WorldWideScience

Sample records for temperature aluminum alloys

  1. Mechanical Properties of Titanium and Aluminum Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-03-01

    aluminum alloys. Table I is a tabulation of the chemical composition of the tita - nium alloys. The bar was 5/8 inch in diameter and the sheet 0.060 inch...Ti-6AI-4V Tensile azid yield strength data for both bar and sheet of this tita - nium alloy are shown in Figure A-3. Bar and sheet data show approxi...not recommended for low temperature applications. The remainder of the tita - nium alloys were tested from room temperature to -452 F. In general, Ti

  2. Mechanical behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazer, J.; Verzasconi, S.L.; Sawtell, R.R.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The cryogenic mechanical properties of aluminum-lithium alloys are of interest because these alloys are attractive candidate materials for cryogenic tankage. Previous work indicates that the strength-toughness relationship for alloy 2090-T81 (Al-2.7Cu-2.2Li-0.12Zr by weight) improves significantly as temperature decreases. The subject of this investigation is the mechanism of this improvement. Deformation behavior was studied since the fracture morphology did not change with temperature. Tensile failures in 2090-T81 and -T4 occur at plastic instability. In contrast, in the binary aluminum-lithium alloy studied here they occur well before plastic instability. For all three materials, the strain hardening rate in the longitudinal direction increases as temperature decreases. This increase is associated with an improvement in tensile elongation at low temperatures. In alloy 2090-T4, these results correlate with a decrease in planar slip at low temperatures. The improved toughness at low temperatures is believed to be due to increased stable deformation prior to fracture

  3. Elevated temperature crack growth in advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porr, William C., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si powder metallurgy alloy FVS0812 is among the most promising of the elevated temperature aluminum alloys developed in recent years. The ultra fine grain size and high volume fraction of thermally stable dispersoids enable the alloy to maintain tensile properties at elevated temperatures. In contrast, this alloy displays complex and potentially deleterious damage tolerant and time dependent fracture behavior that varies with temperature. J-Integral fracture mechanics were used to determine fracture toughness (K sub IC) and crack growth resistance (tearing modulus, T) of extruded FVS0812 as a function of temperature. The alloy exhibits high fracture properties at room temperature when tested in the LT orientation, due to extensive delamination of prior ribbon particle boundaries perpendicular to the crack front. Delamination results in a loss of through thickness constraint along the crack front, raising the critical stress intensity necessary for precrack initiation. The fracture toughness and tensile ductility of this alloy decrease with increasing temperature, with minima observed at 200 C. This behavior results from minima in the intrinsic toughness of the material, due to dynamic strain aging, and in the extent of prior particle boundary delaminations. At 200 C FVS0812 fails at K levels that are insufficient to cause through thickness delamination. As temperature increases beyond the minimum, strain aging is reduced and delamination returns. For the TL orientation, K (sub IC) decreased and T increased slightly with increasing temperature from 25 to 316 C. Fracture in the TL orientation is governed by prior particle boundary toughness; increased strain localization at these boundaries may result in lower toughness with increasing temperature. Preliminary results demonstrate a complex effect of loading rate on K (sub IC) and T at 175 C, and indicate that the combined effects of time dependent deformation, environment, and strain aging

  4. Method to increase the toughness of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Krishnan K. (Inventor); Sova, Brian J. (Inventor); Babel, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method to increase the toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 and similar alloys at cryogenic temperatures above their room temperature toughness is provided. Increasing the cryogenic toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 allows the use of alloy C458 for cryogenic tanks, for example for launch vehicles in the aerospace industry. A two-step aging treatment for alloy C458 is provided. A specific set of times and temperatures to age the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 to T8 temper is disclosed that results in a higher toughness at cryogenic temperatures compared to room temperature. The disclosed two-step aging treatment for alloy 458 can be easily practiced in the manufacturing process, does not involve impractical heating rates or durations, and does not degrade other material properties.

  5. Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Huey S.

    1988-04-14

    An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Self-brazing Mechanism of Aluminum Alloy at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Fang-jie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnCl2 and SnCl2 were added to the AlF3-CsF eutectic flux, which can be used for connecting aluminum alloy sheet by self-brazing at medium temperature. The influence of the amount of ZnCl2 and SnCl2 and the size of the T-joint area on the interface microstructure and the self-brazing joint mechanical properties was investigated. The interface microstructure, chemical compositions, defects and tensile fractography of the self-brazing joints were analyzed by metallographic microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results show that the joints are soundly bonded when both the mass fractions of ZnCl2 and SnCl2 are about 4%; the replacement reactions between Zn2+, Sn2+ of flux and Al atoms of base metal occur during brazing, then the liquid metals of Sn and Zn appear, a great degree of Zn which has high solid solution with Al spreads rapidly to the base metal; Sn is distributed along the interface forming a low melting point metal layer with Zn and Al; the brazing of joints with small area can be realized easily; there are a lot of dimples on the fracture surface and the tensile strength of the brazing joint reaches (58±5MPa.

  7. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  8. Properties of aluminum alloys tensile, creep, and fatigue data at high and low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This book compiles more than 300 tables listing typical average properties of a wide range of aluminum alloys. The individual test results were compiled, plotted in various ways, and analyzed. The average values from the tensile and creep tests were then normalized to the published typical room-temperature tensile properties of the respective alloys for easy comparison. This extensive project was done by Alcoa Laboratories over a period of several years. The types of data presented include: Typical Mechanical Properties of Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys at Various Temperatures, including tensile properties at subzero temperatures, at temperature after various holding times at the test temperature, and at room temperature after exposure at various temperatures for various holding times; creep rupture strengths for various times at various temperatures; stresses required to generate various amounts of creep in various lengths of time; rotating-beam fatigue strengths; modulus of elasticity as a function of t...

  9. Properties of Free-Machining Aluminum Alloys at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, Jiří; Karlík, Miroslav; Haušild, Petr

    In areas close to the cutting tool the workpieces being dry machined could be heated up to 350°C and they may be impact loaded. Therefore it is of interest to study mechanical properties of corresponding materials at elevated temperatures. Free-machining alloys of Al-Cu and Al-Mg-Si systems containing Pb, Bi and Sn additions (AA2011, AA2111B, AA6262, and AA6023) were subjected to Charpy U notch impact test at the temperatures ranging from 20 to 350°C. The tested alloys show a sharp drop in notch impact strength KU at different temperatures. This drop of KU is caused by liquid metal embrittlement due to the melting of low-melting point dispersed phases which is documented by differential scanning calorimetry. Fracture surfaces of the specimens were observed using a scanning electron microscope. At room temperature, the fractures of all studied alloys exhibited similar ductile dimple fracture micromorphology, at elevated temperatures, numerous secondary intergranular cracks were observed.

  10. Evaluation of Aluminum Alloy 2050-T84 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hales, Stephen J.; Shenoy, Ravi N.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 2050 is being considered for the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks to reduce the mass of future heavy-lift launch vehicles. The alloy is available in section thicknesses greater than that of the incumbent aluminum alloy, 2195, which will enable designs with greater structural efficiency. While ambient temperature design allowable properties are available for alloy 2050, cryogenic properties are not available. To determine its suitability for use in cryogenic propellant tanks, tensile, compression and fracture tests were conducted on 4 inch thick 2050-T84 plate at ambient temperature and at -320degF. Various metallurgical analyses were also performed in order to provide an understanding of the compositional homogeneity and microstructure of 2050.

  11. Effect of high-temperature pre-precipitation on microstructure and properties of 7055 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈康华; 黄兰萍

    2003-01-01

    The near-solvus pre-precipitation following higher temperature solution treatment was performed on 7055 aluminum alloy. The effect of the pre-precipitation on the microstructure, age hardening and stress corrosion cracking of 7055 alloy was investigated. The optical and transmission electron microscopy results show that the near-solvus pre-precipitation can be limited to grain boundary and enhance the discontinuity of grain boundary precipitates in the sequent age. The stress corrosion cracking resistance of aged 7055 alloys could be improved with non-deteriorated strength and plasticity via the pre-precipitation.

  12. Effect of ageing time and temperature on corrosion behaviour of aluminum alloy 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadpale, Vikas; Banjare, Pragya N.; Manoj, Manoranjan Kumar

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloy 2014 were studied by potentiodynamic polarization in 1 mole of NaCl solution of aged sample. The experimental testing results concluded that, corrosion resistance of Aluminum alloy 2014 degraded with the increasing the temperature (150°C & 200°C) and time of ageing. Corroded surface of the aged specimens was tested under optical microscopes for microstructures for phase analysis. Optical micrographs of corroded surfaces showed general corrosion and pitting corrosion. The corrosion resistance of lower ageing temperature and lower ageing time is higher because of its fine distribution of precipitates in matrix phase.

