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Sample records for temperature dependent dielectric

  1. Frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric properties of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielectric properties of chicken breast meat were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at temperatures ranging from -20 degree C to +25 degree C. At a given temperature, the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant reveals two relaxations while those of th...

  2. Temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of rubber wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Firoz Kabir; Wan M. Daud; Kaida B. Khalid; Haji A.A. Sidek

    2001-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of rubber wood was investigated in three anisotropic directions—longitudinal, radial, and tangential, and at different measurement frequencies. Low frequency measurements were conducted with a dielectric spectrometer, and high frequencies used microwave applied with open-ended coaxial probe sensors. Dielectric...

  3. Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Properties of Al/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijun; Zhou, Wenying; Sui, Xuezhen; Dong, Lina; Cai, Huiwu; Zuo, Jing; Chen, Qingguo

    2016-06-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was carried out to study the transition in electrical properties of Al/epoxy nanocomposites over the frequency range of 1-107 Hz and the temperature range of -20°C to 200°C. The dielectric permittivity, dissipation factor, and electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increased with temperature and showed an abrupt increase around the glass transition temperature ( T g). The results clearly reveal an interesting transition of the electrical properties with increasing temperature: insulator below 70°C, conductor at about 70°C. The behavior of the transition in electrical properties of the nanocomposites was explored at different temperatures. The presence of relaxation peaks in the loss tangent and electric modulus spectra of the nanocomposites confirms that the chain segmental dynamics of the polymer is accompanied by the absorption of energy given to the system. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent transition of the electric properties in the nanocomposite is closely associated with the α-relaxation. The large increase in the dissipation factor and electric conductivity depends on the direct current conduction of thermally activated charge carriers resulting from the epoxy matrix above T g.

  4. Frequency and temperature dependent dielectric properties of TiO2-V2O5 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Apurba; Roy, Atanu; De, Sayan; Chatterjee, Souvik; Das, Sachindranath

    2018-03-01

    In this manuscript, we have reported the crystal structure, dielectric response, and transport phenomenon of TiO2-V2O5 nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were synthesized using a sol-gel technique having different molar ratios of Ti:V (10:10, 10:15, and 10:20). The phase composition and the morphology have been studied using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. The impedance spectroscopy studies of the three samples over a wide range of temperature (50 K-300 K) have been extensively described using the internal barrier layer capacitor model. It is based on the contribution of domain and domain boundary, relaxations of the materials, which are the main crucial factors for the enhancement of the dielectric response. The frequency dependent ac conductivity of the ceramics strongly obeys the well-known Jonscher's power law, and it has been clearly explained using the theory of jump relaxation model. The temperature dependent bulk conductivity is fairly recognized to the variable-range hopping of localized polarons. The co-existence of mixed valence state of Ti ions (Ti3+ and Ti4+) in the sample significantly contributes to the change of dielectric property. The overall study of dielectric response explains that the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss are strongly dependent on temperature and frequency and decrease with an increase of frequency as well as temperature.

  5. Frequency and Temperature Dependent Dielectric Properties of Free-standing Strontium Titanate Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalberth, Mark J.; Stauber, Renaud E.; Anderson, Britt; Price, John C.; Rogers, Charles T.

    1998-03-01

    We will report on the frequency and temperature dependence of the complex dielectric function of free-standing strontium titanate (STO) films. STO is an incipient ferroelectric with electric-field tunable dielectric properties of utility in microwave electronics. The films are grown epitaxially via pulsed laser deposition on a variety of substrates, including lanthanum aluminate (LAO), neodymium gallate (NGO), and STO. An initial film of yttrium barium cuprate (YBCO) is grown on the substrate, followed by deposition of the STO layer. Following deposition, the sacrificial YBCO layer is chemically etched away in dilute nitric acid, leaving the substrate and a released, free-standing STO film. Coplanar capacitor structures fabricated on the released films allow us to measure the dielectric response. We observe a peak dielectric function in excess of 5000 at 35K, change in dielectric constant of over a factor of 8 for 10Volt/micron electric fields, and temperature dependence above 50K that is very similar to bulk material. The dielectric loss shows two peaks, each with a thermally activated behavior, apparently arising from two types of polar defects. We will discuss the correlation between dielectric properties, growth conditions, and strain in the free-standing STO films.

  6. Thermal analysis and temperature dependent dielectric responses of Co doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir; Khan, Wasi; Ahammed, Nashiruddin; Naqvi, A. H.; Ahmad, Shabbir

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of pure and 5 mol % cobalt doped TiO 2 synthesized through acid modified sol-gel method were characterized to understand their thermal, structural, morphological, and temperature dependent dielectric properties. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been used for thermal studies and indicates the weight loss in two steps due to the removal of residual organics. X-ray diffraction study was employed to confirm the formation of single anatase phase with tetragonal symmetry for both pure and 5 mol % Co doped TiO 2 NPs. The average crystallite size of both samples was calculated from the Scherrer’s formula and was found in the range from 9-11 nm. TEM micrographs of these NPs reflect their shape and distribution. The dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (tanδ) and ac conductivity (σ ac ) were also studied as a function of temperature at different frequencies. Electrical responses of the synthesized NPs have been analyzed carefully in the framework of relevant models. It is also noticed that the dielectric constant (ε′) of the samples found to decrease with increasing frequency but increases with increasing temperature up to a particular value and then sharply decreases. Temperature variation of dielectric constant exhibits step like escalation and shows relaxation behavior. Study of dielectric properties shows dominant dependence on the grain size as well as Co ion incorporation in TiO 2

  7. Temperature and directional dependences of the infrared dielectric function of free standing silicon nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazan, M.; Bruyant, A.; Sedaghat, Z.; Arnaud, L.; Blaize, S.; Royer, P. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, CNRS FRE 2848, 12 Rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    An approach to calculate the infrared dielectric function of semiconductor nanostructures is presented and applied to silicon (Si) nanowires (NW's). The phonon modes symmetries and frequencies are calculated by means of the elastic continuum medium theory. The modes strengths and damping are calculated from a model for lattice dynamics and perturbation theory. The data are used in anisotropic Lorentz oscillator model to generate the temperature and directional dependences of the infrared dielectric function of free standing Si NW's. Our results showed that in the direction perpendicular to the NW axis, the complex dielectric function is identical to that of bulk Si. However, along the NW axis, the infrared dielectric function is a strong function of the wavelength. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Temperature-dependent dielectric function of germanium in the UV–vis spectral range: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.Y.; Liu, L.H.; Tan, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    The study of temperature dependence of thermophysical parameter dielectric function is key to understanding thermal radiative transfer in high-temperature environments. Limited by self-radiation and thermal oxidation, however, it is difficult to directly measure the high-temperature dielectric function of solids with present experimental technologies. In this work, we implement two first-principles methods, the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), to study the temperature dependence of dielectric function of germanium (Ge) in the UV–vis spectral range in order to provide data of high-temperature dielectric function for radiative transfer study in high-temperature environments. Both the two methods successfully predict the temperature dependence of dielectric function of Ge. Moreover, the good agreement between the calculated results of the AIMD approach and experimental data at 825 K enables us to predict the high-temperature dielectric function of Ge with the AIMD method in the UV–vis spectral range. - Highlights: • The temperature dependence of dielectric function of germanium (Ge) is investigated with two first-principles methods. • The temperature effect on dielectric function of Ge is discussed. • The high-temperature dielectric function of Ge is predicted

  9. Temperature-dependent dielectric properties in ITO/AF/Al device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Min; Kim, Won-Jong; Lee, Jong-Yong; Hong, Jin-Woong; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2010-01-01

    Temperature-dependent dielectric properties were studied in a device with a structure of ITO/amorphous fluoropolymer (AF)/Al. The AF was thermally deposited at a deposition rate of 0.1 A/s to a thickness of 20 nm under a pressure of 5 x 10 -6 Torr. From the dielectric properties of the device, an equivalent circuit for and the equivalent complex impedance Z eq of the device were obtained. The interfacial resistance was found to be approximately 38 Ω. As the temperature was increased, the radius of the Cole-Cole plot and β also increased for a constant applied voltage. However, as the applied voltage was increased, those values decreased at a constant temperature. These behaviors are thought to be due to an orientational polarization effect of the molecules inside the AF layer.

  10. Temperature dependent dielectric relaxation and ac-conductivity of alkali niobate ceramics studied by impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Abhinav; Mantry, Snigdha Paramita; Fahad, Mohd.; Sarun, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    Sodium niobate (NaNbO3) ceramics is prepared by conventional solid state reaction method at sintering temperature 1150 °C for 4 h. The structural information of the material has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The XRD analysis of NaNbO3 ceramics shows an orthorhombic structure. The FE-SEM micrograph of NaNbO3 ceramics exhibit grains with grain sizes ranging between 1 μm to 5 μm. The surface coverage and average grain size of NaNbO3 ceramics are found to be 97.6 % and 2.5 μm, respectively. Frequency dependent electrical properties of NaNbO3 is investigated from room temperature to 500 °C in wide frequency range (100 Hz-5 MHz). Dielectric constant, ac-conductivity, impedance, modulus and Nyquist analysis are performed. The observed dielectric constant (1 kHz) at transition temperature (400 °C) are 975. From conductivity analysis, the estimated activation energy of NaNbO3 ceramics is 0.58 eV at 10 kHz. The result of Nyquist plot shows that the electrical behavior of NaNbO3 ceramics is contributed by grain and grain boundary responses. The impedance and modulus spectrum asserts that the negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior and non-Debye type relaxation in NaNbO3.

  11. Temperature dependent dielectric properties and ion transportation in solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengwa, R. J., E-mail: rjsengwa@rediffmail.com; Dhatarwal, Priyanka, E-mail: dhatarwalpriyanka@gmail.com; Choudhary, Shobhna, E-mail: shobhnachoudhary@rediffmail.com [Dielectric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur – 342 005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend matrix with lithium tetrafluroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) as dopant ionic salt and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as plasticizer has been prepared by solution casting method followed by melt pressing. Dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of the SPE film at different temperatures have been determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It has been observed that the dc ionic conductivity of the SPE film increases with increase of temperature and also the decrease of relaxation time. The temperature dependent relaxation time and ionic conductivity values of the electrolyte are governed by the Arrhenius relation. Correlation observed between dc conductivity and relaxation time confirms that ion transportation occurs with polymer chain segmental dynamics through hopping mechanism. The room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 4 × 10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} which suggests the suitability of the SPE film for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  12. Temperature dependent transport and dielectric properties of cadmium titanate nanofiber mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Imran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate electrical and dielectric properties of cadmium titanate (CdTiO3 nanofiber mats prepared by electrospinning. The nanofibers were polycrystalline having diameter ∼50 nm-200 nm, average length ∼100 μm and crystallite size ∼25 nm. Alternating current impedance measurements were carried out from 318 K – 498 K. The frequency of ac signal was varied from 2 – 105 Hz. The complex impedance plots revealed two depressed semicircular arcs indicating the bulk and interface contribution to overall electrical behavior of nanofiber mats. The bulk resistance was found to increase with decrease in temperature exhibiting typical semiconductor like behavior. The modulus analysis shows the non-Debye type conductivity relaxation in nanofiber mats. The ac conductivity spectrum obeyed the Jonscher power law. Analysis of frequency dependent ac conductivity revealed presence of the correlated barrier hopping (CBH in nanofiber mats over the entire temperature range.

  13. Thermal analysis and temperature dependent dielectric responses of Co doped anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z.H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Khan, Wasi; Ahammed, Nashiruddin; Naqvi, A. H. [Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z.H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Ahmad, Shabbir [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of pure and 5 mol % cobalt doped TiO{sub 2} synthesized through acid modified sol-gel method were characterized to understand their thermal, structural, morphological, and temperature dependent dielectric properties. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been used for thermal studies and indicates the weight loss in two steps due to the removal of residual organics. X-ray diffraction study was employed to confirm the formation of single anatase phase with tetragonal symmetry for both pure and 5 mol % Co doped TiO{sub 2} NPs. The average crystallite size of both samples was calculated from the Scherrer’s formula and was found in the range from 9-11 nm. TEM micrographs of these NPs reflect their shape and distribution. The dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (tanδ) and ac conductivity (σ{sub ac}) were also studied as a function of temperature at different frequencies. Electrical responses of the synthesized NPs have been analyzed carefully in the framework of relevant models. It is also noticed that the dielectric constant (ε′) of the samples found to decrease with increasing frequency but increases with increasing temperature up to a particular value and then sharply decreases. Temperature variation of dielectric constant exhibits step like escalation and shows relaxation behavior. Study of dielectric properties shows dominant dependence on the grain size as well as Co ion incorporation in TiO{sub 2}.

  14. Elevated temperature dependence of the anisotropic visible-to-ultraviolet dielectric function of monoclinic β-Ga2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, A.; VanDerslice, J.; Korlacki, R.; Woollam, J. A.; Schubert, M.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the temperature dependence of the dielectric tensor elements of n-type conductive β-Ga2O3 from 22 °C to 550 °C in the spectral range of 1.5 eV-6.4 eV. We present the temperature dependence of the excitonic and band-to-band transition energy parameters using a previously described eigendielectric summation approach [A. Mock et al., Phys. Rev. B 96, 245205 (2017)]. We utilize a Bose-Einstein analysis of the temperature dependence of the observed transition energies and reveal electron coupling with average phonon temperature in excellent agreement with the average over all longitudinal phonon plasmon coupled modes reported previously [M. Schubert et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 125209 (2016)]. We also report a linear temperature dependence of the wavelength independent Cauchy expansion coefficient for the anisotropic below-band-gap monoclinic dielectric tensor elements.

  15. Frequency, moisture content, and temperature dependent dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with radio-frequency/microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuozhuo; Guo, Wenchuan

    2017-08-24

    To develop advanced drying methods using radio-frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of potato starch were determined using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer at frequencies between 20 and 4,500 MHz, moisture contents between 15.1% and 43.1% wet basis (w.b.), and temperatures between 25 and 75 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) were dependent on frequency, moisture content, and temperature. ε' decreased with increasing frequency at a given moisture content or temperature. At low moisture contents (≤25.4% w.b.) or low temperatures (≤45 °C), ε″ increased with increasing frequency. However, ε″ changed from decrease to increase with increasing frequency at high moisture contents or temperatures. At low temperatures (25-35 °C), both ε' and ε″ increased with increasing moisture content. At low moisture contents (15.1-19.5% w.b.), they increased with increasing temperature. The change trends of ε' and ε″ were different and dependent on temperature and moisture content at their high levels. The penetration depth (d p ) decreased with increasing frequency. RF treatments may provide potential large-scale industrial drying application for potato starch. This research offers useful information on dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with electromagnetic energy.

  16. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of temperature and pressure-dependent infrared dielectric functions of liquid methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and pressure-dependent dielectric functions of liquids are of great importance to the thermal radiation transfer and the diagnosis and control of fuel combustion. In this work, we apply the state-of-the-art ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD method to calculate the infrared dielectric functions of liquid methanol at 183–573 K and 0.1–160 MPa in the spectral range 10−4000 cm−1, and study the temperature and pressure effects on the dielectric functions. The AIMD approach is validated by the Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (IR-VASE experimental measurements at 298 K and 0.1 MPa, and the proposed IR-VASE method is verified by comparison with paper data of distilled water. The results of the AIMD approach agrees well with the experimental values of IR-VASE. The experimental and theoretical analyses indicate that the temperature and pressure exert a noticeable influence on the infrared dielectric functions of liquid methanol. As temperature increases, the average molecular dipole moment decreases. The amplitudes of dominant absorption peaks reduce to almost one half as temperature increases from 183 to 333 K at 0.1 MPa and from 273 to 573 K at 160 MPa. The absorption peaks below 1500 cm–1 show a redshift, while those centered around 3200 cm–1 show a blueshift. Moreover, larger average dipole moments are observed as pressure increases. The amplitudes of dominant absorption peaks increase to almost two times as pressure increases from 1 to 160 MPa at 373 K.

  17. Exploring the Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism and Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Properties of Sr/Ni-Doped LaFeO3 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Reverse Micelle Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Swaleha; Khan, Shakeel; Husain, Shahid; Khan, Wasi

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the thermal, microstructural, dielectric and magnetic properties of La0.75Sr0.25Fe0.65Ni0.35O3 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized via reverse micelle technique. The thermogravimetric analysis of as-prepared NPs confirmed a good thermal stability of the sample. Powder x-ray diffraction data analyzed with a Rietveld refinement technique revealed single-phase and orthorhombic distorted perovskite crystal structure of the NPs having Pbnm space group. The transmission electron microscopy images show the crystalline nature and formation of nanostructures with a fairly uniform distribution of particles throughout the sample. Temperature-dependent dielectric properties of the NPs in accordance with the Kramers-Kronig transformation (KKT) model, universal dielectric response model and jump relaxation model have been discussed. Electrode or interface polarization is likely the cause of the observed dielectric behavior. Due to grain boundaries and Schottky barriers of the metallic electrodes of semiconductors, the depletion region is observed, which gives rise to Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and hence high dielectric constants. Magnetic studies revealed the ferromagnetic nature of the prepared NPs upon Sr and Ni doping in LaFeO3 perovskite at room temperature. Therefore, these NPs could be a potential candidate as electrode material in solid oxide fuel cells.

  18. Identification of microscopic domain wall motion from temperature dependence of nonlinear dielectric response.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrý, Pavel; Sluka, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 16 (2017), č. článku 162906. ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32228S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : microscopic domain wall * electric fields * temperature dependence Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4981874

  19. Weak ferromagnetism and temperature dependent dielectric properties of Zn{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}O diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Raju [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Department of Applied Physics, Electronics and Communication Engineering, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Moslehuddin, A.S.M.; Mahmood, Zahid Hasan [Department of Applied Physics, Electronics and Communication Engineering, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, A.K.M. Akther, E-mail: akmhossain@phy.buet.ac.bd [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Single phase wurtzite structure was confirmed from XRD analysis. • Weak ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature. • Pure semiconducting properties confirmed from temperature dependent conductivity. • Smaller dielectric properties at higher frequency. • Possible potential application in high frequency spintronic devices. - Abstract: In this study the room temperature ferromagnetic behaviour and dielectric properties of ZnO based diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) have been investigated using nominal chemical composition Zn{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}O. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed formation of single phase hexagonal wurtzite structure. An increase in grain size with increasing sintering temperature was observed from scanning electron microscopy. Field dependent DC magnetization values indicated dominant paramagnetic ordering along with a slight ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature. Frequency dependent complex initial permeability showed some positive values around 12 at room temperature. In dielectric measurement, an increasing trend of complex permittivity, loss tangent and ac conductivity with increasing temperature were observed. The temperature dependent dispersion curves of dielectric properties revealed clear relaxation at higher temperature. Frequency dependent ac conductivity was found to increase with frequency whereas complex permittivity and loss tangent showed an opposite trend.

  20. Effects of Ni3+ substitution on structural and temperature dependent dielectrical properties of NdFeO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Pawanpreet; Pandit, Rabia; Sharma, K. K.; Kumar, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    The polycrystalline samples of NdFe 1−x Ni x O 3 (x=0.0, 0.2) were prepared by solid state reaction route, the single phase of powdered samples were ensured by Rietveld refinement of their X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. We have also studied the variation of dielectric constant (ε′), tangent loss (tan δ) and AC conductivity (σ ac ) as a function of frequency and temperature for both the compositions. It is noticed that both the increase in temperature and Ni 3+ ion substitution results in enhancement of dielectric constant, tangent loss and AC conductivity

  1. Temperature-dependent dielectric and energy-storage properties of Pb(Zr,Sn,Ti)O{sub 3} antiferroelectric bulk ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Chenhong; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui; Dong, Xianlin, E-mail: xldong@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200050, Shanghai (China)

    2016-05-15

    The dielectric and energy-storage properties of Pb{sub 0.99}Nb{sub 0.02}[(Zr{sub 0.60}Sn{sub 0.40}){sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}]{sub 0.98}O{sub 3} (PNZST) bulk ceramics near the antiferroelectric (AFE)-ferroelectric (FE) phase boundary are investigated as a function of temperature. Three characteristic temperatures T{sub 0}, T{sub C}, T{sub 2} are obtained from the dielectric temperature spectrum. At different temperature regions (below T{sub 0}, between T{sub 0} and T{sub C}, and above T{sub C}), three types of hysteresis loops are observed as square double loop, slim loop and linear loop, respectively. The switching fields and recoverable energy density all first increase and then decrease with increasing temperature, and reach their peak values at ∼T{sub 0}. These results provide a convenient method to optimize the working temperature of antiferroelectric electronic devices through testing the temperature dependent dielectric properties of antiferroelectric ceramics.

  2. Dependence of Ozone Generation on Gas Temperature Distribution in AC Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Go; Akashi, Haruaki

    AC atmospheric pressure multi-filament dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen has been simulated using two dimensional fluid model. In the discharge, three kinds of streamers have been obtained. They are primary streamers, small scale streamers and secondary streamers. The primary streamers are main streamers in the discharge and the small scale streamers are formed after the ceasing of the primary streamers. And the secondary streamers are formed on the trace of the primary streamers. In these streamers, the primary and the small scale streamers are very effective to generate O(3P) oxygen atoms which are precursor of ozone. And the ozone is generated mainly in the vicinity of the dielectrics. In high gas temperature region, ozone generation decreases in general. However, increase of the O(3P) oxygen atom density in high gas temperature region compensates decrease of ozone generation rate coefficient. As a result, amount of ozone generation has not changed. But if the effect of gas temperature was neglected, amount of ozone generation increases 10%.

  3. Temperature dependence of Brewster's angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a dielectric at a finite temperature is modeled as an ensemble of identical atoms moving randomly around where they are trapped. Light reflection from the dielectric is then discussed in terms of atomic radiation. Specific calculation demonstrates that because of the atoms' thermal motion, Brewster's angle is, in principle, temperature-dependent, and the dependence is weak in the low-temperature limit. What is also found is that the Brewster's angle is nothing but a result of destructive superposition of electromagnetic radiation from the atoms.

  4. Effects of Ni{sup 3+} substitution on structural and temperature dependent dielectrical properties of NdFeO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Pawanpreet, E-mail: merry2286@gmail.com; Pandit, Rabia, E-mail: merry2286@gmail.com; Sharma, K. K., E-mail: merry2286@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Hamirpur-177005, Himachal Pradesh (India); Kumar, Ravi [Beant College of Engineering and Technology Gurdaspur-143521, Punjab (India)

    2014-04-24

    The polycrystalline samples of NdFe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0.0, 0.2) were prepared by solid state reaction route, the single phase of powdered samples were ensured by Rietveld refinement of their X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. We have also studied the variation of dielectric constant (ε′), tangent loss (tan δ) and AC conductivity (σ{sub ac}) as a function of frequency and temperature for both the compositions. It is noticed that both the increase in temperature and Ni{sup 3+} ion substitution results in enhancement of dielectric constant, tangent loss and AC conductivity.

  5. Moderate temperature-dependent surface and volume resistivity and low-frequency dielectric constant measurements of pure and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) doped polyvinyl alcohol thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew; Guggilla, Padmaja; Reedy, Angela; Ijaz, Quratulann; Janen, Afef; Uba, Samuel; Curley, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we have reported measurements of temperature-dependent surface resistivity of pure and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNCT) doped amorphous Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) thin films. In the temperature range from 22 °C to 40 °C with humidity-controlled environment, we found the surface resistivity to decrease initially, but to rise steadily as the temperature continued to increase. Moreover, electric surface current density (Js) was measured on the surface of pure and MWCNT doped PVA thin films. In this regard, the surface current density and electric field relationship follow Ohm's law at low electric fields. Unlike Ohmic conduction in metals where free electrons exist, selected captive electrons are freed or provided from impurities and dopants to become conduction electrons from increased thermal vibration of constituent atoms in amorphous thin films. Additionally, a mechanism exists that seemingly decreases the surface resistivity at higher temperatures, suggesting a blocking effect for conducting electrons. Volume resistivity measurements also follow Ohm's law at low voltages (low electric fields), and they continue to decrease as temperatures increase in this temperature range, differing from surface resistivity behavior. Moreover, we report measurements of dielectric constant and dielectric loss as a function of temperature and frequency. Both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss were observed to be highest for MWCNT doped PVA compared to pure PVA and commercial paper, and with frequency and temperature for all samples.

  6. A dielectric approach to high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanty, J.; Das, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The dielectric response of an electron-ion system to the presence of a pair of charges is investigated. From the nature of the dielectric function, it is shown that a strong attractive pair formation is possible depending on the dispersion of the ion branches. The latter brings a reduction to the sound velocity which is used as a criterion for the superconductivity. By solving the BCS equation with the above dielectric function, we obtain a reasonable value of T/sub c/. 17 refs., 1 fig

  7. Temperature dependence of the dielectric tensor of monoclinic Ga2O3 single crystals in the spectral range 1.0-8.5 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, C.; Schmidt-Grund, R.; Zviagin, V.; Grundmann, M.

    2017-08-01

    The full dielectric tensor of monoclinic Ga2O3 (β-phase) was determined by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry in the spectral range from 1.0 eV up to 8.5 eV and temperatures in the range from 10 K up to 300 K. By using the oriented dipole approach, the energies and broadenings of the excitonic transitions are determined as a function of the temperature, and the exciton-phonon coupling properties are deduced.

  8. Automated general temperature correction method for dielectric soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilaratne, R. G. C. Jeewantinie; Lu, Minjiao

    2017-08-01

    An effective temperature correction method for dielectric sensors is important to ensure the accuracy of soil water content (SWC) measurements of local to regional-scale soil moisture monitoring networks. These networks are extensively using highly temperature sensitive dielectric sensors due to their low cost, ease of use and less power consumption. Yet there is no general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors, instead sensor or site dependent correction algorithms are employed. Such methods become ineffective at soil moisture monitoring networks with different sensor setups and those that cover diverse climatic conditions and soil types. This study attempted to develop a general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors which can be commonly used regardless of the differences in sensor type, climatic conditions and soil type without rainfall data. In this work an automated general temperature correction method was developed by adopting previously developed temperature correction algorithms using time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements to ThetaProbe ML2X, Stevens Hydra probe II and Decagon Devices EC-TM sensor measurements. The rainy day effects removal procedure from SWC data was automated by incorporating a statistical inference technique with temperature correction algorithms. The temperature correction method was evaluated using 34 stations from the International Soil Moisture Monitoring Network and another nine stations from a local soil moisture monitoring network in Mongolia. Soil moisture monitoring networks used in this study cover four major climates and six major soil types. Results indicated that the automated temperature correction algorithms developed in this study can eliminate temperature effects from dielectric sensor measurements successfully even without on-site rainfall data. Furthermore, it has been found that actual daily average of SWC has been changed due to temperature effects of dielectric sensors with a

  9. Evaluation of high temperature capacitor dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Myers, Ira T.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate four candidate materials for high temperature capacitor dielectric applications. The materials investigated were polybenzimidazole polymer and three aramid papers: Voltex 450, Nomex 410, and Nomex M 418, an aramid paper containing 50 percent mica. The samples were heat treated for six hours at 60 C and the direct current and 60 Hz alternating current breakdown voltages of both dry and impregnated samples were obtained in a temperature range of 20 to 250 C. The samples were also characterized in terms of their dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and conductivity over this temperature range with an electrical stress of 60 Hz, 50 V/mil present. Additional measurements are underway to determine the volume resistivity, thermal shrinkage, and weight loss of the materials. Preliminary data indicate that the heat treatment of the films slightly improves the dielectric properties with no influence on their breakdown behavior. Impregnation of the samples leads to significant increases in both alternating and direct current breakdown strength. The results are discussed and conclusions made concerning their suitability as high temperature capacitor dielectrics.

  10. The flexoelectric effect associated size dependent pyroelectricity in solid dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Gang, E-mail: baigang@njupt.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for RF Integration and Micropackaging and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Zhiguo [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xie, Qiyun; Guo, Yanyan; Li, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for RF Integration and Micropackaging and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yan, Xiaobing [College of Electronic and information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2015-09-15

    A phenomenological thermodynamic theory is used to investigate the effect of strain gradient on the pyroelectric effect in centrosymmetric dielectric solids. Direct pyroelectricity can exist as external mechanical stress is applied to non-pyroelectric dielectrics with shapes such as truncated pyramids, due to elastic strain gradient induced flexoelectric polarization. Effective pyroelectric coefficient was analyzed in truncated pyramids. It is found to be controlled by size, ambient temperature, stress, and aspect ratio and depends mainly on temperature sensitivity of flexoelectric coefficient (TSFC) and strain gradient of the truncated pyramids dielectric solids. These results show that the pyroelectric property of Ba{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}TiO{sub 3} above T{sub c} similar to PZT and other lead-based ferroelectrics can be obtained. This feature might widely broaden the selection of materials for infrared detectors with preferable properties.

  11. The flexoelectric effect associated size dependent pyroelectricity in solid dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Gang; Liu, Zhiguo; Xie, Qiyun; Guo, Yanyan; Li, Wei; Yan, Xiaobing

    2015-09-01

    A phenomenological thermodynamic theory is used to investigate the effect of strain gradient on the pyroelectric effect in centrosymmetric dielectric solids. Direct pyroelectricity can exist as external mechanical stress is applied to non-pyroelectric dielectrics with shapes such as truncated pyramids, due to elastic strain gradient induced flexoelectric polarization. Effective pyroelectric coefficient was analyzed in truncated pyramids. It is found to be controlled by size, ambient temperature, stress, and aspect ratio and depends mainly on temperature sensitivity of flexoelectric coefficient (TSFC) and strain gradient of the truncated pyramids dielectric solids. These results show that the pyroelectric property of Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 above Tc similar to PZT and other lead-based ferroelectrics can be obtained. This feature might widely broaden the selection of materials for infrared detectors with preferable properties.

  12. Effect of paramagnetic manganese ions doping on frequency and high temperature dependence dielectric response of layered Na1.9Li0.1Ti3O7 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Dharmendra; Pandey, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The manganese doped layered ceramic samples (Na 1.9 Li 0.1 )Ti 3 O 7 : XMn (0.01 ≤ X ≤ 0.1) have been prepared using high temperature solid state reaction. The room temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations exhibit that at lower percentage of doping the substitution of manganese ions occur as Mn 3+ at Ti 4+ sites, whereas for higher percentage of doping Mn 2+ ions occupy the two different interlayer sodium/lithium sites. In both cases, the charge compensation mechanism should operate to maintain the overall charge neutrality of the lattice. The manganese doped derivatives of layered Na 1.9 Li 0. 1Ti 3 O 7 (SLT) ceramics have been investigated through frequency dependence dielectric spectroscopy in this work. The results indicate that the dielectric losses in these ceramics are the collective contribution of electric conduction, dipole orientation and space charge polarization. Smeared peaks in temperature dependence of permittivity plots suggest diffuse nature of high temperature ferroelectric phase transition. The light manganese doping in SLT enhances the dielectric constant. However, manganese doping decreases dielectric loss due to inhibition of domain wall motion, enhances electron-hopping conduction, and impedes the interlayer ionic conduction as well. Manganese doping also gives rise to contraction of interlayer space. (author)

  13. Temperature-dependent field-effect carrier mobility in organic thin-film transistors with a gate SiO2 dielectric modified by H2O2 treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Hung, Cheng-Chun

    2018-02-01

    The effect of the modification of a gate SiO2 dielectric using an H2O2 solution on the temperature-dependent behavior of carrier transport for pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is studied. H2O2 treatment leads to the formation of Si(-OH) x (i.e., the formation of a hydroxylated layer) on the SiO2 surface that serves to reduce the SiO2 capacitance and weaken the pentacene-SiO2 interaction, thus increasing the field-effect carrier mobility ( µ) in OTFTs. The temperature-dependent behavior of carrier transport is dominated by the multiple trapping model. Note that H2O2 treatment leads to a reduction in the activation energy. The increased value of µ is also attributed to the weakening of the interactions of the charge carriers with the SiO2 dielectric that serves to reduce the activation energy.

  14. Dielectric relaxation in solid collagen over a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad Abdullah; Rizvi, Tasneem Zahra; Janjua, Khalid Mehmood; Zaheer, Muhammad Yar

    2001-07-01

    Dielectric constant ε' and loss factor ε'' have been measured in bovine tendon collagen in the frequency range 30 Hz - 3 MHz and temperature range 30 deg. C to 200 deg. C. Frequency dependence curve of ε'' shows a low frequency strong α-dispersion attributed to phonon assisted proton hopping between localized sites and a weak high frequency. α 2 - dispersion attributed to reorientation of polar components of collagen molecules. Temperature dependence of the dielectric data show release of bound moisture as a three step process with discrete peaks at 50 deg. C, 90 deg. C and 125 deg. C. These peaks have been attributed to release of adsorbed surface water, water bound to exposed polar sites and strongly bound internal moisture respectively. A peak observed at 160 deg. C has been attributed to thermally induced helix-coil transition of collagen molecules. (author)

  15. Temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity of CaF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: application to the prediction of a temperature-dependent van der Waals surface interaction exerted onto a neighbouring Cs(8P{sub 3/2}) atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passerat de Silans, Thierry; Maurin, Isabelle; Chaves de Souza Segundo, Pedro; Saltiel, Solomon; Gorza, Marie-Pascale; Ducloy, Martial; Bloch, Daniel [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, UMR 7538 du CNRS et de l' Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue JB Clement, Villetaneuse (France); De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick [CNRS, UPR 3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, F-45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: daniel.bloch@univ-paris13.fr

    2009-06-24

    The temperature behaviour in the range 22-500 deg. C of the dielectric permittivity in the infrared range is investigated for CaF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} through reflectivity measurements. The dielectric permittivity is retrieved by fitting reflectivity spectra with a model taking into account multiphonon contributions. The results extrapolated from the measurements are applied to predict a temperature-dependent atom-surface van der Waals interaction. We specifically consider as the atom of interest Cs(8P{sub 3/2}), the most relevant virtual couplings of which fall in the range of thermal radiation and are located in the vicinity of the reststrahlen band of fluoride materials.

  16. The Impact of Dielectric Material and Temperature on Dielectric Charging in RF MEMS Capacitive Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, George

    The present work attempts to provide a better insight on the dielectric charging in RF-MEMS capacitive switches that constitutes a key issue limiting parameter of their commercialization. The dependence of the charging process on the nature of dielectric materials widely used in these devices, such as SiO2, Si3N4, AlN, Al2O3, Ta2O5, HfO2, which consist of covalent or ionic bonds and may exhibit piezoelectric properties is discussed taking into account the effect of deposition conditions and resulting material stoichiometry. Another key issue parameter that accelerates the charging and discharging processes by providing enough energy to trapped charges to be released and to dipoles to overcome potential barriers and randomize their orientation is the temperature will be investigated too. Finally, the effect of device structure will be also taken into account.

  17. Dielectric constant and laser beam propagation in an underdense collisional plasma: effects of electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xiongping; Qin Zhen; Xu Bin; Cai Zebin

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric constant and laser beam propagation in an underdense collisional plasma are investigated, using the wave and dielectric function equations, for their dependence on the electron temperature. Simulation results show that, due to the influence of the ponderomotive force there is a nonlinear variation of electron temperature in an underdense collisional plasma, and this leads to a complicated and interesting nonlinear variation of dielectric constant; this nonlinear variation of dielectric constant directly affects the beam propagation and gives rise to laser beam self-focusing in some spatial-temporal regions; in particular, the beam width and the beam intensity present an oscillatory variation in the self-focusing region. The influence of several parameters on the dielectric function and beam self-focusing is discussed.

  18. The dielectric α relaxation at a temperature close to T sub(g)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Ribelles, J.L.; Diaz Calleja, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown in this work how the dependence of the mean relaxation times of the dielectric α relaxation on temperature deviates from the Williams, Landel and Ferry model at a temperature close to T sub(g). In some cases, an Arrhenius-like relationship for this relaxation can be observed for temperatures below T sub(g)

  19. Communication: Modeling electrolyte mixtures with concentration dependent dielectric permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsieh; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2018-01-01

    We report a new implicit-solvent simulation model for electrolyte mixtures based on the concept of concentration dependent dielectric permittivity. A combining rule is found to predict the dielectric permittivity of electrolyte mixtures based on the experimentally measured dielectric permittivity for pure electrolytes as well as the mole fractions of the electrolytes in mixtures. Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that this approach allows us to accurately reproduce the mean ionic activity coefficients of NaCl in NaCl-CaCl2 mixtures at ionic strengths up to I = 3M. These results are important for thermodynamic studies of geologically relevant brines and physiological fluids.

  20. Dielectric response of capacitor structures based on PZT annealed at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenshchikov, Mikhail V., E-mail: Mikhailkamenshchikov@yandex.ru [Tver State University, 170002, Tver (Russian Federation); Solnyshkin, Alexander V. [Tver State University, 170002, Tver (Russian Federation); Pronin, Igor P. [Ioffe Institute, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-09

    Highlights: • Correlation of the microstructure of PZT films and dielectric response was found. • Difference of dielectric responses under low and high bias is caused by domains. • Internal fields is discussed on the basis of the space charges. • Dependences of PZT films characteristics on synthesis temperature are extremal. - Abstract: Dielectric response of thin-film capacitor structures of Pt/PZT/Pt deposited by the RF magnetron sputtering method and annealed at temperatures of 540–570 °C was investigated. It was found that dielectric properties of these structures depend on the synthesis temperature. Stability of a polarized state is considered on the basis of the analysis of hysteresis loops and capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics. The contribution of the domain mechanism in the dielectric response of the capacitor structure comprising a ferroelectric is discussed. Extreme dependences of electrophysical characteristics of PZT films on their synthesis temperature were observed. Correlation of dielectric properties with microstructure of these films is found out.

  1. Microscopic theoretical study of frequency dependent dielectric constant of heavy fermion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadangi, Keshab Chandra; Rout, G. C.

    2017-05-01

    The dielectric polarization and the dielectric constant plays a vital role in the deciding the properties of the Heavy Fermion Systems. In the present communication we consider the periodic Anderson's Model which consists of conduction electron kinetic energy, localized f-electron kinetic energy and the hybridization between the conduction and localized electrons, besides the Coulomb correlation energy. We calculate dielectric polarization which involves two particle Green's functions which are calculated by using Zubarev's Green's function technique. Using the equations of motion of the fermion electron operators. Finally, the temperature and frequency dependent dielectric constant is calculated from the dielectric polarization function. The charge susceptibility and dielectric constant are computed numerically for different physical parameters like the position (Ef) of the f-electron level with respect to fermi level, the strength of the hybridization (V) between the conduction and localized f-electrons, Coulomb correlation potential temperature and optical phonon wave vector (q). The results will be discussed in a reference to the experimental observations of the dielectric constants.

  2. High temperature dielectric studies of indium-substituted NiCuZn nanoferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Mohd.; Raghasudha, M.; Shah, Jyoti; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Ravinder, D.; Kumar, Shalendra; Meena, Sher Singh; Bhatt, Pramod; Alimuddin; Kumar, Ravi; Kotnala, R. K.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, indium (In3+)-substituted NiCuZn nanostructured ceramic ferrites with a chemical composition of Ni0.5Cu0.25Zn0.25Fe2-xInxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) were prepared by chemical synthesis involving sol-gel chemistry. Single phased cubic spinel structure materials were prepared successfully according to X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses. The dielectric properties of the prepared ferrites were measured using an LCR HiTester at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 300 °C at different frequencies from 102 Hz to 5 × 106 Hz. The variations in the dielectric parameters ε‧ and (tanδ) with temperature demonstrated the frequency- and temperature-dependent characteristics due to electron hopping between the ions. The materials had low dielectric loss values in the high frequency range at all temperatures, which makes them suitable for high frequency microwave applications. A qualitative explanation is provided for the dependences of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent on the frequency, temperature, and composition. Mӧssbauer spectroscopy was employed at room temperature to characterize the magnetic behavior.

  3. On the room temperature multiferroic BiFeO3: magnetic, dielectric and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Günther, A.; Schrettle, F.; Mayr, F.; Krohns, S.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Pimenov, A.; Travkin, V. D.; Mukhin, A. A.; Loidl, A.

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic dc susceptibility between 1.5 and 800 K, ac susceptibility and magnetization, thermodynamic properties, temperature dependence of radio and audio-wave dielectric constants and conductivity, contact-free dielectric constants at mm-wavelengths, as well as ferroelectric polarization are reported for single crystalline BiFeO3. A well developed anomaly in the magnetic susceptibility signals the onset of antiferromagnetic order close to 635 K. Beside this anomaly no further indications of phase or glass transitions are indicated in the magnetic dc and ac susceptibilities down to the lowest temperatures. The heat capacity has been measured from 2 K up to room temperature and significant contributions from magnon excitations have been detected. From the low-temperature heat capacity an anisotropy gap of the magnon modes of the order of 6 meV has been determined. The dielectric constants measured in standard two-point configuration are dominated by Maxwell-Wagner like effects for temperatures T > 300 K and frequencies below 1 MHz. At lower temperatures the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant and loss reveals no anomalies outside the experimental errors, indicating neither phase transitions nor strong spin phonon coupling. The temperature dependence of the dielectric constant was measured contact free at microwave frequencies. At room temperature the dielectric constant has an intrinsic value of 53. The loss is substantial and strongly frequency dependent indicating the predominance of hopping conductivity. Finally, in small thin samples we were able to measure the ferroelectric polarization between 10 and 200 K. The saturation polarization is of the order of 40 μC/cm2, comparable to reports in literature.

  4. Temperature dependent anomalous statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Panda, S.

    1991-07-01

    We show that the anomalous statistics which arises in 2 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories can become temperature dependent in the most natural way. We analyze and show that a statistic's changing phase transition can happen in these theories only as T → ∞. (author). 14 refs

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE FREQUENCY-TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIP OF THE DIELECTRIC PERMITTIVITY OF THE PZT PIEZOCERAMICS IN THE LOW FREQUENCY RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. ZOLOTAREVSKIY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of PZT piezoceramics in the low frequency range. Methodology. To obtain the frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics, a technique was used to determine the capacitance of the capacitor, between which plates the sample was placed. The value of the dielectric permittivity of the sample was calculated from the capacitor capacitance obtained. Findings. The frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics in the low frequency range has been obtained by the authors. The dielectric permittivity is not practically related to the frequency of the alternating voltage at a low temperature, with increasing in temperature its value increases and frequency relationship is observed. The temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics is satisfactorily described by the exponential functional dependence in the low-temperature range. The activation energy of the PZT piezoceramics polarization is determined from the graph of the dependence of the logarithm of the dielectric permittivity upon the inverse temperature. Different values of the activation energy for the two temperature regions prove on the existence of different mechanisms of the PZT piezoceramics polarization in the temperature range being investigated. Originality. The authors investigated the frequency-temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics in the low-frequency range. It is established that the temperature relationship of the dielectric permittivity of the PZT piezoceramics is satisfactorily described by an exponential functional relationship in the lowtemperature range. The activation energy of polarization is determined for two temperature sections. Practical value. The research results can be used to study the mechanism of polarization of

  6. Dielectric determination of the glass transition temperature (T sub g)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Heidi R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to determine the glass transition temperature of a polymer using a dielectric dissipation technique. A peak in the dissipation factor versus temperature curve is expected near the glass transition temperature T sub g. It should be noted that the glass transition is gradual rather than abrupt, so that the glass transition temperature T sub g is not clearly identifiable. In this case, the glass transition temperature is defined to be the temperature at the intersection point of the tangent lines to the dissipation factor versus temperature curve above and below the transition region, as illustrated.

  7. Field dependent dielectric behaviour of BaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukreti, Ashish; Ashok Kumar; Naithani, U.C.

    2008-01-01

    Using the method of double time thermal Green's function and Kubo formalism, a general expression has been derived for the electric field dependence of the complex dielectric constant of Ba x Sr 1-x TiO 3 ferroelectric crystal in the paraelectric phase from the Silverman-Joseph Hamiltonian augmented with fourth order phonon co-ordinates. The change of mass as well as harmonic force constant between impurity atom and host lattice atoms are taken into account. The frequency, temperature and electric field dependent dielectric constant of Ba x Sr 1-x TiO 3 crystal has been discussed. Dielectric constant increases with increase of applied field. The results are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. (author)

  8. Temperature Effects of Dielectric Properties of ER Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Z. Y.; Hu, L.; Liu, M. W.; Bao, H. X.; Jiang, Y. G.; Zhou, L. W.; Tang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Sun, M.; Korobko, E. V.

    Under the consideration of the role that energy transfer and dissipation play in ER effect, an improved theory frame for ER effects, polarization-dissipation-structure-rheology, is suggested. The theory frame is substantiated by the basic physical laws and certain critical experimental facts. The dielectric response of a diatomite ER fluid to temperature is measured in the temperature range of 140 K to 400 K. By comparison of the DC conductivity with the AC effective conductivity of the sample, we found that the AC dielectric loss consists of two parts. One part comes from the DC conductivity, the other from the response of the bound charges in scope of particle to AC field. It is suggested that the response of bound charges is very important to ER effects. Besides, the effect of temperature on shear stress is measured, and interpreted based on the dielectric measurements. The source of two loss peaks in the curve of the dielectric loss versus temperature is not clear.

  9. High temperature measurements of the microwave dielectric properties of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeraky, T.A.

    1999-06-01

    Equipment has been developed for the measurement of dielectric properties at high temperature from 25 to 1700 deg. C in the microwave frequency range 614.97 to 3620.66 MHz using the cavity perturbation technique, to measure the permittivity of a range of ceramic materials. The complex permittivities of the standard materials, water and methanol, were measured at low temperature and compared with the other published data. A statistical analysis was made for the permittivity measurements of water and methanol using sample holders of different diameter. Also the measurements of these materials were used to compare the simple perturbation equation with its modifications and alternation correction methods for sample shape and the holes at the two endplates of the cavity. The dielectric properties of solid materials were investigated from the permittivity measurements on powder materials, shown in table 4.7, using the dielectric mixture equations. Two kinds of ceramics, oxide and nitrides, were selected for the high temperature dielectric measurements in microwave frequency ranges. Pure zirconia, yttria-stabilised zirconia, and Magnesia-stabilised zirconia are the oxide ceramics while aluminium nitride and silicon nitride are the nitride ceramics. A phase transformation from monoclinic to tetragonal was observed in pure zirconia in terms of the complex permittivity measurements, and the conduction mechanism in three regions of temperature was suggested to be ionic in the first region and a mixture of ionic and electronic in the second. The phase transition disappeared with yttria-stabilised zirconia but it was observed with magnesia-stabilised zirconia. Yttria doped zirconia was fully stabilised while magnesia stabilised was partially stabilised zirconia. The dielectric property measurements of aluminium nitride indicated that there is a transition from AIN to AlON, which suggested that the external layer of the AIN which was exposed to the air, contains alumina. It was

  10. High temperature dielectric relaxation anomaly of Y3+ and Mn2+ doped barium strontium titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shiguang; Mao, Chaoliang; Wang, Genshui; Yao, Chunhua; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin

    2014-01-01

    Relaxation like dielectric anomaly is observed in Y 3+ and Mn 2+ doped barium strontium titanate ceramics when the temperature is over 450 K. Apart from the conventional dielectric relaxation analysis method with Debye or modified Debye equations, which is hard to give exact temperature dependence of the relaxation process, dielectric response in the form of complex impedance, assisted with Cole-Cole impedance model corrected equivalent circuits, is adopted to solve this problem and chase the polarization mechanism in this paper. Through this method, an excellent description to temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation anomaly and its dominated factors are achieved. Further analysis reveals that the exponential decay of the Cole distribution parameter n with temperature is confirmed to be induced by the microscopic lattice distortion due to ions doping and the interaction between the defects. At last, a clear sight to polarization mechanism containing both the intrinsic dipolar polarization and extrinsic distributed oxygen vacancies hopping response under different temperature is obtained.

  11. Dielectric relaxations above room temperature in DMPU derived polyaniline film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallya, Ashwini N.; Yashavanth Kumar, G.S.; Ranjan, Rajeev; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric measurements carried out on drop casted from solution of emeraldine base form of polyaniline films in the temperature range 30-300 °C revealed occurrence of two maxima in the loss tangent as a function of temperature. The activation energies corresponding to these two relaxation processes were found to be ∼0.5 eV and ∼1.5 eV. The occurrence of one relaxation peak in the dispersion curve of the imaginary part of the electric modulus suggests the absence of microphase separation in the film. Thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopic measurements showed that the films retained its integrity up to 300 °C. The dielectric relaxation at higher temperatures with large activation energy of 1.5 eV is attributed to increase in the barrier potential due to decrease in the polymer conjugation as a result of wide amplitude motion of the chain segments well above the glass transition temperature.

  12. Dielectric properties of some cadmium and mercury amino alcohol complexes at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAA E. ALI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric properties of some cadmium and mercury amino alcohol complexes were studied within the temperature range of 100–300 K at the frequencies of 100, 300 and 1000 kHz. The polarization mechanisms are suggested and the dependence of both e and tg d on both temperature and frequency are analyzed. The analysis of the data reveals semi-conducting features based mainly on the hopping mechanism.

  13. Calculation of the Spontaneous Polarization and the Dielectric Constant as a Function of Temperature for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yurtseven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the spontaneous polarization P is calculated in the ferroelectric phase of KH2PO4 (KDP at atmospheric pressure (TC = 122 K. Also, the dielectric constant ε is calculated at various temperatures in the paraelectric phase of KDP at atmospheric pressure. For this calculation of P and ε, by fitting the observed Raman frequencies of the soft mode, the microscopic parameters of the pure tunnelling model are obtained. In this model, the proton-lattice interaction is not considered and the collective proton mode is identified with the soft-mode response of the system. Our calculations show that the spontaneous polarization decreases continuously in the ferroelectric phase as approaching the transition temperature TC. Also, the dielectric constant decreases with increasing temperature and it diverges in the vicinity of the transition temperature (TC = 122 K for KDP according to the Curie-Weiss law.

  14. Temperature dependent dielectric and magnetic properties of GdFe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) orthoferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Pawanpreet, E-mail: merry2286@gmail.com; Sharma, K. K., E-mail: kknitham@gmail.com; Pandit, Rabia [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Himachal Pradesh, Hamirpur 177005 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Himachal Pradesh, Hamirpur 177005 (India); Kotnala, R. K.; Shah, Jyoti [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2014-06-14

    The polycrystalline samples of GdFe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) orthoferrites are synthesized via solid state reaction route. The Rietveld fitted X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of orthorhombic phase with Pbnm space group for all the samples. The dielectric measurements reveal an enhancement in dielectric constant and tangent loss with increase in both temperature as well as Nickel (Ni) substitution. Dielectric studies are also in support with the induction of delocalized charge carriers in the GdFeO{sub 3} matrix with increasing Ni doping. Magnetization versus applied field study shows the non-saturating hysteresis curves suggesting the canted type antiferromagnetic behavior in the considered orthoferrites. Moreover, the observed magnetic behavior is complex and the doping affects the magnitude of magnetization differently at 300 K and 80 K. It has further been noticed that the incorporated Ni{sup 3+} ions enhances the symmetry of the magnetization curves. The as-prepared samples may find their applications in the decoupling capacitors.

  15. Magnetic field effect on indole exciplexes: an anomalous dielectric dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Tamal; Basu, Samita

    2004-01-01

    Individual exciplex formation between various aromatic hydrocarbons, anthracene, pyrene, all-s-trans-1,4-diphenylbuta-1,3-diene and a heteroaromatic amine, 1,2-dimethylindole, was investigated by steady-state fluorescence and magnetic field effect (MFE). A comparative study was carried out with two other exciplex systems 9-cyanophenanthrene-1,2-dimethylindole and 9-cyanophenanthrene-N-methylindole. The extent of charge transfer and dielectric dependence of MFE reveals the potential role of specific interactions related to exciplex geometry

  16. Peltier Effect Based Temperature Controlled System for Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukda, T.; Jantaratana, P.

    2017-09-01

    The temperature control system was designed and built for application in dielectric spectroscopy. It is based on the dual-stage Peltier element that decreases electrical power and no cryogenic fluids are required. A proportional integral derivative controller was used to keep the temperature stability of the system. A Pt100 temperature sensor was used to measure temperature of the sample mounting stage. Effect of vacuum isolation and water-cooling on accuracy and stability of the system were also studied. With the incorporation of vacuum isolation and water-cooling at 18 °C, the temperature of the sample under test can be controlled in the range of -40 °C to 150 °C with temperature stability ± 0.025 °C.

