect plant defenses and also in human society because of their enormous applications in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Through the aid of genetic engineering its role can by magnified to broad spectrum by improving genetic ability of crop plants, enhancing the aroma quality of fruits and flowers and the production of pharmaceutical terpenoids contents in medicinal plants. Terpenoids are structurally diverse and the most abundant plant secondary metabolites, playing an important role in plant life through direct and indirect plant defenses, by attracting pollinators and through different interactions between the plants and their environment. Terpenoids are also significant because of their enormous applications in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Due to their broad distribution and functional versatility, efforts are being made to decode the biosynthetic pathways and comprehend the regulatory mechanisms of terpenoids. This review summarizes the recent advances in biosynthetic pathways, including the spatiotemporal, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Moreover, we discuss the multiple functions of the terpene synthase genes (TPS), their interaction with the surrounding environment and the use of genetic engineering for terpenoid production in model plants. Here, we also provide an overview of the significance of terpenoid metabolic engineering in crop protection, plant reproduction and plant metabolic engineering approaches for pharmaceutical terpenoids production and future scenarios in agriculture, which call for sustainable production platforms by improving different plant traits.

  20. Five new terpenoids from the rhizomes of Isodon adenantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing-Li; Xiao, Chao-Jiang; Wu, La-Bin; Huang, Bo; Dong, Xiang; Jiang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Five new terpenoids including 2 labdane diterpenoids (1 and 2), 2 ent-kaurane diterpenoids (3 and 4), and a new oleanane triterpenoid (5), along with 13 known compounds (6-18), were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of 70% acetone extract of the rhizomes of Isodonadenantha. Their structures were elucidated based on the analyses of spectroscopic data and comparison of their physicochemical properties. The structure of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities of the samples were measured by MTT method and the filter paper disk agar diffusion method. But none of them showed significant activities.

  1. Isoprene and terpenoid emissions from Abies alba: Identification and emission rates under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorska, Olga; Dewulf, Jo; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Šimpraga, Maja; Steppe, Kathy; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from Abies alba were studied under ambient conditions in Flanders (Belgium). Emission patterns and rates were investigated from April till November 2010 by using the dynamic branch enclosure technique. The present work revealed that A. alba is an isoprene emitter, with isoprene accounting for 86-93% of total BVOC emissions, except during budburst (67%) in May. The emission spectrum of A. alba consisted of 27 compounds. Next to isoprene, the main emitted compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene. BVOC emissions showed a peak in June after development of the young needles, followed by a constant emission during summer months and September and a decrease in October. In all the samples isoprene was the most abundant compound with standardized emission rates between 27 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June and 4.6 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October, while the total standardized terpenoid emission rates ranged from 2.85 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June to 0.26 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October. The obtained average β coefficients according to the temperature dependent algorithm of Guenther et al. (1993) during April-June, July, August and September-October were as follows: for terpenoids 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.12 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.01 K-1 and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0 K-1, respectively. Overall, isoprene detected in this study was never quantified in previous studies on A. alba and this finding could have a significant impact on the regional BVOCs budget. Therefore, the result of this study is very important for modeling and local air quality.

  2. In silico profiling of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as terpenoid factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchattka, Evamaria; Hädicke, Oliver; Klamt, Steffen; Schütz, Verena; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-09-23

    Heterologous microbial production of rare plant terpenoids of medicinal or industrial interest is attracting more and more attention but terpenoid yields are still low. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the most widely used heterologous hosts; a direct comparison of both hosts based on experimental data is difficult though. Hence, the terpenoid pathways of E. coli (via 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate, DXP) and S. cerevisiae (via mevalonate, MVA), the impact of the respective hosts metabolism as well as the impact of different carbon sources were compared in silico by means of elementary mode analysis. The focus was set on the yield of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), the general terpenoid precursor, to identify new metabolic engineering strategies for an enhanced terpenoid yield. Starting from the respective precursor metabolites of the terpenoid pathways (pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate for the DXP pathway and acetyl-CoA for the MVA pathway) and considering only carbon stoichiometry, the two terpenoid pathways are identical with respect to carbon yield. However, with glucose as substrate, the MVA pathway has a lower potential to supply terpenoids in high yields than the DXP pathway if the formation of the required precursors is taken into account, due to the carbon loss in the formation of acetyl-CoA. This maximum yield is further reduced in both hosts when the required energy and reduction equivalents are considered. Moreover, the choice of carbon source (glucose, xylose, ethanol or glycerol) has an effect on terpenoid yield with non-fermentable carbon sources being more promising. Both hosts have deficiencies in energy and redox equivalents for high yield terpenoid production leading to new overexpression strategies (heterologous enzymes/pathways) for an enhanced terpenoid yield. Finally, several knockout strategies are identified using constrained minimal cut sets enforcing a coupling of growth to a terpenoid yield which is higher than any

  3. In silico profiling of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as terpenoid factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Heterologous microbial production of rare plant terpenoids of medicinal or industrial interest is attracting more and more attention but terpenoid yields are still low. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the most widely used heterologous hosts; a direct comparison of both hosts based on experimental data is difficult though. Hence, the terpenoid pathways of E. coli (via 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate, DXP) and S. cerevisiae (via mevalonate, MVA), the impact of the respective hosts metabolism as well as the impact of different carbon sources were compared in silico by means of elementary mode analysis. The focus was set on the yield of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), the general terpenoid precursor, to identify new metabolic engineering strategies for an enhanced terpenoid yield. Results Starting from the respective precursor metabolites of the terpenoid pathways (pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate for the DXP pathway and acetyl-CoA for the MVA pathway) and considering only carbon stoichiometry, the two terpenoid pathways are identical with respect to carbon yield. However, with glucose as substrate, the MVA pathway has a lower potential to supply terpenoids in high yields than the DXP pathway if the formation of the required precursors is taken into account, due to the carbon loss in the formation of acetyl-CoA. This maximum yield is further reduced in both hosts when the required energy and reduction equivalents are considered. Moreover, the choice of carbon source (glucose, xylose, ethanol or glycerol) has an effect on terpenoid yield with non-fermentable carbon sources being more promising. Both hosts have deficiencies in energy and redox equivalents for high yield terpenoid production leading to new overexpression strategies (heterologous enzymes/pathways) for an enhanced terpenoid yield. Finally, several knockout strategies are identified using constrained minimal cut sets enforcing a coupling of growth to a terpenoid yield which

  4. Proteome response of fish under multiple stress exposure: Effects of pesticide mixtures and temperature increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandar, Allison; Laffaille, Pascal; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Viala, Didier; Molette, Caroline; Jean, Séverine

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic systems can be subjected to multiple stressors, including pollutant cocktails and elevated temperature. Evaluating the combined effects of these stressors on organisms is a great challenge in environmental sciences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the molecular stress response of an aquatic fish species subjected to individual and combined pesticide mixtures and increased temperatures. For that, goldfish (Carassius auratus) were acclimated to two different temperatures (22 and 32°C) for 15 days. They were then exposed for 96h to a cocktail of herbicides and fungicides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin and tebuconazole) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations of 8.4μgL-1 and 42μgL-1) at these two temperatures (22 and 32°C). The molecular response in liver was assessed by 2D-proteomics. Identified proteins were integrated using pathway enrichment analysis software to determine the biological functions involved in the individual or combined stress responses and to predict the potential deleterious outcomes. The pesticide mixtures elicited pathways involved in cellular stress response, carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolisms, methionine cycle, cellular functions, cell structure and death control, with concentration- and temperature-dependent profiles of response. We found that combined temperature increase and pesticide exposure affected the cellular stress response: the effects of oxidative stress were more marked and there was a deregulation of the cell cycle via apoptosis inhibition. Moreover a decrease in the formation of glucose by liver and in ketogenic activity was observed in this multi-stress condition. The decrease in both pathways could reflect a shift from a metabolic compensation strategy to a conservation state. Taken together, our results showed (1) that environmental cocktails of herbicides and fungicides induced important changes

  5. Effects of increased temperature and CO{sub 2} on soil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogner, G.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. The Norwegian Forest Research Institute has studied the effects of increased CO{sub 2} and temperature on forest soil, soil leachate and plants in an open top chamber experiment. The purpose was to analyze the changes in soil parameters and the leaching of elements. Nitrate and aluminium received special attention. The growth of Norway spruce and birch was followed, and its impact on the soil parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the temperature increase of the soil and consequently an increased turnover of soil organic matter had the major effect on the quality of soil leachates. CO{sub 2} was less important. Leaching of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was high from control lysimeters with moss cover. Lysimeters with birch hardly leached NO{sub 3}{sup -} at all. Spruce is in an intermediate position. Increased leaching of Al{sup n+} is found for moss lysimeters. Leachates from birch lysimeters have high concentrations of Al{sup n+} only at the end of the growth seasons. Plant growth is to some extent increased by the CO{sub 2} treatment. Birch grew well in all lysimeters and all treatments, spruce developed clear symptoms of stress. This result does not fit with the increased availability of nutrients in soil solution

  6. Survival and population size of a resident bird species are declining as temperature increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santisteban, Leonard; Benkman, Craig W; Fetz, Trevor; Smith, Julie W

    2012-03-01

    1. A large number of migratory bird species appear to be declining as the result of climate change, but whether resident bird species have or will be adversely affected by climate change is less clear. We focus on the South Hills crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex), which is endemic to about 70 km(2) of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) forest in southern Idaho, USA. 2. Our results indicate that the South Hills crossbill has declined by over 60% between 2003 and 2008, and that decreasing adult survival drives this population decline. 3. We evaluated the relative support for multiple hypotheses linking crossbill survival to climate, an ectoparasitic mite (scaly-leg mites Knemidokoptes jamaicensis), and the recent emergence of West Nile virus. Changes in adult apparent survival rate were closely associated with average spring and annual temperatures, and with high temperatures (≥32 °C) during summer, which have increased during the last decade. In contrast, there was little evidence that scaly-leg mites or West Nile virus contributed to recent declines in adult survival. 4. The most probable mechanism causing the decline in adult survival and population size is a decrease in the availability of their primary food resource, seeds in serotinous pine cones. Cone production has declined with increasing annual temperatures, and these cones appear to be prematurely opening owing to increasingly hot summer conditions releasing their seeds and reducing the carrying capacity for crossbills later in the year. 5. In light of regional climate change forecasts, which include an increase in both annual temperature and hot days (>32 °C), and the likely disappearance of lodgepole pine from southern Idaho by the end of this century, additional research is needed to determine how to maintain lodgepole pine forests and their supply of seeds to conserve one of the few bird species endemic to the continental United States. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of

  7. Increasing temperature cuts back crop yields in Hungary over the last 90 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinke, Zsolt; Lövei, Gábor L

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of climatic regime has an undeniable impact on plant production, but we rarely have long enough date series to examine the unfolding of such effects. The clarification of the relationship between crop plants and climate has a near-immediate importance due to the impending human-made global change. This study investigated the relationship between temperature, precipitation, drought intensity and the yields of four major cereals in Hungary between 1921 and 2010. The analysis of 30-year segments indicated a monotonously increasing negative impact of temperature on crop yields. A 1°C temperature increase reduced the yield of the four main cereals by 9.6%-14.8% in 1981-2010, which revealed the vulnerability of Eastern European crop farming to recent climate change. Climate accounted for 17%-39% of yield variability over the past 90 years, but this figure reached 33%-67% between 1981 and 2010. Our analysis supports the claim that the mid-20th century green revolution improved yields "at the mercy of the weather": during this period, the impact of increasing fertilization and mechanisation coincided with climatic conditions that were more favourable than today. Crop yields in Eastern Europe have been stagnating or decreasing since the mid-1980s. Although usually attributed to the large socio-economic changes sweeping the region, our analysis indicates that a warming climate is at least partially responsible for this trend. Such a robust impact of increasing temperatures on crop yields also constitutes an obvious warning for this core grain-growing region of the world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of yeast species on the terpenoids profile of Chinese light-style liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Zhu, Weian; Wang, Wei; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Terpenoids are important trace flavour constituents in Chinese light-style liquors, and are formed by the various yeast species present during fermentation of liquor from cereal and legume materials. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia kudriavzevii and Wickerhamomyces anomalus are three such yeast species, and we found S. cerevisiae capable of generating thirteen different terpenoids in cereal and legume extract fermentation, by both de novo and biotransformation pathways. We also found that cereals such as sorghum and barley, and legumes such as peas, contained different terpenoids precursors, which differentially affected the formation and profile of terpenoids mixtures. This work gives new insights into the role of yeast species in generating the various terpenoids mixtures found in Chinese light-style liquors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Terpenoid biosynthesis off the beaten track: unconventional cyclases and their impact on biomimetic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baunach, Martin; Franke, Jakob; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-02-23

    Terpene and terpenoid cyclizations are counted among the most complex chemical reactions occurring in nature and contribute crucially to the tremendous structural diversity of this largest family of natural products. Many studies were conducted at the chemical, genetic, and biochemical levels to gain mechanistic insights into these intriguing reactions that are catalyzed by terpene and terpenoid cyclases. A myriad of these enzymes have been characterized. Classical textbook knowledge divides terpene/terpenoid cyclases into two major classes according to their structure and reaction mechanism. However, recent discoveries of novel types of terpenoid cyclases illustrate that nature's enzymatic repertoire is far more diverse than initially thought. This Review outlines novel terpenoid cyclases that are out of the ordinary. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Differential Gene Expression Network in Terpenoid Synthesis of Antrodia cinnamomea in Mycelia and Fruiting Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan-Liang; Ma, Li-Ting; Lee, Yi-Ru; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Chu, Fang-Hua

    2017-03-08

    Antodia cinnamomea, a precious brown-rot fungus endemic to Taiwan, has pharmaceutical applications due to its diverse array of metabolites. The terpenoids found in A. cinnamomea contribute to its most important bioactivities. We identified several terpenoid compounds in A. cinnamomea and revealed that their content in mycelium and fruiting body were significantly different. Using next-generation sequencing and an in-house transcriptome database, we identified several terpene synthase (TPS) candidates. After sequence analysis and functional characterization, 10 out of 12 candidates were found to have single or multiple terpene synthesis functions. Most of the terpenoid compounds were found to confer important bioactivities. RT-PCR results showed a positive correlation between terpene synthase expression pattern and terpenoid content. In addition, we identified several modification enzyme candidates that may be involved in the postmodification of terpenoid compounds with a genomic DNA scaffold, and a putative genetic network.

  11. Increases in external cause mortality due to high and low temperatures: evidence from northeastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Åström, Daniel Oudin

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between temperature and mortality is well established but has seldom been investigated in terms of external causes. In some Eastern European countries, external cause mortality is substantial. Deaths owing to external causes are the third largest cause of mortality in Estonia, after cardiovascular disease and cancer. Death rates owing to external causes may reflect behavioural changes among a population. The aim for the current study was to investigate if there is any association between temperature and external cause mortality, in Estonia. We collected daily information on deaths from external causes (ICD-10 diagnosis codes V00-Y99) and maximum temperatures over the period 1997-2013. The relationship between daily maximum temperature and mortality was investigated using Poisson regression, combined with a distributed lag non-linear model considering lag times of up to 10 days. We found significantly higher mortality owing to external causes on hot (the same and previous day) and cold days (with a lag of 1-3 days). The cumulative relative risks for heat (an increase in temperature from the 75th to 99th percentile) were 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.34) and for cold (a decrease from the 25th to 1st percentile) 1.19 (1.03-1.38). Deaths due to external causes might reflect changes in behaviour among a population during periods of extreme hot and cold temperatures and should therefore be investigated further, because such deaths have a severe impact on public health, especially in Eastern Europe where external mortality rates are high.

  12. Cooler temperatures destabilize RNA interference and increase susceptibility of disease vector mosquitoes to viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach N Adelman

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is the subject of extensive debate. The transmission of mosquito-borne viral diseases is particularly complex, with climatic variables directly affecting many parameters associated with the prevalence of disease vectors. While evidence shows that warmer temperatures often decrease the extrinsic incubation period of an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus, exposure to cooler temperatures often predisposes disease vector mosquitoes to higher infection rates. RNA interference (RNAi pathways are essential to antiviral immunity in the mosquito; however, few experiments have explored the effects of temperature on the RNAi machinery.We utilized transgenic "sensor" strains of Aedes aegypti to examine the role of temperature on RNA silencing. These "sensor" strains express EGFP only when RNAi is inhibited; for example, after knockdown of the effector proteins Dicer-2 (DCR-2 or Argonaute-2 (AGO-2. We observed an increase in EGFP expression in transgenic sensor mosquitoes reared at 18°C as compared with 28°C. Changes in expression were dependent on the presence of an inverted repeat with homology to a portion of the EGFP sequence, as transgenic strains lacking this sequence, the double stranded RNA (dsRNA trigger for RNAi, showed no change in EGFP expression when reared at 18°C. Sequencing small RNAs in sensor mosquitoes reared at low temperature revealed normal processing of dsRNA substrates, suggesting the observed deficiency in RNAi occurs downstream of DCR-2. Rearing at cooler temperatures also predisposed mosquitoes to higher levels of infection with both chikungunya and yellow fever viruses.This data suggest that microclimates, such as those present in mosquito breeding sites, as well as more general climactic variables may influence the dynamics of mosquito-borne viral diseases by affecting the antiviral immunity of disease vectors.

  13. Increase of ozone concentrations, its temperature sensitivity and the precursor factor in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the possible connections between the local and regional photochemical problem and global warming. The current study assesses the trend of ozone in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD in South China and investigates the interannual changes of sensitivity of ozone to air temperature, as well as the trends in regional precursors. Results reveal, at the three monitoring sites from the mid-1990s to 2010, an increase in the mean ozone concentrations from 1.0 to 1.6 µg m−3 per year. The increase occurred in all seasons, with the highest rate in autumn. This is consistent with trends and temperature anomalies in the region. The increase in the sensitivity of ozone to temperature is clearly evident from the correlation between ozone (OMI [Ozone Monitoring Instrument] column amount and surface air temperature (from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder displayed in the correlation maps for the PRD during the prominently high ozone period of July–September. It is observed to have increased from 2005 to 2010, the latter being the hottest year on record globally. To verify this temporal change in sensitivity, the ground-level trends of correlation coefficients/regression slopes are analysed. As expected, results reveal a statistically significant upward trend over a 14-year period (1997–2010. While the correlation revealed in the correlation maps is in agreement with the corresponding OMI ozone maps when juxtaposed, temperature sensitivity of surface ozone also shows an association with ozone concentration, with R=0.5. These characteristics of ozone sensitivity are believed to have adverse implications for the region. As shown by ground measurements and/or satellite analyses, the decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx in Hong Kong is not statistically significant while NO2 of the PRD has only very slightly changed. However, carbon dioxide has remarkably declined in the whole region. While these observations concerning

  14. Intrapulpal Temperature Increase During Er:YAG Laser-Aided Debonding of Ceramic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilanci, Hilal; Yildirim, Zeynep Beyza; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature changes in the pulp chamber while using a newly introduced application of Er:YAG laser to debond ceramic brackets in a study model with a pulpal circulation with and without thermocycled samples. An esthetic alternative to stainless steel brackets, ceramic brackets have been proposed. However, because of their low fracture resistance and high bond strengths, ceramic brackets can cause a problem when they are being removed using conventional techniques. Experimental Groups A and B were established for samples with or without thermocycling. The same 20 maxillary central incisor and 20 premolar teeth were used in both groups. Pulpal blood microcirculation was simulated using an apparatus described in a previous study. Monocrystalline brackets were bonded by using Transbond XT. In Group A, brackets were debonded using the Er:YAG laser (600 mJ, 2 Hz, long pulse, and no air or water spray) after being stored in distilled water for 24 h. In Group B, brackets were debonded using the same laser system as that used in Group A after being stored in distilled water for 24 h and then thermocycled for a total of 5000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C. The laser irradiation duration and intrapulpal temperature changes were measured. In Group B, the intrapulpal temperature increase of the central incisors was significantly higher than that of the premolar teeth. In the central incisor and premolar teeth groups, there were no statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (p > 0.05). A positive correlation was found between laser irradiation duration and temperature increase (p laser is an effective method for debonding the monocrystalline ceramic brackets. This method can be used safely under the consideration of intrapulpal temperature changes.

  15. Decadal increase in seagrass biomass and temperature at the CARICOMP site in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. López-Calderón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP was launched in 1993 to study regional long-term interactions between land and sea, taking standardized measurements of productivity and biomass of mangroves, coral reefs and seagrasses. Since 1999 continuous measurements of seagrass (Thalassia testudinum parameters as well as environmental data have been recorded in Caribbean Panama. Replicate stations were selected near the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Bocas del Toro. Sediment cores and quadrants were placed there to estimate biomass and productivity, respectively. Mean values for productivity, standing crop, turnover rate, total dry biomass, and Leaf Area Index were 1.74gDW/m²/d, 66.6gDW/m², 2.62%/d, 1 481 gDW/m², and 4.65, respectively. Total dry biomass (shoots, rhizomes and roots and LAI of T. testudinum increased significantly during the study period. Mean values for total rainfall, Secchi disk depth, sea surface temperature, and salinity were 3 498mm, 8.24m, 28.79°C, and 32.26psu, respectively. Sea surface temperature was the only environmental variable with a statistically significant change, increasing from 1999 to 2010. Correlation between sea surface temperature and T. testudinum parameters (total biomass and LAI were both positive and significant. Human population has increased dramatically over the last ten years in Bocas del Toro region, increasing pressure (deforestation, runoff, wastewater over coastal ecosystems (seagrasses, mangroves, coral reefs. Change in the abundance of T. testudinum may be linked to ocean warming, as a consequence to satisfy plant’s metabolic requirements, although other local factors need to be analyzed (reduced grazing and increased eutrophication. A further warming of the ocean could have a negative effect on T. testudinum population, increasing respiratory demands and microbial metabolism.

  16. Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak Surface Temperature Response to Increased Black Carbon Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjern, Camilla Weum; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Andrews, Timothy; Boucher, Olivier; Faluvegi, Gregory; Iversen, Trond; Kasoar, Matthew; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Kirkevâg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Olivié, Dirk; Richardson, Thomas; Shawki, Dilshad; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Christopher J.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Voulgarakis, Apostolos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the climate response to increased concentrations of black carbon (BC), as part of the Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). A tenfold increase in BC is simulated by nine global coupled-climate models, producing a model median effective radiative forcing of 0.82 (ranging from 0.41 to 2.91) W m-2, and a warming of 0.67 (0.16 to 1.66) K globally and 1.24 (0.26 to 4.31) K in the Arctic. A strong positive instantaneous radiative forcing (median of 2.10 W m-2 based on five of the models) is countered by negative rapid adjustments (-0.64 W m-2 for the same five models), which dampen the total surface temperature signal. Unlike other drivers of climate change, the response of temperature and cloud profiles to the BC forcing is dominated by rapid adjustments. Low-level cloud amounts increase for all models, while higher-level clouds are diminished. The rapid temperature response is particularly strong above 400 hPa, where increased atmospheric stabilization and reduced cloud cover contrast the response pattern of the other drivers. In conclusion, we find that this substantial increase in BC concentrations does have considerable impacts on important aspects of the climate system. However, some of these effects tend to offset one another, leaving a relatively small median global warming of 0.47 K per W m-2—about 20% lower than the response to a doubling of CO2. Translating the tenfold increase in BC to the present-day impact of anthropogenic BC (given the emissions used in this work) would leave a warming of merely 0.07 K.

  17. Uniform distribution of skin-temperature increase after different regional-anesthesia techniques of the lower extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werdehausen, Robert; Braun, Sebastian; Hermanns, Henning; Freynhagen, Rainer; Lipfert, Peter; Stevens, Markus F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Skin-temperature increase is a reliable but late indicator of success during regional-anesthesia techniques. The goal of this study is to determine the distribution of skin-temperature changes during different regional techniques. Does skin temperature increase in the

  18. Differential SAGE analysis in Arabidopsis uncovers increased transcriptome complexity in response to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkin Isobel AP

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abiotic stress, including low temperature, limits the productivity and geographical distribution of plants, which has led to significant interest in understanding the complex processes that allow plants to adapt to such stresses. The wide range of physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that occur in plants exposed to low temperature require a robust global approach to studying the response. We have employed Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE to uncover changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana over a time course of low temperature stress. Results Five SAGE libraries were generated from A. thaliana leaf tissue collected at time points ranging from 30 minutes to one week of low temperature treatment (4°C. Over 240,000 high quality SAGE tags, corresponding to 16,629 annotated genes, provided a comprehensive survey of changes in the transcriptome in response to low temperature, from perception of the stress to acquisition of freezing tolerance. Interpretation of these data was facilitated by representing the SAGE data by gene identifier, allowing more robust statistical analysis, cross-platform comparisons and the identification of genes sharing common expression profiles. Simultaneous statistical calculations across all five libraries identified 920 low temperature responsive genes, only 24% of which overlapped with previous global expression analysis performed using microarrays, although similar functional categories were affected. Clustering of the differentially regulated genes facilitated the identification of novel loci correlated with the development of freezing tolerance. Analysis of their promoter sequences revealed subsets of genes that were independent of CBF and ABA regulation and could provide a mechanism for elucidating complementary signalling pathways. The SAGE data emphasised the complexity of the plant response, with alternate pre-mRNA processing events increasing at low temperatures

  19. Differential SAGE analysis in Arabidopsis uncovers increased transcriptome complexity in response to low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephen J; Parkin, Isobel A P

    2008-09-22

    Abiotic stress, including low temperature, limits the productivity and geographical distribution of plants, which has led to significant interest in understanding the complex processes that allow plants to adapt to such stresses. The wide range of physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that occur in plants exposed to low temperature require a robust global approach to studying the response. We have employed Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) to uncover changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana over a time course of low temperature stress. Five SAGE libraries were generated from A. thaliana leaf tissue collected at time points ranging from 30 minutes to one week of low temperature treatment (4 degrees C). Over 240,000 high quality SAGE tags, corresponding to 16,629 annotated genes, provided a comprehensive survey of changes in the transcriptome in response to low temperature, from perception of the stress to acquisition of freezing tolerance. Interpretation of these data was facilitated by representing the SAGE data by gene identifier, allowing more robust statistical analysis, cross-platform comparisons and the identification of genes sharing common expression profiles. Simultaneous statistical calculations across all five libraries identified 920 low temperature responsive genes, only 24% of which overlapped with previous global expression analysis performed using microarrays, although similar functional categories were affected. Clustering of the differentially regulated genes facilitated the identification of novel loci correlated with the development of freezing tolerance. Analysis of their promoter sequences revealed subsets of genes that were independent of CBF and ABA regulation and could provide a mechanism for elucidating complementary signalling pathways. The SAGE data emphasised the complexity of the plant response, with alternate pre-mRNA processing events increasing at low temperatures and antisense transcription being

  20. Light availability and temperature, not increased CO2, will structure future meadows of Posidonia oceanica

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.

    2017-02-15

    We evaluated the photosynthetic performance of Posidonia oceanica during short-term laboratory exposures to ambient and elevated temperatures (24–25°C and 29–30°C) warming and pCO2 (380, 750 and 1000ppm pCO2) under normal and low light conditions (200 and 40μmol photons m−2s−1 respectively). Plant growth was measured at the low light regime and showed a negative response to warming. Light was a critical factor for photosynthetic performance, although we found no evidence of compensation of photosynthetic quantum efficiency in high light. Relative Electron Rate Transport (rETRmax) was higher in plants incubated in high light, but not affected by pCO2 or temperature. The saturation irradiance (Ik) was negatively affected by temperature. We conclude that elevated CO2 does not enhance photosynthetic activity and growth, in the short term for P. oceanica, while temperature has a direct negative effect on growth. Low light availability also negatively affected photosynthetic performance during the short experimental period examined here. Therefore increasing concentrations of CO2 may not compensate for predicted future conditions of warmer water and higher turbidity for seagrass meadows.

  1. Heightened fire probability in Indonesia in non-drought conditions: the effect of increasing temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Kátia; Verchot, Louis; Baethgen, Walter; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel; Martius, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    In Indonesia, drought driven fires occur typically during the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation. This was the case of the events of 1997 and 2015 that resulted in months-long hazardous atmospheric pollution levels in Equatorial Asia and record greenhouse gas emissions. Nonetheless, anomalously active fire seasons have also been observed in non-drought years. In this work, we investigated the impact of temperature on fires and found that when the July-October (JASO) period is anomalously dry, the sensitivity of fires to temperature is modest. In contrast, under normal-to-wet conditions, fire probability increases sharply when JASO is anomalously warm. This describes a regime in which an active fire season is not limited to drought years. Greater susceptibility to fires in response to a warmer environment finds support in the high evapotranspiration rates observed in normal-to-wet and warm conditions in Indonesia. We also find that fire probability in wet JASOs would be considerably less sensitive to temperature were not for the added effect of recent positive trends. Near-term regional climate projections reveal that, despite negligible changes in precipitation, a continuing warming trend will heighten fire probability over the next few decades especially in non-drought years. Mild fire seasons currently observed in association with wet conditions and cool temperatures will become rare events in Indonesia.

  2. Students’ Perceived Heat-Health Symptoms Increased with Warmer Classroom Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalin Bidassey-Manilal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures in Africa are expected to increase by the end of the century. Heat-related health impacts and perceived health symptoms are potentially a problem, especially in public schools with limited resources. Students (n = 252 aged ~14–18 years from eight high schools completed an hourly heat-health symptom log over 5 days. Data loggers measured indoor classroom temperatures. A high proportion of students felt tired (97.2%, had low concentration (96.8% and felt sleepy (94.1% during at least one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ≥32 °C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor classroom temperatures were observed in classrooms constructed of prefabricated asbestos sheeting with corrugated iron roof and converted shipping container compared to brick classrooms. Longitudinal studies in multiple seasons and different classroom building types are needed.

  3. Students' Perceived Heat-Health Symptoms Increased with Warmer Classroom Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidassey-Manilal, Shalin; Wright, Caradee Y; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C; Albers, Patricia N; Garland, Rebecca M; Matooane, Mamopeli

    2016-06-07

    Temperatures in Africa are expected to increase by the end of the century. Heat-related health impacts and perceived health symptoms are potentially a problem, especially in public schools with limited resources. Students (n = 252) aged ~14-18 years from eight high schools completed an hourly heat-health symptom log over 5 days. Data loggers measured indoor classroom temperatures. A high proportion of students felt tired (97.2%), had low concentration (96.8%) and felt sleepy (94.1%) during at least one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ≥32 °C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor classroom temperatures were observed in classrooms constructed of prefabricated asbestos sheeting with corrugated iron roof and converted shipping container compared to brick classrooms. Longitudinal studies in multiple seasons and different classroom building types are needed.

  4. Skin temperature increase mediated by wearable, long duration, low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Matthew D.; Huang, Wenyi; Ghanem, Angi; Guo, Yuan; Lewis, George K.

    2017-03-01

    One of the safety concerns with the delivery of therapeutic ultrasound is overheating of the transducer-skin interface due to poor or improper coupling. The objective of this research was to define a model that could be used to calculate the heating in the skin as a result of a novel, wearable long-duration ultrasound device. This model was used to determine that the maximum heating in the skin remained below the minimum threshold necessary to cause thermal injury over multiple hours of use. In addition to this model data, a human clinical study used wire thermocouples on the skin surface to measure heating characteristics during treatment with the sustained ultrasound system. Parametric analysis of the model determined that the maximum temperature increase is at the surface of the skin ranged from 40-41.8° C when perfusion was taken into account. The clinical data agreed well with the model predictions. The average steady state temperature observed across all 44 subjects was 40°C. The maximum temperature observed was less than 44° C, which is clinically safe for over 5 hours of human skin contact. The resultant clinical temperature data paired well with the model data suggesting the model can be used for future transducer and ultrasound system design simulation. As a result, the device was validated for thermal safety for typical users and use conditions.

  5. Pulp temperature increase during photo-activated disinfection (PAD) of periodontal pockets: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazami, H; Zeinoun, Toni; Bou Saba, S; Lamard, L; Peremans, A; Limme, M; Geerts, S; Lamy, M; Nammour, S

    2010-09-01

    The capacity of photo-sensitizers, used in combination with laser light to kill micro-organisms has been demonstrated in different studies. Photo-activated disinfection (PAD) has been introduced in periodontology as an aid for disinfection of periodontal pockets. The aim of this study is to verify the harm for dental vitality of the use of PAD in periodontal pockets. Root canals of 24 freshly extracted human teeth where prepared using profiles up to a size of ISO #50 and filled with thermo-conductor paste. A silicon-based false gum was made in which a periodontal pocket was created and filled with photo-sensitizer phenothiazine chloride (phenothiazine-5-ium, 3.7-bis (dimethylamino)-, chloride). The external root surface was irradiated during 60 s with a 660-nm diode laser (output power: 20 mW; power density: 0.090 W/cm(2); Energy density: 5.46 J/cm(2)) using a periodontal tip with a diameter of 1 mm and a length of 7 mm. Temperatures were recorded inside the root canal using a thermocouple. Measurements were recorded every second, starting at 10 s before lasering, during the irradiation and were continued for 150 s after the end of irradiation, and six measurements were done per tooth. An average temperature increase of 0.48 +/- 0.11 degrees C was recorded. Our results demonstrated that pulp temperature increase was lower than 3 degrees C, which is considered to be harmless for pulp injury. Regarding pulp temperature increase, the use of PAD for disinfection of periodontal pockets can be considered as a safe procedure for dental vitality.