  13. Effect of temperature on the anodizing process of aluminum alloy AA 5052

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theohari, S.; Kontogeorgou, Ch.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of temperature (10-40 °C) during the anodizing process of AA 5052 for 40 min in 175 g/L sulfuric acid solution at constant voltage (15 V) was studied in comparison with pure aluminum. The incorporated magnesium species in the barrier layer result in the further increase of the minimum current density passed during anodizing, as the temperature increases, by about 42% up to 30 °C and then by 12% up to 40 °C. Then during the anodizing process for 40 min a blocking effect on oxide film growth was gradually observed as the temperature increased until 30 °C. The results of EDAX analysis on thick films reveal that the mean amount of the magnesium species inside the film is about 50-70% less than that in the bulk alloy, while it is higher at certain locations adjacent to the film surface at 30 °C. The increase of anodizing temperature does not influence the porosity of thin films (formed for short times) on pure aluminum, while it reduces it on the alloy. At 40 °C the above mentioned blocking effects disappear. It means that the presence of magnesium species causes an impediment to the effect of temperature on iss, on the film thickness and on the porosity of thin films, only under conditions where film growth takes place without significant loss of the anodizing charge to side reactions.

  14. Constitutive Behavior and Deep Drawability of Three Aluminum Alloys Under Different Temperatures and Deformation Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Sudhy S.; Prasad, K. Sajun; Basak, Shamik; Panda, Sushanta Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, uniaxial tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the stress-strain response of AA2014, AA5052 and AA6082 aluminum alloys at four temperatures: 303, 423, 523 and 623 K, and three strain rates: 0.0022, 0.022 and 0.22 s-1. It was found that the Cowper-Symonds model was not a robust constitutive model, and it failed to predict the flow behavior, particularly the thermal softening at higher temperatures. Subsequently, a comparative study was made on the capability of Johnson-Cook (JC), modified Zerilli-Armstrong (m-ZA), modified Arrhenius (m-ARR) and artificial neural network (ANN) for modeling the constitutive behavior of all the three aluminum alloys under the mentioned strain rates and temperatures. Also, the improvement in formability of the materials was evaluated at an elevated temperature of 623 K in terms of cup height and maximum safe strains by conducting cylindrical cup deep drawing experiments under two different punch speeds of 4 and 400 mm/min. The cup heights increased during warm deep drawing due to thermal softening and increase in failure strains. Also, a small reduction in cup height was observed when the punch speed increased from 4 to 400 mm/min at 623 K. Hence, it was suggested to use high-speed deformation at elevated temperature to reduce both punch load and cycle time during the deep drawing process.

  15. Micro-mechanisms of Surface Defects Induced on Aluminum Alloys during Plastic Deformation at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Olufisayo A.

    Near-surface deformed layers developed on aluminum alloys significantly influence the corrosion and tribological behavior as well as reduce the surface quality of the rolled aluminum. The evolution of the near-surface microstructures induced on magnesium containing aluminum alloys during thermomechanical processing has been investigated with the aim generating an understanding of the influence of individual forming parameters on its evolution and examine the microstructure of the roll coating induced on the mating steel roll through material transfer during rolling. The micro-mechanisms related to the various features of near-surface microstructure developed during tribological conditions of the simulated hot rolling process were identified. Thermomechanical processing experiments were performed with the aid of hot rolling (operating temperature: 550 to 460 °C, 4, 10 and 20 rolling pass schedules) and hot forming (operating temperature: 350 to 545 °C, strain rate: 4 x 10-2 s-1) tribo-simulators. The surface, near-surface features and material transfer induced during the elevated temperature plastic deformation were examined and characterized employing optical interferometry, SEM/EDS, FIB and TEM. Near-surface features characterized on the rolled aluminum alloys included; cracks, fractured intermetallic particles, aluminum nano-particles, oxide decorated grain boundaries, rolled-in oxides, shingles and blisters. These features were related to various individual rolling parameters which included, the work roll roughness, which induced the formation of shingles, rolling marks and were responsible for the redistribution of surface oxide and the enhancements of the depth of the near-surface damage. The enhanced stresses and strains experienced during rolling were related to the formation and propagation of cracks, the nanocrystalline structure of the near-surface layers and aluminum nano-particles. The mechanism of the evolution of the near-surface microstructure were

  16. The Temperature Effect on the Compressive Behavior of Closed-Cell Aluminum-Alloy Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Nima; Linul, Emanoil; Marsavina, Liviu

    2018-01-01

    In this research, the mechanical behavior of closed-cell aluminum (Al)-alloy foams was investigated at different temperatures in the range of 25-450 °C. The main mechanical properties of porous Al-alloy foams are affected by the testing temperature, and they decrease with the increase in the temperature during uniaxial compression. From both the constant/serrated character of stress-strain curves and macro/microstructural morphology of deformed cellular structure, it was found that Al foams present a transition temperature from brittle to ductile behavior around 192 °C. Due to the softening of the cellular structure at higher temperatures, linear correlations of the stress amplitude and that of the absorbed energy with the temperature were proposed. Also, it was observed that the presence of inherent defects like micropores in the foam cell walls induced further local stress concentration which weakens the cellular structure's strength and crack propagation and cell-wall plastic deformation are the dominant collapse mechanisms. Finally, an energy absorption study was performed and an optimum temperature was proposed.

  17. Influence of ECAP temperature on the formability of a particle reinforced 2017 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Härtel, M.; Frint, P.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2017-03-01

    Severe plastic deformation methods are commonly used to increase the strength of materials by generating ultrafine-grained microstructures. The application of these methods to Al-Cu alloys is, however, difficult because of their poor formability at room temperature. An additional reduction of formability of such alloys occurs when ceramic particles are added as reinforcement: this often triggers shear localization and crack initiation during ECAP. This is the main reason why equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) of aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) can generally only be performed at elevated temperatures and using ECAP dies with a channel angle larger than 90° (e.g. 120°). In this study we present a brief first report on an alternative approach for the improvement of the formability of an AMC (AA2017, 10 % SiC): ECAP at low temperatures. We show that, using a temperature of -60 °C and a channel angle of 90° (corresponding to an equivalent strain of 1.1), ECAP of the AMC can be successfully performed without material failure. The mechanical properties of the strongly deformed AMC are analyzed by tensile testing. Our results indicate that the increased formability of the AMC at low temperatures can be attributed to the suppression of unstable plastic flow that affects formability at room temperature.

  18. Mechanical response of AA7075 aluminum alloy over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Z.; Cassada, W.A. [Reynolds Metals Co., Chester, VA (United States). Corp. Res. and Dev.; Cady, C.M.; Gray, G.T. III

    2000-07-01

    The influence of temperature and strain rate on the flow stress and work hardening rate of a 7075 aluminum alloy was studied under compressive loading over the temperature range from 23 C to 470 C, and strain rates from 0.001 s{sup -1} and 2100 s{sup -1}. While the temperature dependence of the flow stress was found to be most significant at temperatures below 300 C, the strain rate dependence of the flow stress was found to be pronounced at temperatures above 23 C. Concurrently, the work hardening rate decreases significantly with increasing temperature between 23 C and 300 C and increases slightly at higher temperatures. The minimum work hardening rate is observed to occur at temperatures between 200 C and 300 C and shift to higher temperatures with increasing strain rate. A negative strain rate dependence of work hardening rate was observed at 23 C, although a positive strain rate dependence of work hardening rate occurs at higher temperatures. Analysis of the experimental data revealed three deformation regimes. (orig.)

  19. Effect of aging time and aging temperature on fatigue and fracture behavior of 6063 aluminum alloy under seawater influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, R.A.; Abdul-Wahab, S.A.; Pervez, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes experimentally the effect of seawater corrosion, aging time, and aging temperature on the fatigue resistance property of 6063 aluminum alloy. The 6063 aluminum alloy that was used for the study was heat treated and soaked in seawater for different intervals of time between 2 and 30 weeks. It was found that the maximum fatigue resistance property in the 6063 aluminum alloy was observed when aged between 7 and 9 h and heat treated at temperatures between 160 o C and 200 o C. Generally at constant load, the results indicated that the number of cycles to fail the 6063 aluminum alloy decreased with increasing the soaking time in seawater. Moreover, fracture surfaces were considered and studied under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the brittle fracture pattern tended to occur with the increase in aging time and temperature. The fatigue striations were observed very clearly at low and peak aging temperature. The increase in the fatigue resistance property with aging time was linked with the vacancies assisted diffusion mechanism and also by the hindering of dislocation movement by impure atoms

  20. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  1. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Elevated Temperature Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) Alloy and Its Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, David C. [Eck Industreis, Inc.; Gegal, Gerald A.

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this project was to provide a production capable cast aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy with an operating temperature capability of 250-300°C. Important industrial sectors as well as the military now seek lightweight aluminum alloy castings that can operate in temperature ranges of 250-300°C. Current needs in this temperature range are being satisfied by the use of titanium alloy castings. These have the desired strength properties but the end components are heavier and significantly more costly. Also, the energy requirements for production of titanium alloy castings are significantly higher than those required for production of aluminum alloys and aluminum alloy castings.