  17. Dielectric relaxations above room temperature in DMPU derived polyaniline film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallya, Ashwini N.; Yashavanth Kumar, G.S.; Ranjan, Rajeev [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Ramamurthy, Praveen C., E-mail: onegroupb203@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Dielectric measurements carried out on drop casted from solution of emeraldine base form of polyaniline films in the temperature range 30-300 Degree-Sign C revealed occurrence of two maxima in the loss tangent as a function of temperature. The activation energies corresponding to these two relaxation processes were found to be {approx}0.5 eV and {approx}1.5 eV. The occurrence of one relaxation peak in the dispersion curve of the imaginary part of the electric modulus suggests the absence of microphase separation in the film. Thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopic measurements showed that the films retained its integrity up to 300 Degree-Sign C. The dielectric relaxation at higher temperatures with large activation energy of 1.5 eV is attributed to increase in the barrier potential due to decrease in the polymer conjugation as a result of wide amplitude motion of the chain segments well above the glass transition temperature.

  18. Temperature dependence of surface nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Seddon, James Richard Thorley; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    The temperature dependence of nanobubbles was investigated experimentally using atomic force microscopy. By scanning the same area of the surface at temperatures from 51 °C to 25 °C it was possible to track geometrical changes of individual nanobubbles as the temperature was decreased.

  19. High temperature polymer film dielectrics for aerospace power conditioning capacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat, Narayanan, E-mail: venkats3@gmail.co [University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Dang, Thuy D. [Air Force Research Laboratory-Nanostructured and Biological Materials Branch (AFRL/RXBN) (United States); Bai Zongwu; McNier, Victor K. [University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); DeCerbo, Jennifer N. [Air Force Research Laboratory-Electrical Technology Branch (AFRL/RZPE), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Tsao, B.-H. [University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI), Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Stricker, Jeffery T. [Air Force Research Laboratory-Electrical Technology Branch (AFRL/RZPE), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Polymer dielectrics are the preferred materials of choice for capacitive energy-storage applications because of their potential for high dielectric breakdown strengths, low dissipation factors and good dielectric stability over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures, despite having inherently lower dielectric constants relative to ceramic dielectrics. They are also amenable to large area processing into films at a relatively lower cost. Air Force currently has a strong need for the development of compact capacitors which are thermally robust for operation in a variety of aerospace power conditioning applications. While such applications typically use polycarbonate (PC) dielectric films in wound capacitors for operation from -55 deg. C to 125 deg. C, future power electronic systems would require the use of polymer dielectrics that can reliably operate up to elevated temperatures in the range of 250-350 deg. C. The focus of this research is the generation and dielectric evaluation of metallized, thin free-standing films derived from high temperature polymer structures such as fluorinated polybenzoxazoles, post-functionalized fluorinated polyimides and fluorenyl polyesters incorporating diamond-like hydrocarbon units. The discussion is centered mainly on variable temperature dielectric measurements of film capacitance and dissipation factor and the effects of thermal cycling, up to a maximum temperature of 350 deg. C, on film dielectric performance. Initial studies clearly point to the dielectric stability of these films for high temperature power conditioning applications, as indicated by their relatively low temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) (approx2%) over the entire range of temperatures. Some of the films were also found to exhibit good dielectric breakdown strengths (up to 470 V/mum) and a film dissipation factor of the order of <0.003 (0.3%) at the frequency of interest (10 kHz) for the intended applications. The measured relative dielectric

  20. Dielectric behavior of CaCu3Ti4O12: Poly Vinyl Chloride ceramic polymer composites at different temperature and frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Pratap Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the efforts have been made to obtain relatively high dielectric constant polymer-ceramic composite by incorporating the giant dielectric constant material, calcium copper titanate (CCTO in a PVC polymer matrix. We have prepared composites of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO ceramic and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC polymer in various ratios (by volume in addition to pure CCTO. For this, CCTO was prepared by the conventional oxide route (solid-state reaction method. The structural, the microstructural and the dielectric properties of the composites were studied using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, and impedance analyzer respectively. The study of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the pure CCTO and the composites reveal that there is good range of dielectric constants and dielectric losses for the studied composites. The pure sample of CCTO exhibits giant dielectric constant at low frequency within the studied temperature range. As frequency increases, dielectric constant drastically decreases and approaching a constant value at 1 MHz. Above the intermediate temperature, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss for pure CCTO is more frequency dependent than its composites.

  1. Influence of temperature on the dielectric nonlinearity of BaTiO{sub 3}-based multi-layer ceramic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok-Hyun, E-mail: seokhyun72.yoon@samsung.com; Kim, Mi-Yang [LCR Materials Group, Corporate R& D Institute, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon, Gyunggi-Do 443-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-13

    Temperature dependence of the dielectric nonlinearity was investigated for the BaTiO{sub 3} multilayer ceramic capacitor. The decrease in temperature caused a significant increase in the degree of dielectric nonlinearity. The Preisach analysis shows that such effect corresponds to a decrease in reversible and a significant increase in irreversible domain wall contribution to polarization. The magnitude of spontaneous polarization (P{sub S}) was increased with decreasing temperature. It can be associated with phase transition from pseudo-cubic to monoclinic and its resultant change in the polar direction, which was observed through transmission electron microscopy. These results demonstrate that the increase in P{sub S} with the decrease in temperature inhibits domain wall motion in low driving field as it is anticipated to increase the degree of intergranular constraints during domain wall motion. But it results in a more steep increase in the dielectric constants beyond the threshold field where domain wall motion can occur.

  2. Analysis of microwave heating of materials with temperature-dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayappa, K.G.; Davis, H.T.; Davis, E.A.; Gordon, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper transient temperature profiles in multilayer slabs are predicted, by simultaneously solving Maxwell's equations with the heat conduction equation, using Galerkin-finite elements. It is assumed that the medium is homogeneous and has temperature-dependent dielectric and thermal properties. The method is illustrated with applications involving the heating of food and polymers with microwaves. The temperature dependence of dielectric properties affects the heating appreciably, as is shown by comparison with a constant property model

  3. High temperature dielectric properties of spent adsorbent with zinc sulfate by cavity perturbation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Liu, Chenhui [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Chemistry and Environment, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Zhang, Libo, E-mail: libozhang77@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); and others

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Cavity perturbation technique is employed to measure the dielectric properties. • Microwave absorption capability of ZnO is poor from 20 °C to 850 °C. • Dielectric properties of spent absorbent and zinc sulfate are influenced by temperature especially in high temperature stage. • Penetration depths and heating curve indicate spent adsorbent and ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4} are excellent microwave absorber. • The pore structures of spent adsorbent are improved significantly by microwave-regeneration directly. - Abstract: Dielectric properties of spent adsorbent with zinc sulfate are investigated by cavity perturbation technique at 2450 MHz from 20 °C to approximately 1000 °C. Two weight loss stages are observed for spent adsorbent by thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC) analysis, and zinc sulfate is decomposed to ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnO at about 750 °C and 860 °C. Microwave absorption capability of ZnSO{sub 4} increases with increasing temperature and declines after ZnO generation on account of the poor dielectric properties. Dielectric properties of spent adsorbent are dependent on apparent density and noticed an interestingly linearly relationship at room temperature. The three parameters increase gently from 20 °C to 400 °C, but a sharp increase both in real part and imaginary part are found subsequently due to the volatiles release and regeneration of carbon. And material conductivity is improved, which contributes to the π-electron conduction appearance. Relationship between penetration depth and temperature further elaborate spent adsorbent is an excellent microwave absorber and the microwave absorption capability order of zinc compounds is ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnO. Heating characteristics suggest that heating rate is related with dielectric properties of materials. The pore structures of spent adsorbent are improved significantly and the surface is smoother after microwave-regeneration.

  4. High temperature dielectric function of silicon, germanium and GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyer, Martin; Pristovsek, Markus; Kneissl, Michael [Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany). Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik

    2010-07-01

    In the last few years accurate values for the optical properties of silicon, germanium and GaN at high temperatures have become important as a reference for in-situ analysis, e.g. reflectometry. Precise temperature dependent dielectric measurements are necessary for the growth of GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells and the hetero epitaxy of GaN on silicon and sapphire. We performed spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements of the dielectric function of silicon, germanium and GaN between 1.5 eV and 6.5 eV in the temperature range from 300 K to 1300 K. The Samples were deoxidized chemically or by heating. High resolution SE spectra were taken every 50 K while cooling down to room temperature. The temperature dependence of the critical energies is compared to literature. Measurements for germanium showed a shift of the E{sub 2} critical point of {proportional_to}0.1 eV toward lower energies. The reason for this behavior is a non-negligible oxide layer on the samples in the literature.

  5. Thermotropic phase transitions in Pb{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}(Al{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.1}(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}){sub 0.9}O{sub 3} ceramics: Temperature dependent dielectric permittivity and Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C. Q.; Peng, L.; Jiang, K.; Hu, Z. G., E-mail: zghu@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Chu, J. H. [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Wang, P.; Liu, A. Y. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The phase transitions of Pb{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}(Al{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.1}(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}){sub 0.9}O{sub 3} (Sr-modified PAN-PZT) ceramics with Sr compositions of x = 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature dependent dielectric permittivity and Raman scattering. The XRD analysis show that the phase transition occurs between Sr composition of 5% and 10%. Based on the broad dielectric peaks at 100 Hz, the diffused phase transition from tetragonal (T) to cubic (C) structure shifts to lower temperature with increasing Sr composition. The dramatic changes of wavenumber and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) for E(TO{sub 4})′ softing mode can be observed at morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Moreover, the MPB characteristic shows a wider and lower trend of temperature region with increasing Sr composition. It could be ascribed to the diminishment of the energy barrier and increment of A-cation entropy. Therefore, the Sr-modified PAN-PZT ceramics unambiguously undergo two successive structural transitions (rhombohedral-tetragonal-cubic phase) with temperature from 80 to 750 K. Correspondingly, the phase diagram of Sr-modified PAN-PZT ceramics can be well depicted.

  6. Simultaneous achievement of high dielectric constant and low temperature dependence of capacitance in (111-oriented BaTiO3-Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3-BiFeO3 solid solution thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Kimura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the capacitance of (111c-oriented (0.90–xBaTiO3-0.10Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3-xBiFeO3 solid solution films is investigated. These films are prepared on (111cSrRuO3/(111Pt/TiO2/SiO2/(100Si substrates by the chemical solution deposition technique. All the films have perovskite structures and the crystal symmetry at room temperature varies with increasing x ratio, from pseudocubic when x = 0–0.30 to rhombohedral when x = 0.50–0.90. The pseudocubic phase shows a high relative dielectric constant (εr (ranging between 400 and 560 at room temperature and an operating frequency of 100 kHz and a low temperature dependence of capacitance up to 400°C, while maintaining a dielectric loss (tan δ value of less than 0.2 at 100 kHz. In contrast, εr for the rhombohedral phase increases monotonically with increasing temperature up to 250°C, and increasingly high tan δ values are recorded at higher temperatures. These results indicate that pseudocubic (0.90–xBaTiO3-0.10Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3-xBiFeO3 solid solution films with (111 orientation are suitable candidates for high-temperature capacitor applications.

  7. Low temperature dielectric relaxation and charged defects in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Artemenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a dielectric relaxation in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric thin films of different composition and with several growth modes: sputtering (with and without magnetron and sol-gel. The relaxation was observed at cryogenic temperatures (T < 100 K for frequencies from 100 Hz up to 10 MHz. This relaxation activation energy is always lower than 200 meV and is very similar to the relaxation that we reported in the parent bulk perovskites. Based on our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR investigation, we ascribe this dielectric relaxation to the hopping of electrons among Ti3+-V(O charged defects. Being dependent on the growth process and on the amount of oxygen vacancies, this relaxation can be a useful probe of defects in actual integrated capacitors with no need for specific shaping.

  8. Partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of the reduced field intensity and the background reaction temperature in the partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor. We obtained important mechanistic insight from studying high-temperature and low-pressure conditions with similar reduced field intensities. In the tested range of background temperatures (297 < T < 773 K), we found that the conversion of methane and oxygen depended on both the electron-induced chemistry and the thermo-chemistry, whereas the chemical pathways to the products were overall controlled by the thermo-chemistry at a given temperature. We also found that the thermo-chemistry enhanced the plasma-assisted partial oxidation process. Our findings expand our understanding of the plasma-assisted partial oxidation process and may be helpful in the design of cost-effective plasma reformers. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  9. High performance solution processed zirconium oxide gate dielectric appropriate for low temperature device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Musarrat; Nguyen, Manh-Cuong; Kim, Hyojin; You, Seung-Won; Jeon, Yoon-Seok; Tong, Duc-Tai; Lee, Dong-Hwi; Jeong, Jae Kyeong; Choi, Rino, E-mail: rino.choi@inha.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    This paper reports a solution processed electrical device with zirconium oxide gate dielectric that was fabricated at a low enough temperature appropriate for flexible electronics. Both inorganic dielectric and channel materials were synthesized in the same organic solvent. The dielectric constant achieved was 13 at 250 °C with a reasonably low leakage current. The bottom gate transistor devices showed the highest mobility of 75 cm{sup 2}/V s. The device is operated at low voltage with high-k dielectric with excellent transconductance and low threshold voltage. Overall, the results highlight the potential of low temperature solution based deposition in fabricating more complicated circuits for a range of applications. - Highlights: • We develop a low temperature inorganic dielectric deposition process. • We fabricate oxide semiconductor channel devices using all-solution processes. • Same solvent is used for dielectric and oxide semiconductor deposition.

  10. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown measurements of porous organosilicate glass using mercury and solid metal probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Dongfei; Nichols, Michael T.; Shohet, J. Leon; King, Sean W.; Clarke, James S.; Nishi, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) is one of the major concerns for low-k dielectric materials. During plasma processing, low-k dielectrics are subjected to vacuum ultraviolet photon radiation and charged-particle bombardment. To examine the change of TDDB properties, time-to-breakdown measurements are made to porous SiCOH before and after plasma exposure. Significant discrepancies between mercury and solid-metal probes are observed and have been shown to be attributed to mercury diffusion into the dielectric porosities

  11. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown measurements of porous organosilicate glass using mercury and solid metal probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Dongfei; Nichols, Michael T.; Shohet, J. Leon, E-mail: shohet@engr.wisc.edu [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, Sean W.; Clarke, James S. [Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Nishi, Yoshio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) is one of the major concerns for low-k dielectric materials. During plasma processing, low-k dielectrics are subjected to vacuum ultraviolet photon radiation and charged-particle bombardment. To examine the change of TDDB properties, time-to-breakdown measurements are made to porous SiCOH before and after plasma exposure. Significant discrepancies between mercury and solid-metal probes are observed and have been shown to be attributed to mercury diffusion into the dielectric porosities.

  12. Casimir free energy of dielectric films: classical limit, low-temperature behavior and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M

    2017-07-12

    The Casimir free energy of dielectric films, both free-standing in vacuum and deposited on metallic or dielectric plates, is investigated. It is shown that the values of the free energy depend considerably on whether the calculation approach used neglects or takes into account the dc conductivity of film material. We demonstrate that there are material-dependent and universal classical limits in the former and latter cases, respectively. The analytic behavior of the Casimir free energy and entropy for a free-standing dielectric film at low temperature is found. According to our results, the Casimir entropy goes to zero when the temperature vanishes if the calculation approach with neglected dc conductivity of a film is employed. If the dc conductivity is taken into account, the Casimir entropy takes the positive value at zero temperature, depending on the parameters of a film, i.e. the Nernst heat theorem is violated. By considering the Casimir free energy of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 films deposited on a Au plate in the framework of two calculation approaches, we argue that physically correct values are obtained by disregarding the role of dc conductivity. A comparison with the well known results for the configuration of two parallel plates is made. Finally, we compute the Casimir free energy of SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and Ge films deposited on high-resistivity Si plates of different thicknesses and demonstrate that it can be positive, negative and equal to zero. The effect of illumination of a Si plate with laser light is considered. Possible applications of the obtained results to thin films used in microelectronics are discussed.

  13. Casimir free energy of dielectric films: classical limit, low-temperature behavior and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    The Casimir free energy of dielectric films, both free-standing in vacuum and deposited on metallic or dielectric plates, is investigated. It is shown that the values of the free energy depend considerably on whether the calculation approach used neglects or takes into account the dc conductivity of film material. We demonstrate that there are material-dependent and universal classical limits in the former and latter cases, respectively. The analytic behavior of the Casimir free energy and entropy for a free-standing dielectric film at low temperature is found. According to our results, the Casimir entropy goes to zero when the temperature vanishes if the calculation approach with neglected dc conductivity of a film is employed. If the dc conductivity is taken into account, the Casimir entropy takes the positive value at zero temperature, depending on the parameters of a film, i.e. the Nernst heat theorem is violated. By considering the Casimir free energy of SiO2 and Al2O3 films deposited on a Au plate in the framework of two calculation approaches, we argue that physically correct values are obtained by disregarding the role of dc conductivity. A comparison with the well known results for the configuration of two parallel plates is made. Finally, we compute the Casimir free energy of SiO2, Al2O3 and Ge films deposited on high-resistivity Si plates of different thicknesses and demonstrate that it can be positive, negative and equal to zero. The effect of illumination of a Si plate with laser light is considered. Possible applications of the obtained results to thin films used in microelectronics are discussed.

  14. Partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of the reduced field intensity and the background reaction temperature in the partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor. We obtained important mechanistic insight

  15. Investigation of the dielectric properties of shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martemyanov, Sergey M.

    2011-01-01

    The article is dedicated to investigation of the dielectric properties of oil shale. Investigations for samples prepared from shale mined at the deposit in Jilin Province in China were done. The temperature and frequency dependences of rock characteristics needed to calculate the processes of their thermal processing are investigated. Frequency dependences for the relative dielectric constant and dissipation factor of rock in the frequency range from 0,1 Hz to 1 MHz are investigated. The temperature dependences for rock resistance, dielectric capacitance and dissipation factor in the temperature range from 20 to 600°C are studied. Key words: shale, dielectric properties, relative dielectric constant, dissipation factor, temperature dependence, frequency dependence

  16. Temperature dependence of plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, L.

    2018-03-01

    Plastic scintillator detectors have been studied as dosimeters, since they provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional ionization chambers. Several articles have reported undesired response dependencies on beam energy and temperature, which provides the motivation to determine appropriate correction factors. In this work, we studied the light yield temperature dependency of four plastic scintillators, BCF-10, BCF-60, BC-404, RP-200A and two clear fibers, BCF-98 and SK-80. Measurements were made using a 50 kVp X-ray beam to produce the scintillation and/or radioluminescence signal. The 0 to 40 °C temperature range was scanned for each scintillator, and temperature coefficients were obtained.

  17. Temperature dependence of microwave and THz dielectric response in Srn.sub.+1./sub.TinO.sub.3./sub.n.sub.+1./sub. (n=1-4)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noujni, Dmitri; Kamba, Stanislav; Pashkin, Alexej; Bovtun, Viktor; Petzelt, Jan; Axlesson, A. K.; McN Alford, N.; Wise, P. L.; Reaney, I. M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 62, - (2004), s. 199-203 ISSN 1058-4587 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : Ruddlesden. Popper * MW dielectric properties * infrared and THz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.427, year: 2004

  18. Realization of spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns based on all-dielectric metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; He, Yongli; Zhou, Junxiao; Luo, Hailu, E-mail: hailuluo@hnu.edu.cn; Wen, Shuangchun [Laboratory for Spin Photonics, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-07-27

    We report the realization of spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns based on all-dielectric metasurfaces. Compared with the plasmonic metasurfaces, the all-dielectric metasurface exhibits more high transmission efficiency and conversion efficiency, which makes it possible to achieve the spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns. Our findings suggest a way for generation and manipulation of spin photons, and thereby offer the possibility of developing spin-based nanophotonic applications.

  19. Complete FDTD analysis of microwave heating processes in frequency-dependent and temperature dependent media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, F.; Jecko, B. [Univ. de Limoges (France). Inst. de Recherche en Communications Optiques et Microondes

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that the temperature rise in a material modifies its physical properties and, particularly, its dielectric permittivity. The dissipated electromagnetic power involved in microwave heating processes depending on {var_epsilon}({omega}), the electrical characteristics of the heated media must vary with the temperature to achieve realistic simulations. In this paper, the authors present a fast and accurate algorithm allowing, through a combined electromagnetic and thermal procedure, to take into account the influence of the temperature on the electrical properties of materials. First, the temperature dependence of the complex permittivity ruled by a Debye relaxation equation is investigated, and a realistic model is proposed and validated. Then, a frequency-dependent finite-differences time-domain ((FD){sup 2}TD) method is used to assess the instantaneous electromagnetic power lost by dielectric hysteresis. Within the same iteration, a time-scaled form of the heat transfer equation allows one to calculate the temperature distribution in the heated medium and then to correct the dielectric properties of the material using the proposed model. These new characteristics will be taken into account by the EM solver at the next iteration. This combined algorithm allows a significant reduction of computation time. An application to a microwave oven is proposed.

  20. A measurement technique of time-dependent dielectric breakdown in MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    The statistical nature of time-dependent dielectric breakdown characteristics in MOS capacitors was evidenced by testing large numbers of capacitors fabricated on single wafers. A multipoint probe and automatic electronic visual display technique are introduced that will yield statistical results which are necessary for the investigation of temperature, electric field, thermal annealing, and radiation effects in the breakdown characteristics, and an interpretation of the physical mechanisms involved. It is shown that capacitors of area greater than 0.002 sq cm may yield worst-case results, and that a multipoint probe of capacitors of smaller sizes can be used to obtain a profile of nonuniformities in the SiO2 films.

  1. Dielectric Properties of Marsh Vegetation in a Frequency Range of 0.1-18 GHz Under Variation of Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, A. N.; Kochetkova, T. D.; Suslyaev, V. I.; Shcheglova, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Dielectric characteristics of some species of marsh vegetation: lichen Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar, moss Sphagnum, and a representative of Bryidae mosses - Dicranum polysetum are studied in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 18 GHz. At a frequency of 1.41 GHz, the influence of temperature in the range from -12 to +20°C on the behavior of dielectric characteristics of mosses, lichens, and peat is studied. The dependences of the dielectric characteristics of vegetation on the volumetric wetness are established.

  2. A room temperature cured low dielectric hyperbranched epoxy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon chain in its structure.2 In the present study, a .... The degree of branching, epoxy equivalent and hydroxyl value ... The physical properties and swelling value of the hardener were ... samples were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. (TGA) in ..... Nalwa H S 1999 Handbook of low and high dielectric constant ...

  3. Study of dielectric liquids at room temperature for high energy x ray Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepert, S.

    1989-09-01

    The detection of X rays by means of a dielectric liquid detector system, at room temperature, is discussed. The physico-chemical properties of a dielectric liquid, the construction of a cleaning device and of two electrode configurations, and the utilization of different amplifier models are studied. The results allowed the analysis and characterization of the behavior of the dielectric liquid under X ray irradiation. Data obtained is confirmed by computerized simulation. The choice of Tetramethyl-germanium for the X ray tomography, applied in nondestructive analysis, is explained. The investigation of the system parameters allowed the setting of the basis of a prototype project for a multi-detector [fr

  4. Non-linear dielectric signatures of entropy changes in liquids subject to time dependent electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richert, Ranko [School of Molecular Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    A model of non-linear dielectric polarization is studied in which the field induced entropy change is the source of polarization dependent retardation time constants. Numerical solutions for the susceptibilities of the system are obtained for parameters that represent the dynamic and thermodynamic behavior of glycerol. The calculations for high amplitude sinusoidal fields show a significant enhancement of the steady state loss for frequencies below that of the low field loss peak. Also at relatively low frequencies, the third harmonic susceptibility spectrum shows a “hump,” i.e., a maximum, with an amplitude that increases with decreasing temperature. Both of these non-linear effects are consistent with experimental evidence. While such features have been used to conclude on a temperature dependent number of dynamically correlated particles, N{sub corr}, the present result demonstrates that the third harmonic susceptibility display a peak with an amplitude that tracks the variation of the activation energy in a model that does not involve dynamical correlations or spatial scales.

  5. Ba doped Fe3O4 nanocrystals: Magnetic field and temperature tuning dielectric and electrical transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Papia; Mandal, S. K.; Nath, A.

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline BaFe2O4 has been prepared through low temperature pyrophoric reaction method. The structural, dielectric and electrical transport properties of BaFe2O4 are investigated in detail. AC electrical properties have been studied over the wide range of frequencies with applied dc magnetic fields and temperatures. The value of impedance is found to increase with increase in magnetic field attributing the magnetostriction property of the sample. The observed value of magneto-impedance and magnetodielectric is found to ∼32% and ∼33% at room temperature. Nyquist plots have been fitted using resistance-capacitor circuits at different magnetic fields and temperatures showing the dominant role of grain and grain boundaries of the sample. Metal-semiconductor transition ∼403 K has been discussed in terms of delocalized and localized charge carrier.We have estimated activation energy using Arrhenius relation indicating temperature dependent electrical relaxation process in the system. Ac conductivity follow a Jonscher’s single power law indicating the large and small polaronic hopping conduction mechanism in the system.

  6. High-Efficiency Dielectric Metasurfaces for Polarization-Dependent Terahertz Wavefront Manipulation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Huifang

    2017-11-30

    Recently, metasurfaces made up of dielectric structures have drawn enormous attentions in the optical and infrared regimes due to their high efficiency and designing freedom in manipulating light propagation. Such advantages can also be introduced to terahertz frequencies where efficient functional devices are still lacking. Here, polarization-dependent all-silicon terahertz dielectric metasurfaces are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The metasurfaces are composed of anisotropic rectangular-shaped silicon pillars on silicon substrate. Each metasurface holds dual different functions depending on the incident polarizations. Furthermore, to suppress the reflection loss and multireflection effect in practical applications, a high-performance polarization-independent antireflection silicon pillar array is also proposed, which can be patterned at the other side of the silicon substrate. Such all-silicon dielectric metasurfaces are easy to fabricate and can be very promising in developing next-generation efficient, compact, and low-cost terahertz functional devices.

  7. Investigation of NOx Reduction by Low Temperature Oxidation Using Ozone Produced by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Irimiea, Cornelia; Salewski, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    NOx reduction by low temperature oxidation using ozone produced by a dielectric barrier discharge generator is investigated for different process parameters in a 6m long reactor in serpentine arrangement using synthetic dry flue gas with NOx levels below 500 ppm, flows up to 50 slm and temperatures...

  8. A Novel Temperature Measurement Approach for a High Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Using Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leiweke, R. J; Ganguly, B. N

    2006-01-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopic technique is used to measure both electronically excited state production efficiency and gas temperature rise in a dielectric barrier discharge in argon...

  9. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  10. Preparation and temperature dependence of electrostriction properties for PMN-based composite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingbo; Qu Shaobo; Du Hongliang; Zheng Yanju; Xu Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    Both low- and high-temperature units were prepared by columbite precursor method, and Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PMN)-based ferroelectric composite ceramics were prepared by conventional method, baking-block method and coating method, respectively. The effects of preparation methods on dielectric and electrostriction properties as well as the temperature-dependence property of the obtained composite ceramics were studied. The results show that compared with the samples prepared by traditional blend sintering method, of the samples prepared by baking-block and coating methods have much better dielectric and electrostriction properties. For those prepared by baking-block method, the electrostriction temperature-dependence properties are good in the range of 20-60 deg. C. For those prepared by coating method, the dielectric temperature-dependence properties are also good in the broad range of -30 to 70 deg. C, and the electrostriction temperature properties are better than those prepared by blending-block. Compared with the traditional blending sintering method, the dielectric and electrostriction temperature-dependence properties are much better, which effectively solves the problem of temperature properties existing in present engineering applications.

  11. Visualization of dielectric constant-electric field-temperature phase maps for imprinted relaxor ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, J. C.; Kim, T. H.; Maeng, W.; Brewer, A. A.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Saenrang, W.; Vaithyanathan, V.; Schlom, D. G.; Li, F.; Chen, L.-Q.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric phase transition behavior of imprinted lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric thin films was mapped as a function of temperature and dc bias. To compensate for the presence of internal fields, an external electric bias was applied while measuring dielectric responses. The constructed three-dimensional dielectric maps provide insight into the dielectric behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric films as well as the temperature stability of the imprint. The transition temperature and diffuseness of the dielectric response correlate with crystallographic disorder resulting from strain and defects in the films grown on strontium titanate and silicon substrates; the latter was shown to induce a greater degree of disorder in the film as well as a dielectric response lower in magnitude and more diffuse in nature over the same temperature region. Strong and stable imprint was exhibited in both films and can be utilized to enhance the operational stability of piezoelectric devices through domain self-poling.

  12. Temperature-dependent electrical property transition of graphene oxide paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xingyi; Jiang Pingkai; Zhi Chunyi; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of graphene oxide is primarily important because different reduction methods may result in graphene with totally different properties. For systematically exploring the reduction of graphene oxide, studies of the temperature-dependent electrical properties of graphene oxide (GO) are urgently required. In this work, for the first time, broadband dielectric spectroscopy was used to carry out an in situ investigation on the transition of the electrical properties of GO paper from −40 to 150 °C. The results clearly reveal a very interesting four-stage transition of electrical properties of GO paper with increasing temperature: insulator below 10 °C (stage 1), semiconductor at between 10 and 90 °C (stage 2), insulator at between 90 and 100 °C (stage 3), and semiconductor again at above 100 °C (stage 4). Subsequently, the transition mechanism was discussed in combination with detailed dielectric properties, microstructure and thermogravimetric analyses. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent transition of electronic properties of GO is closely associated with the ion mobility, water molecules removal and the reduction of GO in the GO paper. Most importantly, the present work clearly demonstrates the reduction of GO paper starts at above 100 °C. (paper)

  13. Gate dielectric strength dependent performance of CNT MOSFET and CNT TFET: A tight binding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shamim Sarker

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study between CNT MOSFET and CNT TFET taking into account of different dielectric strength of gate oxide materials. Here we have studied the transfer characteristics, on/off current (ION/IOFF ratio and subthreshold slope of the device using Non Equilibrium Greens Function (NEGF formalism in tight binding frameworks. The results are obtained by solving the NEGF and Poisson’s equation self-consistently in NanoTCADViDES environment and found that the ON state performance of CNT MOSFET and CNT TFET have significant dependency on the dielectric strength of the gate oxide materials. The figure of merits of the devices also demonstrates that the CNT TFET is promising for high-speed and low-power logic applications. Keywords: CNT TFET, Subthreshold slop, Barrier width, Conduction band (C.B and Valance band (V.B, Oxide dielectric strength, Tight binding approach

  14. Electron-induced dry reforming of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2013-09-23

    Dry reforming of methane has the potential to reduce the greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide and to generate hydrogen-rich syngas. In reforming methane, plasma-assisted reforming processes may have advantages over catalytic processes because they are free from coking and their response time for mobile applications is quick. Although plasma-assisted reforming techniques have seen recent developments, systematic studies that clarify the roles that electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry play are needed for a full understanding of the mechanisms of plasma-assisted reformation. Here, we developed a temperature-controlled coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) apparatus to investigate the relative importance of electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry in dry reforming of methane. In the tested background temperature range 297-773 K, electron-induced chemistry, as characterized by the physical properties of micro-discharges, was found to govern the conversions of CH4 and CO2, while thermo-chemistry influenced the product selectivities because they were found to depend on the background temperature. Comparisons with results from arc-jet reformation indicated that thermo-chemistry is an efficient conversion method. Our findings may improve designs of plasma-assisted reformers by using relatively hotter plasma sources. However, detailed chemical kinetic studies are needed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Electron-induced dry reforming of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min Suk

    2013-01-01

    Dry reforming of methane has the potential to reduce the greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide and to generate hydrogen-rich syngas. In reforming methane, plasma-assisted reforming processes may have advantages over catalytic processes because they are free from coking and their response time for mobile applications is quick. Although plasma-assisted reforming techniques have seen recent developments, systematic studies that clarify the roles that electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry play are needed for a full understanding of the mechanisms of plasma-assisted reformation. Here, we developed a temperature-controlled coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) apparatus to investigate the relative importance of electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry in dry reforming of methane. In the tested background temperature range 297–773 K, electron-induced chemistry, as characterized by the physical properties of micro-discharges, was found to govern the conversions of CH 4 and CO 2 , while thermo-chemistry influenced the product selectivities because they were found to depend on the background temperature. Comparisons with results from arc-jet reformation indicated that thermo-chemistry is an efficient conversion method. Our findings may improve designs of plasma-assisted reformers by using relatively hotter plasma sources. However, detailed chemical kinetic studies are needed. (paper)

  16. Thickness-Dependent Dielectric Constant of Few-Layer In 2 Se 3 Nanoflakes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Di

    2015-11-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The dielectric constant or relative permittivity (εr) of a dielectric material, which describes how the net electric field in the medium is reduced with respect to the external field, is a parameter of critical importance for charging and screening in electronic devices. Such a fundamental material property is intimately related to not only the polarizability of individual atoms but also the specific atomic arrangement in the crystal lattice. In this Letter, we present both experimental and theoretical investigations on the dielectric constant of few-layer In2Se3 nanoflakes grown on mica substrates by van der Waals epitaxy. A nondestructive microwave impedance microscope is employed to simultaneously quantify the number of layers and local electrical properties. The measured εr increases monotonically as a function of the thickness and saturates to the bulk value at around 6-8 quintuple layers. The same trend of layer-dependent dielectric constant is also revealed by first-principles calculations. Our results of the dielectric response, being ubiquitously applicable to layered 2D semiconductors, are expected to be significant for this vibrant research field.

  17. Calculation of the Dielectric Constant as a Function of Temperature Close to the Smectic A-Smectic B Transition in B5 Using the Mean Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yurtseven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the static dielectric constant ( is calculated close to the smectic A-smectic B ( transition ( = 71.3°C for the liquid crystal compound B5. By expanding the free energy in terms of the order parameter in the mean field theory, the expression for the dielectric susceptibility (dielectric constant is derived and is fitted to the experimental data for which was obtained at the field strengths of 0 and 67 kV/cm from literature. Coefficients in the free energy expansion are determined from our fit for the transition of B5. Our results show that the observed behaviour of the dielectric constant close to the transition in B5 can be described satisfactorily by our mean field model.

  18. Dielectric relaxation in Li2SO4 in the intermedia-temperature regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosa, J. E.; Vargas, R. A.; Fernández, M. E.; Albinsson, I.; Mellander, B.-E.

    2005-08-01

    The dielectric permittivity of polycrystalline Li2SO4 was measured from 5 Hz to 13 MHz and over the temperature range 235-460 °C. The corrected imaginary part of permittivity, , and its real part vs. frequency clearly show a new dielectric relaxation around fmax = 2 × 104 Hz at T = 256 °C, which shifts to higher frequencies (1 MHz) as the temperatures increases. The relaxation frequency (calculated from the peak position of ) vs. reciprocal T shows an activated relaxation process with activation energy Ea= 0.9 eV, which is very close to that derived from the dc conductivity, E (0.87 eV). We suggest that this dielectric relaxation could be due to the Li+ jump and SO4- reorientation that cause distortion and change of the local lattice polarizability inducing dipoles like LiSO4-.

  19. Facile synthesis of graphene on dielectric surfaces using a two-temperature reactor CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C; Man, B Y; Yang, C; Jiang, S Z; Liu, M; Chen, C S; Xu, S C; Sun, Z C; Gao, X G; Chen, X J

    2013-01-01

    Direct deposition of graphene on a dielectric substrate is demonstrated using a chemical vapor deposition system with a two-temperature reactor. The two-temperature reactor is utilized to offer sufficient, well-proportioned floating Cu atoms and to provide a temperature gradient for facile synthesis of graphene on dielectric surfaces. The evaporated Cu atoms catalyze the reaction in the presented method. C atoms and Cu atoms respectively act as the nuclei for forming graphene film in the low-temperature zone and the zones close to the high-temperature zones. A uniform and high-quality graphene film is formed in an atmosphere of sufficient and well-proportioned floating Cu atoms. Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy confirm the presence of uniform and high-quality graphene. (paper)

  20. Development of a dielectric ceramic based on diatomite-titania part two: dielectric properties characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Jamilson Pinto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric properties of sintered diatomite-titania ceramics are presented. Specific capacitance, dissipation factor, quality factor and dielectric constant were determined as a function of sintering temperature, titania content and frequency; the temperature coefficient of capacitance was measured as a function of frequency. Besides leakage current, the dependence of the insulation resistance and the dielectric strength on the applied dc voltage were studied. The results show that diatomite-titania compositions can be used as an alternative dielectric.

  1. Temperature fields occurring in dielectric capillaries for the transport of of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanovich, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of computing the temperature fields occurring in dielectric capillaries of glass for the transport of accelerated charged particles. It is shown that on the transport of ion beams with a power of several watts the capillary is heated intensively, whereas heat stresses may approach the lower bound associated with a real strength of glass. (authors)

  2. Temperature dependence of nuclear surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.; Stringari, S.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal properties of nuclear surface are investigated in a semi-infinite medium. Explicit analytical expression are given for the temperature dependence of surface thickness, surface energy and surface free energy. In this model the temperature effects depend critically on the nuclear incompressibility and on the shape of the effective mass at the surface. To illustrate the relevance of these effects we made an estimate of the temperature dependence of the fission barrier height. (orig.)

  3. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE THERMAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal conductivity values, in the temperature range 300 – 1200 K, have been measured in air and at atmospheric pressure for a Kenyan kaolinite refractory with 0% - 50% grog proportions. The experimental thermal conductivity values were then compared with those calculated using the Zumbrunnen et al [1] and the ...

  4. Time-dependent non-equilibrium dielectric response in QM/continuum approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Feizhi; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong, E-mail: benedetta.mennucci@unipi.it, E-mail: li@chem.washington.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Mennucci, Benedetta, E-mail: benedetta.mennucci@unipi.it, E-mail: li@chem.washington.edu [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-01-21

    The Polarizable Continuum Models (PCMs) are some of the most inexpensive yet successful methods for including the effects of solvation in quantum-mechanical calculations of molecular systems. However, when applied to the electronic excitation process, these methods are restricted to dichotomously assuming either that the solvent has completely equilibrated with the excited solute charge density (infinite-time limit), or that it retains the configuration that was in equilibrium with the solute prior to excitation (zero-time limit). This renders the traditional PCMs inappropriate for resolving time-dependent solvent effects on non-equilibrium solute electron dynamics like those implicated in the instants following photoexcitation of a solvated molecular species. To extend the existing methods to this non-equilibrium regime, we herein derive and apply a new formalism for a general time-dependent continuum embedding method designed to be propagated alongside the solute’s electronic degrees of freedom in the time domain. Given the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the solvent, an equation of motion for the dielectric polarization is derived within the PCM framework and numerically integrated simultaneously with the time-dependent Hartree fock/density functional theory equations. Results for small molecular systems show the anticipated dipole quenching and electronic state dephasing/relaxation resulting from out-of-phase charge fluctuations in the dielectric and embedded quantum system.

  5. Dielectric properties measurement system at cryogenic temperatures and microwave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Margineda, J.; Zamarro, J. M.; Hernandez, A.

    1994-07-01

    A system based on the resonant cavity method has been developed to measure the permittivity and loss tangent at 12-18 GHz over the temperature range 80 K to 300 K. Changes of permittivity as low as 0.01 % in the range 1 to 30, and 3 x 10{sup 6} for loss tangent values below 10{sup 2}, can be obtained without requiring temperature stability. The thermal expansion coefficient and resistivity factor of copper have been measured between 80 K and 300 K. Permittivity of sapphire and loss tangent of alumina of 99.9 % purity in the same temperature range are presented. (Author) 23 refs.

  6. Dielectric properties measurement system at cryogenic temperatures and microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Margineda, J.; Zamarro, J.M.; Hernandez, A.

    1994-01-01

    A system based on the resonant cavity method has been developed to measure the permittivity and loss tangent at 12-18 GHz over the temperature range 80 K to 300 K. Changes of permittivity as low as 0.01% in the range 1 to 30, and 3 x 10''6 for loss tangent values below 10''2, can be obtained without requiring temperature stability. The thermal expansion coefficient and resistivity factor of copper have been measured between 80 K and 300 K. Permittivity of sapphire and loss tangent of alumina of 99,9% purity in the same temperature range are presented

  7. Development and characterization of high temperature, high energy density dielectric materials to establish routes towards power electronics capacitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Dennis P.

    -doped composition. The Ca(Ti0.795Mn 0.005Zr0.2)O3 composition was selected for single layer, Pt buried electrode capacitor prototyping to evaluate high temperature electrical characteristics. Polarization-field (P--E) hysteresis measurements of CTZ showed a large increase in dielectric loss with increasing temperature, limiting the dielectric breakdown strength and recoverable energy density. When doped with Mn, CTZ + Mn showed a minimization of the temperature dependence of the breakdown strength, and maximum energy densities of 7.00 J/cm 3 at a Eb of 1.1 MV/cm at room temperature and 5.36 J/cm3 at Eb = 1.0 MV/cm at 300 °C were observed. Impedance spectroscopy of the CTZ and CTZ + Mn dielectrics showed that doping with Mn resulted in a decrease in ionic conductivity and a subsequent decrease in electronic conductivity. Basic characterization of Ca(Ti0.8Hf0.2)O 3 (CTH) and Ca(Ti0.795Mn0.005Hf0.2)O 3 (CTH + Mn) showed similar characteristics compared to the CTZ system. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of CTH and CTH + Mn showed similar behavior to the CTZ and CTZ + Mn systems, but with overall decreases in ionic and electronic conductivity. Coupled with thermally stimulated depolarization current measurements (TSDC), oxygen vacancy migration and space charge conduction are dominant and could be minimized with Mn doping. To gain further insight into how aliovalent Mn controls high temperature conduction in the CTH + Mn system, capacitors were quenched from the sintering temperature and an impedance study was performed. It was observed that ionic conductivity was quenched in due to oxygen vacancies compensating Mn 3+, and interfacial features were observed in impedance spectra due to double back-to-back Schottky barriers (depletion layers). As capacitors were re-oxidized, bulk resistivity increased while interfacial resistivity decreased. The hypothesis was supported by the application of dc bias during impedance measurements, which showed similar impedance behavior to the re

  8. Temperature dependence of elastic properties of paratellurite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrova, I.M.; Pisarevskii, Y.V.; Senyushenkov, P.A.; Krupny, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    New data are presented on the temperature dependence of the elastic wave velocities, elastic stiffness constants, and thermal expansion of paratellurite. It is shown that the external pressure appreciably influences the elastic properties of TeO 2 , especially the temperature dependence of the elastic modulus connected with the crystal soft mode. (author)

  9. Aging of Dielectric Properties below Tg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    The dielectric loss at 1Hz in TPP is studied during a temperature step from one equilibrium state to another. In the applied cryostate the temperature can be equilibrated on a timescale of 1 second. The aging time dependence of the dielectric loss is studied below Tg applying temperature steps...

  10. Characterization of frequency-dependent glass transition temperature by Vogel-Fulcher relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yu; Jin Li

    2008-01-01

    The complex mechanical modulus of polymer and polymer based composite materials showed a frequency-dependent behaviour during glass transition relaxation, which was historically modelled by the Arrhenius equation. However, this might not be true in a broad frequency domain based on the experience from the frequency dependence of the complex dielectric permittivity, which resulted from the same glass transition relaxation as for the complex mechanical modulus. Considering a good correspondence between dielectric and mechanical relaxation during glass transition, the Vogel-Fulcher relationship, previously proposed for the frequency dependence of dielectric permittivity, is introduced for that of the mechanical modulus; and the corresponding static glass transition temperature (T f ) was first determined for polymer and polymer based composite materials. (fast track communication)

  11. Incubation temperature and hemoglobin dielectric of chicken embryos incubated under the influence of electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, T M; Al-Batshan, H A; Shalaby, M I; Ghannam, M M

    2006-01-01

    Eggs from a layer-type breeder flock (Baladi, King Saud University) between 61 and 63 weeks of age were used in 3 trials to study the effects of electric field (EF) during incubation on the internal temperature of incubation, and eggs and hemoglobin (Hb) dielectric of chicken embryos at 18 days of age. Dielectric relative permittivity (epsilon') and conductivity (sigma) of Hb were examined in the range of frequency from 20 to 100 kHz. The values of dielectric increment (Deltaepsilon') and the relaxation times (tau) of Hb molecules were calculated. The internal temperature of eggs was measured in empty (following the removal of egg contents) and fertilized eggs in trials 1 and 2, respectively. The level of the EF was 30 kV/m, 60 Hz. EF incubation of embryos influenced the temperature of incubation and electrical properties of Hb molecules and did not influence the temperature of incubation and internal environment of eggs when empty eggs were incubated. EF incubation of fertilized eggs significantly raised the temperature of incubation, egg air cell, and at the surface of the egg yolk by approximately 0.09, 0.60, and 0.61 degrees F, respectively and Hb epsilon', sigma, Deltaepsilon', and tau as a function of the range of frequency of 20 to 100 kHz when compared with their counterparts of the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of fertilized chicken eggs to EF of 30 kV/m, 60 Hz, during incubation altered dielectric properties of Hb and that probably affected cell to cell communication and created the right environment for enhancing the growing process and heat production of embryos consequently increasing the temperature of the internal environment of the egg, and incubation.

  12. The temperature dependences of electromechanical properties of PLZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiec, M.; Zachariasz, R.; Ilczuk, J.

    2008-02-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties in lanthanum modified lead zirconate-titanate ceramics of 5/50/50 and 10/50/50 were studied by mechanical loss Q - 1, Young's modulus E, electric permittivity ɛ and tangent of dielectric loss of angle tgδ measurements. The internal friction Q - 1 and Young modulus E measured from 290 K to 600 K shows that Curie temperature TC is located at 574 K and 435 K (1st cycle of heating) respectively for ceramic samples 5/50/50 and 10/50/50. The movement of TC in second cycle of heating to lower temperature (561 K for 5/50/50 and 420 K for 10/50/50) has been observed. Together with Q - 1 and E measurements, temperature dependences of ɛ=f(T) and tgδ=f(T) were determinated in temperature range from 300 K to 730 K. The values of TC obtained during ɛ and tgδ measurements were respectively: 560 K for 5/50/50 and 419 K for 10/50/50. These temperatures are almost as high as the temperatures obtained by internal friction Q - 1 measurements in second cycle of heating. In ceramic sample 10/50/50 the additional maximum on internal friction Q - 1 curve at the temperature 316 K was observed.

  13. Temperature Dependence of the Resonant Magnetoelectric Effect in Layered Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii A. Burdin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the resonant direct magnetoelectric effect on temperature is studied experimentally in planar composite structures. Samples of rectangular shapes with dimensions of 5 mm × 20 mm employed ferromagnetic layers of either an amorphous (metallic glass alloy or nickel with a thickness of 20–200 μm and piezoelectric layers of single crystalline langatate material or lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics with a thickness of 500 μm. The temperature of the samples was varied in a range between 120 and 390 K by blowing a gaseous nitrogen stream around them. It is shown that the effective characteristics of the magnetoelectric effect—such as the mechanical resonance frequency fr, the quality factor Q and the magnitude of the magnetoelectric coefficient αE at the resonance frequency—are contingent on temperature. The interrelations between the temperature changes of the characteristics of the magnetoelectric effect and the temperature variations of the following material parameters—Young’s modulus Y, the acoustic quality factor of individual layers, the dielectric constant ε, the piezoelectric modulus d of the piezoelectric layer as well as the piezomagnetic coefficients λ(n of the ferromagnetic layer—are established. The effect of temperature on the characteristics of the nonlinear magnetoelectric effect is observed for the first time. The results can be useful for designing magnetoelectric heterostructures with specified temperature characteristics, in particular, for the development of thermally stabilized magnetoelectric devices.

  14. 500 C Electronic Packaging and Dielectric Materials for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for exploring the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by these high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed. High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for probing the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and eventual applications of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high electronics and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed.

  15. Temperature dependence of radiation chemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.W.; Hill, D.J.T.; Le, T.T.; Milne, K.A.; O'Donnell, J.H.; Perera, S.M.C.; Pomery, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical reactions which occur during radiolysis of polymers usually show an increase in rate with increasing temperature that can be described by an Arrhenius relationship. The magnitude of the activation energy can vary widely and is affected by physical, as well as chemical, factors. Different reaction rates may be expected in crystalline and amorphous morphologies, and in glassy and rubbery regions. The temperature dependence of radiolysis reactions can be expected to show discontinuities at the glass and melting transitions, T g and T m . The ceiling temperature, T c , for polymerization/depolymerization will also affect the rate of degradation, especially for depropagation to monomer. The temperature for this effect depends on the molecular structure of the polymer. The temperature dependence of free radical reactions can be studied by cryogenic trapping and ESR spectroscopy during thermal profiling. Increased degradation rates at high dose rates can be due to increased temperatures resulting from energy absorption

  16. Temperature dependence of radiation effects in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G; Katsumura, Y.; Kudoh, H.; Morita, Y.; Seguchi, T.

    2000-01-01

    Temperature dependence of crosslinking and gas evolution under γ-irradiation was studied for high-density and low-density polyethylene samples in the 30-360degC range. It was found that crosslinking was the predominant process up to 300degC and the gel point decreased with increasing temperature. At above 300degC, however, the gel fraction at a given dose decreased rapidly with temperature and the action of radiation turned to enhance polyethylene degradation. Yields of H 2 and hydrocarbon gases increased with temperature and the compositions of hydrocarbons were dose dependent. (author)

  17. Temperature dependency in motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Maarten A; Wright, David L; Barnes, William S

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of temperature as a contextual condition for motor skill learning. Precision grip task training occurred while forearm cutaneous temperature was either heated (40-45 °C) or cooled (10-15 °C). At test, temperature was either reinstated or changed. Performance was comparable between training conditions while at test, temperature changes decreased accuracy, especially after hot training conditions. After cold training, temperature change deficits were only evident when concurrent force feedback was presented. These findings are the first evidence of localized temperature dependency in motor skill learning in humans. Results are not entirely accounted for by a context-dependent memory explanation and appear to represent an interaction of neuromuscular and sensory processes with the temperature present during training and test.

  18. Low Temperature Broad Band Dielectric Spectroscopy of Multiferroic Bi6Fe2Ti3O18 Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisińska-Czekaj A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present research the tool of broadband dielectric spectroscopy was utilized to characterize dielectric behavior of Bi6Fe2Ti3O18 (BFTO Aurivillius-type multiferroic ceramics. Dielectric response of BFTO ceramics was studied in the frequency domain (Δν=0.1Hz – 10MHz within the temperature range ΔT=-100°C – 200°C. The Kramers-Kronig data validation test was employed to validate the impedance data measurements and it was found that the measured impedance data exhibited good quality justifying further analysis. The residuals were found to be less than 1%, whereas the “chi-square” parameter was within the range χ2~10−7−10−5. Experimental data were analyzed using the circle fit of simple impedance arc plotted in the complex Z”-Z’ plane (Nyquist plot. The total ac conductivity of the grain boundaries was thus revealed and the activation energy of ac conductivity for the grain boundaries was calculated. It was found that activation energy of ac conductivity of grain boundaries changes from EA=0.20eV to EA=0.55eV while temperature rises from T=-100°C up to T=200°C. On the base of maxima of the impedance semicircles (ωmτm=1 the relaxation phenomena were characterized in terms of the temperature dependence of relaxation times and relevant activation energy was calculated (EA=0.55eV.

  19. Room-temperature-deposited dielectrics and superconductors for integrated photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shainline, Jeffrey M; Buckley, Sonia M; Nader, Nima; Gentry, Cale M; Cossel, Kevin C; Cleary, Justin W; Popović, Miloš; Newbury, Nathan R; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P

    2017-05-01

    We present an approach to fabrication and packaging of integrated photonic devices that utilizes waveguide and detector layers deposited at near-ambient temperature. All lithography is performed with a 365 nm i-line stepper, facilitating low cost and high scalability. We have shown low-loss SiN waveguides, high-Q ring resonators, critically coupled ring resonators, 50/50 beam splitters, Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) and a process-agnostic fiber packaging scheme. We have further explored the utility of this process for applications in nonlinear optics and quantum photonics. We demonstrate spectral tailoring and octave-spanning supercontinuum generation as well as the integration of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with MZIs and channel-dropping filters. The packaging approach is suitable for operation up to 160 °C as well as below 1 K. The process is well suited for augmentation of existing foundry capabilities or as a stand-alone process.

  20. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  1. Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Gate Dielectrics for High-Performance Organic Thin Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyun Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A low-temperature solution-processed high-k gate dielectric layer for use in a high-performance solution-processed semiconducting polymer organic thin-film transistor (OTFT was demonstrated. Photochemical activation of sol-gel-derived AlOx films under 150 °C permitted the formation of a dense film with low leakage and relatively high dielectric-permittivity characteristics, which are almost comparable to the results yielded by the conventionally used vacuum deposition and high temperature annealing method. Octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA self-assembled monolayer (SAM treatment of the AlOx was employed in order to realize high-performance (>0.4 cm2/Vs saturation mobility and low-operation-voltage (<5 V diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP-based OTFTs on an ultra-thin polyimide film (3-μm thick. Thus, low-temperature photochemically-annealed solution-processed AlOx film with SAM layer is an attractive candidate as a dielectric-layer for use in high-performance organic TFTs operated at low voltages.