  6. Women with more severe degrees of temporomandibular disorder exhibit an increase in temperature over the temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Vieira Dibai-Filho

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: FAI score was associated with skin temperature over the TMJ, as determined by infrared thermography, in this sample. Women with more severe TMD demonstrated a bilateral increase in skin temperature.

  7. Modeling of river bed deformation composed of frozen sediments with increasing environmental temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Debolskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of river flow and of the temperature rise on the deformation of the coastal slopes composed of permafrost with the inclusion of ice layer. The method of investigation is the laboratory and mathematical modeling. The laboratory experiments have shown that an increase in water and air temperature changes in a laboratory analogue of permafrost causes deformation of the channel even without wave action, i.e. at steady-state flow and non-erosive water flow velocity. The previously developed model of the bed deformation was improved to account for long-term changes of soil structure with increasing temperature. The three-dimensional mathematical model of coastal slopes thermoerosion of the rivers flowing in permafrost regions, and its verification was based on the results of laboratory experiments conducted in the hydraulic tray. Analysis of the results of mathematical and laboratory modeling showed that bed deformation of the rivers flowing in the permafrost zone, significantly different from the deformation of channels composed of soils not susceptible to the influence of the phase transition «water-ice», and can occur even under the non-erosive velocity of the water flow.

  8. Low temperature sensing in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is mediated through an increased response to auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, P L; Wilkinson, C; Franssen, H M; Balk, P A; van der Plas, L H; Weisbeek, P J; Douwe de Boer, A

    2000-03-01

    Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is a bulbous plant species that requires a period of low temperature for proper growth and flowering. The mechanism of sensing the low temperature period is unknown. The study presented in this paper shows that the essential developmental change in tulip bulbs during cold treatment is an increase in sensitivity to the phytohormone auxin. This is demonstrated using a model system consisting of isolated internodes grown on tissue culture medium containing different combinations of the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin. Using mathematical modelling, equations taken from the field of enzyme kinetics were fitted through the data. By doing so it became apparent that longer periods of low temperature resulted in an increased maximum response at a lower auxin concentration. Besides the cold treatment, gibberellin also enhances the response to auxin in the internodes in this in vitro system. A working model describing the relationship between the cold requirement, gibberellin action and auxin sensitivity is put forward. Possible analogies with other cold-requiring processes such as vernalization and stratification, and the interaction of auxin and gibberellin in the stalk elongation process in other plant species are discussed.

  9. Increases in both acute and chronic temperature potentiate tocotrienol concentrations in wild barley at 'Evolution Canyon'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Lansky, Ephraim; Traber, Maret; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-09-01

    Biosynthesis of tocols (vitamin E isoforms) is linked to response to temperature in plants. 'Evolution Canyon', an ecogeographical microcosm extending over an average of 200 meters (range 100-400) wide area in the Carmel Mountains of northern Israel, has been suggested as a model for studying global warming. Both domestic (Hordeum vulgare) and wild (Hordeum spontaneum) barley compared with wheat, oat, corn, rice, and rye show high tocotrienol/tocopherol ratios. Therefore, we hypothesized that tocol distribution might change in response to global warming. α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol concentrations were measured in wild barley (H. spontaneum) seeds harvested from the xeric (African) and mesic (European) slopes of Evolution Canyon over a six-year period from 2005-2011. Additionally, we examined seeds from areas contiguous to and distant from the part of the Canyon severely burned during the Carmel Fire of December 2010. Increased α-tocotrienol (p<0.01) was correlated with 1) temperature increases, 2) to the hotter 'African' slope in contrast to the cooler 'European' slope, and 3) to propinquity to the fire. The study illustrates the role of α-tocotrienol in both chronic and acute temperature adaptation in wild barley and suggests future research into thermoregulatory mechanisms in plants. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Mitochondrial acetyl-CoA utilization pathway for terpenoid productions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jifeng; Ching, Chi-Bun

    2016-11-01

    Acetyl-CoA is a central molecule in the metabolism of the cell, which is also a precursor molecule to a variety of value-added products such as terpenoids and fatty acid derived molecules. Considering subcellular compartmentalization of metabolic pathways allows higher concentrations of enzymes, substrates and intermediates, and bypasses competing pathways, mitochondrion-compartmentalized acetyl-CoA utilization pathways might offer better pathway activities with improved product yields. As a proof-of-concept, we sought to explore a mitochondrial farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) biosynthetic pathway for the biosynthesis of amorpha-4,11-diene in budding yeast. In the present study, the eight-gene FPP biosynthetic pathway was successfully expressed inside yeast mitochondria to enable high-level amorpha-4,11-diene production. In addition, we also found the mitochondrial compartment serves as a partial barrier for the translocation of FPP from mitochondria into the cytosol, which would potentially allow minimized loss of FPP to cytosolic competing pathways. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to harness yeast mitochondria for terpenoid productions from the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA pool. We envision subcellular metabolic engineering might also be employed for an efficient production of other bio-products from the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA in other eukaryotic organisms. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Terpenoid composition and the anticancer activity of Acanthopanax trifoliatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Li; Zheng, Xi; Chen, Yu-Chan; Jiang, Sen; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Wang, Hua-Qian; Du, Zhi-Yun; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions of extract from an edible and medicinal plant Acanthopanax trifoliatus were found to show significant inhibitory effects against SF-268, MCF-7, HepG2 and NCI-H460 cancer cells. Two new ursane-type triterpenoids, acantrifoic acid C (1) and acantrifoic acid D (2), along with five known triterpenoids (3-7) and eight known diterpenoids (8-15) were obtained from these two fractions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the isolation of compounds (5-12, 14, 15) from A. trifoliatus. Among all the isolated compounds, 3, 5 and 8 from the ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest inhibitory effects against cancer cells, while 12 and 13 from the petroleum ether fraction showed moderate activities. These terpenoid compounds may be responsible for the anticancer activities of A. trifoliatus. Our study provides the first evidence that terpenoids from A. trifoliatus exert anticancer activities and indicates that A. trifoliatus may be a useful edible plant for further development of anticancer health supplement.

  12. Biosynthetic pathway of terpenoid indole alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxuan; Zeng, Xinyi; Sun, Chao; Chen, Shilin

    2014-09-01

    Catharanthus roseus is one of the most extensively investigated medicinal plants, which can produce more than 130 alkaloids, including the powerful antitumor drugs vinblastine and vincristine. Here we review the recent advances in the biosynthetic pathway of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) in C. roseus, and the identification and characterization of the corresponding enzymes involved in this pathway. Strictosidine is the central intermediate in the biosynthesis of different TIAs, which is formed by the condensation of secologanin and tryptamine. Secologanin is derived from terpenoid (isoprenoid) biosynthetic pathway, while tryptamine is derived from indole biosynthetic pathway. Then various specific end products are produced by different routes during downstream process. Although many genes and corresponding enzymes have been characterized in this pathway, our knowledge on the whole TIA biosynthetic pathway still remains largely unknown up to date. Full elucidation of TIA biosynthetic pathway is an important prerequisite to understand the regulation of the TIA biosynthesis in the medicinal plant and to produce valuable TIAs by synthetic biological technology.

  13. A climatic chamber experiment to test the short term effect of increasing temperature on branched GDGT distribution in Sphagnum peat

    OpenAIRE

    Huguet, Arnaud; Francez, Andre-Jean; Jusselme, My Dung; Fosse, Céline; Derenne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (br GDGTs) are membrane lipids produced by unknown Bacteria and are being increasingly used as temperature proxies. Nevertheless, the direct effect of temperature on br GDGT distributions has been rarely evaluated. In this study, the impact of increasing temperature on br GDGT distributions and the speed of adaptation of br GDGT source microorganisms to temperature change were investigated by analysing br GDGTs in Sphagnum...

  14. Addition of methionine and low cultivation temperatures increase palmitoleic acid production by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisaka, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuyoshi; Uemura, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid (POA) has recently gained attention for its health benefits and as a potential resource for industrial feedstock. This study focused on the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has a high POA content but low lipid content, for POA production. We created an oleaginous S. cerevisiae as a dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1p lacking the N-terminal 29 amino acids (Dga1∆Np). This was performed to further increase POA content in the oleaginous S. cerevisiae through optimization of culture conditions and genetic modifications. We found that high concentrations of methionine (2.0 g/l) increased POA production in a concentration-dependent way, while other amino acids such as cysteine, glycine, and glutamine showed no effect. It was not clear if the effect of methionine was mediated through S-adenosylmethionine, mainly because its addition did not increase POA content as did the addition of methionine. We increased POA content up to 55% by incubation of the dga1 transformant in a medium containing 2 g/l methionine at lower than normal temperatures ranging from 20 to 25 °C. Cultivation at such temperatures increased dry cell weight, but did not affect the lipid content, thereby increasing total POA production. The effects of methionine and low temperatures (20-25 °C) on POA content were more apparent in the strains overexpressing Dga1∆Np than those harboring empty vectors, which was consistent with the observation that POA was enriched in triacylglycerol. Overexpression of Ole1p, the enzyme responsible for POA production, did not increase POA content of the dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1∆Np, but increased that of the wild-type strain overexpressing Dga1∆Np. The results suggested that genomic Ole1p in the dga1 mutant was active enough to achieve the optimal POA production under these conditions. Finally, the POA production by the S. cerevisiae transformant was increased 2.5-fold, which demonstrates that oleaginous S. cerevisiae is a potential source

  15. Elevated temperature increases carbon and nitrogen fluxes between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria through physical attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Weber, Peter K; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G; Mayali, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    Quantifying the contribution of marine microorganisms to carbon and nitrogen cycles and their response to predicted ocean warming is one of the main challenges of microbial oceanography. Here we present a single-cell NanoSIMS isotope analysis to quantify C and N uptake by free-living and attached phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria, and their response to short-term experimental warming of 4 °C. Elevated temperature increased total C fixation by over 50%, a small but significant fraction of which was transferred to heterotrophs within 12 h. Cell-to-cell attachment doubled the secondary C uptake by heterotrophic bacteria and increased secondary N incorporation by autotrophs by 68%. Warming also increased the abundance of phytoplankton with attached heterotrophs by 80%, and promoted C transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria by 17% and N transfer from bacteria to phytoplankton by 50%. Our results indicate that phytoplankton-bacteria attachment provides an ecological advantage for nutrient incorporation, suggesting a mutualistic relationship that appears to be enhanced by temperature increases.

  16. Elevated temperature increases carbon and nitrogen fluxes between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria through physical attachment

    KAUST Repository

    Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor

    2016-12-06

    Quantifying the contribution of marine microorganisms to carbon and nitrogen cycles and their response to predicted ocean warming is one of the main challenges of microbial oceanography. Here we present a single-cell NanoSIMS isotope analysis to quantify C and N uptake by free-living and attached phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria, and their response to short-term experimental warming of 4 °C. Elevated temperature increased total C fixation by over 50%, a small but significant fraction of which was transferred to heterotrophs within 12 h. Cell-to-cell attachment doubled the secondary C uptake by heterotrophic bacteria and increased secondary N incorporation by autotrophs by 68%. Warming also increased the abundance of phytoplankton with attached heterotrophs by 80%, and promoted C transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria by 17% and N transfer from bacteria to phytoplankton by 50%. Our results indicate that phytoplankton-bacteria attachment provides an ecological advantage for nutrient incorporation, suggesting a mutualistic relationship that appears to be enhanced by temperature increases.

  17. Spatiotemporal variability of increasing temperature impacts on grassland vegetation along an elevation transect in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedrist, Georg; Obojes, Nikolaus; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Tasser, Erich; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    Different manipulative approaches have been developed to study and quantify impacts of temperature increase on grassland ecosystems. Many of them share the problem of unwanted effects on the surrounding microclimatic conditions. Transplantation of grassland mesocosms along elevation gradients can be a realistic alternative, although with some restrictions. Here we present 3 years of data from a double-transplant-experiment, were 70*70*20cm grassland turves were transplanted at two elevations from 2000m to 1500m a.s.l. and from 1500m to 1000m a.s.l. respectively, along an inner-alpine elevation gradient in the Vinschgau Valley (South Tyrol, I). All donor and receiving sites are comparable regarding land use (meadows), soil conditions or exposition and are located within a few km's distance ensuring comparable weather conditions apart from the intended air temperature (0.54°K/100m) and annual precipitation (20mm/100m) lapse rate. Phytodiversity and above ground net primary production (ANPP) of the transplanted mesocosms were assessed and compared with locally transplanted monoliths of the respective donor site. Furthermore, growth dynamics was continuously observed throughout the vegetation season with a non-destructive method based on measurement of light (photosynthetic active radiation) extinction within the canopy. After 3 years no significant changes in absolute species numbers has been detected at all, whereas slight variations have been observed regarding species composition. Those shifts could be differentiated both to transplantation artifacts and effects of the elevated temperature. Total aboveground phytomass, unsurprisingly, showed higher values on transplanted (lower) mesocosms, however: data from single cuts and growth rate analysis reveal differing effects between the two transplantation steps as well as over the course of the vegetation period. Transplanted plots from 2000m to 1500m showed continuously higher productivity from spring to autumn

  18. First evidence of immunomodulation in bivalves under seawater acidification and increased temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Matozzo

    Full Text Available Water acidification, temperature increases and changes in seawater salinity are predicted to occur in the near future. In such a global climate change (GCC scenario, there is growing concern for the health status of both wild and farmed organisms. Bivalve molluscs, an important component of coastal marine ecosystems, are at risk. At the immunological level, the ability of an organism to maintain its immunosurveillance unaltered under adverse environmental conditions may enhance its survival capability. To our knowledge, only a few studies have investigated the effects of changing environmental parameters (as predicted in a GCC scenario on the immune responses of bivalves. In the present study, the effects of both decreased pH values and increased temperature on the important immune parameters of two bivalve species were evaluated for the first time. The clam Chamelea gallina and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, widespread along the coast of the Northwestern Adriatic Sea, were chosen as model organisms. Bivalves were exposed for 7 days to three pH values (8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 at two temperatures (22 and 28°C. Three independent experiments were carried out at salinities of 28, 34 and 40 PSU. The total haemocyte count, Neutral Red uptake, haemolymph lysozyme activity and total protein levels were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that tested experimental conditions affected significantly most of the immune parameters measured in bivalves, even if the variation pattern of haemocyte responses was not always linear. Between the two species, C. gallina appeared more vulnerable to changing pH and temperature than M. galloprovincialis. Overall, this study demonstrated that climate changes can strongly affect haemocyte functionality in bivalves. However, further studies are needed to clarify better the mechanisms of action of changing environmental parameters, both individually and in combination, on bivalve haemocytes.

  19. Future Changes in Heat Stress over East Asia Resulting from Different Target Temperature Increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Min; Min, Seung-Ki

    2017-04-01

    In assessing the impact of global warming, it is very important to understand the change in comprehensive heat stress as a function of several variables, rather than only temperature. Furthermore, in order to assess and implement the target temperature goals of the 2015 Paris Agreement, it is essential to have effective and scientifically valid information to predict and measure regional impact. In this study, the future changes in summer heat stress over East Asia were examined based on the Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using CMIP5 multimodel simulations (historical and RCP scenario simulations), and differences in heat stress changes were assessed between 1.5-degree and 2-degree warmer worlds. Future boreal summer heat stress of land regions over East Asia, in excess of the 50-year return value, shows a rapid and nonlinear increase from the 2000s, and it is expected that severe heat stress will occur in the overall East Asia region by the 2040s. In particular, extreme heat stress events were found to occur much more frequently than summer mean intensity of heat stress. Comparisons of the increase in heat stress between 1.5-degree and 2-degree warmer worlds indicated a 20% decrease in the area experiencing severe heat stress over East Asia, and relatively large benefits (i.e. less frequent and less severe heat stress) were found in the southeastern China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan compared to other regions. Further, the equilibrium scenarios showed a larger increase in heat stress over East Asia than the transient scenarios, particularly in case of the 1.5-degree warmer world, which was found due to warmer water in the northwestern North Pacific in the equilibrium scenarios.

  20. Ocean acidification and temperature increase impact mussel shell shape and thickness: problematic for protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Vittert, Liberty; Bowman, Adrian; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Phoenix, Vernon R; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification threatens organisms that produce calcium carbonate shells by potentially generating an under-saturated carbonate environment. Resultant reduced calcification and growth, and subsequent dissolution of exoskeletons, would raise concerns over the ability of the shell to provide protection for the marine organism under ocean acidification and increased temperatures. We examined the impact of combined ocean acidification and temperature increase on shell formation of the economically important edible mussel Mytilus edulis. Shell growth and thickness along with a shell thickness index and shape analysis were determined. The ability of M. edulis to produce a functional protective shell after 9 months of experimental culture under ocean acidification and increasing temperatures (380, 550, 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2, and 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2 + 2°C) was assessed. Mussel shells grown under ocean acidification conditions displayed significant reductions in shell aragonite thickness, shell thickness index, and changes to shell shape (750, 1000 μatm pCO 2) compared to those shells grown under ambient conditions (380 μatm pCO 2). Ocean acidification resulted in rounder, flatter mussel shells with thinner aragonite layers likely to be more vulnerable to fracture under changing environments and predation. The changes in shape presented here could present a compensatory mechanism to enhance protection against predators and changing environments under ocean acidification when mussels are unable to grow thicker shells. Here, we present the first assessment of mussel shell shape to determine implications for functional protection under ocean acidification.

  1. The Photovoltaic Heat Island Effect: Larger solar power plants increase local temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, N.; Minor, R. L.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2016-12-01

    While photovoltaic (PV) renewable energy production has surged, concerns remain about whether or not PV power plants induce a "heat island" (PVHI) effect, much like the increase in ambient temperatures relative to wildlands generates an Urban Heat Island effect in cities. Transitions to PV plants likely alter the way that incoming energy is reflected back to the atmosphere or absorbed, stored, and reradiated as latent or sensible heat because PV plants change the albedo, vegetation, and structure of the terrain. Prior synthetic work on the PVHI has been mostly theoretical or simulated models, and past empirical work has been limited in scope to a single biome. Thus, there are large uncertainties surrounding the potential for a PHVI effect, so we examined the PVHI in empirical and experimental terms. We found temperatures over a PV plant were regularly 3-4oC warmer than wildlands at night, which is in direct contrast to modeling studies suggesting PV systems should decrease ambient temperatures. Deducing the underlying cause and scale of the PVHI effect and identifying mitigation strategies are key in supporting decision-making regarding PV development, particularly in semiarid landscapes, which are among the most likely for large-scale PV installations.

  2. LED lighting increases the ecological impact of light pollution irrespective of color temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, S M; Bader, M K-F

    Recognition of the extent and magnitude of night-time light pollution impacts on natural ecosystems is increasing, with pervasive effects observed in both nocturnal and diurnal species. Municipal and industrial lighting is on the cusp of a step change where energy-efficient lighting technology is driving a shift from “yellow” high-pressure sodium vapor lamps (HPS) to new “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We hypothesized that white LEDs would be more attractive and thus have greater ecological impacts than HPS due to the peak UV-green-blue visual sensitivity of nocturnal invertebrates. Our results support this hypothesis; on average LED light traps captured 48% more insects than were captured with light traps fitted with HPS lamps, and this effect was dependent on air temperature (significant light × air temperature interaction). We found no evidence that manipulating the color temperature of white LEDs would minimize the ecological impacts of the adoption of white LED lights. As such, large-scale adoption of energy-efficient white LED lighting for municipal and industrial use may exacerbate ecological impacts and potentially amplify phytosanitary pest infestations. Our findings highlight the urgent need for collaborative research between ecologists and electrical engineers to ensure that future developments in LED technology minimize their potential ecological effects.

  3. Targeting apoptosis pathway with natural terpenoids: implications for treatment of breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanjie; Dou, Q Ping

    2010-06-01

    Terpenoids represent a large and diverse class of naturally occurring compounds found in a variety of fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants. Structurally some of the terpenoids are similar to human hormones. A diet rich in terpenoids is inversely related with the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Breast and prostate cancers are hormone-related diseases and the second leading cause of female and male cancer mortality. Diterpenoid paclitaxel, and its semi-synthetic analogue docetaxel, have entered clinical use against established breast and prostate cancers. Here we reviewed potential molecular targets and biological properties of natural terpenoids, including monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids and tetraterpenoids, and their applications in treatment of human breast and prostate cancers. These terpenoids are able to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell death by inhibiting multiple cancer-specific targets including the proteasome, NF-kappaB, and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. The efficacy of these terpenoids against breast or prostate cancer cells, as demonstrated in pre-clinical studies support clinical application of these naturally occurring terpenoids in treatment of hormone-related human cancers.

  4. Synthetic biology for production of natural and new-to-nature terpenoids in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Philipp; Pollier, Jacob; Callewaert, Nico; Goossens, Alain

    2016-07-01

    With tens of thousands of characterized members, terpenoids constitute the largest class of natural compounds that are synthesized by all living organisms. Several terpenoids play primary roles in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity, as pigments or as phytohormones, but most of them function as specialized metabolites that are involved in plant resistance to herbivores or plant-environment interactions. Terpenoids are an essential component of human nutrition, and many are economically important pharmaceuticals, aromatics and potential next-generation biofuels. Because of the often low abundance in their natural source, as well as the demand for novel terpenoid structures with new or improved bioactivities, terpenoid biosynthesis has become a prime target for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects. In this review we focus on the creation of new-to-nature or tailor-made plant-derived terpenoids in photosynthetic organisms, in particular by means of combinatorial biosynthesis and the activation of silent metabolism. We reflect on the characteristics of different potential photosynthetic host organisms and recent advances in synthetic biology and discuss their utility for the (heterologous) production of (novel) terpenoids. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Orthologs of the archaeal isopentenyl phosphate kinase regulate terpenoid production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laura K; Gutensohn, Michael; Thomas, Suzanne T; Noel, Joseph P; Dudareva, Natalia

    2015-08-11

    Terpenoids, compounds found in all domains of life, represent the largest class of natural products with essential roles in their hosts. All terpenoids originate from the five-carbon building blocks, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), which can be derived from the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways. The absence of two components of the MVA pathway from archaeal genomes led to the discovery of an alternative MVA pathway with isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK) catalyzing the final step, the formation of IPP. Despite the fact that plants contain the complete classical MVA pathway, IPK homologs were identified in every sequenced green plant genome. Here, we show that IPK is indeed a member of the plant terpenoid metabolic network. It is localized in the cytosol and is coexpressed with MVA pathway and downstream terpenoid network genes. In planta, IPK acts in parallel with the MVA pathway and plays an important role in regulating the formation of both MVA and MEP pathway-derived terpenoid compounds by controlling the ratio of IP/DMAP to IPP/DMAPP. IP and DMAP can also competitively inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Moreover, we discovered a metabolically available carbon source for terpenoid formation in plants that is accessible via IPK overexpression. This metabolite reactivation approach offers new strategies for metabolic engineering of terpenoid production.

  6. Development of a Terpenoid-Production Platform in Streptomyces reveromyceticus SN-593.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Ammara; Takagi, Hiroshi; Panthee, Suresh; Muroi, Makoto; Chappell, Joe; Osada, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Shunji

    2017-12-15

    Terpenoids represent the largest class of natural products, some of which are resources for pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and fuels. Generally, mass production of valuable terpenoid compounds is hampered by their low production levels in organisms and difficulty of chemical synthesis. Therefore, the development of microbial biosynthetic platforms represents an alternative approach. Although microbial terpenoid-production platforms have been established in Escherichia coli and yeast, an optimal platform has not been developed for Streptomyces species, despite the large capacity to produce secondary metabolites, such as polyketide compounds. To explore this potential, we constructed a terpenoid-biosynthetic platform in Streptomyces reveromyceticus SN-593. This strain is unique in that it harbors the mevalonate gene cluster enabling the production of furaquinocin, which can be controlled by the pathway specific regulator Fur22. We simultaneously expressed the mevalonate gene cluster and subsequent terpenoid-biosynthetic genes under the control of Fur22. To achieve improved fur22 gene expression, we screened promoters from S. reveromyceticus SN-593. Our results showed that the promoter associated with rvr2030 gene enabled production of 212 ± 20 mg/L botryococcene to levels comparable to those previously reported for other microbial hosts. Given that the rvr2030 gene encodes for an enzyme involved in the primary metabolism, these results suggest that optimized expression of terpenoid-biosynthetic genes with primary and secondary metabolism might be as important for high yields of terpenoid compounds as is the absolute expression level of a target gene(s).

  7. Increased ambient air temperature alters the severity of soil water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Sinclair, Kat; Hallin, Ingrid; Doerr, Stefan; Urbanek, Emilia; Quinn, Gerry; Matthews, Peter; Dudley, Ed; Francis, Lewis; Gazze, S. Andrea; Whalley, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Soil repellency, the inability of soils to wet readily, has detrimental environmental impacts such as increased runoff, erosion and flooding, reduced biomass production, inefficient use of irrigation water and preferential leaching of pollutants. Its impacts may exacerbate (summer) flood risks associated with more extreme drought and precipitation events. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that transitions between hydrophobic and hydrophilic soil particle surface characteristics, in conjunction with soil structural properties, strongly influence the hydrological behaviour of UK soils under current and predicted UK climatic conditions. We have addressed the hypothesis by applying different ambient air temperatures under controlled conditions to simulate the effect of predicted UK climatic conditions on the wettability of soils prone to develop repellency at different severities. Three UK silt-loam soils under permanent vegetation were selected for controlled soil perturbation studies. The soils were chosen based on the severity of hydrophobicity that can be achieved in the field: severe to extreme (Cefn Bryn, Gower, Wales), intermediate to severe (National Botanical Garden, Wales), and subcritical (Park Grass, Rothamsted Research near London). The latter is already highly characterised so was also used as a control. Soils were fully saturated with water and then allowed to dry out gradually upon exposure to controlled laboratory conditions. Soils were allowed to adapt for a few hours to a new temperature prior to initiation of the controlled experiments. Soil wettability was determined at highly regular intervals by measuring water droplet penetration times. Samples were collected at four time points: fully wettable, just prior to and after the critical soil moisture concentrations (CSC), and upon reaching air dryness (to constant weight), for further (ultra)metaproteomic and nanomechanical studies to allow integration of bulk soil characterisations with

  8. Coregulation of terpenoid pathway genes and prediction of isoprene production in Bacillus subtilis using transcriptomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Becky M.; Xue, Junfeng; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Wiley, H. S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Linggi, Bryan E.

    2013-06-19

    The isoprenoid pathway converts pyruvate to isoprene and related isoprenoid compounds in plants and some bacteria. Currently, this pathway is of great interest because of the critical role that isoprenoids play in basic cellular processes as well as the industrial value of metabolites such as isoprene. Although the regulation of several pathway genes has been described, there is a paucity of information regarding the system level regulation and control of the pathway. To address this limitation, we examined Bacillus subtilis grown under multiple conditions and then determined the relationship between altered isoprene production and the pattern of gene expression. We found that terpenoid genes appeared to fall into two distinct subsets with opposing correlations with respect to the amount of isoprene produced. The group whose expression levels positively correlated with isoprene production included dxs, the gene responsible for the commitment step in the pathway, as well as ispD, and two genes that participate in the mevalonate pathway, yhfS and pksG. The subset of terpenoid genes that inversely correlated with isoprene production included ispH, ispF, hepS, uppS, ispE, and dxr. A genome wide partial least squares regression model was created to identify other genes or pathways that contribute to isoprene production. This analysis showed that a subset of 213 regulated genes was sufficient to create a predictive model of isoprene production under different conditions and showed correlations at the transcriptional level. We conclude that gene expression levels alone are sufficiently informative about the metabolic state of a cell that produces increased isoprene and can be used to build a model which accurately predicts production of this secondary metabolite across many simulated environmental conditions.

  9. Evidence of increasing drought severity caused by temperature rise in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Lopez-Moreno, Juan-I.; Beguería, Santiago; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; García-Ruiz, José M.; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Revuelto, Jesús; Trigo, Ricardo; Coelho, Fatima; Espejo, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    We use high quality climate data from ground meteorological stations in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and robust drought indices to confirm that drought severity has increased in the past five decades, as a consequence of greater atmospheric evaporative demand resulting from temperature rise. Increased drought severity is independent of the model used to quantify the reference evapotranspiration. We have also focused on drought impacts to drought-sensitive systems, such as river discharge, by analyzing streamflow data for 287 rivers in the IP, and found that hydrological drought frequency and severity have also increased in the past five decades in natural, regulated and highly regulated basins. Recent positive trend in the atmospheric water demand has had a direct influence on the temporal evolution of streamflows, clearly identified during the warm season, in which higher evapotranspiration rates are recorded. This pattern of increase in evaporative demand and greater drought severity is probably applicable to other semiarid regions of the world, including other Mediterranean areas, the Sahel, southern Australia and South Africa, and can be expected to increasingly compromise water supplies and cause political, social and economic tensions among regions in the near future.

  10. Biological activities and health effects of terpenoids from marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Li, Yong-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed by the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical products due to their various health beneficial effects. Hence, it can be suggested that bioactive functional ingredients from marine bioresources and their by-products are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to consumer's well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Marine-derived fungi produce a vast array of secondary metabolites including terpenes, steroids, polyketides, peptides, alkaloids, and polysaccharides. These secondary metabolites serve many biopharmaceutical purposes. This chapter discusses about marine fungi-derived terpenoids and presents an overview of their beneficial health effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Flax terpenoid pathway as a source of health promoting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrczewska, Monika; Kulma, Anna; Kostyn, Kamil; Hasiewicz-Derkacz, Karolina; Szopa, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Flax is an important crop plant grown mainly for its fiber and seeds, which are also rich in omega-3 fatty acids and valuable antioxidants derived from the terpenoid pathways including carotenoids, tocochromanols and sterols. Many of those components found in flax have been recently shown to positively influence human health. Although terpenes vary greatly in their chemical structure, mainly two mechanisms of their biological activity can be considered: direct antioxidation, and a recently explored one, connected to specific receptor and cell signaling pathway activation. Recent studies show that many of the health promoting agents derived from flax act through both of the mentioned mechanisms, resulting in synergistic physiological effects. The work summarizes the two mechanisms, focusing mainly on the one involving cell signaling, as a promising target for medicine and pharmacotherapy.

  12. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of SAR-induced temperature increase in a phantom and in vivo with comparison to numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sukhoon; Ryu, Yeun-Chul; Carluccio, Giuseppe; Sica, Christopher T; Collins, Christopher M

    2014-05-01

    To compare numerically simulated and experimentally measured temperature increase due to specific energy absorption rate from radiofrequency fields. Temperature increase induced in both a phantom and in the human forearm when driving an adjacent circular surface coil was mapped using the proton resonance frequency shift technique of magnetic resonance thermography. The phantom and forearm were also modeled from magnetic resonance image data, and both specific energy absorption rate and temperature change as induced by the same coil were simulated numerically. The simulated and measured temperature increase distributions were generally in good agreement for the phantom. The relative distributions for the human forearm were very similar, with the simulations giving maximum temperature increase about 25% higher than measured. Although a number of parameters and uncertainties are involved, it should be possible to use numerical simulations to produce reasonably accurate and conservative estimates of temperature distribution to ensure safety in magnetic resonance imaging. R01 EB006563 Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of latitude and altitude on the terpenoid and soluble phenolic composition of juniper (Juniperus communis) needles and evaluation of their antibacterial activity in the boreal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Françoise; Peltola, Rainer; Fontanay, Stéphane; Duval, Raphaël E; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Stark, Sari

    2009-10-28

    The demand for dry juniper (Juniperus communis) needles as a raw material for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries has increased rapidly in recent years. Juniper needles are known to be rich in terpenoids and phenolics, but their chemical composition and antibacterial properties have not been well-characterized. In this study, we describe the soluble phenolic and terpenoid composition of juniper needles collected in Finland (n = 125) and demonstrate that the concentration of these compounds clearly increased with latitude and altitude with, however, a stronger latitudinal effect (a higher content of monoterpenoids, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in northern latitudes). Analysis of methanolic extracts showed quite good activity against both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and suggested an important role of the soluble phenolic fraction. Finally, we demonstrate the relative lack of toxicity of juniper extracts on keratinocytes and fibroblastic cells, raising the possibility of their use in preventing bacterial skin infection.