  2. Study on Strengthening and Toughening Mechanisms of Aluminum Alloy 2618-Ti at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Ma; Tingting, Liu; Ya, Liu; Xuping, Su; Jianhua, Wang

    2018-01-01

    The tensile properties of the alloy 2618 and 2618-Ti were tested using a tensile testing machine. The morphologies of the fracture of tensile samples were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The strengthening and toughening mechanisms of alloy 2618-Ti at elevated temperature were systematically investigated based on the analyses of experimental results. The results showed that the tensile strength of alloy 2618-Ti is much higher than that of alloy 2618 at the temperature range of 250 and 300 °C. But the elongation of alloy 2618-Ti is much higher than that of alloy 2618 at the temperature range of 200 and 300 °C. The equal-strength temperature of intragranular and grain boundary of alloy 2618-Ti is about 235 °C. When the temperature is lower than 235 °C, the strengthening of alloy 2618-Ti is ascribed to the strengthening effect of fine grains and dispersed Al3Ti/Al18Mg3Ti2 phase. When the temperature is higher than 235 °C, the strengthening effect of alloy 2618-Ti is mainly attributed to the load transfer of Al3Ti and Al18Mg3Ti2 particles. The toughening of alloy 2618-Ti at elevated temperature is mainly ascribed to the fine grain microstructure, excellent combination between matrix and dispersed Al3Ti/Al18Mg3Ti2 particles as well as the recrystallization of the alloy at elevated temperature.

  3. Cast Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X Compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their low cost, chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism at high temperature for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. For Al2O3 nanoparticles, the test samples were prepared from special Al2O3 preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and then pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. In another method, Al2O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with fine aluminum powder and consolidated into test samples through hot pressing and sintering. With the Al3-X nanoparticles, the test samples are produced as precipitates from in-situ reactions with molten aluminum using conventional permanent mold or die casting techniques. It is found that cast aluminum alloy using nanoparticles Al3-X is the most cost effective method to produce high strength aluminum alloys for high temperature applications in comparison to nanoparticles Al2O3. Furthermore, significant mechanical properties retention in high temperature environment could be achieved with Al3-X nanoparticles, resulting in tensile strength of nearly 3 times higher than most 300- series conventional cast aluminum alloys tested at 600 F.

  4. On the Effect of Natural Aging Prior to Low Temperature ECAP of a High-Strength Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fritsch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe plastic deformation (SPD can be used to generate ultra-fine grained microstructures and thus to increase the strength of many materials. Unfortunately, high strength aluminum alloys are generally hard to deform, which puts severe limits on the feasibility of conventional SPD methods. In this study, we use low temperature equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP to deform an AA7075 alloy. We perform ECAP in a custom-built, cooled ECAP-tool with an internal angle of 90° at −60 °C and with an applied backpressure. In previous studies, high-strength age hardening aluminum alloys were deformed in a solid solution heat treated condition to improve the mechanical properties in combination with subsequent (post-ECAP aging. In the present study, we systematically vary the initial microstructure—i.e., the material condition prior to low temperature ECAP—by (pre-ECAP natural aging. The key result of the present study is that precipitates introduced prior to ECAP speed up grain refinement during ECAP. Longer aging times lead to accelerated microstructural evolution, to increasing strength, and to a transition in fracture behavior after a single pass of low temperature ECAP. These results demonstrate the potential of these thermo-mechanical treatments to produce improved properties of high-strength aluminum alloys.

  5. An all aluminum alloy UHV components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kenzaburo

    1985-01-01

    An all aluminum components was developed for use with UHV system. Aluminum alloy whose advantage are little discharge gas, easy to bake out, light weight, little damage against radieactivity radiation is used. Therefore, as it is all aluminum alloy, baking is possible. Baking temperature is 150 deg C in case of not only ion pump, gate valve, angle valve but also aluminum components. Ion pump have to an ultrahigh vacuum of order 10 -9 torr can be obtained without baking, 10 -10 torr order can be obtained after 24 hour of baking. (author)

  6. Temperature Field Prediction for Determining the Residual Stresses Under Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Livshits

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to non-stationary temperature field blanks from aluminum alloys during heat treatment. It consists of the introduction and two smaller paragraphs. In the introduction the author concerns the influence of residual stresses arising in the manufacturing process of details, on the strength of the whole aircraft construction and, consequently, on their technical and economic parameters, such as weight, reliability, efficiency, and cost. He also notes that the residual stresses appeared during the production of parts change their location, size and direction under the influence of the elastic deformations that occur during the exploitation of aircraft. Redistributed residual stresses may have a chaotic distribution that may cause overlap of these stresses on the stresses caused by the impact of workload of constructions and destruction or damage of aircraft components.The first paragraph is devoted to the existing methods and techniques for determining the residual stresses. The presented methods and techniques are analyzed to show the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The conclusion is drawn that the method to determine the residual stresses is necessary, its cost is less than those of existing ones, and an error does not exceed 10%.In the second section, the author divides the problem of determining the residual stresses into two parts, and describes the solution methods of the first one. The first problem is to define the temperature field of the work piece. The author uses a Fourier equation with the definition of initial and boundary conditions to describe a mathematical model of the heat cycle of work piece cooling. He draws special attention here to the fact that it is complicated to determine the heat transfer coefficient, which characterizes the process of cooling the work piece during hardening because of its dependence on a number of factors, such as changing temperature-dependent material properties of

  7. Influence of Extrusion Temperature on the Aging Behavior and Mechanical Properties of an AA6060 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Berndt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing of AA6060 aluminum alloys for semi-products usually includes hot extrusion with subsequent artificial aging for several hours. Processing below the recrystallization temperature allows for an increased strength at a significantly reduced annealing time by combining strain hardening and precipitation hardening. In this study, we investigate the potential of cold and warm extrusion as alternative processing routes for high strength aluminum semi-products. Cast billets of the age hardening aluminum alloy AA6060 were solution annealed and then extruded at room temperature, 120 or 170 °C, followed by an aging treatment. Electron microscopy and mechanical testing were performed on the as-extruded as well as the annealed materials to characterize the resulting microstructural features and mechanical properties. All of the extruded profiles exhibit similar, strongly graded microstructures. The strain gradients and the varying extrusion temperatures lead to different stages of dynamic precipitation in the as-extruded materials, which significantly alter the subsequent aging behavior and mechanical properties. The experimental results demonstrate that extrusion below recrystallization temperature allows for high strength at a massively reduced aging time due to dynamic precipitation and/or accelerated precipitation kinetics. The highest strength and ductility were achieved by extrusion at 120 °C and subsequent short-time aging.

  8. High Temperature Analysis of Aluminum-Lithium 2195 Alloy to Aid in the Design of Improved Welding Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, George E.; Widener, Christian

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys have extraordinary properties. The addition of lithium to an aluminum alloy decreases its density, while making large increases in its strength and hardness. The down side is that they are unstable at higher temperatures, and are subsequently difficult to weld or even manufacture. Martin Marietta, though, developed an aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 that was reported to have exceptional properties and good weldability. Thus, it was chosen as the alloy for the space shuttles super light external tank. Unfortunately, welding 2195 has turned out to be much more of a challenge than anticipated. Thus, research has been undergone in order to understand the mechanisms that are causing the welding problems. Gas reactions have been observed to be detrimental to weld strength. Water vapor has often been identified as having a significant role in these reactions. Nitrogen, however, has also been shown to have a direct correlation to porosity. These reactions were suspected as being complex and responsible for the two main problems of welding 2195. One, the initial welds of 2195 are much weaker than the parent metal. Second, each subsequent welding pass increases the size and number of cracks and porosity, yielding significant reductions in strength. Consequently, the objective of this research was to characterize the high-temperature reactions of 2195 in order to understand the mechanisms for crack growth and the formation of porosity in welds. In order to accomplish that goal, an optical hot-stage microscope, HSM, was used to observe those reactions as they occurred. Surface reactions of 2195 were observed in a variety of environments, such as air, vacuum, nitrogen and helium. For comparison, some samples of Al-2219 were also observed. Some of the reacted surfaces were then analyzed on a scanning electron microscope, SEM. Additionally, a gas chromatograph was used to analyze the gaseous products of the high temperature reactions.