  2. Molding of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures: Dependence of the non-linear electric permittivity on system size and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, A.; Tuccio, S.; Giugni, A.; Toma, A.; Liberale, Carlo; Das, G.; Angelis, F.D.; Fabrizio, E.D.; Zaccaria, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  3. Molding of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures: Dependence of the non-linear electric permittivity on system size and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, A.

    2013-10-25

    In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  4. Evaluation of temperature dependent neutron resonance integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, S.V.G.; Sahni, D.C.

    1975-01-01

    The Fourier transform method is extended for evaluating temperature dependent resonance integrals and Doppler coefficients. With the temperature dependent cross-sections, the slowing-down equation is transformed into a Fredholm integral equation of second kind. A method of solution is presented using the familiar Gauss-Hermite quadrature formulae. As a byproduct of the above technique, a fast and accurate method for computing the resonance integral J-function is given. (orig.) [de

  5. Investigation Of Temperature Dependent Characteristics Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The structure, magnetization and magnetostriction of Laves phase compound TbCo2 were investigated by temperature dependent high resolution neutron powder diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the cubic Laves phase C15 structure above its Curie temperature, TC and exhibits a rhombohedral distortion (space ...

  6. Polarization Dependence of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering on a Single Dielectric Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our measurements of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS on Ga2O3 dielectric nanowires (NWs core/silver composites indicate that the SERS enhancement is highly dependent on the polarization direction of the incident laser light. The polarization dependence of the SERS signal with respect to the direction of a single NW was studied by changing the incident light angle. Further investigations demonstrate that the SERS intensity is not only dependent on the direction and wavelength of the incident light, but also on the species of the SERS active molecule. The largest signals were observed on an NW when the incident 514.5 nm light was polarized perpendicular to the length of the NW, while the opposite phenomenon was observed at the wavelength of 785 nm. Our theoretical simulations of the polarization dependence at 514.5 nm and 785 nm are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  8. Dielectric and thermophysical properties of different beef meat blends over a temperature range of -18 to +10°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, K W; Lyng, J G; Morgan, D J; Cronin, D A

    2008-08-01

    Dielectric and thermophysical properties of three different beef meat blends (lean, fat and 50:50 mixture) were evaluated over a range of temperatures from -18 to +10°C. In the region of thawing (-3 to -1°C), dielectric constant (ε') and dielectric loss factor (ε') values for radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) were significantly higher (Pproperties of the beef meat blends, with a general tendency towards higher values at the RF frequency. Finally, composition significantly influenced (Pthermophysical properties at all temperatures used. These data are of potential value to food technologists in the context of rapid defrosting of meat products.

  9. Dielectric properties of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, S.; Riad, A.S.; El-Shabasy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The temperature dependence of dielectric properties in polyethylene was measured in the frequency range from 10 to 105 Hz. The frequency dependence of the complex impedance in the complex plane could be fitted by semicircles. The system could be represented by an equivalent circuit of a bulk resistance in series with parallel surface resistance-capacitance combination. The relaxation time, has been evaluated from experimental results. Results reveal that the temperature dependence, is a thermally activated process

  10. Liquid-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, L. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: luciaff@usc.es; Gomez, F. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Iglesias, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pardo, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pazos, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pena, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Zapata, M. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-05-10

    Temperature and pressure corrections of the read-out signal of ionization chambers have a crucial importance in order to perform high-precision absolute dose measurements. In the present work the temperature and pressure dependences of a sealed liquid isooctane filled ionization chamber (previously developed by the authors) for radiotherapy applications have been studied. We have analyzed the thermal response of the liquid ionization chamber in a {approx}20 deg. C interval around room temperature. The temperature dependence of the signal can be considered linear, with a slope that depends on the chamber collection electric field. For example, a relative signal slope of 0.27x10{sup -2}K{sup -1} for an operation electric field of 1.67x10{sup 6}Vm{sup -1} has been measured in our detector. On the other hand, ambient pressure dependence has been found negligible, as expected for liquid-filled chambers. The thermal dependence of the liquid ionization chamber signal can be parametrized within the Onsager theory on initial recombination. Considering that changes with temperature of the detector response are due to variations in the free ion yield, a parametrization of this dependence has been obtained. There is a good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical model from the Onsager framework.

  11. The dielectric environment dependent exchange self-energy of the energy structure in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.H.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically calculate the energy dispersion in the presence of the screened exchange self-energy in extrinsic monolayer graphene. It is found that the exchange self-energy enhances the renormalized Fermi velocity. With decreasing the dielectric constant, the screening effect and the electron correlation effect increase which induces the Fermi velocity increasing. The screened exchange energy has an energy shift at the Dirac points. The self-energy from the valance band carriers gives the main contribution to the effective energy. We also discuss the electron density dependence of the self-energy.

  12. The dielectric environment dependent exchange self-energy of the energy structure in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.H., E-mail: chyang@nuist.edu.c [Faculty of Maths and Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xu, W. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2010-10-01

    We theoretically calculate the energy dispersion in the presence of the screened exchange self-energy in extrinsic monolayer graphene. It is found that the exchange self-energy enhances the renormalized Fermi velocity. With decreasing the dielectric constant, the screening effect and the electron correlation effect increase which induces the Fermi velocity increasing. The screened exchange energy has an energy shift at the Dirac points. The self-energy from the valance band carriers gives the main contribution to the effective energy. We also discuss the electron density dependence of the self-energy.

  13. Polarization-dependent diffraction in all-dielectric, twisted-band structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardaś, Tomasz M.; Jagodnicka, Anna; Wasylczyk, Piotr, E-mail: pwasylcz@fuw.edu.pl [Photonic Nanostructure Facility, Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-11-23

    We propose a concept for light polarization management: polarization-dependent diffraction in all-dielectric microstructures. Numerical simulations of light propagation show that with an appropriately configured array of twisted bands, such structures may exhibit zero birefringence and at the same time diffract two circular polarizations with different efficiencies. Non-birefringent structures as thin as 3 μm have a significant difference in diffraction efficiency for left- and right-hand circular polarizations. We identify the structural parameters of such twisted-band matrices for optimum performance as circular polarizers.

  14. Relationship of Cure Temperature to Mechanical, Physical, and Dielectric Performance of PDMS Glass Composite for Electric Motor Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Becker, Kathleen; Williams, Tiffany S.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; McCorkle, Linda S.; Heimann, Paula J.; Ring, Andrew; Woodworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Achieving NASAs aggressive fuel burn and emission reduction for N-plus-3 aircraft will require hybrid electric propulsion system in which electric motors driven by either power generated from turbine or energy storage system will power the fan for propulsion. Motors designed for hybrid electric aircraft are expected to operate at medium to high voltages over long durations in a high altitude service environment. Such conditions have driven research toward the development of wire insulation with improved mechanical strength, thermal stability and increased breakdown voltage. The silicone class of materials has been considered for electric wire insulation due to its inherent thermal stability, dielectric strength and mechanical integrity. This paper evaluates the dependence of these properties on the cure conditions of a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) elastomer; where both cure temperature and base-to-catalyst ratio were varied. The PDMS elastomer was evaluated as a bulk material and an impregnation matrix within a lightweight glass veil support. The E-glass support was selected for mechanical stiffness and dielectric strength. This work has shown a correlation between cure conditions and material physical properties. Tensile strength increased with cure temperature whereas breakdown voltage tended to be independent of process variations. The results will be used to direct material formulation based on specific insulation requirements.

  15. Microstructure and Dielectric Properties of LPCVD/CVI-SiBCN Ceramics Annealed at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available SiBCN ceramics were introduced into porous Si3N4 ceramics via a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition and infiltration (LPCVD/CVI technique, and then the composite ceramics were heat-treated from 1400 °C to 1700 °C in a N2 atmosphere. The effects of annealing temperatures on microstructure, phase evolution, dielectric properties of SiBCN ceramics were investigated. The results revealed that α-Si3N4 and free carbon were separated below 1700 °C, and then SiC grains formed in the SiBCN ceramic matrix after annealing at 1700 °C through a phase-reaction between free carbon and α-Si3N4. The average dielectric loss of composites increased from 0 to 0.03 due to the formation of dispersive SiC grains and the increase of grain boundaries.

  16. Streamer discharge inception in a sub-breakdown electric field from a dielectric body with a frequency dependent dielectric permittivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. A. Dubinova (Anna); C. Rutjes (Casper); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study positive streamer inception from the tip of an elongated ice particle. The dielectric permittivity of ice drops from 93 to 3 for electric fields changing on the millisecond timescale [1]. We demonstrate that this effect can be important on the nanosecond time scale of

  17. Correlation of shear and dielectric ion viscosity of dental resins - Influence of composition, temperature and filler content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Hausnerova, Berenika; Haenel, Thomas; Selig, Daniela; Duvenbeck, Fabian; Moeginger, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    Shear viscosity and ion viscosity of uncured visible light-curing (VLC) resins and resin based composites (RBC) are correlated with respect to the resin composition, temperature and filler content to check where Dielectric Analysis (DEA) investigations of VLC RBC generate similar results as viscosity measurements. Mixtures of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) as well as the pure resins were investigated and compared with two commercial VLC dental resins and RBCs (VOCO, Arabesk Top and Grandio). Shear viscosity data was obtained using a Haake Mars III, Thermo Scientific. Ion viscosity measurements performed by a dielectric cure analyzer (DEA 231/1 Epsilon with Mini IDEX-Sensor, Netzsch-Gerätebau). Shear viscosity depends reciprocally on the mobility of molecules, whereas the ion viscosity also depends on the ion concentration as it is affected by both ion concentration and mixture viscosity. Except of pure TEGDMA, shear and ion viscosities depend on the resin composition qualitatively in a similar manner. Furthermore, shear and ion viscosities of the commercial VLC dental resins and composites exhibited the same temperature dependency regardless of filler content. Application of typical rheological models (Kitano and Quemada) revealed that ion viscosity measurements can be described with respect to filler contents of up to 30vol.%. Rheological behavior of a VLC RBC can be characterized by DEA under the condition that the ion concentration is kept constant. Both methods address the same physical phenomenon - motion of molecules. The proposed relations allows for calculating the viscosity of any Bis-GMA-TEGDMA mixture on the base of the viscosities of the pure components. This study demonstrated the applicability of DEA investigations of VLC RBCs with respect to quality assurance purposes. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flexible Ultrahigh-Temperature Polymer-Based Dielectrics with High Permittivity for Film Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Pu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this report, flexible cross-linked polyarylene ether nitrile/functionalized barium titanate(CPEN/F-BaTiO3 dielectrics films with high permittivitywere prepared and characterized. The effects of both the F-BaTiO3 and matrix curing on the mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of the CPEN/F-BaTiO3 dielectric films were investigated in detail. Compared to pristine BaTiO3, the surface modified BaTiO3 particles effectively improved their dispersibility and interfacial adhesion in the polymer matrix. Moreover, the introduction of F-BaTiO3 particles enhanced dielectric properties of the composites, with a relatively high permittivity of 15.2 and a quite low loss tangent of 0.022 (1 kHz when particle contents of 40 wt % were utilized. In addition, the cyano (–CN groups of functional layer also can serve as potential sites for cross-linking with polyarylene ether nitrile terminated phthalonitrile (PEN-Ph matrix and make it transform from thermoplastic to thermosetting. Comparing with the pure PEN-ph film, the latter results indicated that the formation of cross-linked network in the polymer-based system resulted in increased tensile strength by ~67%, improved glass transition temperature (Tg by ~190 °C. More importantly, the CPEN/F-BaTiO3 composite films filled with 30 wt % F-BaTiO3 particles showed greater energy density by nearly 190% when compared to pure CPEN film. These findings enable broader applications of PEN-based composites in high-performance electronics and energy storage devices materials used at high temperature.

  19. Structural and dielectric characterization of sputtered Tantalum Titanium Oxide thin films for high temperature capacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouahi, A., E-mail: rouahi_ahlem@yahoo.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 (France); Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Challali, F. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux (LSPM)-CNRS-UPR3407, Université Paris13, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430, Villetaneuse (France); Dakhlaoui, I. [Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Vallée, C. [CNRS, LTM, CEA-LETI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Salimy, S. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN) UMR CNRS 6502, Université de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssinière, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Jomni, F.; Yangui, B. [Laboratoire Matériaux Organisation et Propriétés (LMOP), Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Besland, M.P.; Goullet, A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN) UMR CNRS 6502, Université de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssinière, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Sylvestre, A. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab, F-38000 (France)

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the dielectric properties of metal-oxide-metal capacitors based on Tantalum Titanium Oxide (TiTaO) thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on aluminum bottom electrode are investigated. The structure of the films was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The dielectric properties of TiTaO thin films were studied by complex impedance spectroscopy over a wide frequency range (10{sup -2} - to 10{sup 5} Hz) and temperatures in -50 °C to 325 °C range. The contributions of different phases, phases’ boundaries and conductivity effect were highlighted by Cole – Cole diagram (ε” versus ε’). Two relaxation processes have been identified in the electric modulus plot. A first relaxation process appears at low temperature with activation energy of 0.37 eV and it is related to the motion of Ti{sup 4+} (Skanavi’s model). A second relaxation process at high temperature is related to Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation with activation energy of 0.41 eV. - Highlights: • Titanium Tantalum Oxide thin films are grown on Aluminum substrate. • The existence of phases was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • Conductivity effect appears in Cole-Cole plot. • At low temperatures, a relaxation phenomenon obeys to Skanavi’s model. • Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization is processed at high temperatures.

  20. Studies on frequency dependent electrical and dielectric properties of sintered zinc oxide pellets: effects of Al-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, S.; Ghosh, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2016-11-01

    Sintered pellets of zinc oxide (ZnO), both undoped and Al-doped are prepared through a chemical process. Dopant concentration of Aluminium in ZnO [Al/Zn in weight percentage (wt%)] is varied from 0 to 3 wt%. After synthesis structural characterisation of the samples are performed with XRD and SEM-EDAX which confirm that all the samples are of ZnO having polycrystalline nature with particle size from 108.6 to 116 nm. Frequency dependent properties like a.c. conductivity, capacitance, impedance and phase angle are measured in the frequency range 10 Hz to 100 kHz as a function of temperature (in the range 25-150 °C). Nature of a.c. conductivity in these samples indicates hopping type of conduction arising from localised defect states. The frequency and temperature dependent properties under study are found to be as per correlated barrier hoping model. Dielectric and impedance properties studied in the samples indicate distributed relaxation, showing decrease of relaxation time with temperature.

  1. Transport and dielectric properties of double perovskite Pr2CoFeO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arkadeb; Singh, A.; Gangwar, V. K.; Chatterjee, Sandip

    2018-04-01

    The transport and dielectric measurements have been investigated for the polycrystalline double perovskite Pr2CoFeO6. In the temperature dependent resistivity measurement, we have observed semiconducting nature of the sample with activation energy 0.246 eV. In dielectric measurement as a function of temperature, a giant value of dielectric constant is observed at room temperature, the frequency dependence suggests a relaxor type dielectric relaxation.

  2. Temperature dependent quasiparticle renormalization in nickel metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovsyannikov, Ruslan; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Fink, Joerg; Duerr, Hermann A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). BESSY II

    2009-07-01

    One of the fundamental consequences of electron correlation effects is that the bare particles in solids become 'dressed', i.e. they acquire an increased effective mass and a lifetime. We studied the spin dependent quasiparticle band structure of Ni(111) with high resolution angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. At low temperatures (50 K) a renormalization of quasiparticle energy and lifetime indicative of electron-phonon coupling is observed in agreement with literature. With increasing temperature we observe a decreasing quasiparticle lifetime at the Fermi level for all probed minority spin bands as expected from electron phonon coupling. Surprisingly the majority spin states behave differently. We actually observe a slightly increased lifetime at room temperature. The corresponding increase in Fermi velocity points to a temperature dependent reduction of the majority spin quasiparticle renormalization.

  3. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  4. Temperature effect on the performance of a dissipative dielectric elastomer generator with failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S E; Deng, L; He, Z C; Li, Eric; Li, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Research on dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) which can be utilized to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy has gained wide attention lately. However, very few works account for the operating temperature, viscoelasticity and current leakage in the analysis of DEGs simultaneously. In this study, under several compound four-stroke conversion cycles, the electromechanical performance and energy conversion of a dissipative DEG made of a very-high-bond (VHB) elastomer are investigated at different operating temperatures. The performance parameters such as energy density and conversion efficiency are calculated under different temperatures. Moreover, the common failure modes of the generator are considered: material rupture, loss of tension, electrical breakdown and electromechanical instability. The numerical results have distinctly shown that the operating temperature plays an important role in the performance of DEGs, which could possibly make a larger conversion efficiency for the DEG. (paper)

  5. Low temperature fabrication of barium titanate hybrid films and their dielectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Saito, Hirobumi; Kinoshita, Takafumi; Nagao, Daisuke; Konno, Mikio

    2011-01-01

    A method for incorporating BT nano-crystalline into barium titanate (BT) films is proposed for a low temperature fabrication of high dielectric constant films. BT nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis of a BT complex alkoxide in 2-methoxyethanol (ME)/ethanol cosolvent. As the ME volume fraction in the cosolvent (ME fraction) increased from 0 to 100%, the particle and crystal sizes tended to increase from 13.4 to 30.2 nm and from 15.8 to 31.4 nm, respectively, and the particle dispersion in the solution became more improved. The BT particles were mixed with BT complex alkoxide dissolved in an ME/ethanol cosolvent for preparing a precursor solution that was then spin-coated on a Pt substrate and dried at 150 o C. The dielectric constant of the spin-coated BT hybrid film increased with an increase in the volume fraction of the BT particles in the film. The dissipation factor of the hybrid film tended to decrease with an increase in the ME fraction in the precursor solution. The hybrid film fabricated at a BT fraction of 30% and an ME fraction of 25% attained a dielectric constant as high as 94.5 with a surface roughness of 14.0 nm and a dissipation factor of 0.11.

  6. Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Andreas Thor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability. In this w......Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability....... In this work, we show that using wirelength as the evaluation metric does not always produce a floorplan with the shortest delay. We propose a temperature dependent wire delay estimation method for thermal aware floorplanning algorithms, which takes into account the thermal effect on wire delay. The experiment...

  7. A modified Poisson-Boltzmann surface excess calculation with a field dependent dielectric constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo, G.J.; Molina, F.V.; Posadas, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Unequal Radius Modified Gouy-Chapman (URMGC) was applied to mixtures of electrolytes. It was considered that the two anions, (1) and (2), have different radius, r 1 and r 2 , being r 2 smaller than r 1 . The dielectric constant was taken as a function of the electric field, using the theoretical Booth equation, or as a linear dependence varying between 6 and 78 when r 2 1 . The results show that the surface excess of anion 2 is much greater than the one predicted by Gouy-Chapman theory when the proportion of 2 increases in the mixture, while both the other anion and the cation show negative deviation. This effect is more evident in mixtures than in the case of single electrolytes, and has a maximum for a composition that depends on the chosen parameters for the model. (Author) [es

  8. Temperature Effects on a-IGZO Thin Film Transistors Using HfO2 Gate Dielectric Material

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu-Hsien; Chou, Jay-Chi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the temperature effect on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) using hafnium oxide (HfO2) gate dielectric material. HfO2 is an attractive candidate as a high-κ dielectric material for gate oxide because it has great potential to exhibit superior electrical properties with a high drive current. In the process of integrating the gate dielectric and IGZO thin film, postannealing treatment is an essential process for completing the chem...

  9. Dielectric response and room temperature ferromagnetism in Cr doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Swaleha; Khan, Wasi; Khan, Shakeel; Husain, Shahid; Ahmad, Abid

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, nanocrystalline samples of Ti1-xCrxO2 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) were synthesized in anatase phase through simple and cost effective acid modified sol gel method. The influence of Cr doping on thermal, microstructural, electrical and magnetic properties was investigated in TiO2 host matrix. The surface morphology has revealed less agglomeration and considerable reduction in particle size in case of Cr doped TiO2 as compared to undoped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) established high purity, appropriate stoichiometry and oxidation states of the compositions. The dielectric properties of the nanoparticles were altered by the doping concentration, applied frequency as well as temperature variation. The variation in dielectric constant (ε‧), dielectric loss (δ) and ac conductivity as a function of frequency and temperature at different doping concentration of Cr were interpreted in the light of Maxwell Wagner theory, space charge polarization mechanism and drift mobility of charge carriers. Both undoped and Cr doped TiO2 samples exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) that remarkably influenced by means of the Cr content. The significant enhancement in the magnetization was observed at 4% Cr doping. However, decrease in magnetization for higher doping signify antiferromagnetic interactions between Cr ions or superexchange mechanism. These results reveal that the oxygen vacancies play a crucial role to initiate the RTFM. Therefore, the present investigation suggests the potential applications of Cr doped TiO2 nanoparticles for spintronics application.

  10. Temperature Dependent Models of Semiconductor Devices for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents an investigation of the temperature dependent model of a diode and bipolar transistor built-in to the NAP-2 program and comparison of these models with experimentally measured characteristics of the BA 100 diode and BC 109 transistor. The detail of the modelling technique has been discussed and ...

  11. Temperature dependence of PZT film optical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Suchaneck, G.; Gerlach, G.

    11-12, - (2001), s. 352-354 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1425; GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : refractive index profile * PZT film * temperature dependence of optical properties Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  12. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  13. Low temperature magneto-dielectric measurements on BiFeO3 lightly substituted by cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.; Biswal, A. K.; Vishwakarma, P. N.

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric and magnetodielectric measurements are done on BiFe 1−x Co x O 3 : x = 0, 0.01, and 0.02 in the temperature range 70–300 K and up to magnetic field 1.3 T. The dielectric data are well described by Haverliak–Negami expression plus an additional term for the Maxwell Wagner (MW) type relaxations, whose contribution is dominant near room temperature. The parameters obtained from the fitting of data using the above mentioned expression, suggest slowing down of relaxation and approach towards ideal Debye type relaxations, as the temperature is lowered. The dielectric relaxations obey polaronic variable range hopping model with distinct activation energies (E a ) in the extrinsic (6.67T 3/4  meV) and intrinsic (2.88T 3/4  meV) regions for the parent sample (x = 0), and thus a distinct transition from extrinsic to intrinsic behavior is seen at 215 K while lowering the temperature. This distinct transition is missing for Co substituted samples probably due to the extrinsic region values of E a (3.42T 3/4  meV and 2.42T 3/4  meV for x = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively) comparable to that of the intrinsic region (see x = 0). The magnetodielectric measurement shows positive magnetodielectricity (MD) in the intrinsic region (T < 215 K for x = 0) and negative MD in the extrinsic region (T > 215 K for x = 0). The extrinsic region is found to be dominated by MW and magnetoresistance effects, whereas MD in intrinsic regions is due to the spin reorientation transitions. The Co substitution is found to increase the extrinsic and non-Debye contributions to dielectricity, which becomes so large that no spin reorientation transitions are seen in x = 0.02 sample. The pyroelectric active region in x = 0 is found to be dominated by the diffusive behavior having contribution of the form ω −0.5

  14. Excitation of photonic atoms (dielectric microspheres) on optical fibers: application to room-temperature persistent spectral hole burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpenguzel, Ali; Arnold, Stephen; Griffel, Giora

    1995-05-01

    Recently, photonic atoms (dielectric microspheres) have enjoyed the attention of the optical spectroscopy community. A variety of linear and nonlinear optical processes have been observed in liquid microdroplets. But solid state photonic devices using these properties are scarce. A first of these applications is the room temperature microparticle hole-burning memory. New applications can be envisioned if microparticle resonances can be coupled to traveling waves in optical fibers. In this paper we demonstrate the excitation of narrow morphology dependent resonances of microparticles placed on an optical fiber. Furthermore we reveal a model for this process which describes the coupling efficiency in terms of the geometrical and material properties of the microparticle-fiber system.

  15. Time-dependent electrophoresis of a dielectric spherical particle embedded in Brinkman medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, E. I.; Faltas, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    An expression for electrophoretic apparent velocity slip in the time-dependent flow of an electrolyte solution saturated in a charged porous medium within an electric double layer adjacent to a dielectric plate under the influence of a tangential uniform electric field is derived. The velocity slip is used as a boundary condition to solve the electrophoretic motion of an impermeable dielectric spherical particle embedded in an electrolyte solution saturated in porous medium under the unsteady Darcy-Brinkman model. Throughout the system, a uniform electric field is applied and maintains with constant strength. Two cases are considered, when the electric double layer enclosing the particle is thin, but finite and when of a particle with a thick double layer. Expressions for the electrophoretic mobility of the particle as functions of the relevant parameters are found. Our results indicate that the time scale for the growth of mobility is significant and small for high permeability. Generally, the effect of the relaxation time for starting electrophoresis is negligible, irrespective of the thickness of the double layer and permeability of the medium. The effects of the elapsed time, permeability, mass density and Debye length parameters on the fluid velocity, the electrophoretic mobility and the acceleration are shown graphically.

  16. (Alpha-) quenching temperature dependence in liquid scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Arnd; Lozza, Valentina; Krosigk, Belina von; Zuber, Kai [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Liquid scintillator (LS) is an effective and promising detector material, which is and will be used by many small and large scale experiments. In order to perform correct signal identification and background suppression, a very good knowledge of LS properties is crucial. One of those is the light yield from alpha particles in liquid scintillator. This light output strongly quenched, approx. 10 times compared to that of electrons, and has been precisely studied at room temperature for various LS. Big scintillator experiments, such as SNO+ and maybe future large scale detectors, will operate at different temperatures. While a strong temperature dependence is well known for solid state scintillators, due to the different scintillation process, a quenching temperature dependence in LS is usually assumed negligible. On the other hand, inconsistencies in between measurements are often explained by potential temperature effects. This study investigates LAB based liquid scintillator with an intrinsic, dissolved alpha emitter and its behaviour with temperature change. In a small, cooled and heated setup, a stabilized read-out with two PMTs is realised. First results are presented.

  17. High temperature dielectric and ferroelectric properties of La-modified PbTiO3 nanoceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Archana; Shukla, Namrata; Choudhary, R.N.P.

    2016-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials with high Curie temperature (higher than 300 °C) are highly desirable to construct transducers for high-temperature piezoelectric applications. Among the ferroelectric materials, PbTiO 3 (PT) is considered to be one of the most promising materials. However, the fabrication of high density pure PT ceramics is very difficult because of the highly anisotropy, which limited the use in piezoelectric transducers. Usually, substitutions towards A or B-site of PT may reduce the high anisotropy. The present work reports the experimental investigations on the effect of lanthanum (La 3+ ) substitution on the structural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead titanate (PT) ceramic at high-temperature (RT ∼ 600°C)

  18. Temperature dependence in magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James; Paysen, Hendrik; Kosch, Olaf; Trahms, Lutz; Wiekhorst, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Experimental results are presented demonstrating how temperature can influence the dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in liquid suspension, when exposed to alternating magnetic fields in the kilohertz frequency range. The measurements used to probe the nanoparticle systems are directly linked to both the emerging biomedical technique of magnetic particle imaging (MPI), and to the recently proposed concept of remote nanoscale thermometry using MNPs under AC field excitation. Here, we report measurements on three common types of MNPs, two of which are currently leading candidates for use as tracers in MPI. Using highly-sensitive magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS), we demonstrate significant and divergent thermal dependences in several key measures used in the evaluation of MNP dynamics for use in MPI and other applications. The temperature range studied was between 296 and 318 Kelvin, making our findings of particular importance for MPI and other biomedical technologies. Furthermore, we report the detection of the same temperature dependences in measurements conducted using the detection coils within an operational preclinical MPI scanner. This clearly shows the importance of considering temperature during MPI development, and the potential for temperature-resolved MPI using this system. We propose possible physical explanations for the differences in the behaviors observed between the different particle types, and discuss our results in terms of the opportunities and concerns they raise for MPI and other MNP based technologies.

  19. Temperature dependence of giant dipole resonance width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.I.; Storozhenko, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model extended to finite temperature within the framework of the thermo field dynamics is applied to calculate a temperature dependence of the spreading width Γ d own of a giant dipole resonance. Numerical calculations are made for 12S n and 208 Pb nuclei. It is found that the width Γ d own increases with T. The reason of this effect is discussed as well as a relation of the present approach to other ones existing in the literature

  20. Femtosecond pulse-width dependent trapping and directional ejection dynamics of dielectric nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Chiang, Weiyi

    2013-09-19

    We demonstrate that laser pulse duration, which determines its impulsive peak power, is an effective parameter to control the number of optically trapped dielectric nanoparticles, their ejections along the directions perpendicular to polarization vector, and their migration distances from the trapping site. This ability to controllably confine and eject the nanoparticle is explained by pulse width-dependent optical forces exerted on nanoparticles in the trapping site and ratio between the repulsive and attractive forces. We also show that the directional ejections occur only when the number of nanoparticles confined in the trapping site exceeds a definite threshold. We interpret our data by considering the formation of transient assembly of the optically confined nanoparticles, partial ejection of the assembly, and subsequent filling of the trapping site. The understanding of optical trapping and directional ejections by ultrashort laser pulses paves the way to optically controlled manipulation and sorting of nanoparticles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Structural and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate produced by high temperature hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, K.A.; Asadov, A.; Yoo, J.; Haemmerle, E.; Gao, W.

    2008-01-01

    The preparation procedure, structural and dielectric properties of hydrothermally derived Ba x Sr 1-x TiO 3 (BST) were studied. BST with initial Ba compositions of 75, 80, 85 and 90 mol.% were prepared by a high temperature hydrothermal synthesis. The obtained powders were pressed into pellet, cold isostatically pressed and sintered at 1200 deg. C for 3 hours. The phase compositions and lattice parameters of the as prepared powders and sintered samples were analysed using X-ray diffractometry. A fitting software was used to analyse the XRD spectra to separate different phases. It was found that BST powder produced by the high temperature hydrothermal possessed a two-phase structure. This structure became more homogeneous during sintering due to interdiffusion but a small amount of minor phase can still be traced. Samples underwent an abnormal grain growth, whereby some grains grow faster than the other due to the presence of two-phase structure. The grain size increased with increasing Ba amount. Dielectric constant and polarisation increased with increasing Ba content but it was also affected by the electronic state and grain size of the compositions

  2. Temperature dependence of gafchromic MD-55 dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, Norman V.; Zwan, Len van der; Cygler, Joanna

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Gafchromic MD-55 is a fairly new, thin film dosimeter that develops a blue color (λ max = 676 nm) when irradiated with ionizing radiation. The increase in absorbance is nearly proportional to the absorbed dose. MD-55 can be used for high precision dosimetry if care is taken to assure reproducible film orientation in the spectrophotometer as well as temperature control during both irradiation and reading. In order to achieve the maximum sensitivity of this dosimeter the readings of the optical density should be taken at λ max . It was reported for another type of Gafchromic film (DM-1260), that both λ max and ε max decrease with an increase in the temperature of the spectrophotometer. The purpose of this study was to characterize the reading temperature dependence of the new type of Gafchromic film available on the market and to find optimal conditions for using it for high precision dosimetry. Materials and Methods: Irradiations were carried out using 60 Co gamma rays from an Eldorado irradiator. The dosimeters were sandwiched in a lucite phantom with 4.4 mm build-up and irradiated in the center of a 10 cm x 10 cm field at 1 meter from the source. The temperature during irradiations was 22 deg. C. The dose rate was about 0.68 Gy/min. Measurements of optical density were made using a Cary 210 spectrophotometer. A bandpass of 3.5 nm was used. The temperature of the baseplate of the sample holder was regulated to +/-0.05 deg. C and measured by a probe lying on the baseplate. In all cases, values of OD were only recorded after they had come to a constant value, which was reached within 5 minutes of inserting the dosimeter into the sample chamber of the spectrophotometer. Results: The temperature dependence of the OD at 676 nm was measured in 2 studies using 6 dosimeters that had received 0, 1.0, 3.5, 6.2, 14.5 Gy. Readings were taken at 7 temperatures between 18.8 and 28.1 deg. C. By returning to the initial temperature several hours later, it was found

  3. Low-temperature phase transition in γ-glycine single crystal. Pyroelectric, piezoelectric, dielectric and elastic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylczyński, Zbigniew, E-mail: zbigtyl@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Busz, Piotr [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Temperature changes in the pyroelectric, piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric properties of γ-glycine crystals were studied in the range 100 ÷ 385 K. The pyroelectric coefficient increases monotonically in this temperature range and its value at RT was compared with that of other crystals having glycine molecules. A big maximum in the d14 component of piezoelectric tensor compared by maximum in attenuation of the resonant face-shear mode were observed at 189 K. The components of the elastic stiffness tensor and other components of the piezoelectric tensor show anomalies at this temperature. The components of electromechanical coupling coefficient determined indicate that γ-glycine is a weak piezoelectric. The real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant measured in the direction perpendicular to the trigonal axis show the relaxation anomalies much before 198 K and the activation energies were calculated. These anomalies were interpreted as a result of changes in the NH{sub 3}{sup +} vibrations through electron-phonon coupling of the so called “dynamical transition”. The anomalies of dielectric constant ε*{sub 11} and piezoelectric tensor component d{sub 14} taking place at 335 K are associated with an increase in ac conductivity caused by charge transfer of protons. - Graphical abstract: Imaginary part of dielectric constant in [100] direction. - Highlights: • Piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric constants anomalies were discovered at 189 K. • These anomalies were interpreted as a result of so called “dynamical transition”. • Relaxational dielectric anomaly was explained by the dynamics of glycine molecules. • Pyroelectric coefficient of γ-glycine was determined in a wide temperature range. • Complex dielectric & piezoelectric anomalies at 335 K were caused by protons hopping.

  4. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 films on GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Toshio; Okubo, Satoshi; Horikawa, Kiyotaka; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    Atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films are the most promising surface passivation and gate insulation layers in non-Si semiconductor devices. Here, we carried out an extensive study on the time-dependent dielectric breakdown characteristics of ALD-Al2O3 films formed on homo-epitaxial GaN substrates using two different oxidants at two different ALD temperatures. The breakdown times were approximated by Weibull distributions with average shape parameters of 8 or larger. These values are reasonably consistent with percolation theory predictions and are sufficiently large to neglect the wear-out lifetime distribution in assessing the long-term reliability of the Al2O3 films. The 63% lifetime of the Al2O3 films increases exponentially with a decreasing field, as observed in thermally grown SiO2 films at low fields. This exponential relationship disproves the correlation between the lifetime and the leakage current. Additionally, the lifetime decreases with measurement temperature with the most remarkable reduction observed in high-temperature (450 °C) O3-grown films. This result agrees with that from a previous study, thereby ruling out high-temperature O3 ALD as a gate insulation process. When compared at 200 °C under an equivalent SiO2 field of 4 MV/cm, which is a design guideline for thermal SiO2 on Si, high-temperature H2O-grown Al2O3 films have the longest lifetimes, uniquely achieving the reliability target of 20 years. However, this target is accomplished by a relatively narrow margin and, therefore, improvements in the lifetime are expected to be made, along with efforts to decrease the density of extrinsic Al2O3 defects, if any, to promote the practical use of ALD Al2O3 films.

  5. A model for temperature dependent resistivity of metallic superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Uba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependent resistivity of metallic superlattices, to first order approximation, is assumed to have same form as bulk metal, ρ(T = ρo + aT, which permits describing these structures as linear atomic chain. The assumption is, substantiated with the derivation of the above expression from the standard magnetoresistance equation, in which the second term, a Bragg scattering factor, is a correction to the usual model involving magnon and phonon scatterings. Fitting the model to Fe/Cr data from literature shows that Bragg scattering is dominant at T < 50 K and magnon and phonon coefficients are independent of experiment conditions, with typical values of 4.7 × 10−4 μΩcmK−2 and −8 ± 0.7 × 10−7μΩcmK−3. From the linear atomic chain model, the dielectric constant ε q , ω = 8 . 33 × 10 − 2 at Debye frequency for all materials and acoustic speed and Thomas – Fermi screening length are pressure dependent with typical values of 1.53 × 104 m/s and 1.80 × 109 m at 0.5 GPa pressure for an Fe/Cr structure.

  6. Dielectric analysis of depth dependent curing behavior of dental resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Moeginger, Bernhard; Grossgarten, Mandy; Rosentritt, Martin; Hausnerova, Berenika

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate depth dependent changes of polymerization process and kinetics of visible light-curing (VLC) dental composites in real-time. The measured quantity - "ion viscosity" determined by dielectric analysis (DEA) - provides the depth dependent reaction rate which is correlated to the light intensity available in the corresponding depths derived from light transmission measurements. The ion viscosity curves of two composites (VOCO Arabesk Top and Grandio) were determined during irradiation of 40s with a light-curing unit (LCU) in specimen depths of 0.5/0.75/1.0/1.25/1.5/1.75 and 2.0mm using a dielectric cure analyzer (NETZSCH DEA 231 with Mini IDEX sensors). The thickness dependent light transmission was measured by irradiation composite specimens of various thicknesses on top of a radiometer setup. The shape of the ion viscosity curves depends strongly on the specimen thickness above the sensor. All curves exhibit a range of linear time dependency of the ion viscosity after a certain initiation time. The determined initiation times, the slopes of the linear part of the curves, and the ion viscosities at the end of the irradiation differ significantly with depth within the specimen. The slopes of the ion viscosity curves as well as the light intensity values decrease with depth and fit to the Lambert-Beer law. The corresponding attenuation coefficients are determined for Arabesk Top OA2 to 1.39mm(-1) and 1.48mm(-1), respectively, and for Grandio OA2 with 1.17 and 1.39mm(-1), respectively. For thicknesses exceeding 1.5mm a change in polymerization behavior is observed as the ion viscosity increases subsequent to the linear range indicating some kind of reaction acceleration. The two VLC composites and different specimen thicknesses discriminate significantly in their ion viscosity evolution allowing for a precise characterization of the curing process even with respect to the polymerization mechanism. Copyright © 2014. Published by

  7. High temperature dielectric properties of (BxNyOz thin films deposited using ion source assisted physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Badi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric integrity has been one of the major obstacle in bringing out capacitor devices with suitable performance characteristics at high temperatures. In this paper, BxNyOz dielectric films for high temperature capacitors solutions are investigated. The films were grown on silicon substrate by using ion source assisted physical vapor deposition technique. The as-grown films were characterized by SEM, XRD, and XPS. The capacitor structures were fabricated using BxNyOz as a dielectric and titanium as metal electrodes. The elaborated devices were subjected to electrical and thermal characterization. They exhibited low electrical loss and very good stability when subjected to high temperature for a prolonged period of time.

  8. Modeling the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties: Study on the effect of temperature dependence for RFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yo; Hashizume, Makoto; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2009-01-01

    Radio frequency ablation (RFA) has increasingly been used over the past few years and RFA treatment is minimally invasive for patients. However, it is difficult for operators to control the precise formation of coagulation zones due to inadequate imaging modalities. With this in mind, an ablation system using numerical simulation to analyze the temperature distribution of the organ is needed to overcome this deficiency. The objective of our work is to develop a temperature dependent thermophysical liver model. First, an overview is given of the development of the thermophysical liver model. Second, a simulation to evaluate the effect of temperature dependence of the thermophysical properties of the liver is explained. Finally, the result of the simulation, which indicated that the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties accounts for temperature differences influencing the accuracy of RFA treatment is described.

  9. Temperature dependent electronic conduction in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.G.; Munn, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This review describes the temperature dependence of bulk-controlled electronic currents in semiconductors. The scope of the article is wide in that it contrasts conduction mechanisms in inorganic and organic solids and also single crystal and disordered semiconductors. In many experimental situations it is the metal-semiconductor contact or the interface between two dissimilar semiconductors that governs the temperature dependence of the conductivity. However, in order to keep the length of the review within reasonable bounds, these topics have been largely avoided and emphasis is therefore placed on bulk-limited currents. A central feature of electronic conduction in semiconductors is the concentrations of mobile electrons and holes that contribute to the conductivity. Various statistical approaches may be used to calculate these densities which are normally strongly temperature dependent. Section 1 emphasizes the relationship between the position of the Fermi level, the distribution of quantum states, the total number of electrons available and the absolute temperature of the system. The inclusion of experimental data for several materials is designed to assist the experimentalist in his interpretation of activation energy curves. Sections 2 and 3 refer to electronic conduction in disordered solids and molecular crystals, respectively. In these cases alternative approaches to the conventional band theory approach must be considered. For example, the velocities of the charge carriers are usually substantially lower than those in conventional inorganic single crystal semiconductors, thus introducing the possibility of an activated mobility. Some general electronic properties of these materials are given in the introduction to each of these sections and these help to set the conduction mechanisms in context. (orig.)

  10. Completeness relations for the electromagnetic modes of a cylindrical fibre with a radially dependent dielectric and magnetic permittivity and conductivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    We consider an infinitely long conducting cylinder whose dielectric and magnetic permittivity and conductivity are functions of the distance from a point inside the cylinder to its axis. It is shown that the r-dependent part of the set of electromagnetic modes associated with such a cylinder is

  11. Dielectric properties of the ITER TFMC insulation after low temperature reactor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humer, K.; Weber, H.W.; Hastik, R.; Hauser, H.; Gerstenberg, H.

    2001-01-01

    The insulation system for the Toroidal Field Model Coil of ITER is a fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) laminate, which consists of a combined Kapton/R-glass-fiber reinforcement tape, vacuum-impregnated with an epoxy DGEBA system. Pure disk shaped laminates, disk shaped FRP/stainless-steel sandwiches, and conductor insulation prototypes were irradiated at 5 K in a fission reactor up to a fast neutron fluence of 10 22 m -2 (E>0.1MeV) to investigate the radiation induced degradation of the dielectric strength of the insulation system. After warm-up to room temperature, swelling, weight loss, and the breakdown strength were measured at 77 K. The sandwich swells by 4% at a fluence of 5x10 21 m -2 and by 9% at 1x10 22 m -2 . The weight loss of the FRP is 2% at 1x10 22 m -2 . The dielectric strength remained unchanged over the whole dose range. (author)

  12. Temperature Effects on a-IGZO Thin Film Transistors Using HfO2 Gate Dielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the temperature effect on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs using hafnium oxide (HfO2 gate dielectric material. HfO2 is an attractive candidate as a high-κ dielectric material for gate oxide because it has great potential to exhibit superior electrical properties with a high drive current. In the process of integrating the gate dielectric and IGZO thin film, postannealing treatment is an essential process for completing the chemical reaction of the IGZO thin film and enhancing the gate oxide quality to adjust the electrical characteristics of the TFTs. However, the hafnium atom diffused the IGZO thin film, causing interface roughness because of the stability of the HfO2 dielectric thin film during high-temperature annealing. In this study, the annealing temperature was optimized at 200°C for a HfO2 gate dielectric TFT exhibiting high mobility, a high ION/IOFF ratio, low IOFF current, and excellent subthreshold swing (SS.

  13. Temperature dependence of coherence in transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloer, Steffen; Braumueller, Jochen; Lukashenko, Oleksandr; Rotzinger, Hannes; Weides, Martin; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Physikalisches Institut, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Sandberg, Martin; Vissers, Michael R.; Pappas, David P. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting qubits are a promising field of research, not only with respect to quantum computing but also as highly sensitive detectors and due to the possibility of using them to study fundamental implications of quantum mechanics. The requirements for qubits that can be used as building blocks in a potential quantum computer are challenging. Modern superconducting qubits like the transmon are strong candidates for achieving these goals. The main challenge here is to increase the coherence of prepared quantum states. Here, we experimentally investigate the influence of temperature variation on relaxation and dephasing of a transmon qubit. Our goal is to understand decoherence mechanisms in material optimized circuits. Aiming at longer coherence, in this case peaking over 50 μs for T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}, our samples are fabricated at NIST using two different materials. Low-loss TiN was used for the shunt capacitance as well as the resonator, combined with shadow evaporated ultra-small Al-AlO{sub x}-Al Josephson junctions. We will present temperature-dependent data on qubit relaxation and dephasing times as well as power spectra. Our data will be compared to previously obtained temperature dependent data for other types of qubits.

  14. Temperature-dependent ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, L.E.; Alexander, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Recent work on enhanced interdiffusion rates during ion-beam mixing at elevated temperatures is reviewed. As discussed previously, expected increase in ion-beam mixing rates due to 'radiation-enhanced diffusion' (RED), i.e. the free migration of isolated vacancy and interstitial defects, is well documented in single-crystal specimens in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 of absolute melting temperature. In contrast, the increase often observed at somewhat lower temperatures during ion-beam mixing of polycrystalline specimens is not well understood. However, sufficient evidence is available to show that this increase reflects intracascade enhancement of a thermally-activated process that also occurs without irradiation. Recent evidence is presented which suggests that this process is Diffusion-induced Grain-Boundary Migration (DIGM). An important complementary conclusion is that because ion-beam mixing in single-crystal specimens exhibits no significant temperature dependence below that of RED, models that invoke only irradiation-specific phenomena, e.g., cascade-overlap, thermal-spikes, or liquid-diffusion, and hence which predict no difference in mixing behavior between single- or poly-crystalline specimens, cannot account for the existing results

  15. Dielectrically-Loaded Cylindrical Resonator-Based Wireless Passive High-Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Xiong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature sensor presented in this paper is based on a microwave dielectric resonator, which uses alumina ceramic as a substrate to survive in harsh environments. The resonant frequency of the resonator is determined by the relative permittivity of the alumina ceramic, which monotonically changes with temperature. A rectangular aperture etched on the surface of the resonator works as both an incentive and a coupling device. A broadband slot antenna fed by a coplanar waveguide is utilized as an interrogation antenna to wirelessly detect the sensor signal using a radio-frequency backscattering technique. Theoretical analysis, software simulation, and experiments verified the feasibility of this temperature-sensing system. The sensor was tested in a metal-enclosed environment, which severely interferes with the extraction of the sensor signal. Therefore, frequency-domain compensation was introduced to filter the background noise and improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor signal. The extracted peak frequency was found to monotonically shift from 2.441 to 2.291 GHz when the temperature was varied from 27 to 800 °C, leading to an average absolute sensitivity of 0.19 MHz/°C.

  16. Study of the pressure dependence of dielectric properties of ionic crystals with the exchange-charge model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batana, A; Faour, J

    1987-03-01

    The formalism of the exchange-charge model (ECM) is extended for studying the pressure dependence of the static dielectric constant and the volume dependence of the effective ionic charge for b.c.c. lattices. Calculated values for CsCl, CsBr, CsI, and TlBr together with the simple shell model values and experimental values are listed and discussed.

  17. Optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy for spatially, temperature, and wavelength dependent refractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Joel D.

    A microfluidic refractometer was designed based on previous optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) chips utilized to distinguish healthy and cancerous cells. The optofluidic cavity is realized by adding high reflectivity dielectric mirrors to the top and bottom of a microfluidic channel. This creates a plane-plane Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the resonant wavelengths are highly dependent on the optical path length inside the cavity. Refractometry is a useful method to determine the nature of fluids, including the concentration of a solute in a solvent as well as the temperature of the fluid. Advantages of microfluidic systems are the easy integration with lab-on-chip devices and the need for only small volumes of fluid. The unique abilities of the microfluidic refractometer in this thesis include its spatial, temperature, and wavelength dependence. Spatial dependence of the transmission spectrum is inherent through a spatial filtering process implemented with an optical fiber and microscope objective. A sequence of experimental observations guided the change from using the OFIS chip as a cell discrimination device to a complimentary refractometer. First, it was noted the electrode structure within the microfluidic channel, designed to trap and manipulate biological cells with dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces, caused the resonant wavelengths to blue-shift when the electrodes were energized. This phenomenon is consistent with the negative dn/dT property of water and water-based solutions. Next, it was necessary to develop a method to separate the optical path length into physical path length and refractive index. Air holes were placed near the microfluidic channel to exclusively measure the cavity length with the known refractive index of air. The cavity length was then interpolated across the microfluidic channel, allowing any mechanical changes to be taken into account. After the separation of physical path length and refractive index, it was of interest

  18. An experimental study of dielectric dispersion in porous media and its dependence on pore geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslund, E.

    1996-12-31

    Understanding water saturated composite media are important in the study of oil reservoirs. This doctoral thesis discusses measurements of the frequency dependent permittivity and conductivity of water saturated porous glass specimens. The experiments are designed to investigate the dispersion resulting from the geometrical properties of the pore space. Measurements are presented of the effective complex dielectric constant of water saturated porous glass specimens for frequencies below 13 MHz. The specimens are made from sintered glass spheres, and in some specimens thin plates are mixed in with the spheres. Low-conductivity water is used to saturate the pore space in order to scale the frequency range of the Maxwell-Wagner dispersion into the measurement range. The experiments are compared with two different effective medium approaches. One approach is the Mendelson and Cohen theory with randomly oriented spheroidal grains in addition to spherical grains, the other the Local porosity theory due to Hilfer. Both theories were found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations. 175 refs., 59 figs., 1 table

  19. The influence of neutron-irradiation at low temperatures on the dielectric parameters of 3C-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Deyzel, G.; Minnaar, E.G.; Goosen, W.E. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Rooyen, I.J. van [Fuel Performance and Design Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    3C-SiC wafers were irradiated with neutrons of various fluences and at low (200–400 °C) irradiation temperatures. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectra were obtained for the samples, and the spectra used to extract the dielectric parameters for each specimen, using statistical curve-fitting procedures. Analysis of all data revealed trends in reflectance peak heights as well as in the dielectric parameters. The surface roughness of the irradiated samples was measured by atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and certain trends could be ascribed to surface roughness.

  20. The influence of neutron-irradiation at low temperatures on the dielectric parameters of 3C-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A.; Deyzel, G.; Minnaar, E.G.; Goosen, W.E.; Rooyen, I.J. van

    2014-01-01

    3C-SiC wafers were irradiated with neutrons of various fluences and at low (200–400 °C) irradiation temperatures. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectra were obtained for the samples, and the spectra used to extract the dielectric parameters for each specimen, using statistical curve-fitting procedures. Analysis of all data revealed trends in reflectance peak heights as well as in the dielectric parameters. The surface roughness of the irradiated samples was measured by atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and certain trends could be ascribed to surface roughness.

  1. Temperature dependent optical properties of ZnO thin film using ellipsometry and photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzourâa, M.-B.; Battie, Y.; Dalmasso, S.; Zaïbi, M.-A.; Oueslati, M.; En Naciri, A.

    2018-05-01

    We report the temperature dependence of the dielectric function, the exciton binding energy and the electronic transitions of crystallized ZnO thin film using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and photoluminescence (PL). ZnO layers were prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on crystalline silicon (Si) by spin coating technique. The ZnO optical properties were determined between 300 K and 620 K. Rigorous study of optical responses was achieved in order to demonstrate the quenching exciton of ZnO as a function of temperature. Numerical technique named constrained cubic splines approximation (CCS), Tauc-Lorentz (TL) and Tanguy dispersion models were selected for the ellipsometry data modeling in order to obtain the dielectric function of ZnO. The results reveals that the exciton bound becomes widely flattening at 470 K on the one hand, and on the other that the Tanguy dispersion law is more appropriate for determining the optical responses of ZnO thin film in the temperature range of 300 K-420 K. The Tauc-Lorentz, for its part, reproduces correctly the ZnO dielectric function in 470 K-620 K temperature range. The temperature dependence of the electronic transition given by SE and PL shows that the exciton quenching was observed in 420 K-∼520 K temperature range. This quenching effect can be explained by the equilibrium between the Coulomb force of exciton and its kinetic energy in the film. The kinetic energy was found to induce three degrees of freedom of the exciton.

  2. Correction of SiPM temperature dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a high granular analogue hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL) using scintillator tiles with built-in Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) readout is reported. A muon beam is used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) based calibration of the single cells. The calibration chain including corrections for the non-linearity of the SiPM is presented. The voltage and temperature dependencies of the SiPM signal have been investigated using the versatile LED system of the AHCAL. Monitoring and correction methods are discussed. Measurements from the operation 2006 and 2007 at the CERN SPS test beam and data provided by the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Moscow are compared.

  3. Room temperature magnetic and dielectric properties of cobalt doped CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunhong; Song, Yuanqiang; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Xiaoning

    2015-05-01

    CaCu3Ti4-xCoxO12 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) ceramics were prepared by a conventional solid state reaction, and the effects of cobalt doping on the room temperature magnetic and dielectric properties were investigated. Both X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Cu and Co rich phase at grain boundaries of Co-doped ceramics. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of Co-doped samples showed a striking change from regular polyhedral particle type in pure CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) to sheet-like grains with certain growth orientation. Undoped CaCu3Ti4O12 is well known for its colossal dielectric constant in a broad temperature and frequency range. The dielectric constant value was slightly changed by 5 at. % and 10 at. % Co doping, whereas the second relaxation process was clearly separated in low frequency region at room temperature. A multirelaxation mechanism was proposed to be the origin of the colossal dielectric constant. In addition, the permeability spectra measurements indicated Co-doped CCTO with good magnetic properties, showing the initial permeability (μ') as high as 5.5 and low magnetic loss (μ″ < 0.2) below 3 MHz. And the interesting ferromagnetic superexchange coupling in Co-doped CaCu3Ti4O12 was discussed.