  15. Insect-Induced Conifer Defense. White Pine Weevil and Methyl Jasmonate Induce Traumatic Resinosis, de Novo Formed Volatile Emissions, and Accumulation of Terpenoid Synthase and Putative Octadecanoid Pathway Transcripts in Sitka Spruce1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara; Madilao, Lufiani L.; Ralph, Steven; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Stem-boring insects and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are thought to induce similar complex chemical and anatomical defenses in conifers. To compare insect- and MeJA-induced terpenoid responses, we analyzed traumatic oleoresin mixtures, emissions of terpenoid volatiles, and expression of terpenoid synthase (TPS) genes in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) following attack by white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi) or application of MeJA. Both insects and MeJA caused traumatic resin accumulation in stems, with more accumulation induced by the weevils. Weevil-induced terpenoid emission profiles were also more complex than emissions induced by MeJA. Weevil feeding caused a rapid release of a blend of monoterpene olefins, presumably by passive evaporation of resin compounds from stem feeding sites. These compounds were not found in MeJA-induced emissions. Both weevils and MeJA caused delayed, diurnal emissions of (−)-linalool, indicating induced de novo biosynthesis of this compound. TPS transcripts strongly increased in stems upon insect attack or MeJA treatment. Time courses and intensity of induced TPS transcripts were different for monoterpene synthases, sesquiterpene synthases, and diterpene synthases. Increased levels of weevil- and MeJA-induced TPS transcripts accompanied major changes in terpenoid accumulation in stems. Induced TPS expression profiles in needles were less complex than those in stems and matched induced de novo emissions of (−)-linalool. Overall, weevils and MeJA induced similar, but not identical, terpenoid defense responses in Sitka spruce. Findings of insect- and MeJA-induced accumulation of allene oxide synthase-like and allene oxide cyclase-like transcripts are discussed in the context of traumatic resinosis and induced volatile emissions in this gymnosperm system. PMID:15618433

  16. High environmental temperature increases glucose requirement in the developing chicken embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Molenaar

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions during the perinatal period influence metabolic and developmental processes in mammals and avian species, which could impact pre- and postnatal survival and development. The current study investigated the effect of eggshell temperature (EST on glucose metabolism in broiler chicken embryos. Broiler eggs were incubated at a high (38.9°C or normal (37.8°C EST from day 10.5 of incubation onward and were injected with a bolus of [U-(13C]glucose in the chorio-allantoic fluid at day 17.5 of incubation. After [U-(13C]glucose administration, (13C enrichment was determined in intermediate pools and end-products of glucose metabolism. Oxidation of labeled glucose occurred for approximately 3 days after injection. Glucose oxidation was higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment from day 17.6 until 17.8 of incubation. The overall recovery of (13CO2 tended to be 4.7% higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment. An increase in EST (38.9°C vs 37.8°C increased (13C enrichment in plasma lactate at day 17.8 of incubation and (13C in hepatic glycogen at day 18.8 of incubation. Furthermore, high compared to normal EST resulted in a lower yolk-free body mass at day 20.9 (-2.74 g and 21.7 (-3.81 g of incubation, a lower hepatic glycogen concentration at day 18.2 (-4.37 mg/g and 18.8 (-4.59 mg/g of incubation, and a higher plasma uric acid concentration (+2.8 mg/mL/+43% at day 21.6 of incubation. These results indicate that the glucose oxidation pattern is relatively slow, but the intensity increased consistently with an increase in developmental stage of the embryo. High environmental temperatures in the perinatal period of chicken embryos increased glucose oxidation and decreased hepatic glycogen prior to the hatching process. This may limit glucose availability for successful hatching and could impact body development, probably by increased gluconeogenesis from glucogenic amino acids to allow anaerobic glycolysis.

  17. The Effect of Increased Temperatures and Ultraviolet Radiation on Dissolved Oxygen in Ecosystems Primarily Comprised of "Euglena"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether increased levels of UV radiation and temperatures from global warming have a significant impact on dissolved oxygen (DO) output from the alga, "Euglena," which affects other organisms in the ecosystem. The original hypothesis stated that if temperature was increased along with exposure time to…

  18. Charging conditions research to increase the initial projected velocity at different initial charge temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, Aleksandr; Burkin, Viktor; Kasimov, Vladimir; Samorokova, Nina; Zykova, Angelica; Diachkovskii, Alexei

    2017-11-01

    The problems of the defense industry occupy the most important place in the constantly developing modern world. The daily development of defense technology does not stop, nor do studies on internal ballistics. The scientists of the whole world are faced with the task of managing the main characteristics of a ballistic experiment. The main characteristics of the ballistic experiment are the maximum pressure in the combustion chamber Pmax and the projected velocity at the time of barrel leaving UM. During the work the combustion law of the new high-energy fuel was determined in a ballistic experiment for different initial temperatures. This combustion law was used for a parametric study of depending Pmax and UM from a powder charge mass and a traveling charge was carried out. The optimal conditions for loading were obtained for improving the initial velocity at pressures up to 600 MPa for different initial temperatures. In this paper, one of the most promising schemes of throwing is considered, as well as a method for increasing the muzzle velocity of a projected element to 3317 m/s.

  19. Increasing ocean temperatures reduce activity patterns of a large commercially important coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J L; Messmer, V; Coker, D J; Hoey, A S; Pratchett, M S

    2014-04-01

    Large-bodied fish are critical for sustaining coral reef fisheries, but little is known about the vulnerability of these fish to global warming. This study examined the effects of elevated temperatures on the movement and activity patterns of the common coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), which is an important fishery species in tropical Australia and throughout the Indo West-Pacific. Adult fish were collected from two locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (23°S and 14°S) and maintained at one of four temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 °C). Following >4 weeks acclimation, the spontaneous swimming speeds and activity patterns of individuals were recorded over a period of 12 days. At 24-27 °C, spontaneous swimming speeds of common coral trout were 0.43-0.45 body lengths per second (bls(-1)), but dropped sharply to 0.29 bls(-1) at 30 °C and 0.25 bls(-1) at 33 °C. Concurrently, individuals spent 9.3-10.6% of their time resting motionless on the bottom at 24-27 °C, but this behaviour increased to 14.0% at 30 °C and 20.0% of the time at 33 °C (mean ± SE). The impact of temperature was greatest for smaller individuals (55 cm TL) were first affected by 30 °C and 33 °C, respectively. Importantly, there was some indication that populations can adapt to elevated temperature if presented with adequate time, as the high-latitude population decreased significantly in swimming speeds at both 30 °C and 33 °C, while the low-latitude population only showed significant reductions at 33 °C. Given that movement and activity patterns of large mobile species are directly related to prey encounter rates, ability to capture prey and avoid predators, any reductions in activity patterns are likely to reduce overall foraging and energy intake, limit the energy available for growth and reproduction, and affect the fitness and survival of individuals and populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evidence that nitric acid increases relative humidity in low-temperature cirrus clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, R S; Popp, P J; Fahey, D W; Marcy, T P; Herman, R L; Weinstock, E M; Baumgardner, D G; Garrett, T J; Rosenlof, K H; Thompson, T L; Bui, P T; Ridley, B A; Wofsy, S C; Toon, O B; Tolbert, M A; Kärcher, B; Peter, Th; Hudson, P K; Weinheimer, A J; Heymsfield, A J

    2004-01-23

    In situ measurements of the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and of nitric acid (HNO3) were made in both natural and contrail cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere. At temperatures lower than 202 kelvin, RHi values show a sharp increase to average values of over 130% in both cloud types. These enhanced RHi values are attributed to the presence of a new class of HNO3-containing ice particles (Delta-ice). We propose that surface HNO3 molecules prevent the ice/vapor system from reaching equilibrium by a mechanism similar to that of freezing point depression by antifreeze proteins. Delta-ice represents a new link between global climate and natural and anthropogenic nitrogen oxide emissions. Including Delta-ice in climate models will alter simulated cirrus properties and the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor.

  1. Temperature and Snowfall in Western Queen Maud Land Increasing Faster Than Climate Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, B.; McConnell, J. R.; Neumann, T. A.; Reijmer, C. H.; Chellman, N.; Sigl, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.

    2018-02-01

    East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) mass balance is largely driven by snowfall. Recently, increased snowfall in Queen Maud Land led to years of EAIS mass gain. It is difficult to determine whether these years of enhanced snowfall are anomalous or part of a longer-term trend, reducing our ability to assess the mitigating impact of snowfall on sea level rise. We determine that the recent snowfall increases in western Queen Maud Land (QML) are part of a long-term trend (+5.2 ± 3.7% decade-1) and are unprecedented over the past two millennia. Warming between 1998 and 2016 is significant and rapid (+1.1 ± 0.7°C decade-1). Using these observations, we determine that the current accumulation and temperature increases in QML from an ensemble of global climate simulations are too low, which suggests that projections of the QML contribution to sea level rise are potentially overestimated with a reduced mitigating impact of enhanced snowfall in a warming world.

  2. A two-fold increase of carbon cycle sensitivity to tropical temperature variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Myneni, Ranga B; Cox, Peter; Heimann, Martin; Miller, John; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Tao; Yang, Hui; Chen, Anping

    2014-02-13

    Earth system models project that the tropical land carbon sink will decrease in size in response to an increase in warming and drought during this century, probably causing a positive climate feedback. But available data are too limited at present to test the predicted changes in the tropical carbon balance in response to climate change. Long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide data provide a global record that integrates the interannual variability of the global carbon balance. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that most of this variability originates in the terrestrial biosphere. In particular, the year-to-year variations in the atmospheric carbon dioxide growth rate (CGR) are thought to be the result of fluctuations in the carbon fluxes of tropical land areas. Recently, the response of CGR to tropical climate interannual variability was used to put a constraint on the sensitivity of tropical land carbon to climate change. Here we use the long-term CGR record from Mauna Loa and the South Pole to show that the sensitivity of CGR to tropical temperature interannual variability has increased by a factor of 1.9 ± 0.3 in the past five decades. We find that this sensitivity was greater when tropical land regions experienced drier conditions. This suggests that the sensitivity of CGR to interannual temperature variations is regulated by moisture conditions, even though the direct correlation between CGR and tropical precipitation is weak. We also find that present terrestrial carbon cycle models do not capture the observed enhancement in CGR sensitivity in the past five decades. More realistic model predictions of future carbon cycle and climate feedbacks require a better understanding of the processes driving the response of tropical ecosystems to drought and warming.

  3. Applications of Lawesson's reagent in the synthesis of naturally occurring steroids and terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Mehfooz, Haroon; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Faisal, Muhammad; Channar, Pervaiz Ali

    2017-11-01

    Steroids and terpenoids are among the most biologically significant classes of natural products possessing a variety of biological activities. The replacement of one or more oxygen atoms in a steroid or terpenoid molecule by a heteroatom affects the chemical properties of that particular steroid or terpenoid, and that replacement often results in alterations of its biological properties, which is sometimes valuable. One possible modification is the thionation that could have some influence on such activity. Among the various thionating reagents, Lawesson's reagent was found to be most suitable and showed versatile properties, including chemoselectivity and functional group tolerance. In this review, we present the role of Lawesson's reagent in the synthesis of thioanalogues of natural steroids and terpenoids.

  4. Novel use of terpenoids for treatment of dermatologic diseases: a systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuong, William; Walker, Lauren; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-05-01

    Terpenoids demonstrate pharmacologic activities that address important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of several cutaneous diseases. This review evaluated clinical trials of dermatology-specific terpenoid-based treatments. PubMed and EMBASE were reviewed on July 8, 2014. Two independent reviewers reviewed studies for inclusion and extracted data for studies meeting eligibility criteria. References were manually reviewed for potentially relevant studies. The search yielded 437 unique abstracts, of which 13 met inclusion and exclusion criteria. High-quality evidence suggests that ingenol mebutate may be effective in treating actinic keratosis. Limited available evidence indicates that terpenoids may benefit patients with nonmelanoma skin cancers, cutaneous candidiasis, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and wounds. Terpenoids appear to be effective in treating specific dermatologic conditions. However, additional rigorously conducted clinical trials are needed to better ascertain efficacy.

  5. Multi-domain terpenoid cyclase architecture and prospects for proximity in bifunctional catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengbin; Harris, Golda G; Pemberton, Travis A; Christianson, David W

    2016-12-01

    Crystal structures of terpenoid cyclases reveal assemblies of three basic domains designated α, β, and γ. While the biosynthesis of cyclic monoterpenes (C 10 ) and sesquiterpenes (C 15 ) most often involves enzymes with α or αβ domain architecture, the biosynthesis of cyclic diterpenes (C 20 ), sesterterpenes (C 25 ), and triterpenes (C 30 ) can involve enzymes with α, αα, βγ, or αβγ domain architecture. Indeed, some enzymes of terpenoid biosynthesis are bifunctional, with distinct active sites that catalyze sequential reactions. Interestingly, some of these enzymes oligomerize to form dimers, tetramers, and hexamers. Not only can such assemblies enable enzyme regulation by allostery, but they can also provide a modest enhancement of terpenoid product flux through proximity channeling or cluster channeling. The mixing and matching of functional terpenoid cyclase domains through tertiary and/or quaternary structure may also comprise an evolutionary strategy for facile product diversification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Diversity of Plants Belonging to the Genus Ligularia (Asteraceae) Based on Terpenoids and Synthetic Studies on Some Terpenoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    The terpenoid constituents of Ligularia virgaurea (30 samples), Ligularia pleurocaulis (8 samples), Ligularia dictyoneura (8 samples), Ligularia brassicoides (5 samples), Ligularia lingiana (1 sample), and Ligularia liatroides (1 sample)(all belonging to section Senecillis of Ligularia, Asteraceae and collected in Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces, China), from which 220 compounds were isolated, including 113 novel ones, are reviewed. Five chemotypes were identified in L. virgaurea based on their chemical constituents, while three clades were detected from the base sequences. Although intra-specific diversity was found in L. virgaurea, more samples were needed of other species in order to reach a definite conclusion. Inter-specific diversity was also examined in section Senecillis but was restricted due to the scarcity of samples. Synthetic studies on chiral natural products to determine their absolute configurations, especially those of riccardiphenols A and B as well as crispatanolide, which were all isolated from the liverwort, are briefly reviewed.

  7. The ORCA2 transcription factor plays a key role in regulation of the terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Yao; Leopold, Alex L; Sander, Guy W; Shanks, Jacqueline V; Zhao, Le; Gibson, Susan I

    2013-10-08

    The terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) pathway leads to the production of pharmaceutically important drugs, such as the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Unfortunately, these drugs are produced in trace amounts, causing them to be very costly. To increase production of these drugs, an improved understanding of the TIA regulatory pathway is needed. Towards this end, transgenic Catharanthus roseus hairy roots that overexpress the ORCA2 TIA transcriptional activator were generated and characterized. Transcriptional profiling experiments revealed that overexpression of ORCA2 results in altered expression of key genes from the indole and terpenoid pathways, which produce precursors for the TIA pathway, and from the TIA pathway itself. In addition, metabolite-profiling experiments revealed that overexpression of ORCA2 significantly affects the levels of several TIA metabolites. ORCA2 overexpression also causes significant increases in transcript levels of several TIA regulators, including TIA transcriptional repressors. Results presented here indicate that ORCA2 plays a critical role in regulation of TIA metabolism. ORCA2 regulates expression of key genes from both feeder pathways, as well as the genes (STR and SGD) encoding the enzymes that catalyze the first two steps in TIA biosynthesis. ORCA2 may play an especially important role in regulation of the downstream branches of the TIA pathway, as it regulates four out of five genes characterized from this part of the pathway. Regulation of TIA transcriptional repressors by ORCA2 may provide a mechanism whereby increases in TIA metabolite levels in response to external stimuli are transient and limited in magnitude.

  8. Heterologous stable expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes using the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Søren Spanner; King, Brian Christopher; Zhan, Xin

    2014-01-01

    , such as streamlining of large scale Agrobacterium infiltration and upregulation of the upstream pathways, transient in planta heterologous expression quickly reaches limitations when used for production of terpenoids. Stable integration of transgenes into the nuclear genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens has...... and cultivation of transgenic lines, and metabolite analysis of terpenoids produced in transgenic moss lines. We also provide tools for metabolic engineering through genome editing using homologous recombination....

  9. Automatic identification of terpenoid skeletons by feed-forward neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerenciano, Vicente P. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 26077, 05513-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: vdpemere@iq.usp.br; Alvarenga, Sandra A.V. [Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta, UNESP, CEP 12516-410, Guaratingueta, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Scotti, Marcus Tullius [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 26077, 05513-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Marcelo J.P. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 26077, 05513-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stefani, Ricardo [Departamento de Quimica, FFCLRP, USP, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, CEP 14040-905, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nuzillard, Jean-Marc [FRE 2715, University of Reims, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 REIMS Cedex 2 (France)

    2006-10-10

    Feed-forward neural networks (FFNNs) were used to predict the skeletal type of molecules belonging to six classes of terpenoids. A database that contains the {sup 13}C NMR spectra of about 5000 compounds was used to train the FFNNs. An efficient representation of the spectra was designed and the constitution of the best FFNN input vector format resorted from an heuristic approach. The latter was derived from general considerations on terpenoid structures.

  10. A new hetero dimeric terpenoid derivative, japonicaside C, from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Bo; Yu, Yang; Mei, Yu-Dan; Meng, Zhao-Qing; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Xiao, Wei; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    A rare hetero dimeric terpenoid derivative, named japonicaside C, together with five known secoiridoid gloucosides were isolated from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Japonicaside C is the first representative of a novel type of hetero dimeric terpenoid, biogenetically originated from a guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid and a secoiridoid glucoside. Anti-virus activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in vitro.

  11. Studies of plant terpenoid biosynthesis using 13C stable isotope labeling techniques (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7583)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirardo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to deepen our understanding of plant terpenoid biosynthesis and the regulation of the 2-C-methylerythritol-4-phosphate pathway (MEP) with respect to isoprene and monoterpene biosynthesis in plant. For this purposes, stable isotope techniques were employed, providing information on the carbon sources for terpenoids biosynthesis and C fluxes within the MEP pathway at various spatial and temporal scales, as well as giving insight into the regulation of enzymes from the MEP pathway.

  12. Diabetes incidence and glucose intolerance prevalence increase with higher outdoor temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Blauw, Lisanne L; Aziz, N Ahmad; Tannemaat, Martijn R; Blauw, C Alexander; de Craen, Anton J; Pijl, Hanno; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2017-01-01

    Objective Rising global temperatures might contribute to the current worldwide diabetes epidemic, as higher ambient temperature can negatively impact glucose metabolism via a reduction in brown adipose tissue activity. Therefore, we examined the association between outdoor temperature and diabetes incidence in the USA as well as the prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide. Research design and methods Using meta-regression, we determined the association between mean annual temperature and ...

  13. Cytokinin and ethylene control indole alkaloid production at the level of the MEP/terpenoid pathway in Catharanthus roseus suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papon, Nicolas; Bremer, Jennifer; Vansiri, Amérin; Andreu, Françoise; Rideau, Marc; Crèche, Joël

    2005-06-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseus accumulates a number of terpenoid indole alkaloids, some of which have high therapeutic interest. The biotechnological approach with cells in vitro remains an alternative to the field culture of periwinkle for the production of such compounds. We previously reported that two phytohormones, cytokinin and ethylene, remarkably enhanced the accumulation of alkaloids in periwinkle cell suspensions. In this work, we investigated the effects of these hormones on the regulation of several genes of the indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway. We show that cytokinin and/or ethylene greatly enhanced the expression of the geraniol 10-hydroxylase gene. When given together, these hormones also increased the expression of three genes belonging to the methyl-erythritol pathway. These results make it possible to consider elements of cytokinin and ethylene signalling pathways as tools for improving terpenoid indole alkaloid production through metabolic engineering.

  14. Growth of Cyanobacterium aponinum influenced by increasing salt concentrations and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckelmann, Dominik; Bleeke, Franziska; Bergmann, Peter; Klöck, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    The increasing requirement of food neutral biofuels demands the detection of alternative sources. The use of non-arable land and waste water streams is widely discussed in this regard. A Cyanobacterium was isolated on the area of a possible algae production side near a water treatment plant in the arid desert region al-Wusta. It was identified as Cyanobacterium aponinum PB1 and is a possible lipid source. To determine its suitability of a production process using this organism, a set of laboratory experiments were performed. Its growth behavior was examined in regard to high temperatures and increasing NaCl concentrations. A productivity of 0.1 g L-1 per day was measured at an alga density below 0.75 g L-1. C. aponinum PB1 showed no sign of altered growth behavior in media containing 70 g L-1 NaCl or less. Detection of a negative effect of NaCl on the growth using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation chlorophyll fluorescence analysis was not more sensitive than optical density measurement.

  15. Digital Gene Expression Profiling to Explore Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Terpenoid Biosynthesis during Fruit Development in Litsea cubeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain pepper (Litsea cubeba (Lour. Pers. (Lauraceae is an important industrial crop as an ingredient in cosmetics, pesticides, food additives and potential biofuels. These properties are attributed to monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. However, there is still no integrated model describing differentially expressed genes (DEGs involved in terpenoid biosynthesis during the fruit development of L. cubeba. Here, we performed digital gene expression (DGE using the Illumina NGS platform to evaluated changes in gene expression during fruit development in L. cubeba. DGE generated expression data for approximately 19354 genes. Fruit at 60 days after flowering (DAF served as the control, and a total of 415, 1255, 449 and 811 up-regulated genes and 505, 1351, 1823 and 1850 down-regulated genes were identified at 75, 90, 105 and 135 DAF, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed 26 genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. Three DEGs had continued increasing or declining trends during the fruit development. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR results of five differentially expressed genes were consistent with those obtained from Illumina sequencing. These results provide a comprehensive molecular biology background for research on fruit development, and information that should aid in metabolic engineering to increase the yields of L. cubeba essential oil.

  16. Various Terpenoids Derived from Herbal and Dietary Plants Function as PPAR Modulators and Regulate Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Goto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several herbal plants improve medical conditions. Such plants contain many bioactive phytochemicals. Terpenoids (also called “isoprenoids” constitute one of the largest families of natural products accounting for more than 40,000 individual compounds of both primary and secondary metabolisms. In particular, terpenoids are contained in many herbal plants, and several terpenoids have been shown to be available for pharmaceutical applications, for example, artemisinin and taxol as malaria and cancer medicines, respectively. Various terpenoids are contained in many plants for not only herbal use but also dietary use. In this paper, we describe several bioactive terpenoids contained in herbal or dietary plants, which can modulate the activities of ligand-dependent transcription factors, namely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. Because PPARs are dietary lipid sensors that control energy homeostasis, daily eating of these terpenoids might be useful for the management for obesity-induced metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. [Increase in skin surface temperature in spinal anesthesia. Predictive value for probability of surgical tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penno, A; Arumugam, M; Antweiler, G; Laubert, T; Habermann, J; Bruch, H-P

    2012-09-01

    Spinal anesthesia causes sympathetic blockade which leads to changes in the local temperature of the skin surface due to hyperemia. These changes in skin temperature were used in a newly developed method for estimating the level of analgesia. A total of 11 patients who were scheduled for surgical procedures of the lower extremities with symmetrical spinal anesthesia were included in the clinical study. By means of an electronic digital multi-channel body temperature measurement device with eight high precision temperature sensors placed on defined dermatomes, patient skin temperature was continuously measured at 2 s intervals and documented before, during and for 45 min after spinal anesthesia. Simultaneously, a neurological pin-prick test was carried on at regular intervals every 2 min on the defined dermatomes to calculate the correlation between the effects of analgesia and corresponding changes in skin temperature. The analyzed correlations showed that there is a minimum of 1.05°C temperature difference before and after spinal anesthesia especially on the lower extremities (foot, knee, inguinal) of patient dermatomes. The collected data of varying temperature differences were systematically evaluated using statistical software which led to a deeper understanding of the interdependency between temperature differences at different dermatomes. These interdependencies of temperature differences were used to develop a systematic analgesia level measurement algorithm. The algorithm calculates the skin temperature differences at specified dermatomes to find the accurate level of analgesia and also to find the forward and reverse progresses of analgesia. The developed mathematical method shows that it is possible to predict the level of analgesia up to an accuracy of 95% after spinal anesthesia. Therefore, it can be concluded that systematic processing of skin temperature data, collected at defined dermatomes can be used as a promising parameter for predicting

  18. Increasing Water Temperature Triggers Dominance of Small Freshwater Plankton: e0140449

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serena Rasconi; Andrea Gall; Katharina Winter; Martin J Kainz

    2015-01-01

    ...") of aquatic ecosystems. Using a multi-seasonal, low trophic state mesocosm experiment, we investigated how higher water temperature and brownification affect plankton community composition, phenology, and functioning...

  19. Cadmium and copper induced changes in growth, oxidative metabolism and terpenoids of Tanacetum parthenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojati, Mostafa; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Enferadi, Sattar Tahmasebi; Majdi, Mohammad; Ghanati, Faezeh; Farzadfar, Soudeh; Pazoki, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    Morphological and biochemical responses of feverfew plants exposed to low (5 μM) and high (35 and 70 μM) levels of Cd or Cu were investigated. Increasing metal supply notably reduced the plant biomass. Elevated Cd and Cu levels also resulted in an increase in the leaf proline content. Besides, decrease in ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) contents was similar in the leaves of Cd- and Cu-treated plants, indicating altered biosynthesis of AsA and GSH under metal excess. High metal doses stimulated increase in antioxidative enzyme activities that could be related to elevated hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content and subsequent lipid peroxidation. Cd was typically more accumulated in shoots and roots than Cu, leading to higher translocation factor at high Cd doses. In terms of essential oil content, it seems that Cd had an inhibitory effect during the experiment, whereas Cu was found to stimulate it only at 5 μM. Furthermore, high Cd supply enhanced the relative proportion of monoterpene hydrocarbons, while Cu increased the proportion of sesquiterpenes, especially at 5 μM. This result provides the first evidence of the response of feverfew plants to Cd or Cu by associating stress-related responses with changes in terpenoids.

  20. Impacts of rising sea temperature on krill increase risks for predators in the Scotia Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Klein

    Full Text Available Climate change is a threat to marine ecosystems and the services they provide, and reducing fishing pressure is one option for mitigating the overall consequences for marine biota. We used a minimally realistic ecosystem model to examine how projected effects of ocean warming on the growth of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, might affect populations of krill and dependent predators (whales, penguins, seals, and fish in the Scotia Sea. We also investigated the potential to mitigate depletion risk for predators by curtailing krill fishing at different points in the 21st century. The projected effects of ocean warming on krill biomass were strongest in the northern Scotia Sea, with a ≥40% decline in the mass of individual krill. Projections also suggest a 25% chance that krill biomass will fall below an established depletion threshold (75% of its unimpacted level, with consequent risks for some predator populations, especially penguins. Average penguin abundance declined by up to 30% of its unimpacted level, with up to a 50% chance of falling below the depletion threshold. Simulated krill fishing at currently permitted harvest rates further increased risks for depletion, and stopping fishing offset the increased risks associated with ocean warming in our model to some extent. These results varied by location and species group. Risk reductions at smaller spatial scales also differed from those at the regional level, which suggests that some predator populations may be more vulnerable than others to future changes in krill biomass. However, impacts on predators did not always map directly to those for krill. Our findings indicate the importance of identifying vulnerable marine populations and targeting protection measures at appropriate spatial scales, and the potential for spatially-structured management to avoid aggravating risks associated with rising ocean temperatures. This may help balance tradeoffs among marine ecosystem services in an

  1. De Novo transcriptome assembly (NGS) of Curcuma longa L. rhizome reveals novel transcripts related to anticancer and antimalarial terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annadurai, Ramasamy S; Neethiraj, Ramprasad; Jayakumar, Vasanthan; Damodaran, Anand C; Rao, Sudha Narayana; Katta, Mohan A V S K; Gopinathan, Sreeja; Sarma, Santosh Prasad; Senthilkumar, Vanitha; Niranjan, Vidya; Gopinath, Ashok; Mugasimangalam, Raja C

    2013-01-01

    Herbal remedies are increasingly being recognised in recent years as alternative medicine for a number of diseases including cancer. Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and in many Asian countries has been attributed to lower incidences of gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the rhizomes of this plant has been shown to have significant anticancer properties, in addition to antimalarial and antioxidant effects. We sequenced the transcriptome of the rhizome of the 3 varieties of Curcuma longa L. using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assembly. Multiple databases were used to obtain a comprehensive annotation and the transcripts were functionally classified using GO, KOG and PlantCyc. Special emphasis was given for annotating the secondary metabolite pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. We report for the first time, the presence of transcripts related to biosynthetic pathways of several anti-cancer compounds like taxol, curcumin, and vinblastine in addition to anti-malarial compounds like artemisinin and acridone alkaloids, emphasizing turmeric's importance as a highly potent phytochemical. Our data not only provides molecular signatures for several terpenoids but also a comprehensive molecular resource for facilitating deeper insights into the transcriptome of C. longa.

  2. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly (NGS) of Curcuma longa L. Rhizome Reveals Novel Transcripts Related to Anticancer and Antimalarial Terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Vasanthan; Damodaran, Anand C.; Rao, Sudha Narayana; Katta, Mohan A. V. S. K.; Gopinathan, Sreeja; Sarma, Santosh Prasad; Senthilkumar, Vanitha; Niranjan, Vidya; Gopinath, Ashok; Mugasimangalam, Raja C.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal remedies are increasingly being recognised in recent years as alternative medicine for a number of diseases including cancer. Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and in many Asian countries has been attributed to lower incidences of gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the rhizomes of this plant has been shown to have significant anticancer properties, in addition to antimalarial and antioxidant effects. We sequenced the transcriptome of the rhizome of the 3 varieties of Curcuma longa L. using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assembly. Multiple databases were used to obtain a comprehensive annotation and the transcripts were functionally classified using GO, KOG and PlantCyc. Special emphasis was given for annotating the secondary metabolite pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. We report for the first time, the presence of transcripts related to biosynthetic pathways of several anti-cancer compounds like taxol, curcumin, and vinblastine in addition to anti-malarial compounds like artemisinin and acridone alkaloids, emphasizing turmeric's importance as a highly potent phytochemical. Our data not only provides molecular signatures for several terpenoids but also a comprehensive molecular resource for facilitating deeper insights into the transcriptome of C. longa. PMID:23468859

  3. Use of chemometric and quantum-mechanical methods in the analysis of bioactive terpenoids and phenylpropanoids against the Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Bezerra dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is one of the main public health problems in the world. Many mosquitoes have developed resistance to the conventional insecticides used. Thus, the search for vegetable extracts and natural substances as alternative insecticides has increased. In this study, chemometric methods were employed to classify a group of terpenoid and phenylpropanoid compounds with biological activity against the larval of the A. aegypti mosquitoes. The AM1 (Austin Model 1 method was used to calculate a set of molecular descriptors (properties for the studied compounds. Then, the descriptors were analyzed using the following methods of pattern recognition: Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA. The PCA and HCA methods have shown to be very effective for the classification of the study compounds in two groups (active and inactive. The electronic variables EHOMO-1, EHOMO-2, ELUMO, ELUMO+2, and the structural LogP were used to classify as active and inactive compounds. In most studied compounds, the variables responsible for separating active from inactive compounds were electronic descriptors. Thus, it can be concluded that electronic effects play a fundamental role in the interaction between biological receptor and terpenoid and phenylpropanoid compounds with activity against larval A. aegypti mosquitoes.

  4. De Novo transcriptome assembly (NGS of Curcuma longa L. rhizome reveals novel transcripts related to anticancer and antimalarial terpenoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy S Annadurai

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are increasingly being recognised in recent years as alternative medicine for a number of diseases including cancer. Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and in many Asian countries has been attributed to lower incidences of gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the rhizomes of this plant has been shown to have significant anticancer properties, in addition to antimalarial and antioxidant effects. We sequenced the transcriptome of the rhizome of the 3 varieties of Curcuma longa L. using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assembly. Multiple databases were used to obtain a comprehensive annotation and the transcripts were functionally classified using GO, KOG and PlantCyc. Special emphasis was given for annotating the secondary metabolite pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. We report for the first time, the presence of transcripts related to biosynthetic pathways of several anti-cancer compounds like taxol, curcumin, and vinblastine in addition to anti-malarial compounds like artemisinin and acridone alkaloids, emphasizing turmeric's importance as a highly potent phytochemical. Our data not only provides molecular signatures for several terpenoids but also a comprehensive molecular resource for facilitating deeper insights into the transcriptome of C. longa.

  5. Turning up the heat: increasing temperature and coral bleaching at the high latitude coral reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdo, David A; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Evans, Scott N

    2012-01-01

    .... A significant La Niña event during 2011 produced anomalous conditions of increased temperature along the whole Western Australian coastline, producing the first-recorded widespread bleaching of corals at the Abrolhos...