  9. Effect of temperature on synthesis and properties of aluminum-magnesium mechanical alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbrajkar, Swati M.; Schoenitz, Mirko; Jones, Steven R.; Dreizin, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of an Al 0.7 Mg 0.3 mechanical alloy was studied using a planetary mill. Several distinct temperature regimes of mechanical alloying were achieved using milling jars equipped with finned heat sinks and an external air conditioner installed to cool the entire milling chamber. Wireless temperature sensors were attached to the milling jars to monitor the process temperature. Intermediate and final products were collected and were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The temperature history of the milling jars exhibited two peaks during mechanical alloying. The first peak occurred when particles of the starting powders deformed to produce flakes. The second peak was observed when the flakes agglomerated and re-fragmented forming layered composites that served as precursors for the mechanical alloy. The temperature of milling affected the magnesium solubility of the produced Al-Mg mechanical alloys. Decreasing the milling temperature from ∼70-80 deg. C to 20-30 deg. C resulted in an increase of the dissolved Mg concentration in Al from 2-3 at.% to ∼25 at.% for the Al 0.7 Mg 0.3 composition. The formation of intermetallic phases was favored at higher milling temperatures, where high solubilities cannot be achieved

  10. Effect of temperature on synthesis and properties of aluminum-magnesium mechanical alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umbrajkar, Swati M. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Schoenitz, Mirko [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Jones, Steven R. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Dreizin, Edward L. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)]. E-mail: dreizin@njit.edu

    2005-10-27

    The synthesis of an Al{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3} mechanical alloy was studied using a planetary mill. Several distinct temperature regimes of mechanical alloying were achieved using milling jars equipped with finned heat sinks and an external air conditioner installed to cool the entire milling chamber. Wireless temperature sensors were attached to the milling jars to monitor the process temperature. Intermediate and final products were collected and were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The temperature history of the milling jars exhibited two peaks during mechanical alloying. The first peak occurred when particles of the starting powders deformed to produce flakes. The second peak was observed when the flakes agglomerated and re-fragmented forming layered composites that served as precursors for the mechanical alloy. The temperature of milling affected the magnesium solubility of the produced Al-Mg mechanical alloys. Decreasing the milling temperature from {approx}70-80 deg. C to 20-30 deg. C resulted in an increase of the dissolved Mg concentration in Al from 2-3 at.% to {approx}25 at.% for the Al{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3} composition. The formation of intermetallic phases was favored at higher milling temperatures, where high solubilities cannot be achieved.

  11. Effect of temperature on anisotropy in forming simulations of aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurukuri, S.; Miroux, A.; Ghosh, M.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2009-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical study of the effect of temperature on anisotropy in warm forming of AA 6016-T4 aluminum was performed. The anisotropy coefficients of the Vegter yield function were calculated from crystal plasticity models with an adequate combination of extra slip systems.

  12. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T e and N e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T e and N e for aluminum in aluminum alloys as a marker for the correct alloying using an optical fiber probe.

  13. Finite Element Simulation of Temperature and Strain Distribution during Friction Stir Welding of AA2024 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul; Pal, Surjya Kanta; Singh, Shiv Brat

    2017-02-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process and is handy for welding aluminum alloys. Finite Element Method (FEM) is an important tool to predict state variables of the process but numerical simulation of FSW is highly complex due to non-linear contact interactions between tool and work piece and interdependency of displacement and temperature. In the present work, a three dimensional coupled thermo-mechanical method based on Lagrangian implicit method is proposed to study the thermal history, strain distribution and thermo-mechanical process in butt welding of Aluminum alloy 2024 using DEFORM-3D software. Workpiece is defined as rigid-visco plastic material and sticking condition between tool and work piece is defined. Adaptive re-meshing is used to tackle high mesh distortion. Effect of tool rotational and welding speed on plastic strain is studied and insight is given on asymmetric nature of FSW process. Temperature distribution on the workpiece and tool is predicted and maximum temperature is found in workpiece top surface.

  14. Metals Technology for Aerospace Applications in 2020: Development of High Temperature Aluminum Alloys For Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicus, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The role of trace additions on the nucleation and stability of the primary strengthening phase, omega, is of paramount importance for the enhancement of mechanical properties for moderate temperature application of Al-Cu-Mg-(Ag) alloys. In order to better understand the competition for solute, which governs the microstructural evolution of these alloys, a series of Al-Cu-Mg-Si quaternary alloys were prepared to investigate the role of trace Si additions on the nucleation of the omega phase. Si additions were found to quell omega nucleation in conjunction with the enhanced matrix precipitation of competing phases. These initial results indicate that it is necessary to overcome a critical Mg/Si ratio for omega precipitation, rather than a particular Si content.

  15. High temperature Moessbauer study of order-disorder transformation in iron-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Kensuke; Yamamura, Akihiko; Kudo, Kazunao; Eguchi, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    Ordering process of iron rich Fe-Al alloys has been investigated at elevated temperatures by mean of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The observed spectra are analyzed to obtain the temperature dependences of the internal field, isomer shift and line width, and the results are discussed in connection with the ordering process. The alloy with 24.7 at% Al exhibits spectra, which are characteristic of the superposition of a single-line spectrum and a six-line one, originating from the ordered paramagnetic B2 or DO 3 state and disordered ferromagnetic α, respectively, and the results confirm the coexistence of α phase with B2 or DO 3 . The isomer shift of the paramagnetic component of the spectra shows discontinuous changes at the temperatures of transformation α reversible B2 and B2 reversible DO 3 . (author)

  16. Microstructure-based multiscale modeling of elevated temperature deformation in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, Paul E.; Hector, Louis G.; Du Ningning; Bower, Allan F.

    2010-01-01

    A multiscale model for predicting elevated temperature deformation in Al-Mg alloys is presented. Constitutive models are generated from a theoretical methodology and used to investigate the effects of grain size on formability. Flow data are computed with a polycrystalline, microstructure-based model which accounts for grain boundary sliding, stress-induced diffusion, and dislocation creep. Favorable agreement is found between the computed flow data and elevated temperature tensile measurements. A creep constitutive model is then fit to the computed flow data and used in finite-element simulations of two simple gas pressure forming processes, where favorable results are observed. These results are fully consistent with gas pressure forming experiments, and suggest a greater role for constitutive models, derived largely from theoretical methodologies, in the design of Al alloys with enhanced elevated temperature formability. The methodology detailed herein provides a framework for incorporation of results from atomistic-scale models of dislocation creep and diffusion.

  17. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.

  18. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T(e and N(e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T(e and N(e for the aluminum in aluminum alloys using an optical fiber probe.

  19. Aluminum alloy impact sparkling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudyk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cast machine parts are widely used in many branches of industry. A very important issue is gaining the appropriate knowledge relating to the application of castings in places of explosion risks including but not limited to mining, chemical industry and rescue works. A possibility of explosion risks occurrence following the impact sparkling of the cast metal parts is still not solved problem in scientific research. In relation to this issue, in this article, the results of the study are presented, and relating to the tendency to impact sparkling of the aluminium alloys used in machine building. On the grounds of the results obtained, it was demonstrated that the registered impact sparkles bunches of feathers from the analyzed alloys: AlSi7Mg, (AK7; AlSi9Mg, (AK9; AlSi6Cu4, (AK64 and AlSi11, (AK11 show significant differences between each other. The quantitative analysis of the temperature distribution and nuclei surface area performed on the example of the alloy AK9 (subjected to defined period of corrosion allows for the statement that they are dangerous in conditions of explosion risk. Following this fact, designers and users of machine parts made from these materials should not use them in conditions where the explosive mixtures occur.

  20. Deformation and fracture of thin sheet aluminum-lithium alloys: The effect of cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John A.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to characterize the fracture behavior and to define the fracture mechanisms for new Al-Li-Cu alloys, with emphasis on the role of indium additions and cryogenic temperatures. Three alloys were investigated in rolled product form: 2090 baseline and 2090 + indium produced by Reynolds Metals, and commercial AA 2090-T81 produced by Alcoa. The experimental 2090 + In alloy exhibited increases in hardness and ultimate strength, but no change in tensile yield strength, compared to the baseline 2090 composition in the unstretched T6 condition. The reason for this behavior is not understood. Based on hardness and preliminary Kahn Tear fracture experiments, a nominally peak-aged condition was employed for detailed fracture studies. Crack initiation and growth fracture toughness were examined as a function of stress state and microstructure using J(delta a) methods applied to precracked compact tension specimens in the LT orientation. To date, J(delta a) experiments have been limited to 23 C. Alcoa 2090-T81 exhibited the highest toughness regardless of stress state. Fracture was accompanied by extensive delamination associated with high angle grain boundaries normal to the fatigue precrack surface and progressed microscopically by a transgranular shear mechanism. In contrast the two peak-aged Reynolds alloys had lower toughness and fracture was intersubgranular without substantial delamination. The influences of cryogenic temperature, microstructure, boundary precipitate structure, and deformation mode in governing the competing fracture mechanisms will be determined in future experiments. Results contribute to the development of predictive micromechanical models for fracture modes in Al-Li alloys, and to fracture resistant materials.