  4. Saturation of bentonite dependent upon temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmannova, Lucie; Vasicek, Radek

    2010-01-01

    of the sample models. The bentonite samples completely filled the available volume of the models. Following dismantling, the mass water content was determined so that the degree of saturation could be calculated. As far as the subsequent calculation of the degree of saturation was concerned, a problem with the exact identification of water density at higher temperatures occurred because the pressure within the pressure cookers was not monitored. Of course, the water density value does not change significantly but it does cause a degree of uncertainty regarding the calculated results. An estimation of two water density values for one sample was used for identifying the uncertainty range. It is believed that the real water density value lies within this range. The resultant values of the degree of saturation were within the range 1.15 (25 deg. C) - 1.24 (110 deg. C). This would seem to show a nominal increase in the degree of saturation depending on temperature but that overall the degree of saturation is not significantly affected by temperature. This outcome is consistent with certain findings in literature and it confirms the Mock-Up experiment hypothesis. (authors)

  5. Structural, dielectric and electrical properties of Sm-modified Pb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    diffraction (XRD) analysis, detailed temperature and frequency dependence dielectric measurements on them. The a.c. conductivity has been investigated over a wide range of temperature and the activation energy (Ea.c.) has also been calculated. It is observed that (i) the dielectric permittivity (ε) and loss tangent (tan δ) are.

  6. Temperature dependent optical properties of (002) oriented ZnO thin film using surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shibu; Mehan, Navina; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-08-01

    Temperature dependent optical properties of c-axis oriented ZnO thin film were investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. SPR data for double layer (prism-Au-ZnO-air) and single layer (prism-Au-air) systems were taken over a temperature range (300-525 K). Dielectric constant at optical frequency and real part of refractive index of the ZnO film shows an increase with temperature. The bandgap of the oriented ZnO film was found to decrease with rise in temperature. The work indicates a promising application of the system as a temperature sensor and highlights an efficient scientific tool to study optical properties of thin film under varying ambient conditions.

  7. Electrical dependence on the chemical composition of the gate dielectric in indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tari, Alireza, E-mail: atari@uwaterloo.ca; Lee, Czang-Ho; Wong, William S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-07-13

    Bottom-gate thin-film transistors were fabricated by depositing a 50 nm InGaZnO (IGZO) channel layer at 150 °C on three separate gate dielectric films: (1) thermal SiO{sub 2}, (2) plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) SiN{sub x}, and (3) a PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric. X-ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the V{sub o} concentration was dependent on the hydrogen concentration of the underlying dielectric film. IGZO films on SiN{sub x} (high V{sub o}) and SiO{sub 2} (low V{sub o}) had the highest and lowest conductivity, respectively. A PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric layer was effective in suppressing hydrogen diffusion from the nitride layer into the IGZO and resulted in higher resistivity films.

  8. Dielectric properties of dried vegetable powders and their temperature profile during radio frequency heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, Salmonella contamination was identified in low-moisture foods including dried vegetable powder. Radio Frequency (RF) dielectric heating is a potential alternative pasteurization method with short heating time. Dielectric properties of broccoli powder with 6.9, 9.1, 12.2, and 14.9%, w. b....

  9. Investigation of the annealing temperature effect on structural, morphology, dielectric and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, M.; Ghazi, M. E.; Izadifard, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we have investigated the annealing temperature effect on the structure, morphology, dielectric and magnetic properties of sol-gel synthesized multiferroic BiFeO3 nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy revealed that all the samples have rhombohedrally distorted perovskite structure and the most pure BFO phase is obtained on the sample annealed at 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed that increasing annealing temperature would increase the particle size. Decrease in dielectric constant was also observed by increasing annealing temperature. Vibrating sample method (VSM) analysis confirmed that samples annealed at 500-700 °C with particle size below the BFO's spiral spin structure length, have well saturated M-H curve and show ferromagnetic behavior.

  10. Frequency Dependence of C-V Characteristics of MOS Capacitors Containing Nanosized High-κ Ta2O5 Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Novkovski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacitance of metal–insulator–Si structures containing high permittivity dielectric exhibits complicated behaviour when voltage and frequency dependencies are studied. From our study on metal (Al, Au, W–Ta2O5/SiO2–Si structures, we identify serial C-R measurement mode to be more convenient for use than the parallel one usually used in characterization of similar structures. Strong frequency dependence that is not due to real variations in the dielectric permittivity of the layers is observed. Very high capacitance at low frequencies is due to the leakage in Ta2O5 layer. We found that the above observation is mainly due to different leakage current mechanisms in the two different layers composing the stack. The effect is highly dependent on the applied voltage, since the leakage currents are strongly nonlinear functions of the electric field in the layers. Additionally, at low frequencies, transition currents influence the measured value of the capacitance. From the capacitance measurements several parameters are extracted, such as capacitance in accumulation, effective dielectric constant, and oxide charges. Extracting parameters of the studied structures by standard methods in the case of high-κ/interfacial layer stacks can lead to substantial errors. Some cases demonstrating these deficiencies of the methods are presented and solutions for obtaining better results are proposed.

  11. Dielectric relaxation in AgI doped silver selenomolybdate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palui, A.; Shaw, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-05-01

    We report the study of dielectric properties of some silver ion conducting silver selenomolybdate mixed network former glasses in a wide frequency and temperature range. The experimental data have been analyzed in the framework of complex dielectric permittivity. The dielectric permittivity data have been well interpreted using the Cole-Cole function. The temperature dependence of relaxation time obtained from real part of dielectric permittivity data shows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy shows a decreasing trend with the increase of doping content. Values of stretched exponential parameter are observed to be independent of temperature and composition.

  12. Temperature dependence of grain boundary free energy and elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foiles, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the suggestion that the temperature dependence of the grain boundary free energy can be estimated from the temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The temperature-dependent elastic constants and free energy of a symmetric Σ79 tilt boundary are computed for an embedded atom method model of Ni. The grain boundary free energy scales with the product of the shear modulus times the lattice constant for temperatures up to about 0.75 the melting temperature.

  13. Temperature dependence of conductivity in high mobility MIS structures on a base of (001) silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyrodov, E.A.; Dolgopolov, V.T.; Dorozhkin, C.I.; Zhitenev, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of the temperature dependence of the conductivity of two-dimensional electrons in silicon MIS structures were carried out. It is shown that the observed dependence is well described by the equation σ(T) = σ(0)(1-Q(kT var-epsilon F )-P(kT/var-epsilon F )3/2 + O[(kT/var-epsilon F ) 2 ]). The variation of the coefficient Q with the density N S of the two-dimensional electrons is determined, and it is shown that the observed trend of the Q(s) curve is described by consideration of the temperature dependence of the dielectric function of a two-dimensional electron gas

  14. Influence of calcination temperature on sol-gel synthesized single-phase bismuth titanate for high dielectric capacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiruramanathan, Pandirengan; Marikani, Arumugam [Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Physics; Madhavan, Durairaj [Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Bharadwaj, Suresh; Awasthi, Anand Mohan [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore (India). Thermodynamics Lab.

    2016-05-15

    An inexpensive sol-gel combustion method using citric acid as fuel has been used to synthesize bismuth titanate, Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanopowders. Thermogravimetric analysis proved that a calcination temperature of 900 C is sufficient for the preparation of single-phase bismuth titanate. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to examine the influence of calcination temperature on the structural growth of the Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanopowder. The average crystallite size estimated by using the Scherrer method and the Williamson-Hall method was found to increase with calcination temperature. Photoluminescence behavior as a function of calcination temperature was observed at two different excitation wavelengths of 300 nm and 420 nm. The morphology of the particles analyzed using images obtained from field emission scanning electron microscopy displayed irregular, random sized, and spherical-shaped structures. The stoichiometry and purity of the nanopowder are confirmed by energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The broadband dielectric results established the highest dielectric constant (ε{sub r} = 450) for a frequency of 100 Hz achieved with a potential capacitance of 138 pF m{sup -2}. This establishes Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} as a promising dielectric material for achieving high energy density capacitors for the next-generation passive devices.

  15. (RTO) Characterization of the Time-dependent Behaviour of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    excited by a sine -wave signal with peak- to-peak amplitudes between 7.2 kV and 10 kV, and frequencies of 2.5 kHz and 4 kHz. The results indicate that the...side length of 0.68 m, made of transparent PMMA, to isolate it from ambient disturbances. The plasma actuator was excited by a sine -wave signal, which... Portugal , 2008. 6Hanson, R., Houser, N., and Lavoie, P., “Dielectric material degradation monitoring of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

  16. Time-dependent one-dimensional simulation of atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge in N2/O2/H2O using COMSOL Multiphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Soltani, H.

    2018-04-01

    The results of time-dependent one-dimensional modelling of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a nitrogen-oxygen-water vapor mixture at atmospheric pressure are presented. The voltage-current characteristics curves and the production of active species are studied. The discharge is driven by a sinusoidal alternating high voltage-power supply at 30 kV with frequency of 27 kHz. The electrodes and the dielectric are assumed to be copper and quartz, respectively. The current discharge consists of an electrical breakdown that occurs in each half-period. A detailed description of the electron attachment and detachment processes, surface charge accumulation, charged species recombination, conversion of negative and positive ions, ion production and losses, excitations and dissociations of molecules are taken into account. Time-dependent one-dimensional electron density, electric field, electric potential, electron temperature, densities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as: O, O-, O+, {O}2^{ - } , {O}2^{ + } , O3, {N}, {N}2^{ + } , N2s and {N}2^{ - } are simulated versus time across the gas gap. The results of this work could be used in plasma-based pollutant degradation devices.

  17. Effects of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doping and sintering temperature on the dielectric properties of BaSrTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hong Wei; Chang, Chun Rui [College of Science, North China University of Science and Technology, Hebei Province (China); Li, Yuan Liang [Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials, North China University of Science and Technology, Hebei Province (China); Yan, Chun Liang [Analysis and Testing Center, North China University of Science and Technology, Hebei Province (China)

    2016-03-15

    Using BaCO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}, et al as crude materials, La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dopant, Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} (BST) Ceramics of perovskite structure were prepared by solid state reaction method. We investigated the effects of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} -doping and sintering temperature on the dielectric properties of BaSrTiO{sub 3} ceramics. The experiment results show that: The amount of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} can increase the dielectric constant of the sample, with the doping amount increasing, the dielectric constant increases. The sintering temperature has also significant impact on the dielectric properties. The dielectric constant of the sample reaches its highest point at 1280 °C. (author)

  18. Structure dependent resistivity and dielectric characteristics of tantalum oxynitride thin films produced by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, D., E-mail: daniel.cristea@unitbv.ro [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Crisan, A. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Cretu, N. [Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Department, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Borges, J. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, C.; Cunha, L. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Ion, V.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, “Photonic Processing of Advanced Materials” Group, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Apreutesei, M. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, 21 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully F-69134 (France); Munteanu, D. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Tantalum oxynitride thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering, in various configurations. • The rising of the reactive gases mixture flow has the consequence of a gradual increase in the non-metallic content in the films, which results in a 10 orders of magnitude resistivity domain. • The higher resistivity films exhibit dielectric constants up to 41 and quality factors up to 70. - Abstract: The main purpose of this work is to present and to interpret the change of electrical properties of Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} thin films, produced by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Some parameters were varied during deposition: the flow of the reactive gases mixture (N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, with a constant concentration ratio of 17:3); the substrate voltage bias (grounded, −50 V or −100 V) and the substrate (glass, (1 0 0) Si or high speed steel). The obtained films exhibit significant differences. The variation of the deposition parameters induces variations of the composition, microstructure and morphology. These differences cause variation of the electrical resistivity essentially correlated with the composition and structural changes. The gradual decrease of the Ta concentration in the films induces amorphization and causes a raise of the resistivity. The dielectric characteristics of some of the high resistance Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films were obtained in the samples with a capacitor-like design (deposited onto high speed steel, with gold pads deposited on the dielectric Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films). Some of these films exhibited dielectric constant values higher than those reported for other tantalum based dielectric films.

  19. Investigation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during microwave and infrared-microwave combination baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyan, Ozge; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil; Meda, Venkatesh

    2007-05-01

    Dielectric properties can be used to understand the behavior of food materials during microwave processing. Dielectric properties influence the level of interaction between food and high frequency electromagnetic energy. Dielectric properties are, therefore, important in the design of foods intended for microwave preparation. In this study, it was aimed to determine the variation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during baking in microwave and infrared-microwave combination oven. In addition, the effects of formulation and temperature on dielectric properties of cake batter were examined. Dielectric constant and loss factor of cake samples were shown to be dependent on formulation, baking time, and temperature. The increase in baking time and temperature decreased dielectric constant and loss factor of all formulations. Fat content was shown to increase dielectric constant and loss factor of cakes.

  20. Temperature dependence of nonsteady radiation conductivity of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutnev, A.P.; Saenko, V.S.; Dunaev, A.F.; Sichkar', V.P.; Vannikov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of temperature on non-steady radiation conductivity (NRC) of polymeric dielectrics is investigated. It is revealed that the temperature effects first of all delayed NRC constituent. Temperature increase up to 100 deg C is followed by certain slowing down the rate of current drop of induced conductivity, in this case the nature of the volt-ampere characteristic of delayed NRC constituent does not essentially change, as a rule. The obtained experimental results interpreted in the frames of the band model permitted to make conclusions on the effect of chemical structure of the polymer on its NRC. Presence of carbazole or phenylic groups in the elementary chain is shown to increase the delayed constituent of induced conductivity and to ensure prevailing yield of free charges. Appearance of methyl groups in the composition of the chain essentially suppresses the delayed constituent and results in high values of activation energy and rather slowed down current drop

  1. Correlation between temperature dependence of elastic moduli and Debye temperature of paramagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodryakov, V.Yu.; Povzner, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The correlation between the temperature dependence of elastic moduli and the Debye temperature of paramagnetic metal is analyzed in neglect of the temperature dependence of the Poison coefficient σ within the frames of the Debye-Grueneisen presentations. It is shown, that namely the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli determines primarily the temperature dependence of the Debye temperature Θ(T). On the other hand, the temperature dependence Θ(T) very weakly effects the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli. The later made it possible to formulate the self-consistent approach to calculation of the elastic moduli temperature dependence. The numerical estimates of this dependence parameters are conducted by the example of the all around compression modulus of the paramagnetic lutetium [ru

  2. Temperature dependence of phonons in pyrolitic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockhouse, B.N.; Shirane, G.

    1977-01-01

    Dispersion curves for longitudinal and transverse phonons propagating along and near the c-axis in pyrolitic graphite at temperatures between 4 0 K and 1500 0 C have been measured by neutron spectroscopy. The observed frequencies decrease markedly with increasing temperature (except for the transverse optical ''rippling'' modes in the hexagonal planes). The neutron groups show interesting asymmetrical broadening ascribed to interference between one phonon and many phonon processes

  3. Noise-driven diamagnetic susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots: Role of anisotropy, position-dependent effective mass and position-dependent dielectric screening function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, Aindrila; Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of doped quantum dot is studied. • The dot is subjected to Gaussian white noise. • Role of anisotropy, PDEM and PDDSF have been analyzed. • Noise amplifies and suppresses DMS depending on particular condition. • Findings bear significant technological importance. - Abstract: We explore Diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. In view of this profiles of DMS have been pursued with variations of geometrical anisotropy and dopant location. We have invoked position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) and position-dependent dielectric screening function (PDDSF) of the system. Presence of noise sometimes suppresses and sometimes amplifies DMS from that of noise-free condition and the extent of suppression/amplification depends on mode of application of noise. It is important to mention that the said suppression/amplification exhibits subtle dependence on use of PDEM, PDDSF and geometrical anisotropy. The study reveals that DMS, or more fundamentally, the effective confinement of LDSS, can be tuned by appropriate mingling of geometrical anisotropy/effective mass/dielectric constant of the system with noise and also on the pathway of application of latter.

  4. Age dependence of dielectric properties of bovine brain and ocular tissues in the frequency range of 400 MHz to 18 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Ueberbacher, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify possible age-dependent dielectric properties of brain and eye tissues in the frequency range of 400 MHz to 18 GHz, measurements on bovine grey and white matter as well as on cornea, lens (cortical) and the vitreous body were performed using a commercially available open-ended coaxial probe and a computer-controlled vector network analyser. Freshly excised tissues of 52 animals of two age groups (42 adult animals, i.e. 16-24 month old and 10 young animals, i.e. 4-6 month old calves) were examined within 8 min (brain tissue) and 15 min (eye tissue), respectively, of the animals' death. Tissue temperatures for the measurements were 32 ± 1 0 C and 25 ± 1 0 C for brain and eye tissues, respectively. Statistical analysis of the measured data revealed significant differences in the dielectric properties of white matter and cortical lens tissue between the adult and the young group. In the case of white matter the mean values of conductivity and permittivity of young tissue were 15%-22% and 12%-15%, respectively, higher compared to the adult tissue in the considered frequency range. Similarly, young cortical lens tissue was 25%-76% higher in conductivity and 27%-39% higher in permittivity than adult cortical lens tissue

  5. Dielectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-(Bi0.5Li0.5)ZrO3 lead-free ceramics as high-temperature ceramic capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tianxiang; Han, Feifei; Ren, Shaokai; Ma, Xing; Fang, Liang; Liu, Laijun; Kuang, Xiaojun; Elouadi, Brahim

    2018-04-01

    (1 - x)K0.5Na0.5NbO3- x(Bi0.5Li0.5)ZrO3 (labeled as (1 - x)KNN- xBLZ) lead-free ceramics were fabricated by a solid-state reaction method. A research was conducted on the effects of BLZ content on structure, dielectric properties and relaxation behavior of KNN ceramics. By combining the X-ray diffraction patterns with the temperature dependence of dielectric properties, an orthorhombic-tetragonal phase coexistence was identified for x = 0.03, a tetragonal phase was determined for x = 0.05, and a single rhombohedral structure occurred at x = 0.08. The 0.92KNN-0.08BLZ ceramic exhibits a high and stable permittivity ( 1317, ± 15% variation) from 55 to 445 °C and low dielectric loss (≤ 6%) from 120 to 400 °C, which is hugely attractive for high-temperature capacitors. Activation energies of both high-temperature dielectric relaxation and dc conductivity first increase and then decline with the increase of BLZ, which might be attributed to the lattice distortion and concentration of oxygen vacancies.

  6. Parametric dependencies of JET electron temperature profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunke, B [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Imre, K; Riedel, K [New York Univ., NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The JET Ohmic, L-Mode and H-Mode electron temperature profiles obtained from the LIDAR Thomson Scattering Diagnostic are parameterized in terms of the normalized flux parameter and a set of the engineering parameters like plasma current, toroidal field, line averages electron density... It is shown that the electron temperature profiles fit a log-additive model well. It is intended to use the same model to predict the profile shape for D-T discharges in JET and in ITER. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Temperature Dependent Electrical Properties of PZT Wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, T.; Sen, S.; Seal, A.; Sen, A.

    2016-04-01

    The electrical and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafers were investigated and compared with PZT bulk. PZT wafers were prepared by tape casting technique. The transition temperature of both the PZT forms remained the same. The transition from an asymmetric to a symmetric shape was observed for PZT wafers at higher temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) values obtained were 560 pc/N and 234 pc/N, and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (k p) values were 0.68 and 0.49 for bulk and wafer, respectively. The reduction in polarization after fatigue was only ~3% in case of PZT bulk and ~7% for PZT wafer.

  8. Effect of annealing temperature on structural, morphology and dielectric properties of La0.75Ba0.25FeO3 perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, F. B.; Benali, A.; Triki, M.; Dhahri, E.; Graça, M. P. F.; Valente, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and dielectric properties of La0.75Ba0.25FeO3 compound prepared by the sol-gel method was investigated. The increase of the annealing temperature from 900 to 1100 °C, promotes an increase of the average grain size value. Two dielectric relaxations are detected using the dielectric modulus formalism, attributed to grain and grain boundary relaxations. This behavior was confirmed by both Nyquist and Argand's plots of dielectric impedance and Modulus results at different measuring temperatures. The ac conductivity could be described by Jonscher's power law revealing the presence of both overlapping large polaron tunneling and non-overlapping small polaron tunneling mechanisms.

  9. Temperature dependence of sound velocity in yttrium ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'vov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the phonon-magnon and phonon-phonon interoctions on the temperature dependence of the longitudinal sound velocity in yttrium ferrite is considered. It has been shown that at low temperatures four-particle phonon-magnon processes produce the basic contribution to renormalization of the sound velocity. At higher temperatures the temperature dependence of the sound velocity is mainly defined by phonon-phonon processes

  10. Change of MMP dependent on temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Akwansa, Eugene

    2008-01-01

       The experiment was conducted with the purpose to investigate how Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP) changes at different temperatures. MMP was measured in a high pressure unit. An original oil saturated chalk core plug from the Danish oil field in North Sea was under investigation. The plug...... underestimation of MMP values which can lead to the loss of efficiency of oil extraction....

  11. A Temperature-Dependent Hysteresis Model for Relaxor Ferroelectric Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raye, Julie K; Smith, Ralph C

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a homogenized free energy model which characterizes the temperature-dependent hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities inherent to relaxor ferroelectric materials...

  12. Microwave dielectric tangent losses in KDP and DKDP crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By adding cubic and quartic phonon anharmonic interactions in the pseudospin lattice coupled mode (PLCM) model for KDP-type crystals and using double-time temperature dependent Green's function method, expressions for soft mode frequency, dielectric constant and dielectric tangent loss are obtained. Using model ...

  13. Dielectric properties of KDP-type ferroelectric crystals in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamiltonian for KDP-type ferroelectrics, expressions for field-dependent shift, width, ... For the calculation, method of statistical double-time temperature- ... roelectric phase transition and dielectric behaviour of KDP and its isomorphs is .... The dissipation of power in dielectric material can conveniently be expressed as.

  14. Finite-temperature Casimir effect in the presence of nonlinear dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheirandish, Fardin; Amooghorban, Ehsan; Soltani, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Starting from a Lagrangian, the electromagnetic field in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium is quantized using path-integral techniques, and correlation functions of different fields are calculated. The susceptibilities of the nonlinear medium are obtained, and their relations to coupl......Starting from a Lagrangian, the electromagnetic field in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium is quantized using path-integral techniques, and correlation functions of different fields are calculated. The susceptibilities of the nonlinear medium are obtained, and their relations...

  15. Temperature dependence of LRE-HRE-TM thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoyi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lin, Gengqi; Li, Zhen; Huang, Zhixin; Jin, Fang; Wang, Xianran; Yang, Xiaofei

    2003-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the properties of RE-TM thin films is very important for MO recording. In this paper, we studied the temperature dependence of the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the amorphous LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films and LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films. For LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films, the temperature dependence of the magnetization was investigated by using the mean field theory. The experimental and theoretical results matched very well. With the LRE substitution in HRE-TM thin film, the compensation temperature Tcomp decreased and the curie temperature Tc remained unchanged. Kerr rotation angle became larger and the saturation magnetization Ms at room temperature increased. For LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films, comparisons of the temperature dependences of the coercivities and Kerr rotation angles were made between isolated sublayers and couple-bilayered thin film.

  16. Temperature dependence of the magnetization of canted spin structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Henrik; Lefmann, Kim; Brok, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies of the low-temperature saturation magnetization of ferrimagnetic nanoparticles and diamagnetically substituted ferrites have shown an anomalous temperature dependence. It has been suggested that this is related to freezing of canted magnetic structures. We present models for the ......Numerous studies of the low-temperature saturation magnetization of ferrimagnetic nanoparticles and diamagnetically substituted ferrites have shown an anomalous temperature dependence. It has been suggested that this is related to freezing of canted magnetic structures. We present models...... for the temperature dependence of the magnetization of a simple canted spin structure in which relaxation can take place at finite temperatures between spin configurations with different canting angles. We show that the saturation magnetization may either decrease or increase with decreasing temperature, depending...

  17. Anisotropic dielectric response of lead zirconate crystals in the terahertz and infrared range at low temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Kadlec, Christelle; Kužel, Petr; Kroupa, Jan; Železný, Vladimír; Hlinka, Jiří; Petzelt, Jan; Dec, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, 10-11 (2014), s. 1129-1137 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferroelectrics * infrared and terahertz spectroscopy * lead zirconate * phonons * complex dielectric permittivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014

  18. Temperature dependent heterogeneous rotational correlation in lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashvand, Neda; Othon, Christina M

    2016-11-15

    Lipid structures exhibit complex and highly dynamic lateral structure; and changes in lipid density and fluidity are believed to play an essential role in membrane targeting and function. The dynamic structure of liquids on the molecular scale can exhibit complex transient density fluctuations. Here the lateral heterogeneity of lipid dynamics is explored in free standing lipid monolayers. As the temperature is lowered the probes exhibit increasingly broad and heterogeneous rotational correlation. This increase in heterogeneity appears to exhibit a critical onset, similar to those observed for glass forming fluids. We explore heterogeneous relaxation in in a single constituent lipid monolayer of 1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine  by measuring the rotational diffusion of a fluorescent probe (1-palmitoyl-2-[1]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), which is embedded in the lipid monolayer at low labeling density. Dynamic distributions are measured using wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. The observed relaxation exhibits a narrow, liquid-like distribution at high temperatures (τ ∼ 2.4 ns), consistent with previous experimental measures (Dadashvand et al 2014 Struct. Dyn. 1 054701, Loura and Ramalho 2007 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1768 467-478). However, as the temperature is quenched, the distribution broadens, and we observe the appearance of a long relaxation population (τ ∼ 16.5 ns). This supports the heterogeneity observed for lipids at high packing densities, and demonstrates that the nanoscale diffusion and reorganization in lipid structures can be significantly complex, even in the simplest amorphous architectures. Dynamical heterogeneity of this form can have a significant impact on the organization, permeability and energetics of lipid membrane structures.

  19. Effect of gate dielectrics on the performance of p-type Cu2O TFTs processed at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jawhari, Hala A.

    2013-12-01

    Single-phase Cu2O films with p-type semiconducting properties were successfully deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature followed by post annealing process at 200°C. Subsequently, such films were used to fabricate bottom gate p-channel Cu2O thin film transistors (TFTs). The effect of using high-κ SrTiO3 (STO) as a gate dielectric on the Cu2O TFT performance was investigated. The results were then compared to our baseline process which uses a 220 nm aluminum titanium oxide (ATO) dielectric deposited on a glass substrate coated with a 200 nm indium tin oxide (ITO) gate electrode. We found that with a 150 nm thick STO, the Cu2O TFTs exhibited a p-type behavior with a field-effect mobility of 0.54 cm2.V-1.s-1, an on/off ratio of around 44, threshold voltage equaling -0.62 V and a sub threshold swing of 1.64 V/dec. These values were obtained at a low operating voltage of -2V. The advantages of using STO as a gate dielectric relative to ATO are discussed. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  20. Temperature dependence of organic solar cell parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Matthias; Mueller, Klaus; Philip, Shine; Paloumpa, Ioanna; Henkel, Karsten; Schmeisser, Dieter [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus (Germany). Angewandte Physik - Sensorik

    2009-07-01

    The influence of an annealing step on the parameters of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is investigated. In order to fabricate the solar cells we use glass coated with ITO (indium-tin oxide) as a substrate on which the active layer consisting of P3HT and PCBM is spincoated. Al-electrodes are evaporated on top of the active layer. We use PEDOT:PSS as buffer layer. Each sample is annealed at different temperatures for a short time. Between every temperature step the I-V characteristic of the cell is measured. The following parameters are derived afterwards: FF, I{sub sc} (density), V{sub oc}. Also the efficiency is estimated. The results show a maximum cell efficiency for drying at 100 C for 20sec. A further important step for preparation is the drying procedure of the PEDOT:PSS layer. Here an improvement of about 50% in cell efficiency is measured after drying at 50 C for 5 days under inert gas atmosphere.

  1. Crossing regimes of temperature dependence in animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Jean P; Chelini, Marie-Claire; Rosenthal, Malcolm F; DeLong, John P

    2016-05-01

    A pressing challenge in ecology is to understand the effects of changing global temperatures on food web structure and dynamics. The stability of these complex ecological networks largely depends on how predator-prey interactions may respond to temperature changes. Because predators and prey rely on their velocities to catch food or avoid being eaten, understanding how temperatures may affect animal movement is central to this quest. Despite our efforts, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of how the effect of temperature on metabolic processes scales up to animal movement and beyond. Here, we merge a biomechanical approach, the Metabolic Theory of Ecology and empirical data to show that animal movement displays multiple regimes of temperature dependence. We also show that crossing these regimes has important consequences for population dynamics and stability, which depend on the parameters controlling predator-prey interactions. We argue that this dependence upon interaction parameters may help explain why experimental work on the temperature dependence of interaction strengths has so far yielded conflicting results. More importantly, these changes in the temperature dependence of animal movement can have consequences that go well beyond ecological interactions and affect, for example, animal communication, mating, sensory detection, and any behavioral modality dependent on the movement of limbs. Finally, by not taking into account the changes in temperature dependence reported here we might not be able to properly forecast the impact of global warming on ecological processes and propose appropriate mitigation action when needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A temperature dependent slip factor based thermal model for friction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper proposes a new slip factor based three-dimensional thermal model to predict the temperature distribution during friction stir welding of 304L stainless steel plates. The proposed model employs temperature and radius dependent heat source to study the thermal cycle, temperature distribution, power required, the ...

  3. Temperature dependence of the resonance frequency of thermogravimetric devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iervolino, E.; Riccio, M.; Van Herwaarden, A.W.; Irace, A.; Breglio, G.; Van der Vlist, W.; Sarro, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the temperature dependence of the resonance frequency of thermogravimetric (TG) devices for tip heating over the temperature range of View the MathML source 25–600?C. The resonance frequency of a fabricated TG device shows to be temperature independent for tip heating up to

  4. Influence of O{sub 2} on the dielectric properties of CO{sub 2} at the elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Mingzhe; Sun, Hao; Yang, Fei, E-mail: yfei2007@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wu, Yi, E-mail: wuyic51@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhexin; Wang, Xiaohua; Wu, Mingliang [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2014-11-15

    SF{sub 6} gas is widely used in the high voltage circuit breakers but considering its high global warming potential other substitutes are being sought. Among them CO{sub 2} was investigated and even has been used in some practical products. However, at room temperature, the dielectric properties of CO{sub 2} are relatively lower than SF{sub 6} and air. The goal of this work is to investigate a CO{sub 2}-based gas to improve the performance of the pure CO{sub 2}. In this paper, the dielectric properties of hot CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures related to the dielectric recovery phase of the circuit breaker were investigated in the temperature range from 300 K to 4000 K and in the pressure range from 0.01 MPa to 1.0 MPa. The species compositions of hot CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} were obtained based on Gibbs free energy minimization under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium and local chemical equilibrium. The reduced critical electric field strength of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} was determined by balancing electron generation and loss. These were calculated using the electron energy distribution function by solving the Boltzmann transport equation. The validity of the calculation method and the cross sections data was confirmed by comparing the measurements and calculations of the electron swarm data in previous work. The results indicate that in pure CO{sub 2} the critical electric field strength is higher only in higher temperature range. By adding the O{sub 2} into the CO{sub 2}, the critical electric field strength at lower temperature is effectively enhanced. CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures have a much better dielectric strength than both the pure CO{sub 2} and air and thus have the potential to improve the CO{sub 2}-based gas circuit breakers. Similar conclusions can also be found in others’ work, which further confirm the validity of these results.

  5. Frequency and temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of KTaO3; Li and PbTiO3; La, Cu: Indication of a low temperature polaron mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levstik, A.; Filipic, C.; Bidault, O.; Maglione, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the concept of polarons has again been at the focus of solid-state research, as it can constitute the basis for understanding the high-temperature superconductivity or the colossal magnetoresistance of materials. More than a decade ago there were some indications that polarons play an important role in explaining low temperature maxima in imaginary part of the dielectric constant ε '' (T) in ABO 3 perovskites. In the present work we report the ac electrical conductivities of KTaO 3 ; Li and PbTiO 3 ; La, Cu and their frequency and temperature dependence. The real part of the complex ac conductivity was found to follow the universal dielectric response σ ' ∝ν s . A detailed theoretical analysis of the temperature dependence of the parameter s revealed that, at low temperatures, the tunnelling of small polarons is the dominating charge transport mechanism in ABO 3 perovskites

  6. Temperature dependence of three-body ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, H.; Arnold, F.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the ion-molecule association reactions (i) N 2 + + N 2 + M → N 4 + + M (M=N 2 , He), (ii) O 2 + + O 2 + M → O 4 + + M (M=O 2 , He) and (iii) He + + 2He → He 2 + + He have been studied over an extended temperature range to temperatures as low as 30K with a recently constructed liquid helium-cooled ion drift tube. Over most of the temperature range the threebody reaction rate coefficients show an inverse temperature dependence proportional to Tsup(-n) with n in the range 0.6 to 2.9. This temperature dependence is quite consistent with current theories of ion molecule association. At low temperatures, however, a deviation from the Tsup(-n) dependence was observed for the association reactions (ii). For reactions (i) different temperature dependences were obtained for N 2 and He third bodies indicating an additional temperature dependence of the collisional stabilisation process. (Authors)

  7. Time dependence of magnetization of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkin, A.I.; Geshkenbein, V.B.

    1988-10-01

    Magnetization of high T c superconductors logarithmically decreases with time. There is a maximum in the temperature dependence of the coefficient at this logarithm. If one assumes that there do exist two kinds of pinning centers, then this dependence can be described in the Anderson theory of thermal creeps of Abrikosov's vortices. The temperature dependence of the critical current is also discussed. (author). 23 refs

  8. Temperature Dependence in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw R. L.; Winkler, P. M.; Wagner, P. E.

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation on stable (sub-2 nm) nuclei aids the formation of atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) by circumventing or reducing vapor pressure barriers that would otherwise limit condensation and new particle growth. Aerosol and cloud formation depend largely on the interaction between a condensing liquid and the nucleating site. A new paper published this year reports the first direct experimental determination of contact angles as well as contact line curvature and other geometric properties of a spherical cap nucleus at nanometer scale using measurements from the Vienna Size Analyzing Nucleus Counter (SANC) (Winkler et al., 2016). For water nucleating heterogeneously on silver oxide nanoparticles we find contact angles around 15 degrees compared to around 90 degrees for the macroscopically measured equilibrium angle for water on bulk silver. The small microscopic contact angles can be attributed via the generalized Young equation to a negative line tension that becomes increasingly dominant with increasing curvature of the contact line. These results enable a consistent theoretical description of heterogeneous nucleation and provide firm insight to the wetting of nanosized objects.

  9. A Generalized Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillator at Finite Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majima, H.; Suzuki, A.

    2006-01-01

    We show how a generalized time-dependent harmonic oscillator (GTHO) is extended to a finite temperature case by using thermo field dynamics (TFD). We derive the general time-dependent annihilation and creation operators for the system, and obtain the time-dependent quasiparticle annihilation and creation operators for the GTHO by using the temperature-dependent Bogoliubov transformation of TFD. We also obtain the thermal state as a two-mode squeezed vacuum state in the time-dependent case as well as in the time-independent case. The general formula is derived to calculate the thermal expectation value of operators

  10. Microscopic properties of nanopore water from its time-dependent dielectric response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koefinger, Juergen; Dellago, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple kinetic model for the orientational dynamics of a chain of hydrogen-bonded molecules due to the diffusion of orientational defects. We derive an event-driven algorithm which allows us to do kinetic simulations for chains from nanoscopic to macroscopic lengths, spanning huge orders of magnitude in time. Our simulations and analytical calculations show that nanopore water exhibits Debye behavior arising from the diffusive dynamics of orientational defects. For the limits of short and long chains we derive analytical expressions for the relaxation times which allow to extract the diffusion constant, the effective interaction, and the excitation energy of these defects from dielectric spectroscopy experiments. We also discuss the possibility to use such experiments to detect if the two possible kinds of orientational defects differ in excitation energy and diffusion constant.

  11. Low-temperature microwave and THz dielectric response in novel microwave ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamba, Stanislav; Noujni, Dmitri; Pashkin, Alexej; Petzelt, Jan; Pullar, R. C.; Axelsson, A.-K.; McN Alford, N.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2006), s. 1845-1851 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0993; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010213; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 525.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : dielectric properties * spectroscopy * perovskites * microwave ceramics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.576, year: 2006

  12. Temperature dependent charge transport in poly(3-hexylthiophene) diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Abdulla Bin; Sarkar, Atri; Banerjee, Debamalya

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present charge transport properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) diodes under dark conditions. Temperature dependent current-voltage (J-V) characteristics shows that charge transport represents a transition from ohomic to trap limited current. The forward current density obeys a power law J˜Vm, m>2 represents the space charge limited current region in presence of traps within the band gap. Frequency dependent conductivity has been studied in a temperature range 150K-473K. The dc conductivity values show Arrhenius like behavior and it gives conductivity activation energy 223 meV. Temperature dependent conductivity indicates a thermodynamic transition of our system.

  13. Study of Cu-Al-Zn alloys hardness temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmanova, D.T.; Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of studies for the Cu-Al-Zn ternary alloys hardness temperature dependence are presented. The method of 'hot hardness' has been used during study of the solid state phase transformations and under determination of the hot stability boundaries. Due to the samples brittleness a hardness temperature dependence definition is possible only from 350-400 deg. C. Sensitivity of the 'hot hardness' method is decreasing within high plasticity range, so the measurements have been carried out only up to 700-800 deg. C. It is shown, that the alloys hardness dependence character from temperature is close to exponential one within the certain structure modification existence domain

  14. Temperature and phase dependence of positron lifetimes in solid cyclohexane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1985-01-01

    The temperature dependence of position lifetimes in both the brittle and plastic phases of cyclohaxane has been examined. Long-lived components in both phases are associated with the formation of positronium (Ps). Two long lifetimes attributable to ortho-Ps are resolvable in the plastic phase....... The longer of these (≈ 2.5 ns), which is temperature dependent, is ascribed to ortho-Ps trapped at vacancies. The shorter lifetime (≈ 0.9 ns), shows little temperature dependence. In contrast to most other plastic crystals, no sigmoidal behaviour of the average ortho-Ps lifetime is observed. A possibility...

  15. Outcome of temperature variation on sol-gel prepared CuO nanostructure properties (optical and dielectric)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibi, Maryam [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Javed, Qurat-ul-Ain, E-mail: quratulain@sns.nust.edu.pk [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Abbas, Hussain [Institute of Avionics & Aeronautics (IAA), Air University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Baqi, Sabah [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-05-01

    The optical and dielectric properties of Copper Oxide (CuO) have made it a fascinating material to be used in solar energy harvesting, gas sensing, optoelectronics and catalytical applications. Focusing on the cost-effectiveness of Sol-gel method, it is employed for nanostructured CuO production. Effect of changing temperature is observed on the formation mechanism of CuO and its properties. The temperature range of 300 °C–500 °C was used in annealing of samples to produce defect free CuO nanomaterial. Prepared material was investigated using phase characterization (X-ray diffraction ‘XRD’) technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy and LCR meter. A structural change in prepared CuO was observed from cluster formation to Nano-fibrils by increase in annealing temperature. 11.99 nm–29.17 nm crystallites of CuO were attained by using Debye Scherer formula. A large band gap of 3.15 eV was achieved by increasing the annealing temperature upto 400 °C. For better solar energy harvest, wide band gapped CuO structures are proved to be functional and practical materials. The fabricated CuO nanostructures were found suitable to be used in devices for stabilizing circuit designs for sensitive appliances as well as micro electromechanical systems (mems). - Highlights: • CuO was synthesized by using sol gel method post growth annealing process. • XRD and SEM characterizations confirm the successful synthesis of CuO. • Change in morphology was observed with varying annealing temperature. • Improved optical and dielectric properties were observed.

  16. Effects of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on copper penetration into low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.; Zheng, H.; Xue, P.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, S. W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Nishi, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    The effects of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on copper penetration into non-porous low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress (BTS) were investigated. By employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth-profile measurements on both as-deposited and VUV-irradiated SiCOH/Cu stacks, it was found that under the same BTS conditions, the diffusion depth of Cu into the VUV-irradiated SiCOH is higher than that of as-deposited SiCOH. On the other hand, under the same temperature-annealing stress (TS) without electric bias, the Cu distribution profiles in the VUV-irradiated SiCOH were same with that for the as-deposited SiCOH. The experiments suggest that in as-deposited SiCOH, the diffused Cu exists primarily in the atomic state, while in VUV-irradiated SiCOH, the diffused Cu is oxidized by the hydroxyl ions (OH{sup −}) generated from VUV irradiation and exists in the ionic state. The mechanisms for metal diffusion and ion injection in VUV irradiated low-k dielectrics are discussed.

  17. Pipeline flow of heavy oil with temperature-dependent viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza Quinones, Danmer; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msc@puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    The heavy oil produced offshore needs to be transported through pipelines between different facilities. The pipelines are usually laid down on the seabed and are submitted to low temperatures. Although heavy oils usually present Newtonian behavior, its viscosity is a strong function of temperature. Therefore, the prediction of pressure drops along the pipelines should include the solution of the energy equation and the dependence of viscosity to temperature. In this work, an asymptotic model is developed to study this problem. The flow is considered laminar and the viscosity varies exponentially with temperature. The model includes one-dimensional equations for the temperature and pressure distribution along the pipeline at a prescribed flow rate. The solution of the coupled differential equation is obtained by second-order finite difference. Results show a nonlinear behavior as a result of coupled interaction between the velocity, temperature, and temperature dependent material properties. (author)

  18. Dielectric relaxation in glassy Se75In25− xPbx alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we report the effect of Pb incorporation in the dielectric properties of a-Se75In25 glassy alloy. The temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric constants and the dielectric losses in glassy Se75In25−Pb ( = 0, 5, 10 and 15) alloys in the frequency range (1 kHz–5 MHz) and temperature range ...

  19. Theory of temperature dependent photoemission spectrum of heavy fermion semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riseborough, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    The heavy fermion semiconductors are a class of strongly correlated materials, that at high temperatures show properties similar to those of heavy fermion materials, but at low temperatures show a cross-over into a semi-conducting state. The low temperature insulating state is characterized by an anomalously small energy gap, varying between 10 and 100 K. The smallness of the gap is attributed to the result of a many-body renormalization, and is temperature dependent. The temperature dependence of the electronic spectral density of states is calculated, using the Anderson lattice model at half filling. The spectrum is calculated to second order in 1/N, where N is the degeneracy of the 'f' orbitals, using a slave boson technique. The system is an indirect gap semi-conductor, with an extremely temperature dependent electronic spectral density A(k, ω). The indirect gap is subject to a temperature dependent many-body renormalization, and leads to a sharp temperature dependent structure in the angle resolved photo-emission spectrum at the indirect threshold. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental observations on FeSi. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  20. Thickness-dependent piezoelectric behaviour and dielectric properties of lanthanum modified BiFeO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Biasotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bi0.85La0.15FeO3 (BLFO thin films were deposited on Pt(111/Ti/SiO2 /Si substrates by the soft chemical method. Films with thicknesses ranging from 140 to 280 nm were grown on platinum coated silicon substrates at 500°C for 2 hours. The X-ray diffraction analysis of BLFO films evidenced a hexagonal structure over the entire thickness range investigated. The grain size of the film changes as the number of the layers increases, indicating thickness dependence. It is found that the piezoelectric response is strongly influenced by the film thickness. It is shown that the properties of BiFeO3 thin films, such as lattice parameter, dielectric permittivity, piezoeletric coefficient etc., are functions of misfit strains.

  1. Evidence for Reduced Hydrogen-Bond Cooperativity in Ionic Solvation Shells from Isotope-Dependent Dielectric Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota, Roberto; Ottosson, Niklas; Bakker, Huib J.; Woutersen, Sander

    2018-05-01

    We find that the reduction in dielectric response (depolarization) of water caused by solvated ions is different for H2O and D2O . This isotope dependence allows us to reliably determine the kinetic contribution to the depolarization, which is found to be significantly smaller than predicted by existing theory. The discrepancy can be explained from a reduced hydrogen-bond cooperativity in the solvation shell: we obtain quantitative agreement between theory and experiment by reducing the Kirkwood correlation factor of the solvating water from 2.7 (the bulk value) to ˜1.6 for NaCl and ˜1 (corresponding to completely uncorrelated motion of water molecules) for CsCl.

  2. Temperature dependence of the interband critical points of bulk Ge and strained Ge on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nalin S.; Nunley, T. Nathan; Ghosh, Ayana; Nelson, Cayla M.; Cooke, Jacqueline A.; Medina, Amber A.; Zollner, Stefan; Xu, Chi; Menendez, Jose; Kouvetakis, John

    2017-11-01

    Epitaxial Ge layers on a Si substrate experience a tensile biaxial stress due to the difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the Ge epilayer and the Si substrate, which can be measured using asymmetric X-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps. This stress depends on temperature and affects the band structure, interband critical points, and optical spectra. This manuscripts reports careful measurements of the temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical point parameters of bulk Ge and Ge epilayers on Si using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 80 to 780 K and from 0.8 to 6.5 eV. The authors find a temperature-dependent redshift of the E1 and E1 + Δ1 critical points in Ge on Si (relative to bulk Ge). This redshift can be described well with a model based on thermal expansion coefficients, continuum elasticity theory, and the deformation potential theory for interband transitions. The interband transitions leading to E0‧ and E2 critical points have lower symmetry and therefore are not affected by the stress.

  3. Temperature dependence of postmortem MR quantification for soft tissue discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Schwendener, Nicole; Jackowski, Christian [University of Bern, From the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J. [University of Linkoeping, The Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    To investigate and correct the temperature dependence of postmortem MR quantification used for soft tissue characterization and differentiation in thoraco-abdominal organs. Thirty-five postmortem short axis cardiac 3-T MR examinations were quantified using a quantification sequence. Liver, spleen, left ventricular myocardium, pectoralis muscle and subcutaneous fat were analysed in cardiac short axis images to obtain mean T1, T2 and PD tissue values. The core body temperature was measured using a rectally inserted thermometer. The tissue-specific quantitative values were related to the body core temperature. Equations to correct for temperature differences were generated. In a 3D plot comprising the combined data of T1, T2 and PD, different organs/tissues could be well differentiated from each other. The quantitative values were influenced by the temperature. T1 in particular exhibited strong temperature dependence. The correction of quantitative values to a temperature of 37 C resulted in better tissue discrimination. Postmortem MR quantification is feasible for soft tissue discrimination and characterization of thoraco-abdominal organs. This provides a base for computer-aided diagnosis and detection of tissue lesions. The temperature dependence of the T1 values challenges postmortem MR quantification. Equations to correct for the temperature dependence are provided. (orig.)

  4. Temperature dependence of postmortem MR quantification for soft tissue discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Schwendener, Nicole; Jackowski, Christian; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate and correct the temperature dependence of postmortem MR quantification used for soft tissue characterization and differentiation in thoraco-abdominal organs. Thirty-five postmortem short axis cardiac 3-T MR examinations were quantified using a quantification sequence. Liver, spleen, left ventricular myocardium, pectoralis muscle and subcutaneous fat were analysed in cardiac short axis images to obtain mean T1, T2 and PD tissue values. The core body temperature was measured using a rectally inserted thermometer. The tissue-specific quantitative values were related to the body core temperature. Equations to correct for temperature differences were generated. In a 3D plot comprising the combined data of T1, T2 and PD, different organs/tissues could be well differentiated from each other. The quantitative values were influenced by the temperature. T1 in particular exhibited strong temperature dependence. The correction of quantitative values to a temperature of 37 C resulted in better tissue discrimination. Postmortem MR quantification is feasible for soft tissue discrimination and characterization of thoraco-abdominal organs. This provides a base for computer-aided diagnosis and detection of tissue lesions. The temperature dependence of the T1 values challenges postmortem MR quantification. Equations to correct for the temperature dependence are provided. (orig.)

  5. Temperature dependence of the work function of ruthenium-based gate electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshareef, H.N.; Wen, H.C.; Luan, H.F.; Choi, K.; Harris, H.R.; Senzaki, Y.; Majhi, P.; Lee, B.H.; Foran, B.; Lian, G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of device fabrication temperature on the work function of ruthenium (Ru) metal gate and its bilayers was investigated. The work function shows strong temperature dependence when Ru electrodes are deposited on silicon oxide, SiO 2 , but not on hafnium silicates (HfSiO x ). Specifically, the work function of Ru on SiO 2 increased from 4.5 eV at 500 deg. C to 5.0 eV at 700 deg. C. On further annealing to 900 deg. C or higher, the work function dropped to about 4.4 eV. In the case of HfSiO x , the work function of Ru changed by less than 100 mV over the same temperature range. Identical temperature dependence was observed using hafnium (Hf)/Ru and tantalum (Ta)/Ru bilayers. However, the peak values of the work function decreased with increasing Hf/Ru and Ta/Ru thickness ratios. Materials analysis suggests that these trends are driven by interactions at the Ru metal gate-dielectric interface

  6. In situ electron beam irradiated rapid growth of bismuth nanoparticles in bismuth-based glass dielectrics at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shiv Prakash; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2011-01-01

    In this study, in situ control growth of bismuth nanoparticles (Bi 0 NPs) was demonstrated in bismuth-based glass dielectrics under an electron beam (EB) irradiation at room temperature. The effects of EB irradiation were investigated in situ using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The EB irradiation for 2–8 min enhanced the construction of bismuth nanoparticles with a rhombohedral structure and diameter of 4–9 nm. The average particle size was found to increase with the irradiation time. Bismuth metal has a melting point of 271 °C and this low melting temperature makes easy the progress of energy induced structural changes during in situ TEM observations. This is a very useful technique in nano-patterning for integrated optics and other applications.

  7. Energy based model for temperature dependent behavior of ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Sanjay; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2017-01-01

    An energy based model for temperature dependent anhysteretic magnetization curves of ferromagnetic materials is proposed and benchmarked against experimental data. This is based on the calculation of macroscopic magnetic properties by performing an energy weighted average over all possible orientations of the magnetization vector. Most prior approaches that employ this method are unable to independently account for the effect of both inhomogeneity and temperature in performing the averaging necessary to model experimental data. Here we propose a way to account for both effects simultaneously and benchmark the model against experimental data from ~5 K to ~300 K for two different materials in both annealed (fewer inhomogeneities) and deformed (more inhomogeneities) samples. This demonstrates that this framework is well suited to simulate temperature dependent experimental magnetic behavior. - Highlights: • Energy based model for temperature dependent ferromagnetic behavior. • Simultaneously accounts for effect of temperature and inhomogeneities. • Benchmarked against experimental data from 5 K to 300 K.

  8. Dielectric and impedance spectral characteristics of bulk ZnIn2Se4

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Attia, A. A.; Salem, G. F.; Ali, H. A. M.; Ismail, M. I.

    2014-02-01

    The frequency and temperature dependence of ac conductivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss of ZnIn2Se4 in a pellet form were investigated in the frequency range of 102-106 Hz and temperature range of 293-356 K. The behavior of ac conductivity was interpreted by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. Temperature dependence of ac conductivity indicates that ac conduction is a thermally activated process. The density of localized states N(EF) and ac activation energy were estimated for various frequencies. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss showed a decrease with increasing frequency and an increase with increasing in temperature. The frequency dependence of real and imaginary parts of the complex impedance was investigated. The relaxation time decreases with the increase in temperature. The impedance spectrum exhibits the appearance of the single semicircular arc. The radius of semicircular arcs decreases with increasing temperature which suggests a mechanism of temperature-dependent on relaxation.

  9. Temperature dependence of photovoltaic cells, modules, and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Burdick, J.; Caiyem, Y. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules are often rated in terms of a set of standard reporting conditions defined by a temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Because PV devices operates over a wide range of temperatures and irradiances, the temperature and irradiance related behavior must be known. This paper surveys the temperature dependence of crystalline and thin-film, state-of-the-art, research-size cells, modules, and systems measured by a variety of methods. The various error sources and measurement methods that contribute to cause differences in the temperature coefficient for a given cell or module measured with various methods are discussed.

  10. Identification of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Weizhen; Yi, Fajun; Zhu, Yanwei; Meng, Songhe

    2016-01-01

    A modified Levenberg–Marquardt method (LMM) for the identification of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity is proposed; the experiment and structure of the specimen for identification are also designed. The temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of copper C10200 and brass C28000 are identified to verify the effectiveness of the proposed identification method. The comparison between identified results and the measured data of laser flash diffusivity apparatus indicates the fine consistency and potential usage of the proposed method. (paper)

  11. Hysteresis and Temperature Dependency of Moisture Sorption – New Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2011-01-01

    measurements of hysteresis and temperature dependency of the moisture sorption characteristics of three different porous building materials: aerated concrete, cement paste and spruce. Scanning curves are measured for all three materials where periods with adsorption and desorption interrupt each other...... intermittently. For one of the materials, aerated concrete, the sorption curves are determined at three different temperatures....