  6. Modern plant-derived terpenoids in an upper Michigan river basin and implications for interpreting the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, S.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Lowell, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    Di- and triterpenoids are taxonomically specific plant biomarkers, which are produced by conifers and angiosperms, respectively. Because of this source specificity, terpenoids are often used for paleovegetation reconstruction. However, few studies have evaluated weather terpenoid ratios in modern river systems reflect the surrounding plant community. It is likely that various processes that bias terpenoid ratios as they are transported from plants to sediments. To learn more about these important geologic biomarkers, we used a modern fluvial system as an ancient river analog to provide information on the utility of terpenoids as quantitative paleovegetation proxies. Di- and triterpenoid concentrations were quantified in plants, sediments, and particulate and dissolved organic matter in a small river in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to (1) determine if the contribution of terpenoids from source vegetation is reflected in forested soil and river sediments, and (2) constrain the dispersal of these compounds in fluvial systems. In Miners River drainage basin, evergreen needleleaf conifers are six times less abundant than deciduous broadleaf angiosperms, yet contribute five times more terpenoids to the sediments, when scaled for leaf litter production and present vegetation cover. Thus, using sediment terpenoid ratios alone (ie. no corrections for production differences between major taxonomic groups) to reconstruct vegetation will drastically over represent evergreen conifer populations. Sediment di-/triterpenoid ratios are considerably lower than the expected terpenoid flux from vegetation, suggesting these compounds are preferentially lost between source and sink. In Miners River, terpenoids are transported in the particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM) fractions of river water. Fluvial transport of terpenoids does not appear to influence river sediment terpenoid concentrations in fresh water systems, like Miners River, however, transport by POM and

  7. Microclimatic temperatures increase the potential for vector-borne disease transmission in the Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Kristensen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    We quantified the difference between the meteorological temperature recorded by the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) weather stations and the actual microclimatic temperatures at two or three different heights at six potential insect habitats. We then compared the impact of the hourly temper...

  8. Tunneling Performance Increases at Lower Temperatures for Solenopsis invicta (Buren but not for Nylanderia fulva (Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Bentley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nylanderia fulva (Mayr, the tawny crazy ant, is an invasive pest established in Florida and several other Gulf Coast states. In their invasive ranges in the Southeastern USA, large N. fulva populations have reduced species abundance, even displacing another invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren. In North Florida, N. fulva populations survive winter temperatures that reach below freezing for extended periods. However, the shallow littoral debris used by N. fulva for nest construction offers little insulation to brood and reproductives when exposed to freezing temperatures. Field populations of N. fulva in North Florida were observed tunneling below ground, a previously undescribed behavior. Other invasive ants exhibit similar subterranean tunneling behavior as a means of thermoregulation. To test the hypothesis that N. fulva has the capacity to construct subterranean tunnels across a range of ecologically relevant temperatures, tunneling performance for N. fulva and S. invicta, another invasive ant that tunnels extensively, were compared at four temperatures (15.0, 18.0, 20.0, and 22.0 °C. Overall, N. fulva tunneled significantly less than S. invicta. Nylanderia fulva tunneled furthest at warmer temperatures whereas S. invicta tunneled furthest at cooler temperatures. However, N. fulva constructed subterranean tunnels at all temperatures evaluated. These data support the hypothesis that N. fulva is capable of tunneling in temperatures as low as 15.0 °C, confirming that this ant can also perform a behavior that is used by other ants for cold avoidance.

  9. Effects of temperature and medium composition on inhibitory activities of gossypol-related compounds against aflatoxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, J E; Dowd, M K; Beltz, S B

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effects of temperature and medium composition on growth/aflatoxin inhibitory activities of terpenoids gossypol, gossypolone and apogossypolone against Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 100 μg ml(-1) in a Czapek Dox (Czapek) agar medium at 25, 31 and 37°C. Increased incubation temperature marginally increased growth inhibition caused by these compounds, but reduced the aflatoxin inhibition effected by gossypol. Gossypolone and apogossypolone retained good aflatoxin inhibitory activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus at higher incubation temperatures. However, increased temperature also significantly reduced aflatoxin production in control cultures. The effects of the terpenoids on fungal growth and aflatoxin production against the same fungi were also determined in Czapek, Czapek with a protein/amino acid addendum and yeast extract sucrose (YES) media. Growth of these fungi in the protein-supplemented Czapek medium or in the YES medium greatly reduced the growth inhibition effects of the terpenoids. Apogossypolone displayed strong anti-aflatoxigenic activity in the Czapek medium, but this activity was significantly reduced in the protein-amended Czapek and YES media. Gossypol, which displayed little to no aflatoxin inhibitory activity in the Czapek medium, did yield significant anti-aflatoxigenic activity in the YES medium. Incubation temperature and media composition are important parameters involved in the regulation of aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. These parameters also affect the potency of growth and aflatoxin inhibitory activities of these gossypol-related compounds against aflatoxigenic fungi. Studies utilizing gossypol-related compounds as inhibitory agents of biological activities should be interpreted with caution due to compound interaction with multiple components of the test system, especially serum proteins. Published [2013]. This article is a

  10. Characterization of eight terpenoids from tissue cultures of the Chinese herbal plant, Tripterygium wilfordii, by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping; Cheng, Qiqing; Wang, Xiujuan; Cheng, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Meng; Tong, Yuru; Li, Fei; Gao, Wei; Huang, Luqi

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a reliable method for analysis and identification of eight terpenoids in tissue cultures of Tripterygium wilfordii has been established using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Our study indicated that sterile seedlings, callus cultures and cell-suspension cultures can rapidly increase the amount of biological materials. HPLC-ESI-MS was used to identify terpenoids from the extracts of these tissue cultures. Triptolide, triptophenolide, celastrol and wilforlide A were unambiguously determined by comparing the retention times, UV spectral data, and mass fragmentation behaviors with those of the reference compounds. Another four compounds were tentatively identified as triptonoterpenol, triptonoterpene, 22β-hydroxy-3-oxoolean-12-en-29-oic acid and wilforlide B, based on their UV and mass spectrometry spectra. The quantitative analysis showed that all three materials contain triptolide, triptophenolide, celastrol, wilforlide A, and the contents of the four compounds in the cell-suspension cultures were 53.1, 240, 129 and 964 µg/g, respectively, which were at least 2.0-fold higher than these in the sterile seedlings and callus cultures. Considering the known pharmacological activity of triptolide and celastrol, we recommend the cell-suspension cultures as biological materials for future studies, such as clinical and toxicological studies. The developed method was validated by the evaluation of its precision, linearity, detection limits and recovery, and it was successfully used to identify and quantify the terpenoids in the tissue cultures.

  11. Can Ozone Alter the Terpenoid Composition and Membrane Integrity of in vitro Melissa officinalis Shoots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Tonelli, Mariagrazia; Pellegrini, Elisa; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Pistelli, Luisa; Pistelli, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Ozone affects volatile organic compounds that protect plants from biotic and abiotic stress. In vitro Melissa officinalis shoots were exposed to ozone (200 ppb, 3 h) in controlled environmental conditions: leaf pigments, membrane integrity and headspace composition were assayed during fumigation and after the recovery period (3 h from the beginning of the exposure, FBE). At the end of the exposure, no injury was observed in untreated and treated shoots, although an evident increase in lipid peroxidation was reported (+38.5 and +37.2% of TBARS levels in comparison with controls, respectively after 1 and 3 h FBE). The levels of total carotenoids significantly rose as a normal response mechanism to oxidative stress. SPME-GS-MS analysis showed that, as a consequence of the fumigation, the trends in non-terpenoid compounds increased after 1 and 3 h FBE. This suggests that the concentration and the duration of the treatment were enough to cause a breakdown of cells (as evidenced by increased TBARS levels) and involves an association between volatile products of the lipoxygenase pathway (LOX products) and membrane degradation.

  12. Electrocardiographic profile of guinea pig heart submitted to Ginkgo biloba extract and its terpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.O. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiographic effects produced by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb and by ginkgolides A (GA and B (GB, and bilobalide (BB were investigated in guinea pig heart mounted in Langendorff apparatus (Tyrode, 34 ± 0.1 ºC, 95% O2, 5% CO2. Electrocardiographic parameters were evaluated in the conditions: 1 control with Tyrode and DMSO, 2 EGb (n=4, GA (n=5, GB (n=5 or BB (n=6, and 3 washout. The results showed that 0.1 and 1.0 mg/ml of EGb do not change the electrocardiographic parameters. However, 10 mg/ml of EGb increased the PR interval (PRi at 21% (p<0.001. This increase was also observed for 50 mM GA (20%, p<0.001 and 70 mM BB (13%, p<0.001, which indicates Ca2+ channel block. However, the 50 mM GB reduced the PRi at 11 % (p<0.001. The GA (23%, p<0.001, GB (16%, p<0.001, and BB (40%, p<0.001 reduced the QT interval (QTi, which suggests the activation of the potassium channel. However, EGb increased QTi (6%, p<0.001. The EGb (28%, p<0.05 and GB (13%, p<0.05 reduced the heart rate. Atrioventricular (AV block was observed with EGb, GA, and BB. We can conclude that EGb and its terpenoids alter the ECG parameters inducing AV block, which indicates possible arrhythmogenic potential.

  13. GABA(A) receptor modulation by terpenoids from Sideritis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Artur; Sahin-Nadeem, Hilal; Lummis, Sarah C R; Weigel, Ingrid; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Buettner, Andrea; Villmann, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    GABAA receptors are modulated by Sideritis extracts. The aim of this study was to identify single substances from Sideritis extracts responsible for GABAA receptor modulation. Single volatile substances identified by GC have been tested in two expression systems, Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney cells. Some of these substances, especially carvacrol, were highly potent on GABAA receptors composed of α1β2 and α1β2γ2 subunits. All effects measured were independent from the presence of the γ2 subunit. As Sideritis extracts contain a high amount of terpenes, 13 terpenes with similar structure elements were tested in the same way. Following a prescreening on α1β2 GABAA receptors, a high-throughput method was used for identification of the most effective terpenoid substances on GABA-affinity of α1β2γ2 receptors expressed in transfected cell lines. Isopulegol, pinocarveol, verbenol, and myrtenol were the most potent modifiers of GABAA receptor function. Comparing the chemical structures, the action of terpenes on GABAA receptors is most probably due to the presence of hydroxyl groups and a bicyclic character of the substances tested. We propose an allosteric modulation independent from the γ2 subunit and similar to the action of alcohols and anesthetics. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Botryane, noreudesmane and abietane terpenoids from the ascomycete Hypoxylon rickii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Eric; Surup, Frank; Wiebach, Vincent; Bernecker, Steffen; Stadler, Marc

    2015-09-01

    In the course of our screening for new bioactive natural products, a culture of Hypoxylon rickii, a xylariaceous ascomycete collected from the Caribbean island Martinique, was identified as extraordinary prolific producer of secondary metabolites. Ten metabolites of terpenoid origin were isolated from submerged cultures of this species by preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated using spectral techniques including 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Three of the compounds were elucidated as new botryanes (1-3) along with three known ones, i.e. (3aS)-3a,5,5,8-tetramethyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-cyclopenta[de]isochromen-1-one (4), (3aS,8R)-3a,5,5,8-tetramethyl-3,3a,4,5,7,8-hexahydro-1H-cyclopenta[de]isochromen-1-one (5) and botryenanol (6). Further three new sesquiterpenoids featured a 14-noreudesmane-type skeleton and were named hypoxylan A-C (7-9); the diterpenoid rickitin A (10) contains an abietane-type backbone. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 7, and 10 showed cytotoxic effects against murine cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GABAA receptor modulation by terpenoids from Sideritis extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Artur; Sahin-Nadeem, Hilal; Lummis, Sarah C R; Weigel, Ingrid; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Buettner, Andrea; Villmann, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Scope GABAA receptors are modulated by Sideritis extracts. The aim of this study was to identify single substances from Sideritis extracts responsible for GABAA receptor modulation. Methods and results Single volatile substances identified by GC have been tested in two expression systems, Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney cells. Some of these substances, especially carvacrol, were highly potent on GABAA receptors composed of α1β2 and α1β2γ2 subunits. All effects measured were independent from the presence of the γ2 subunit. As Sideritis extracts contain a high amount of terpenes, 13 terpenes with similar structure elements were tested in the same way. Following a prescreening on α1β2 GABAA receptors, a high-throughput method was used for identification of the most effective terpenoid substances on GABA-affinity of α1β2γ2 receptors expressed in transfected cell lines. Isopulegol, pinocarveol, verbenol, and myrtenol were the most potent modifiers of GABAA receptor function. Conclusion Comparing the chemical structures, the action of terpenes on GABAA receptors is most probably due to the presence of hydroxyl groups and a bicyclic character of the substances tested. We propose an allosteric modulation independent from the γ2 subunit and similar to the action of alcohols and anesthetics. PMID:24273211

  16. Generation of sclerosant foams by mechanical methods increases the foam temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lulu; Wong, Kaichung; Connor, David; Fakhim, Babak; Behnia, Masud; Parsi, Kurosh

    2017-08-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of agitation on foam temperature. Methods Sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol were used. Prior to foam generation, the sclerosant and all constituent equipment were cooled to 4-25℃ and compared with cooling the sclerosant only. Foam was generated using a modified Tessari method. During foam agitation, the temperature change was measured using a thermocouple for 120 s. Results Pre-cooling all the constituent equipment resulted in a cooler foam in comparison with only cooling the sclerosant. A starting temperature of 4℃ produced average foam temperatures of 12.5 and 13.2℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. It was also found that only cooling the liquid sclerosant provided minimal cooling to the final foam temperature, with the temperature 20 and 20.5℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. Conclusion The foam generation process has a noticeable impact on final foam temperature and needs to be taken into consideration when creating foam.

  17. Headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with mass spectrometry as a powerful analytical tool for profiling the terpenoid metabolomic pattern of hop-essential oil derived from Saaz variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, João; Figueira, José; Rodrigues, Fátima; Câmara, José S

    2012-09-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L., Cannabaceae family) is prized for its essential oil contents, used in beer production and, more recently, in biological and pharmacological applications. In this work, a method involving headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and optimized to establish the terpenoid (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) metabolomic pattern of hop-essential oil derived from Saaz variety as a mean to explore this matrix as a powerful biological source for newer, more selective, biodegradable and naturally produced antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds. Different parameters affecting terpenoid metabolites extraction by headspace solid-phase microextraction were considered and optimized: type of fiber coatings, extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength, and sample agitation. In the optimized method, analytes were extracted for 30 min at 40°C in the sample headspace with a 50/30 μm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane coating fiber. The methodology allowed the identification of a total of 27 terpenoid metabolites, representing 92.5% of the total Saaz hop-essential oil volatile terpenoid composition. The headspace composition was dominated by monoterpenes (56.1%, 13 compounds), sesquiterpenes (34.9%, 10), oxygenated monoterpenes (1.41%, 3), and hemiterpenes (0.04%, 1) some of which can probably contribute to the hop of Saaz variety aroma. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the main metabolites are the monoterpene β-myrcene (53.0 ± 1.1% of the total volatile fraction), and the cyclic sesquiterpenes, α-humulene (16.6 ± 0.8%), and β-caryophyllene (14.7 ± 0.4%), which together represent about 80% of the total volatile fraction from the hop-essential oil. These findings suggest that this matrix can be explored as a powerful biosource of terpenoid metabolites. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Method of Hydrogenous Fuel Usage to Increase the Efficiency in Tandem Diverse Temperature Oxidation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimation energy efficiency, the collation data of thermodynamic calculations and data on material balance for an assessment of electric and thermal components in considered ways to use convention products, performance enhancement in the tandem system containing the high-temperature fuel cell and the low-temperature fuel cell with full heat regeneration for hydrogenous fuel (CH4. The overall effective efficiency (ηΣef. making full use of the recovered heat considered tandem system depends on the efficiency of its constituent fuel cells. The overall effective efficiency of the tandem installation including the fuel converter, separating system, high-temperature oxidation system, and hydrogen disposal system in case of fuel use in the low-temperature fuel cell, is higher than for each of the fuel cell elements separately.

  19. Increasing soil temperature in a northern hardwood forest: effects on elemental dynamics and primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. McHale; Myron J. Mitchell; Dudley J. Raynal; Francis P. Bowles

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effects of elevated soil temperatures on a forest ecosystem, heating cables were buried at a depth of 5 cm within the forest floor of a northern hardwood forest at the Huntington Wildlife Forest (Adirondack Mountains, New York). Temperature was elevated 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5?C above ambient, during May - September in both 1993 and 1994. Various aspects of...

  20. Cleaning products and air fresheners: emissions and resulting concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, B C; Destaillats, H; Hodgson, A T; Nazaroff, W W

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m3 room ventilated at approximately 0.5/h. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 microg/m3 for individual terpenoids, including alpha-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and alpha-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or d-limonene were 300-6000 microg/m3 after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, and approximately 25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were approximately 35-70% with towels retained, and 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-citronellol) were emitted at 35-180 mg/day over 3 days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 microg/m3. While effective cleaning can improve the healthfulness of indoor environments, this work shows that use of some consumer cleaning agents can yield high levels of volatile organic compounds, including glycol ethers--which are regulated toxic air contaminants--and terpenes that can react with ozone to form a variety of secondary pollutants including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles. Persons involved in cleaning, especially those who clean occupationally or often, might encounter

  1. Selected terpenoids from medicinal plants modulate endoplasmic reticulum stress in metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, Natasha; Levendal, Ruby-Ann; Frost, Carminita L

    2014-11-01

    The majority of research performed on cellular stress and apoptosis focuses on mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the importance of the endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction and the link to metabolic diseases has gained a substantial interest. This review focuses on the potential of terpenoids to influence endoplasmic reticulum stress and the possible role terpenoids play as the treatment of metabolic diseases. Metabolic diseases develop as a result of a cascade of cellular pathways. In most cases, cells are able to compensate for the disruption of the cellular homeostasis although the initiation of response pathways; however, chronic stress initiates apoptotic pathways. This reviewed (1) showed the importance of phytoterpenoids to influence endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and homeostasis, (2) showed how regulating ER stress affect the cell survival and death, and (3) highlighted some examples of how the progression of metabolic diseases can be influenced by ER. Due to the substantial number of terpenoids that have been identified in literature, this review gave examples of 21 terpenoids that have been documented to have an effect on the different proteins associated with ER stress, how these plant terpenoids influence ER dysfunction and metabolic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, liver, and neurological diseases and parasitic infections. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Enantioselective high performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography separation of spirocyclic terpenoid flavor compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffrath, Mathias; Weidmann, Verena; Maison, Wolfgang

    2014-10-10

    Chiral spirocyclic terpenoids are abundant natural flavors with significant impact particularly on the food industry. Chromatographic methods for analytical and preparative separation of these compounds are therefore of high interest to natural product chemists in academia and industry. Gas chromatography on chiral stationary phases is currently the standard method for the separation of volatile terpenoids, limiting the scale to analytical quantities. We report herein high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) protocols for the chiral separation of several racemic spirocyclic terpenoids such as the important flavors theaspirane and vitispirane. A screening of mobile phases and 16 commercially available chiral stationary phases (CSPs) largely based on polysaccharides led to identification of protocols for the separation of all terpenoids tested. SFC methods were found to be particularly useful for the separation of these spirocyclic flavors due to the volatility and low polarity of the compounds. The reported chiral HPLC and SFC protocols are scalable alternatives to gas chromatographic separations of volatile terpenoid flavors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation of a Petri net-based model of the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawari, Aliah Hazmah; Mohamed-Hussein, Zeti-Azura

    2010-02-09

    The development and simulation of dynamic models of terpenoid biosynthesis has yielded a systems perspective that provides new insights into how the structure of this biochemical pathway affects compound synthesis. These insights may eventually help identify reactions that could be experimentally manipulated to amplify terpenoid production. In this study, a dynamic model of the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway was constructed based on the Hybrid Functional Petri Net (HFPN) technique. This technique is a fusion of three other extended Petri net techniques, namely Hybrid Petri Net (HPN), Dynamic Petri Net (HDN) and Functional Petri Net (FPN). The biological data needed to construct the terpenoid metabolic model were gathered from the literature and from biological databases. These data were used as building blocks to create an HFPNe model and to generate parameters that govern the global behaviour of the model. The dynamic model was simulated and validated against known experimental data obtained from extensive literature searches. The model successfully simulated metabolite concentration changes over time (pt) and the observations correlated with known data. Interactions between the intermediates that affect the production of terpenes could be observed through the introduction of inhibitors that established feedback loops within and crosstalk between the pathways. Although this metabolic model is only preliminary, it will provide a platform for analysing various high-throughput data, and it should lead to a more holistic understanding of terpenoid biosynthesis.

  4. The flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase modulates terpenoid production in glandular trichomes of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Ho; McRoberts, John; Shi, Feng; Moreno, Javier E; Jones, A Daniel; Howe, Gregg A

    2014-03-01

    Flavonoids and terpenoids are derived from distinct metabolic pathways but nevertheless serve complementary roles in mediating plant interactions with the environment. Here, we show that glandular trichomes of the anthocyanin free (af) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fail to accumulate both flavonoids and terpenoids. This pleiotropic metabolic deficiency was associated with loss of resistance to native populations of coleopteran herbivores under field conditions. We demonstrate that Af encodes an isoform (SlCHI1) of the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI), which catalyzes the conversion of naringenin chalcone to naringenin and is strictly required for flavonoid production in multiple tissues of tomato. Expression of the wild-type SlCHI1 gene from its native promoter complemented the anthocyanin deficiency in af. Unexpectedly, the SlCHI1 transgene also complemented the defect in terpenoid production in glandular trichomes. Our results establish a key role for SlCHI1 in flavonoid production in tomato and reveal a link between CHI1 and terpenoid production. Metabolic coordination of the flavonoid and terpenoid pathways may serve to optimize the function of trichome glands in dynamic environments.

  5. Near-infrared evidence for a sudden temperature increase in Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehner, Andrea; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Whitelock, Patricia; Nagayama, Takahiro; Feast, Michael; van Wyk, Francois; de Wit, Willem-Jan

    2014-04-01

    Aims: Eta Car's ultra-violet, optical, and X-ray light curves and its spectrum suggest a physical change in its stellar wind over the last decade. It has been proposed that the mass-loss rate has decreased by a factor of about 2 over the last 15 years. We complement these recent results by investigating the past evolution and the current state of η Car in the near-infrared (IR). Methods: We present JHKL photometry of η Car obtained at SAAO Sutherland from 2004-2013 with the Mk II photometer at the 0.75 m telescope and JHKs photometry with SIRIUS at the 1.4 m IRSF telescope from 2012-2013. The near-IR light curves since 1972 are analyzed. Results: The long-term brightening trends in η Car's JHKL light curves were discontinuous around the 1998 periastron passage. After 1998, the star shows excess emission above the extrapolated trend from earlier dates, especially in J and H, and the blueward, cyclical progression in its near-IR colors is accelerated. The near-IR color evolution is strongly correlated with the periastron passages. After correcting for the secular trend we find that the color evolution matches an apparent increase in blackbody temperature of an optically thick near-IR emitting plasma component from about 3500 K to 6000 K over the last 20 years. Conclusions: We suggest that the changing near-IR emission may be caused by variability in optically thick bremsstrahlung emission. Periastron passages play an important role in the observed excess near-IR emission after 1998 and the long-term color evolution. We thus propose the hypothesis that angular momentum transfer (via tidal acceleration) during periastron passages leads to sudden changes in η Car's atmosphere resulting in a long-term decrease in the mass-loss rate. Tables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A14

  6. Increased expression of Escherichia coli polynucleotide phosphorylase at low temperatures is linked to a decrease in the efficiency of autocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, N; Jarrige, A C; Robert-Le Meur, M; Portier, C

    2001-07-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) synthesis is translationally autocontrolled via an RNase III-dependent mechanism, which results in a tight correlation between protein level and messenger stability. In cells grown at 18 degrees C, the amount of PNPase is twice that found in cells grown at 30 degrees C. To investigate whether this effect was transcriptional or posttranscriptional, the expression of a set of pnp-lacZ transcriptional and translational fusions was analyzed in cells grown at different temperatures. In the absence of PNPase, there was no increase in pnp-lacZ expression, indicating that the increase in pnp expression occurs at a posttranscriptional level. Other experiments clearly show that increased pnp expression at low temperature is only observed under conditions in which the autocontrol mechanism of PNPase is functional. At low temperature, the destabilizing effect of PNPase on its own mRNA is less efficient, leading to a decrease in repression and an increase in the expression level.

  7. Effect of increasing temperatures on the distribution of spruce beetle in Engelmann spruce forests of the Interior West, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Barbara J. Bentz; James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2013-01-01

    The spruce beetle (Dendoctronus rufipennis) is a pervasive bark beetle indigenous to spruce (Picea spp.) forests of North America. In the last two decades outbreaks of spruce beetle have increased in severity and extent. Increasing temperatures have been implicated as they directly control beetle populations, potentially inciting endemic populations to build to...

  8. Effect of the rate of temperature increase on water quality during heating in electromagnetic- and gas-heated pans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Ken

    2004-04-01

    More rapid increases in the pH value and hardness during electromagnetic heating of a pan of water were observed than when the pan was heated by LNG or LPG. The water quality changed universally in several tap water samples across Japan. This quality change was closely correlated with the rate of temperature increase, irrespective of heating by electromagnetic induction, LNG or LPG.

  9. The potential effects of climate-change-associated temperature increases on the metabolic rate of a small Afrotropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindy J; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2015-05-15

    Studies have only recently begun to underline the importance of including data on the physiological flexibility of a species when modelling its vulnerability to extinction from climate change. We investigated the effects of a 4°C increase in ambient temperature (Ta), similar to that predicted for southern Africa by the year 2080, on certain physiological variables of a 10-12 g passerine bird endemic to southern Africa, the Cape white-eye Zosterops virens. There was no significant difference in resting metabolism, body mass and intraperitoneal body temperature between birds housed indoors at 4°C above outside ambient temperature and those housed indoors at outside ambient temperature. We conclude that the physiological flexibility of Cape white-eyes will aid them in coping with the 4°C increase predicted for their range by 2080. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Multi-sensor esophageal temperature probe used during radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation is associated with increased intraluminal temperature detection and increased risk of esophageal injury compared to single-sensor probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brett J; Contreras-Valdes, Fernando M; Heist, E Kevin; Barrett, Conor D; Danik, Stephan B; Ruskin, Jeremy N; Mansour, Moussa

    2013-09-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation in the posterior left atrium has risk of thermal injury to the adjacent esophagus. Increased intraluminal esophageal temperature has been correlated with risk of esophageal injury. The objective of this study was to compare esophageal temperature monitoring (ETM) using a multi-sensor temperature probe with 12 sensors to a single-sensor probe during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). We compared the detection of intraluminal esophageal temperature rises in 543 patients undergoing RF ablation for AF with ETM. Esophageal endoscopy (EGD) was performed on all patients with maximum esophageal temperature ≥ 39°C. Esophageal lesions were classified by severity as mild or severe ulcerations. Four hundred fifty-five patients underwent RF ablation with single-sensor ETM and 88 patients with multi-sensor ETM. Thirty-nine percent of patients with single-sensor versus 75% with multi-sensor ETM reached a maximum detected esophageal temperature ≥ 39°C (P temperature ≥ 39°C by single-sensor versus 46% of patients with multi-sensor ETM (P = 0.021). Thirty-nine percent of patients with lesions in the single-sensor probe group had severe ulcerations compared to 33% of patients in the multi-sensor probe group (P = 0.641). Intraluminal esophageal temperature ≥ 39°C is detected more frequently by the multi-sensor temperature probe versus the single-sensor probe, with more frequent esophageal injury and with comparable severity of injury. Despite detecting esophageal temperature rises in more patients, the multi-sensor probe may not have any measurable benefit compared to a single-sensor probe. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The direct effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D

    2010-05-07

    Predictions about the ecological consequences of oceanic uptake of CO(2) have been preoccupied with the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, particularly those critical to the formation of habitats (e.g. coral reefs) or their maintenance (e.g. grazing echinoderms). This focus overlooks the direct effects of CO(2) on non-calcareous taxa, particularly those that play critical roles in ecosystem shifts. We used two experiments to investigate whether increased CO(2) could exacerbate kelp loss by facilitating non-calcareous algae that, we hypothesized, (i) inhibit the recovery of kelp forests on an urbanized coast, and (ii) form more extensive covers and greater biomass under moderate future CO(2) and associated temperature increases. Our experimental removal of turfs from a phase-shifted system (i.e. kelp- to turf-dominated) revealed that the number of kelp recruits increased, thereby indicating that turfs can inhibit kelp recruitment. Future CO(2) and temperature interacted synergistically to have a positive effect on the abundance of algal turfs, whereby they had twice the biomass and occupied over four times more available space than under current conditions. We suggest that the current preoccupation with the negative effects of ocean acidification on marine calcifiers overlooks potentially profound effects of increasing CO(2) and temperature on non-calcifying organisms.

  12. Measurements of extreme orientation-dependent temperature increase around an irradiated gold nanorod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Haiyan; Bendix, Pól Martin; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2012-01-01

    as nanoscopic heat transducers, it is essential to know how the photothermal efficiency depends on parameters like size and shape. Here we present the measurements of the temperature profile around single irradiated gold nanorods and nanospheres placed on a biologically relevant matrix, a lipid bilayer. [1......] We developed a novel assay based on molecular partitioning between two coexisting phases, the gel and fluid phase, within the bilayer. [2, 3] This assay allows for a direct measurement of local temperature gradients, an assay which does not necessitate any pre-assumptions about...

  13. Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi2Ta2O9:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dengfeng; Wang, Xusheng; Xu, Chaonan; Yao, Xi; Lin, Jian; Sun, Tiantuo

    2012-05-01

    Er3+ doped CaBi2Ta2O9 (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er3+ doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er3+ concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from 4S3/2 and 4F9/2 to 4I15/2, respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

  14. Differential expressed analysis of Tripterygium wilfordii unigenes involved in terpenoid backbone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Huo, Yan-Bo; Liu, Yan; Feng, Jun-Tao; Ma, Zhi-Qing; Zhu, Chuan-Shu; Zhang, Xing

    2017-08-01

    Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. is the traditional medicinal plants in China. Triptolide, wilforgine, and wilforine are the bioactive compounds in T. wilfordii. In this study, the contents of three metabolites and transcription levels of 21 genes involved in three metabolites biosynthesis in T. wilfordii were examined using high-performance liquid chromatography and reverse transcription PCR after application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on hairy roots in time course experiment (3-24 h). The results indicated that application of MeJA inhibited triptolide accumulation and promoted wilforgine and wilforine metabolites biosynthesis. In hairy roots, wilforgine content reached 693.36 μg/g at 6 h after adding MeJA, which was 2.23-fold higher than control. The accumulation of triptolide and wilforine in hairy roots increased the maximum at 9 h, which was 1.3- and 1.6-folds more than the control. Most of the triptolide secretes into the medium, but wilforgine and wilforine cannot secrete into the medium. The expression levels of unigenes which involved terpenoid backbone biosynthesis exist the correlation with marker metabolites (triptolide, wilforgine and wilforine) after induction by MeJA, and can be then used to infer flux bottlenecks in T. wilfordii secondary metabolites accumulation. These results showed that these genes may have potential applications in the metabolic engineering of T. wilfordii metabolites production.

  15. Students’ perceived heat-health symptoms increased with warmer classroom temperatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bidassey-Manilal, S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ¥32 C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor...

  16. Increased core body temperature in astronauts during long-duration space missions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahn, A. C.; Werner, A.; Opatz, O.; Maggioni, M. A.; Steinach, M.; von Ahlefeld, V. W.; Moore, A.; Crucian, B. E.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Schlabs, T.; Mendt, S.; Trippel, T.; Koralewski, E.; Koch, J.; Chouker, A.; Reitz, Guenther; Shang, P.; Rocker, L.; Kirsch, K. A.; Gunga, H-C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 16180. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : core body temperature * astonauts' CBT * spaceflights Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  17. Sterilization by high hydrostatic pressure : increasing efficiency and product quality by improved temperature control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, de W.B.C.; Schepdael, van L.J.M.M.; Moezelaar, R.; Berg, van den R.W.

    2003-01-01

    A product being pressurized will heat up due to compressive heating. Due to heat transfer, products close to the vessel wall will cool down, a process which may result in a non-homogeneous product temperature profile in radial direction. If the proper technological features are implemented these

  18. Leaf litter decomposition rates increase with rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori D. Bothwell; Paul C. Selmants; Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton

    2014-01-01

    Decomposing litter in forest ecosystems supplies nutrients to plants, carbon to heterotrophic soil microorganisms and is a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivityof leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical...

  19. Maintaining warm, trusting relationships with brands: increased temperature perceptions after thinking of communal brands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans IJzerman

    Full Text Available Classical theories on interpersonal relations have long suggested that social interactions are influenced by sensation, such as the experience of warmth. Past empirical work now confirms that perceived differences in temperature impact how people form thoughts about relationships. The present work first integrates our knowledge database on brand research with this idea of "grounded social cognition". It then leverages a large sample (total N = 2,552 toward elucidating links between estimates of temperature and positive versus negative evaluations of communal brands. In five studies, the authors have found that thinking about positively (vs. negatively perceived communal brands leads to heightened temperature estimates. A meta-analysis of the five studies shows a small but consistent effect in this noisy environment, r = .11, 95% CI, .05, .18. Exploratory analyses in Studies 1a and b further suggest that temperature perceptions mediate the (significant relationship between perceived communality and willingness to purchase from the brand. The authors discuss implications for theory and practice and consider the effects from a Social Baseline Perspective.