  1. Strengthening Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles of Al203 and Al3-X Compounds (X= Ti, V, Zr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the effect of nanoparticles A12O3 and A13-X compounds (X= Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum matrix at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. Samples were prepared from A12O3 nanoparticle preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. A12O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with aluminum powder and consolidated into samples through hot pressing and sintering. On the other hand, the Al3-X nanoparticles are produced as precipitates via in situ reactions with molten aluminum alloys using conventional casting techniques. The degree of alloy strengthening using nanoparticles will depend on the materials, particle size, shape, volume fraction, and mean inter-particle spacing.

  2. Precision forging technology for aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Wang, Xinyun; Jin, Junsong; Xia, Juchen

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum alloy is a preferred metal material for lightweight part manufacturing in aerospace, automobile, and weapon industries due to its good physical properties, such as low density, high specific strength, and good corrosion resistance. However, during forging processes, underfilling, folding, broken streamline, crack, coarse grain, and other macro- or microdefects are easily generated because of the deformation characteristics of aluminum alloys, including narrow forgeable temperature region, fast heat dissipation to dies, strong adhesion, high strain rate sensitivity, and large flow resistance. Thus, it is seriously restricted for the forged part to obtain precision shape and enhanced property. In this paper, progresses in precision forging technologies of aluminum alloy parts were reviewed. Several advanced precision forging technologies have been developed, including closed die forging, isothermal die forging, local loading forging, metal flow forging with relief cavity, auxiliary force or vibration loading, casting-forging hybrid forming, and stamping-forging hybrid forming. High-precision aluminum alloy parts can be realized by controlling the forging processes and parameters or combining precision forging technologies with other forming technologies. The development of these technologies is beneficial to promote the application of aluminum alloys in manufacturing of lightweight parts.

  3. Isothermal Time-Temperature-Precipitation Diagram for an Aluminum Alloy 6005A by In Situ DSC Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Milkereit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Time-temperature-precipitation (TTP diagrams deliver important material data, such as temperature and time ranges critical for precipitation during the quenching step of the age hardening procedure. Although the quenching step is continuous, isothermal TTP diagrams are often applied. Together with a so-called Quench Factor Analysis, they can be used to describe very different cooling paths. Typically, these diagrams are constructed based on mechanical properties or microstructures after an interrupted quenching, i.e., ex situ analyses. In recent years, an in situ calorimetric method to record continuous cooling precipitation diagrams of aluminum alloys has been developed to the application level by our group. This method has now been transferred to isothermal experiments, in which the whole heat treatment cycle was performed in a differential scanning calorimeter. The Al-Mg-Si-wrought alloy 6005A was investigated. Solution annealing at 540 °C and overcritical quenching to several temperatures between 450 °C and 250 °C were followed by isothermal soaking. Based on the heat flow curves during isothermal soaking, TTP diagrams were determined. An appropriate evaluation method has been developed. It was found that three different precipitation reactions in characteristic temperature intervals exist. Some of the low temperature reactions are not accessible in continuous cooling experiments and require isothermal studies.

  4. Modification of Sr on 4004 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Erjun; Cao, Guojian; Feng, Yicheng; Wang, Liping; Wang, Guojun; Lv, Xinyu

    2013-05-01

    As a brazing foil, 4004 Al alloy has good welding performance. However, the high Si content decreases the plasticity of the alloy. To improve the plasticity of 4004 Al alloy and subsequently improve the productivity of 4004 Al foil or 434 composite foil, 4004 Al alloy was modified by Al-10%Sr master alloy. Modification effects of an additional amount of Sr, modification temperature, and holding time on 4004 aluminum alloy were studied by orthogonal design. The results showed that the greatest impact parameter of 4004 aluminum alloy modification was the additional amount of Sr, followed by holding time and modification temperature. The optimum modification parameters obtained by orthogonal design were as follows: Sr addition of 0.04%, holding time of 60 min, and modification temperature of 760°C. The effect of Sr addition on modification was analyzed in detail based on orthogonal results. With increasing of Sr addition, elongation of 4004 alloy increased at first, and decreased after reaching the maximum value.

  5. Influence of Temperature on Mechanical Behavior During Static Restore Processes of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu High Strength Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Kun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow stress behaviors of as-cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu high strength aluminum alloy during static restore processes were investigated by: Isothermal double-pass compression tests at temperatures of 300-400℃, strain rates of 0.01-1 s-1, strains of 33% +20% with the holding times of 0~900 s after the first pass compression. The results indicate that the deformation temperature has a dramatical effect on mechanical behaviors during static restore processes of the alloy. (1 At 300 ℃ and 330 ℃ lower temperatures, the recovery during the deformation is slow, and deformation energy stored in matrix is higher, flow stresses at the second pass deformation decreased during the recovery and recrystallization, and the stress softening phenomena is observed. Stress softening is increased with the increasing holding time; Precipitation during the holding time inhibites the stress softening. (2 At 360 ℃ and 400 ℃ higher temperatures, the recovery during deformation is rapid, and deformation energy stored in matrix is lower. Solid solubility is higher after holding, so that flow stress at the second pass deformation is increased, stress hardening phenomena is observed. Stress hardening decreased with the increasing holding time duo to the recovery and recrystallization during holding period at 360 ℃; Precipitation during holding also inhibited the stress softening. However, Stress hardening remains constant with the increasing holding time duo to the reasanenal there are no recovery and recrystallization during holding period at 400 ℃.

  6. Phases in lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Lanthanum-nickel-aluminum (LANA) alloys will be used to pump, store and separate hydrogen isotopes in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF). The aluminum content (y) of the primary LaNi 5 -phase is controlled to produce the desired pressure-temperature behavior for adsorption and desorption of hydrogen. However, secondary phases cause decreased capacity and some may cause undesirable retention of tritium. Twenty-three alloys purchased from Ergenics, Inc. for development of RTF processes have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) to determine the distributions and compositions of constituent phases. This memorandum reports the results of these characterization studies. Knowledge of the structural characteristics of these alloys is a useful first step in selecting materials for specific process development tests and in interpreting results of those tests. Once this information is coupled with data on hydrogen plateau pressures, retention and capacity, secondary phase limits for RTF alloys can be specified

  7. Corrosion of aluminum alloys as a function of alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1969-10-01

    A study was initiated which included nineteen aluminum alloys. Tests were conducted in high purity water at 360 0 C and flow tests (approx. 20 ft/sec) in reactor process water at 130 0 C (TF-18 loop tests). High-silicon alloys and AlSi failed completely in the 360 0 C tests. However, coupling of AlSi to 8001 aluminum suppressed the failure. The alloy compositions containing iron and nickel survived tht 360 0 C autoclave exposures. Corrosion rates varied widely as a function of alloy composition, but in directions which were predictable from previous high-temperature autoclave experience. In the TF-18 loop flow tests, corrosion penetrations were similar on all of the alloys and on high-purity aluminum after 105 days. However, certain alloys established relatively low linear corrosion rates: Al-0.9 Ni-0.5 Fe-0.1 Zr, Al-1.0 Ni-0.15 Fe-11.5 Si-0.8 Mg, Al-1.2 Ni-1.8 Fe, and Al-7.0 Ni-4.8 Fe. Electrical polarity measurements between AlSi and 8001 alloys in reactor process water at temperatures up to 150 0 C indicated that AlSi was anodic to 8001 in the static autoclave system above approx. 50 0 C

  8. Effects of Pouring Temperature and Electromagnetic Stirring on Porosity and Mechanical Properties of A357 Aluminum Alloy Rheo-Diecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, An; Zhao, Junwen; Xu, Chao; Li, Hu; Han, Jing; Zhang, Xu

    2018-05-01

    Semisolid slurry of A357 aluminum alloy was prepared using a temperature-controllable electromagnetic stirrer and rheo-diecast at different temperatures. The effects of pouring temperature and electromagnetic stirring (EMS) on the porosity in rheo-diecast samples, as well as the relation between porosity and mechanical properties, were investigated. The results show that pouring temperature and EMS had minor influences on rheo-diecast microstructure but marked influence on the porosity. With decreasing slurry pouring temperature, the porosity decreased first and then increased, whereas the maximum pore ratio (ratio of shape factor to diameter of the largest pore) increased first and then decreased. The maximum pore ratio determines the level of tensile strength and elongation, and higher mechanical properties can be obtained with smaller and rounder pores in samples. The mechanical properties of the rheo-diecast samples increased linearly with increasing maximum pore ratio. The maximum pore ratio was 1.43 µm-1, and the minimum porosity level was 0.37% under EMS condition for the rheo-diecast samples obtained at a pouring temperature of 608 °C. With this porosity condition, the maximum tensile strength and elongation were achieved at 274 MPa and 4.9%, respectively. It was also revealed that EMS improves mechanical properties by reduction in porosity and an increase in maximum pore ratio.