  12. Temperature dependence of dose rate laser simulation adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorobogatov, P.K.; Nikiforov, A.Y.; Demidov, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    2-D numerical modeling was carried out to analyze the temperature dependence of dose rate laser simulation adequacy in application to p-n junction ionising current. Experimental validation was performed using test structure in the temperature range of 0 to 100 deg.C. (authors)

  13. Time dependent temperature distribution in pulsed Ti:sapphire lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoncristiani, A. Martin; Byvik, Charles E.; Farrukh, Usamah O.

    1988-01-01

    An expression is derived for the time dependent temperature distribution in a finite solid state laser rod for an end-pumped beam of arbitrary shape. The specific case of end pumping by circular (constant) or Gaussian beam is described. The temperature profile for a single pump pulse and for repetitive pulse operation is discussed. The particular case of the temperature distribution in a pulsed titanium:sapphire rod is considered.

  14. Temperature-dependent piezoresistivity in an MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite temperature sensor with ultrahigh performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamusi; Li, Yuan; Hu, Ning; Wu, Liangke; Liu, Yaolu; Ning, Huiming; Li, Jinhua; Surina; Yuan, Weifeng; Chang, Christiana; Atobe, Satoshi; Fukunaga, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    A temperature sensor was fabricated from a polymer nanocomposite with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) as nanofiller (i.e., MWCNT/epoxy). The electrical resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the temperature sensor were characterized experimentally. The effects of temperature (within the range 333–373 K) and MWCNT content (within the range 1–5 wt%) were investigated thoroughly. It was found that the resistance increases with increasing temperature and decreasing MWCNT content. However, the resistance change ratio related to the TCR increases with increasing temperature and MWCNT content. The highest value of TCR (0.021 K −1 ), which was observed in the case of 5 wt% MWCNT, is much higher than those of traditional metals and MWCNT-based temperature sensors. Moreover, the corresponding numerical simulation—conducted to explain the above temperature-dependent piezoresistivity of the nanocomposite temperature sensor—indicated the key role of a temperature-dependent tunneling effect. (paper)

  15. On the temperature dependence of flammability limits of gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki

    2011-03-15

    Flammability limits of several combustible gases were measured at temperatures from 5 to 100 °C in a 12-l spherical flask basically following ASHRAE method. The measurements were done for methane, propane, isobutane, ethylene, propylene, dimethyl ether, methyl formate, 1,1-difluoroethane, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. As the temperature rises, the lower flammability limits are gradually shifted down and the upper limits are shifted up. Both the limits shift almost linearly to temperature within the range examined. The linear temperature dependence of the lower flammability limits is explained well using a limiting flame temperature concept at the lower concentration limit (LFL)--'White's rule'. The geometric mean of the flammability limits has been found to be relatively constant for many compounds over the temperature range studied (5-100 °C). Based on this fact, the temperature dependence of the upper flammability limit (UFL) can be predicted reasonably using the temperature coefficient calculated for the LFL. However, some compounds such as ethylene and dimethyl ether, in particular, have a more complex temperature dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperature dependence of photonic crystals based on thermoresponsive magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Shengli; Bai Xuekun; Wang Lunwei

    2011-01-01

    The influence mechanisms of temperature on the band gap properties of the magnetic fluids based photonic crystals are elaborated. A method has been developed to obtain the temperature-dependent structure information (A sol /A) from the existing experimental data and then two critical parameters, i.e. the structure ratio (d/a) and the refractive index contrast (Δn) of the magnetic fluids photonic crystals are deduced for band diagram calculations. The temperature-dependent band gaps are gained for z-even and z-odd modes. Band diagram calculations display that the mid frequencies and positions of the existing forbidden bands are not very sensitive to the temperature, while the number of the forbidden bands at certain strengths of magnetic field may change with the temperature variation. The results presented in this work give a guideline for designing the potential photonic devices based on the temperature characteristics of the magnetic fluids based photonic crystals and are helpful for improving their quality. - Highlights: → Mechanisms of temperature dependence of magnetic fluids based photonic crystals are elaborated. → Properties of existing forbidden bands have relatively fine temperature stability. → Disappearance of existing forbidden band is found for some magnetic fields. → Emergence of new forbidden band with temperature is found for some magnetic fields.

  17. Semiconductor-to-metallic flipping in a ZnFe2O4–graphene based smart nano-system: Temperature/microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameer, Shahid; Gul, Iftikhar Hussain; Mahmood, Nasir; Mujahid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Zn-(FeO 2 ) 2 –graphene smart nano-composites were synthesized using a novel modified solvothermal synthesis with different percentages of graphene. The structure of the nanocomposite was confirmed through X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The structural growth and morphological aspects were analyzed using scanning/transmission electron microscopy, revealing marvelous micro-structural features of the assembled nano-system resembling a maple leaf. To determine the composition, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used. Microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy revealed the improved dielectric properties of the nano-composite compared to those of the parent functional nanocrystals. Temperature gradient dielectric spectroscopy was used over the spectral range from 100 Hz to 5 MHz to reveal the phenomenological effect that the nanosystem flips from its usual semiconductor nature to a metallic nature with sensing temperature. Electrical conductivity and dielectric analysis indicated that the dielectric loss and the dielectric permittivity increased at room temperature. This extraordinary switching capability of the functionalized graphene nanosystem opens up a new dimension for engineering advanced and efficient smart composite materials. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zn-(FeO 2 ) 2 –graphene smart nano-composites were synthesized using a novel modified solvothermal synthesis. • The synthesized nano-system exhibits marvelous leaf like microstructure. • These nano-composites show improved magneto dielectric response. • This engineered smart nano-system shows phenomenological flipping from semiconductor like nature to metallic behavior

  18. The temperature dependent amide I band of crystalline acetanilide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzeiro, Leonor; Freedman, Holly

    2013-01-01

    The temperature dependent anomalous peak in the amide I band of crystalline acetanilide is thought to be due to self-trapped states. On the contrary, according to the present model, the anomalous peak comes from the fraction of ACN molecules strongly hydrogen-bonded to a neighboring ACN molecule, and its intensity decreases because, on average, this fraction decreases as temperature increases. This model provides, for the first time, an integrated and theoretically consistent view of the temperature dependence of the full amide I band and a qualitative explanation of some of the features of nonlinear pump–probe experiments.

  19. The temperature dependent amide I band of crystalline acetanilide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruzeiro, Leonor [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Physics Department, FCT, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Freedman, Holly [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2013-10-01

    The temperature dependent anomalous peak in the amide I band of crystalline acetanilide is thought to be due to self-trapped states. On the contrary, according to the present model, the anomalous peak comes from the fraction of ACN molecules strongly hydrogen-bonded to a neighboring ACN molecule, and its intensity decreases because, on average, this fraction decreases as temperature increases. This model provides, for the first time, an integrated and theoretically consistent view of the temperature dependence of the full amide I band and a qualitative explanation of some of the features of nonlinear pump–probe experiments.

  20. The temperature dependent amide I band of crystalline acetanilide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzeiro, Leonor; Freedman, Holly

    2013-10-01

    The temperature dependent anomalous peak in the amide I band of crystalline acetanilide is thought to be due to self-trapped states. On the contrary, according to the present model, the anomalous peak comes from the fraction of ACN molecules strongly hydrogen-bonded to a neighboring ACN molecule, and its intensity decreases because, on average, this fraction decreases as temperature increases. This model provides, for the first time, an integrated and theoretically consistent view of the temperature dependence of the full amide I band and a qualitative explanation of some of the features of nonlinear pump-probe experiments.

  1. Effects of gas temperature in the plasma layer on RONS generation in array-type dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Young; Yi, Changho; Eom, Sangheum; Park, Seungil; Kim, Seong Bong; Ryu, Seungmin; Yoo, Suk Jae

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we studied the control of plasma-produced species under a fixed gas composition (i.e., ambient air) in a 10 kHz-driven array-type dielectric barrier atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge. Instead of the gas composition, only the gas velocity was controlled. Thus, the plasma-maintenance cost was considerably lower than methods such as external N2 or O2 injection. The plasma-produced species were monitored using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The discharge properties were measured using a voltage probe, current probe, infrared camera, and optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed that the major plasma products largely depend on the gas temperature in the plasma discharge layer. The gas temperature in the plasma discharge layer was significantly different to the temperature of the ceramic adjacent to the plasma discharge layer, even in the small discharge power density of ˜15 W/cm2 or ˜100 W/cm3. Because the vibrational excitation of N2 was suppressed by the higher gas flow, the major plasma-produced species shifted from NOx in low flow to O3 in high flow.

  2. Temperature dependency of silicon structures for magnetic field gradient sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabsch, Alexander; Rosenberg, Christoph; Stifter, Michael; Keplinger, Franz

    2018-02-01

    This work describes the temperature dependence of two sensors for magnetic field gradient sensors and demonstrates a structure to compensate for the drift of resonance frequency over a wide temperature range. The temperature effect of the sensing element is based on internal stresses induced by the thermal expansion of material, therefore FEM is used to determine the change of the eigenvalues of the sensing structure. The experimental setup utilizes a Helmholtz coil system to generate the magnetic field and to excite the MEMS structure with Lorentz forces. The MEMS structure is placed on a plate heated with resistors and cooled by a Peltier element to control the plate temperature. In the second part, we describe how one can exploit temperature sensitivity for temperature measurements and we show the opportunity to include the temperature effect to increase the sensitivity of single-crystal silicon made flux density gradient sensors.

  3. From nanodroplets to continuous films: how the morphology of polyelectrolyte multilayers depends on the dielectric permittivity and the surface charge of the supporting substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume-Gentil, Orane; Zahn, Raphael; Lindhoud, Saskia; Graf, Norma; Voros, Janos; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2011-01-01

    Using atomic force microscopy, we investigated how the morphology of layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers is influenced by the physical properties of the supporting substrate. The surface coverage of the assembly and its topography were found to be dependent on the dielectric

  4. Temperature dependence of mobility in silicon (100) inversion layers at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Kawaji, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electron mobility of Si(100) n-inversion layers in MOSFETs having μsub(peak) (4.2 K) = 4000.6500 and 12000 cm 2 /V x s has been measured at temperatures between 1 and 80 K. The carrier concentration dependence of the mobility extrapolated to T = O and the temperature dependent part of the scattering probability are investigated. (orig.)

  5. Conformation transitions of blood proteins under influence of physical factors on microwave dielectric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorobchenko, O.A.; Nikolov, O.T.; Gatash, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the influence of γ-irradiation and temperature on albumin and fibrinogen conformation and dielectric properties of protein solutions have been studied by the microwave dielectric method. Both the values of the real part ε' (dielectric permittivity) and the imaginary part ε'' (dielectric losses) of the complex dielectric permittivity of the aqueous solution of bovine serum albumin and human fibrinogen as functions of temperature and γ-irradiation dose have been obtained. The time of dielectric relaxation of water molecules in the protein solutions was calculated. The hydration of the albumin and fibrinogen molecules was determined. The temperature dependencies of hydration are non-monotonous and have a number of characteristic features at the temperatures 30-34 and 44-47 deg. C for serum albumin, and 24 and 32 deg. C for fibrinogen

  6. Temperature dependence of high field electromechanical coupling in ferroelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P M; Cain, M G; Stewart, M, E-mail: paul.weaver@npl.co.u [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-28

    A study of the temperature dependence of the electromechanical response of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics at high electric fields (up to 1.3 kV mm{sup -1}) is reported. Simultaneous measurements were performed of strain, electric field and polarization to form a complete response map from room temperature up to 200 {sup 0}C. An electrostrictive model is shown to provide an accurate description of the electromechanical response to high levels of induced polarization and electric field. This provides a method for decoupling strain contributions from thermal expansion and polarization changes. Direct measurements of electrostriction and thermal expansion, above and below the Curie temperature, are reported. Electrostriction coefficients are shown to be temperature dependent in these ceramic materials, with different values above and below the Curie temperature.

  7. Temperature-dependent μ-Raman investigation of struvite crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Kasprowicz, D; Runka, T

    2016-04-05

    The effect of temperature on the vibrational properties of struvite crystals grown from silica gels was systematically studied by μ-Raman spectroscopy. The time-dependent Raman spectra recorded in the process of long time annealing of struvite crystal at 353 K do not indicate structural changes in the struvite crystal with the time of annealing. The temperature-dependent Raman spectra recorded in the range 298-423 K reveal a phase transition in struvite at about 368 K. Above this characteristic temperature, some of bands assigned to vibrations of the PO4 and NH4 tetrahedra and water molecules observed in the Raman spectra in low temperatures (orthorhombic phase) change their spectral parameters or disappear, which indicates a transition to a higher symmetry structure of struvite in the range of high temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Temperature-dependent enthalpy of oxygenation in Antarctic fish hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, A.; Wells, R.M.G.; Weber, Roy E.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the oxygen-binding properties of the hemoglobins of three cold-adapted Antarctic fish species, Dissostichus mawsoni, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus, sp., has been investigated under different pH values and buffer conditions. A clear non linear van't Hoff plot...... (logP(50) vs 1/T) of D. mawsoni hemoglobin indicates that the enthalpy of oxygenation (slope of the plot) is temperature dependent and that at high temperatures oxygen-binding becomes less exothermic. Nearly linear relationships were found in the hemoglobins of the other two species. The data were...... oxygen binding. The degree of the temperature dependence of the heat of oxygenation observed in these hemoglobins seems to reflect the differences in their allosteric effects rather than a specific molecular adaptation to low temperatures. Moreover, this study indicates that the disagreement between...

  9. Experimental Characterization of Dielectric Properties in Fluid Saturated Artificial Shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Beloborodov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High dielectric contrast between water and hydrocarbons provides a useful method for distinguishing between producible layers of reservoir rocks and surrounding media. Dielectric response at high frequencies is related to the moisture content of rocks. Correlations between the dielectric permittivity and specific surface area can be used for the estimation of elastic and geomechanical properties of rocks. Knowledge of dielectric loss-factor and relaxation frequency in shales is critical for the design of techniques for effective hydrocarbon extraction and production from unconventional reservoirs. Although applicability of dielectric measurements is intriguing, the data interpretation is very challenging due to many factors influencing the dielectric response. For instance, dielectric permittivity is determined by mineralogical composition of solid fraction, volumetric content and composition of saturating fluid, rock microstructure and geometrical features of its solid components and pore space, temperature, and pressure. In this experimental study, we investigate the frequency dependent dielectric properties of artificial shale rocks prepared from silt-clay mixtures via mechanical compaction. Samples are prepared with various clay contents and pore fluids of different salinity and cation compositions. Measurements of dielectric properties are conducted in two orientations to investigate the dielectric anisotropy as the samples acquire strongly oriented microstructures during the compaction process.

  10. Hyperparametric effects in a whispering-gallery mode rutile dielectric resonator at liquid helium temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nand, Nitin R.; Goryachev, Maxim; Floch, Jean-Michel le; Creedon, Daniel L.; Tobar, Michael E. [ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia)

    2014-10-07

    We report the first observation of low power drive level sensitivity, hyperparametric amplification, and single-mode hyperparametric oscillations in a dielectric rutile whispering-gallery mode resonator at 4.2 K. The latter gives rise to a comb of sidebands at 19.756 GHz. Whereas, most frequency combs in the literature have been observed in optical systems using an ensemble of equally spaced modes in microresonators or fibers, the present work represents generation of a frequency comb using only a single-mode. The experimental observations are explained by an additional 1/2 degree-of-freedom originating from an intrinsic material nonlinearity at optical frequencies, which affects the microwave properties due to the extremely low loss of rutile. Using a model based on lumped circuits, we demonstrate that the resonance between the photonic and material 1/2 degree-of-freedom, is responsible for the hyperparametric energy transfer in the system.

  11. Temperature dependence of the dispersion of single crystals SrCl/sub 2/. [Temperature coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzin, M P [L' vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1976-01-01

    The dispersion of the refractive index of SrCl/sub 2/ monocrystals in the spectral range 300-700 nm at temperatures of 223, 295 adn 373 K has been studied. The temperature coefficient of the refractive index as a function of the wave length has been determined for the room temperature. The function resembles the corresponding dependence for alkali-halide crystals.

  12. Temperature dependence of piezoelectric properties for textured SBN ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masahiko; Ogawa, Hirozumi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Sawada, Takuya; Higuchi, Yukio; Takagi, Hiroshi; Sakabe, Yukio

    2007-12-01

    Temperature dependences of piezoelectric properties were studied for h001i textured ceramics of bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics, SrBi(2)Nb(2)O(9) (SBN). The textured ceramics with varied orientation degrees were fabricated by templated, grain-growth method, and the temperature dependences of resonance frequency were estimated. Excellent temperature stability of resonance frequency was obtained for the 76% textured ceramics. The resonance frequency of the 76% textured specimens varied almost linearly over a wide temperature range. Therefore, the variation was slight, even in a high temperature region above 150 degrees C. Temperature stability of a quartz crystal oscillator is generally higher than that of a ceramic resonator around room temperature. The variation of resonance frequency for the 76% textured SrBi(2)Nb(2)O(9) was larger than that of oscillation frequency for a typical quartz oscillator below 150 degrees C also in this study. However, the variation of the textured SrBi(2)Nb(2)O(9) was smaller than that of the quartz oscillator over a wide temperature range from -50 to 250 degrees C. Therefore, textured SrBi(2)Nb(2)O(9) ceramics is a major candidate material for the resonators used within a wide temperature range.

  13. Arrhenius temperature dependence of in vitro tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, George J; Dhamija, Ashima; Bavani, Nazli; Wagner, Kenneth R; Holland, Christy K

    2007-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease and a leading cause of death and disability. Currently, the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the intravenous administration of the thrombolytic medication, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, this treatment has many contraindications and can have dangerous side effects such as intra-cerebral hemorrhage. These treatment limitations have led to much interest in potential adjunctive therapies, such as therapeutic hypothermia (T ≤ 35 deg. C) and ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis. Such interest may lead to combining these therapies with tPA to treat stroke, however little is known about the effects of temperature on the thrombolytic efficacy of tPA. In this work, we measure the temperature dependence of the fractional clot mass loss Δm(T) resulting from tPA exposure in an in vitro human clot model. We find that the temperature dependence is well described by an Arrhenius temperature dependence with an effective activation energy E eff of 42.0 ± 0.9 kJ mole -1 . E eff approximates the activation energy of the plasminogen-to-plasmin reaction of 48.9 kJ mole -1 . A model to explain this temperature dependence is proposed. These results will be useful in predicting the effects of temperature in future lytic therapies

  14. Arrhenius temperature dependence of in vitro tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, George J [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Dhamija, Ashima [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Bavani, Nazli [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Wagner, Kenneth R [Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Holland, Christy K [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States)

    2007-06-07

    Stroke is a devastating disease and a leading cause of death and disability. Currently, the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the intravenous administration of the thrombolytic medication, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, this treatment has many contraindications and can have dangerous side effects such as intra-cerebral hemorrhage. These treatment limitations have led to much interest in potential adjunctive therapies, such as therapeutic hypothermia (T {<=} 35 deg. C) and ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis. Such interest may lead to combining these therapies with tPA to treat stroke, however little is known about the effects of temperature on the thrombolytic efficacy of tPA. In this work, we measure the temperature dependence of the fractional clot mass loss {delta}m(T) resulting from tPA exposure in an in vitro human clot model. We find that the temperature dependence is well described by an Arrhenius temperature dependence with an effective activation energy E{sub eff} of 42.0 {+-} 0.9 kJ mole{sup -1}. E{sub eff} approximates the activation energy of the plasminogen-to-plasmin reaction of 48.9 kJ mole{sup -1}. A model to explain this temperature dependence is proposed. These results will be useful in predicting the effects of temperature in future lytic therapies.

  15. Temperature Dependence Viscosity and Density of Different Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to assess the effect of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME concentration in diesel fuel on its viscosity and density behaviour. The density and dynamic viscosity were observed at various mixing ratios of RME and diesel fuel. All measurements were performed at constant temperature of 40 °C. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and a blend of both (B30, temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was examined. Temperature range in the experiment was −10 °C to 80 °C. Considerable temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was found and demonstrated for all three samples. This finding is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and reference data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 3rd polynomial degree. Correlation coefficients R −0.796, −0.948, and −0.974 between measured and calculated values were found. Temperature dependence of density was modeled using a 2nd polynomial degree. Correlation coefficients R −0.994, −0.979, and −0.976 between measured and calculated values were acquired. The proposed models can be used for flow behaviour prediction of RME, diesel fuel, and their blends.

  16. Microscopic evolution of dielectric nanoparticles at different calcination temperatures synthesized via sol-gel auto-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adil, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammadadil86@hotmail.com; Zaid, Hasnah Mohd, E-mail: hasnamz@petronas.com.my; Chuan, Lee Kean, E-mail: lee.kc@petronas.com.my; Latiff, Noor Rasyada Ahmad, E-mail: syasya.latiff@gmail.com [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Alta’ee, Ali F., E-mail: ali-mangi@petronas.com.my [Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dielectric nano powder synthesis is carried by a simple and fast sol-gel auto-combustion method. The transformation of crystalline phases of as-synthesized nano powders is investigated through the detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed the crystallographic alterations and morphological information even at lattice scale. From specific area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, has specified the d-spacing and corresponding planes supported by the observed lattice fringes. The morphological characterization of nanoparticles is performed through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), exhibiting the increment in particle size due to agglomeration with the increase in annealing temperature. Furthermore, EDX pattern has been used to verify the formation of nanoparticles by revealing the presence of required elements.

  17. Microscopic evolution of dielectric nanoparticles at different calcination temperatures synthesized via sol-gel auto-combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adil, Muhammad; Zaid, Hasnah Mohd; Chuan, Lee Kean; Latiff, Noor Rasyada Ahmad; Alta’ee, Ali F.

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric nano powder synthesis is carried by a simple and fast sol-gel auto-combustion method. The transformation of crystalline phases of as-synthesized nano powders is investigated through the detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed the crystallographic alterations and morphological information even at lattice scale. From specific area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, has specified the d-spacing and corresponding planes supported by the observed lattice fringes. The morphological characterization of nanoparticles is performed through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), exhibiting the increment in particle size due to agglomeration with the increase in annealing temperature. Furthermore, EDX pattern has been used to verify the formation of nanoparticles by revealing the presence of required elements

  18. Temperature dependence of three-point correlation functions of viscous liquids: the case of glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle-Ferrier, Cecile; Eibl, Stefan; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000, Batiment 349, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Pappas, Catherine [BENSC, Hahn-Meitner-Institute, HMI Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: cecile.dalle-ferrier@lcp.u-psud.fr

    2008-12-10

    What causes the dramatic slowing down of flow and relaxation that leads to glass formation in liquids as temperature decreases is hardly understood so far and is the subject of intensive research work. It is tempting to ascribe the strong temperature dependence of the dynamics, irrespective of molecular details, to a collective or cooperative behavior characterized by a length scale that grows as one approaches the glass transition. To access this length experimentally, we use the recently introduced three-point dynamic susceptibility, from which the number of molecules dynamically correlated during the structural relaxation, N{sub corr}, can be extracted. The three-point functions are related to the sensitivity of the averaged two-time dynamics to external control parameters, such as temperature and density. We studied N{sub corr} values in an important temperature range for a large number of liquids, and found that it systematically grows when approaching the glass transition. Here we specially emphasize the case of glycerol for which we combined dielectric and neutron spin echo spectroscopy to cover more than 16 decades in relaxation time.

  19. Dependence of radiation electric conductivity on intensity of external electric field in polymeric dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichkar, V P; Tyutnev, A P; Vaisberg, S E [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Fiziko-Khimicheskij Inst., Moscow (USSR)

    1975-10-01

    The radiational conductivity (Gsub(p)) at different electric field potentials (E) for a number of low- and high-density polymers was investigated. In a number of cases temperature variations were introduced. Measurements were carried out also under conditions of a single impulse of high-power radiation dose. A relationship was obtained between Gsub(p) and E.

  20. Phase transformation in multiferroic Bi5Ti3FeO15 ceramics by temperature-dependent ellipsometric and Raman spectra: An interband electronic transition evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P. P.; Duan, Z. H.; Xu, L. P.; Zhang, X. L.; Li, Y. W.; Hu, Z. G.; Chu, J. H.

    2014-02-01

    Thermal evolution and an intermediate phase between ferroelectric orthorhombic and paraelectric tetragonal phase of multiferroic Bi5Ti3FeO15 ceramic have been investigated by temperature-dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman scattering. Dielectric functions and interband transitions extracted from the standard critical-point model show two dramatic anomalies in the temperature range of 200-873 K. It was found that the anomalous temperature dependence of electronic transition energies and Raman mode frequencies around 800 K can be ascribed to intermediate phase transformation. Moreover, the disappearance of electronic transition around 3 eV at 590 K is associated with the conductive property.

  1. Temperature dependence of the elastocaloric effect in natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhongjian, E-mail: zhongjian.xie521@gmail.com; Sebald, Gael; Guyomar, Daniel

    2017-07-12

    The temperature dependence of the elastocaloric (eC) effect in natural rubber (NR) has been studied. This material exhibits a large eC effect over a broad temperature range from 0 °C to 49 °C. The maximum adiabatic temperature change (ΔT) occurred at 10 °C and the behavior could be predicted by the temperature dependence of the strain-induced crystallization (SIC) and the temperature-induced crystallization (TIC). The eC performance of NR was then compared with that of shape memory alloys (SMAs). This study contributes to the SIC research of NR and also broadens the application of elastomers. - Highlights: • A large elastocaloric effect over a broad temperature range was found in natural rubber (NR). • The caloric performance of NR was compared with that of shape memory alloys. • The temperature dependence of the elastocaloric effect in NR can be prediced by the theory of strain-induced crystallization.

  2. Experimental characterization of the hysteretic and rate-dependent electromechanical behavior of dielectric electro-active polymer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, A; Seelecke, S; Dunn, J

    2010-01-01

    Dielectric electro-active polymers (DEAPs) can achieve substantial deformation (>300% strain) while sustaining, compared to their ionic counterparts, large forces. This makes them attractive for various actuation and sensing applications such as in light weight and energy efficient valve and pumping systems. Many applications operate DEAP actuators at higher frequencies where rate-dependent effects influence their performance. This motivates the seeking of dynamic characterization of these actuators beyond the quasi-static regime. This paper provides a systematic experimental investigation of the quasi-static and dynamic electromechanical properties of a DEAP actuator. In order to completely characterize the fully coupled behavior, force versus displacement measurements at various constant voltages and force versus voltage measurements at various fixed displacements are conducted. The experiments are conducted with a particular focus on the hysteretic and rate-dependent material behavior. These experiments provide insight into the electrical dynamics and viscoelastic relaxation inherent in DEAP actuators. This study is intended to provide information, including high frequency performance analysis, useful to anyone designing dynamic actuator systems using DEAPs

  3. Laser polarization dependent and magnetically control of group velocity in a dielectric medium doped with nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Rahimpour Soleimani, H., E-mail: Rahimpour@guilan.ac.ir

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, group velocity control of Gaussian beam in a dielectric medium doped with nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers under optical excitation is discussed. The shape of transmitted and reflected pulses from dielectric can be tuned by changing the intensity of magnetic field and polarization of the control beam. The effect of intensity of control beam on group velocity is also investigated.

  4. Isotopic dependences of the dielectric strength of gases: new observations, classification, and possible origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Rodrigo, H.; Marode, E.; Bastien, F.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we report: (1) the finding that the CH 4 /CD 4 nonuniform field behavior is polarity dependent (i.e., the V/sub s/ of CD 4 is lower than the V/sub s/ of CH 4 for negative polarity which is just the opposite of that observed for positive polarity); (2) discuss the origins of the observed isotope effects and predict new isotopic dependences of V/sub s/; and (3) report results on the V/sub s/ of H 2 S and D 2 S for negative polarity which confirm their predicted isotopic behavior

  5. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  6. Temperature dependence of spreading width of giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storozhenko, A.N.; Vdovin, A.I.; Ventura, A.; Blokhin, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    The Quasiparticle-Phonon Nuclear Model extended to finite temperature within the framework of Thermo Field Dynamics is applied to calculate a temperature dependence of the spreading width Γ ↓ of a giant dipole resonance. Numerical calculations are made for 120 Sn and 208 Pb nuclei. It is found that Γ ↓ increases with T. The reason of this effect is discussed as well as a relation of the present approach to other ones, existing in the literature

  7. Thermal dielectric function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moneta, M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal dielectric functions ε(k,ω) for homogeneous electron gas were determined and discussed. The ground state of the gas is described by the Fermi-Dirac momentum distribution. The low and high temperature limits of ε(k,ω) were related to the Lindhard dielectric function and to ε(k, omega) derived for Boltzmann and for classical momentum distributions, respectively. (author)

  8. Ambient-temperature trap/release of arsenic by dielectric barrier discharge and its application to ultratrace arsenic determination in surface water followed by atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel dielectric barrier discharge reactor (DBDR) was utilized to trap/release arsenic coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HGAFS). On the DBD principle, the precise and accurate control of trap/release procedures was fulfilled at ambient temperature, and an analytical m...

  9. Temperature-dependent luminescence dynamics in ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priller, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: heiko.priller@physik.uni-karlsruhe.de; Hauschild, R. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Zeller, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Klingshirn, C. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kalt, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kling, R. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Reuss, F. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Kirchner, Ch. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Waag, A. [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    We report on an experimental study of the temporal photoluminescence dynamics of high-quality ZnO nanopillars from 10 K to room temperature. We find that defect states play an important role in the time evolution of the photoluminescence signal. At low excitation intensities capture into defects dominates the time dependence of the PL, at higher intensities they are saturated and the intrinsic excitation decay is observed. We separate the intrinsic exciton decay from the fast nonlinear M-band with the method of decay associated spectra and obtain the temperature dependence of the intrinsic exciton decay. High excitation measurements show a reduced exciton-exciton scattering in these thin nanorods.

  10. Temperature dependence of acceptor-hole recombination in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darken, L.S.; Jellison, G.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The recombination kinetics of several centers (Zn - , Cu - , B - , CuH - 2 , CuH - x , Zn = , Cu = , and CuH = x ) in high-purity Ge have been measured as a function of temperature from 8 to 160 K by transient capacitance techniques and are significantly faster than expected from cascade theory. The cascade theory also gives the wrong temperature dependence, and the wrong z dependence. Instead, the data are generally fit by the expression N v /4pτ c congruent kT/h (p and τ c are, respectively, the free-hole concentration in the sample and the experimental mean capture time for a center)

  11. Why does the martensitic transformation temperature strongly depend on composition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, X.; Otsuka, K.

    2000-01-01

    The reason for the strong composition and heat-treatment dependence of the martensitic transformation temperature was investigated by a simple Landau-type model. Assuming the anharmonic and coupling coefficients are insensitive to composition, we obtained an important result martensitic transformation occurs at a critical elastic constant c' and a critical TA 2 phonon energy ω η 2 , which are independent of alloy composition. This result gained support from a large body of experimental data of Cu-based alloys. Since c' and phonon energy are strongly dependent on composition, the constancy of c' at Ms demands that the (transformation) temperature must exhibit an opposite effect to compensate the composition effect. Therefore, the lower the c', the higher the Ms is. Because the temperature dependence of c' is weak (due to the 1 st order nature of the transformation), the big c' change by a slight composition change must be compensated by a large change in temperature. Thus Ms has strong composition dependence. The effect of quench is to increase point defects, being equivalent to a composition change, thus has a strong effect on Ms. From the present study, we can conclude that the strong composition dependence of Ms is mainly a harmonic effect. (orig.)

  12. Temperature dependence of collapse of quantized hall resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyasu; Kawashima, Hironori; Iizuka, Hisamitsu; Fukuda, Hideaki; Kawaji, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    Similarity is observed in the deviation of Hall resistance from the quantized value with the increase in the source-drain current I SD in our butterfly-type Hall bars and in the Hall bars used by Jeanneret et al., while changes in the diagonal resistivity ρ xx with I SD are significantly different between these Hall bars. The temperature dependence of the critical Hall electric field F cr (T) for the collapse of R H (4) measured in these Hall bars is approximated using F cr (T) = F cr (0)(1 - (T/T cr ) 2 ). Here, the critical Hall electric field at zero temperature depends on the magnetic field B as F cr (0) ∝ B 3/2 . Theoretical considerations are given on F cr (T) on the basis of a temperature-dependent mobility edge model and a schema of temperature-dependent inter-Landau level tunneling probability arising from the Fermi distribution function. The former does not fit in with the I SD dependence of activation energy in ρ xx . (author)

  13. Temperature dependence of non-Debye disorder in doped manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghini, C.; Cimino, R.; Pascarelli, S.; Mobilio, S.; Raghu, C.; Sarma, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    Ca-doped manganite La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 samples with x=0.2 and 0.4 were investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) as a function of temperature and preparation method. The samples exhibit characteristic resistivity change across the metal-insulator (MI) transition temperature whose shape and position depend on Ca-doping concentration and sample thermal treatment. EXAFS results evidenced an increase of nonthermal disorder at the MI transition temperature which is significantly correlated with the resistivity behavior. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Sun, Keye; Saidi, Wissam A.; Scudiero, Louis; Gupta, Mool C.; Choi, Joshua J.

    2015-06-01

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  15. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Saidi, Wissam A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Scudiero, Louis, E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Chemistry Department and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  16. Temperature Dependence of the Moessbauer Effect on Prussian Blue Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Pingheng; Xue Desheng; Luo Haiqing; Shi Huigang [Lanzhou University, Key Lab for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE (China)

    2002-09-15

    Highly ordered Prussian blue nanowires with diameter of about 50 nm and length up to 4 {mu}m have been fabricated by an electrodepositing technology with two-step anodizing anodic aluminum oxide films. The Moessbauer spectra taken between 15 and 300 K indicate that the hyperfine parameters decrease as the temperature increases. The temperature dependence of the quadrupole splitting, the isomer shift and the spectra area are discussed. A decrease of Debye temperature for Prussian blue nanowires was found with respect to that of Prussian blue bulk.

  17. Thermal Aware Floorplanning Incorporating Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, AndreasThor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Temperature has a negative impact on metal resistance and thus wire delay. In state-of-the-art VLSI circuits, large thermal gradients usually exist due to the uneven distribution of heat sources. The difference in wire temperature can lead to performance mismatch because wires of the same length...... can have different delay. Traditional floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate wire performance. In this work, we show that this does not always produce a design with the shortest delay and we propose a floorplanning algorithm taking into account temperature dependent wire delay as one...

  18. Effect of Yb substitution on room temperature magnetic and dielectric properties of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remya, K. P.; Amirthapandian, S.; Manivel Raja, M.; Viswanathan, C.; Ponpandian, N.

    2016-10-01

    Effect of the Yb dopant on the structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of the multiferroic BiFeO3 have been studied. The structural properties of sol-gel derived Bi1-xYbxFeO3 (x = 0.0, 0.1, and 0.2) nanoparticles reveal the formation of a rhombohedrally distorted perovskite in XRD and a reduction in the average grain size have been observed with an increase in the Yb concentration. Microstructural studies exhibited the formation of sphere like morphology with decreasing particle size with increase in the dopant concentration. The effective doping also resulted in larger magnetization as well as coercivity with the maximum of 257 Oe and 1.76 emu/g in the Bi0.8Yb0.2FeO3 nanoparticles. Ferroelectric as well as dielectric properties of the nanoparticles were also improved on doping. The best results were obtained for the BiFeO3 nanoparticles having Yb concentration x = 0.2.

  19. DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION FOR ANNULAR FINS WITH TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY BY HPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Domairry Ganji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, homotopy perturbation method has been used to evaluate the temperature distribution of annular fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and to determine the temperature distribution within the fin. This method is useful and practical for solving the nonlinear heat transfer equation, which is associated with variable thermal conductivity condition. The homotopy perturbation method provides an approximate analytical solution in the form of an infinite power series. The annular fin heat transfer rate with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity has been obtained as a function of thermo-geometric fin parameter and the thermal conductivity parameter describing the variation of the thermal conductivity.

  20. Temperature dependence of electronic transport property in ferroelectric polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.L.; Wang, J.L., E-mail: jlwang@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Tian, B.B.; Liu, B.L.; Zou, Y.H.; Wang, X.D.; Sun, S.; Sun, J.L., E-mail: jlsun@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Meng, X.J.; Chu, J.H.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The ferroelectric polymer was fabricated by Langmuir–Blodgett method. • The electrons as the dominant injected carrier were conformed in the ferroelectric polymer films. • The leakage current conduction mechanisms in ferroelectric polymer were investigated. - Abstract: The leakage current mechanism of ferroelectric copolymer of polyvinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene prepared by Langmuir–Blodgett was investigated in the temperature range from 100 K to 350 K. The electron as the dominant injected carrier was observed in the ferroelectric copolymer films. The transport mechanisms in copolymer strongly depend on the temperature and applied voltage. From 100 K to 200 K, Schottky emission dominates the conduction. With temperature increasing, the Frenkel–Poole emission instead of the Schottky emission to conduct the carrier transport. When the temperature gets to 260 K, the leakage current becomes independent of temperature, and the space charge limited current conduction was observed.

  1. Similar temperature dependencies of glycolytic enzymes: an evolutionary adaptation to temperature dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Luisa Ana B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature strongly affects microbial growth, and many microorganisms have to deal with temperature fluctuations in their natural environment. To understand regulation strategies that underlie microbial temperature responses and adaptation, we studied glycolytic pathway kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during temperature changes. Results Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown under different temperature regimes and glucose availability conditions. These included glucose-excess batch cultures at different temperatures and glucose-limited chemostat cultures, subjected to fast linear temperature shifts and circadian sinoidal temperature cycles. An observed temperature-independent relation between intracellular levels of glycolytic metabolites and residual glucose concentration for all experimental conditions revealed that it is the substrate availability rather than temperature that determines intracellular metabolite profiles. This observation corresponded with predictions generated in silico with a kinetic model of yeast glycolysis, when the catalytic capacities of all glycolytic enzymes were set to share the same normalized temperature dependency. Conclusions From an evolutionary perspective, such similar temperature dependencies allow cells to adapt more rapidly to temperature changes, because they result in minimal perturbations of intracellular metabolite levels, thus circumventing the need for extensive modification of enzyme levels.

  2. Transient, polarity-dependent dielectric response in a twisted nematic liquid crystal under very low frequency excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, K S

    2015-09-01

    The electric Freedericksz transition is a second-order quadratic effect, which, in a planarly aligned nematic liquid crystal layer, manifests above a threshold field as a homogeneous symmetric distortion with maximum director-tilt in the midplane. We find that, upon excitation by a low frequency (wave field, the instability becomes spatially and temporally varying. This is demonstrated using calamitic liquid crystals, initially in the 90°-twisted planar configuration. The distortion occurs close to the negative electrode following each polarity switch and, for low-voltage amplitudes, decays completely in time. We use the elastically favorable geometry of Brochard-Leger walls to establish the location of maximum distortion. Thus, at successive polarity changes, the direction of extension of both annular and open walls switches between the alignment directions at the two substrates. For high voltages, this direction is largely along the midplane director, while remaining marginally oscillatory. These results are broadly understood by taking into account the time-varying and inhomogeneous field conditions that prevail soon after the polarity reverses. Polarity dependence of the instability is traced to the formation of intrinsic double layers that lead to an asymmetry in field distribution in the presence of an external bias. Momentary field elevation near the negative electrode following a voltage sign reversal leads to locally enhanced dielectric and gradient flexoelectric torques, which accounts for the surface-like phenomenon observed at low voltages. These spatiotemporal effects, also found earlier for other instabilities, are generic in nature.

  3. Temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.M.; Koval'chuk, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Method for calculating temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts is suggested. Application areas of existing methods were determined and advantages of the new method for calculating nitrogen solubility in multicomponent-doped iron melts (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo, Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn, Fe-Mo-V) at 1773-2073 K are shown

  4. Electronically induced nuclear transitions - temperature dependence and Rabi oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niez, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a nucleus electromagnetically coupled with the bound states of its electronic surroundings. It describes the temperature dependence of its dynamics and the onset of potential Rabi oscillations by means of a Master Equation. The latter is generalized in order to account for possible strong resonances. Throughout the paper the approximation schemes are discussed and tested. (authors)

  5. Quasi-pions with temperature dependent dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    We construct the procedure to calculate thermodynamical functions for a system of quasi-particles with temperature dependent dispersion relation. Two models for the hot quasi-pion system are considered to illustrate the importance of thermodynamical self consistency requirements. 8 refs., 9 figs

  6. Temperature dependence of the μ+ hyperfine field in ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, K.; Nirhida, N.; Hayano, R.S.; Yamazaki, T.; Brewes, J.H.; Fleming, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the μ + hyperfine fields in Ni and in Fe were found to deviate from that of the saturation magnetization in opposite senses. Difference in the screening mechanism of conduction electrons around the μ + is considered, among several possible explanations. (Auth.)

  7. Temperature Dependence of Lattice Dynamics of Lithium 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beg, M. M.; Nielsen, Mourits

    1976-01-01

    10% smaller than those at 100 K. Temperature dependences of selected phonons have been studied from 110 K to near the melting point. The energy shifts and phonon linewidths have been evaluated at 293, 383, and 424 K by comparing the widths and energies to those measured at 110 K. The lattice...

  8. Anomalous temperature dependence of excitation transfer between quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), 325-330 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011; GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : excitation transfer * quantum dots * temperature dependence * electron-phonon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  9. Temperature dependence of critical resolved shear stress for cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Ali, M.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental measurements for critical resolved shear stress of various BCC and FCC metals have been explained by using Radiation Model. The temperature dependence of CRSS for different cubic metals is found to the first approximation, to upon the type of the crystal. A good agreement between experimental observations and predictions of the Radiation Model is found. (author)

  10. Temperature dependence of electron concentration in cadmium arsenide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelten, M.J.; Blom, F.A.P.

    1979-01-01

    From measurements of the temperature dependence of the electron concentration in Cd 3 As 2 , we found values for the conduction-band parameters that are in good agreement with those recently reported by Aubin, Caron, and Jay-Gerin. However, in contrast with these authors we found no small overlap,

  11. Temperature-dependent imaging of living cells by AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espenel, Cedric; Giocondi, Marie-Cecile; Seantier, Bastien; Dosset, Patrice; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Le Grimellec, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of lateral organization of plasma membranes is a prerequisite to the understanding of membrane structure-function relationships in living cells. Lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions are responsible for the existence of various membrane microdomains involved in cell signalization and in numerous pathologies. Developing approaches for characterizing microdomains associate identification tools like recognition imaging with high-resolution topographical imaging. Membrane properties are markedly dependent on temperature. However, mesoscopic scale topographical information of cell surface in a temperature range covering most of cell biology experimentation is still lacking. In this work we have examined the possibility of imaging the temperature-dependent behavior of eukaryotic cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results establish that the surface of living CV1 kidney cells can be imaged by AFM, between 5 and 37 deg. C, both in contact and tapping modes. These first temperature-dependent data show that large cell structures appeared essentially stable at a microscopic scale. On the other hand, as shown by contact mode AFM, the surface was highly dynamic at a mesoscopic scale, with marked changes in apparent topography, friction, and deflection signals. When keeping the scanning conditions constant, a progressive loss in the image contrast was however observed, using tapping mode, on decreasing the temperature

  12. Dielectric spectroscopy in aqueous solutions of paracetamol over the frequency range of 20 Hz to 2 MHz at 293.15 K temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, T. R.; Rana, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    Frequency domain dielectric relaxation spectroscopy plays an important role in the study of pharmaceutical drug molecules. The complex relative dielectric permittivity ɛ*(ω) = ɛ' - j ɛ" of aqueous solutions of paracetamol in the frequency range of 20 Hz to 2 MHz at a temperature range of 293.15 K are measured with the help of Agilent precision LCR meter E4980A along with four terminal liquid test fixture Agilent 16452A. Data of complex relative permittivity are used to calculate loss tangent for all concentrations of paracetamol in distilled water. Electrode polarization relaxation time has been calculated for all solutions. Effect of variation of concentrations of paracetamol in distilled water on these dielectric parameters is discussed.

  13. Temperature dependence of APD-based PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keereman, Vincent; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Vanhove, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Solid state detectors such as avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are increasingly being used in PET detectors. One of the disadvantages of APDs is the strong decrease of their gain factor with increasing ambient temperature. The light yield of most scintillation crystals also decreases when ambient temperature is increased. Both effects lead to considerable temperature dependence of the performance of APD-based PET scanners. In this paper, the authors propose a model for this dependence and the performance of the LabPET8 APD-based small animal PET scanner is evaluated at different temperatures.Methods: The model proposes that the effect of increasing temperature on the energy histogram of an APD-based PET scanner is a compression of the histogram along the energy axis. The energy histogram of the LabPET system was acquired at 21 °C and 25 °C to verify the validity of this model. Using the proposed model, the effect of temperature on system sensitivity was simulated for different detector temperature coefficients and temperatures. Subsequently, the effect of short term and long term temperature changes on the peak sensitivity of the LabPET system was measured. The axial sensitivity profile was measured at 21 °C and 24 °C following the NEMA NU 4-2008 standard. System spatial resolution was also evaluated. Furthermore, scatter fraction, count losses and random coincidences were evaluated at different temperatures. Image quality was also investigated.Results: As predicted by the model, the photopeak energy at 25 °C is lower than at 21 °C with a shift of approximately 6% per °C. Simulations showed that this results in an approximately linear decrease of sensitivity when temperature is increased from 21 °C to 24 °C and energy thresholds are constant. Experimental evaluation of the peak sensitivity at different temperatures showed a strong linear correlation for short term (2.32 kcps/MBq/°C = 12%/°C, R = −0.95) and long term (1.92 kcps/MBq/°C = 10%/

  14. Ferromagnetism and temperature-dependent electronic structure in metallic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.

    1999-01-01

    In this work the influence of the reduced translational symmetry on the magnetic properties of thin itinerant-electron films and surfaces is investigated within the strongly correlated Hubbard model. Firstly, the possibility of spontaneous ferromagnetism in the Hubbard model is discussed for the case of systems with full translational symmetry. Different approximation schemes for the solution of the many-body problem of the Hubbard model are introduced and discussed in detail. It is found that it is vital for a reasonable description of spontaneous ferromagnetism to be consistent with exact results concerning the general shape of the single-electron spectral density in the limit of strong Coulomb interaction between the electrons. The temperature dependence of the ferromagnetic solutions is discussed in detail by use of the magnetization curves as well as the spin-dependent quasi particle spectrum. For the investigation of thin films and surfaces the approximation schemes for the bulk system have to be generalized to deal with the reduced translational symmetry. The magnetic behavior of thin Hubbard films is investigated by use of the layer dependent magnetization as a function of temperature as well as the thickness of the film. The Curie-temperature is calculated as a function of the film thickness. Further, the magnetic stability at the surface is discussed in detail. Here it is found that for strong Coulomb interaction the magnetic stability at finite temperatures is reduced at the surface compared to the inner layers. This observation clearly contradicts the well-known Stoner picture of band magnetism and can be explained in terms of general arguments which are based on exact results in the limit of strong Coulomb interaction. The magnetic behavior of the Hubbard films can be analyzed in detail by inspecting the local quasi particle density of states as well as the wave vector dependent spectral density. The electronic structure is found to be strongly spin

  15. Temperature dependence of magnetoresistance in lanthanum manganite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubkin, M.K.; Zalesskii, A.V.; Perekalina, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetoresistivity in the La0.9Na0.1Mn0.9(V,Co)0.1O3 and LaMnO3+δ ceramics was studied. The temperature dependence of magnetoresistance in these specimens was found to differ qualitatively from that in the La0.9Na0.1MnO3 single crystal (the magnetoresistance value remains rather high throughout the measurement range below the Curie temperature), with the maximum values being about the same (20-40% in the field of 20 kOe). Previously published data on magnetization, high frequency magnetic susceptibility, and local fields at the 139La nuclei of the specimens with similar properties attest to their magnetic inhomogeneity. The computation of the conductivity of the nonuniformly ordered lanthanum manganite was performed according to the mean field theory. The calculation results allow one to interpret qualitatively various types of experimental temperature dependences of magnetoresistance

  16. Experimental determination of the temperature dependence of metallic work functions at low temperatures. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipes, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made under ERDA Contract No. EY-76-S-02-2314.002 is described. Efforts to gain theoretical insight into the temperature dependence of the contact potential of Nb near the superconducting transition have only been qualitatively successful. Preliminary measurements of adsorbed 4 He gas on the temperature dependence of the contact potentials of metals were performed and compared with a previously developed theory

  17. Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoë daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17 degrees C nights, 23 degrees C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4 per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in (13)C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0 per thousand at 27 degrees C/33 degrees C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process

  18. Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O' Leary, M.H.

    1985-09-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17/sup 0/C nights, 23/sup 0/C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4% per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in /sup 13/C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0% per thousand at 27/sup 0/C/33/sup 0/C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process. 28 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  19. Structural Studies of dielectric HDPE+ZrO2 polymer nanocomposites: filler concentration dependences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiyev, A. A.; Islamov, A. Kh; Maharramov, A. M.; Nuriyev, M. A.; Ismayilova, R. S.; Doroshkevic, A. S.; Pawlukojc, A.; Turchenko, V. A.; Olejniczak, A.; Rulev, M. İ.; Almasan, V.; Kuklin, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Structural properties of HDPE+ZrO2 polymer nanocomposites thin films of 80-100μm thicknesses were investigated using SANS, XRD, Laser Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. The mass fraction of the filler was 1, 3, 10, and 20%. Results of XRD analysis showed that ZrO2 powder was crystallized both in monoclinic and in cubic phase under normal conditions. The percentages of monoclinic and cubic phase were found to be 99.8% and 0.2%, respectively. It was found that ZrO2 nanoparticles did not affect the main crystal and chemical structure of HDPE, but the degree of crystallinity of the polymer decreases with increasing concentration of zirconium oxide. SANS experiments showed that at ambient conditions ZrO2 nanoparticles mainly distributed like mono-particles in the polymer matrix at all concentrations of filler.The structure of HDPE+ZrO2 does not changes up to 132°C at 1-3% of filler, excepting changing of the polymer structure at temperatures upper 82°C. At high concentrations of filler 10-20% the aggregation of ZrO2 nanoparticles occurs, forming domains of 2.5μm. The results of Raman and FTIR spectroscopy did not show additional specific chemical bonds between the filler and the polymer matrix. New peaks formation was not observed. These results suggest that core-shell structure does not exist in the polymer nanocomposite system.

  20. On the Temperature Dependence of Enzyme-Catalyzed Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcus, Vickery L; Prentice, Erica J; Hobbs, Joanne K; Mulholland, Adrian J; Van der Kamp, Marc W; Pudney, Christopher R; Parker, Emily J; Schipper, Louis A

    2016-03-29

    One of the critical variables that determine the rate of any reaction is temperature. For biological systems, the effects of temperature are convoluted with myriad (and often opposing) contributions from enzyme catalysis, protein stability, and temperature-dependent regulation, for example. We have coined the phrase "macromolecular rate theory (MMRT)" to describe the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates independent of stability or regulatory processes. Central to MMRT is the observation that enzyme-catalyzed reactions occur with significant values of ΔCp(‡) that are in general negative. That is, the heat capacity (Cp) for the enzyme-substrate complex is generally larger than the Cp for the enzyme-transition state complex. Consistent with a classical description of enzyme catalysis, a negative value for ΔCp(‡) is the result of the enzyme binding relatively weakly to the substrate and very tightly to the transition state. This observation of negative ΔCp(‡) has important implications for the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates. Here, we lay out the fundamentals of MMRT. We present a number of hypotheses that arise directly from MMRT including a theoretical justification for the large size of enzymes and the basis for their optimum temperatures. We rationalize the behavior of psychrophilic enzymes and describe a "psychrophilic trap" which places limits on the evolution of enzymes in low temperature environments. One of the defining characteristics of biology is catalysis of chemical reactions by enzymes, and enzymes drive much of metabolism. Therefore, we also expect to see characteristics of MMRT at the level of cells, whole organisms, and even ecosystems.

  1. Treatment of Candida albicans biofilms with low-temperature plasma induced by dielectric barrier discharge and atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koban, Ina; Welk, Alexander; Meisel, Peter; Holtfreter, Birte; Kocher, Thomas; Matthes, Rutger; Huebner, Nils-Olaf; Kramer, Axel; Sietmann, Rabea; Kindel, Eckhard; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Because of some disadvantages of chemical disinfection in dental practice (especially denture cleaning), we investigated the effects of physical methods on Candida albicans biofilms. For this purpose, the antifungal efficacy of three different low-temperature plasma devices (an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and two different dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs)) on Candida albicans biofilms grown on titanium discs in vitro was investigated. As positive treatment controls, we used 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and 0.6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The corresponding gas streams without plasma ignition served as negative treatment controls. The efficacy of the plasma treatment was determined evaluating the number of colony-forming units (CFU) recovered from titanium discs. The plasma treatment reduced the CFU significantly compared to chemical disinfectants. While 10 min CHX or NaOCl exposure led to a CFU log 10 reduction factor of 1.5, the log 10 reduction factor of DBD plasma was up to 5. In conclusion, the use of low-temperature plasma is a promising physical alternative to chemical antiseptics for dental practice.