  20. Contrasting effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and temperature on Rubisco activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, needle ultrastructure and secondary metabolites in conifer seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallas, L.; Utriainen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Luomala, E.-M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Suonenjoki (Finland). Suonenjoki Research Station; Kainulainen, P.; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Center of Finland, Jokioinen (Finland). Plant Protection

    2003-02-01

    For 50 days, in an ambient or twice ambient carbon dioxide concentration, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) seedlings were grown. The temperature during the night was either 19 Celsius (C) or 23 C, while the night temperature was 12 C or 16 C. The results showed that elevated temperature increased above ground dry mass of both species, while the higher carbon dioxide concentration only slightly affected the growth parameters measured. The combined elevated carbon dioxide concentration (EC) and elevated temperature (ET) treatment produced the greatest biomass accumulation of all the treatments. Thylakoid swelling and increased numbers of plastoglobuli were observed in Scots pine needles under the EC treatment. Rubisco protein or nitrogen (N) concentration of needles were not much affected by the EC treatment, but the ET had a significant effect on N-containing compounds and enhanced N allocation from one-year-old needles. Total phenolics had a lesser response to EC and ET than terpenoids. EC generally reduced terpene concentrations, while ET increased them. The authors indicated that there could be an association between increased terpenoid concentrations in response to ET and thermotolerance to photosynthesis. Total phenolic concentrations in Norway spruce needles decreased as a result of EC, which might be due to increased growth. The results observed led the authors to conclude that the elevated carbon dioxide concentrations effects on the parameters studied were small for seedlings of both species, in comparison with the effects of elevated temperature. 62 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Temporal and spatial variation of terpenoids in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in relation to feeding by Adelges tsugae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony F. Lagalante; Nyssa Lewis; Michael E. Montgomery; Kathleen S. Shields

    2006-01-01

    The terpenoid content of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) foliage was measured over an annual cycle of development from bud opening, shoot elongation, shoot maturation, to bud-break at the start of the next growing season. The objective was to determine if variation in terpenoid composition is linked with spatial and temporal feeding preferences of...

  2. The role of volatile terpenoids in the relationship of the hemlock woolly adelgid and its host-plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Anthony F. Lagalante

    2008-01-01

    The terpenoid profiles in the needles of the hemlock species were found to be related to geographic distribution of the species and their presumed ancestry. Although a definitive association of individual terpenoids with resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand, was not identified, isobornyl acetate and α-...

  3. Production of Useful Terpenoids by Higher-Fungus Cell Factory and Synthetic Biology Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Higher fungi with greater than 70000 species are regarded as a rich source of various natural compounds including terpenoids, the production of which represents a wide range of interest in pharmaceutical and healthcare industries. This review summarizes the current knowledge of terpenoids synthesized by higher fungi, and highlights the current state-of-the-art regarding genetic manipulation of higher fungi. As the focus, this article will discuss the most recent approaches enabling native hosts and heterologous microbes to efficiently produce various terpenoids, especially with regard to the construction of 'smart' higher-fungus cell factories. The merits and demerits of heterologous versus native hosts as cell factories will also be debated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the role of understory terpenoid emissions: The Bracken Fern story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, M.; Alex, G.; Greenberg, J.; Wessman, C.

    2007-12-01

    Most biogenic emissions studies have been made based on the fact that the canopy biomass is greater than the understory biomass. Herbaceous species - like Bracken Fern- have not been taking in consideration despite the fact that other disciplines like chemical ecology have showed that those species contain a significant amount of compounds - like terpenoid compounds- that if emitted to the atmosphere, would influence the results of actual atmospheric models. This work will show the results of measurements of terpenoid fluxes from Bracken in the area of Pellston, Michigan. The case of Pteridium is a special case because it can be found in open areas as well as in the understory. This gave us the opportunity to investigate not only the contribution of an understory species to forest emissions, but it also gave us the opportunity to study landscape structure as a factor that could affect terpenoid emissions.

  5. Cold working room temperature increased moderate/severe qualitative work stressor risk in Air Traffic Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Astuti

    2012-07-01

    work load stressor among the ATCs.Methods:  This  cross-sectional  study  was  conducted  in November  2008  at  Soekarno-Hatta  International Airport. Subjects consisted of active ATCs with a minimum of six months total working tenure. The study used standard diagnostic as well as home stressor questionnaire surveys. All questionnaires were filled in by the participants.Results: Subjects were aged 27–55 years, consisted of 112 ATCs who had moderate and 13 (9.6% ATCs who had slight QLWS. Those who felt than did not feel the working room temperature was not too cold had 11-fold moderate/severe QLWS [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 10.63: 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.79-65.59]. Those who had than did not have moderate/severe role ambiguity stressor had 8.2-fold risk of moderate/severe QLWS (ORa = 8.23: 95% CI = 1.13-59.90. Those who had than did not have moderate/severe personal responsibility stressor had 6,6-fold risk for moderate/severe QLWS (ORa = 6.64: 95% CI = 1.13-38.85. In terms of the career development stressor, those who had it than did not have it had a 3.7-fold risk for moderate/severe QLWS (ORa = 3,67: 95% CI = 0.88-15.35; P = 0.075.Conclusion:  Those who felt the room temperature was too cold, moderate/severe role ambiguity, personal responsibility, as well as career development stressor were at increased risk for moderate/severe QLWS. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:58-65. 

  6. Increasing thermal drying temperature of biosolids reduced nitrogen mineralisation and soil N2O emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, Sean; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies found that thermally dried biosolids contained more mineralisable organic nitrogen (N) than the raw or anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids they were derived from. However, the effect of thermal drying temperature on biosolid N availability is not well understood. This will be o......Previous studies found that thermally dried biosolids contained more mineralisable organic nitrogen (N) than the raw or anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids they were derived from. However, the effect of thermal drying temperature on biosolid N availability is not well understood....... This will be of importance for the value of the biosolids when used to fertilise crops. We sourced AD biosolids from a Danish waste water treatment plant (WWTP) and dried it in the laboratory at 70, 130, 190 or 250 °C to >95 % dry matter content. Also, we sourced biosolids from the WWTP dried using its in-house thermal...

  7. First-step mutations for adaptation at elevated temperature increase capsid stability in a virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Hao Lee

    Full Text Available The relationship between mutation, protein stability and protein function plays a central role in molecular evolution. Mutations tend to be destabilizing, including those that would confer novel functions such as host-switching or antibiotic resistance. Elevated temperature may play an important role in preadapting a protein for such novel functions by selecting for stabilizing mutations. In this study, we test the stability change conferred by single mutations that arise in a G4-like bacteriophage adapting to elevated temperature. The vast majority of these mutations map to interfaces between viral coat proteins, suggesting they affect protein-protein interactions. We assess their effects by estimating thermodynamic stability using molecular dynamic simulations and measuring kinetic stability using experimental decay assays. The results indicate that most, though not all, of the observed mutations are stabilizing.

  8. First-step mutations for adaptation at elevated temperature increase capsid stability in a virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuo Hao; Miller, Craig R; Nagel, Anna C; Wichman, Holly A; Joyce, Paul; Ytreberg, F Marty

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between mutation, protein stability and protein function plays a central role in molecular evolution. Mutations tend to be destabilizing, including those that would confer novel functions such as host-switching or antibiotic resistance. Elevated temperature may play an important role in preadapting a protein for such novel functions by selecting for stabilizing mutations. In this study, we test the stability change conferred by single mutations that arise in a G4-like bacteriophage adapting to elevated temperature. The vast majority of these mutations map to interfaces between viral coat proteins, suggesting they affect protein-protein interactions. We assess their effects by estimating thermodynamic stability using molecular dynamic simulations and measuring kinetic stability using experimental decay assays. The results indicate that most, though not all, of the observed mutations are stabilizing.

  9. Terpenoids from Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Induce Apoptosis in Endometrial Cancer Cells through the Activation of p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Whelan, Rebecca J.; Pattnaik, Bikash R.; Ludwig, Kai; Subudhi, Enkateswar; Rowland, Helen; Claussen, Nick; Zucker, Noah; Uppal, Shitanshu; Kushner, David M.; Felder, Mildred; Patankar, Manish S.; Kapur, Arvinder

    2012-01-01

    Novel strategies are necessary to improve chemotherapy response in advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer. Here, we demonstrate that terpenoids present in the Steam Distilled Extract of Ginger (SDGE) are potent inhibitors of proliferation of endometrial cancer cells. SDGE, isolated from six different batches of ginger rhizomes, consistently inhibited proliferation of the endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and ECC-1 at IC50 of 1.25 µg/ml. SDGE also enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of radiation and cisplatin. Decreased proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells was a direct result of SDGE-induced apoptosis as demonstrated by FITC-Annexin V staining and expression of cleaved caspase 3. GC/MS analysis identified a total of 22 different terpenoid compounds in SDGE, with the isomers neral and geranial constituting 30–40%. Citral, a mixture of neral and geranial inhibited the proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells at an IC50 10 µM (2.3 µg/ml). Phenolic compounds such as gingerol and shogaol were not detected in SDGE and 6-gingerol was a weaker inhibitor of the proliferation of the endometrial cancer cells. SDGE was more effective in inducing cancer cell death than citral, suggesting that other terpenes present in SDGE were also contributing to endometrial cancer cell death. SDGE treatment resulted in a rapid and strong increase in intracellular calcium and a 20–40% decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Ser-15 of p53 was phosphorylated after 15 min treatment of the cancer cells with SDGE. This increase in p53 was associated with 90% decrease in Bcl2 whereas no effect was observed on Bax. Inhibitor of p53, pifithrin-α, attenuated the anti-cancer effects of SDGE and apoptosis was also not observed in the p53neg SKOV-3 cells. Our studies demonstrate that terpenoids from SDGE mediate apoptosis by activating p53 and should be therefore be investigated as agents for the treatment of endometrial cancer. PMID:23300887

  10. Terpenoids from Zingiber officinale (Ginger induce apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells through the activation of p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Novel strategies are necessary to improve chemotherapy response in advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer. Here, we demonstrate that terpenoids present in the Steam Distilled Extract of Ginger (SDGE are potent inhibitors of proliferation of endometrial cancer cells. SDGE, isolated from six different batches of ginger rhizomes, consistently inhibited proliferation of the endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and ECC-1 at IC(50 of 1.25 µg/ml. SDGE also enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of radiation and cisplatin. Decreased proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells was a direct result of SDGE-induced apoptosis as demonstrated by FITC-Annexin V staining and expression of cleaved caspase 3. GC/MS analysis identified a total of 22 different terpenoid compounds in SDGE, with the isomers neral and geranial constituting 30-40%. Citral, a mixture of neral and geranial inhibited the proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells at an IC(50 10 µM (2.3 µg/ml. Phenolic compounds such as gingerol and shogaol were not detected in SDGE and 6-gingerol was a weaker inhibitor of the proliferation of the endometrial cancer cells. SDGE was more effective in inducing cancer cell death than citral, suggesting that other terpenes present in SDGE were also contributing to endometrial cancer cell death. SDGE treatment resulted in a rapid and strong increase in intracellular calcium and a 20-40% decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Ser-15 of p53 was phosphorylated after 15 min treatment of the cancer cells with SDGE. This increase in p53 was associated with 90% decrease in Bcl2 whereas no effect was observed on Bax. Inhibitor of p53, pifithrin-α, attenuated the anti-cancer effects of SDGE and apoptosis was also not observed in the p53(neg SKOV-3 cells. Our studies demonstrate that terpenoids from SDGE mediate apoptosis by activating p53 and should be therefore be investigated as agents for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  11. Temperature Increase during Different Post Space Preparation Systems: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari Moghadam, Kiumars; Shahab, Shahriar; Shirvani, Soghra; Kazemi, Ali

    2011-01-01

     INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate external root surface temperature rise during post space preparation using LA Axxess bur, Beefill pack System, and Peeso Reamer drill. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The distal canals of forty-five extracted human permanent mandibular first molars were instrumented in crown-apical manner and obturated with lateral condensation technique. Teeth were then randomly divided into three groups according to post space preparation technique including: ...

  12. Temperature Increase during Different Post Space Preparation Systems: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari Moghadam, Kiumars; Shahab, Shahriar; Shirvani, Soghra; Kazemi, Ali

    2011-01-01

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate external root surface temperature rise during post space preparation using LA Axxess bur, Beefill pack System, and Peeso Reamer drill. The distal canals of forty-five extracted human permanent mandibular first molars were instrumented in crown-apical manner and obturated with lateral condensation technique. Teeth were then randomly divided into three groups according to post space preparation technique including: group 1. LA Axxess bur (Sybronendo Co., CA, USA), group 2 Beefill pack System (VD W Co., Munich, Germany) and group 3 Peeso Reamer drill (Mani Co., Tochigi-ken, Japan). Temperature was measured by means of digital thermometer MT-405 (Comercio Co., Sao Paulo, Brazil) which was installed on the root surfaces. Data was collected and submitted to one-way ANOVA and Post hoc analysis. Root surface temperatures were found to be significantly higher (7.3±2.7 vs. 4.3±2.1 and 4±2.4,) in samples of Beefill pack System compared with the two other groups (Ppost space preparation may be potentially hazardous for periodontal tissues.

  13. Leidenfrost temperature increase for impacting droplets on carbon-nanofiber surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Hrudya; Tran, Tuan; van Houselt, Arie; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Droplets impacting on a superheated surface can either exhibit a contact boiling regime, in which they make direct contact with the surface and boil violently, or a film boiling regime, in which they remain separated from the surface by their own vapor. The transition from the contact to the film boiling regime depends not only on the temperature of the surface and kinetic energy of the droplet, but also on the size of the structures fabricated on the surface. Here we experimentally show that surfaces covered with carbon-nanofibers delay the transition to film boiling to much higher temperature compared to smooth surfaces. We present physical arguments showing that, because of the small scale of the carbon fibers, they are cooled by the vapor flow just before the liquid impact, thus permitting contact boiling up to much higher temperatures than on smooth surfaces. We also show that, as long as the impact is in the film boiling regime, the spreading factor of impacting droplets follows the same $\\We^{3/10}$ sc...

  14. Terpenoids inhibit Candida albicans growth by affecting membrane integrity and arrest of cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zore, Gajanan B; Thakre, Archana D; Jadhav, Sitaram; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2011-10-15

    Anti-Candida potential of six terpenoids were evaluated in this study against various isolates of Candida albicans (n=39) and non-C. albicans (n=9) that are differentially susceptible to fluconazole. All the six terpenoids tested, showed excellent activity and were equally effective against isolates of Candida sps., tested in this study. Linalool and citral were the most effective ones, inhibiting all the isolates at ≤0.064% (v/v). Five among the six terpenoids tested were fungicidal. Time dependent kill curve assay showed that MFCs of linalool and eugenol were highly toxic to C. albicans, killing 99.9% inoculum within seven min of exposure, while that of citronellal, linalyl acetate and citral required 15min, 1h and 2h, respectively. FIC index values (Linalool - 0.140, benzyl benzoate - 0.156, eugenol - 0.265, citral - 0.281 and 0.312 for linalyl acetate and citronellal) and isobologram obtained by checker board assay showed that all the six terpenoids tested exhibit excellent synergistic activity with fluconazole against a fluconazole resistant strain of C. albicans. Terpenoids tested arrested C. albicans cells at different phases of the cell cycle i.e. linalool and LA at G1, citral and citronellal at S phase and benzyl benzoate at G2-M phase and induced apoptosis. Linalool, citral, citronellal and benzyl benzoate caused more than 50% inhibition of germ tube induction at 0.008%, while eugenol and LA required 0.032 and 0.016% (v/v) concentrations, respectively. MICs of all the terpenoids for the C. albicans growth were non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested exhibited excellent activity against C. albicans yeast and hyphal form growth at the concentrations that are non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested in this study may find use in antifungal chemotherapy, not only as antifungal agents but also as synergistic agents along with conventional drugs like fluconazole. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. A Review of Anti-inflammatory Terpenoids from the Incense Gum Resins Frankincense and Myrrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2017-08-01

    Frankincense and myrrh have been used as incense in religious and cultural ceremonies since the beginning of written history. Their common medicinal properties are used in the treatment for inflammatory conditions, some cancerous diseases, and wound healing. In the course of our characterization of the anti-inflammatory constituents from frankincense and myrrh, several terpenoid constituents were found to inhibit nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Here we review the structure of those terpenoid constituents from the gum resins of frankincense and myrrh and evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects by their nitric oxide production inhibitory activity.

  16. Turning up the heat: increasing temperature and coral bleaching at the high latitude coral reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, David A; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Evans, Scott N

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs face increasing pressures particularly when on the edge of their distributions. The Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Abrolhos) are the southernmost coral reef system in the Indian Ocean, and one of the highest latitude reefs in the world. These reefs have a unique mix of tropical and temperate marine fauna and flora and support 184 species of coral, dominated by Acropora species. A significant La Niña event during 2011 produced anomalous conditions of increased temperature along the whole Western Australian coastline, producing the first-recorded widespread bleaching of corals at the Abrolhos. We examined long term trends in the marine climate at the Abrolhos using historical sea surface temperature data (HadISST data set) from 1900-2011. In addition in situ water temperature data for the Abrolhos (from data loggers installed in 2008, across four island groups) were used to determine temperature exposure profiles. Coupled with the results of coral cover surveys conducted annually since 2007; we calculated bleaching thresholds for monitoring sites across the four Abrolhos groups. In situ temperature data revealed maximum daily water temperatures reached 29.54°C in March 2011 which is 4.2°C above mean maximum daily temperatures (2008-2010). The level of bleaching varied across sites with an average of ∼12% of corals bleached. Mortality was high, with a mean ∼50% following the 2011 bleaching event. Prior to 2011, summer temperatures reached a mean (across all monitoring sites) of 25.1°C for 2.5 days. However, in 2011 temperatures reached a mean of 28.1°C for 3.3 days. Longer term trends (1900-2011) showed mean annual sea surface temperatures increase by 0.01°C per annum. Long-term temperature data along with short-term peaks in 2011, outline the potential for corals to be exposed to more frequent bleaching risk with consequences for this high latitude coral reef system at the edge of its distribution.

  17. Ion fluxes of Metynnis hypsauchen, a teleost from the Rio Negro, Amazon, exposed to an increase of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. BALDISSEROTTO

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on an increase of temperature on the net ion fluxes on Metynnis hypsauchen, a teleost species from the Rio Negro. Fish were collected in the Anavilhanas archipelago, Rio Negro, Amazon. After 24 h adaptation fish were placed in individual chambers served with a steady flow of recirculated water. Na+ and Cl- fluxes were determined at 26 and 33ºC. After 18 h in the chambers, fish presented an influx of Na+ and Cl-, and the temperature raise to 33ºC led to an efflux of both ions, which remained even after 6 h in this temperature. Six hours were not enough to promote a significant reduction of net ion effluxes, but certainly the fluxes would be in net balance after a longer period of time, since this species can be exposed to this temperature in its natural environment.

  18. Experimentally increased temperature and hypoxia affect stability of social hierarchy and metabolism of the Amazonian cichlid Apistogramma agassizii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Campos, Derek Felipe; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to understand how changes in temperature and oxygen could influence social behaviour and aerobic metabolism of the Amazonian dwarf cichlid Apistogramma agassizii. Social hierarchies were established over a period of 96h by observing the social interactions, feeding behaviour and shelter use in groups of four males. In the experimental environment, temperature was increased to 29°C in the high-temperature treatment, and oxygen lowered to 1.0mg·L(-1)O2 in the hypoxia treatment. Fish were maintained at this condition for 96h. The control was maintained at 26°C and 6.6mg·L(-1)O2. After the experimental exposure, metabolism was measured as routine metabolic rate (RMR) and electron transport system (ETS) activity. There was a reduction in hierarchy stability at high-temperature. Aggression changed after environmental changes. Dominant and subdominant fish at high temperatures increased their biting, compared with control-dominant. In contrast, hypoxia-dominant fish decreased their aggressive acts compared with all other fish. Shelter use decreased in control and hypoxic dominant fish. Dominant fish from undisturbed environments eat more than their subordinates. There was a decrease of RMR in fish exposed to the hypoxic environment when compared with control or high-temperature fish, independent of social position. Control-dominant fish had higher RMR than their subordinates. ETS activity increased in fish exposed to high temperatures; however, there was no effect on social rank. Our study reinforces the importance of environmental changes for the maintenance of hierarchies and their characteristics and highlights that most of the changes occur in the dominant position. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex reversal of red tilapia using 17α-methyltestosterone-enriched feed and increased temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safira Qisthina Ayuningtyas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growth rate between male and female red tilapia Oreochromis sp. is different. Generally, the male red tilapia grows faster than the female. Furthermore, the maturation process of red tilapia is relatively fast which causes slower growth rate. One of solutions to this problem is by rearing all male population or mono-sex culture. The method used in this study was commercial feed enrichment with 17α-methyltestosterone at different dosages and water temperature manipulation. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of commercial feed enrichment with different dosages of 17α-methyltestosterone and water temperature manipulation on success rate of sex reversal of red tilapia into all male population. This research consisted of different temperature treatments (with and without water heating and 17α- methyltestosterone dosages (0, 10, 20 mg/kg of commercial feed. The best dosage of 17α-methyltestosterone was 20 mg/kg of commercial feed with male to female sex ratio of 86.31%, daily growth rate of 8.18%, and feed conversion ratio of 1.53. In this study, the best treatment to produce the male seeds was the 17α-methyltestosterone treatment. Keywords: 17α-methyltestosterone, sex reversal, red tilapia, temperature  ABSTRAK Ikan nila merah Oreochromis sp. memiliki laju pertumbuhan yang berbeda antara ikan jantan dan betina. Umumnya ikan nila merah jantan lebih cepat tumbuh dibandingkan betinanya. Selain itu, ikan nila memiliki sifat cepat matang gonad dan mudah memijah sehingga akan menghambat pertumbuhan ikan. Salah satu cara untuk mengurangi masalah yang terjadi yakni dengan memelihara populasi ikan nila merah tunggal kelamin atau monoseks jantan. Metode yang dilakukan adalah pemberian hormon 17α-metiltestosteron dengan dosis berbeda melalui pakan buatan dan peningkatan suhu air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dosis hormon 17α-metiltestosteron melalui pakan buatan dan peningkatan suhu air

  20. Kinetics of temperature increase during tomato processing modulate the bioaccessibility of lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, D; Van Stratum, E; Degrou, A; Renard, C M G C

    2012-12-15

    The nutritional benefit of bioactive metabolites depends on their bioavailability, i.e. the proportion that leaves the food matrix, and crosses the enteral barrier to reach their cellular target. The present study focused on lycopene, the major and bioactive tomato carotenoid, the bioavailability of which is known to be enhanced in cooked products. To better understand how processing may facilitate lycopene release, we assessed whether hot-break (HB) or cold-break (CB) treatments influence the tomato lycopene bioaccessibility. HB and CB are used in the tomato industry to modulate texture of purees through endogenous cell-wall lytic enzymes activity. HB and CB processes were mimicked through microwave heating, leading to a differentiated temperature rise in the product. The HB and CB models led to the expected differences, i.e. more viscous puree for HB with low methanol. The ability of the tomato matrix to release lycopene was measured as the extractability of lycopene to oil under standardized mixing conditions. We expected that CB treatment, by enhancing cell-wall degradation, would lead to enhanced lycopene bioaccessibility. The opposite was observed: oil contained three times less lycopene when mixed by CB (around 0.3 μgml(-1); similar to results obtained with fresh purees) than when mixed by HB (around 0.9 μgml(-1)), although HB caused more lycopene degradation. Kinetics studies indicated that the quick rise of temperature at the beginning of HB treatment was a key parameter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effect of increased temperature in boll period on fiber yield and quality of cotton and its physiological mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-Ying; Zhou, Zhi-Guo; Dai, Yan-Jiao; Qiang, Zhi-Ying; Chen, Bing-Lin; Wang, You-Hua

    2013-12-01

    To study the effect of temperature increase in boll period (13-Jul. to 24-Aug. ) on cotton yield and fiber quality under the global warming background, a pot experiment with cotton cultivar Simian 3 was carried out in half-open-top greenhouse in Pailou experiment station (32 degrees 02' N, 118 degrees 50' E) of Nanjing Agricultural University in 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that when the temperature was increased by 2-3 degrees C (with an average daily temperature of 31.1 to 35.2 degrees C), the biomass declined by 10%, while the cotton yield declined by 30%-40%. The fiber quality also changed significantly with the relative indices responding differently. The micronaire value and fiber strength increased, the fiber length reduced while the fiber uniformity and elongation rate changed little. The plant photosynthesis capability, the biomass accumulation and the ability of carbohydrates transferring to sink organs all deceased. The soluble amino acids, soluble sugar, sucrose and C/N decreased significantly, while the starch content increased significantly. The allocation in vegetative organs was increased while that in reproductive organs was reduced, which in turn declined the economical index. The lower fruit branches were affected little under increased temperature condition while the middle, upper and top branches were affected greatly. The results indicated that, under the 2-3 degrees C warmer condition, the cotton plants experienced the high temperature stress, both the photosynthesis ability and the carbohydrates transportation from source to sink were decreased, leading to the decline of cotton yield.

  2. Adaptation of root growth to increased ambient temperature requires auxin and ethylene coordination in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Qionghui; Wei, Shaodong; Zhou, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    -naphthaleneacetic acid, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). AUX1, PIN1, and PIN2 are involved in the ckrc1-1 root gravity response under increased AT. Furthermore, CKRC1-dependent auxin biosynthesis was critical for maintaining PIN1, PIN2, and AUX1 expression at elevated temperatures. Ethylene was also involved...

  3. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2011-08-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure.

  4. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (Tbody, incr) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (Tincr, max) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate Tincr, max in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used Tincr, max as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on Tincr, max for specified durations of exposure.

  5. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section Hyperthermia, PO Box 5201, NL-3008 AE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N, E-mail: j.bakker@erasmusmc.nl [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS) (Switzerland)

    2011-08-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR{sub wb}) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T{sub body,incr}) under 1 deg. C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR{sub 10g}) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T{sub incr,max}) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T{sub incr,max} in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 deg. C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T{sub incr,max} as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T{sub incr,max} for specified durations of exposure.

  6. Women with more severe degrees of temporomandibular disorder exhibit an increase in temperature over the temporomandibular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Costa, Ana Cláudia de Souza; Packer, Amanda Carine; de Castro, Ester Moreira; Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to correlate the degree of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) severity and skin temperatures over the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. This blind cross-sectional study involved 60 women aged 18-40 years. The volunteers were allocated to groups based on Fonseca anamnestic index (FAI) score: no TMD, mild TMD, moderate TMD, and severe TMD (n = 15 each). All volunteers underwent infrared thermography for the determination of skin temperatures over the TMJ, masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine the normality of the data. The Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's test, was used for comparisons among groups according to TMD severity. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the strength of associations among variables. Weak, positive, significant associations were found between FAI score and skin temperatures over the left TMJ (rs = 0.195, p = 0.009) and right TMJ (rs = 0.238, p = 0.001). Temperatures over the right and left TMJ were significantly higher in groups with more severe TMD (p < 0.05). FAI score was associated with skin temperature over the TMJ, as determined by infrared thermography, in this sample. Women with more severe TMD demonstrated a bilateral increase in skin temperature.

  7. Measurements of extreme orientation-dependent temperature increase around an irradiated gold nanorod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Haiyan; Bendix, Pól Martin; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2012-01-01

    When irradiated at its resonance frequency, a metallic nanoparticle efficiently converts the absorbed energy into heat which is locally dissipated. This effect can be used in photothermal treatments, e.g., of cancer cells. However, to fully exploit the functionality of metallic nanoparticles...... as nanoscopic heat transducers, it is essential to know how the photothermal efficiency depends on parameters like size and shape. Here we present the measurements of the temperature profile around single irradiated gold nanorods and nanospheres placed on a biologically relevant matrix, a lipid bilayer. [1...... of light by the nanorod and the corresponding dissipated heat strongly depends on the orientation of the nanorod with respect to the polarization. Finally, by comparing to spherical gold nanoparticles, we demonstrate how a change in shape, from spherical to rod like, leads to a dramatic enhancement...

  8. Increased temperature causes different carbon and nitrogen processing patterns in two common intertidal foraminifera (Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wukovits

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Benthic foraminifera are highly abundant heterotrophic protists in marine sediments, but future environmental changes will challenge the tolerance limits of intertidal species. Metabolic rates and physiological processes in foraminifera are strongly dependent on environmental temperatures. Temperature-related stress could therefore impact foraminiferal food source processing efficiency and might result in altered nutrient fluxes through the intertidal food web. In this study, we performed a laboratory feeding experiment on Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica, two dominant foraminiferal species of the German Wadden Sea/Friedrichskoog, to test the effect of temperature on phytodetritus retention. The specimens were fed with 13C and 15N labelled freeze-dried Dunaliella tertiolecta (green algae at the start of the experiment and were incubated at 20, 25 and 30 °C respectively. Dual labelling was applied to observe potential temperature effects on the relation of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen retention. Samples were taken over a period of 2 weeks. Foraminiferal cytoplasm was isotopically analysed to investigate differences in carbon and nitrogen uptake derived from the food source. Both species showed a positive response to the provided food source, but carbon uptake rates of A. tepida were 10-fold higher compared to those of H. germanica. Increased temperatures had a far stronger impact on the carbon uptake of H. germanica than on A. tepida. A distinct increase in the levels of phytodetrital-derived nitrogen (compared to more steady carbon levels could be observed over the course of the experiment in both species. The results suggest that higher temperatures have a significant negative effect on the carbon exploitation of H. germanica. For A. tepida, higher carbon uptake rates and the enhanced tolerance range for higher temperatures could outline an advantage in warmer periods if the main food source consists of chlorophyte phytodetritus

  9. Increased temperature causes different carbon and nitrogen processing patterns in two common intertidal foraminifera (Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukovits, Julia; Enge, Annekatrin Julie; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Heinz, Petra

    2017-06-01

    Benthic foraminifera are highly abundant heterotrophic protists in marine sediments, but future environmental changes will challenge the tolerance limits of intertidal species. Metabolic rates and physiological processes in foraminifera are strongly dependent on environmental temperatures. Temperature-related stress could therefore impact foraminiferal food source processing efficiency and might result in altered nutrient fluxes through the intertidal food web. In this study, we performed a laboratory feeding experiment on Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica, two dominant foraminiferal species of the German Wadden Sea/Friedrichskoog, to test the effect of temperature on phytodetritus retention. The specimens were fed with 13C and 15N labelled freeze-dried Dunaliella tertiolecta (green algae) at the start of the experiment and were incubated at 20, 25 and 30 °C respectively. Dual labelling was applied to observe potential temperature effects on the relation of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen retention. Samples were taken over a period of 2 weeks. Foraminiferal cytoplasm was isotopically analysed to investigate differences in carbon and nitrogen uptake derived from the food source. Both species showed a positive response to the provided food source, but carbon uptake rates of A. tepida were 10-fold higher compared to those of H. germanica. Increased temperatures had a far stronger impact on the carbon uptake of H. germanica than on A. tepida. A distinct increase in the levels of phytodetrital-derived nitrogen (compared to more steady carbon levels) could be observed over the course of the experiment in both species. The results suggest that higher temperatures have a significant negative effect on the carbon exploitation of H. germanica. For A. tepida, higher carbon uptake rates and the enhanced tolerance range for higher temperatures could outline an advantage in warmer periods if the main food source consists of chlorophyte phytodetritus. These conditions are

  10. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO1 Gene Demonstrates Genetic Linkage to Increased Fermentation Rate at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Deed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Low fermentation temperatures are of importance to food and beverage industries working with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the identification of genes demonstrating a positive impact on fermentation kinetics is of significant interest. A set of 121 mapped F1 progeny, derived from a cross between haploid strains BY4716 (a derivative of the laboratory yeast S288C and wine yeast RM11-1a, were fermented in New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc grape juice at 12.5°. Analyses of five key fermentation kinetic parameters among the F1 progeny identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome I with a significant degree of linkage to maximal fermentation rate (Vmax at low temperature. Independent deletions of two candidate genes within the region, FLO1 and SWH1, were constructed in the parental strains (with S288C representing BY4716. Fermentation of wild-type and deletion strains at 12.5 and 25° confirmed that the genetic linkage to Vmax corresponds to the S288C version of the FLO1 allele, as the absence of this allele reduced Vmax by ∼50% at 12.5°, but not at 25°. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis (RHA between S288C and RM11-1a FLO1 alleles did not confirm the prediction that the S288C version of FLO1 was promoting more rapid fermentation in the opposing strain background, suggesting that the positive effect on Vmax derived from S288C FLO1 may only provide an advantage in haploids, or is dependent on strain-specific cis or trans effects. This research adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the role of FLO1 in providing stress tolerance to S. cerevisiae during fermentation.