  9. Aluminum alloy and associated anode and battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarcy, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an aluminum alloy. It comprises: eutectic amounts of at least two alloying elements selected from the group consisting of bismuth, cadmium, scandium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium, tin, and zinc with the balance being aluminum and the alloying elements being about 0.01 to 3.0 percent by weight of the alloy

  10. Dislocation polymorphism transformation of 6061-T651 aluminum alloy processed by laser shock processing: Effect of tempering at the elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, X.D.; Ruan, L.; Yuan, S.Q.; Ren, N.F.; Zheng, L.M.; Zhan, Q.B.; Zhou, J.Z.; Yang, H.M.; Wang, Y.; Dai, F.Z.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of tempering on surface topography and dislocation configuration of 6061-T651 aluminum alloy by laser shock processing (LSP) were investigated at the elevated temperatures. Surface topography and surface roughness were tested by a Surfcom 130A-Monochrome surface rough-meter. Morphologies of precipitated phases were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the dislocation configurations of samples after LSP were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that LSP had a beneficial effect on micro-hardness at elevated temperature. There was a little change of the surface roughness as subjected to LSP. The main strengthening mechanism of micro-hardness was dislocation strengthening and fine grain strengthening, and precipitated phase strengthening was the main strengthening mechanism at elevated temperature. “Dislocation polymorphism transformation” (DPT) effect was affirmed at elevated temperature, and the elevated temperature was principal element for inducing the DPT effect of 6061-T651 aluminum alloy by LSP

  11. Radiation corrosion in aluminum alloy bellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    Testing was carried out in which materials for vacuum devices (Al, Ti, Cu, SUS) are exposed to electron beams (50 MeV, average current 80 μA) to determine the changes in the quantity, partial pressure and composition of the gases released from the materials. The test appratus used are made of Al alloys alone. During the test, vacuum leak is found in the Al alloy bellows used in the drive device. The leak is found to result from corrosion caused by water. The surface structure is analyzed by SEM, EPMA, ESCA and IMA. It is confirmed that the Al alloy used as material for the bellows if highly resistant to corrosion. It is concluded that it is necessary to use high purity cooling water to prevent the cooling water from causing corrosion. It has been reported that high purity aluminum is very high in resistance to corrosion. Based on these measurements and considerations, it is suggested that when aluminum is to be used as material for vacuum devices in an accelerator, it is required to provide protection film on its surface to prevent corrosion or to use cooling water pipes cladded with pure aluminum and an aluminum alloy. In addition, the temperature of the cooling water should be set after adequately considering the environmental conditions in the room. (Nogami, K.)

  12. High temperature oxidation behavior of gamma-nickel+gamma'-nickel aluminum alloys and coatings modified with platinum and reactive elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Nan

    Materials for high-pressure turbine blades must be able to operate in the high-temperature gases (above 1000°C) emerging from the combustion chamber. Accordingly, the development of nickel-based superalloys has been constantly motivated by the need to have improved engine efficiency, reliability and service lifetime under the harsh conditions imposed by the turbine environment. However, the melting point of nickel (1455°C) provides a natural ceiling for the temperature capability of nickel-based superalloys. Thus, surface-engineered turbine components with modified diffusion coatings and overlay coatings are used. Theses coatings are capable of forming a compact and adherent oxide scale, which greatly impedes the further transport of reactants between the high-temperature gases and the underlying metal and thus reducing attack by the atmosphere. Typically, these coatings contain beta-NiAl as a principal constituent phase in order to have sufficient aluminum content to form an Al2O3 scale at elevated temperatures. The drawbacks to the currently-used beta-based coatings, such as phase instabilities, associated stresses induced by such phase instabilities, and extensive coating/substrate interdiffusion, are major motivations in this study to seek next-generation coatings. The high-temperature oxidation resistance of novel Pt+Hf-modified gamma-Ni+gamma'-Ni 3Al-based alloys and coatings were investigated in this study. Both early-stage and 4-days isothermal oxidation behavior of single-phase gamma-Ni and gamma'-Ni3Al alloys were assessed by examining the weight changes, oxide-scale structures, and elemental concentration profiles through the scales and subsurface alloy regions. It was found that Pt promotes Al 2O3 formation by suppressing the NiO growth on both gamma-Ni and gamma'-Ni3Al single-phase alloys. This effect increases with increasing Pt content. Moreover, Pt exhibits this effect even at lower temperatures (˜970°C) in the very early stage of oxidation. It

  13. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: shaojiuyan@126.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2014-08-26

    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  14. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Dexter, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D 2 / = 1.9 x 10 -2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup -- 1 / 2 / s -1 cm -1 . The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  15. The behavior of ZrO2/20%Y2O3 and Al2O3 coatings deposited on aluminum alloys at high temperature regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintilei, G. L.; Crismaru, V. I.; Abrudeanu, M.; Munteanu, C.; Baciu, E. R.; Istrate, B.; Basescu, N.

    2015-10-01

    Aluminum alloy present numerous advantages like lightness, high specific strength and diversity which recommend them to a high number of applications from different fields. In extreme environments the protection of aluminum alloys is difficult and requires a high number of requirements like high temperature resistance, thermal fatigue resistance, corrosion fatigue resistance and galvanic corrosion resistance. To obtain these characteristics coatings can be applied to the surfaces so they can enhance the mechanical and chemical properties of the parts. In this paper two coatings were considered for deposition on an AA2024 aluminum alloy, ZrO2/20%Y2O3 and Al2O3. To obtain a better adherence of the coating to the base material an additional bond layer of NiCr is used. Both the coatings and bond layer were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying on the samples. The samples were subjected to a temperature of 500 °C and after that slowly cooled to room temperature. The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to determine the morphological and phase changes that occurred during the temperature exposure. To determine the stress level in the parts due to thermal expansion a finite element analysis was performed in the same conditions as the tests.

  16. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  17. 3D characterization and modeling of low cycle fatigue damage mechanisms at high temperature in a cast aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezecot, Sebastien; Maurel, Vincent; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Szmytka, Fabien; Koster, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography was used to monitor damage evolution in three dimensions during in situ Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) tests at high temperature (250 °C) for an industrial material. The studied material is an AlSi7Cu3Mg aluminum alloy (close to ASTM A319) produced by Lost Foam Casting (LFC), a process which generates coarse microstructures but is nevertheless used for engine parts by the automotive industry. The volume analysis (3D images) has shown that cracks are extremely sensitive to microstructural features: coarse pores and hard particles of the eutectic regions are critical regarding respectively the main crack initiation and the crack growth. Finite Elements (FE) simulations, performed on meshes directly generated from 3D volumes and containing only pores, have revealed that mechanical fields also play a major role on the crack behavior. Initiation sites corresponded to areas of maximum inelastic strain while the crack path was globally correlated to high stress triaxiality and inelastic strain fields.

  18. Electron-beam welding of aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, Marcel; de Bony, Yves

    1980-08-15

    The objective of this article is to describe the status of the application of electron-beam welding to aluminum alloys. These alloys are widely employed in the aeronautics, space and nuclear industries.

  19. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Certain Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, K. R.; Dorward, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    SC resistance of new high-strength alloys tested. Research report describes progress in continuing investigation of stress corrosion (SC) cracking of some aluminum alloys. Objective of program is comparing SC behavior of newer high-strength alloys with established SC-resistant alloy.

  20. Fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrivas, Anastasios Dimitrios

    2000-10-01

    A melting technique was developed to simulate the fusion boundary of aluminum alloys using the GleebleRTM thermal simulator. Using a steel sleeve to contain the aluminum, samples were heated to incremental temperatures above the solidus temperature of a number of alloys. In alloy 2195, a 4wt%Cu-1wt%Li alloy, an equiaxed non-dendritic zone (EQZ) could be formed by heating in the temperature range from approximately 630 to 640°C. At temperatures above 640°C, solidification occurred by the normal epitaxial nucleation and growth mechanism. Fusion boundary behavior was also studied in alloys 5454-H34, 6061-T6, and 2219-T8. Additionally, experimental alloy compositions were produced by making bead on plate welds using an alloy 5454-H32 base metal and 5025 or 5087 filler metals. These filler metals contain zirconium and scandium additions, respectively, and were expected to influence nucleation and growth behavior. Both as-welded and welded/heat treated (540°C and 300°C) substrates were tested by melting simulation, resulting in dendritic and EQZ structures depending on composition and substrate condition. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM(TM)) was employed to study the crystallographic character of the microstructures produced and to verify the mechanism responsible for EQZ formation. OIM(TM) proved that grains within the EQZ have random orientation. In all other cases, where the simulated microstructures were dendritic in nature, it was shown that epitaxy was the dominant mode of nucleation. The lack of any preferred crystallographic orientation relationship in the EQZ supports a theory proposed by Lippold et al that the EQZ is the result of heterogeneous nucleation within the weld unmixed zone. EDS analysis of the 2195 on STEM revealed particles with ternary composition consisted of Zr, Cu and Al and a tetragonal type crystallographic lattice. Microdiffraction line scans on EQZ grains in the alloy 2195 showed very good agreement between the measured Cu