  2. Treatment of Candida albicans biofilms with low-temperature plasma induced by dielectric barrier discharge and atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koban, Ina; Welk, Alexander; Meisel, Peter; Holtfreter, Birte; Kocher, Thomas [Unit of Periodontology, Dental School, University of Greifswald, Rotgerberstr. 8, 17475 Greifswald (Germany); Matthes, Rutger; Huebner, Nils-Olaf; Kramer, Axel [Institute for Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, University of Greifswald, Walther-Rathenau-Str. 49 a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Sietmann, Rabea [Institute of Microbiology, University of Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 15, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Kindel, Eckhard; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter, E-mail: ina.koban@uni-greifswald.d [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Because of some disadvantages of chemical disinfection in dental practice (especially denture cleaning), we investigated the effects of physical methods on Candida albicans biofilms. For this purpose, the antifungal efficacy of three different low-temperature plasma devices (an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and two different dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs)) on Candida albicans biofilms grown on titanium discs in vitro was investigated. As positive treatment controls, we used 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and 0.6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The corresponding gas streams without plasma ignition served as negative treatment controls. The efficacy of the plasma treatment was determined evaluating the number of colony-forming units (CFU) recovered from titanium discs. The plasma treatment reduced the CFU significantly compared to chemical disinfectants. While 10 min CHX or NaOCl exposure led to a CFU log{sub 10} reduction factor of 1.5, the log{sub 10} reduction factor of DBD plasma was up to 5. In conclusion, the use of low-temperature plasma is a promising physical alternative to chemical antiseptics for dental practice.

  3. A plasma model combined with an improved two-temperature equation for ultrafast laser ablation of dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lan; Tsai, H.-L.

    2008-01-01

    It remains a big challenge to theoretically predict the material removal mechanism in femtosecond laser ablation. To bypass this unresolved problem, many calculations of femtosecond laser ablation of nonmetals have been based on the free electron density distribution without the actual consideration of the phase change mechanism. However, this widely used key assumption needs further theoretical and experimental confirmation. By combining the plasma model and improved two-temperature model developed by the authors, this study focuses on investigating ablation threshold fluence, depth, and shape during femtosecond laser ablation of dielectrics through nonthermal processes (the Coulomb explosion and electrostatic ablation). The predicted ablation depths and shapes in fused silica, by using (1) the plasma model only and (2) the plasma model plus the two-temperature equation, are both in agreement with published experimental data. The widely used assumptions for threshold fluence, ablation depth, and shape in the plasma model based on free electron density are validated by the comparison study and experimental data

  4. Temperature dependence of contact resistance at metal/MWNT interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Eui; Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Sohn, Yoonchul, E-mail: yoonchul.son@samsung.com [Materials Research Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, Suwon 443-803 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-11

    Although contact resistance of carbon nanotube (CNT) is one of the most important factors for practical application of electronic devices, a study regarding temperature dependence on contact resistance of CNTs with metal electrodes has not been found. Here, we report an investigation of contact resistance at multiwalled nanotube (MWNT)/Ag interface as a function of temperature, using MWNT/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite. Electrical resistance of MWNT/PDMS composite revealed negative temperature coefficient (NTC). Excluding the contact resistance with Ag electrode, the NTC effect became less pronounced, showing lower intrinsic resistivity with the activation energy of 0.019 eV. Activation energy of the contact resistance of MWNT/Ag interface was determined to be 0.04 eV, two times larger than that of MWNT-MWNT network. The increase in the thermal fluctuation assisted electron tunneling is attributed to conductivity enhancement at both MWNT/MWNT and MWNT/Ag interfaces with increasing temperature.

  5. Temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    A temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device includes a magnet and a ferromagnetic member defining therebetween a flow path for liquid metal, the ferromagnetic member being formed of a material having a curie temperature at which a change in the flow rate of the liquid metal is desired. According to the preferred embodiment the magnet is a cylindrical rod magnet axially disposed within a cylindrical member formed of a curie material and having iron pole pieces at the ends. A cylindrical iron shunt and a thin wall stainless steel barrier are disposed in the annulus between magnet and curie material. Below the curie temperature flow between steel barrier and curie material is impeded and above the curie temperature flow impedance is reduced

  6. Temperature and angular dependence of substrate response in SEGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouret, I.; Allenspach, M.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Brews, J.R.; Galloway, K.F.

    1994-01-01

    This work examines the role of the substrate response in determining the temperature and angular dependence of Single-Event Gate Rupture (SEGR). Experimental data indicate that the likelihood of SEGR increases when the temperature of the device is increased or when the incident angle is made closer to normal. In this work, simulations are used to explore this influence of high temperature on SEGR and to support physical explanations for this effect. The reduced hole mobility at high temperature causes the hole concentration at the oxide-silicon interface to be greater, increasing the transient oxide field near the strike position. In addition, numerical calculations show that the transient oxide field decreases as the ion's angle of incidence is changed from normal. This decreased field suggests a lowered likelihood for SEGR, in agreement with the experimental trend

  7. Temperature dependent structural and vibrational properties of liquid indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A. B.; Bhatt, N. K.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the temperature effect on both the structure factor and the phonon dispersion relation of liquid indium have been investigated by means of pseudopotential theory. The Percus-Yevick Hard Sphere reference system is applied to describe the structural calculation. The effective electron-ion interaction is explained by using modified empty core potential due to Hasegawa et al. along with a local field correction function due to Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU). The temperature dependence of pair potential needed at higher temperatures was achieved by multiplying the damping factor exp(- π/kBT2k F r ) in the pair potential. Very close agreement of static structure factor, particularly, at elevated temperatures confirms the validity of the local potential. A positive dispersion is found in low-q region and the correct trend of phonon dispersion branches like the experimental; shows all broad features of collective excitations in liquid metals.

  8. Temperature-dependence of the QCD topological susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Tamas G.

    2018-03-01

    We recently obtained an estimate of the axion mass based on the hypothesis that axions make up most of the dark matter in the universe. A key ingredient for this calculation was the temperature-dependence of the topological susceptibility of full QCD. Here we summarize the calculation of the susceptibility in a range of temperatures from well below the finite temperature cross-over to around 2 GeV. The two main difficulties of the calculation are the unexpectedly slow convergence of the susceptibility to its continuum limit and the poor sampling of nonzero topological sectors at high temperature. We discuss how these problems can be solved by two new techniques, the first one with reweighting using the quark zero modes and the second one with the integration method.

  9. Complex temperature dependence of coupling and dissipation of cavity magnon polaritons from millikelvin to room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boventer, Isabella; Pfirrmann, Marco; Krause, Julius; Schön, Yannick; Kläui, Mathias; Weides, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Hybridized magnonic-photonic systems are key components for future information processing technologies such as storage, manipulation, or conversion of data both in the classical (mostly at room temperature) and quantum (cryogenic) regime. In this work, we investigate a yttrium-iron-garnet sphere coupled strongly to a microwave cavity over the full temperature range from 290 K to 30 mK . The cavity-magnon polaritons are studied from the classical to the quantum regimes where the thermal energy is less than one resonant microwave quanta, i.e., at temperatures below 1 K . We compare the temperature dependence of the coupling strength geff(T ) , describing the strength of coherent energy exchange between spin ensemble and cavity photon, to the temperature behavior of the saturation magnetization evolution Ms(T ) and find strong deviations at low temperatures. The temperature dependence of magnonic disspation is governed at intermediate temperatures by rare-earth impurity scattering leading to a strong peak at 40 K . The linewidth κm decreases to 1.2 MHz at 30 mK , making this system suitable as a building block for quantum electrodynamics experiments. We achieve an electromagnonic cooperativity in excess of 20 over the entire temperature range, with values beyond 100 in the millikelvin regime as well as at room temperature. With our measurements, spectroscopy on strongly coupled magnon-photon systems is demonstrated as versatile tool for spin material studies over large temperature ranges. Key parameters are provided in a single measurement, thus simplifying investigations significantly.

  10. Structural, dielectric and AC conductivity study of Sb2O3 thin film ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    52

    However, to date, no reports have appeared on impedance spectroscopy, modulus behavior, electrical conductivity, dielectric relaxation and dielectric properties of crystalline Sb2O3 thin films. This paper deals for the first time with the frequency and temperature dependence of AC conductivity and complex electric modulus ...

  11. A nanoscale temperature-dependent heterogeneous nucleation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y. Y.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Classical nucleation theory relies on the hypothetical equilibrium of the whole nucleation system, and neglects the thermal fluctuations of the surface; this is because the high entropic gains of the (thermodynamically extensive) surface would lead to multiple stable states. In fact, at the nanometer scale, the entropic gains of the surface are high enough to destroy the stability of the thermal equilibrium during nucleation, comparing with the whole system. We developed a temperature-dependent nucleation theory to elucidate the heterogeneous nucleation process, by considering the thermal fluctuations based on classical nucleation theory. It was found that the temperature not only affected the phase transformation, but also influenced the surface energy of the nuclei. With changes in the Gibbs free energy barrier, nucleation behaviors, such as the nucleation rate and the critical radius of the nuclei, showed temperature-dependent characteristics that were different from those predicted by classical nucleation theory. The temperature-dependent surface energy density of a nucleus was deduced based on our theoretical model. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental results suggested that the developed nucleation theory has the potential to contribute to the understanding and design of heterogeneous nucleation at the nanoscale

  12. Depth Dependent Relationships between Temperature and Ocean Heterotrophic Prokaryotic Production

    KAUST Repository

    Lønborg, Christian

    2016-06-07

    Marine prokaryotes play a key role in cycling of organic matter and nutrients in the ocean. Using a unique dataset (>14,500 samples), we applied a space-for-time substitution analysis to assess the temperature dependence of prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in epi- (0-200 m), meso- (201-1000 m) and bathypelagic waters (1001-4000 m) of the global ocean. Here, we show that the temperature dependence of PHP is fundamentally different between these major oceanic depth layers, with an estimated ecosystem-level activation energy (E) of 36 ± 7 kJ mol for the epipelagic, 72 ± 15 kJ mol for the mesopelagic and 274 ± 65 kJ mol for the bathypelagic realm. We suggest that the increasing temperature dependence with depth is related to the parallel vertical gradient in the proportion of recalcitrant organic compounds. These Ea predict an increased PHP of about 5, 12, and 55% in the epi-, meso-, and bathypelagic ocean, respectively, in response to a water temperature increase by 1°C. Hence, there is indication that a major thus far underestimated feedback mechanism exists between future bathypelagic ocean warming and heterotrophic prokaryotic activity.

  13. Depth Dependent Relationships between Temperature and Ocean Heterotrophic Prokaryotic Production

    KAUST Repository

    Lø nborg, Christian; Cuevas, L. Antonio; Reinthaler, Thomas; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Bates, Nicholas R.; á lvarez-Salgado, Xosé A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine prokaryotes play a key role in cycling of organic matter and nutrients in the ocean. Using a unique dataset (>14,500 samples), we applied a space-for-time substitution analysis to assess the temperature dependence of prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in epi- (0-200 m), meso- (201-1000 m) and bathypelagic waters (1001-4000 m) of the global ocean. Here, we show that the temperature dependence of PHP is fundamentally different between these major oceanic depth layers, with an estimated ecosystem-level activation energy (E) of 36 ± 7 kJ mol for the epipelagic, 72 ± 15 kJ mol for the mesopelagic and 274 ± 65 kJ mol for the bathypelagic realm. We suggest that the increasing temperature dependence with depth is related to the parallel vertical gradient in the proportion of recalcitrant organic compounds. These Ea predict an increased PHP of about 5, 12, and 55% in the epi-, meso-, and bathypelagic ocean, respectively, in response to a water temperature increase by 1°C. Hence, there is indication that a major thus far underestimated feedback mechanism exists between future bathypelagic ocean warming and heterotrophic prokaryotic activity.

  14. Identification of a dynamic temperature threshold for soil moisture freeze/thaw (F/T) state classification using soil real dielectric constant derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, R.; Berg, A. A.; Warland, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The use of microwave remote sensing for surface ground ice detection has been well documented using both active and passive systems. Typical validation of these remotely sensed F/T state products relies on in-situ air or soil temperature measurements and a threshold of 0°C to identify frozen soil. However, in soil pores, the effects of capillary and adsorptive forces combine with the presence of dissolved salts to depress the freezing point. This is further confounded by the fact that water over this temperature range releases/absorbs latent heat of freezing/fusion. Indeed, recent results from SLAPEx2015, a campaign conducted to evaluate the ability to detect F/T state and examine the controls on F/T detection at multiple resolutions, suggest that using a soil temperature of 0°C as a threshold for freezing may not be appropriate. Coaxial impedance sensors, like Steven's HydraProbeII (HP), are the most widely used soil sensor in water supply forecast and climatological networks. These soil moisture probes have recently been used to validate remote sensing F/T products. This kind of validation is still relatively uncommon and dependent on categorical techniques based on seasonal reference states of frozen and non-frozen soil conditions. An experiment was conducted to identify the correlation between the phase state of the soil moisture and the probe measurements. Eight soil cores were subjected to F/T transitions in an environmental chamber. For each core, at a depth of 2.5 cm, the temperature and real dielectric constant (rdc) were measured every five minutes using HPs while two heat pulse probes captured the apparent heat capacity 24 minutes apart. Preliminary results show the phase transition of water is bounded by inflection points in the soil temperature, attributed to latent heat. The rdc, however, appears to be highly sensitive to changes in the water preceding the phase change. This opens the possibility of estimating a dynamic temperature threshold for

  15. Sample holder for studying temperature dependent particle guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereczky, R.J.; Toekesi, K.; Kowarik, G.; Aumayr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The so called guiding effect is a complex process involving the interplay of a large number of charged particles with a solid. Although many research groups joined this field and carried out various experiments with insulator capillaries many details of the interactions are still unknown. We investigated the temperature dependence of the guiding since it opens new possibilities both for a fundamental understanding of the guiding phenomenon and for applications. For the temperature dependent guiding experiments a completely new heatable sample holder was designed. We developed and built such a heatable sample holder to make accurate and reproducible studies of the temperature dependence of the ion guiding effect possible. The target holder (for an exploded view see Fig. 1) consists of two main parts, the front and the back plates. The two plates of the sample holder, which function as an oven, are made of copper. These parts surround the capillary in order to guarantee a uniform temperature along the whole tube. The temperature of the copper parts is monitored by a K-Type thermocouple. Stainless steel coaxial heaters surrounding the oven are used for heating. The heating power up to a few watts is regulated by a PID controller. Cooling of the capillary is achieved by a copper feed-through connected to a liquid nitrogen bath outside the UHV chamber. This solution allows us to change the temperature of the sample from -30 deg C up to 90 deg C. Our experiments with this newly developed temperature regulated capillary holder show that the glass temperature (i.e. conductivity) can be used to control the guiding properties of the glass capillary and adjust the conditions from guiding at room temperature to simple geometrical transmission at elevated temperatures. This holds the promise to investigate the effect of conductivity on particle transport (build-up and removal of charge patches) through capillaries in more details

  16. Temperature dependence of autoxidation of perilla oil and tocopherol degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Seonyeong; Hwang, Hyunsuk; Yoon, Sukhoo; Choe, Eunok

    2010-08-01

    Temperature dependence of the autoxidation of perilla oil and tocopherol degradation was studied with corn oil as a reference. The oils were oxidized in the dark at 20, 40, 60, and 80 degrees C. Oil oxidation was determined by peroxide and conjugated dienoic acid values. Tocopherols in the oils were quantified by HPLC. The oxidation of both oils increased with oxidation time and temperature. Induction periods for oil autoxidation decreased with temperature, and were longer in corn oil than in perilla oil, indicating higher sensitivity of perilla oil to oxidation. However, time lag for tocopherol degradation was longer in perilla oil, indicating higher stability of tocopherols in perilla oil than in corn oil. Activation energies for oil autoxidation and tocopherol degradation were higher in perilla oil (23.9 to 24.2, 9.8 kcal/mol, respectively) than in corn oil (12.5 to 15.8, 8.8 kcal/mol, respectively) indicating higher temperature-dependence in perilla oil. Higher stability of tocopherols in perilla oil was highly related with polyphenols. The study suggests that more careful temperature control is required to decrease the autoxidation of perilla oil than that of corn oil, and polyphenols contributed to the oxidative stability of perilla oil by protecting tocopherols from degradation, especially at the early stage of oil autoxidation.

  17. Temperature dependence of erythrocyte aggregation in vitro by backscattering nephelometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirko, Igor V.; Firsov, Nikolai N.; Ryaboshapka, Olga M.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.

    1997-05-01

    We apply backscattering nephelometry technique to register the alterations of the scattering signal from a whole blood sample due to appearance or disappearance of different types of erythrocyte aggregates in stasis and under controlled shear stress. The measured parameters are: the characteristic times of linear and 3D aggregates formation, and the strength of aggregates of different types. These parameters depend on the sample temperature in the range of 2 divided by 50 degrees C. Temporal parameters of the aggregation process strongly increase at temperature 45 degrees C. For samples of normal blood the aggregates strength parameters do not significantly depend on the sample temperature, whereas for blood samples from patients suffering Sjogren syndrome we observe high increase of the strength of 3D and linear aggregates and decrease of time of linear aggregates formation at low temperature of the sample. This combination of parameters is opposite to that observed in the samples of pathological blood at room temperature. Possible reasons of this behavior of aggregation state of blood and explanation of the observed effects will be discussed.

  18. Temperature dependence of work hardening in sparsely twinning zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jaiveer; Mahesh, S.; Roy, Shomic; Kumar, Gulshan; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Saibaba, N.; Samajdar, I.

    2017-01-01

    Fully recrystallized commercial Zirconium plates were subjected to uniaxial tension. Tests were conducted at different temperatures (123 K - 623 K) and along two plate directions. Both directions were nominally unfavorable for deformation twinning. The effect of the working temperature on crystallographic texture and in-grain misorientation development was insignificant. However, systematic variation in work hardening and in the area fraction and morphology of deformation twins was observed with temperature. At all temperatures, twinning was associated with significant near boundary mesoscopic shear, suggesting a possible linkage with twin nucleation. A binary tree based model of the polycrystal, which explicitly accounts for grain boundary accommodation and implements the phenomenological extended Voce hardening law, was implemented. This model could capture the measured stress-strain response and twin volume fractions accurately. Interestingly, slip and twin system hardness evolution permitted multiplicative decomposition into temperature-dependent, and accumulated strain-dependent parts. Furthermore, under conditions of relatively limited deformation twinning, the work hardening of the slip and twin systems followed two phenomenological laws proposed in the literature for non-twinning single-phase face centered cubic materials.

  19. Influence of the gas mixture radio on the correlations between the excimer XeCl emission and the sealed gas temperature in dielectric barrier discharge lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Xu Jin Zhou; Ren Zhao Xing

    2002-01-01

    For dielectric barrier discharge lamps filled with various gas mixture ratios, the correlations between the excimer XeCl emission and the sealed gas temperature have been founded, and a qualitative explication is presented. For gas mixture with chlorine larger than 3%, the emission intensity increases with the sealed gas temperature, while with chlorine about 2%, the emission intensity decreases with the increasing in the gas temperature, and could be improved by cooling water. However, if chlorine is less than 1.5%, the discharge appears to be a mixture mode with filaments distributed in a diffused glow-like discharge, and the UV emission is independent on the gas temperature

  20. A New Vogel-Like Law: Ionic Conductivity, Dielectric Relaxation and Viscosity Near the Glass Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bendler, John

    2001-01-01

    A model, based on defect diffusion, is developed that describes temperature and pressure dependence of dielectric relaxation, ionic conductivity and viscosity of glass-forming liquids near the glass...

  1. Quantitative Temperature Dependence of Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Uchida

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report temperature-dependent measurements of longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs in Pt/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} (YIG/Pt systems in a high temperature range from room temperature to above the Curie temperature of YIG. The experimental results show that the magnitude of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/YIG/Pt systems rapidly decreases with increasing the temperature and disappears above the Curie temperature. The critical exponent of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/YIG/Pt systems at the Curie temperature is estimated to be 3, which is much greater than that for the magnetization curve of YIG. This difference highlights the fact that the mechanism of the LSSE cannot be explained in terms of simple static magnetic properties in YIG.

  2. Dielectric relaxation of selenium-tellurium mixed former glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palui, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-05-01

    We report the study of dielectric properties of mixed network former glasses of composition 0.3Ag2O-0.7(xSeO2-(1-x)TeO2); x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 in a wide frequency 10 Hz - 2 MHz and temperature range 223 K - 403 K. The experimental data have been analyzed in the framework of complex dielectric permittivity. The dielectric permittivity data have been analyzed using the Cole-Cole function. The inverse temperature dependence of relaxation time obtained from real part of dielectric permittivity data follows the Arrhenius relation. The activation energy shows mixed glass former effect with variation of mixed former ratio. A non-zero value of shape parameters is observed and it is almost independent of temperature and composition.

  3. Electron-induced dry reforming of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min

    2013-01-01

    and thermo-chemistry in dry reforming of methane. In the tested background temperature range 297-773 K, electron-induced chemistry, as characterized by the physical properties of micro-discharges, was found to govern the conversions of CH4 and CO2, while

  4. Study of nuclear level density parameter and its temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M. N.; Behkami, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear level density ρ is the basic ingredient required for theoretical studies of nuclear reaction and structure. It describes the statistical nuclear properties and is expressed as a function of various constants of motion such as number of particles, excitation energy and angular momentum. In this work the energy and spin dependence of nuclear level density will be presented and discussed. In addition the level density parameter α will be extracted from this level density information, and its temperature and mass dependence will be obtained

  5. Features of dielectric response in PMN-PT ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J D S; Araujo, E B; Guarany, C A; Reis, R N; Lima, E C

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, electrical and structural properties were reported for pyrochlore free (1 - x)[Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 ] - xPbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) (with 35 mol% PbTiO 3 ) ceramics obtained from fine powders. Dielectric studies were focused on the investigation of the complex dielectric permittivity (ε' - iε'') as a function of frequency and temperature. The effects of the dc applied electric field on dielectric response were also investigated. Results revealed a field dependence dielectric anomaly in the dielectric permittivity curves (ε(T)) in the low dc electric field region, which in turn prevails in the whole analysed frequency interval. To the best of our knowledge, these properties for the PMN-PT ceramic system have not been reported before as in this work. The results were analysed within the framework of the current models found in the literature.

  6. Microstructure and texture dependence of the dielectric anomalies and dc conductivity of Bi3TiNbO9 ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moure, A.; Pardo, L.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramics of composition Bi 3 TiNbO 9 (BTN) and perovskite-layered structure (Aurivillius type) [B. Aurivillius, Ark. Kemi 1, 463 (1949)] were processed by natural sintering and hot pressing from amorphous precursors. Precursors were obtained by mechanochemical activation of stoichiometric mixtures of oxides. These materials are in general interesting for their use as high-temperature piezoelectrics. Among them, BTN possesses the highest ferroparaelectric phase-transition temperature (>900 deg. C). The transition temperature establishes the working limit of the ceramic and the electric properties, especially the dc conductivity, affect on its polarizability. In this work, dielectric studies of BTN ceramics with controlled texture and microstructure have been made at 1, 100 KHz, and 1 MHZ and in the temperature range from 200 deg. C up to the ferroparaelectric transition temperature. Values of ε ' ∼250 at 200 deg. C are achieved in ceramics hot pressed at temperatures as low as 700 deg. C for 1 h

  7. Tiny optical fiber temperature sensor based on temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qiang; Song, Zhangqi; Song, Dongyu; Zhang, Xueliang; Li, Bingsheng; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yuzhong

    2018-03-01

    The temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film can be used to develop a tiny, low cost and film-coated optical fiber temperature sensor. Pulse reference-based compensation technique is used to largely reduce the background noise which makes it possible to detect the minor reflectivity change of the film in different temperatures. The temperature sensitivity is 0.0034dB/° and the background noise is measured to be 0.0005dB, so the resolution can achieve 0.2°.

  8. On the Temperature Dependence of the UNIQUAC/UNIFAC Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Steen; Rasmussen, Peter; Fredenslund, Aage

    1980-01-01

    of the simultaneous correlation. The temperature dependent parameters have, however, little physical meaning and very odd results are frequently obtained when the interaction parameters obtained from excess enthalpy information alone are used for the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria. The UNIQUAC/UNIFAC models...... parameters based on excess enthalpy data, and the prediction of excess enthalpy information from only one isothermal set of vapor-liquid equilibrium data is qualitatively acceptable. A parameter table for the modified UNIFAC model is given for the five main groups: CH2, C = C, ACH, ACCH2 and CH2O.......Local composition models for the description of the properties of liquid mixtures do not in general give an accurate representation of excess Gibbs energy and excess enthalpy simultaneously. The introduction of temperature dependent interaction parameters leads to considerable improvements...

  9. Temperature dependence of the beam-foil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, T.J.; Berry, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    The beam energy dependence between 50 and 200 keV of the linear polarization fraction (M/I) of the 2s 1 S--3p 1 P, 5016 A transition in He I on temperature was measured. The thin carbon exciter foils were heated externally by nichrome resistance elements. The measurements of Hight et al. are duplicated; the energy and current dependences are the same for corresponding between beam heating and external heating. It was also observed that γ, the number of slow secondary electrons produced per incident ion, decreases with increasing foil temperature. These two effects, in conjunction, offer a plausible explanation for the variation of polarization with beam current density. 5 figures

  10. Temperature dependence of muonium reaction rates in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.G.; Garner, D.M.; Mikula, R.J.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver

    1981-01-01

    A study of the temperature dependence of reaction rates has long been an important tool in establishing reaction pathways in chemical reactions. This is particularly true for the reactions of muonium (in comparison with those of hydrogen) since a measurement of the activation energy for chemical reaction is sensitive to both the height and the position of the potential barrier in the reaction plane. For collision controlled reactions, on the other hand, the reaction rate is expected to exhibit a weak T 1 sup(/) 2 dependence characteristic of the mean collision velocity. These concepts are discussed and their effects illustrated in a comparison of the chemical and spin exchange reaction rates of muonium and hydrogen in the temperature range approx.300-approx.500 K. (orig.)

  11. On the urban heat island effect dependence on temperature trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilloni, I.; Barros, V.

    1997-01-01

    For US, Argentine and Australian cities, yearly mean urban to rural temperature differences (ΔT u-r ) and rural temperatures (T r ) are negatively correlated in almost every case, suggesting that urban heat island intensity depends, among other parameters on the temperature itself. This negative correlation is related to the fact that interannual variability of temperature is generally lower in urban environments than in rural areas. This seems to hold true at low frequencies leading to opposite trends in the two variables. Hence, urban stations are prone to have lower trends in absolute value than rural ones. Therefore, regional data sets including records from urban locations, in addition to urban growth bias may have a second type of urban bias associated with temperature trends. A bulk estimate of this second urban bias trend for the contiguous United States during 1901-1984 indicates that it could be of the same order as the urban growth bias and of opposite sign. If these results could be extended to global data, it could be expected that the spurious influence of urban growth on global temperature trends during warming periods will be offset by the diminishing of the urban heat island intensity. 36 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Temperature dependent kinematic viscosity of different types of engine oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Severa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to measure how the viscosity of engine oil changes with temperature. Six different commercially distributed engine oils (primarily intended for motorcycle engines of 10W–40 viscosity grade have been evaluated. Four of the oils were of synthetic type, two of semi–synthetic type. All oils have been assumed to be Newtonian fluids, thus flow curves have not been determined. Oils have been cooled to below zero temperatures and under controlled temperature regulation, kinematic viscosity (mm2 / s have been measured in the range of −5 °C and +115 °C. Anton Paar digital viscometer with concentric cylinders geometry has been used. In accordance with expected behavior, kinematic viscosity of all oils was decreasing with increasing temperature. Viscosity was found to be independent on oil’s density. Temperature dependence has been modeled using se­ve­ral mathematical models – Vogel equation, Arrhenius equation, polynomial, and Gaussian equation. The best match between experimental and computed data has been achieved for Gaussian equation (R2 = 0.9993. Knowledge of viscosity behavior of an engine oil as a function of its temperature is of great importance, especially when considering running efficiency and performance of combustion engines. Proposed models can be used for description and prediction of rheological behavior of engine oils.

  13. Temperature dependence of heat sensitization and thermotolerance induction with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henle, K.J.; Nagle, W.A.; Moss, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Cytoxicity of 1 M ethanol was strongly temperature dependent; survival curves between 34 0 and 39 0 C were similar to heat survival curves between 40 and 45 0 without ethanol. Ethanol was non-toxic at 22 0 ; at 34.5 0 and 35.5 0 ethanol survival curves were biphasic. The major effect of 1 M ethanol was an effective temperature shift of 6.4 Celsius degrees, although temperatures between 34 0 and 36 0 caused additional sensitization reminiscent of the stepdown heating phenomenon. Induction of thermotolerance with equitoxic ethanol exposures at 35.5 0 and 37 0 or with heat alone (10 min, 45 0 ) resulted in tolerance development with similar kinetics; in contrast, ethanol exposures at 22 0 did not induce any tolerance development with similar kinetics; in contrast, ethanol exposures at 22 0 did not induce any tolerance to hyperthermia. These data provide a rationale for conflicting reports in the literature regarding thermotolerance induction by ethanol and suggest that ethanol causes ''heat'' stress at temperatures that are generally considered to be physiological. This interpretation predicts that the use of ethanol and other organic solvents in high concentrations will cause effects at 37 0 that normally occur only at hyperthermic temperatures, including membrane perturbations and HSP synthesis, and that ''physiological'' temperatures must be precisely controlled under those conditions

  14. Temperature dependence on the time and momentum spectra in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, P.J.; MacKenzie, I.K.

    1982-01-01

    Recent measurements using the slow-#betta# + beam at Brookhaven, have suggested a thermally activated trapping mechanism which inhibited positron diffusion in single-crystal Ge. Supporting evidence has now been obtained from both Doppler broadening and lifetime measurements but, in both cases, the temperature dependence was so weak that it required the use of dual digital stabilization and unusual statistical precision in both types of spectrometry. (Auth.)

  15. Temperature-dependent errors in nuclear lattice simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dean; Thomson, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We study the temperature dependence of discretization errors in nuclear lattice simulations. We find that for systems with strong attractive interactions the predominant error arises from the breaking of Galilean invariance. We propose a local 'well-tempered' lattice action which eliminates much of this error. The well-tempered action can be readily implemented in lattice simulations for nuclear systems as well as cold atomic Fermi systems

  16. Temperature-dependent electrorheological effect and its description with respect to dielectric spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachý, T.; Sedlačík, M.; Pavlínek, V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Pedro Graça, M.; Cadillon Costa, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 7 (2016), s. 880-886 ISSN 1045-389X. [International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions /14./ - ERMR2014. Granada, 07.07.2014-11.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : electrorheology * aniline oligomers * carbonization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.255, year: 2016

  17. Density of biogas digestate depending on temperature and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Mandy; Schneider, Nico

    2015-09-01

    Density is one of the most important physical properties of biogas digestate to ensure an optimal dimensioning and a precise design of biogas plant components like stirring devices, pumps and heat exchangers. In this study the density of biogas digestates with different compositions was measured using pycnometers at ambient pressure in a temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15K. The biogas digestates were taken from semi-continuous experiments, in which the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina, corn silage and a mixture of both were used as feedstocks. The results show an increase of density with increasing total solid content and a decrease with increasing temperature. Three equations to calculate the density of biogas digestate were set up depending on temperature as well as on the total solid content, organic composition and elemental composition, respectively. All correlations show a relative deviation below 1% compared to experimental data. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Heat experiment design to estimate temperature dependent thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovski, M

    2008-01-01

    Experimental conditions are studied to optimize transient experiments for estimating temperature dependent thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. A mathematical model of a specimen is the one-dimensional heat equation with boundary conditions of the second kind. Thermal properties are assumed to vary nonlinearly with temperature. Experimental conditions refer to the thermal loading scheme, sampling times and sensor location. A numerical model of experimental configurations is studied to elicit the optimal conditions. The numerical solution of the design problem is formulated on a regularization scheme with a stabilizer minimization without a regularization parameter. An explicit design criterion is used to reveal the optimal sensor location, heating duration and flux magnitude. Results obtained indicate that even the strongly nonlinear experimental design problem admits the aggregation of its solution and has a strictly defined optimal measurement scheme. Additional region of temperature measurements with allowable identification error is revealed.

  19. Temperature-dependent particle-number projected moment of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Expressions of the parallel and perpendicular temperature-dependent particle-number projected nuclear moment of inertia have been established by means of a discrete projection method. They generalize that of the FTBCS method and are well adapted to numerical computation. The effects of particle-number fluctuations have been numerically studied for some even-even actinide nuclei by using the single-particle energies and eigenstates of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. It has been shown that the parallel moment of inertia is practically not modified by the use of the projection method. In contrast, the discrepancy between the projected and FTBCS perpendicular moment of inertia values may reach 5%. Moreover, the particle-number fluctuation effects vary not only as a function of the temperature but also as a function of the deformation for a given temperature. This is not the case for the system energy

  20. Modeling of Dielectric Heating within Lyophilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kyncl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A process of lyophilization of paper books is modeled. The process of drying is controlled by a dielectric heating system. From the physical viewpoint, the task represents a 2D coupled problem described by two partial differential equations for the electric and temperature fields. The material parameters are supposed to be temperature-dependent functions. The continuous mathematical model is solved numerically. The methodology is illustrated with some examples whose results are discussed.

  1. Structural, optical and dielectric properties of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Richa; Khan, Shakeel

    2018-05-01

    The Modified Hummers method has been used to synthesize Graphene oxide nanoparticles. Microstructural analyses were carried out by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Optical properties were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy in the range of 200-700 nm. The energy band gap was calculated with the help of Tauc relation. The frequency dependence of dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied over a range of the frequency 75Hz to 5MHz at room temperature. The dispersion in dielectric constant can be explained with the help of Maxwell-Wagner model in studied nanoparticles.

  2. Tailoring order–disorder temperature and microwave dielectric properties of Ba[(Co0.6Zn0.41/3Nb2/3]O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Lai Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The order–disorder temperature (To–d of Ba[(Co0.6Zn0.41/3Nb2/3]O3 ceramics was determined via X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. To–d was determined to be between 1425 and 1450 °C by a quenching method. The endothermic peak in the DTA curve shows the order–disorder transition. B2O3 was applied to tune the densification temperature (Ts and tailor the microwave dielectric properties. The ordering degree and unloaded quality factor (Qf are improved when Ts is reduced to 1400 °C at B2O3 content of 0.25 mol%. Ts is further decreased and the ordering degree and Qf are decreased when B2O3 content is increased to 0.5 mol%. The dielectric constant (εr and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf decrease slightly with increasing B2O3 content. The optimum microwave dielectric properties (i.e., εr = 34.0, Qf = 50,400 GHz, τf = 5.5 × 10−6/°C are obtained for the Ba[(Co0.6Zn0.41/3Nb2/3]O3-0.25 mol% B2O3 ceramics sintered at a lower temperature.

  3. Dielectric resonance in ErFeO3 in the region of spin reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan'shin, N.K.; Kovtun, N.M.; Sdvizhkov, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the region of spin reorientation in ErFeO 3 in the millimetre wave range a dielectric resonance has been found - excitation of electromaqnetic field natural oscillations in spherical samples. The fregurncies of dielectric resonance in samples from ErFeO 3 possess strong independence of temperature and magnetic field in the vicinity of the spin reorientation for account of a strong growth in the magnetic susceptibility. The frequencies change most considerably in the region of low-temperature spin reorientation related to antiferromagnetic rare earth ordering. Strong anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility cases various temperature and field dependences of the dielectric resonance frequencies at different orientations of the exciting electromagnetic field relative to the crystal axes. It is shown that the method of dielectric resonance permits to determine with high accuracy the temperatures of spontaneous - and crystal fields of induced phase transformations. The crystal dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability dispersion are determined

  4. Heat and mass transfer in a contaminated porous concrete slab with variable dielectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of temperature dependent dielectric properties on concrete decontamination and decommissioning using microwave technology is investigated theoretically in this paper. The concrete is treated as a porous material, which has residual water and air within the pores. A one-dimensional model of unsteady heat and mass transport in the porous concrete with temperature dependent dielectric properties is developed. Based on this model, temperature and pressure with different microwave frequencies are predicted, the effects of the temperature dependent dielectric properties on microwave power dissipation, the temperature and pressure distributions for different microwave frequencies, and the different microwave power intensities are analyzed in detail. Four available industrial microwave frequencies of 0.896, 2.45, 10.6 and 18.0 GHz are used in the analysis. As a result of the dielectric properties varying with temperature, the power dissipation also varies with the heating times. Comparing the results for both temperature dependent and constant dielectric properties reveals that the variation of dielectric permittivity with temperature must be considered in a theoretical model of the concrete decontamination and decommissioning process for a low microwave frequency (f <2.45 GHz). (Author)

  5. The Temperature Condition of the Plate with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Energy Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature state of a solid body, in addition to the conditions of its heat exchange with the environment, can greatly depend on the heat release (or heat absorption processes within the body volume. Among the possible causes of these processes should be noted such as a power release in the fuel elements of nuclear reactors, exothermic or endothermic chemical reactions in the solid body material, which respectively involve heat release or absorbtion, heat transfer of a part of the electric power in the current-carrying conductors (so-called Joule’s heat or the energy radiation penetrating into the body of a semitransparent material, etc. The volume power release characterizes an intensity of these processes.The extensive list of references to the theory of heat conductivity of solids offers solutions to problems to determine a stationary (steady over time and non-stationary temperature state of the solids (as a rule, of the canonical form, which act as the sources of volume power release. Thus, in general case, a possibility for changing power release according to the body volume and in solving the nonstationary problems also a possible dependence of this value on the time are taken into consideration.However, in real conditions the volume power release often also depends on the local temperature, and such dependence can be nonlinear. For example, with chemical reactions the intensity of heat release or absorption is in proportion to their rate, which, in turn, is sensitive to the temperature value, and a dependence on the temperature is exponential. A further factor that in such cases makes the analysis of the solid temperature state complicated, is dependence on the temperature and the thermal conductivity of this body material, especially when temperature distribution therein  is significantly non-uniform. Taking into account the influence of these factors requires the mathematical modeling methods, which allow us to build an adequate

  6. Effect of annealing temperature on structural and electrical properties of high-κ YbTixOy gate dielectrics for InGaZnO thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Tung-Ming; Chen, Fa-Hsyang; Hung, Meng-Ning

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of annealing temperature on the structural properties and electrical characteristics of high–κ YbTi x O y gate dielectrics for indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). X-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the structural, chemical and morphological features, respectively, of these dielectric films annealed at 200, 300 and 400 °C. The YbTi x O y IGZO TFT that had been annealed at 400 °C exhibited better electrical characteristics, such as a small threshold voltage of 0.53 V, a large field-effect mobility of 19.1 cm 2 V −1 s −1 , a high I on /I off ratio of 2.8 × 10 7 , and a low subthreshold swing of 176 mV dec. −1 , relative to those of the systems that had been subjected to other annealing conditions. This result suggests that YbTi x O y dielectric possesses a higher dielectric constant as well as lower oxygen vacancies (or defects) in the film. In addition, the instability of YbTi x O y IGZO TFT was studied under positive gate-bias stress and negative gate-bias stress conditions. (paper)

  7. Frequency and voltage dependence dielectric properties, ac electrical conductivity and electric modulus profiles in Al/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-PVA/p-Si structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilkan, Çiğdem, E-mail: cigdembilkan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, The University of Çankırı Karatekin, 18100 Çankırı (Turkey); Azizian-Kalandaragh, Yashar [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Altındal, Şemsettin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, The University of Gazi, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Shokrani-Havigh, Roya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    In this research a simple microwave-assisted method have been used for preparation of cobalt oxide nanostructures. The as-prepared sample has been investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On the other hand, frequency and voltage dependence of both the real and imaginary parts of dielectric constants (ε′, ε″) and electric modulus (M′ and M″), loss tangent (tanδ), and ac electrical conductivity (σ{sub ac}) values of Al/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-PVA/p-Si structures were obtained in the wide range of frequency and voltage using capacitance (C) and conductance (G/ω) data at room temperature. The values of ε′, ε″ and tanδ were found to decrease with increasing frequency almost for each applied bias voltage, but the changes in these parameters become more effective in the depletion region at low frequencies due to the charges at surface states and their relaxation time and polarization effect. While the value of σ is almost constant at low frequency, increases almost as exponentially at high frequency which are corresponding to σ{sub dc} and σ{sub ac}, respectively. The M′ and M″ have low values at low frequencies region and then an increase with frequency due to short-range mobility of charge carriers. While the value of M′ increase with increasing frequency, the value of M″ shows two peak and the peaks positions shifts to higher frequency with increasing applied voltage due to the decrease of the polarization and N{sub ss} effects with increasing frequency.

  8. Frequency and temperature dependence behaviour of impedance, modulus and conductivity of BaBi4Ti4O15 Aurivillius ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmaya Badapanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the dielectric, impedance, modulus and conductivity study of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramic synthesized by solid state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern showed orthorhombic structure with space group A21am confirming it to be an m = 4 member of the Aurivillius oxide. The frequency dependence dielectric study shows that the value of dielectric constant is high at lower frequencies and decreases with increase in frequency. Impedance spectroscopy analyses reveal a non-Debye relaxation phenomenon since relaxation frequency moves towards the positive side with increase in temperature. The shift in impedance peaks towards higher frequency side indicates conduction in material and favouring of the long rangemotion of mobile charge carriers. The Nyquist plot from complex impedance spectrum shows only one semicircular arc representing the grain effect in the electrical conduction. The modulus mechanism indicates the non-Debye type of conductivity relaxation in the material, which is supported by impedance data. Relaxation times extracted using imaginary part of complex impedance (Z′′ and modulus (M′′ were also found to follow Arrhenius law. The frequency dependent AC conductivity at different temperatures indicates that the conduction process is thermally activated. The variation of DC conductivity exhibits a negative temperature coefficient of resistance behaviour.

  9. Temperature dependent dynamic susceptibility calculations for itinerant ferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, J. F.

    1980-10-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have revealed a variety of interesting and unusual phenomena associated with the spin dynamics of the 3-d transition metal ferromagnets nickel and iron. An extensive series of calculations based on the itinerant electron formalism has demonstrated that the itinerant model does provide an excellent quantitative as well as qualitative description of the measured spin dynamics of both nickel and iron at low temperatures. Recent angular photo emission experiments have indicated that there is a rather strong temperature dependence of the electronic spin-splitting which, from relatively crude arguments, appears to be inconsistent with neutron scattering results. In order to investigate this point and also the origin of spin-wave renormalization, a series of calculations of the dynamic susceptibility of nickel and iron has been undertaken. The results of these calculations indicate that a discrepancy exists between the interpretations of neutron and photoemission experimental results regarding the temperature dependence of the spin-splitting of the electronic energy bands.

  10. Temperature-dependent structure evolution in liquid gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, L.H.; Wang, X.D.; Yu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, F.; Sun, Y.; Cao, Q.P.; Xie, H.L.; Xiao, T.Q.; Zhang, D.X.; Wang, C.Z.; Ho, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature-dependent atomistic structure evolution of liquid gallium (Ga) has been investigated by using in situ high energy X-ray diffraction experiment and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. Both experimental and theoretical results reveal the existence of a liquid structural change around 1000 K in liquid Ga. Below and above this temperature the liquid exhibits differences in activation energy for self-diffusion, temperature-dependent heat capacity, coordination numbers, density, viscosity, electric resistivity and thermoelectric power, which are reflected from structural changes of the bond-orientational order parameter Q_6, fraction of covalent dimers, averaged string length and local atomic packing. This finding will trigger more studies on the liquid-to-liquid crossover in metallic melts. - Graphical abstract: Atomistic structure evolution of liquid gallium has been investigated by using in situ high energy X-ray diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, which both demonstrate the existence of a liquid structural change together with reported density, viscosity, electric resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power data.

  11. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence from CdS/Si nanoheterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yue Li; Li, Yong; Ji, Peng Fei; Zhou, Feng Qun; Sun, Xiao Jun; Yuan, Shu Qing; Wan, Ming Li [Pingdingshan University, Department of Physics, Solar New Energy Research Center, Pingdingshan (China); Ling, Hong [North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Department of Mathematics and Information Science, Zhengzhou (China)

    2016-12-15

    CdS/Si nanoheterojunctions have been fabricated by growing nanocrystal CdS (nc-CdS) on the silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) through using a chemical bath deposition method. The nanoheterojunctions have been constructed by three layers: the upper layer being a nc-CdS thin films, the intermediate layer being the interface region including nc-CdS and nanocrystal silicon (nc-Si), and the bottom layer being nc-Si layer grown on sc-Si substrate. The room temperature and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) have been measured and analyzed to provide some useful information of defect states. Utilizing the Gauss-Newton fitting method, five emission peaks from the temperature-dependent PL spectra can be determined. From the high energy to low energy, these five peaks are ascribed to the some luminescence centers which are formed by the oxygen-related deficiency centers in the silicon oxide layer of Si-NPA, the band gap emission of nc-CdS, the transition from the interstitial cadmium (I{sub Cd}) to the valence band, the recombination from I{sub Cd} to cadmium vacancies (V{sub Cd}), and from sulfur vacancies (V{sub s}) to the valence band, respectively. Understanding of the defect states in the CdS/Si nanoheterojunctions is very meaningful for the performance of devices based on CdS/Si nanoheterojunctions. (orig.)

  12. Temperature-dependent magnetic EXAFS investigation of Gd

    CERN Document Server

    Wende, H; Poulopoulos, P N; Rogalev, A; Goulon, J; Schlagel, D L; Lograsso, T A; Baberschke, K

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic EXAFS (MEXAFS) is the helicity-dependent counterpart of the well-established EXAFS technique. By means of MEXAFS it is possible not only to analyze the local magnetic structure but also to learn about magnetic fluctuations. Here we present the MEXAFS of a Gd single crystal at the L sub 3 sub , sub 2 -edges in the temperature range of 10-250 K. For the first time MEXAFS was probed over a large range in reduced temperature of 0.04<=T/T sub C<=0.85 with T sub C =293 K. We show that the vibrational damping described by means of a Debye temperature of theta sub D =160 K must be taken into account for the spin-dependent MEXAFS before analyzing magnetic fluctuations. For a detailed analysis of the MEXAFS and the EXAFS, the experimental data are compared to ab initio calculations. This enables us to separate the individual single- from the multiple-scattering contributions. The MEXAFS data have been recorded at the ID 12A beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). To ensure that th...

  13. Temperature dependence and the moving species during ion mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, W.; Fernandes, M.; Hewett, C.A.; Lau, S.S.; Poker, D.B.; Biersack, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the authors review the experimental observations of the temperature dependence and the moving species in ion mixing, emphasizing the metal-semiconductor systems. Ion mixing is the combined effect of two components. One component is temperature independent and is primarily due to events in the prompt regime, the other component is temperature dependent and has the characteristics of the associated thermal reactions. The moving species during ion mixing are influenced by collisional effects, either due to secondary recoils, or due to local hot spots, or both. The secondary recoil concept is consistent with experimental observations that the motion of the lighter element in a bilayer sample is enhanced. There is ample evidence that while the a thermal regime is caused by particle-solid interactions, thermodynamical forces are important in deciding the magnitude of mixing. In the thermally activated regime, the ion induced reaction product should be influenced by the heats of formation of various compounds. We also indicate areas where satisfactory explanations are not available at present

  14. Determination of temperature dependency of material parameters for lead-free alkali niobate piezoceramics by the inverse method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ogo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium potassium niobate (NKN piezoceramics have been paid much attention as lead-free piezoelectric materials in high temperature devices because of their high Curie temperature. The temperature dependency of their material parameters, however, has not been determined in detail up to now. For this purpose, we exploit the so-called Inverse Method denoting a simulation-based characterization approach. Compared with other characterization methods, the Inverse Method requires only one sample shape of the piezoceramic material and has further decisive advantages. The identification of material parameters showed that NKN is mechanically softer in shear direction compared with lead zirconate titanate (PZT at room temperature. The temperature dependency of the material parameters of NKN was evaluated in the temperature range from 30 °C to 150 °C. As a result, we figured out that dielectric constants and piezoelectric constants show a monotonous and isotropic increment with increasing temperature. On the other hand, elastic stiffness constant c 44 E of NKN significantly decreased in contrast to other elastic stiffness constants. It could be revealed that the decrement of c 44 E is associated with an orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition. Furthermore, ratio of elastic compliance constants s 44 E / s 33 E exhibited similar temperature dependent behavior to the ratio of piezoelectric constants d15/d33. It is suspected that mechanical softness in shear direction is one origin of the large piezoelectric shear mode of NKN. Our results show that NKN are suitable for high temperature devices, and that the Inverse Method should be a helpful approach to characterize material parameters under their practical operating conditions for NKN.

  15. Shock temperature dependent rate law for plastic bonded explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Tariq D.

    2018-04-01

    A reactive flow model for the tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) based plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% polymeric binder Kel-F 800) is presented. This newly devised model is based primarily on the shock temperature of the material, along with local pressure, and accurately models a broader range of detonation and initiation scenarios. Specifically, sensitivity changes to the initial explosive temperature are accounted for naturally and with a single set of parameters. The equation of state forms for the reactants and products, as well as the thermodynamic closure of pressure and temperature equilibration, are carried over from the Wescott-Stewart-Davis (WSD) model [Wescott et al., J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053514 (2005) and "Modeling detonation diffraction and dead zones in PBX-9502," in Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Detonation Symposium (2006)]. This newly devised model, with Arrhenius state dependence on the shock temperature, based on the WSD equation of states, is denoted by AWSD. Modifying an existing implementation of the WSD model to the AWSD model in a hydrocode is a rather straightforward procedure.

  16. Temperature dependence of thermal pressure for NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K.; Pande, Brijesh K.; Pandey, Anjani K.

    2018-05-01

    Engineering applications of the materials can be explored upto the desired limit of accuracy with the better knowledge of its mechanical and thermal properties such as ductility, brittleness and Thermal Pressure. For the resistance to fracture (K) and plastic deformation (G) the ratio K/G is treated as an indication of ductile or brittle character of solids. In the present work we have tested the condition of ductility and brittleness with the calculated values of K/G for the NaCl. It is concluded that the nature of NaCl can be predicted upto high temperature simply with the knowledge of its elastic stiffness constant only. Thermoelastic properties of materials at high temperature is directly related to thermal pressure and volume expansion of the materials. An expression for the temperature dependence of thermal pressure is formulated using basic thermodynamic identities. It is observed that thermal pressure ΔPth calculated for NaCl by using Kushwah formulation is in good agreement with the experimental values also the thermal pressure increases with the increase in temperature.

  17. Force-dependent melting of supercoiled DNA at thermophilic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galburt, E A; Tomko, E J; Stump, W T; Ruiz Manzano, A

    2014-01-01

    Local DNA opening plays an important role in DNA metabolism as the double-helix must be melted before the information contained within may be accessed. Cells finely tune the torsional state of their genomes to strike a balance between stability and accessibility. For example, while mesophilic life forms maintain negatively superhelical genomes, thermophilic life forms use unique mechanisms to maintain relaxed or even positively supercoiled genomes. Here, we use a single-molecule magnetic tweezers approach to quantify the force-dependent equilibrium between DNA melting and supercoiling at high temperatures populated by Thermophiles. We show that negatively supercoiled DNA denatures at 0.5 pN lower tension at thermophilic vs. mesophilic temperatures. This work demonstrates the ability to monitor DNA supercoiling at high temperature and opens the possibility to perform magnetic tweezers assays on thermophilic systems. The data allow for an estimation of the relative energies of base-pairing and DNA bending as a function of temperature and support speculation as to different general mechanisms of DNA opening in different environments. Lastly, our results imply that average in vivo DNA tensions range between 0.3 and 1.1 pN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling temperature dependent singlet exciton dynamics in multilayered organic nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Leonardo Evaristo; de Oliveira Neto, Pedro Henrique; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; da Silva Filho, Demétrio Antônio

    2018-05-01

    Organic nanofibers have shown potential for application in optoelectronic devices because of the tunability of their optical properties. These properties are influenced by the electronic structure of the molecules that compose the nanofibers and also by the behavior of the excitons generated in the material. Exciton diffusion by means of Förster resonance energy transfer is responsible, for instance, for the change with temperature of colors in the light emitted by systems composed of different types of nanofibers. To study in detail this mechanism, we model temperature dependent singlet exciton dynamics in multilayered organic nanofibers. By simulating absorption and emission spectra, the possible Förster transitions are identified. Then, a kinetic Monte Carlo model is employed in combination with a genetic algorithm to theoretically reproduce time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for several temperatures. This procedure allows for the obtainment of different information regarding exciton diffusion in such a system, including temperature effects on the Förster transfer efficiency and the activation energy of the Förster mechanism. The method is general and may be employed for different systems where exciton diffusion plays a role.