  12. Spatial and seasonal variations of secondary organic aerosol from terpenoids over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; He, Quan-Fu; Yu, Qing-Qing; Shen, Ru-Qin; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Zhou; Lyu, Su-Jun; Hu, Qi-Hou; Wang, Yue-Si; Li, Long-Feng; Song, Wei; Wang, Xin-Ming

    2016-12-01

    A majority of global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) comes from terpenoids. In this study, we carried out a 1 year nationwide observation of pinenes (α- and β-pinene) and SOA tracers from monoterpenes (SOAM) and β-caryophyllene (SOAC) over China for the first time. SOAM and SOAC tracers ranged from 9.80 to 49.0 ng m-3 and 1.72 to 7.72 ng m-3, respectively, with high levels in southern China. Pinenes ranged from 34 to 102 parts per trillion by volume, with α-pinene dominant over β-pinene. SOAM tracers were correlated between paired sites, suggesting a regional impact of SOAM, while pinenes were uncorrelated between sites due to their rapid oxidation. High levels of SOAM tracers were observed in spring and summer. However, at the Hailun site in Northeast China, SOAM tracers increased during winter. The positive correlation between SOAM tracers and the biomass burning (BB) tracer levoglucosan during winter at Hailun indicated that the unexpected increase of SOAM was associated with BB. The SOAC tracer, β-caryophyllenic acid, increased during winter and was positively correlated with levoglucosan, suggesting substantial contributions from BB to SOAC production in wintertime. Together with SOA tracers from isoprene, these tracers were applied to estimate biogenic secondary organic carbon (BSOC) from isoprene, monoterpenes, and β-caryophyllene. The annual average BSOC was 0.91 ± 0.41 μgC m-3,with the majority from monoterpenes and the highest level in Southwest China. BSOC was elevated from April to September and was lowest in January and February. BSOC composition dramatically changed from a monoterpene majority in fall-spring to an isoprene majority in summer.

  13. Effect of increased fuel temperature on emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1974-01-01

    An annular gas turbine combustor was tested with heated ASTM Jet-A fuel to determine the effect of increased fuel temperature on the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Fuel temperature ranged from ambient to 700 K. The NOx emission index increased at a rate of 6 percent per 100 K increase in fuel temperature.

  14. Increase of ascorbic acid content and nutritional quality in spinach leaves during physiological acclimation to low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Simona; Moscatello, Stefano; Famiani, Franco; Battistelli, Alberto

    2009-08-01

    The effect of acclimation to 10 degrees C on the leaf content of ascorbic and oxalic acids, was investigated in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). At 10 degrees C the content of ascorbic acid in leaves increased and after 7 days it was about 41% higher than in plants remaining under a 25 degrees C/20 degrees C day/night temperature regime. In contrast, the content of oxalate, remained unchanged. Transfer to 10 degrees C increased the ascorbic but not the oxalic acid content of the leaf intercellular washing fluid (IWF). Oxalate oxidase (OXO EC 1.2.3.4) activity was not detected in extracts of leaf blades. Therefore, oxalic acid degradation via OXO was not involved in the control of its content. Our results show that low temperature acclimation increases nutritional quality of spinach leaves via a physiological rise of ascorbic acid that does not feed-forward on the content of oxalic acid.

  15. Analysis of several irdoid and indole precursors of terpenoid indole alkaloids with a single HPLC run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnino, Denise; Schripsema, Jan; Verpoorte, Robert

    1996-01-01

    An isocratic HPLC system is described which allows the separation of the iridoid and indole precursors of terpenoid indole alkaloids, which are present in a single crude extract. The system consists of a column of LiChrospher 60 RP select B 5 my, 250x4 mm (Merck) with an eluent of 1 % formic acid...

  16. Terpenoids as major precursors of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachates, surface water, and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Nanny, M.A.; McIntyre, C.

    2003-01-01

    13C NMR analyses of hydrophobic dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions isolated from a landfill leachate contaminated groundwater near Norman, OK; the Colorado River aqueduct near Los Angeles, CA; Anaheim Lake, an infiltration basin for the Santa Ana River in Orange County, CA; and groundwater from the Tomago Sand Beds, near Sydney, Australia, found branched methyl groups and quaternary aliphatic carbon structures that are indicative of terpenoid hydrocarbon precursors. Significant amounts of lignin precursors, commonly postulated to be the major source of DOM, were found only in trace quantities by thermochemolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the Norman Landfill and Tomago Sand Bed hydrophobic DOM fractions. Electrospray/tandem mass spectrometry of the Tomago Sand Bed hydrophobic acid DOM found an ion series differing by 14 daltons, which is indicative of aliphatic and aryl-aliphatic polycarboxylic acids. The product obtained from ozonation of the resin acid, abietic acid, gave a similar ion series. Terpenoid precursors of DOM are postulated to be derived from resin acid paper sizing agents in the Norman Landfill, algal and bacterial terpenoids in the Colorado River and Anaheim Lake, and terrestrial plant terpenoids in the Tomago Sand Beds.

  17. Commercial hybrids and mutant genotypes reveal complex protective roles for inducible terpenoid defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite long-term efforts to characterize inducible antimicrobial defenses in crops, the presence of acidic phytoalexins in maize was only recently established with the discovery of kauralexins and zealexins. Given the predicted existence of additional phytoalexins, we profiled terpenoids in maize t...

  18. Further exploration of host terpenoids as attractants for invasive insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in terpenoid emissions from avocado trees sharing the same maternal background. The study analyzed the proximo-distal spatial differences from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters. Descri...

  19. Anti-cancer properties of terpenoids isolated from Rhizoma Curcumae--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Dang, Yuan-Ye; Huang, Min; Xu, Wen-Shan; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-09-28

    Rhizoma Curcumae is a popular type of traditional Chinese medicine whose essential oils are widely used in the treatment of cancer in China. This review aims to systematically summarize and analyze the anti-cancer properties of terpenoids, the main components of essential oils in Rhizoma Curcumae, and thus enable the development of new anti-cancer drugs. Information on the recent progress of anti-cancer studies on terpenoids isolated from Rhizoma Curcumae, including β-elemene, δ-elemene, furanodiene, furanodienone, curcumol, and germacrone, was gathered and analyzed. Among these terpenoids, β-elemene is the most widely studied, whereas δ-elemene, furanodiene, furanodienone, curcumol, and germacrone have just recently attracted the attention of researchers. The anti-cancer effects of these terpenoids are related to the retardation of cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of metastasis or tissue invasion, among others. Most studies have focused on the in vitro data, and in vivo data is urgently needed. Further insight into the anti-cancer activity and the molecular basis of these compounds, combined with efforts in pharmaceutical chemistry and/or pharmaceutics, will potentially enable the development of new anti-cancer agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maize terpenoid phytoalexins function in resistance against both abiotic and biotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays) crop production, which is an essential part of the world’s grain supply, is limited by insect pests, pathogen diseases, and unfavorable weather, such as drought. Zealexins and kauralexins belong to recently identified families of terpenoid phytoalexins that function in maize defense...

  1. New Cytotoxic Terpenoids from Soft Corals Nephthea chabroli and Paralemnalia thyrsoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel cytotoxic diterpenoid, chabrolin A (1 (possessing an unprecedented terpenoid skeleton, as well as three new cytotoxic sesquiterpenoids, parathyrsoidins E–G (2–4, were isolated by cytotoxicity-guided fractionation from soft corals Nephthea chabroli and Paralemnalia thyrsoides. The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data.

  2. Identification of Genes in Thuja plicata Foliar Terpenoid Defenses1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Adam J.; Hall, Dawn E.; Mortimer, Leanne; Abercromby, Shelley; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Bohlmann, Jörg; Russell, John; Mattsson, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Thuja plicata (western redcedar) is a long-lived conifer species whose foliage is rarely affected by disease or insect pests, but can be severely damaged by ungulate browsing. Deterrence to browsing correlates with high foliar levels of terpenoids, in particular the monoterpenoid α-thujone. Here, we set out to identify genes whose products may be involved in the production of α-thujone and other terpenoids in this species. First, we generated a foliar transcriptome database from which to draw candidate genes. Second, we mapped the storage of thujones and other terpenoids to foliar glands. Third, we used global expression profiling to identify more than 600 genes that are expressed at high levels in foliage with glands, but can either not be detected or are expressed at low levels in a natural variant lacking foliar glands. Fourth, we used in situ RNA hybridization to map the expression of a putative monoterpene synthase to the epithelium of glands and used enzyme assays with recombinant protein of the same gene to show that it produces sabinene, the monoterpene precursor of α-thujone. Finally, we identified candidate genes with predicted enzymatic functions for the conversion of sabinene to α-thujone. Taken together, this approach generated both general resources and detailed functional characterization in the identification of genes of foliar terpenoid biosynthesis in T. plicata. PMID:23388118

  3. Response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from different thermal environments to increased water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhollem, Joshua J; Suski, Cory D; Wahl, David H

    2015-08-01

    Due to concerns of global climate change, additional research is needed to quantify the thermal tolerance of species, and how organisms are able to adapt to changes in thermal regime. We quantified the thermal tolerance and thermal stress response of a temperate sportfish from two different thermal environments. One group of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabited thermally enhanced reservoirs (used for power plant cooling), with water temperatures typically 2-5°C warmer than nearby reservoirs. We tested fish for chronic thermal maxima and reaction to an 8°C heat shock using three common physiological indices of stress. We observed no evidence of differences between groups in thermal maxima. We observed no differences in thermal maxima between fish from artificially warmed and natural systems. Our results disagree with research, suggesting differences due to adaptation to different thermal environments. We speculate that behavioral modifications, lack of adequate time for genetic divergence, or the robust genetic plasticity of largemouth bass explain the lack of difference between treatment groups.

  4. Changes in terpenoid composition of milk and cheese from commercial sheep flocks associated with seasonal feeding regimens throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, Izaskun; de Renobales, Mertxe; Aldai, Noelia; Barron, Luis Javier R

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the terpenoid content of milk and cheese from commercial sheep flocks monitored throughout lactation in the Cantabrian area of northern Spain were investigated. The flocks followed the same seasonal feeding strategy during lactation: indoor feeding in winter (early lactation) based on concentrate and forage; part-time grazing in the valley in early spring (mid lactation); and from mid spring on (late lactation), flocks were managed under extensive mountain grazing. In the present study design, seasonal feeding and lactation stage were intrinsically linked and could not be considered in isolation, and a holistic approach was necessary to consider the whole production management of the commercial flocks studied. Furthermore, the study focused on the identification of sesquiterpenoid ratios to differentiate milks and cheeses produced under extensive mountain grazing from those produced under other seasonal feeding regimens. Total abundance of mono- and sesquiterpenoids and that of individual compounds such as α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-amorphene, and γ-cadinene significantly increased in milk and cheese from indoor feeding to mountain extensive grazing. Sesquiterpenoid ratios such as γ-cadinene/α-muurolene, γ-cadinene/δ-cadinene, β-caryophyllene/α-muurolene, and (β-caryophyllene + γ-cadinene)/α-muurolene were used to differentiate mountain milks and cheeses from those from indoor feeding and part-time grazing in the valley. Multivariate discriminant analysis applied to individual terpenoids and sesquiterpenoid ratios showed milk and cheese samples classified into 2 groups: samples from indoor feeding and part-time grazing in the valley were classified together, and clearly separated from mountain milks and cheeses. The results of the present study showed that the sesquiterpenoid ratios approach could help to differentiate mountain dairy products from others obtained under other specific feeding regimens in a local environment

  5. The Effect of Season-Long Temperature Increases on Rice Cultivars Grown in the Central and Southern Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice production is challenged by the asymmetric increases in day and night temperatures. Efforts are required to improve our understanding of the impact of climate change on rice production. To this end, 2-year experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of mid-season rice growth in the central and southern regions of China to elevated temperatures. Four replicates of four widely planted indica rice cultivars (Huanghuazhan: HHZ; Shanyou63: SY63; Yangliangyou6: YLY6; Liangyoupeijiu: LYPJ were subjected to four elevated-temperature treatments (control: ambient temperature; NW: night-time warming; DW: daytime warming; AW: all-day warming generated by an open-top hot-blast system under field conditions. This apparatus causes an ~2°C increase in the rice canopy temperature. Of all the elevated-temperature treatments, AW was the most devastating treatment for all rice cultivars, negatively affecting nearly all of investigated parameters, including grain yield and its components, dry matter accumulation, biomass, and harvest index (HI. The AW treatment decreased the grain yield by 11–35% and 43–78% in 2015 and 2016, respectively. No significant reduction in the grain yield was observed in the DW and NW treatments in 2015. However, the grain yield was decreased in DW and NW treatments by 20–52% and 18–55%, respectively, in 2016. Furthermore, the temperature-driven degradation of pollen viability, the number of pollen grains adhering to the stigma and pollen germination on the stigma caused spikelet sterility and thereby decreased the grain yield. The YLY6 and SY63 cultivars performed better than the HHZ and LYPJ cultivars with respect to grain yield and its components in all elevated-temperature treatments in both years. However, 42.97 and 61.01% reductions still occurred for the SY63 and YLY6 cultivars, respectively, in the AW treatment in 2016. The above results suggested that the elevated temperature may cause a noteworthy reduction in

  6. A Variationally Formulated Problem of the Stationary Heat Conduction in a Plate with Radiation Reduction Factor Increased under Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The equipment uses heat-shielding and structural materials that, when exposed, absorb radiation both on the surface and in the volume. In a variety of technical devices, absorption processes of penetrating radiation of materials and structural elements are typical for a number of process steps and operating conditions. Absorption of radiation penetrating into material volume may significantly affect the temperature state and runability of construction made of such material.The process of material-absobed penetrating radiation is associated with transition of the electromagnetic wave energy into the excitation energy of this material microparticles that, after all, leads to increasing internal energy and temperature growth. With radiation passing through the layer of material its flow density and hence energy of penetrating radiation decreases exponentially with increasing distance from the exposed layer surface. This law was experimentally established by the French physicist P. Bouguer and bears his name. In general, a certain fraction of this energy is radiated and dissipated in the material volume, and the rest is absorbed. A mathematical model describing these processes is an equation of the radiative energy transfer.In mathematical modeling of thermomechanical processes there is a need to consider the effect of penetrating radiation on the temperature state of materials and construction elements. The P. Bouguer law is used also when the volume radiation and scattering of penetrating radiation in the material can be neglected, but it is necessary to take into account its absorption. In this case, a negative indicator of the exponential function is represented by the product of the distance from the irradiated surface and integral or some average absorption factor that is constant for a given material and spectral distribution of penetrating radiation. However, with increasing power of radiation passing through the material layer there is a

  7. Analysis of temperature increase in swine gingiva after exposure to a Polywave(®) LED light curing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucoski, Cristiane; Zarpellon, Driellen Christine; Dos Santos, Fabio Andre; Lipinski, Leandro Cavalcante; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Rueggeberg, Frederick Allen; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the temperature increase in swine gingival temperature after exposure to light emitted by a Polywave(®) LED light curing unit (LCU, Bluephase 20i, Ivoclar Vivadent). After local Ethics Committee approval (protocol 711/2015), 40 pigs were subjected to general anesthesia and the LCU tip was placed 5mm from the buccal gingival tissue (GT) close to lower lateral incisors. A thermocouple probe (Thermes WFI, Physitemp) was inserted into the gingival sulcus before and immediately after exposure to light. Real-time temperature (°C) was measured after the following exposure modes were applied: High Power (20s-H, 40s-H, and 60s-H) or Turbo mode (5s-T), either with or without the presence of rubber dam (RD) interposed between the LCU tip and GT (n=10). The presence of gingival lesions after the exposures was also evaluated. Peak temperature (°C) and the temperature increase during exposure over that of the pre-exposure baseline value (ΔT) data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc test (α=5%). A binary logistic regression analysis determined the risk of gingival lesion development. Without RD, no significant difference in ΔT was observed among 20s-H, 40s-H, and 60s-H groups, which showed the highest temperature values, while the 5s-T exposure showed the lowest ΔT, regardless of RD. RD reduced ΔT only for the 20s-H group (p=0.004). Gingival lesions were predominantly observed using 40s-H, with RD, and 60s-H, with and without RD. Exposure to a LCU light might be harmful to swine gingiva only when high radiant exposure values are delivered, regardless of the use of RD. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effects of air temperature increase and precipitation change on grain yield and quality of spring wheat in semiarid area of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-ling; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Run-yuan; Gan, Yan-tai; Niu, Jun-yi; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Fu-nian; Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    In order to predict effects of climate changing on growth, quality and grain yields of spring wheat, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of air temperature increases (0 °C, 1.0 °C, 2.0° C and 3.0°) and precipitation variations (decrease 20%, unchanging and increase 20%) on grain yields, quality, diseases and insect pests of spring wheat at the Dingxi Arid Meteorology and Ecological Environment Experimental Station of the Institute of Arid Meteorology of China Meteorological Administration (35°35' N ,104°37' E). The results showed that effects of precipitation variations on kernel numbers of spring wheat were not significant when temperature increased by less than 2.0° C , but was significant when temperature increased by 3.0° C. Temperature increase enhanced kernel numbers, while temperature decrease reduced kernel numbers. The negative effect of temperature on thousand-kernel mass of spring wheat increased with increasing air temperature. The sterile spikelet of spring wheat response to air temperature was quadratic under all precipitation regimes. Compared with control ( no temperature increase), the decreases of grain yield of spring wheat when air temperature increased by 1.0°C, 2.0°C and 3.0°C under each of the three precipitation conditions (decrease 20%, no changing and increase 20%) were 12.1%, 24.7% and 42.7%, 8.4%, 15.1% and 21.8%, and 9.0%, 15.5% and 22.2%, respectively. The starch content of spring wheat decreased and the protein content increased with increasing air temperature. The number of aphids increased when air temperature increased by 2.0°C , but decreased when air temperature increased by 3.0°CT. The infection rates of rust disease increased with increasing air temperature.

  9. Reproductive efficiency of a Mediterranean endemic zooxanthellate coral decreases with increasing temperature along a wide latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Airi

    Full Text Available Investments at the organismal level towards reproduction and growth are often used as indicators of health. Understanding how such energy allocation varies with environmental conditions may, therefore, aid in predicting possible responses to global climatic change in the near future. For example, variations in seawater temperature may alter the physiological functioning, behavior, reproductive output and demographic traits (e.g., productivity of marine organisms, leading to shifts in the structure, spatial range, and abundance of populations. This study investigated variations in reproductive output associated with local seawater temperature along a wide latitudinal gradient on the western Italian coast, in the zooxanthellate Mediterranean coral, Balanophyllia europaea. Reproductive potential varied significantly among sites, where B. europaea individuals from the warmest site experienced loss of oocytes during gametogenesis. Most of the early oocytes from warmest sites did not reach maturity, possibly due to inhibition of metabolic processes at high temperatures, causing B. europaea to reabsorb the oocytes and utilize them as energy for other vital functions. In a progressively warming Mediterranean, the efficiency of the energy invested in reproduction could be considerably reduced in this species, thereby affecting vital processes. Given the projected increase in seawater temperature as a consequence of global climate change, the present study adds evidence to the threats posed by high temperatures to the survival of B. europaea in the next decades.

  10. Genome-wide identification and characterization of novel genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yimian; Yuan, Lichai; Wu, Bin; Li, Xian'en; Chen, Shilin; Lu, Shanfa

    2012-04-01

    Terpenoids are the largest class of plant secondary metabolites and have attracted widespread interest. Salvia miltiorrhiza, belonging to the largest and most widely distributed genus in the mint family, is a model medicinal plant with great economic and medicinal value. Diterpenoid tanshinones are the major lipophilic bioactive components in S. miltiorrhiza. Systematic analysis of genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis has not been reported to date. Searching the recently available working draft of the S. miltiorrhiza genome, 40 terpenoid biosynthesis-related genes were identified, of which 27 are novel. These genes are members of 19 families, which encode all of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the universal isoprene precursor isopentenyl diphosphate and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate, and two enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of labdane-related diterpenoids. Through a systematic analysis, it was found that 20 of the 40 genes could be involved in tanshinone biosynthesis. Using a comprehensive approach, the intron/exon structures and expression patterns of all identified genes and their responses to methyl jasmonate treatment were analysed. The conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships among the deduced S. miltiorrhiza proteins and their homologues isolated from other plant species were revealed. It was discovered that some of the key enzymes, such as 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, are encoded by multiple gene members with different expression patterns and subcellular localizations, and both homomeric and heteromeric geranyl diphosphate synthases exist in S. miltiorrhiza. The results suggest the complexity of terpenoid biosynthesis and the existence of metabolic channels for diverse terpenoids in S. miltiorrhiza and provide useful information for improving tanshinone production through genetic

  11. Transcriptome sequencing and expression analysis of terpenoid biosynthesis genes in Litsea cubeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Jiao; Wang, Yang-Dong; Chen, Yi-Cun; Lin, Li-Yuan; Wu, Qing-Ke

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic essential oils extracted from fresh fruits of Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., have diverse medical and economic values. The dominant components in these essential oils are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of terpenoid biosynthesis is essential for improving the yield and quality of terpenes. However, the 40 available L. cubeba nucleotide sequences in the public databases are insufficient for studying the molecular mechanisms. Thus, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of L. cubeba is necessary to generate large quantities of transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery, especially terpenoid biosynthesis related genes. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing, approximately 23.5 million high-quality reads were generated. De novo assembly yielded 68,648 unigenes with an average length of 834 bp. A total of 38,439 (56%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, and 35,732 and 25,806 unigenes could be aligned to the GO and COG database, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 16,130 unigenes were assigned to 297 KEGG pathways, and 61 unigenes, which contained the mevalonate and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathways, could be related to terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. Of the 12,963 unigenes, 285 were annotated to the terpenoid pathways using the PlantCyc database. Additionally, 14 terpene synthase genes were identified from the transcriptome. The expression patterns of the 16 genes related to terpenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by RT-qPCR to explore their putative functions. RNA sequencing was effective in identifying a large quantity of sequence information. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the L. cubeba transcriptome, and the substantial amount of transcripts obtained will accelerate the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of essential oils biosynthesis. The results may help improve future genetic and genomics

  12. Transcriptome sequencing and expression analysis of terpenoid biosynthesis genes in Litsea cubeba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jiao Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aromatic essential oils extracted from fresh fruits of Litsea cubeba (Lour. Pers., have diverse medical and economic values. The dominant components in these essential oils are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of terpenoid biosynthesis is essential for improving the yield and quality of terpenes. However, the 40 available L. cubeba nucleotide sequences in the public databases are insufficient for studying the molecular mechanisms. Thus, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of L. cubeba is necessary to generate large quantities of transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery, especially terpenoid biosynthesis related genes. RESULTS: Using Illumina paired-end sequencing, approximately 23.5 million high-quality reads were generated. De novo assembly yielded 68,648 unigenes with an average length of 834 bp. A total of 38,439 (56% unigenes were annotated for their functions, and 35,732 and 25,806 unigenes could be aligned to the GO and COG database, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG, 16,130 unigenes were assigned to 297 KEGG pathways, and 61 unigenes, which contained the mevalonate and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathways, could be related to terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. Of the 12,963 unigenes, 285 were annotated to the terpenoid pathways using the PlantCyc database. Additionally, 14 terpene synthase genes were identified from the transcriptome. The expression patterns of the 16 genes related to terpenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by RT-qPCR to explore their putative functions. CONCLUSION: RNA sequencing was effective in identifying a large quantity of sequence information. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the L. cubeba transcriptome, and the substantial amount of transcripts obtained will accelerate the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of essential oils biosynthesis. The

  13. Increased Expression of Escherichia coli Polynucleotide Phosphorylase at Low Temperatures Is Linked to a Decrease in the Efficiency of Autocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, N.; Jarrige, A.-C.; Robert-Le Meur, M.; Portier, C.

    2001-01-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) synthesis is translationally autocontrolled via an RNase III-dependent mechanism, which results in a tight correlation between protein level and messenger stability. In cells grown at 18°C, the amount of PNPase is twice that found in cells grown at 30°C. To investigate whether this effect was transcriptional or posttranscriptional, the expression of a set of pnp-lacZ transcriptional and translational fusions was analyzed in cells grown at different temperatures. In the absence of PNPase, there was no increase in pnp-lacZ expression, indicating that the increase in pnp expression occurs at a posttranscriptional level. Other experiments clearly show that increased pnp expression at low temperature is only observed under conditions in which the autocontrol mechanism of PNPase is functional. At low temperature, the destabilizing effect of PNPase on its own mRNA is less efficient, leading to a decrease in repression and an increase in the expression level. PMID:11395447

  14. Adaptation of Lactococcus lactis to high growth temperature leads to a dramatic increase in acidification rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Hellgren, Lars

    2015-01-01

    to affect thermal tolerance. Of the mutations with more pronounced effects, two affected expression of single proteins (chaperone; riboflavin transporter), two had pleiotropic effects (RNA polymerase) which changed the gene expression profile, and one resulted in a change in the coding sequence of CDP......-diglyceride synthase. A large deletion containing 10 genes was also found to affect thermal tolerance significantly. With this study we demonstrate a simple approach to obtain non-GMO derivatives of the important L. lactis that possess properties desirable by the industry, e.g. thermal robustness and increased rate...

  15. Afferent thermosensory function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis following exercise-induced increases in body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Chaseling, Georgia; Hoang, Phu; Barnett, Michael; Davis, Scott L; Jay, Ollie

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Between 60 and 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience transient worsening of symptoms with increased body temperature (heat sensitivity). As sensory abnormalities are common in MS, we asked whether afferent thermosensory function is altered in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? Increases in body temperature of as little as ∼0.4°C were sufficient to decrease cold, but not warm, skin thermosensitivity (∼10%) in MS, across a wider temperature range than in age-matched healthy individuals. These findings provide new evidence on the impact of heat sensitivity on afferent function in MS, which could be useful for clinical evaluation of this neurological disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), increases in body temperature result in transient worsening of clinical symptoms (heat sensitivity or Uhthoff's phenomenon). Although the impact of heat sensitivity on efferent physiological function has been investigated, the effects of heat stress on afferent sensory function in MS are unknown. Hence, we quantified afferent thermosensory function in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature with a new quantitative sensory test. Eight relapsing-remitting MS patients (three men and five women; 51.4 ± 9.1 years of age; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.8 ± 1.1) and eight age-matched control (CTR) subjects (five men and three women; 47.4 ± 9.1 years of age) rated the perceived magnitude of two cold (26 and 22°C) and two warm stimuli (34 and 38°C) applied to the dorsum of the hand before and after 30 min cycling in the heat (30°C air; 30% relative humidity). Exercise produced similar increases in mean body temperature in MS [+0.39°C (95% CI: +0.21, +0.53) P = 0.001] and CTR subjects [+0.41°C (95% CI: +0.25, +0.58) P = 0.001]. These changes were sufficient to decrease thermosensitivity significantly to all cold [26

  16. Optimization of temperature and time for drying and carbonization to increase calorific value of coconut shell using Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabbikhah, Saptoadi, H.; Subarmono, Wibisono, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Fossil fuel still dominates the needs of energy in Indonesia for the past few years. The increasing scarcity of oil and gas from non-renewable materials results in an energy crisis. This condition turns to be a serious problem for society which demands immediate solution. One effort which can be taken to overcome this problem is the utilization and processing of biomass as renewable energy by means of carbonization. Thus, it can be used as qualified raw material for production of briquette. In this research, coconut shell is used as carbonized waste. The research aims at improving the quality of coconut shell as the material for making briquettes as cheap and eco-friendly renewable energy. At the end, it is expected to decrease dependence on oil and gas. The research variables are drying temperature and time, carbonization time and temperature. The dependent variable is calorific value of the coconut shell. The method used in this research is Taguchi Method. The result of the research shows thus variables, have a significant contribution on the increase of coconut shell's calorific value. It is proven that the higher thus variables are higher calorific value. Before carbonization, the average calorific value of coconut shell reaches 4,667 call/g, and a significant increase is notable after the carbonization. The optimization is parameter setting of A2B3C3D3, which means that the drying temperature is 105 °C, the drying time is 24 hours, the carbonization temperature is 650 °C and carbonization time is 120 minutes. The average calorific value is approximately 7,744 cal/g. Therefore, the increase of the coconut shell's calorific value after the carbonization is 3,077 cal/g or approximately 60 %. The charcoal of carbonized coconut shell has met the requirement of SNI, thus it can be used as raw material in making briquette which can eventually be used as cheap and environmental friendly fuel.

  17. Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslé, Sébastien; Matthews, Kathleen R; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2015-01-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California, we measured riparian vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams between 2008 and 2013, including two "resting" meadows and one meadow that is partially grazed. All three meadows have been subject to grazing by cattle and sheep since the 1800s and their streams are home to the imperiled California golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita). In 1991, a livestock exclosure was constructed in one of the meadows (Mulkey), leaving a portion of stream ungrazed to minimize the negative effects of cattle. In 2001, cattle were removed completely from two other meadows (Big Whitney and Ramshaw), which have been in a "resting" state since that time. Inside the livestock exclosure in Mulkey, we found that riverbank vegetation was both larger and denser than outside the exclosure where cattle were present, resulting in more shaded waters and cooler maximal temperatures inside the exclosure. In addition, between meadows comparisons showed that water temperatures were cooler in the ungrazed meadows compared to the grazed area in the partially grazed meadow. Finally, we found that predicted temperatures under different global warming scenarios were likely to be higher in presence of livestock grazing. Our results highlight that land use can interact with climate change to worsen the local thermal conditions for taxa on the edge and that protecting riparian vegetation is likely to increase the resiliency of these ecosystems to climate change.

  18. Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Nusslé

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California, we measured riparian vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams between 2008 and 2013, including two "resting" meadows and one meadow that is partially grazed. All three meadows have been subject to grazing by cattle and sheep since the 1800s and their streams are home to the imperiled California golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita. In 1991, a livestock exclosure was constructed in one of the meadows (Mulkey, leaving a portion of stream ungrazed to minimize the negative effects of cattle. In 2001, cattle were removed completely from two other meadows (Big Whitney and Ramshaw, which have been in a "resting" state since that time. Inside the livestock exclosure in Mulkey, we found that riverbank vegetation was both larger and denser than outside the exclosure where cattle were present, resulting in more shaded waters and cooler maximal temperatures inside the exclosure. In addition, between meadows comparisons showed that water temperatures were cooler in the ungrazed meadows compared to the grazed area in the partially grazed meadow. Finally, we found that predicted temperatures under different global warming scenarios were likely to be higher in presence of livestock grazing. Our results highlight that land use can interact with climate change to worsen the local thermal conditions for taxa on the edge and that protecting riparian vegetation is likely to increase the resiliency of these ecosystems to climate change.

  19. Increases in external cause mortality due to high and low temperatures: evidence from northeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Åström, Daniel Oudin

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between temperature and mortality is well established but has seldom been investigated in terms of external causes. In some Eastern European countries, external cause mortality is substantial. Deaths owing to external causes are the third largest cause of mortality in Estonia, after cardiovascular disease and cancer. Death rates owing to external causes may reflect behavioural changes among a population. The aim for the current study was to investigate if there is any association between temperature and external cause mortality, in Estonia. We collected daily information on deaths from external causes (ICD-10 diagnosis codes V00-Y99) and maximum temperatures over the period 1997-2013. The relationship between daily maximum temperature and mortality was investigated using Poisson regression, combined with a distributed lag non-linear model considering lag times of up to 10 days. We found significantly higher mortality owing to external causes on hot (the same and previous day) and cold days (with a lag of 1-3 days). The cumulative relative risks for heat (an increase in temperature from the 75th to 99th percentile) were 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.34) and for cold (a decrease from the 25th to 1st percentile) 1.19 (1.03-1.38). Deaths due to external causes might reflect changes in behaviour among a population during periods of extreme hot and cold temperatures and should therefore be investigated further, because such deaths have a severe impact on public health, especially in Eastern Europe where external mortality rates are high.