  1. The behavior of ZrO_2/20%Y_2O_3 and Al_2O_3 coatings deposited on aluminum alloys at high temperature regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintilei, G.L.; Crismaru, V.I.; Abrudeanu, M.; Munteanu, C.; Baciu, E.R.; Istrate, B.; Basescu, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In both the ZrO_2/20%Y_2O_3 and Al_2O_3 coatings the high temperature caused a decrease of pores volume and a lower thickness of the interface between successive splats. • The NiCr bond layer in the sample with a ZrO_2/20%Y_2O_3 suffered a fragmentation due to high temperature exposure and thermal expansion which can lead to coating exfoliation. • The NiCr bond layer in the sample with an Al_2O_3 coating showed an increase of pore volume due to high temperature. - Abstract: Aluminum alloy present numerous advantages like lightness, high specific strength and diversity which recommend them to a high number of applications from different fields. In extreme environments the protection of aluminum alloys is difficult and requires a high number of requirements like high temperature resistance, thermal fatigue resistance, corrosion fatigue resistance and galvanic corrosion resistance. To obtain these characteristics coatings can be applied to the surfaces so they can enhance the mechanical and chemical properties of the parts. In this paper two coatings were considered for deposition on an AA2024 aluminum alloy, ZrO_2/20%Y_2O_3 and Al_2O_3. To obtain a better adherence of the coating to the base material an additional bond layer of NiCr is used. Both the coatings and bond layer were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying on the samples. The samples were subjected to a temperature of 500 °C and after that slowly cooled to room temperature. The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to determine the morphological and phase changes that occurred during the temperature exposure. To determine the stress level in the parts due to thermal expansion a finite element analysis was performed in the same conditions as the tests.

  2. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  3. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  4. Alloyed Aluminum Contacts for Silicon Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin Tin Aye

    2010-12-01

    Aluminium is usually deposited and alloyed at the back of p-p silicon solar cell for making a good ohmic contact and establishing a back electric field which avoids carrier recombination of the back surface. It was the deposition of aluminum on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrate at various annealing temperature. Physical and elemental analysis was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-rays diffraction (XRD). The electrical (I-V) characteristic of the photovoltaic cell was also measured.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Temperature Distribution and Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding 2017A Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimouni Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the use of fluid dynamic code, FLUENT to model the flow of metal in the AA2017A case around the welding tool pin (FSW. A standard threaded tool profile is used for the analysis of phenomena during welding such as heat generation and flow of the material are included. The main objective is to gain a better understanding of the flow of material around a tool. The model showed a large number of phenomena similar to those of the real process. The model has also generated a sufficient amount of heat, which leads to a good estimate of the junction temperature. These results were obtained using a viscosity which is near the solidus softening.

  6. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength

  7. Study of the corrosion of metallic coatings and alloys containing aluminum in a mixed atmosphere - sulphur, oxygen - at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellmann, Daniel

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is the development of materials for a sulphur experimental loop allowing the thermodynamic properties of such an energy cycle to be checked. As solutions must comply with industrial methods, rare materials are excluded as they are too expensive or difficult to implement. Iron-based materials have been tested but could not have at the same time a good corrosion resistance and high temperature forming and mechanical toughness properties. Therefore, metallic coatings have been chosen, specifically alumina. After having reported a bibliographical study on corrosion by sulphur vapour and by oxygen and by sulphur-oxygen, the author presents the experimental materials and methods. Then, the author reports the study of mixed corrosion (by sulphur and oxygen together) of metallic alloys (ferritic and austeno-ferritic alloys, aluminium and titanium alloys), and of the corrosion of FeAlx coatings, of AlTix alloys [fr

  8. Dependence on Temperature, pH, and Cl"− in the Uniform Corrosion of Aluminum Alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, I-Wen; Hurley, Belinda L.; Yang, Fan; Buchheit, Rudolph G.

    2016-01-01

    With regards to localized corrosion, the role of uniform corrosion of aluminum alloys has not always been accounted for in the past. The impact of uniform corrosion on aluminum alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6 is studied here to provide quantitative evidence of its importance. Preliminary weight loss experiments combined with optical profilometry (OP) indicate that corrosion attributed to uniform corrosion is very significant when compared to localized corrosion. A series of free immersion tests were conducted to understand the influence of environmental variables including temperature (20, 40, 60, 80 °C), initial pH without buffering (3, 5, 8, 10) and chloride concentration (0.01, 0.1, 1 M) for 1, 7, and 30 days. With time, uniform corrosion results exhibited a strong dependence on temperature accompanied by variable pH- and temperature-dependent corrosion product formation. Electrochemical approaches including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cathodic polarization were utilized to characterize the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and corrosion product formation as a function of temperature. Electron microscopy was conducted to assess the microstructure and morphology of corrosion products and provide supporting evidence for electrochemical findings.

  9. Corrosion of aluminum alloys in simulated dry storage environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Sindelar, R.L.; Lam, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of temperature and relative humidity on the high temperature (up to 150 degrees C) corrosion of aluminum alloys was investigated for dry storage of spent nuclear fuels in a closed or sealed system. A dependency on alloy type, temperature and initial humidity was determined for 1100, 5052 and 6061 aluminum alloys. Results after 4500 hours of environmental testing show that for a closed system, corrosion tends to follow a power law with the rate decreasing with increasing exposure. As corrosion takes place, two phenomena occur: (1) a hydrated layer builds up to resist corrosion, and (2) moisture is depleted from the system and the humidity slowly decreases with time. At a critical level of relative humidity, corrosion reactions stop, and no additional corrosion occurs if the system remains closed. The results form the basis for the development of an acceptance criteria for the dry storage of aluminum clad spent nuclear fuels

  10. Creep Aging Behavior Characterization of 2219 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the creep behaviors of 2219 aluminum alloy at different temperatures and stress levels, a RWS-50 Electronic Creep Testing Machine (Zhuhai SUST Electrical Equipment Company, Zhuhai, China was used for creep experiment at temperatures of 353~458 k and experimental stresses of 130~170 MPa. It was discovered that this alloy displayed classical creep curve characteristics in its creep behaviors within the experimental parameters, and its creep value increased with temperature and stress. Based on the creep equation of hyperbolic sine function, regression analysis was conducted of experimental data to calculate stress exponent, creep activation energy, and other related variables, and a 2219 aluminum alloy creep constitutive equation was established. Results of further analysis of the creep mechanism of the alloy at different temperatures indicated that the creep mechanism of 2219 aluminum alloy differed at different temperatures; and creek characteristics were presented in three stages at different temperatures, i.e., the grain boundary sliding creep mechanism at a low temperature stage (T < 373 K, the dislocation glide creep mechanism at a medium temperature stage (373 K ≤ T < 418 K, and the dislocation climb creep mechanism at a high temperature stage (T ≥ 418 K. By comparative analysis of the fitting results and experiment data, they were found to be in agreement with the experimental data, revealing that the established creep constitutive equation is suitable for different temperatures and stresses.

  11. Molten aluminum alloy fuel fragmentation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Purviance, R.T.; Cassulo, J.C.; Spencer, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in which molten aluminum alloys were injected into a 1.2 m deep pool of water. The parameters varied were (i) injectant material (8001 aluminum alloy and 12.3 wt% U-87.7 wt% Al), (ii) melt superheat (O to 50 K), (iii) water temperature (313, 343 and 373 K) and (iv) size and geometry of the pour stream (5, 10 and 20 mm diameter circular and 57 mm annular). The pour stream fragmentation was dominated by surface tension with large particles (∼30 mm) being formed from varicose wave breakup of the 10-mm circular pours and from the annular flow off a 57 mm diameter tube. The fragments produced by the 5 mm circular et were smaller (∼ mm), and the 20 mm jet which underwent sinuous wave breakup produced ∼100 mm fragments. The fragments froze to form solid particles in 313 K water, and when the water was ≥343 K, the melt fragments did not freeze during their transit through 1.2 m of water

  12. Control of surface temperature of an aluminum alloy billet by air flow during a heating process at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young [KITECH, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joon Hong [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The procedure of semi-solid forming is composed of heating a billet, forming, compression holding and ejecting step. There are several methods to heat a billet during semi-solid forming process such as electric heating and induction heating. Usually in semi-solid forming process, induction heating has been adopted to achieve more uniform temperature of semi-solid material. Although induction heating is better method than any others, however, there is still difference of temperature between internal part and surface part of semi-solid material. Worse yet, in case of high liquid fraction of semi-solid material, liquid of the billet will flow down though solid of the billet still remains, which is very difficult to handle. In the present study, induction heating of the billet during thixoforging process with forced surface cooling has been performed to obtain more uniform distribution of temperature, microstructure and shape of the billet. Distribution of temperature of the billets was measured and compared with that of conventional distribution of temperature. Microscopic and macroscopic aspects of the billets were discussed according to location of the measuring points. By this new induction heating method, not only temperature distributions over the whole billet become uniform, but also control of temperature distribution between inside and outside part of the billet is possible as user's experimental intentions,.