  19. Gas diffusion and temperature dependence of bubble nucleation during irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreman, A. J. E.; Singh, Bachu Narain

    1986-01-01

    The continuous production of gases at relatively high rates under fusion irradiation conditions may enhance the nucleation of cavities. This can cause dimensional changes and could induce embrittlement arising from gas accumulation on grain boundaries. Computer calculations have been made...... of the diatomic nucleation of helium bubbles, assuming helium to diffuse substitutionally, with radiation-enhanced diffusion at lower temperatures. The calculated temperature dependence of the bubble density shows excellent agreement with that observed in 600 MeV proton irradiations, including a reduction...... in activation energy below Tm/2. The coalescence of diatomic nuclei due to Brownian motion markedly improves the agreement and also provides a well-defined terminal density. Bubble nucleation by this mechanism is sufficiently fast to inhibit any appreciable initial loss of gas to grain boundaries during...

  20. Temperature dependence of the kinetics of isometric myocardium relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izakov, V.Ya.; Bykov, B.L.; Kimmelman, I.Ya.

    1981-11-01

    The dependence of the exponential decay constant expressing the isometric relaxation of the myocardium on temperature is investigated in animals with various specific contents of myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum. Experiments were performed on cardiac ventricles and atria isolated from rabbits, frogs and turtles and electrically stimulated to produce maximal contraction at temperatures from 10 to 35 C. Arrhenius plots derived from the data are found to be linear in the myocardia of the rabbit and frog, with a greater activation energy for the relaxation found in the rabbit. The Arrhenius plot for the turtle, which has a sarcoplasmic reticulum content intermediate between those of the frog and rabbit, corresponds to two straight lines with different activation energies. Results thus support the hypothesis of two separate mechanisms of calcium removal, involving the sarcoplasmic reticulum and cellular membrane, in muscle relaxation.

  1. Determination of the temperature dependence of tungsten erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.; Greuner, H.; Toussaint, U. von; Balden, M.; Böswirth, B.; Elgeti, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of erosion measurements on actively cooled tungsten samples at quasi-constant surface temperature conditions performed in the high heat flux facility GLADIS. The samples were exposed to a H beam at a central power density of 10 MW/m 2 up to a fluence of 10 26 m −2 . We observe a weak temperature dependence of the erosion yield. The data are compared with similar data obtained from loading with a H beam with He admixture. Both datasets are analysed in a probabilistic approach. We obtain activation energies of 0.04 eV and 0.06 eV for the cases with and without He, respectively

  2. Temperature dependence of bulk viscosity in water using acoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, M J; Parker, N G; Povey, M J W

    2011-01-01

    Despite its fundamental role in the dynamics of compressible fluids, bulk viscosity has received little experimental attention and there remains a paucity of measured data. Acoustic spectroscopy provides a robust and accurate approach to measuring this parameter. Working from the Navier-Stokes model of a compressible fluid one can show that the bulk viscosity makes a significant and measurable contribution to the frequency-squared acoustic attenuation. Here we employ this methodology to determine the bulk viscosity of Millipore water over a temperature range of 7 to 50 0 C. The measured attenuation spectra are consistent with the theoretical predictions, while the bulk viscosity of water is found to be approximately three times larger than its shear counterpart, reinforcing its significance in acoustic propagation. Moreover, our results demonstrate that this technique can be readily and generally applied to fluids to accurately determine their temperature dependent bulk viscosities.

  3. Temperature-dependent chemical changes of metallic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Young Sang; Lee, Jeong Mook; KimJong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong Yun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We observed the temperature-dependent variations of UZr alloy using surface analysis techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive Xray spectroscope (EDS). In this work, we exhibited the results of XPS, Raman, XRD, and SEM-EDS for U-10wt%Zr alloy at room temperature, 610 and 1130 .deg. C. In SEM-EDS data, we observed that uranium and zirconium elements uniformly exist. After the annealing of U-10Zr sample at 1130 .deg. C, the formation of zirconium carbide is verified through Raman spectroscopy and XRD results. Additionally, the change of valence state for uranium element is also confirmed by XPS analysis.

  4. Temperature dependence of magnetoresistance in copper single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Q.; Niewczas, M.

    2018-03-01

    Transverse magnetoresistance of copper single crystals has been measured in the orientation of open-orbit from 2 K to 20 K for fields up to 9 T. The experimental Kohler's plots display deviation between individual curves below 16 K and overlap in the range of 16 K-20 K. The violation of the Kohler's rule below 16 K indicates that the magnetotransport can not be described by the classical theory of electron transport on spherical Fermi surface with a single relaxation time. A theoretical model incorporating two energy bands, spherical and cylindrical, with different relaxation times has been developed to describe the magnetoresistance data. The calculations show that the electron-phonon scattering rates at belly and neck regions of the Fermi surface have different temperature dependencies, and in general, they do not follow T3 law. The ratio of the relaxation times in belly and neck regions decreases parabolically with temperature as A - CT2 , with A and C being constants.

  5. Temperature Dependent Variations of Phonon Interactions in Nanocrystalline Cerium Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandha Dogra Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependent anharmonic behavior of the phonon modes of nanocrystalline CeO2 was investigated in the temperature range of 80–440 K. The anharmonic constants have been derived from the shift in phonon modes fitted to account for the anharmonic contributions as well as the thermal expansion contribution using the high pressure parameters derived from our own high pressure experimental data reported previously. The total anharmonicity has also been estimated from the true anharmonicity as well as quasiharmonic component. In the line-width variation analysis, the cubic anharmonic term was found to dominate the quartic term. Finally, the phonon lifetime also reflected the trend so observed.

  6. Core-shell structured polystyrene/BaTiO3 hybrid nanodielectrics prepared by in situ RAFT polymerization: a route to high dielectric constant and low loss materials with weak frequency dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Huang, Xingyi; Xie, Liyuan; Wu, Chao; Jiang, Pingkai; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    2012-11-23

    A novel route to prepare core-shell structured nanocomposites with excellent dielectric performance is reported. This approach involves the grafting of polystyrene (PS) from the surface of BaTiO(3) by an in situ RAFT polymerization. The core-shell structured PS/BaTiO(3) nanocomposites not only show significantly increased dielectric constant and very low dielectric loss, but also have a weak frequency dependence of dielectric properties over a wide range of frequencies. In addition, the dielectric constant of the nanocomposites can also be easily tuned by varying the thickness of the PS shell. Our method is very promising for preparing high-performance nanocomposites used in energy-storage devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dielectric dispersion in pure and doped lithium rubidium sulphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, M. E.; El-Muraikhi, M.; Al-Houty, L.; Mohamed, A. A.

    The frequency (102 - 105 Hz) dependence of the dielectric properties of lithium rubidium sulphate (LRS) are reported in the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc = 477 K. The a.c. conductivity σ(ω) shows a strong temperature dependence and weak frequency response. The dielectric constant in this region shows a strong frequency dispersion. A Cole-Cole diagram was used to determine the distribution parameter and the molecular relaxation time. The effect of doping with Dy+3, Sm+3 and V+3, was also studied. It was found that doping gives rise to localized states which produce a disorder in the structure of LiRbSO4.

  8. Ozone production in a dielectric barrier discharge with ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Joanna Maria; Kusano, Yukihiro; Leipold, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production has been investigated using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in pure O2 at room temperature with and without ultrasonic irradiation. It was driven at a frequency of either 15 kHz or 40 kHz. The ozone production was highly dependent on the O2 flow rate and the ......Ozone production has been investigated using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in pure O2 at room temperature with and without ultrasonic irradiation. It was driven at a frequency of either 15 kHz or 40 kHz. The ozone production was highly dependent on the O2 flow rate...

  9. Dielectric Constant Measurements of Solid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L.; Xia, J. S.; Huan, C.; Sullivan, N. S.; Chan, M. H. W.

    2011-03-01

    Careful measurements of the dielectric properties of solid 4He have been carried out down to 35 mK, considerably lower than the temperature range of previous studies. The sample was prepared from high purity gas with 3He concentrations of the order of 200 ppb and were formed by the blocked capillary method. The molar volume of the sample was 20.30 cm3. The dielectric constant of the samples was found to be independent of temperature down to 120 mK before showing a continuous increase with decreasing temperature and saturating below 50 mK. The total increase in ɛ is 2 parts in 10-5. The temperature dependence of ɛ mimics the increase in the resonant frequency found in the torsional oscillator studies and also the increase found in the shear modulus measurements.

  10. Temperature dependent transport characteristics of graphene/n-Si diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parui, S.; Ruiter, R.; Zomer, P. J.; Wojtaszek, M.; Wees, B. J. van; Banerjee, T.

    2014-01-01

    Realizing an optimal Schottky interface of graphene on Si is challenging, as the electrical transport strongly depends on the graphene quality and the fabrication processes. Such interfaces are of increasing research interest for integration in diverse electronic devices as they are thermally and chemically stable in all environments, unlike standard metal/semiconductor interfaces. We fabricate such interfaces with n-type Si at ambient conditions and find their electrical characteristics to be highly rectifying, with minimal reverse leakage current (<10 −10  A) and rectification of more than 10 6 . We extract Schottky barrier height of 0.69 eV for the exfoliated graphene and 0.83 eV for the CVD graphene devices at room temperature. The temperature dependent electrical characteristics suggest the influence of inhomogeneities at the graphene/n-Si interface. A quantitative analysis of the inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier heights is presented using the potential fluctuation model proposed by Werner and Güttler

  11. Temperature dependence of the two photon absorption in indium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Rella, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes in semiconductors have long been a source of interesting physics. Two photon absorption (TPA) is one such process, in which two photons provide the energy for the creation of an electron-hole pair. Researchers at other FEL centers have studied room temperature TPA in InSb, InAs, and HgCdTe. Working at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center, we have extended and refined this work by measuring the temperature dependence of the TPA coefficient in InAs over the range from 80 to 350 K at four wavelengths: 4.5, 5.06, 6.01, and 6.3 microns. The measurements validate the functional dependence of recent band structure calculations with enough precision to discriminate parabolic from non-parabolic models, and to begin to observe smaller effects, such as contributions due to the split-off band. These experiments therefore serve as a strong independent test of the Kane band theory, as well as providing a starting point for detailed observations of other nonlinear absorption mechanisms

  12. Temperature dependence of ion irradiation induced amorphization of zirconolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K. L.; Blackford, M. G.; Lumpkin, G. R.; Zaluzec, N. J.

    1999-01-01

    Zirconolite is one of the major host phases for actinides in various wasteforms for immobilizing high level radioactive waste (HLW). Over time, zirconolite's crystalline matrix is damaged by α-particles and energetic recoil nuclei recoil resulting from α-decay events. The cumulative damage caused by these particles results in amorphization. Data from natural zirconolites suggest that radiation damage anneals over geologic time and is dependant on the thermal history of the material. Proposed HLW containment strategies rely on both a suitable wasteform and geologic isolation. Depending on the waste loading, depth of burial, and the repository-specific geothermal gradient, burial could result in a wasteform being exposed to temperatures of between 100--450 C. Consequently, it is important to assess the effect of temperature on radiation damage in synthetic zirconolite. Zirconolite containing wasteforms are likely to be hot pressed at or below 1,473 K (1,200 C) and/or sintered at or below 1,623 K (1,350 C). Zirconolite fabricated at temperatures below 1,523 K (1,250 C) contains many stacking faults. As there have been various attempts to link radiation resistance to structure, the authors decided it was also pertinent to assess the role of stacking faults in radiation resistance. In this study, they simulate α-decay damage in two zirconolite samples by irradiating them with 1.5 MeV Kr + ions using the High Voltage Electron Microscope-Tandem User Facility (HTUF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and measure the critical dose for amorphization (D c ) at several temperatures between 20 and 773 K. One of the samples has a high degree of crystallographic perfection, the other contains many stacking faults on the unit cell scale. Previous authors proposed a model for estimating the activation energy of self annealing in zirconolite and for predicting the critical dose for amorphization at any temperature. The authors discuss their results and earlier published data in

  13. Tungsten trioxide as high-{kappa} gate dielectric for highly transparent and temperature-stable zinc-oxide-based thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Michael; Wenckstern, Holger von; Grundmann, Marius [Universitaet Leipzig, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors with high-{kappa}, room-temperature deposited, highly transparent tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) as gate dielectric. The channel material consists of a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film. The transmittance and resistivity of WO{sub 3} films was tuned in order to obtain a highly transparent and insulating WO{sub 3} dielectric. The devices were processed by standard photolithography using lift-off technique. On top of the WO{sub 3} dielectric a highly transparent and conductive oxide consisting of ZnO: Al 3% wt. was deposited. The gate structure of the devices exhibits an average transmittance in the visible spectral range of 86%. The on/off-current ratio is larger than 10{sup 8} with off- and gate leakage-currents below 3 x 10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2}. Due to the high relative permittivity of {epsilon}{sub r} {approx} 70, a gate voltage sweep of only 2 V is necessary to turn the transistor on and off with a minimum subthreshold swing of 80 mV/decade. The channel mobility of the transistors equals the Hall-effect mobility with a value of 5 cm{sup 2}/Vs. It is furthermore shown, that the devices are stable up to operating temperatures of at least 150 C.

  14. Dielectric Behavior of Low Microwave Loss Unit Cell for All Dielectric Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhuan Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With a deep study of the metamaterial, its unit cells have been widely extended from metals to dielectrics. The dielectric based unit cells attract much attention because of the advantage of easy preparation, tunability, and higher frequency response, and so forth. Using the conventional solid state method, we prepared a kind of incipient ferroelectrics (calcium titanate, CaTiO3 with higher microwave permittivity and lower loss, which can be successfully used to construct metamaterials. The temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric constant are also measured under different sintering temperatures. The dielectric spectra showed a slight permittivity decrease with the increase of temperature and exhibited a loss of 0.0005, combined with a higher microwave dielectric constant of ~167 and quality factor Q of 2049. Therefore, CaTiO3 is a kind of versatile and potential metamaterial unit cell. The permittivity of CaTiO3 at higher microwave frequency was also examined in the rectangular waveguide and we got the permittivity of 165, creating a new method to test permittivity at higher microwave frequency.

  15. Dielectric properties of PLZT-x/65/35 (2≤x≤13 under mechanical stress, electric field and temperature loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pytel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of uniaxial pressure (0÷1000 bars applied parallely to the ac electric field on dielectric properties of PLZT-x/65/35 (2≤x≤13 ceramics. There was revealed a significant effect of the external stress on these properties. The application of uniaxial pressure leads to the change of the peak intensity of the electric permittivity (ϵ, of the frequency dispersion as well as of the dielectric hysteresis. The peak intensity ϵ becomes diffused/sharpened and shifts to a higher/lower temperatures with increasing the pressure. It was concluded that the application of uniaxial pressure induces similar effects as increasing the Ti ion concentration in PZT system. We interpreted our results based on the domain switching processes under the action of combined electromechanical loading.

  16. Thermal Experimental Analysis for Dielectric Characterization of High Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Thabet Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of nanoparticles in controlling physical properties of polymeric nanocomposite materials leads us to study effects of these nanoparticles on electric and dielectric properties of polymers in industry In this research, the dielectric behaviour of High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE nanocomposites materials that filled with nanoparticles of clay or fumed silica has been investigated at various frequencies (10 Hz-1 kHz and temperatures (20-60°C. Dielectric spectroscopy has been used to characterize ionic conduction, then, the effects of nanoparticles concentration on the dielectric losses and capacitive charge of the new nanocomposites can be stated. Capacitive charge and loss tangent in high density polyethylene nanocomposites are measured by dielectric spectroscopy. Different dielectric behaviour has been observed depending on type and concentration of nanoparticles under variant thermal conditions.

  17. Low-temperature fabrication of sputtered high-k HfO2 gate dielectric for flexible a-IGZO thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rihui; Zheng, Zeke; Xiong, Mei; Zhang, Xiaochen; Li, Xiaoqing; Ning, Honglong; Fang, Zhiqiang; Xie, Weiguang; Lu, Xubing; Peng, Junbiao

    2018-03-01

    In this work, low temperature fabrication of a sputtered high-k HfO2 gate dielectric for flexible a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs) on polyimide substrates was investigated. The effects of Ar-pressure during the sputtering process and then especially the post-annealing treatments at low temperature (≤200 °C) for HfO2 on reducing the density of defects in the bulk and on the surface were systematically studied. X-ray reflectivity, UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and micro-wave photoconductivity decay measurements were carried out and indicated that the high quality of optimized HfO2 film and its high dielectric properties contributed to the low concentration of structural defects and shallow localized defects such as oxygen vacancies. As a result, the well-structured HfO2 gate dielectric exhibited a high density of 9.7 g/cm3, a high dielectric constant of 28.5, a wide optical bandgap of 4.75 eV, and relatively low leakage current. The corresponding flexible a-IGZO TFT on polyimide exhibited an optimal device performance with a saturation mobility of 10.3 cm2 V-1 s-1, an Ion/Ioff ratio of 4.3 × 107, a SS value of 0.28 V dec-1, and a threshold voltage (Vth) of 1.1 V, as well as favorable stability under NBS/PBS gate bias and bending stress.

  18. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  19. Dielectric behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    dielectric loss (tan δ) as functions of frequency and temperature. Ion core type ... Since the data on dielectric properties of strontium tartrate trihydrate (STT) do not ... through 'AE' make 15-amp dimmerstat, the rate of heating was maintained ...

  20. Solubility Temperature Dependence Predicted from 2D Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Avdeef

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to find a computational procedure to normalize solubility data determined at various temperatures (e.g., 10 – 50 oC to values at a “reference” temperature (e.g., 25 °C. A simple procedure was devised to predict enthalpies of solution, ΔHsol, from which the temperature dependence of intrinsic (uncharged form solubility, log S0, could be calculated. As dependent variables, values of ΔHsol at 25 °C were subjected to multiple linear regression (MLR analysis, using melting points (mp and Abraham solvation descriptors. Also, the enthalpy data were subjected to random forest regression (RFR and recursive partition tree (RPT analyses. A total of 626 molecules were examined, drawing on 2040 published solubility values measured at various temperatures, along with 77 direct calori    metric measurements. The three different prediction methods (RFR, RPT, MLR all indicated that the estimated standard deviations in the enthalpy data are 11-15 kJ mol-1, which is concordant with the 10 kJ mol-1 propagation error estimated from solubility measurements (assuming 0.05 log S errors, and consistent with the 7 kJ mol-1 average reproducibility in enthalpy values from interlaboratory replicates. According to the MLR model, higher values of mp, H‑bond acidity, polarizability/dipolarity, and dispersion forces relate to more positive (endothermic enthalpy values. However, molecules that are large and have high H-bond basicity are likely to possess negative (exothermic enthalpies of solution. With log S0 values normalized to 25 oC, it was shown that the interlaboratory average standard deviations in solubility measurement are reduced to 0.06 ‑ 0.17 log unit, with higher errors for the least-soluble druglike molecules. Such improvements in data mining are expected to contribute to more reliable in silico prediction models of solubility for use in drug discovery.

  1. Time-dependent radiolytic yields at room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption spectra of the solvated electrons in polyols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Mingzhang; Mostafavi, M.; Lampre, I.; Muroya, Y.; Katsumura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The molar extinction coefficients at the absorption maximum of the solvated electron spectrum have been evaluated to be 900, 970, and 1000 mol -1 ·m 2 for 1,2-ethanediol (12ED), 1,2-propanediol (12PD), and 1,3-propanediol (13PD), respectively. These values are two-third or three-fourth of the value usually reported in the published report. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies have aided in depicting the radiolytic yield of the solvated electron in these solvents as a function of time from picosecond to microsecond. The radiolytic yield in these viscous solvents is found to be strongly different from that of the water solution. The temperature dependent absorption spectra of the solvated electron in 12ED, 12PD, and 13PD have been also investigated. In all the three solvents, the optical spectra shift to the red with increasing temperature. While the shape of the spectra does not change in 13PD, a widening on the blue side of the absorption band is observed in 12ED and 12PD at elevated temperatures. (authors)

  2. Temperature dependent measurement of internal damping of austenitic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oravcová Monika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed on the analysis of the internal damping changes of austenitic stainless steels AISI 304, AISI 316L and AISI 316Ti depending from temperature. In experimental measurements only resonance method was used which is based on continuous excitation of oscillations of the specimens and the whole apparatus vibrates at the frequency near to the resonance. Microplastic processes and dissipation of energy within the metals are evaluated and investigated by internal damping measurements. Damping capacity of materials is closely tied to the presence of defects including second phase particles and voids. By measuring the energy dissipation in the material, we can determine the elastic characteristics, Youngs modulus, the level of stress relaxation and many other.

  3. Temperature Dependence of the Viscosity of Isotropic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadzyn, J.; Czechowski, G.; Lech, T.

    1999-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the shear viscosity measured for isotropic liquids belonging to the three homologous series: 4-(trans-4'-n-alkylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzenes (Cn H2n+1 CyHx Ph NCS; nCHBT, n=0-12), n-alkylcyanobiphenyls (CnH2n+1 Ph Ph CN; nCB, n=2-12) and 1,n-alkanediols (HO(CH2)nOH; 1,nAD, n=2-10) were analysed with the use of Arrhenius equation and its two modifications: Vogel--Fulcher and proposed in this paper. The extrapolation of the isothermal viscosity of 1,n-alkanediols (n=2-10) to n=1 leads to an interesting conclusion concerning the expected viscosity of methanediol, HOCH2OH, the compound strongly unstable in a pure state.

  4. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of semiconductors and insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncé, S., E-mail: samuel.pon@gmail.com; Gillet, Y.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Gonze, X. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility and Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Université catholique de Louvain, Chemin des étoiles 8, bte L07.03.01, B-1348 Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Marini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via Salaria Km 29.3, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Verstraete, M. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility and Physique des matériaux et nanostructures, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, B-4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2015-09-14

    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon coupling (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is sizable in many materials with light atoms. This effect, often neglected in ab initio calculations, can be computed using the perturbation-based Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the adiabatic or non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. After a short description of the recent progresses in this field and a brief overview of the theory, we focus on the issue of phonon wavevector sampling convergence, until now poorly understood. Indeed, the renormalization is obtained numerically through a slowly converging q-point integration. For non-zero Born effective charges, we show that a divergence appears in the electron-phonon matrix elements at q → Γ, leading to a divergence of the adiabatic renormalization at band extrema. This problem is exacerbated by the slow convergence of Born effective charges with electronic wavevector sampling, which leaves residual Born effective charges in ab initio calculations on materials that are physically devoid of such charges. Here, we propose a solution that improves this convergence. However, for materials where Born effective charges are physically non-zero, the divergence of the renormalization indicates a breakdown of the adiabatic harmonic approximation, which we assess here by switching to the non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. Also, we study the convergence behavior of the renormalization and develop reliable extrapolation schemes to obtain the converged results. Finally, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic theories, with corrections for the slow Born effective charge convergence problem (and the associated divergence) are applied to the study of five semiconductors and insulators: α-AlN, β-AlN, BN, diamond, and silicon. For these five materials, we present the zero-point renormalization, temperature dependence, phonon-induced lifetime broadening, and the renormalized electronic band structure.

  5. Temperature dependence of the deformation behavior of 316 stainless steel after low temperature neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel-Robertson, J.E.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The effects of low temperature neutron irradiation on the tensile behavior of 316 stainless steel have been investigated. A single heat of solution annealed 316 was irradiated to 7 and 18 dpa at 60, 200, 330, and 400{degrees}C. The tensile properties as a function of dose and as a function of temperature were examined. Large changes in yield strength, deformation mode, strain to necking, and strain hardening capacity were seen in this irradiation experiment. The magnitudes of the changes are dependent on both irradiation temperature and neutron dose. Irradiation can more than triple the yield strength over the unirradiated value and decrease the strain to necking (STN) to less than 0.5% under certain conditions. A maximum increase in yield strength and a minimum in the STN occur after irradiation at 330{degrees}C but the failure mode remains ductile.

  6. Temperature-dependent binding of cyclosporine to an erythrocyte protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.P.; Threatte, G.A.; McPherson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this competitive binding assay to measure endogenous binding capacity for cyclosporine (CsA) in erythrocyte lysates, a fixed amount of [ 3 H]CsA plus various concentrations of unlabeled CsA is incubated with aliquots of a test hemolysate. Free CsA is then adsorbed onto charcoal and removed by centrifugation; CsA complexed with a cyclosporine-binding protein (CsBP) remains in the supernate. We confirmed the validity of this charcoal-separation mode of binding analysis by comparison with equilibrium dialysis. Scatchard plot analysis of the results at 4 degrees C yielded a straight line with slope corresponding to a binding constant of 1.9 X 10(7) L/mol and a saturation capacity of approximately 4 mumol per liter of packed erythrocytes. Similar analysis of binding data at 24 degrees C and 37 degrees C showed that the binding constant decreased with increasing temperature, but the saturation capacity did not change. CsBP was not membrane bound but appeared to be freely distributed within erythrocytes. 125 I-labeled CsA did not complex with the erythrocyte CsBP. Several antibiotics and other drugs did not inhibit binding between CsA and CsBP. These findings may explain the temperature-dependent uptake of CsA by erythrocytes in whole blood and suggest that measurement of CsBP in erythrocytes or lymphocytes may help predict therapeutic response or toxicity after administration of CsA

  7. Temperature dependence of single-particle properties in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, W.; Lu, G.C.; Li, Z.H.; Lombardo, U.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    The single-nucleon potential in hot nuclear matter is investigated in the framework of the Brueckner theory by adopting the realistic Argonne V 18 or Nijmegen 93 two-body nucleon-nucleon interaction supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. The rearrangement contribution to the single-particle potential induced by the ground state correlations is calculated in terms of the hole-line expansion of the mass operator and provides a significant repulsive contribution in the low-momentum region around and below the Fermi surface. Increasing temperature leads to a reduction of the effect, while increasing density makes it become stronger. The three-body force suppresses somewhat the ground state correlations due to its strong short-range repulsion, increasing with density. Inclusion of the three-body force contribution results in a quite different temperature dependence of the single-particle potential at high enough densities as compared to that adopting the pure two-body force. The effects of three-body force and ground state correlations on the nucleon effective mass are also discussed

  8. Temperature dependent quasiparticle renormalization in nickel and iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovsyannikov, Ruslan; Thirupathaiah, Setti; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Fink, Joerg; Duerr, Hermann [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    One of the fundamental consequences of electron correlation effects is that the bare particles in solids become 'dressed' with an excitation cloud resulting in quasiparticles. Such a quasiparticle will carry the same spin and charge as the original particle, but will have a renormalized mass and a finite lifetime. The properties of many-body interactions are described with a complex function called self energy which is directly accessible to modern high-resolution angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Ferromagnetic metals like nickel or iron offers the exciting possibility to study the spin dependence of quasiparticle coupling to bosonic modes. Utilizing the exchange split band structure as an intrinsic 'spin detector' it is possible to distinguish between electron-phonon and electron-magnon coupling phenomena. In this contribution we will report a systematic investigation of the k- and temperature dependence of the electron-boson coupling in nickel and iron metals as well as discuss origin of earlier observed anomalous lifetime broadening of majority spin states of nickel at Fermi level.

  9. Effect of gate dielectrics on the performance of p-type Cu2O TFTs processed at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jawhari, Hala A.; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    /off ratio of around 44, threshold voltage equaling -0.62 V and a sub threshold swing of 1.64 V/dec. These values were obtained at a low operating voltage of -2V. The advantages of using STO as a gate dielectric relative to ATO are discussed. © (2014) Trans

  10. Effect of CuO addition on the sintering temperature and microwave dielectric properties of CaSiO3–Al2O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denghao Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available CuO-doped CaSiO3–1 wt% Al2O3 ceramics were synthesized via a traditional solid-state reaction method, and their sintering behavior, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. The results showed that appropriate CuO addition could accelerate the sintering process and assist the densification of CaSiO3–1 wt% Al2O3 ceramics, which could effectively lower the densification temperature from 1250 °C to 1050 °C. However, the addition of CuO undermined the microwave dielectric properties. The optimal amount of CuO addition was found to be 0.8 wt%, and the derived CaSiO3–Al2O3 ceramic sintered at 1100 °C presented good microwave dielectric properties of εr=7.27, Q×f=16,850 GHz and τf=−39.53 ppm/°C, which is much better than those of pure CaSiO3 ceramic sintered at 1340 oC (Q×f=13,109 GHz. The chemical compatibility of the above ceramic with 30 Pd/70 Ag during the cofiring process has also been investigated, and the result showed that there was no chemical reaction between palladium–silver alloys and ceramics.

  11. Dependence of optical phase modulation on anchoring strength of dielectric shield wall surfaces in small liquid crystal pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomae, Yoshitomo; Shibata, Yosei; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Fujikake, Hideo

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrated that the uniform phase modulation in a pixel can be realized by optimizing the anchoring strength on the walls and the wall width in the dielectric shield wall structure, which is the needed pixel structure for realizing a 1-µm-pitch optical phase modulator. The anchoring force degrades the uniformity of the phase modulation in ON-state pixels, but it also keeps liquid crystals from rotating against the leakage of an electric field. We clarified that the optimal wall width and anchoring strength are 250 nm and less than 10-4 J/m2, respectively.

  12. Dependence of the brittle ductile transition on strain-rate-dependent critical homologous temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul M.

    2017-05-01

    Earthquakes mainly occur in crust or mantle that is below a critical temperature for the tectonic strain-rate, \\dot{e}_t, such that stress builds up to the breaking point before it can relax due to creep. Then long-range stress correlation gives rise to power law seismicity including large events. The limiting temperature depends on pressure, which is taken into account by finding a critical homologous temperature THc = T/TM above which earthquakes are rarely observed (where T, TM are temperature and average melting temperature of constituent minerals). We find that THc for ocean plates is ∼0.55. For California earthquakes, it is also close to 0.55. The uppermost mantle layer of oceanic plates of thickness ∼50 km is composed of harzburgite and depleted peridotite from which basalt has been removed to form ocean crust. Thus it has a higher melting temperature than the peridotite of the surrounding mantle, or the lower halves of plates. Thicknesses of seismicity in deep subduction zones, determined from 2-D polynomial fits to a relocated catalogue, are ∼50 km, which suggests that the earthquake channel is confined to this layer. We construct models to find homologous temperatures in slabs, and find that seismicity thicknesses are also, on average, confined to TH ≤ 0.55 ± 0.05. The associated rheology is compared with that obtained from flexure models of ocean lithosphere. The brittle-ductile transition occurs where viscosity drops from high values in the cold cores of slabs to values of 1022-1023 Pa s, that is, where creep strain-rates become comparable to tectonic rates. The cut-off for deep earthquakes is not sharp. However they appear unlikely to occur if homologous temperature is high TH > 0.55. Exceptions to the rule are anomalously deep earthquakes such as those beneath the Iceland and the Hawaiian hotspots, and the Newport Inglewood Fault. These are smaller events with short-range stress correlation, and can be explained if strain-rates are two to

  13. Evaluation of the effects of thermal annealing temperature and high-k dielectrics on amorphous InGaZnO thin films by using pseudo-MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Se-Won; Cho, Won-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The effects of annealing temperatures and high-k gate dielectric materials on the amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) were investigated using pseudo-metal-oxide semiconductor transistors (Ψ-MOSFETs), a method without conventional source/drain (S/D) layer deposition. Annealing of the a-IGZO film was carried out at 150 - 900 .deg. C in a N 2 ambient for 30 min. As the annealing temperature was increased, the electrical characteristics of Ψ-MOSFETs on a-IGZO were drastically improved. However, when the annealing temperature exceeded 700 .deg. C, a deterioration of the MOS parameters was observed, including a shift of the threshold voltage (V th ) in a negative direction, an increase in the subthreshold slope (SS) and hysteresis, a decrease in the field effect mobility (μ FE ), an increase in the trap density (N t ), and a decrease in the on/off ratio. Meanwhile, the high-k gate dielectrics enhanced the performance of a-IGZO Ψ-MOSFETs. The ZrO 2 gate dielectrics particularly exhibited excellent characteristics in terms of SS (128 mV/dec), μ FE (10.2 cm -2 /V·s), N t (1.1 x 10 12 cm -2 ), and on/off ratio (5.3 x 10 6 ). Accordingly, the Ψ-MOSFET structure is a useful method for rapid evaluation of the effects of the process and the material on a-IGZO TFTs without a conventional S/D layer deposition.

  14. Ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of polymer electrolyte plasticized with polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO4 solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity has been well interpreted using Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. The maximum dielectric constant is observed for 30 wt. % of PEG content. To get further insights into the ion dynamics, the complex dielectric permittivity has been studied with Havriliak-Negami function. The variation of relaxation time with inverse temperature obtained from HN formalism follows VTF nature.

  15. Theory of suppressing avalanche process of carrier in short pulse laser irradiated dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H. X., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu; Zu, X. T., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu; Xiang, X. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zheng, W. G.; Yuan, X. D. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Sun, K., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu [Department of Materials Engineering and Sciences, University of Michigan, 413B Space Research Building, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Gao, F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P. O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    A theory for controlling avalanche process of carrier during short pulse laser irradiation is proposed. We show that avalanche process of conduction band electrons (CBEs) is determined by the occupation number of phonons in dielectrics. The theory provides a way to suppress avalanche process and a direct judgment for the contribution of avalanche process and photon ionization process to the generation of CBEs. The obtained temperature dependent rate equation shows that the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics, e.g., fused silica, increase nonlinearly with the decreases of temperature. Present theory predicts a new approach to improve the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics.

  16. Microstructure and texture dependence of the dielectric anomalies and dc conductivity of Bi3TiNbO9 ferroelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, A.; Pardo, L.

    2005-04-01

    Ceramics of composition Bi3TiNbO9 (BTN) and perovskite-layered structure (Aurivillius type) [B. Aurivillius, Ark. Kemi 1, 463 (1949)] were processed by natural sintering and hot pressing from amorphous precursors. Precursors were obtained by mechanochemical activation of stoichiometric mixtures of oxides. These materials are in general interesting for their use as high-temperature piezoelectrics. Among them, BTN possesses the highest ferroparaelectric phase-transition temperature (>900°C). The transition temperature establishes the working limit of the ceramic and the electric properties, especially the dc conductivity, affect on its polarizability. In this work, dielectric studies of BTN ceramics with controlled texture and microstructure have been made at 1, 100KHz, and 1MHZ and in the temperature range from 200°C up to the ferroparaelectric transition temperature. Values of ɛ'˜250 at 200°C are achieved in ceramics hot pressed at temperatures as low as 700°C for 1h.

  17. Temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity in chiral carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensah, N.G. [Department of Mathematics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Nkrumah, G. [Department of Physics, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: geon@ug.edu.gh; Mensah, S.Y. [Department of Physics, Laser and Fibre Optics Centre, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Allotey, F.K.A. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Accra (Ghana)

    2004-08-30

    The thermal conductivity of a chiral carbon nanotube (CCNT) is calculated using a tractable analytical approach. This is based on solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation with energy dispersion relation obtained in the tight binding approximation. The results obtained are numerically analysed. Unusually high electron thermal conductivity {chi}{sub ez} is observed along the tubular axis. The dependence of {chi}{sub ez} against temperature T was plotted for varying {delta}{sub z} and a given {delta}{sub s} ({delta}{sub z} and {delta}{sub s} are the overlapping integrals (exchange energy) for the jumps along the tubular axis and the base helix, respectively). It is noted that {chi}{sub ez} shows a peaking behaviour before falling off at higher temperature. As {delta}{sub z} varies from 0.010 eV to 0.048 eV for a given {delta}{sub s}=0.0150 eV, the peak values of {chi}{sub ez} shift from 40000 W/m K at 100 K to 55000 W/m K at about 300 K. Interestingly our results at 104 K which is 41000 W/m K and occurred at {delta}{sub z}=0.023 eV compares very well with that reported for a 99.9% isotopically enriched {sup 12}C diamond crystal. Another interesting result obtained is the fact that the circumferential electron thermal conductivity {chi}{sub ec} appears to be very small. The ratio of {chi}{sub ez} to {chi}{sub ec} is of the order of 2.

  18. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  19. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructure, dielectric, magnetic and optical properties of Ba0.7La0.3Fe11.7Co0.3O19 hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kaur, Barjinder; Bhat, Bilal H.; Kumar, Sachin; Srivastava, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite Ba 0.7 La 0.3 Fe 11.7 Co 0.3 O 19 (BaLCM) powder, synthesized using sol gel auto combustion method, heat treated at 700, 900, 1100 and 1200 °C. X ray diffraction (XRD) powder patterns of heat treated samples show the formation of pure phase of M-type hexaferrite after 700 °C. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals that the weight loss of BaLCM becomes constant after 680 °C. The presence of two prominent peaks, at 432 cm −1 and 586 cm −1 in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, gives the idea of formation of M-type hexaferrites. The M–H curve obtained from Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) were used to calculate saturation magnetization (M S ), retentivity (M r ), squareness ration (SR) and coercivity (H c ). The maximum value of coercivity (5602 Oe) is found at 900 °C. The band gap dependency on temperature was studied using UV–vis NIR spectroscopy. The dielectric constant has been found to be high at low frequency but it decreases with increase in frequency. Such kind of dielectric behavior is explained on the basis of Koop's phenomenological theory and Maxwell Wagner theory

  20. Temperature dependence of microwave oscillations in magnetic tunnel junctions with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Peng; Feng, Jiafeng; Wei, Hongxiang; Han, Xiufeng; Fang, Bin; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally study the temperature dependence of the spin-transfer-torque-induced microwave oscillations in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer. We demonstrate that the oscillation frequency increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, which is mainly ascribed to the temperature dependence of both the saturation magnetization and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We also find that a strong temperature dependence of the output power while a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of spectral linewidth are maintained for a constant dc bias in measured temperature range. Possible mechanisms leading to the different dependences of oscillation frequency, output power, and linewidth are discussed

  1. Phase transformation in multiferroic Bi5Ti3FeO15 ceramics by temperature-dependent ellipsometric and Raman spectra: An interband electronic transition evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, P. P.; Duan, Z. H.; Xu, L. P.; Zhang, X. L.; Li, Y. W.; Hu, Z. G.; Chu, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal evolution and an intermediate phase between ferroelectric orthorhombic and paraelectric tetragonal phase of multiferroic Bi 5 Ti 3 FeO 15 ceramic have been investigated by temperature-dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman scattering. Dielectric functions and interband transitions extracted from the standard critical-point model show two dramatic anomalies in the temperature range of 200–873 K. It was found that the anomalous temperature dependence of electronic transition energies and Raman mode frequencies around 800 K can be ascribed to intermediate phase transformation. Moreover, the disappearance of electronic transition around 3 eV at 590 K is associated with the conductive property

  2. A Simple Generator of Forward Scattering Functions on Spherical Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fiser

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available The described program generates the forward scattering functions of dielectrics of spherical shape, while the input parameters are: frequency, radius of the sphere and complex refractive index. The part enabling to evaluate the complex refractive index of water in the dependence on frequency and temperature is added.

  3. Dependence of Subduction Zone seismicity on Strain-Rate-Dependent Critical Homologous Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes mainly occur in crust or mantle that is below a critical temperature for the tectonic strain-rate, such that stress builds up to the breaking point before it can relax due to creep. Then long-range stress correlation gives rise to power law seismicity with large events. The limiting temperature depends on pressure, which is taken into account by finding a critical homologous temperature THc=T/TM above which earthquakes are rarely observed. We find that THc for ocean plates is ˜0.55. For California earthquakes, it is also close to 0.55. The uppermost mantle layer of oceanic plates of thickness ˜50 km is composed of harzburgite and depleted peridotite from which basalt has been removed to form ocean crust. Thus it has a higher melting temperature than the peridotite of the surrounding mantle, or the lower halves of plates. Thicknesses of seismicity in deep subduction zones, determined from 2D polynomial fits to a relocated catalog, are ˜50 km, which suggests that the earthquake channel is confined to this layer. We construct models to find homologous temperatures in slabs, and find that seismicity thicknesses are also, on average, confined to TH ≤ 0.55 ± 0.05. The associated rheology is compared with that obtained from flexure models of ocean lithosphere. The brittle-ductile transition occurs where viscosity drops from high values in the cold cores of slabs to values of 1022 to $1023 Pa s, i.e., where creep strain-rates become comparable to tectonic rates. The cutoff for deep earthquakes is not sharp. However they appear unlikely to occur if homologous temperature is high TH>0.55. Exceptions to the rule are anomalously deep earthquakes such as those beneath the Iceland and the Hawaiian hotspots, and the Newport Inglewood Fault. These are smaller events with short-range stress correlation, and can be explained if strain-rates are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than those associated with earthquakes located where TH ≤0.55. We conclude that the

  4. Critical behavior of the dielectric constant in asymmetric fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, C E; Sengers, J V; Anisimov, M A

    2011-12-08

    By applying a thermodynamic theory that incorporates the concept of complete scaling, we derive the asymptotic temperature dependence of the critical behavior of the dielectric constant above the critical temperature along the critical isochore and below the critical temperature along the coexistence curve. The amplitudes of the singular terms in the temperature expansions are related to the changes of the critical temperature and the critical chemical potential upon the introduction of an electric field. The results of the thermodynamic theory are then compared with the critical behavior implied by the classical Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The Clausius-Mossotti approximation fails to account for any singular temperature dependence of the dielectric constant above the critical temperature. Below the critical temperature it produces an apparent asymmetric critical behavior with singular terms similar to those implied by the thermodynamic theory, but with significantly different coefficients. We conclude that the Clausius-Mossotti approximation only can account for the observed asymptotic critical behavior of the dielectric constant when the dependence of the critical temperature on the electric field is negligibly small. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Temperature dependence of 1.55 μm VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, J.; Balkan, N.; Adams, M. J.

    1998-08-01

    The temperature for minimum threshold carrier concentration in 1.55 μm VCSELs can be significantly lower than that at which the peak gain matches the cavity resonance. A simple model is implemented to investigate the magnitude of this temperature difference and to aid the design of VCSELs for room temperature operation.

  6. AC conductivity and dielectric behavior of bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Ali, H. A. M.

    2012-06-01

    AC conductivity and dielectric behavior for bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile have been studied over a temperature range (293-333 K) and frequency range (50-5×106 Hz). The frequency dependence of ac conductivity, σac, has been investigated by the universal power law, σac(ω)=Aωs. The variation of the frequency exponent (s) with temperature was analyzed in terms of different conduction mechanisms, and it was found that the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model is the predominant conduction mechanism. The temperature dependence of σac(ω) showed a linear increase with the increase in temperature at different frequencies. The ac activation energy was determined at different frequencies. Dielectric data were analyzed using complex permittivity and complex electric modulus for bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile at various temperatures.

  7. Low-Temperature Sintering Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 Microwave Dielectric Ceramics with LMZBS Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Huaiwu; Liu, Cheng; Su, Hua; Jia, Lijun; Li, Jie; Huang, Xin; Gan, Gongwen

    2018-05-01

    Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics doped with Li2O-MgO-ZnO-B2O3-SiO2 glass (LMZBS) were prepared via a solid-state route. The LMZBS glass effectively reduced the sintering temperature of Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics to 950°C. The effects of the LMZBS glass on the sintering behavior, microstructures and microwave dielectric properties of Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics are discussed in detail. Among all the LMZBS doped Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics, the sample with 1 wt.% of LMZBS glass sintered at 950°C for 4 h exhibited good dielectric properties: ɛ r = 16.7, Q × f = 31,000 GHz (9.92 GHz), τ f = - 1.3 ppm/°C. The Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics possessed excellent chemical compatibility with Ag electrodes, and could be applied in low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) applications.

  8. A revisit to the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity of α - Titanium at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Mondal, R.; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.; Roy, S. B.

    2017-09-01

    The temperature dependence of resistivity ρ(T) of a polycrystalline sample and a single crystal sample (current along the [0001] direction) of α - Titanium (Ti) at low temperatures is revisited to understand the electrical charge transport phenomena in this hexagonal closed pack metal. We show that the ρ(T) in single crystal Ti can be explained by considering the scattering of electrons due to electron-phonon, electron-electron, inter-band s-d and electron-impurity interactions, whereas the ρ(T) of polycrystalline Ti could not be explained by these interactions alone. We observed that the effects of the anisotropy of the hexagonal structure on the electronic band structure and the phonon dispersion need to be taken into account to explain ρ(T) of polycrystalline Ti. Two Debye temperatures corresponding to two different directions for the electron-phonon interactions and inter-band s-d scattering are needed to account the observed ρ(T) in polycrystalline Ti.

  9. Extrinsic and intrinsic contributions for dielectric behavior of La{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhenzhu, E-mail: czz03@163.com [Chemical Engineering College of Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Liu, Xiaoting; He, Weiyan [Chemical Engineering College of Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Ruan, Xuezheng [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Material and Device, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Gao, Yanfang; Liu, Jinrong [Chemical Engineering College of Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The influences of electrode material, DC bias and temperature on the electrical and dielectric properties of LNMO ceramic have been investigated using impedance spectroscopy and dielectric measurements. Evidences from dielectric and impedance analysis showed that the giant dielectric constant and its notable tunability originated from extrinsic contribution from interface polarization. Low temperature and high frequency dielectric characterization revealed the low intrinsic dielectric constant.

  10. Temperature dependence of poly(lactic acid) mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chengbo; Guo, Huilong; Li, Jingqing

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of polymers are not only determined by their structures, but also related to the temperature field in which they are located. The yield behaviors, Young's modulus and structures of injection-molded poly(lactic acid) (PLA) samples after annealing at different temperatures....... The crystallinity increases with increasing annealing temperature and a' form crystal is formed when the annealing temperature is higher than 100 oC. The stretched samples with low crystallinity show the first yield at draw temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the second yield above Tg....... For the samples annealed between 80 and 120 oC, a peculiar double yield appears when stretched within 50–60 oC and only the first or the second yield can be found at the lower and higher draw temperatures. The yield strain and yield stress together with Young's modulus were obtained and discussed in terms...

  11. Structural, dielectric and magnetic studies of magnetoelectric trirutile Fe{sub 2}TeO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, S. D., E-mail: sdkaushik@csr.res.in [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research Mumbai Centre, R-5 Shed, BARC, Mumbai-400085 (India); Sahu, B.; Mohapatra, S. R.; Singh, A. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008, Odisha (India)

    2016-05-23

    We have investigated structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of Fe{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} which is a magnetoelectric antiferromagnet with the trirutile lattice. Rietveld analysis of room temperature X-ray diffraction data shows the phase purity of the sample with tetragonal trirutile structure (space group P4{sub 2}/mnm). The DC susceptibility measurement performed on polycrystalline powders exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering below transition temperature ~ 210K. The employment of Curie-Weiss law to inverse magnetic susceptibility only in the temperature range 350-260 K indicates the magnetic ordering starts developing before the transition temperature. The temperature dependent dielectric measurements show an intrinsic behavior of dielectric constant below 150 K while a continuous increase in dielectric constant with temperature above 150 K may be attributed to a small increase in electrical conduction, known commonly in the literatures.

  12. Temperature dependence of frequency dispersion in III–V metal-oxide-semiconductor C-V and the capture/emission process of border traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vais, Abhitosh, E-mail: Abhitosh.Vais@imec.be; Martens, Koen; DeMeyer, Kristin [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lin, Han-Chung; Ivanov, Tsvetan; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dou, Chunmeng [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Xie, Qi; Maes, Jan [ASM International, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Tang, Fu; Givens, Michael [ASM International, Phoenix, Arizona 85034-7200 (United States); Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics, Universiteé Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2015-08-03

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the temperature dependence of frequency dispersion observed in capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. The dispersion in the accumulation region of the capacitance data is found to change from 4%–9% (per decade frequency) to ∼0% when the temperature is reduced from 300 K to 4 K in a wide range of MOS capacitors with different gate dielectrics and III-V substrates. We show that such significant temperature dependence of C-V frequency dispersion cannot be due to the temperature dependence of channel electrostatics, i.e., carrier density and surface potential. We also show that the temperature dependence of frequency dispersion, and hence, the capture/emission process of border traps can be modeled by a combination of tunneling and a “temperature-activated” process described by a non-radiative multi-phonon model, instead of a widely believed single-step elastic tunneling process.

  13. Room temperature plasma oxidation: A new process for preparation of ultrathin layers of silicon oxide, and high dielectric constant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, J.C.; Estrada, M.; Baez, H.; Cerdeira, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present basic features and oxidation law of the room temperature plasma oxidation (RTPO), as a new process for preparation of less than 2 nm thick layers of SiO 2 , and high-k layers of TiO 2 . We show that oxidation rate follows a potential law dependence on oxidation time. The proportionality constant is function of pressure, plasma power, reagent gas and plasma density, while the exponent depends only on the reactive gas. These parameters are related to the physical phenomena occurring inside the plasma, during oxidation. Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated with these layers are characterized by capacitance-voltage, current-voltage and current-voltage-temperature measurements. Less than 2.5 nm SiO 2 layers with surface roughness similar to thermal oxide films, surface state density below 3 x 10 11 cm -2 and current density in the expected range for each corresponding thickness, were obtained by RTPO in a parallel-plate reactor, at 180 mW/cm 2 and pressure range between 9.33 and 66.5 Pa (0.07 and 0.5 Torr) using O 2 and N 2 O as reactive gases. MOS capacitors with TiO 2 layers formed by RTPO of sputtered Ti layers are also characterized. Finally, MOS capacitors with stacked layers of TiO 2 over SiO 2 , both layers obtained by RTPO, were prepared and evaluated to determine the feasibility of the use of TiO 2 as a candidate for next technology nodes

  14. Time-resolved study of the electron temperature and number density of argon metastable atoms in argon-based dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, E.; Laurent, M.; Durocher-Jean, A.; Laroche, G.; Gherardi, N.; Naudé, N.; Stafford, L.

    2018-01-01

    A combination of optical emission spectroscopy and collisional-radiative modelling is used to determine the time-resolved electron temperature (assuming Maxwellian electron energy distribution function) and number density of Ar 1s states in atmospheric pressure Ar-based dielectric barrier discharges in presence of either NH3 or ethyl lactate. In both cases, T e values were higher early in the discharge cycle (around 0.8 eV), decreased down to about 0.35 eV with the rise of the discharge current, and then remained fairly constant during discharge extinction. The opposite behaviour was observed for Ar 1s states, with cycle-averaged values in the 1017 m-3 range. Based on these findings, a link was established between the discharge ionization kinetics (and thus the electron temperature) and the number density of Ar 1s state.

  15. Temperature dependence of looping rates in a short peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccatano, Danilo; Sahoo, Harekrushna; Zacharias, Martin; Nau, Werner M

    2007-03-15

    Knowledge of the influence of chain length and amino acid sequence on the structural and dynamic properties of small peptides in solution provides essential information on protein folding pathways. The combination of time-resolved optical spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods has become a powerful tool to investigate the kinetics of end-to-end collisions (looping rates) in short peptides, which are relevant in early protein folding events. We applied the combination of both techniques to study temperature-dependent (280-340 K) looping rates of the Dbo-AlaGlyGln-Trp-NH2 peptide, where Dbo represents a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine, which served as a fluorescent probe in the time-resolved spectroscopic experiments. The experimental looping rates increased from 4.8 x 10(7) s(-1) at 283 K to 2.0 x 10(8) s(-1) at 338 K in H2O. The corresponding Arrhenius plot provided as activation parameters Ea = 21.5 +/- 1.0 kJ mol(-1) and ln(A/s-1) = 26.8 +/- 0.2 in H2O. The results in D2O were consistent with a slight solvent viscosity effect, i.e., the looping rates were 10-20% slower. MD simulations were performed with the GROMOS96 force field in a water solvent model, which required first a parametrization of the synthetic amino acid Dbo. After corrections for solvent viscosity effects, the calculated looping rates varied from 1.5 x 10(8) s(-1) at 280 K to 8.2 x 10(8) s(-1) at 340 K in H2O, which was about four times larger than the experimental data. The calculated activation parameters were Ea = 24.7 +/- 1.5 kJ mol(-1) and ln(A/s(-1)) = 29.4 +/- 0.1 in H2O.