  20. A moderate increase in ambient temperature modulates the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal viral mimic injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori Tiago S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which, simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10°C to 16°C, 1°C increase every 5 days impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC. Results The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16°C and 10°C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI, respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%, including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IκBα, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. Conclusions The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-κB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen’s transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with

  1. A moderate increase in ambient temperature modulates the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal viral mimic injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which, simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10°C to 16°C, 1°C increase every 5 days) impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC). Results The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16°C and 10°C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI), respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%), including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IκBα, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. Conclusions The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-κB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen’s transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with pIC at 10°C vs. 16

  2. Clade IVa Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors Form Part of a Conserved Jasmonate Signaling Circuit for the Regulation of Bioactive Plant Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jan; Van Moerkercke, Alex; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Pollier, Jacob; Goossens, Alain

    2016-12-01

    Plants produce many bioactive, specialized metabolites to defend themselves when facing various stress situations. Their biosynthesis is directed by a tightly controlled regulatory circuit that is elicited by phytohormones such as jasmonate (JA). The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1) and Triterpene Saponin Activating Regulator (TSAR) 1 and 2, from Catharanthus roseus and Medicago truncatula, respectively, all belong to clade IVa of the bHLH protein family and activate distinct terpenoid pathways, thereby mediating monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) and triterpene saponin (TS) accumulation, respectively, in these two species. In this study, we report that promoters of the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the specific terpenoid pathway of one of these species can be transactivated by the orthologous bHLH factor from the other species through recognition of the same cis-regulatory elements. Accordingly, ectopic expression of CrBIS1 in M. truncatula hairy roots up-regulated the expression of all genes required for soyasaponin production, resulting in strongly increased levels of soyasaponins in the transformed roots. Likewise, transient expression of MtTSAR1 and MtTSAR2 in C. roseus petals led to up-regulation of the genes involved in the iridoid branch of the MIA pathway. Together, our data illustrate the functional similarity of these JA-inducible TFs and indicate that recruitment of defined cis-regulatory elements constitutes an important aspect of the evolution of conserved regulatory modules for the activation of species-specific terpenoid biosynthesis pathways by common signals such as the JA phytohormones. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A Review of Measures against Increasing Temperature and Climate Change for the Safeguard of Workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Kumar Dehury

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe heat causes various health related problems among the workers in India. Working under hot and humid environment damages health of workers especially the agriculture labourers, construction workers, rickshaw pullers, venders, brick kiln workers and daily wage labourers. High humidity and high temperature can leads to heat stress even in 38°C temperature. The damage might be temporary, like heat related injuries to permanent like, critical heat stroke. Sometimes, it leads to occupational hazards which is irreversible in nature. Despite these serious issues, there is minimal preparation which exposes the workers to serious conditions. This paper evaluates various consequences of climate change and increasing temperature on the workers. Various databases like PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar have been enquired to bring evidences across industry and places. The effects of heat and temperature were thematically arranged to understand the seriousness of the issues. Suggestions and way forwards are also discussed for the solution for workers and sustainability of various sectors depending on labourers working under the heat of sun. The paper suggests the requirement of creating a heat combating environment by coordinating among various government departments and agencies for the welfare of the workers. The industrial workers have to be provided with sufficient measures by various industries as per the governing laws. The agriculture and brick kiln workers have to work in mild heat and with sufficient protection to avoid consequences. The government need to monitor the unorganised sectors for protection of workers by law enforcing organs.

  4. Association between the increase in brain temperature and physical performance at different exercise intensities and protocols in a temperate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Kunstetter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that brain temperature (Tbrain provides a more sensitive index than other core body temperatures in determining physical performance. However, no study has addressed whether the association between performance and increases in Tbrain in a temperate environment is dependent upon exercise intensity, and this was the primary aim of the present study. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to constant exercise at three different speeds (18, 21, and 24 m/min until the onset of volitional fatigue. Tbrain was continuously measured by a thermistor inserted through a brain guide cannula. Exercise induced a speed-dependent increase in Tbrain, with the fastest speed associated with a higher rate of Tbrain increase. Rats subjected to constant exercise had similar Tbrain values at the time of fatigue, although a pronounced individual variability was observed (38.7-41.7°C. There were negative correlations between the rate of Tbrain increase and performance for all speeds that were studied. These results indicate that performance during constant exercise is negatively associated with the increase in Tbrain, particularly with its rate of increase. We then investigated how an incremental-speed protocol affected the association between the increase in Tbrain and performance. At volitional fatigue, Tbrain was lower during incremental exercise compared with the Tbrain resulting from constant exercise (39.3±0.3 vs 40.3±0.1°C; P<0.05, and no association between the rate of Tbrain increase and performance was observed. These findings suggest that the influence of Tbrain on performance under temperate conditions is dependent on exercise protocol.

  5. Association between the increase in brain temperature and physical performance at different exercise intensities and protocols in a temperate environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstetter, A C; Wanner, S P; Madeira, L G; Wilke, C F; Rodrigues, L O C; Lima, N R V

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that brain temperature (T brain) provides a more sensitive index than other core body temperatures in determining physical performance. However, no study has addressed whether the association between performance and increases in T brain in a temperate environment is dependent upon exercise intensity, and this was the primary aim of the present study. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to constant exercise at three different speeds (18, 21, and 24 m/min) until the onset of volitional fatigue. T brain was continuously measured by a thermistor inserted through a brain guide cannula. Exercise induced a speed-dependent increase in T brain, with the fastest speed associated with a higher rate of T brain increase. Rats subjected to constant exercise had similar T brain values at the time of fatigue, although a pronounced individual variability was observed (38.7-41.7°C). There were negative correlations between the rate of T brain increase and performance for all speeds that were studied. These results indicate that performance during constant exercise is negatively associated with the increase in T brain, particularly with its rate of increase. We then investigated how an incremental-speed protocol affected the association between the increase in T brain and performance. At volitional fatigue, T brain was lower during incremental exercise compared with the T brain resulting from constant exercise (39.3 ± 0.3 vs 40.3 ± 0.1°C; Pbrain increase and performance was observed. These findings suggest that the influence of T brain on performance under temperate conditions is dependent on exercise protocol.

  6. Insights into the mechanism of natural terpenoids as NF-κB inhibitors: an overview on their anticancer potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, H; Dhingra, N; Narsinghani, T; Sharma, R

    2016-09-01

    The transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) is one of the principal inducible protein in mammals known to control the gene expression in many critical physiological responses such as oxidative stress, inflammation etc. and has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Terpenoids are major constituents present in nutritionally used fruits, vegetables and different spices which possess various pharmacological action including anticancer activity. Various terpenoids, viz. monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, sesterterpenoids, triterpenoids, tetraterpenoids and polyterpenoids inhibit NF-kB signa-ling pathway through IkB phosphorylation, DNA binding, p65 translocation etc. Keeping in mind these facts, the present review revealed the anti-cancer potential of naturally occurring terpenoids highlighting their mechanism of NF-kB inhibition. This review also focuses on some of the naturally occurring terpenoids belonging to various chemical categories with potential inhibitory effects on NF-kB and their role in the treatment of cancer.

  7. Is differential use of Juniperus monosperma by small ruminants driven by terpenoid concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, R E; Utsumi, S A; Cibils, A F; Anderson, D M

    2014-03-01

    Differential plant use by herbivores has been observed for several woody plant species and has frequently been attributed to plant secondary metabolites. We examined the relationship between terpenoid concentration and Juniperus monosperma herbivory by small ruminants. Two groups of animals (10 goats or 5 goats plus 4 sheep) browsed 16 paddocks (20 × 30 m) containing one-seed juniper for six days during two seasons. Juniper leaves were sampled from 311 saplings immediately after browsing. Saplings were categorized by size (short [1.0 m]), and by browsing intensity (light [66 %]). Juniper bark was collected from 12 saplings during spring. Total estimated terpenoid concentrations in leaves and bark were 18.3 ± 0.3 and 8.9 ± 0.8 mg/g, respectively, and the dominant terpene in both tissues was α-pinene (11.1 ± 0.2 and 7.6 ± 0.7 mg/g, respectively). Total terpenoid concentration of juniper leaves was greater in spring than summer (20.6 ± 0.5 vs. 16.7 ± 0.3 mg/g, respectively) and was lower in short saplings than medium or tall saplings (16.5 ± 0.6 vs. 19.8 ± 0.4 and 19.5 ± 0.4 mg/g, respectively). Total terpenoid concentration of leaves also differed among the three defoliation categories (21.2 ± 0.6, 18.7 ± 0.5, and 16.1 ± 0.4 mg/g for light, moderate, and heavy, respectively). The smallest subset of terpenoids able to discriminate between light and heavy browsing intensity categories included eight compounds ([E]-β-farnesene, bornyl acetate, γ-eudesmol, endo-fenchyl acetate, γ-cadinene, α-pinene, cis-piperitol, and cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol). Our results suggest terpenoid concentrations in one-seed juniper are related to season, sapling size, and browsing by small ruminants.

  8. Temperature regulation of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes increases latitudinally as a breach between bottom-up and top-down controls

    KAUST Repository

    Moran, Xose Anxelu G.

    2017-04-19

    Planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes make up the largest living biomass and process most organic matter in the ocean. Determining when and where the biomass and activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes are controlled by resource availability (bottom-up), predation and viral lysis (top-down) or temperature will help in future carbon cycling predictions. We conducted an extensive survey across subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Global Circumnavigation Expedition and assessed indices for these three types of controls at 109 stations (mostly from the surface to 4000 m depth). Temperature control was approached by the apparent activation energy in eV (ranging from 0.46 to 3.41), bottom-up control by the slope of the log-log relationship between biomass and production rate (ranging from -0.12 to 1.09) and top-down control by an index that considers the relative abundances of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and viruses (ranging from 0.82 to 4.83). We conclude that temperature becomes dominant (i.e. activation energy >1.5 eV) within a narrow window of intermediate values of bottom-up (0.3-0.6) and top-down 0.8-1.2) controls. A pervasive latitudinal pattern of decreasing temperature regulation towards the Equator, regardless of the oceanic basin, suggests that the impact of global warming on marine microbes and their biogeochemical function will be more intense at higher latitudes. Our analysis predicts that 1°C ocean warming will result in increased biomass of heterotrophic prokaryoplankton only in waters with <26°C of mean annual surface temperature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperature regulation of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes increases latitudinally as a breach between bottom-up and top-down controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G; Gasol, Josep M; Pernice, Massimo C; Mangot, Jean-François; Massana, Ramon; Lara, Elena; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M

    2017-09-01

    Planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes make up the largest living biomass and process most organic matter in the ocean. Determining when and where the biomass and activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes are controlled by resource availability (bottom-up), predation and viral lysis (top-down) or temperature will help in future carbon cycling predictions. We conducted an extensive survey across subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Global Circumnavigation Expedition and assessed indices for these three types of controls at 109 stations (mostly from the surface to 4,000 m depth). Temperature control was approached by the apparent activation energy in eV (ranging from 0.46 to 3.41), bottom-up control by the slope of the log-log relationship between biomass and production rate (ranging from -0.12 to 1.09) and top-down control by an index that considers the relative abundances of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and viruses (ranging from 0.82 to 4.83). We conclude that temperature becomes dominant (i.e. activation energy >1.5 eV) within a narrow window of intermediate values of bottom-up (0.3-0.6) and top-down 0.8-1.2) controls. A pervasive latitudinal pattern of decreasing temperature regulation towards the Equator, regardless of the oceanic basin, suggests that the impact of global warming on marine microbes and their biogeochemical function will be more intense at higher latitudes. Our analysis predicts that 1°C ocean warming will result in increased biomass of heterotrophic prokaryoplankton only in waters with <26°C of mean annual surface temperature. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Speeding Up Microevolution: The Effects of Increasing Temperature on Selection and Genetic Variance in a Wild Bird Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Arild; Visser, Marcel E.; Kruuk, Loeske E. B.

    2011-01-01

    The amount of genetic variance underlying a phenotypic trait and the strength of selection acting on that trait are two key parameters that determine any evolutionary response to selection. Despite substantial evidence that, in natural populations, both parameters may vary across environmental conditions, very little is known about the extent to which they may covary in response to environmental heterogeneity. Here we show that, in a wild population of great tits (Parus major), the strength of the directional selection gradients on timing of breeding increased with increasing spring temperatures, and that genotype-by-environment interactions also predicted an increase in additive genetic variance, and heritability, of timing of breeding with increasing spring temperature. Consequently, we therefore tested for an association between the annual selection gradients and levels of additive genetic variance expressed each year; this association was positive, but non-significant. However, there was a significant positive association between the annual selection differentials and the corresponding heritability. Such associations could potentially speed up the rate of micro-evolution and offer a largely ignored mechanism by which natural populations may adapt to environmental changes. PMID:21408101

  11. C. albicans increases cell wall mannoprotein, but not mannan, in response to blood, serum and cultivation at physiological temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Michael; Greene, Rachel R; Noss, Ilka; Lowman, Douglas W; Williams, David L

    2011-09-01

    The cell wall of Candida albicans is central to the yeasts ability to withstand osmotic challenge, to adhere to host cells, to interact with the innate immune system and ultimately to the virulence of the organism. Little is known about the effect of culture conditions on the cell wall structure and composition of C. albicans. We examined the effect of different media and culture temperatures on the molecular weight (Mw), polymer distribution and composition of cell wall mannan and mannoprotein complex. Strain SC5314 was inoculated from frozen stock onto yeast peptone dextrose (YPD), blood or 5% serum agar media at 30 or 37°C prior to mannan/mannoprotein extraction. Cultivation of the yeast in blood or serum at physiologic temperature resulted in an additive effect on Mw, however, cultivation media had the greatest impact on Mw. Mannan from a yeast grown on blood or serum at 30°C showed a 38.9 and 28.6% increase in Mw, when compared with mannan from YPD-grown yeast at 30°C. Mannan from the yeast pregrown on blood or serum at 37°C showed increased Mw (8.8 and 26.3%) when compared with YPD mannan at 37°C. The changes in Mw over the entire polymer distribution were due to an increase in the amount of mannoprotein (23.8-100%) and a decrease in cell wall mannan (5.7-17.3%). We conclude that C. albicans alters the composition of its cell wall, and thus its phenotype, in response to cultivation in blood, serum and/or physiologic temperature by increasing the amount of the mannoprotein and decreasing the amount of the mannan in the cell wall.

  12. INCREASES IN CORE TEMPERATURE COUNTERBALANCE EFFECTS OF HEMOCONCENTRATION ON BLOOD VISCOSITY DURING PROLONGED EXERCISE IN THE HEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J.; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W.; Williams, Alexander T.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and post-exercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration and hyperthermia, as well as determine their combined effects, on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% rH), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (37.11 ± 0.35 °C to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), hemoconcentration (hematocrit = 43.6 ± 3.6% to 45.6 ± 3.5%), and dehydration (Δbody weight = −3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced hemoconcentration significantly (P viscosity by 9% (3.97 to 4.30 cP at 300 s−1) while exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (3.97 to 3.70 cP at 300 s−1). However, when both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s−1). The effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity, and increased red blood cell aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased RBC deformability (e.g., RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. PMID:26682653

  13. Photochemical responses of three marine phytoplankton species exposed to ultraviolet radiation and increased temperature: role of photoprotective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halac, S R; Villafañe, V E; Gonçalves, R J; Helbling, E W

    2014-12-01

    We carried out experiments using long-term (5-7 days) exposure of marine phytoplankton species to solar radiation, in order to assess the joint effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and temperature on the photochemical responses and photoprotective mechanisms. In the experiments, carried out at Atlantic coast of Patagonia (43°18.7'S; 65°2.5'W) in spring-summer 2011, we used three species as model organisms: the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans, the chlorophyte Dunaliella salina and the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana. They were exposed under: (1) two radiation quality treatments (by using different filters): P (PAR, >400 nm) and PAB (PAR+UV-A+UV-B, >280 nm); (2) two radiation intensities (100% and 50%) and (3) two experimental temperatures: 18 °C and 23 °C during summer and 15 °C and 20 °C in spring experiments, simulating a 5 °C increase under a scenario of climate change. In addition, short-term (4h) artificial radiation exposure experiments were implemented to study vertical migration of cells pre- and non-acclimated to solar radiation. We observed species-specific responses: P. micans displayed a better photochemical performance and a lower inhibition induced by UVR than D. salina and I. galbana. In accordance, P. micans was the only species that showed a synthesis of UV-absorbing compounds (UVACs) during the experiment. On the other hand, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was activated in D. salina at noon throughout the exposure, while I. galbana did not show a regular NPQ pattern. This mechanism was almost absent in P. micans. Regarding vertical migration, I. galbana showed the most pronounced displacement to deepest layers since the first two hours of exposure in pre- and non-acclimated cells, while only non-acclimated D. salina cells moved to depth at the end of the experiment. Finally, temperature partially counteracted solar radiation inhibition in D. salina and I. galbana, whereas no effect was observed upon P. micans. In particular, significant

  14. Towards better understanding of the response of Sphagnum peatland to increased temperature and reduced precipitation in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Radoslaw; Basińska, Anna; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Gąbka, Maciej; Hoffmann, Mathias; Józefczyk, Damian; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Leśny, Jacek; Łuców, Dominika; Moni, Christophe; Reczuga, Monika; Samson, Mateusz; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Stróżecki, Marcin; Urbaniak, Marek; Zielińska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Janusz

    2017-04-01

    With respect to climate change peatlands are highly vulnerable ecosystems. Especially a potential drying in future might result in a major carbon source and release to the atmosphere. We carried out a field climate manipulation experiment at Rzecin peatland in western Poland to assess how increased temperature and reduced precipitation may impact carbon balance, vegetation, microbes and water chemistry of the Sphagnum peatland. Here, we present results of measurements conducted in two contrasting years (417 mm and 678 mm of precipitation in very dry 2015 and wet 2016, respectively). The experimental design consists of four treatments, each one replicated three times (control, CO; simulated warming, W; prolonged drought, D and warming & drought, W+D). Increased temperatures (T) during the year were achieved by infrared heaters (400W × 4 per site, approx. 60 Wṡm-2 addition of LW radiation). Precipitation was reduced using an automatic curtain, covering the site during nighttime hours of the growth seasons. The manipulation experiment was successful during both years, increasing the air (30 cm height) and soil temperature (5 cm depth, sites W and D) by up to 0.2 oC and 1.0 oC, respectively. Precipitation was reduced to 37 % during both years. At W+D site the peat temperature was nearly two times higher than on W site indicating the impact of drought on T increase. To study the C exchange we developed an automatic mobile platform for measuring CO2/CH4/H2O fluxes (LGR) as well as 13CO2 and 13CH4 fluxes (PICARRO CRDS G2201-i). Measurements were performed, using dynamic ecosystem chambers (for NEE and Reco) and combined with simultaneous measurements of surface spectral properties. Flux calculation and gap filling was done according to Hoffmann et al. 2015. Methane emissions were significantly higher on manipulated plots than on CO (25 gCṡm-2yr-1) during both years, but only in the very dry 2015, CH4 fluxes were the highest on W+D site (33 gC gCṡm-2yr-1). Besides

  15. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz-Besson, Cathy B; Lousada, José L; Gaspar, Maria J; Correia, Isabel E; David, Teresa S; Soares, Pedro M M; Cardoso, Rita M; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M; Gouveia, Célia M

    2016-01-01

    Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster's vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster's production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region.

  16. A study of cement additive from varied heating temperature of coconut shell charcoal to increase cement strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyidah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study introduces an organic wasted material, which hopefully can be another solution besides other expensive chemical-based additives. The study intends to investigate the effect heating temperature on charcoal powder, which is originated from the coconut-shell waste material, related to its ability in enhancing cement strength. Six samples with different additive concentration should be prepared before initiating the strength test. the strength test principally follows the bi-axial loading test procedure, where each sample will be burdened by a certain amount of the load force until failure condition was reached. The recorded pressure where the failure occurs will be treated as maximum load, which is needed for determining compressive strength and shear-bond-strength values. Those parameters should be in refer to respectable standard in the oil and gas industry. Results from the strength test clearly indicate that higher heating temperature yields to a cement with a high strength. The optimal heating temperature has reached for a sample with 700°C charcoal powder. It is a potential opportunity in increasing the economic value of the waste material.

  17. Anti-inflammatory Terpenoids from the Leaves and Twigs of Dysoxylum gotadhora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kan; Chen, Lu-Lin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Wang, Yi; Li, Ya; Gao, Kun

    2015-05-22

    Nine new terpenoids (1-3, 5-10), including three cyclolanostane triterpenoids (1-3) and six isopimarane diterpenoids (5-10), along with six known terpenoids (4, 11-15), were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Dysoxylum gotadhora. Compound 1 represents a class of rare natural 21,24-epoxy cyclolanostane-type triterpenoids, and compounds 2 and 3 are the first examples of 21,25-epoxy cyclolanostane-type triterpenoids. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 8, and 15 exhibited noteworthy inhibition of nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values of 25.5, 41.5, 27.4, 14.5, and 45.2 μM, respectively.

  18. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Trong, Than; Riera, Florence; Rinaldi, Kévin; Briki, Walid; Hue, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions. Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol) beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature) (28.7°C±0. 5°C), Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C) or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C). Trial time, core temperature (Tco), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) were assessed. Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol. A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone). Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE) between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  19. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Tran Trong

    Full Text Available A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions.Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature (28.7°C±0. 5°C, Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C. Trial time, core temperature (Tco, heart rate (HR, rate of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal sensation (TS and thermal comfort (TC were assessed.Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol.A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone. Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  20. Hitorins A and B, Hexacyclic C25 Terpenoids from Chloranthus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Yong; Nagashima, Hisako; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Kojoma, Mareshige

    2016-10-10

    Two novel C25 terpenoids with a 6/5/5/5/5/3 hexacyclic skeleton including one γ-lactone ring and two tetrahydrofuran rings, hitorins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Chloranthus japonicus. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses as well as TDDFT ECD calculations. Hitorins A (1) and B (2) might be biogenetically derived from eudesmane sesquiterpene and thujane monoterpene.

  1. Unusual cyclic terpenoids with terminal pendant prenyl moieties: from occurrence to synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcitki, Veaceslav; Harghel, Petru; Ungur, Nicon

    2014-12-01

    The paper reviews the known examples of cyclic terpenoids produced from open chain polyenic precursors by an "unusual" biosynthetic pathway, involving selective electrophilic attack on an internal double bond followed by cyclization. The resulting compounds possess cyclic backbones with pendant terminal prenyl groups. Synthetic approaches applied for the synthesis of such specifically functionalized compounds are also discussed, as well as biological activity of reported representatives.

  2. Largely different contents of terpenoids in beef red-flesh tangerine and its wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyun; Liu, Cuihua; He, Min; Li, Jinqiang; Cai, Yongqiang; Ma, Yuhua; Xu, Juan

    2017-02-03

    Niurouhong (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Niurouhong) (NRH) is a spontaneous beef-red flesh mutant with distinctive flavor compared with its wild type orange-red flesh Zhuhongju (ZHJ). To illustrate the biochemical mechanism of its special flesh color and flavor, fruits at commercial mature stage were used to profile the volatiles in the flavedo and determine the levels of carotenoids, limonoid aglycones and phytohormones in the juice sacs in two seasons. Our results showed the content of total volatile terpenoids in NRH was 1.27-fold that in ZHJ. The components of volatiles were found to be common between the two tangerines. This result indicates that the distinctive flavor of NRH might not be derived from the presence/absence of specific volatiles; instead, it was derived from the altered concentrations or balance of α-citral, β-citral, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, (S)-3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl) and n-hexadecanoic acid. Analyses of the contents of total and specific carotenoids indicated that the beef-red color of NRH flesh might be largely attributed to the over accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene. However, lower ABA level was found in NRH than in ZHJ, reflecting a possible feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis on carotenogenesis and the balance in the metabolism among terpenoids. Collectively, our study suggested that the MEP pathway was enhanced in NRH tangerine. However, a certain unknown co-regulatory mechanism might be present in the metabolism pathway of secondary metabolites (especially terpenoids) in beef-red flesh mutant. Our study provides new insights into the regulatory network of terpenoid metabolism and mutation mechanism of red-fleshed citrus.

  3. Cyclic terpenoids of contemporary resinous plant detritus and of fossil woods, ambers and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Grimalt, J.O.; Wang, T.-G.; Cox, R.E.; Hatcher, P.G.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyclic terpenoids present in the solvent extractable material of fossil woods, ambers and brown coals have been analyzed. The sample series chosen consisted of wood remains preserved in Holocene to Jurassic sediments and a set of of ambers from the Philippines (copalite), Israel, Canada and Dominican Republic. The brown coals selected were from the Fortuna Garsdorf Mine and Miocene formations on Fiji. The fossil wood extracts contained dominant diterpenoid or sesquiterpenoid skeletons, and aromatized species were present at high concentrations, with a major amount of two-ring aromatic compounds. Tricyclic diterpenoids were the predominant compounds in the ambers. Aromatized derivatives were the major components, consisting of one or two aromatic ring species with the abietane and occasionally pimarane skeletons. The saturated structures were comprised primarily of the abietane and pimarane skeletons having from three to five carbon (C1, C2, etc.) substituents. Kaurane and phyllocladane isomers were present in only minor amounts. Bicyclic sesquiterpenoids as saturated and partial or fully aromatized forms were also common in these samples, but only traces of sesterterpenoids and triterpenoid derivatives were found. The brown coal extracts were composed of major amounts of one- and two-ring aromatized terpenoids, with a greater proportion of triterpenoid derivatives than in the case of the woods and ambers. This was especially noticeable for the German coal, where the triterpenoids were predominant. Open C-ring aromatized structures were also present in this coal. Steroid compounds were not detectable, but some hopanes were found as minor components in the German brown coal. An overview of the skeletal structure classes identified in each sample, as well as the general mass spectrometric characteristics of the unknown compounds are included in the present paper. It can be concluded from these structural distributions that aromatization is the main process for the

  4. Marine Terpenoid Diacylguanidines: Structure, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Naturally Occurring Actinofide and Synthetic Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marianna; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Mathieu, Véronique; Ingels, Aude; Kiss, Robert; Pascale, Paola; Mollo, Ernesto; Ungur, Nicon; Guo, Yue-Wei; Gavagnin, Margherita

    2017-05-26

    A new diacylguanidine, actinofide (1), has been isolated from the marine mollusk Actinocyclus papillatus. The structure, exhibiting a guanidine moiety acylated by two terpenoid acid units, has been established by spectroscopic methods and secured by synthesis. Following this, a series of structural analogues have been synthesized using the same procedure. All of the compounds have been evaluated in vitro for the growth inhibitory activity against a variety of cancer cell lines.

  5. Increase in leaf temperature opens stomata and decouples net photosynthesis from stomatal conductance in Pinus taeda and Populus deltoides x nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Josef; Ingwers, Miles W; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2017-03-01

    The effect of temperature on stomatal conductance (gs) and corresponding gas exchange parameters was studied in two tree species with contrasting leaf anatomy and ecophysiology-a broadleaf angiosperm, Populus deltoides x nigra (poplar), and a needle-leaf gymnosperm, Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Experiments were conducted in growth chambers across a leaf temperature range of 19-48°C. Manipulations of temperature were done in well-watered and drought soil conditions and under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) air CO2 concentrations. Increases in leaf temperature caused stomatal opening at both ambient and elevated [CO2]. The gs increased by 42% in poplar and by 40% in loblolly pine when leaf temperature increased from 30°C to 40°C at a vapour pressure difference of 1 kPa. Stomatal limitation to photosynthesis decreased in elevated temperature in loblolly pine but not in poplar. The ratio of net photosynthesis to gs depended on leaf temperature, especially at high temperatures. Evaporative cooling of transpiring leaves resulted in reductions in leaf temperature up to 9°C in well-watered poplar but only 1°C in drought-stressed poplar and in loblolly pine. As global mean temperatures rise and temperature extremes become more frequent and severe, understanding the effect of temperature on gs, and modelling that relationship, will become increasingly important. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Novel Terpenoids with Potential Anti-Alzheimer Activity from Nepeta obtusicrena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anıl Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane extract of Nepeta obtusicrena Boiss. Et Kotschy Ex Hedge afforded two novel terpenoids, a diterpenoid and a triterpenoid in addition to two known triterpenoids, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Purification of the diterpenoid was carried out by HPLC, and its structure was elucidated as 14α-acetoxy-6-oxo-abieta-7-ene, and structure of the triterpenoid was elucidated as 2α,3β,19α,24-tetrahydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12-ene. Both of the novel terpenes were obtained from nature for the first time and named as obtusicrenone and nemrutolone, respectively. Anticholinesterase (anti-Alzheimer and antioxidant activities [DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ABTS cation radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, CUPRAC (Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity] of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts and the isolated four terpenoids were investigated. Both of the extracts and the isolated four terpenoids exhibited high anticholinesterase activity, particularly against acetylcholinesterase (AChE enzyme. None of the samples tested showed high antioxidant activity.

  7. Natural terpenoids as a promising source for modulation of GABAergic system and treatment of neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manayi, Azadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Daglia, Maria; Jafari, Samineh

    2016-08-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter reducing neural excitability in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) with three subclasses of receptors. Several conventional drugs and compounds modulate the GABAergic system, demonstrating different pharmacological effects. In this review, interactions of natural terpenoids with the GABAergic system are highlighted with relation to disorders like anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, pain, and cognitive deficits. Terpenoids with various structures affect the function of the GABAergic system via dissimilar mechanisms. Most of the discussed compounds interact with GABA receptors, but especially with the GABAA subtype. This may be due to the fact that researchers tend to assess the interaction of compounds using GABAA receptors. However, bilobalide, a sesquiterpene, showed anticonvulsant properties through the activation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) enzyme, which is a key enzyme in biosynthesis of GABA. Therefore, further studies evaluating and comparing terpenoids of different classes and their interaction with the GABA system, along with their pharmacokinetic properties, could be worthwhile in future studies. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Structures, biological activities and phylogenetic relationships of terpenoids from marine ciliates of the genus Euplotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-07-08

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  9. Terpenoids as anti-colon cancer agents - A comprehensive review on its mechanistic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharada H; Thulasingam, Senthilkumar; Nagarajan, Sangeetha

    2017-01-15

    Multistep model of colon carcinogenesis has provided the framework to advance our understanding of the molecular basis of colon cancer. This multistage process of carcinogenesis takes a long period to transform from a normal epithelial cell to invasive carcinoma. Thus, it provides enough time to intervene the process of carcinogenesis especially through dietary modification. In spite of the in-depth understanding of the colon cancer etiology and pathophysiology and its association with diet, colon cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Phytochemicals and their derivatives are gaining attention in cancer prevention and treatment strategies because of cancer chemotherapy associated adverse effects. Being the largest group of phytochemicals traditionally used for medicinal purpose in India and China, terpenoids are recently being explored as anticancer agents. Anticancer properties of terpenoids are associated with various mechanisms like counteraction of oxidative stress, potentiating endogenous antioxidants, improving detoxification potential, disrupting cell survival pathways and inducing apoptosis. This review gives a comprehensive idea of naturally occurring terpenoids as useful agents for the prevention of colon cancer with reference to their classes, sources and molecular targets. Based on the explored molecular targets further research in colon cancer chemoprevention is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Leojaponic acids A and B, two new homologous terpenoids, isolated from Leonurus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han-Kui; Mao, Yan-Jun; Sun, Shan-Shan; Xu, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Ya; Cao, Jin-Xia; Qi, He; Wu, Zhi-Fu; Li, Gang; Yang, Wei-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed at isolation and purification of the bioactive terpenoids from the herb of Leonurus japonicus by chromatographic separations such as silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and C18 reversed phase silica gel, as well as preparative HPLC. As a result, leojaponic acids A (1, C17H24O4) and B (2, C18H26O4), two homologous terpenoids, together with (-)-loliolide (3), 1-(3-ethylphenyl) ethane-1, 2-diol (4) and dibutyl phthalate (5), were isolated from the EtOH extract of L. japonicus. All the chemical structures of the isolates were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 were new terpenoids, and Compounds 3 and 4 were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant. In addition, the α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the new compounds were evaluated. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Terpenoid synthase structures: a so far incomplete view of complex catalysis†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of terpenoid natural products has drawn significant interest, particularly since their common (poly)isoprenyl origins were discovered. Notably, much of this complexity is derived from the highly variable cyclized and/or rearranged nature of the observed hydrocarbon skeletal structures. Indeed, at least in some cases it is difficult to immediately recognize their derivation from poly-isoprenyl precursors. Nevertheless, these diverse structures are formed by sequential elongation to acyclic precursors, most often with subsequent cyclization and/or rearrangement. Strikingly, the reactions used to assemble and diversify terpenoid backbones share a common carbocationic driven mechanism, although the means by which the initial carbocation is generated does vary. High-resolution crystal structures have been obtained for at least representative examples from each of the various types of enzymes involved in producing terpenoid hydrocarbon backbones. However, while this has certainly led to some insights into the enzymatic structure–function relationships underlying the elongation and simpler cyclization reactions, our understanding of the more complex cyclization and/or rearrangement reactions remains limited. Accordingly, selected examples are discussed here to demonstrate our current understanding, its limits, and potential ways forward. PMID:22907771

  12. Terpenoid synthase structures: a so far incomplete view of complex catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Honzatko, Richard B; Peters, Reuben J

    2012-10-01

    The complexity of terpenoid natural products has drawn significant interest, particularly since their common (poly)isoprenyl origins were discovered. Notably, much of this complexity is derived from the highly variable cyclized and/or rearranged nature of the observed hydrocarbon skeletal structures. Indeed, at least in some cases it is difficult to immediately recognize their derivation from poly-isoprenyl precursors. Nevertheless, these diverse structures are formed by sequential elongation to acyclic precursors, most often with subsequent cyclization and/or rearrangement. Strikingly, the reactions used to assemble and diversify terpenoid backbones share a common carbocationic driven mechanism, although the means by which the initial carbocation is generated does vary. High-resolution crystal structures have been obtained for at least representative examples from each of the various types of enzymes involved in producing terpenoid hydrocarbon backbones. However, while this has certainly led to some insights into the enzymatic structure-function relationships underlying the elongation and simpler cyclization reactions, our understanding of the more complex cyclization and/or rearrangement reactions remains limited. Accordingly, selected examples are discussed here to demonstrate our current understanding, its limits, and potential ways forward.

  13. Proteomics of terpenoid biosynthesis and secretion in trichomes of higher plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Antoine; Boutry, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Among the specialized (secondary) plant metabolites, terpenoids represent the most diverse family and are often involved in the defense against pathogens and herbivores. Terpenoids can be produced both constitutively and in response to the environment. At the front line of this defense strategy are the glandular trichomes, which are organs dedicated primarily to the production of specialized metabolites. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a powerful tool, which is very useful to investigate enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, such as the synthesis and secretion of terpenoids in glandular trichomes. Here we review the strategies used to investigate the specific roles of these particular organs from non-model plant species, mainly belonging to the Lamiaceae, Solanaceae, and Cannabaceae families. We discuss how proteomics helps to accurately pinpoint candidate proteins to be functionally characterized, and how technological progresses create opportunities for studying low-abundance proteins, such as the ones related to the synthesis and transport of specialized metabolites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High-throughput testing of terpenoid biosynthesis candidate genes using transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Søren Spanner; Bassard, Jean-Étienne; Andersen-Ranberg, Johan; Møldrup, Morten Emil; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Hamberger, Björn

    2014-01-01

    To respond to the rapidly growing number of genes putatively involved in terpenoid metabolism, a robust high-throughput platform for functional testing is needed. An in planta expression system offers several advantages such as the capacity to produce correctly folded and active enzymes localized to the native compartments, unlike microbial or prokaryotic expression systems. Two inherent drawbacks of plant-based expression systems, time-consuming generation of transgenic plant lines and challenging gene-stacking, can be circumvented by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. In this chapter we describe an expression platform for rapid testing of candidate terpenoid biosynthetic genes based on Agrobacterium mediated gene expression in N. benthamiana leaves. Simultaneous expression of multiple genes is facilitated by co-infiltration of leaves with several engineered Agrobacterium strains, possibly making this the fastest and most convenient system for the assembly of plant terpenoid biosynthetic routes. Tools for cloning of expression plasmids, N. benthamiana culturing, Agrobacterium preparation, leaf infiltration, metabolite extraction, and automated GC-MS data mining are provided. With all steps optimized for high throughput, this in planta expression platform is particularly suited for testing large panels of candidate genes in all possible permutations.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Thapsia laciniata Rouy Provides Insights into Terpenoid Biosynthesis and Diversity in Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Toft Simonsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thapsia laciniata Rouy (Apiaceae produces irregular and regular sesquiterpenoids with thapsane and guaiene carbon skeletons, as found in other Apiaceae species. A transcriptomic analysis utilizing Illumina next-generation sequencing enabled the identification of novel genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids in Thapsia. From 66.78 million HQ paired-end reads obtained from T. laciniata roots, 64.58 million were assembled into 76,565 contigs (N50: 1261 bp. Seventeen contigs were annotated as terpene synthases and five of these were predicted to be sesquiterpene synthases. Of the 67 contigs annotated as cytochromes P450, 18 of these are part of the CYP71 clade that primarily performs hydroxylations of specialized metabolites. Three contigs annotated as aldehyde dehydrogenases grouped phylogenetically with the characterized ALDH1 from Artemisia annua and three contigs annotated as alcohol dehydrogenases grouped with the recently described ADH1 from A. annua. ALDH1 and ADH1 were characterized as part of the artemisinin biosynthesis. We have produced a comprehensive EST dataset for T. laciniata roots, which contains a large sample of the T. laciniata transcriptome. These transcriptome data provide the foundation for future research into the molecular basis for terpenoid biosynthesis in Thapsia and on the evolution of terpenoids in Apiaceae.

  16. Introduction of low-temperature swirl technology of burning as a way of increase in ecological of low power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchenko, A. A.; Paramonov, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    Work is devoted to the solution of problems of energy efficiency increase in low power boilers at combustion of solid fuel. The technological method of nitrogen oxides decomposition on a surface of carbon particles with education environmentally friendly carbonic acid and molecular nitrogen is considered during the work of a low-temperature swirl fire chamber. Based on the analysis of physical and chemical processes of a fuel chemically connected energy transition into thermal, using the diffusive and kinetic theory of burning modern approaches the technique, mathematical model and the settlement program for assessment of plant ecological indicators when using a new method are developed. Alternative calculations of furnace process are carried out, quantitative assessment of nitrogen oxides emissions level of the reconstructed boiler is executed. The results of modeling and experimental data have approved that the organization of swirl burning increases overall performance of a fire chamber and considerably reduces emissions of nitrogen oxides.

  17. Theoretical comparison of single-stage and advanced absorption heat transformers used to increase solar pond's temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W; Best, Roberto [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Mathematical models of single-stage and advanced absorption heat transformers operating with the water/Carrol{sup T}M mixture were developed to simulate the performance of these systems coupled to a solar pond in order to increase the temperature of the useful heat produced by solar ponds. The results showed that the single-stage and the double absorption heat transformer are the most promising configuration to be coupled to solar ponds. With single-stage heat transformers it is possible to increase solar pond's temperature until 50 Celsius degrees with coefficients of performance of about 0.48 and with double absorption heat transformers until 100 Celsius degrees with coefficients of performance of 0.33. [Spanish] Se desarrollaron modelos matematicos de una sola etapa y transformadores avanzados de absorcion de calor operando con la mezcla agua/Carrol{sup T}M para simular el rendimiento de estos sistemas acoplados a un estanque solar con el objeto de aumentar la temperatura del calor util producido por los estanques solares. Los resultados mostraron que la etapa sencilla y el transformador de calor de absorcion doble son la configuracion mas prometedora para ser acoplado a estanques solares. Con los transformadores de calor de una sola etapa es posible aumentar la temperatura del estanque solar hasta 50 grados Celsius con coeficientes de rendimiento de alrededor de 0.48 y con transformadores de calor de doble absorcion hasta 100 grados Celsius con coeficientes de rendimiento de 0.33.

  18. Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Coumarins from Fruits of Heracleum leskowii with Application of Solvents with Different Polarity under Increasing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Coumarins are nowadays an important group of organic compounds from natural sources that are useful in a number of fields. Because they possess different pharmacological properties, finding the proper extraction conditions for their separation from plant matrices is a very important step. In this report Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE under different temperature conditions and with different types of extraction solvents were tested. As a matrix, fruits of Heracleum leskowii have been used. A simple reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC coupled with a photodiode array detector (DAD has been developed for separation and quantitative analysis of the main coumarins. Umbelliferone, xanthotoxin, angelicin, isopimpinellin, bergapten, imperatorin and isoimperatorin were investigated. Bergapten and imperatorin were dominant in almost all extracts in the range of 9.92 ± 0.02–20.93 ± 0.06 and 12.19 ± 0.98–19.07 ± 0.03 mg/100 g, respectively. Dichloromethane and methanol were chosen as the most proper suitable solvents for extraction of coumarins. By increasing the temperature the amount of extracted coumarins increases in petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts.

  19. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and temperature increase on Escherichia coli spp. and pectin methyl esterase inactivation in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E F; González-M, G; Klotz, B; Rodrigo, D

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment combined with moderate processing temperatures (25 ℃-50 ℃) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157: H7 (ATCC 700728), E. coli K12 (ATCC 23716), and pectin methyl esterase in orange juice, using pressures of 250 to 500 MPa with times ranging between 1 and 30 min. Loss of viability of E. coli O157:H7 increased significantly as pressure and treatment time increased, achieving a 6.5 log cycle reduction at 400 MPa for 3 min at 25 ℃ of treatment. With regard to the inactivation of pectin methyl esterase, the greatest reduction obtained was 90.05 ± 0.01% at 50 ℃ and 500 MPa of pressure for 15 min; therefore, the pectin methyl esterase enzyme was highly resistant to the treatments by high hydrostatic pressure. The results obtained in this study showed a synergistic effect between the high pressure and moderate temperatures in inactivating E. coli cells. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Increased temperature and altered summer precipitation have differential effects on biological soil crusts in a dryland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Carney, Travis D.; Housman, David C.; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common and ecologically important members of dryland ecosystems worldwide, where they stabilize soil surfaces and contribute newly fixed C and N to soils. To test the impacts of predicted climate change scenarios on biocrusts in a dryland ecosystem, the effects of a 2–3 °C increase in soil temperature and an increased frequency of smaller summer precipitation events were examined in a large, replicated field study conducted in the cold desert of the Colorado Plateau, USA. Surface soil biomass (DNA concentration), photosynthetically active cyanobacterial biomass (chlorophyll a concentration), cyanobacterial abundance (quantitative PCR assay), and bacterial community composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing) were monitored seasonally over 2 years. Soil microbial biomass and bacterial community composition were highly stratified between the 0–2 cm depth biocrusts and 5–10 cm depth soil beneath the biocrusts. The increase in temperature did not have a detectable effect on any of the measured parameters over 2 years. However, after the second summer of altered summer precipitation pattern, significant declines occurred in the surface soil biomass (avg. DNA concentration declined 38%), photosynthetic cyanobacterial biomass (avg. chlorophyll a concentration declined 78%), cyanobacterial abundance (avg. gene copies g−1 soil declined 95%), and proportion of Cyanobacteria in the biocrust bacterial community (avg. representation in sequence libraries declined 85%). Biocrusts are important contributors to soil stability, soil C and N stores, and plant performance, and the loss or reduction of biocrusts under an altered precipitation pattern associated with climate change could contribute significantly to lower soil fertility and increased erosion and dust production in dryland ecosystems at a regional scale.

  1. Abstract of report on increasing the oil yield in low temperature carbonization by the addition of catalyst and superheated steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-04-29

    In a letter dated February 2, 1943, Hydro-works Poelitz stated that in practical operation, as well as in the laboratory, an increased oil yield in low-temperature carbonization had been obtained by the simultaneous addition of superheated steam and sulfur. Other experiments with the same objective were later performed at Gelsenberg, Scholven, and Ludwigshafen. The laboratory experimental results and operating experimental results were discussed in this report. Poelitz found that it could increase its yield from 71.5% to 79.3% by the addition of 1.2% sulfur and an increase in the steam from 150 kg/hr to 320 kg/hr when carbonizing centrifuge residue from coal and, at the time, increased the throughput in the ball kiln from 3.5 to 3.8 tons/hr. Some properties of the heavy oils were given. The use of these results in mass production depended on two factors. The first was the extent to which the quantity of steam could be increased without too great an increase in the dust content of the precooler oil. The second factor was the economy of increased steam consumption and the cost of catalysts. Most of the beneficial effect of the additions seemed to be due to the steam, but the catalyst added some effect to that of the steam; without the use of steam, catalyst alone seemed to have essentially no effect. Replacement of part of the sulfur in the catalyst by small amounts of sodium sulfide and soda seemed to give the same effect as the sulfur alone, and the alkaline addition seemed to have the additional benefit of preventing the kiln residue from becoming plastic.

  2. Optimalization of silicon extraction from husk ashes by excessive magnesium addition on increasing rate of temperature reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintha, I.; Dahrul, M.; Ismawati, S. S.; Kurniati, M.; Irmansyah; Irzaman

    2017-05-01

    The Silicon can be extracted from rice husk ash by reducing silica with magnesium. In this study the use of Magnesium and Silica was 49:60 with various rate of increase in the reduction temperature (1 °C/minutes, 3 °C/minutes, and 5°C/minutes). It was done in order to obtain silicon with a higher purity than previous studies. The results of EDX showed that the purity silicon with the increase rate of 1 °C/minutes and 5 °C/minutes were 1.78% and 29.39%, respectively. Then, silicon was not formed by increasing rate of 3 °C/minutes. Moreover, XRD results of the samples by using the increase rate of 1 °C/minutes and 5 °C/minutes showed that the pattern correspond to Silicon while the sample with increase rate of 3 °C/min corresponds to Silica. The FTIR spectra indicate the presence of stretching vibration an harmonic for functional groups of Si-O-Si with spring constant for the increase rate of 1 °C/minutes, 3 °C/minutes, and 5 °C/minutes respectively were 977.23 N/m, 1003 N/m, and 982.3 N/m. FTIR result was consistent with EDX and XRD result proving by the existence of Si-O-Si functional group which showed the purity silicon produced was not optimum and presence of OH-functional group indicate that sample contained water

  3. Heat flow evolution of the Earth from paleomantle temperatures: Evidence for increasing heat loss since ∼2.5 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Javier

    2017-08-01

    Earth currently loses two to five times as much heat through its surface as it is internally produced by radioactivity. This proportion cannot be extrapolated into the past, because it would imply high interior temperatures and catastrophic melting of the planet in ancient times. The heat loss evolution of the Earth cannot therefore be described by a constant heat flow decreasing. This is consistent with previous work finding that the mantle heated up until ∼2.5-3.0 Ga and then progressively cooled down. The present work derives a first-order heat loss evolution of the Earth by comparing the evolution of the total heat content of the silicate Earth (as described by mantle potential temperatures deduced from the melting conditions of ancient non-arc basalts) with the total radioactive heat production. The results show that the heat flow was declining, and the mantle heating-up, until ∼2.5 Ga, but that after this time the heat flow has been slowly (but constantly) increasing, and the mantle cooling-down, until the present-day. The change in heat loss trend is roughly coeval with other major geological, geochemical and environmental changes, and could indicate the starting of the modern-style of plate tectonics. This work provides therefore the first quantitative evidence of change in terrestrial heat loss regime, and suggests that substantial variations in the internal heat budget occurred during Earth's history.

  4. Monitoring of temperature increase and tissue vaporization during laser interstitial thermotherapy of ex vivo swine liver by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, E; Saccomandi, P; Giurazza, F; Del Vescovo, R; Mortato, L; Martino, M; Panzera, F; Di Matteo, F M; Beomonte Zobel, B; Silvestri, S

    2013-01-01

    Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique used to thermally destroy tumour cells. Being based on hyperthermia, LITT outcome depends on the temperature distribution inside the tissue. Recently, CT scan thermometry, based on the dependence of the CT number (HU) on tissue temperature (T) has been introduced during LITT; it is an attractive approach to monitor T because it overcomes the concerns related to the invasiveness. We performed LITT on nine ex vivo swine livers at three different laser powers, (P=1.5 W, P=3 W, P=5 W) with a constant treatment time t=200 s; HU is averaged on two ellipsoidal regions of interest (ROI) of 0.2 cm2, placed at two distances from the applicator (d=3.6 mm and d=8.7 mm); a reference ROI was placed away from the applicator (d=30 mm). The aim of this study is twofold: 1) to evaluate the effect of the T increase in terms of HU variation in ex vivo swine livers undergoing LITT; and 2) to estimate the P value for tissue vaporization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study focused on the HU variation in swine livers undergoing LITT at different P. The reported findings could be useful to assess the effect of LITT on the liver in terms of both T changes and tissue vaporization, with the aim to obtain an effective therapy.

  5. Temperature-dependent dynamic control of the TCA cycle increases volumetric productivity of itaconic acid production by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Björn-Johannes; Bettenbrock, Katja; Klamt, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Based on the recently constructed Escherichia coli itaconic acid production strain ita23, we aimed to improve the productivity by applying a two-stage process strategy with decoupled production of biomass and itaconic acid. We constructed a strain ita32 (MG1655 ΔaceA Δpta ΔpykF ΔpykA pCadCs), which, in contrast to ita23, has an active tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and a fast growth rate of 0.52 hr-1 at 37°C, thus representing an ideal phenotype for the first stage, the growth phase. Subsequently we implemented a synthetic genetic control allowing the downregulation of the TCA cycle and thus the switch from growth to itaconic acid production in the second stage. The promoter of the isocitrate dehydrogenase was replaced by the Lambda promoter (pR ) and its expression was controlled by the temperature-sensitive repressor CI857 which is active at lower temperatures (30°C). With glucose as substrate, the respective strain ita36A grew with a fast growth rate at 37°C and switched to production of itaconic acid at 28°C. To study the impact of the process strategy on productivity, we performed one-stage and two-stage bioreactor cultivations. The two-stage process enabled fast formation of biomass resulting in improved peak productivity of 0.86 g/L/hr (+48%) and volumetric productivity of 0.39 g/L/hr (+22%) in comparison to the one-stage process. With our dynamic production strain, we also resolved the glutamate auxotrophy of ita23 and increased the itaconic acid titer to 47 g/L. The temperature-dependent activation of gene expression by the Lambda promoters (pR /pL ) has been frequently used to improve protein or, in a few cases, metabolite production in two-stage processes. Here we demonstrate that the system can be as well used in the opposite direction to selectively knock-down an essential gene (icd) in E. coli to design a two-stage process for improved volumetric productivity. The control by temperature avoids expensive inducers and has the potential

  6. Stress-induced Curie temperature increase in the Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} invar alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorria, Pedro; Martinez-Blanco, David; Blanco, Jesus A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain); Boada, Roberto; Chaboy, Jesus [ICMA and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, CSIC - Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro [LGIT, University of Grenoble and CNRS, Maison des Geosciences, Grenoble (France); Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Garbarino, Gaston; Castro, German R.; Mezouar, Mohamed [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France); Smith, Ronald I. [ISIS Facility, RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Alonso, J.I.G. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo (Spain); Hernando, Antonio [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Structural and magnetic changes on invar Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} alloy (T{sub C}=500 K) produced by mechanical milling followed by heating up to 1073 K, were investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetization measurements, X-ray diffraction under high pressures and X-ray absorption at both Fe and Ni K-edges. We argue that the strain induced in the Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} material after this treatment mainly affects the Fe sites due to the magnetovolume coupling, the most notorious feature being the increase of the Curie temperature ({delta}T{sub C}=70 K). (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Increasing aridity, temperature and soil pH induce soil C-N-P imbalance in grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Feng; Shi, Xin-Rong; Han, Feng-Peng; Yuan, Zhi-You

    2016-01-01

    Due to the different degrees of controls exerted by biological and geochemical processes, climate changes are suggested to uncouple biogeochemical C, N and P cycles, influencing biomass accumulation, decomposition and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the possible extent of such disruption in grassland ecosystems remains unclear, especially in China’s steppes which have undergone rapid climate changes with increasing drought and warming predicted moving forward in these dryland ecosystems. Here, we assess how soil C-N-P stoichiometry is affected by climatic change along a 3500-km temperate climate transect in Inner Mongolia, China. Our results reveal that the soil from more arid and warmer sites are associated with lower soil organic C, total N and P. The ratios of both soil C:P and N:P decrease, but soil C:N increases with increasing aridity and temperature, indicating the predicted decreases in precipitation and warming for most of the temperate grassland region could lead to a soil C-N-P decoupling that may reduce plant growth and production in arid ecosystems. Soil pH, mainly reflecting long-term climate change in our sites, also contributes to the changing soil C-N-P stoichiometry, indicating the collective influences of climate and soil type on the shape of soil C-N-P balance.

  8. Changes in Greenland Outlet Glacier Systems Synchronous With Increasing Summer Sea Surface Temperatures Over the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, M.; Milliman, T.; Truffer, M.; Joughin, I.; Motyka, R.; Amundson, J.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of satellite-derived (AVHRR and MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) time series around Greenland show large-scale patterns of increase that are synchronous with changes in glacier termini and flow speed. In particular, the warming of summer SST in the last half of the 1990s is observed in the south of Greenland and in Disko Bay, coincident with the patterns of glacier acceleration (Rignot and Kanagaratnam. Science 2006) and, in Disko Bay, with the initial changes observed in the configuration and flow of Jakobshavns Isbrae (Joughin et al., Nature, 2004, and Luckman and Murray, GRL, 2005). The warming is observed to spread to the north along both coasts of Greenland, and be particularly pronounced on the NW coast during the first half of the present decade, also matching the patterns of glacier acceleration reported by Rignot and Kanagaratnam and others. Local reports from Disko Bay, and sea ice extent maps from satellite imagery, indicate that winter freezing of the coastal ocean has shown a dramatic decrease over the interval of change, and open water is much more common. Local changes in SST appear to coincide with changes in outlet glacier systems on a nearly annual basis, suggesting that the connection between ocean and inland ice is quite responsive to changes, whether warming or cooling. In a number of areas, maximum summer sea surface temperatures, as measured by satellite thermal IR data, have increased by four degrees C over the last 15 years, representing a significant change in the melting potential of near surface waters.

  9. High-temperature hydrogenation of pure and silver-decorated titanate nanotubes to increase their solar absorbance for photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plodinec, Milivoj [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-1002 Zagreb (Croatia); Gajović, Andreja, E-mail: gajovic@irb.hr [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-1002 Zagreb (Croatia); Jakša, Gregor; Žagar, Kristina; Čeh, Miran [Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-04-05

    Graphical abstract: The aim of the work is to study how annealing in a reducing atmosphere of titanate nanotubes (TiNT) and Ag decorated titanate nanotubes (TiNT@Ag) influenced on their structure, morphology, phase transitions, UV–ViS-NIR absorbance and photocatalytic activity. An increase of photocatalytic activity after a heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere was observed in the TiNT and TiNT@Ag. We found that the hydrogenated TiNT@Ag samples (TiNT@Ag-HA) had a two-times higher photodegradation impact on the caffeine than the TiNT samples, which is a consequence of the increased absorption of visible light and the synergetic effects between the silver and the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles that increase the efficiency of the formation of electron–hole pairs and the charge transfer to the surface of the nanoparticles. -- Highlights: • Titanate nanotubes with and without Ag nanoparticles were hydrogenated at 550 °C. • TiO{sub 2} nanostructures obtained by hydrogenation have core–shell structure. • Hydrogenated samples show absorption in the visible spectral region. • Hydrogenated Ag decorated sample show stronger absorption in visible than in UV. • Photocatalytic efficiency is improved by hydrogenation and by Ag nanoparticles. -- Abstract: Titanate nanotubes (TiNTs) and silver-decorated titanate nanotubes (TiNTs@Ag) were synthesized using the hydrothermal method. In the decorated nanotubes the silver particles were obtained by the photoreduction of AgNO{sub 3} under UV light. Pure and Ag-decorated nanotubes were high-temperature heat treated at 550 °C in a hydrogen atmosphere and the “core–shell”-structured TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were formed. For the structural characterization of all the titanate nanostructures we used conventional and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The Ag-decorated titanate nanostructures were additionally studied by X-ray photo

  10. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-02-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay.

  11. Silencing the Transcriptional Repressor, ZCT1, Illustrates the Tight Regulation of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus Hairy Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen F Rizvi

    Full Text Available The Catharanthus roseus plant is the source of many valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, including the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Transcription factors (TFs are promising metabolic engineering targets due to their ability to regulate multiple biosynthetic pathway genes. To increase TIA biosynthesis, we elicited the TIA transcriptional activators (ORCAs and other unidentified TFs with the plant hormone, methyl jasmonate (MJ, while simultaneously silencing the expression of the transcriptional repressor ZCT1. To silence ZCT1, we developed transgenic hairy root cultures of C. roseus that expressed an estrogen-inducible Zct1 hairpin for activating RNA interference. The presence of 17β-estradiol (5μM effectively depleted Zct1 in hairy root cultures elicited with MJ dosages that either optimize or inhibit TIA production (250 or 1000μM. However, silencing Zct1 was not sufficient to increase TIA production or the expression of the TIA biosynthetic genes (G10h, Tdc, and Str, illustrating the tight regulation of TIA biosynthesis. The repression of the TIA biosynthetic genes at the inhibitory MJ dosage does not appear to be solely regulated by ZCT1. For instance, while Zct1 and Zct2 levels decreased through activating the Zct1 hairpin, Zct3 levels remained elevated. Since ZCT repressors have redundant yet distinct functions, silencing all three ZCTs may be necessary to relieve their repression of alkaloid biosynthesis.

  12. Silencing the Transcriptional Repressor, ZCT1, Illustrates the Tight Regulation of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus Hairy Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Noreen F; Weaver, Jessica D; Cram, Erin J; Lee-Parsons, Carolyn W T

    2016-01-01

    The Catharanthus roseus plant is the source of many valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Transcription factors (TFs) are promising metabolic engineering targets due to their ability to regulate multiple biosynthetic pathway genes. To increase TIA biosynthesis, we elicited the TIA transcriptional activators (ORCAs and other unidentified TFs) with the plant hormone, methyl jasmonate (MJ), while simultaneously silencing the expression of the transcriptional repressor ZCT1. To silence ZCT1, we developed transgenic hairy root cultures of C. roseus that expressed an estrogen-inducible Zct1 hairpin for activating RNA interference. The presence of 17β-estradiol (5μM) effectively depleted Zct1 in hairy root cultures elicited with MJ dosages that either optimize or inhibit TIA production (250 or 1000μM). However, silencing Zct1 was not sufficient to increase TIA production or the expression of the TIA biosynthetic genes (G10h, Tdc, and Str), illustrating the tight regulation of TIA biosynthesis. The repression of the TIA biosynthetic genes at the inhibitory MJ dosage does not appear to be solely regulated by ZCT1. For instance, while Zct1 and Zct2 levels decreased through activating the Zct1 hairpin, Zct3 levels remained elevated. Since ZCT repressors have redundant yet distinct functions, silencing all three ZCTs may be necessary to relieve their repression of alkaloid biosynthesis.

  13. Transcriptome and metabolite profiling reveals that prolonged drought modulates the phenylpropanoid and terpenoid pathway in white grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoi, Stefania; Wong, Darren C J; Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Miculan, Mara; Bucchetti, Barbara; Peterlunger, Enrico; Fait, Aaron; Mattivi, Fulvio; Castellarin, Simone D

    2016-03-21

    Secondary metabolism contributes to the adaptation of a plant to its environment. In wine grapes, fruit secondary metabolism largely determines wine quality. Climate change is predicted to exacerbate drought events in several viticultural areas, potentially affecting the wine quality. In red grapes, water deficit modulates flavonoid accumulation, leading to major quantitative and compositional changes in the profile of the anthocyanin pigments; in white grapes, the effect of water deficit on secondary metabolism is still largely unknown. In this study we investigated the impact of water deficit on the secondary metabolism of white grapes using a large scale metabolite and transcript profiling approach in a season characterized by prolonged drought. Irrigated grapevines were compared to non-irrigated grapevines that suffered from water deficit from early stages of berry development to harvest. A large effect of water deficit on fruit secondary metabolism was observed. Increased concentrations of phenylpropanoids, monoterpenes, and tocopherols were detected, while carotenoid and flavonoid accumulations were differentially modulated by water deficit according to the berry developmental stage. The RNA-sequencing analysis carried out on berries collected at three developmental stages-before, at the onset, and at late ripening-indicated that water deficit affected the expression of 4,889 genes. The Gene Ontology category secondary metabolic process was overrepresented within up-regulated genes at all the stages of fruit development considered, and within down-regulated genes before ripening. Eighteen phenylpropanoid, 16 flavonoid, 9 carotenoid, and 16 terpenoid structural genes were modulated by water deficit, indicating the transcriptional regulation of these metabolic pathways in fruit exposed to water deficit. An integrated network and promoter analyses identified a transcriptional regulatory module that encompasses terpenoid genes, transcription factors, and enriched

  14. Evidence that higher [CO2] increases tree growth sensitivity to temperature: a comparison of modern and paleo oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Michael C. Stambaugh; J. Renée Brooks; Frederick C. Meinzer; Barbara Lachenbruch; Richard P. Guyette

    2017-01-01

    To test tree growth-sensitivity to temperature under different ambient CO2 concentrations, we determined stem radial growth rates as they relate to variation in temperature during the last deglacial period, and compare these to modern tree growth rates as they relate to spatial variation in temperature across the modern species distributional...

  15. Treponema pallidum putative novel drug target identification and validation: rethinking syphilis therapeutics with plant-derived terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Swati; Awasthi, Manika; Pandey, Veda P

    2015-02-01

    Syphilis, a slow progressive and the third most common sexually transmitted disease found worldwide, is caused by a spirochete gram negative bacteria Treponema pallidum. Emergence of antibiotic resistant T. pallidum has led to a search for novel drugs and their targets. Subtractive genomics analyses of pathogen T. pallidum and host Homo sapiens resulted in identification of 126 proteins essential for survival and viability of the pathogen. Metabolic pathway analyses of these essential proteins led to discovery of nineteen proteins distributed among six metabolic pathways unique to T. pallidum. One hundred plant-derived terpenoids, as potential therapeutic molecules against T. pallidum, were screened for their drug likeness and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and toxicity) properties. Subsequently the resulting nine terpenoids were docked with five unique T. pallidum targets through molecular modeling approaches. Out of five targets analyzed, D-alanine:D-alanine ligase was found to be the most promising target, while terpenoid salvicine was the most potent inhibitor. A comparison of the inhibitory potential of the best docked readily available natural compound, namely pomiferin (flavonoid) with that of the best docked terpenoid salvicine, revealed that salvicine was a more potent inhibitor than that of pomiferin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a terpenoid as a potential therapeutic molecule against T. pallidum with D-alanine:D-alanine ligase as a novel target. Further studies are warranted to evaluate and explore the potential clinical ramifications of these findings in relation to syphilis that has public health importance worldwide.

  16. Integrated transcriptome sequencing and dynamic analysis reveal carbon source partitioning between terpenoid and oil accumulation in developing Lindera glauca fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jun; Chen, Yinlei; An, Jiyong; Hou, Xinyu; Cai, Jian; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Zhixiang; Lin, Shanzhi

    2015-10-08

    Lindera glauca fruits (LGF) with the abundance of terpenoid and oil has emerged as a novel specific material for industrial and medicinal application in China, but the complex regulatory mechanisms of carbon source partitioning into terpenoid biosynthetic pathway (TBP) and oil biosynthetic pathway (OBP) in developing LGF is still unknown. Here we perform the analysis of contents and compositions of terpenoid and oil from 7 stages of developing LGF to characterize a dramatic difference in temporal accumulative patterns. The resulting 3 crucial samples at 50, 125 and 150 days after flowering (DAF) were selected for comparative deep transcriptome analysis. By Illumina sequencing, the obtained approximately 81 million reads are assembled into 69,160 unigenes, among which 174, 71, 81 and 155 unigenes are implicated in glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), TBP and OBP, respectively. Integrated differential expression profiling and qRT-PCR, we specifically characterize the key enzymes and transcription factors (TFs) involved in regulating carbon allocation ratios for terpenoid or oil accumulation in developing LGF. These results contribute to our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carbon source partitioning between terpenoid and oil in developing LGF, and to the improvement of resource utilization and molecular breeding for L. glauca.

  17. The Flavonoid Biosynthetic Enzyme Chalcone Isomerase Modulates Terpenoid Production in Glandular Trichomes of Tomato1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Ho; McRoberts, John; Shi, Feng; Moreno, Javier E.; Jones, A. Daniel; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids and terpenoids are derived from distinct metabolic pathways but nevertheless serve complementary roles in mediating plant interactions with the environment. Here, we show that glandular trichomes of the anthocyanin free (af) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fail to accumulate both flavonoids and terpenoids. This pleiotropic metabolic deficiency was associated with loss of resistance to native populations of coleopteran herbivores under field conditions. We demonstrate that Af encodes an isoform (SlCHI1) of the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI), which catalyzes the conversion of naringenin chalcone to naringenin and is strictly required for flavonoid production in multiple tissues of tomato. Expression of the wild-type SlCHI1 gene from its native promoter complemented the anthocyanin deficiency in af. Unexpectedly, the SlCHI1 transgene also complemented the defect in terpenoid production in glandular trichomes. Our results establish a key role for SlCHI1 in flavonoid production in tomato and reveal a link between CHI1 and terpenoid production. Metabolic coordination of the flavonoid and terpenoid pathways may serve to optimize the function of trichome glands in dynamic environments. PMID:24424324

  18. Features of performance of concrete and reinforced concrete structures of industrial facilities operated under impact of increased and high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomin Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Normative base of Ukraine has moved to European standards. The process of harmonization with the Eurocodes was completed, new national normative documents of DBN and DSTU were developed and put into effect. At the same time it was turned out that the big section “Concrete and reinforced concrete structures intended for work in conditions of increased and high temperatures” is absent in the Eurocodes. By order of the Ministry of Regional Development, Construction and Housing and Communal Services of Ukraine, the development of a normative act is provided for the replacement of SNiP 2.03.04-84 with DBN with a change in status. Heat-resistant concretes in the elements of thermal aggregates are used in the iron and steel industry (blast furnaces, air heaters, coke batteries, etc., non-ferrous metallurgy (graphite furnaces, fluidized bed furnaces, etc., oil refining and petrochemical industry (tubular furnaces, vertical sectional furnaces, etc., in the industry of building materials, and in various sectors of industry. These norms and rules apply to the design of concrete and reinforced concrete structures designed to operate under conditions of systematic exposure to increased (50 to 200 °C inclusive and high (above 200 °C process temperatures.

  19. In Vivo Validation of In Silico Predicted Metabolic Engineering Strategies in Yeast: Disruption of α-Ket