  16. Temperature-dependent phenotypic variation of Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semchenko, Evgeny A

    2010-11-30

    Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major bacterial cause of food-borne enteritis, and its lipooligosaccharide (LOS) plays an initiating role in the development of the autoimmune neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, by induction of anti-neural cross-reactive antibodies through ganglioside molecular mimicry. Results Herein we describe the existence and heterogeneity of multiple LOS forms in C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origin grown at 37°C and 42°C, respectively, as determined on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels with carbohydrate-specific silver staining and blotting with anti-ganglioside ligands, and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The C. jejuni NCTC 11168 original isolate (11168-O) was compared to its genome-sequenced variant (11168-GS), and both were found to have a lower-Mr LOS form, which was different in size and structure to the previously characterized higher-Mr form bearing GM1 mimicry. The lower-Mr form production was found to be dependent on the growth temperature as the production of this form increased from ~5%, observed at 37°C to ~35% at 42°C. The structure of the lower-Mr form contained a β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc disaccharide moiety which is consistent with the termini of the GM1, asialo-GM1, GD1, GT1 and GQ1 gangliosides, however, it did not display GM1 mimicry as assessed in blotting studies but was shown in NMR to resemble asialo-GM1. The production of multiple LOS forms and lack of GM1 mimicry was not a result of phase variation in the genes tested of NCTC 11168 and was also observed in most of the human and chicken isolates of C. jejuni tested. Conclusion The presence of differing amounts of LOS forms at 37 and 42°C, and the variety of forms observed in different strains, indicate that LOS form variation may play a role in an adaptive mechanism or a stress response of the bacterium during the colonization of different hosts.

  17. Temperature dependence of electromechanical properties of PLZT x ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... broad peak at a temperature higher than mt. The voltage constant 31 decreases and the planar coupling coefficient p remains constant up to half of the mt and then falls sharply with . Half of the mt can, therefore, be used for specifying the working temperature limit of the piezoceramics for the device applications.

  18. Temperature dependent lattice constant of InSb above room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Magnus; Nilsen, Tron Arne; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove

    2013-10-01

    Using temperature dependent X-ray diffraction on two InSb single crystalline substrates, the bulk lattice constant of InSb was determined between 32 and 325 °C. A polynomial function was fitted to the data: a(T)=6.4791+3.28×10-5×T+1.02×10-8×T2 Å (T in °C), which gives slightly higher values than previously published (which go up to 62 °C). From the fit, the thermal expansion of InSb was calculated to be α(T)=5.062×10-6+3.15×10-9×T K-1 (T in °C). We found that the thermal expansion coefficient is higher than previously published values above 100 °C (more than 10% higher at 325 °C).

  19. Towards an ab initio evaluation of the wave - vector- and frequency-dependent dielectric response function for crystalline water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaider, M [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA). Radiological Research Labs.; Fry, J L; Orr, D E [Texas Univ., Arlington, TX (USA)

    1990-01-01

    We describe an ab initio calculation of the properties of energy loss by electrons in crystalline water using its dielectric response function, {epsilon}(q,{omega}), where q and {omega} are, respectively, the wave vector and frequency. The calculation was performed on a model system (cubic ice) in order to take advantage of its ordered structure (i.e. Block's theorem), but also because of evidence that liquid water in biological systems ('structured' water) contains residues with tetrahedral structure (i.e. ice) over time scales of at least 10{sup -11} s. The main features of the calculation are (a) {epsilon}(q,{omega}) is evaluated in the random phase approximation (we used the expression given by Ehrenreich and Cohen), (b) the crystal potential is expressed as a sum of water-molecule self-consistent potentials, and (c) wave functions are expanded using tight binding functions (ultimately employing a Gaussian base set). A total of seven states (bands), five occupied and two conduction, are considered. We report the band structure and the density of states of the crystal, as well as values of {epsilon}(q,{omega}) at selected values of q and {omega}. Results are compared with energy loss measurements and with absorption spectra (XPS, UPS, and VUV data). The possibility of using an empirical combination of molecular potentials as a phenomenological Hamiltonian is also examined. (author).

  20. Temperature dependence of positron trapping by vacancies, loops and voids in molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzon, M.D.; Linderoth, S.; Petersen, K.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature dependence of positron trapping by defects in molybdenum has been studied. By resolving positron lifetime spectra into three components, it has been possible to distinguish the temperature dependence of positron trapping into loops and voids. The results show that the positron trapping rate into voids depends linearly on temperature. The temperature dependence of positron trapping by loops can be interpreted as positrons being trapped by jogs, directly or via the dislocation line. The temperature dependence of positrons trapped by loops is argued mainly to be due to the trapping at the dislocation line, and not to detrapping. The observed temperature dependence of positron annihilation parameters in an electron irradiated sample (below stage III), is explained by competitive positron trapping in interstitial loops at low temperatures

  1. Temperature dependence of electrical properties of mixture of exogenous neurotransmitters dopamine and epinephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Mugdha; Patil, Vidya

    2016-05-01

    Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that support the communication between the neurons. In vitro study of exogenous neurotransmitters Dopamine and Epinephrine and their mixture, carried out to learn about their electrical properties being dielectric constant and conductivity amongst others. Dielectric constant and conductivity of the selected neurotransmitters are found to increase with temperature. As a result, the time constant of the system increases with temperature. This change leads to increase in the time taken by the synapse to transport the action potential. The correlation between physical properties of exogenous neurotransmitters and psychological and physiological behaviour of human being may be understood with the help of current study. The response time of Epinephrine is in microseconds whereas response time of Dopamine is in milliseconds. The response time for both the neurotransmitters and their mixture is found to be increasing with temperature indicating the symptoms such as depression, apathy, chronic fatigue and low physical energy with no desire to exercise the body, which are observed during the fever.

  2. Temperature dependent fission product removal efficiency due to pool scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke, E-mail: suchida@iae.or.jp [Institute of Applied Energy, 1-14-2, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Itoh, Ayumi; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Institute of Applied Energy, 1-14-2, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Hanamoto, Yukio [KAKEN, Inc., 1044, Hori-machi, Mito 310-0903 (Japan); Osakabe, Masahiro [Tokyo University of Marine Science & Technology, Koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Fujikawa, Masahiro [Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 2-2-1, Jinnan, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8001 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Pool temperature effects on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications. • It was confirmed that the removal efficiency decreased with temperature around the boiling point. • A modified empirical formula for FP removal was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature. • DF could be predicted with an accuracy within a factor of 2 with the proposed formula. - Abstract: The wet-well of boiling water reactors plays important roles not only to suppress the pressure in the primary containment vessel due to steam scrubbing effects during severe accidents but also to mitigate release of radioactive fission products (FP), aerosols and particulates, into the environment. The effects of steam scrubbing in the wet-well on FP removal have been well studied and reported by changing major parameters determining the removal efficiencies, e.g., aerosol diameters, submergence (depth of scrubbing nozzles) and steam/non-condensable gas volume fraction. Unfortunately, the effects of pool temperature on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications, though it would be easily expected that boiling in the pool resulted in reduced aerosol removal efficiency. In order to determine the temperature effects on FP removal efficiency, amounts of cesium in aerosols released from scrubbing pool were measured by changing pool temperature in mini and medium scale scrubbing experiments, and then, it was confirmed that the removal efficiency clearly decreased with temperature around the boiling point. Then, a modified empirical formula to express the FP removal around the boiling point temperature was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature by applying the effective steam volume fraction, which was designated as the volume ratio of condensed steam in the pool versus the sum of input steam and non-condensable gas. By comparing the measured removal efficiency with the calculated, it was validated that the

  3. Temperature dependent fission product removal efficiency due to pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Itoh, Ayumi; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Hanamoto, Yukio; Osakabe, Masahiro; Fujikawa, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pool temperature effects on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications. • It was confirmed that the removal efficiency decreased with temperature around the boiling point. • A modified empirical formula for FP removal was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature. • DF could be predicted with an accuracy within a factor of 2 with the proposed formula. - Abstract: The wet-well of boiling water reactors plays important roles not only to suppress the pressure in the primary containment vessel due to steam scrubbing effects during severe accidents but also to mitigate release of radioactive fission products (FP), aerosols and particulates, into the environment. The effects of steam scrubbing in the wet-well on FP removal have been well studied and reported by changing major parameters determining the removal efficiencies, e.g., aerosol diameters, submergence (depth of scrubbing nozzles) and steam/non-condensable gas volume fraction. Unfortunately, the effects of pool temperature on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications, though it would be easily expected that boiling in the pool resulted in reduced aerosol removal efficiency. In order to determine the temperature effects on FP removal efficiency, amounts of cesium in aerosols released from scrubbing pool were measured by changing pool temperature in mini and medium scale scrubbing experiments, and then, it was confirmed that the removal efficiency clearly decreased with temperature around the boiling point. Then, a modified empirical formula to express the FP removal around the boiling point temperature was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature by applying the effective steam volume fraction, which was designated as the volume ratio of condensed steam in the pool versus the sum of input steam and non-condensable gas. By comparing the measured removal efficiency with the calculated, it was validated that the

  4. Dielectric and polarization behaviour of cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Gyu-Young; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Jaehwan

    2009-01-01

    Dielectric and polarization behaviour of electro-active paper (EAPap) were studied to understand the detailed material behaviour of EAPap as a novel smart material. It was revealed that the dielectric constant of EAPap was temperature and frequency dependent. The largest change in the dielectric constant was observed near 0 0 C while the highest dielectric constant was obtained at around 100 0 C, which might be related to the dipolar behaviour of the hydroxyl structure of cellulose and adsorbed or existing internal water molecules in cellulose EAPap. By thermal stimulated current measurement for polarization behaviour of cellulose EAPap, it was shown that the maximum current was observed in the temperature range 105-110 0 C. Compared with the polarization behaviour in the low temperature range, abnormal polarization was observed under an applied field mainly due to the trapped space charge in EAPap, which indicates that cellulose EAPap has a similar material behaviour to that of electret polymers. (fast track communication)

  5. Effect of Bi doping on morphotropic phase boundary and dielectric properties of PZT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Shraddha; Acharya, Smita, E-mail: saha275@yahoo.com [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur-440033, M.S. India (India)

    2016-05-23

    In our present attempt, Pb{sub (1-x)}Bi{sub x}Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} [PBZT] {where x = 0, 0.05, 0.1} is synthesized by sol-gel route. Effect of Bi addition on structure, sinterability and dielectric properties are observed. The presence of morphotropic phase boundary (coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedral symmetry) is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Enhancement of sinterability after Bi doping is observed through a systematic sintering program. Frequency and temperature dependent dielectric constant are studied. Bi doping in PZT is found to enhance room temperature dielectric constant. However, at high temperature the dielectric constant of pure PZT is more than that of doped PZT.

  6. Temperature-dependent structural properties of P3HT films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorian, S; Joshi, S; Pietsch, U, E-mail: grigorian@physik.uni-siegen.de [Institute of Physics, University Siegen, Walter Flex Strasse 3, D-57068, Siegen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Structural investigations of spin coated and drop cast poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT films have been performed under x-ray grazing incidence geometry. Drop cast films revealed to be highly oriented and crystalline and only slightly modify with the temperature. In contrast, spin coated films provided random orientational distribution of nanocrystallites and undergo significant morphological and structural changes during annealing. Interestingly, spin coated films of low and high molecular weight fractions behavior differently as a function of temperature. Crystalline domains of the low molecular weight fractions have been decreased, and, in contrast, we found an improvement of crystallinity of high molecular weight fraction with increase of the temperature.

  7. Temperature-dependent structural properties of P3HT films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorian, S; Joshi, S; Pietsch, U

    2010-01-01

    Structural investigations of spin coated and drop cast poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT films have been performed under x-ray grazing incidence geometry. Drop cast films revealed to be highly oriented and crystalline and only slightly modify with the temperature. In contrast, spin coated films provided random orientational distribution of nanocrystallites and undergo significant morphological and structural changes during annealing. Interestingly, spin coated films of low and high molecular weight fractions behavior differently as a function of temperature. Crystalline domains of the low molecular weight fractions have been decreased, and, in contrast, we found an improvement of crystallinity of high molecular weight fraction with increase of the temperature.

  8. Semiconductor-to-metallic flipping in a ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–graphene based smart nano-system: Temperature/microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameer, Shahid, E-mail: shahidameer@scme.nust.edu.pk [School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Gul, Iftikhar Hussain [School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, Nasir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mujahid, Muhammad [School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-01-15

    Zn-(FeO{sub 2}){sub 2}–graphene smart nano-composites were synthesized using a novel modified solvothermal synthesis with different percentages of graphene. The structure of the nanocomposite was confirmed through X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The structural growth and morphological aspects were analyzed using scanning/transmission electron microscopy, revealing marvelous micro-structural features of the assembled nano-system resembling a maple leaf. To determine the composition, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used. Microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy revealed the improved dielectric properties of the nano-composite compared to those of the parent functional nanocrystals. Temperature gradient dielectric spectroscopy was used over the spectral range from 100 Hz to 5 MHz to reveal the phenomenological effect that the nanosystem flips from its usual semiconductor nature to a metallic nature with sensing temperature. Electrical conductivity and dielectric analysis indicated that the dielectric loss and the dielectric permittivity increased at room temperature. This extraordinary switching capability of the functionalized graphene nanosystem opens up a new dimension for engineering advanced and efficient smart composite materials. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zn-(FeO{sub 2}){sub 2}–graphene smart nano-composites were synthesized using a novel modified solvothermal synthesis. • The synthesized nano-system exhibits marvelous leaf like microstructure. • These nano-composites show improved magneto dielectric response. • This engineered smart nano-system shows phenomenological flipping from semiconductor like nature to metallic behavior.

  9. Temperature dependence of the fundamental band gap parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the energy and broadening of the fundamental band gap have been evaluated using various models including the ... other crucial parameters including the operating temperatures of these devices. ... refrigeration system (Air Product Displex).

  10. Temperature-dependent gas transport and its correlation with kinetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-05-20

    May 20, 2017 ... have been made to see this trade-off relation at relatively higher temperature. It is found that selectivity ... acceptable due to low capital cost, less energy requirement ... in solubility, with increased permeability due to interac-.

  11. Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Band Gap in Black Phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas, Cesar E. P.; Rocha, A. R.; Marini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Black Phosphorus (BP) has gained renewed attention due to its singular anisotropic electronic and optical properties that might be exploited for a wide range of technological applications. In this respect, the thermal properties are particularly important both to predict its room temperature operation and to determine its thermoelectric potential. From this point of view, one of the most spectacular and poorly understood phenomena is, indeed, the BP temperature-induced band-gap opening: when ...

  12. Dielectric behavior and ac electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline nickel aluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurien, Siby; Mathew, Jose; Sebastian, Shajo; Potty, S.N.; George, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel aluminate was prepared by chemical co-precipitation, and nanoparticles having different particle size were obtained by annealing the precursor at different temperatures. The TG/DTA measurements showed thermal decomposition was a three-step process with crystallisation of the spinel phase started at a temperature 420 deg. C. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the specimen began to crystallise on annealing above 420 deg. C and became almost crystalline at about 900 deg. C. The particle sizes were calculated from XRD. Dielectric properties of nickel aluminate were studied as a function of the frequency of the applied ac signal at different temperatures. It was seen the real dielectric constant ε', and dielectric loss tan δ decreased with frequency of applied field while the ac conductivity increased as the frequency of the applied field increased. The dielectric relaxation mechanism is explained by considering nanostructured NiAl 2 O 4 as a carrier-dominated dielectric with high density of hopping charge carriers. The variation of ε' with different particle size depends on several interfacial region parameters, which change with the average particle size

  13. Temperature dependent pinning landscapes in REBCO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszynski, Jan; Constantinescu, Anca-Monia; Hu, Xinbo Paul

    2015-03-01

    The pinning landscapes of REBCO (RE=rare earth elements) thin films have been a topic of study in recent years due to, among other reasons, their high ability to introduce various phases and defects. Pinning mechanisms studies in high temperature superconductors often require detailed knowledge of critical current density as a function of magnetic field orientation as well as field strength and temperature. Since the films can achieve remarkably high critical current, challenges exist in evaluating these low temperature (down to 4.2 K) properties in high magnetic fields up to 30 T. Therefore both conventional transport, and magnetization measurements in a vibrating coil magnetometer equipped with rotating sample platform were used to complement the study. Our results clearly show an evolution of pinning from strongly correlated effects seen at high temperatures to significant contributions from dense but weak pins that thermal fluctuations render ineffective at high temperatures but which become strong at lower temperatures Support for this work is provided by the NHMFL via NSF DRM 1157490

  14. Temperature dependence of the electrical, mechanical and electromechanical properties of high sensitivity novel piezoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algueró, M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the ε33 T dielectric permittivity and losses of piezoelectric Mn doped 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.35PbTiO3 ceramics has been measured up to 350oC at frequencies between 1 and 100 kHz by impedance spectroscopy. The temperature dependence of the low frequency Young´s modulus and mechanical losses of the ceramics has been measured in the same temperature range by dynamic mechanical analysis in three points bending configuration. Complex ε33 T, s11 E compliance and d31 piezoelectric coefficients have been obtained from radial piezoelectric resonances at temperatures up to 90oC (before depolarisation by an automatic iterative method. All the measurements reflect the occurrence of the ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric tetragonal phase transition, which is thougth to be responsible of the high electromechanical response of the PMN-PT system, and allow describing some of its characteristics for the investigated ceramics.

    Se ha medido por espectroscopía de impedancias la dependencia con la temperatura hasta 350oC de la permitividad y las pérdidas dieléctricas, ε33 T y tan δ, de cerámicas piezoeléctricas de 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.35PbTiO3 dopadas con Mn a frecuencias entre 1 y 100 kHz. Se ha medido por análisis mecánico dinámico en la configuración de flexión por tres puntos la dependencia con la temperatura en el mismo rango del módulo de Young y las pérdidas mecánicas de baja frecuencia de las cerámicas. Se han obtenido por un método automático iterativo los coeficientes del material ε33 T, módulo elástico s11 E y coeficiente piezoeléctrico d31 en forma compleja a partir de resonancias radiales piezoeléctricas a temperaturas entre ambiente y 90oC (antes de la despolarización. Todas las medidas reflejan la existencia de la transición de la fase ferroeléctrica con estructura romboédrica a la fase ferroeléctrica con estructura tetragonal, que se cree responsable de la alta respuesta

  15. Incipient ferroelectric to a possible ferroelectric transition in Te4+ doped calcium copper titanate (CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics at low temperature as evidenced by Raman and dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabadyuti Barman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial replacement of Ti4+ by Te4+ ions in calcium copper titanate lattice improved its dielectric behaviour mostly due to cubic-to-tetragonal structural transformation and associated distortion in TiO6 octahedra. The relative permittivity values (23–30 x 103 of Te4+ doped ceramics is more than thrice that of un-doped ceramics (8 x 103 at 1 kHz. A decreasing trend in relative permittivity with increasing temperature (50–300 K is observed for all the samples. Barrett’s formula, as a signature of incipient ferroelectricity, is invoked to rationalize the relative permittivity variation as a function of temperature. A systematic investigation supported by temperature dependent Raman studies reveal a possible ferroelectric transition in Te4+ doped ceramic samples below 120 K. The possible ferroelectric transition is attributed to the interactions between quasi-local vibrations associated with the micro-clusters comprising TiO6 and TeO6 structural units and indirect dipole-dipole interactions of off-center B–cations (Ti4+ and Te4+ in double perovskite lattice.

  16. Similar temperature dependencies of glycolytic enzymes : An evolutionary adaptation to temperature dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, L.A.B.; Hebly, M.; Duong, G.H.; Wahl, S.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Heijnen, J.J.; Daran-Lapujade, P.; Van Gulik, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Temperature strongly affects microbial growth, and many microorganisms have to deal with temperature fluctuations in their natural environment. To understand regulation strategies that underlie microbial temperature responses and adaptation, we studied glycolytic pathway kinetics in

  17. Dielectric properties of gadolinium molybdate in low- and infralow frequency electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiyarova, N.M.; Gorin, S.V.; Dontsova, L.I.; Shil'nikov, A.V.; Shuvalov, L.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1992-01-01

    Temperature dependences of complex dielectric permittivity of gadolinium molybdate (GMO) in low- (LF) and infralow-frequency (ILF) electric fields with 0.1 V·cm -1 amplitude within 0.25-10 4 Hz frequency range are studied. Substantial effect of the crystal prehistory on LF and ILF dielectric properties and domain structure state is revealed. An anomalous reduction of complex dielectric permittivity accompanied by the occurrence of the Debye LF-dispersion of permittivity is detected under the sample cooling from a nonpolar phase

  18. Temperature dependence of damage accumulation in α-zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo, C.; Caturla, M.J.; Perlado, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Using the input data obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on defect energetics and cascade damage, we present results obtained on irradiation of hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) α-zirconium under different conditions with a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model. We used three 25 keV cascade databases at temperatures of 100 K, 300 K and 600 K respectively. The evolution of the microstructure during irradiation for a dose rate of 10 -6 dpa/s, at temperatures of 100 K, 300 K and 600 K until a final dose of 0.1 dpa has been studied. We have considered isotropic motion for vacancies and one dimensional movement for interstitials and we have studied how the accumulation of damage is affected considering different temperatures. We present preliminary comparisons with experimental data

  19. Impact of Gate Dielectric in Carrier Mobility in Low Temperature Chalcogenide Thin Film Transistors for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Salas-Villasenor, A. L.; Mejia, I.; Hovarth, J.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Cha, D. K.; Ramirez-Bon, R.; Gnade, B. E.; Quevedo-Lopez, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide thin film transistors were demonstrated as the n-type device for use in flexible electronics. CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (70° C) on either 100 nm HfO2 or SiO2 as the gate dielectrics. Common gate transistors with channel lengths of 40-100 μm were fabricated with source and drain aluminum top contacts defined using a shadow mask process. No thermal annealing was performed throughout the device process. X-ray diffraction results clearly show the hexagonal crystalline phase of CdS. The electrical performance of HfO 2 /CdS -based thin film transistors shows a field effect mobility and threshold voltage of 25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2 V, respectively. Improvement in carrier mobility is associated with better nucleation and growth of CdS films deposited on HfO2. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  20. Impact of Gate Dielectric in Carrier Mobility in Low Temperature Chalcogenide Thin Film Transistors for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Salas-Villasenor, A. L.

    2010-06-29

    Cadmium sulfide thin film transistors were demonstrated as the n-type device for use in flexible electronics. CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (70° C) on either 100 nm HfO2 or SiO2 as the gate dielectrics. Common gate transistors with channel lengths of 40-100 μm were fabricated with source and drain aluminum top contacts defined using a shadow mask process. No thermal annealing was performed throughout the device process. X-ray diffraction results clearly show the hexagonal crystalline phase of CdS. The electrical performance of HfO 2 /CdS -based thin film transistors shows a field effect mobility and threshold voltage of 25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2 V, respectively. Improvement in carrier mobility is associated with better nucleation and growth of CdS films deposited on HfO2. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  1. Effect of Dielectric Properties of a Solvent-Water Mixture Used in Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Potato Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were measured at different temperatures from 20 to 80 °C at two frequencies 915 MHz and 2450 MHz. These frequencies are most commonly used on industrial and domestic scales respectively. In this study, the dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were found to be dependent on temperature, solvent concentration, and presence of plant matrix. Linear and quadratic equations were developed to establish the dependency between factors. At 2450 MHz, the dielectric constant of methanol-water mixtures was significantly affected by concentration of methanol rather than by temperature, whereas the dielectric loss factor was significantly affected by temperature rather than by methanol concentration. Introduction of potato peel led to an increase in the effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of the methanol fractions. At 915 MHz, both the dielectric properties were significantly affected by the increase in temperature and solvent concentration, while the presence of potato peel had no significant effect on the dielectric properties. Statistical analysis of the dissipation factor at 915 and 2450 MHz revealed that both temperature and solvent concentration had a significant effect on it, whereas introduction of potato peels at 915 MHz reduced the effect of temperature as compared to 2450 MHz. The total phenolic yield of the microwave-assisted extraction process was significantly affected by the solvent concentration, the dissipation factor of the methanol-water mixture and the extraction time.

  2. Temperature-dependent shock initiation of LX-17 explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.S.; Chau, H.H.; Druce, R.L.; Moua, K.

    1995-02-01

    LX-17 samples, heated to temperatures up to 250 C, were impacted by 3 to 10-mm-wide, 50.8-mm-long strips of 0.13-mm-thick Kapton polyimide film at velocities up to 7.7 km/s. The Kapton strips were laminated onto a thin aluminum bridge foil and were launched to the desired velocity by discharging a capacitor bank through the foil, causing the foil to explode. The LX-17 samples were confined in a steel holder and heated in an oven to the desired temperature. After the capacitor bank was charged, the LX-17 sample in its steel holder was remotely drawn out of the oven on rails and positioned over the bridge-foil/Kapton-strip laminate. When the sample was in position, the bank was discharged, launching the Kapton strip against the LX-17 surface. The shock initiation threshold was measured for 3, 7, and 10-mm-wide strips at room temperature, 200 C and 250 C. The authors found a significant reduction in the velocity threshold and in the critical area for initiation when the samples were heated. The authors compare the results with the earlier data of Bloom, who measured the initiation threshold of LX-17 over the density range 1.8--1.91 g/cm{sup 3} at room temperature and {minus}54 C. LX-17 has a large coefficient of thermal expansion, as reported by Urtiew, et al., which reduces its density significantly t elevated temperatures. They find that the change of shock initiation threshold with temperature is consistent with the change in sample density, using the relation between threshold and density reported by Bloom.

  3. Temperature dependence of current–voltage characteristics of Au/n ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2000-05-05

    May 5, 2000 ... factor with temperature has been explained considering lateral inhomogeneities in the Schottky barrier height ... The dependence of SBH on temperature can give ... effect in MS contacts, Tung has modeled the influence.

  4. Temperature dependence of lattice parameters of alpha-zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versaci, R.A.; Ipohorski, M.

    1991-01-01

    This work presents a brief review of X-ray and thermal expansion determination of lattice parameters for α-Zirconium. Data reported by different authors cover almost all the field of existence of the hexagonal phase of Zirconium, from temperatures as low as 4.2 K up to about 1130 K, near the α→β transformation temperature. Polynomial expressions based on a least squares fitting of experimental data are also presented. The expressions obtained by Goldak et al. are considered to be the most complete. The influence of impurities on the lattice parameters is also discussed. (Author) [es

  5. On the frequency dependence of the high temperature background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolo, F.; Hermida, E.B.

    1996-01-01

    The high temperature background (HTB) damping in metals and alloys has been measured mostly as a function of temperature. These data were described by several empirical expressions proposed in the literature. In the present work, HTB in pure Mg and in two alloys (Zry-4 and Cu-5 at.%Au), measured with a torsion pendulum with variable moment of inertia, are analyzed on considering a new treatment of the data. This analysis provides an useful tool to determine whether a damping process is linear or not. (orig.)

  6. Dielectric properties of a potassium nitrate–ammonium nitrate system

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Yu. Milinskiy; Anton A. Antonov

    2015-01-01

    Potassium nitrate has a rectangular hysteresis loop and is thought to be a promising material for non-volatile ferroelectric memory. However, its polar phase is observed in a narrow temperature range. This paper deals with an effect of ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 on the dielectric properties of potassium nitrate. Thermal dependencies of the linear dielectric permittivity ε and the third-harmonic coefficient g3 for potassium nitrate and polycrystalline binary (KNO3)1–x(NH4NO3)x system (x = 0.025, ...

  7. Temperature dependence of the Al2O3:C response in medical luminescence dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2007-01-01

    is not varied. The RL response only depends on the irradiation temperature. We recommend that calibration should be carried out at the same irradiation temperature at which the measurement is performed (i.e. at body temperature for in vivo measurements). The overall change in the integrated OSL and RL signals...... and detection wavelengths. The reported temperature dependence seems to be a general property of Al2O3:C. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Second law analysis of a reacting temperature dependent viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, entropy generation during the flow of a reacting viscous fluid through an inclined Channel with isothermal walls are investigated. The coupled energy and momentum equations were solved numerically. Previous results in literature (Adesanya et al 2006 [[17]) showed both velocity and temperature have two ...

  9. Temperature dependence of transport coefficients of 'simple liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... has been investigated. The study carried out at two densities, r* = 0.60 and r* = 0.95. Result shows erratic variations of the shear viscosity in the two lattices structures. KeyWords: Temperature effect, face centred, simple cubic, transport properties, simple liquid. [Global Jnl Pure & Appl. Sci. Vol.9(3) 2003: 403-406] ...

  10. Le Chatelier's Principle Applied to the Temperature Dependence of Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treptow, Richard S.

    1984-01-01

    One effect of temperature is its influence on solubility, and that effect is used as a common example when teaching Le Chatelier's principle. Attempts to clarify the question of whether the principle holds in the case of the solubility of ionic compounds in water by investigating the literature data in detail. (JN)

  11. Temperature dependence of twinning activity in random textured cast magnesium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, J.; Farkas, G.; Pilch, Jan; Máthis, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 627, MAR (2015), s. 333-335 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/12/1360; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnesium * acoustic emission * neutron diffraction * deformation twinning * high temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.647, year: 2015

  12. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E.; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Geiss, Roy H.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-01-01

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures

  13. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E., E-mail: stephen.russek@nist.gov; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Geiss, Roy H. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Arenholz, Elke [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Idzerda, Yves U. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  14. The external field dependence of the BCS critical temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert L.; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We consider the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer free energy functional for particles interacting via a two-body potential on a microscopic scale and in the presence of weak external fields varying on a macroscopic scale. We study the influence of the external fields on the critical temperature. We show...

  15. Temperature-dependent reactions of phthalic acid on Ag(100)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franke, M.; Marchini, M.; Zhang, L.; Tariq, Q.; Tsud, N.; Vorokhta, M.; Vondráček, Martin; Prince, K.; Röckert, M.; Williams, F.J.; Steinrück, H.-P.; Lytken, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 41 (2015), 23580-23585 ISSN 1932-7447 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : phthalic acid * NEXAFS * photoemission spectroscopy * temperature - programmed desoprtion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.509, year: 2015

  16. Empirical temperature dependence of the refractive index of semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herve, P.J.L.; Vandamme, L.K.J.

    1995-01-01

    Values of the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were obtained from the derivation of a simple relation between energy band-gap and refractive index in semiconductors. These values, (dn/dT)/n, were compared to the experimental data found in literature. Our model, with only one fitting

  17. Temperature dependent viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Prashant B.; Somvanshi, Sandeep B.; Kounsalye, Jitendra S.; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Khirade, Pankaj P.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluid is prepared in 0 to 1 (in the step of 0.2) volume fraction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD results confirmed the formation of single phase spinel structure. The Raman spectra have been deconvoluted into individual Lorentzian peaks. Cobalt ferrite has cubic spinel structure with Fd3m space group. FT-IR spectra consist of two major absorption bands, first at about 586 cm-1 (υ1) and second at about 392 cm-1 (υ2). These absorption bands confirm the formation of spinel-structured cobalt ferrite. Brookfield DV-III viscometer and programmable temperature-controlled bath was used to study the relationship between viscosity and temperature. Viscosity behavior with respect to temperature has been studied and it is revealed that the viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids increases with an increase in volume fraction of cobalt ferrite. The viscosity of the present ferrofluid was found to decrease with increase in temperature.

  18. Temperature dependence of deuterium retention mechanisms in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roszell, J.P. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T6 (Canada); Davis, J.W., E-mail: jwdavis@starfire.utias.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T6 (Canada); Haasz, A.A. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T6 (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    The retention of 500 eV D{sup +} was measured as a function of implantation temperature in single- (SCW) and poly-crystalline (PCW) tungsten. The results show a decrease in retention of {approx}2 orders of magnitude over the temperature range of 350-550 K in SCW and a decrease of an order of magnitude over the temperature range of 600-700 K in PCW. Inspection of the TDS spectra showed a shift in peak location from 600 to 800 K as temperature was increased above 350 K in SCW and above 450 K in PCW specimens. TMAP modeling showed that the change in peak location corresponds to a change in trapping energy from 1.3 eV for the 600 K peak to 2.1 eV for the 800 K peak. It is proposed that for implantations performed above 350 K in SCW and 450 K in PCW, deuterium-containing vacancies are able to diffuse and combine to create stable nano-bubbles within the crystal lattice. The formation of nano-bubbles due to the annihilation of deuterium-vacancy complexes results in a change in the trapping energy from 1.3 to 2.1 eV as well as a decrease in retention as some of the deuterium-vacancy complexes will be destroyed at surfaces or grain boundaries, decreasing the number of trapping sites available.

  19. Temperature dependence of deuterium retention mechanisms in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszell, J.P.; Davis, J.W.; Haasz, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The retention of 500 eV D + was measured as a function of implantation temperature in single- (SCW) and poly-crystalline (PCW) tungsten. The results show a decrease in retention of ∼2 orders of magnitude over the temperature range of 350–550 K in SCW and a decrease of an order of magnitude over the temperature range of 600–700 K in PCW. Inspection of the TDS spectra showed a shift in peak location from 600 to 800 K as temperature was increased above 350 K in SCW and above 450 K in PCW specimens. TMAP modeling showed that the change in peak location corresponds to a change in trapping energy from 1.3 eV for the 600 K peak to 2.1 eV for the 800 K peak. It is proposed that for implantations performed above 350 K in SCW and 450 K in PCW, deuterium-containing vacancies are able to diffuse and combine to create stable nano-bubbles within the crystal lattice. The formation of nano-bubbles due to the annihilation of deuterium-vacancy complexes results in a change in the trapping energy from 1.3 to 2.1 eV as well as a decrease in retention as some of the deuterium-vacancy complexes will be destroyed at surfaces or grain boundaries, decreasing the number of trapping sites available.

  20. Temperature dependence of deuterium retention mechanisms in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszell, J. P.; Davis, J. W.; Haasz, A. A.

    2012-10-01

    The retention of 500 eV D+ was measured as a function of implantation temperature in single- (SCW) and poly-crystalline (PCW) tungsten. The results show a decrease in retention of ˜2 orders of magnitude over the temperature range of 350-550 K in SCW and a decrease of an order of magnitude over the temperature range of 600-700 K in PCW. Inspection of the TDS spectra showed a shift in peak location from 600 to 800 K as temperature was increased above 350 K in SCW and above 450 K in PCW specimens. TMAP modeling showed that the change in peak location corresponds to a change in trapping energy from 1.3 eV for the 600 K peak to 2.1 eV for the 800 K peak. It is proposed that for implantations performed above 350 K in SCW and 450 K in PCW, deuterium-containing vacancies are able to diffuse and combine to create stable nano-bubbles within the crystal lattice. The formation of nano-bubbles due to the annihilation of deuterium-vacancy complexes results in a change in the trapping energy from 1.3 to 2.1 eV as well as a decrease in retention as some of the deuterium-vacancy complexes will be destroyed at surfaces or grain boundaries, decreasing the number of trapping sites available.

  1. Temperature dependence of fluctuation time scales in spin glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenning, Gregory G.; Bowen, J.; Sibani, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Using a series of fast cooling protocols we have probed aging effects in the spin glass state as a function of temperature. Analyzing the logarithmic decay found at very long time scales within a simple phenomenological barrier model, leads to the extraction of the fluctuation time scale of the s...

  2. Temperature Dependences on Various Types of Photovoltaic (PV) Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audwinto, I A; Leong, C S; Sopian, K; Zaidi, S H

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is one of the key roles in PV technology performance, since with the increases of temperature the open-circuit voltage will drop accordingly so do the electrical efficiency and power output generation. Different types of Photovoltaic (PV) panels- silicon solar panels and thin film solar panels; mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, CIS, CIGS, CdTe, back-contact, and bi-facial solar panel under 40°C to 70°C approximately with 5°C interval have been comparatively analyzed their actual performances with uniformly distribution of light illumination from tungsten halogen light source, ±500W/m 2 . DC-Electronic Load and Data Logger devices with “Lab View” data program interface were used to collect all the necessary parameters in this study. Time needed to achieve a certain degree of temperature was recorded. Generally, each of the panels needed 15 minutes to 20 minutes to reach 70°C. Halogen based light source is not compatible in short wave-length in response to thin-film solar cell. Within this period of times, all the panels are facing a performance loss up to 15%. Other parameters; P max , V max , I max , V oc , I sc , R serries , R shunt , Fillfactor were collected as study cases. Our study is important in determining Photovoltaic type selection and system design as for study or industrial needed under different temperature condition. (paper)

  3. Polarization-induced transport in organic field-effect transistors: the role of ferroelectric dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Suchismita; Laudari, Amrit

    2017-08-01

    The ferroelectric nature of polymer ferroelectrics such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been known for over 45 years. However, its role in interfacial transport in organic/polymeric field-effect transistors (FETs) is not that well understood. Dielectrics based on PVDF and its copolymers are a perfect test-bed for conducting transport studies where a systematic tuning of the dielectric constant with temperature may be achieved. The charge transport mechanism in an organic semiconductor often occurs at the intersection of band-like coherent motion and incoherent hopping through localized states. By choosing two small molecule organic semiconductors - pentacene and 6,13 bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) - along with a copolymer of PVDF (PVDF-TrFe) as the dielectric layer, the transistor characteristics are monitored as a function of temperature. A negative coefficient of carrier mobility is observed in TIPS-pentacene upwards of 200 K with the ferroelectric dielectric. In contrast, TIPS-pentacene FETs show an activated transport with non-ferroelectric dielectrics. Pentacene FETs, on the other hand, show a weak temperature dependence of the charge carrier mobility in the ferroelectric phase of PVDF-TrFE, which is attributed to polarization fluctuation driven transport resulting from a coupling of the charge carriers to the surface phonons of the dielectric layer. Further, we show that there is a strong correlation between the nature of traps in the organic semiconductor and interfacial transport in organic FETs, especially in the presence of a ferroelectric dielectric.

  4. Large low field room temperature magneto-dielectric response from (Sr_0_._5Ba_0_._5)Nb_2O_6/Co(Cr_0_._4Fe_1_._6)O_4 bulk 3-0 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, Satyapal Singh; Vitta, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The essential highlights of this work are;. • Bulk composite with varying amounts of relaxor and ferromagnetic phases has been synthesized by simple steps. • Processing yields an optimal structure with 30% ferromagnetic phase to couple the two ferroic orders. • Magneto dielectric constant shows large changes, 3.2%, at room temperature in moderate magnetic fields. • Large changes in dielectric constant are due to configurational arrangement of the two phases. - Abstract: Bulk magneto-dielectric composites with a 3-0 configuration comprised of ferroelectric-magnetostrictive phases have been synthesized using (Sr_0_._5Ba_0_._5)Nb_2O_6–Co(Cr_0_._4Fe_1_._6)O_4 as the two constituents, respectively. The ferroelectric phase made by a dual stage sintering process has a uniform grain size of 15 μm while the magnetostrictive phase has a grain size of 2–3 μm. Composites synthesized by conventional solid state processing using these two constituents exhibit large magneto-dielectric coupling at room temperature which increases with increasing magnetic field. The composite with 30% magnetostrictive phase distributed uniformly in the ferroelectric phase has the most desirable microstructure and exhibits a large coupling with 3.2% change in the dielectric constant at 1 kHz and 8 kOe magnetic field. This change in dielectric constant was found to be a maximum with respect to variation of the fraction of magnetostrictive phase, indicating that 30% is the optimal value to realize large coupling between the two phases. The decrease in magneto-dielectric constant upon application of an external magnetic field is possibly due to the inherent magnetoresistance of the magnetic component. The resistivity of the magnetic component decreases in an external magnetic field leading to the formation of 3D percolating conducting paths. This causes the coupling to decrease in composites with >30% magnetostrictive phase.

  5. On the gauge dependence of vacuum transitions at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Konstandin, Thomas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-05-15

    In principle, observables as for example the sphaleron rate or the tunneling rate in a first-order phase transition are gauge-independent. However, in practice a gauge dependence is introduced in explicit perturbative calculations due to the breakdown of the gradient expansion of the effective action in the symmetric phase. We exemplify the situation using the effective potential of the Abelian Higgs model in the general renormalizable gauge. Still, we find that the quantitative dependence on the gauge choice is small for gauges that are consistent with the perturbative expansion.

  6. Low-temperature sintering and microwave dielectric properties of Al2TeO6–TeO2 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagomiya, Isao; Kodama, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Yukihiro; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Ohsato, Hitoshi; Miyauchi, Yasuharu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first study of dielectric properties of Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 sintered at 900 °C. • The sintering at 900 °C contributed to densification, but it causes TeO 2 evaporation. • The annealing at 750 °C was effective for the further densification. • The both ε r and Q · f in the Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 were improved with the annealing. - Abstract: We propose Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 ceramics as a candidate for use as low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC). We investigated microwave dielectric properties and low-temperature sintering conditions for Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 ceramics. The calcined Al 2 TeO 6 powders were sintered at 900 °C for 2–10 h with 30–50 wt% additive TeO 2 . X-ray powder diffraction patterns showed that the sintered samples were Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 composite with no other phase. The apparent density was improved with the additive TeO 2 content of up to 45 wt%. The dielectric constant (ε r ) increased by adding TeO 2 content from 35 to 45 wt%, although the quality factor (Q · f) decreased. During sintering at 900 °C, the ε r of the Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 decreased slightly, whereas the Q · f increased gradually. The observed microstructures showed that the longer sintering time makes fewer pores in Al 2 TeO 6 –TeO 2 ceramics. Sintering at 900 °C for a long time contributes to densification, but it simultaneously causes TeO 2 evaporation. To prevent TeO 2 evaporation, we investigated the effects of annealing at 750 °C after sintering at 900 °C. Apparent densities or ε r for the annealed samples were higher than those of the non-annealed samples. The Q · f improved with increasing annealing duration time, suggesting that sintering proceeded well during annealing with slower TeO 2 evaporation at 750 °C. The results show that annealing at 750 °C is effective to facilitate sintering and to control TeO 2 evaporation

  7. DC-bias and visible light effect on dielectric characteristics of La0.5Cr0.5TiO3+δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available La0.5Cr0.5TiO3+δ ceramic sample was prepared via traditional solid-state reaction route. Frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity were studied in the range of 102 ~ 106 Hz and of 77 ~ 360 K, respectively. It was observed that extraordinarily high low-frequency dielectric constants appeared at room temperature, and dielectric relaxation peaks shifted to higher temperature with increasing frequency. In the dc-bias studies, it was also found that the dielectric permittivity had obviously dc-bias dependence in low frequency, but independence as the frequency above 14 kHz. Interestingly, the dielectric characteristics of the sample had obvious light dependence at room temperature within the measured frequency range. The results demonstrate that visible light improves the dielectric properties of the ceramic by means of I–V and complex impedance analysis. Keywords: Ceramics, Dielectric properties, Dc-bias dependence, Visible light dependence

  8. Temperature dependent transport characteristics of graphene/n-Si diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parui, S.; Ruiter, R.; Zomer, P. J.; Wojtaszek, M.; van Wees, B. J.; Banerjee, T.

    2014-01-01

    Realizing an optimal Schottky interface of graphene on Si is challenging, as the electrical transport strongly depends on the graphene quality and the fabrication processes. Such interfaces are of increasing research interest for integration in diverse electronic devices as they are thermally and

  9. Substrate bias voltage and deposition temperature dependence on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films or a coating of any sort prior to its application into real world has to be studied for the dependence of ..... For line focusing, incident beam mask was employed with ..... org/content/avs/journal/jvst/11/4/10.1116/1.1312732. Thornton J A ...

  10. Effects of Temperature on Time Dependent Rheological Characteristics of Koumiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdal Sabancı

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of koumiss were investigated at different temperatures (4, 10, and 20°C. Experimental shear stress–shear rate data were fitted to different rheological models. The consistency of koumiss was predicted by using the power-law model since it described the consistency of koumiss best with highest regression coefficient and lowest errors (root mean square error and chi-square. Koumiss exhibited shear thinning behavior (n

  11. The temperature dependence of the friction in the fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Shuhei

    1996-01-01

    We study the slow collective motion at finite excitation on the basis of the linear response theory. The transport coefficients such as friction γ, inertia M and local stiffness C formulated within a locally harmonic approximation are computed along the fission path of 224 Th. It is found that the effective damping rate η = γ/=2√(M|C|)= increases with the temperature T in accord with the fission experiment with the emission of γ-rays. (author)

  12. Temperature Dependence of Short-Range Order in β-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O.W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    Critical scattering of neutrons around the superlattice reflections (1, 0, 0) and (1, 1, 1) from a single crystal of beta-brass has been measured at temperatures from 2 to 25deg C above the transition temperature. The temperature dependence of the critical peak intensity, proportional to the susc......Critical scattering of neutrons around the superlattice reflections (1, 0, 0) and (1, 1, 1) from a single crystal of beta-brass has been measured at temperatures from 2 to 25deg C above the transition temperature. The temperature dependence of the critical peak intensity, proportional...

  13. Low-temperature conductivity of tunnel-coupled quantum dots system in YBaCuO and LaSrMnO dielectric films

    CERN Document Server

    Okunev, V D; Isaev, V A; Dyachenko, A T; Klimov, A; Lewandowski, S J

    2002-01-01

    Paper contains new experimental data concerning investigation into the nature of rho(T) approx = const conductivity segments at T < T sub c for YBaCuO and LaSrMnO dielectric films prepared by means of laser deposition and containing nanocrystalline clusters with metallic conductivity. In YBaCuO epitaxial films with a tetragonal structure rho = rho(T) approx = const (T sub c = 10 K) dependences are observed following the effect of (KrF) excimer laser emission on the specimens, while in LaSrMnO amorphous films (T sub c approx = 160 K) - immediately after they are prepared. rho(T) approx = const effect manifests itself if in the optical spectra of specimens there are regions of absorption by free charge carriers and is associated with a tunnel conductivity of a system of quantum points

  14. Frequency and temperature dependence of high damping elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    High damping steel-laminated elastomeric seismic isolation bearings are one of the preferred devices for isolating large buildings and structures. In the US, the current reference design for the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) uses laminated bearings for seismic isolation. These bearings are constructed from alternating layers of high damping rubber and steel plates. They are typically designed for shear strains between 50 and 100% and are expected to sustain two to three times these levels for beyond design basis loading conditions. Elastomeric bearings are currently designed to provide a system frequency between 0.4 and 0.8 Hz and expected to operate between -20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. To assure proper performance of isolation bearings, it is necessary to characterize the elastomer's response under expected variations of frequency and temperature. The dynamic response of the elastomer must be characterized within the frequency range that spans the bearing acceptance test frequency, which may be as low as 0.005 Hz, and the design frequency. Similarly, the variation in mechanical characteristics of the elastomer must be determined over the design temperature range, which is between -20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. This paper reports on (1) the capabilities of a testing facility at ANL for testing candidate elastomers, (2) the variation with frequency and temperature of the stiffness and damping of one candidate elastomer, and (3) the effect of these variations on bearing acceptance testing criteria and on the choice of bearing design values for stiffness and damping

  15. Temperature dependence of the coherence in polariton condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, E.; Martín, M. D.; Tejedor, C.; Viña, L.; Deligeorgis, G.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, P. G.

    2018-02-01

    We present a time-resolved experimental study of the temperature effect on the coherence of traveling polariton condensates. The simultaneous detection of their emission both in real and reciprocal space allows us to fully monitor the condensates' dynamics. We obtain fringes in reciprocal space as a result of the interference between polariton wave packets (WPs) traveling with the same speed. The periodicity of these fringes is inversely proportional to the spatial distance between the interfering WPs. In a similar fashion, we obtain interference fringes in real space when WPs traveling in opposite directions meet. The visibility of both real- and reciprocal-space interference fringes rapidly decreases with increasing temperature and vanishes. A theoretical description of the phase transition, considering the coexistence of condensed and noncondensed particles, for an out-of-equilibrium condensate such as ours is still missing, yet a comparison with theories developed for atomic condensates allows us to infer a critical temperature for the BEC-like transition when the visibility goes to zero.

  16. Relativistic Random-Phase Approximation with Density-dependent Meson-nucleon Couplings at Finite Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Y.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2009-01-01

    The fully self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation (RRPA) framework based on effective interactions with a phenomenological density dependence is extended to finite temperatures. The RRPA configuration space is built from the spectrum of single-nucleon states at finite temperature obtained by the temperature dependent relativistic mean field (RMF-T) theory based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon vertex functions. As an illustration, the dependence of binding energy, radius, entropy and single particle levels on temperature for spherical nucleus 2 08P b is investigated in RMF-T theory. The finite temperature RRPA has been employed in studies of giant monopole and dipole resonances, and the evolution of resonance properties has been studied as a function of temperature. In addition, exotic modes of excitation have been systematically explored at finite temperatures, with an emphasis on the case of pygmy dipole resonances.(author)

  17. Temperature dependent elasticity and damping in dehydrated sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, T. W.; Struble, W.

    2013-12-01

    Work reported previously at this conference, outlining our observation of anomalously large elastic softening and damping in dehydrated Berea sandstone at elevated temperatures, has been analysed to study shear and compressional effects separately. Modeling of the sample using COMSOL software was necessary to identify modes, as the vibration spectrum of the sample is poorly approximated by a uniform isotropic solid. The first torsional mode of our evacuated, dry, core softens at nearly twice the rate of Young's modulus modes (bending and compressional) and is also damped nearly twice as strongly as temperature increases. We consider two possible models for explaining this behavior, based on the assumption that the mechanical properties of the sandstone are dominated by the framework of quartz grains and polycrystalline cementation, neglecting initially the effects of clay and feldspar inclusions. The 20cm x 2.54cm diameter core is dry such that the pressure of water vapor in the experiment chamber is below 1e-6 Torr at 70C, suggesting that surface water beyond a small number of monolayers is negligible. Our models consider (1) enhanced sliding of grain boundaries in the cementation at elevated temperature and reduced internal water content, and (2) strain microcracking of the cementatioin at low water content due to anisotropic expansion in the quartz grains. In model (1) interfaces parallel to polyhedral grain surfaces were placed in the cement bonds and assigned frictional properties. Model (2) has not yet been implemented. The overall elasticity of a 3-D several-grain model network was determined by modeling quasistatic loading and measuring displacements. Initial results with a small number of grains/bonds suggests that only the first model provides softening and damping for all the modes, however the details of the effects of defect motioin at individual interfaces as the source for the frictional properties is still being evaluated. Nonlinear effects are

  18. Temperature-dependent surface density of alkylthiol monolayers on gold nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Lu, Pin; Zhai, Hua; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-03-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the surface density of passivating monolayers of alkylthiol chains on gold nanocrystals at temperatures ranging from 1 to 800 K. The results show that the surface density of alkylthiol monolayer reaches a maximum value at near room temperature (200-300 K), while significantly decreases with increasing temperature in the higher temperature region (> 300 {{K}}), and slightly decreases with decreasing temperature at low temperature (< 200 {{K}}). We find that the temperature dependence of surface ligand density in the higher temperature region is attributed to the substantial ligand desorption induced by the thermal fluctuation, while that at low temperature results from the reduction in entropy caused by the change in the ordering of passivating monolayer. These results are expected helpful to understand the temperature-dependent surface coverage of gold nanocrystals.

  19. Processing methods for temperature-dependent MCNP libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songyang; Wang Kan; Yu Ganglin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the processing method of NJOY which transfers ENDF files to ACE (A Compact ENDF) files (point-wise cross-Section file used for MCNP program) is discussed. Temperatures that cover the range for reactor design and operation are considered. Three benchmarks are used for testing the method: Jezebel Benchmark, 28 cm-thick Slab Core Benchmark and LWR Benchmark with Burnable Absorbers. The calculation results showed the precision of the neutron cross-section library and verified the correct processing methods in usage of NJOY. (authors)

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigation of temperature-dependent electrical fatigue studies on 1-3 type piezocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mohan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 1-3 type piezocomposites are very attractive materials for transducers and biomedical application, due to its high electromechanical coupling effects. Reliability study on 1-3 piezocomposites subjected to cyclic loading condition in transducer application is one of the primary concern. Hence, this study focuses on 1-3 piezocomposites for various PZT5A1 fiber volume fraction subjected to electrical fatigue loading up-to 106 cycles and at various elevated temperature. Initially experiments are performed on 1-3 piezocomposites, in order to understand the degradation phenomena due to various range in amplitude of electric fields (unipolar & bipolar, frequency of applied electric field and for various ambient temperature. Performing experiments for high cycle fatigue and for different fiber volume fraction of PZT5A1 is a time consuming process. Hence, a simplified macroscopic uni-axial model based on physical mechanisms of domain switching and continuum damage mechanics has been developed to predict the non-linear fatigue behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites for temperature dependent electrical fatigue loading conditions. In this model, damage effects namely domain pinning, frozen domains and micro cracks, are considered as a damage variable (ω. Remnant variables and material properties are considered as a function of internal damage variable and the growth of the damage is derived empirically based on the experimental observation to predict the macroscopic changes in the properties. The measured material properties and dielectric hysteresis (electric displacement vs. electric field as well as butterfly curves (longitudinal strain vs. electric field are compared with the simulated results. It is observed that variation in amplitude of bipolar electric field and temperature has a strong influence on the response of 1-3 piezocomposites.