  13. Aluminum alloy excellent in neutron absorbing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Tetsuya; Tamamura, Tadao; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Ouchi, Ken-ichiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain structural materials made of aluminum alloys having favorable neutron absorbing performance and excellent in the performance as structural materials such as processability and strength. Constitution: Powder of Gd 2 O 3 as a gadolinium compound or metal gadolinium is uniformly mixed with the powder of aluminum or aluminum alloy. The amount of the gadolinium compound added is set to 0.1 - 30 % by weight. No sufficient neutron absorbing performance can be obtained if it is less than 0.1 % by weight, whereas the processability and mechanical property of the alloy are degraded if it exceeds 30 % by weight. Further, the grain size is set to less about 50 μm. Further, since the neutron absorbing performance varies greatly if the aluminum powder size exceeds 100 μm, the diameter is set to less than about 100 μm. These mixtures are molded in a hot press. This enables to obtain aimed structural materials. (Takahashi, M.)

  14. Seacoast stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of high strength, wrought aluminum alloys in a seacoast atmosphere was investigated and the results were compared with those obtained in laboratory tests. Round tensile specimens taken from the short transverse grain direction of aluminum plate and stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths were exposed to the seacoast and to alternate immersion in salt water and synthetic seawater. Maximum exposure periods of one year at the seacoast, 0.3 or 0.7 of a month for alternate immersion in salt water, and three months for synthetic seawater were indicated for aluminum alloys to avoid false indications of stress corrosion cracking failure resulting from pitting. Correlation of the results was very good among the three test media using the selected exposure periods. It is concluded that either of the laboratory test media is suitable for evaluating the stress corrosion cracking performance of aluminum alloys in seacoast atmosphere.

  15. NASA-427: A New Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center researchers have developed a new, stronger aluminum alloy, ideal for cast aluminum products that have powder or paint-baked thermal coatings. With advanced mechanical properties, the NASA-427 alloy shows greater tensile strength and increased ductility, providing substantial improvement in impact toughness. In addition, this alloy improves the thermal coating process by decreasing the time required for heat treatment. With improvements in both strength and processing time, use of the alloy provides reduced materials and production costs, lower product weight, and better product performance. The superior properties of NASA-427 can benefit many industries, including automotive, where it is particularly well-suited for use in aluminum wheels.

  16. Effect of thermal exposure, forming, and welding on high-temperature, dispersion-strengthened aluminum alloy: Al-8Fe-1V-2Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J. R.; Gilman, P. S.; Zedalis, M. S.; Skinner, D. J.; Peltier, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of applying conventional hot forming and welding methods to high temperature aluminum alloy, Al-8Fe-1V-2Si (FVS812), for structural applications and the effect of thermal exposure on mechanical properties were determined. FVS812 (AA8009) sheet exhibited good hot forming and resistance welding characteristics. It was brake formed to 90 deg bends (0.5T bend radius) at temperatures greater than or equal to 390 C (730 F), indicating the feasibility of fabricating basic shapes, such as angles and zees. Hot forming of simple contoured-flanged parts was demonstrated. Resistance spot welds with good static and fatigue strength at room and elevated temperatures were readily produced. Extended vacuum degassing during billet fabrication reduced porosity in fusion and resistance welds. However, electron beam welding was not possible because of extreme degassing during welding, and gas-tungsten-arc welds were not acceptable because of severely degraded mechanical properties. The FVS812 alloy exhibited excellent high temperature strength stability after thermal exposures up to 315 C (600 F) for 1000 h. Extended billet degassing appeared to generally improve tensile ductility, fatigue strength, and notch toughness. But the effects of billet degassing and thermal exposure on properties need to be further clarified. The manufacture of zee-stiffened, riveted, and resistance-spot-welded compression panels was demonstrated.

  17. Casting Characteristics of High Cerium Content Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D; Rios, O R; Sims, Z C; McCall, S K; Ott, R T

    2017-09-05

    This paper compares the castability of the near eutectic aluminum-cerium alloy system to the aluminum-silicon and aluminum-copper systems. The alloys are compared based on die filling capability, feeding characteristics and tendency to hot tear in both sand cast and permanent mold applications. The castability ranking of the binary Al–Ce systems is as good as the aluminum-silicon system with some deterioration as additional alloying elements are added. In alloy systems that use cerium in combination with common aluminum alloying elements such as silicon, magnesium and/or copper, the casting characteristics are generally better than the aluminum-copper system. In general, production systems for melting, de-gassing and other processing of aluminum-silicon or aluminum-copper alloys can be used without modification for conventional casting of aluminum-cerium alloys.

  18. Oxidation of zirconium-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1967-10-01

    Examination of the processes occurring during the oxidation of Zr-1% A1, Zr-3% A1, and Zr-1.5% A1-0.5% Mo alloys has shown that in steam rapid oxidation occurs predominantly around the Zr 3 A1 particles, which at low temperatures appear to be relatively unattacked. The unoxidised particles become incorporated in the oxide, and become fully oxidised as the film thickens. This rapid localised oxidation is preceded by a short period of uniform film growth, during which the oxide film thickness does not exceed ∼200A-o. Thus the high oxidation rates can probably be ascribed to aluminum in solution in the zirconium matrix, although its precise mode of operation has not been determined. Once the solubility limit of aluminum is exceeded, the size, distribution and number of intermetallic particles affects the oxidation rate merely by altering the distribution of regions of metal giving high oxidation rates. The controlling process during the early stages of oxidation is electron transport and not ionic transport. Thus, the aluminum in the oxide film is presumably increasing the ionic conductivity more than the electronic. The oxidation rates in atmospheric pressure steam are very high and their irregular temperature dependence suggests that the oxidation rate will be pressure dependent. This was confirmed, in part, by a comparison with oxidation in moist air. It was found that the rate of development of white oxide around intermetallic particles was considerably reduced by the decrease in the partial pressure of H 2 O; the incubation period was not much different, however. (author)

  19. Environmental fatigue in aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys exhibit similar environmental fatigue crack growth characteristics compared to conventional 2000 series alloys and are more resistant to environmental fatigue compared to 7000 series alloys. The superior fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloys 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091 is due to crack closure caused by tortuous crack path morphology and crack surface corrosion products. At high R and reduced closure, chemical environment effects are pronounced resulting in accelerated near threshold da/dN. The beneficial effects of crack closure are minimized for small cracks resulting in rapid growth rates. Limited data suggest that the 'chemically small crack' effect, observed in other alloy system, is not pronounced in Al-Li alloys. Modeling of environmental fatigue in Al-Li-Cu alloys related accelerated fatigue crack growth in moist air and salt water to hydrogen embrittlement.

  20. Study on Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Iyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Now, the aluminum alloy is often used as auto parts, for example, body, engine. For example, there are the body, a cylinder block, a piston, a connecting rod, interior, exterior parts, etc. These are practical used the characteristic of a light and strong aluminum alloy efficiently. However, although an aluminum alloy is lighter than steel, the elongation is smaller than that. Therefore, in press forming, some problems often occur. We have proposed use of explosive forming, in order to solve this problem. In the explosive forming, since a blank is formed at high speed, a strain rate effect becomes large and it can be made the elongation is larger. Then, in order to clarify this feature, we carried out experimental research and numerical analysis. In this paper, these contents will be discussed.

  1. Development Program for Natural Aging Aluminum Casting Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Geoffrey K. Sigworth

    2004-05-14

    A number of 7xx aluminum casting alloys are based on the ternary Al-Zn-Mg system. These alloys age naturally to high strength at room temperature. A high temperature solution and aging treatment is not required. Consequently, these alloys have the potential to deliver properties nearly equivalent to conventional A356-T6 (Al-Si-Mg) castings, with a significant cost saving. An energy savings is also possible. In spite of these advantages, the 7xx casting alloys are seldom used, primarily because of their reputation for poor castibility. This paper describes the results obtained in a DOE-funded research study of these alloys, which is part of the DOE-OIT ''Cast Metals Industries of the Future'' Program. Suggestions for possible commercial use are also given.

  2. The calcium fluoride effect on properties of cryolite melts feasible for low-temperature production of aluminum and its alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacheva, O.; Dedyukhin, A.; Redkin, A.; Zaikov, Yu.

    2017-07-01

    The CaF2 effect on the liquidus temperature, electrical conductivity and alumina solubility in the potassium-sodium and potassium-lithium cryolite melts with cryolite ratio (CR = (nKF+nMF)/nAlF3, M = Li, Na) 1.3 was studied. The liquidus temperature in the quisi-binary system [KF-LiF-AlF3]-CaF2 changes with the same manner as in the [KF-NaF-AlF3]-CaF2. The electrical conductivity in the KF-NaF-AlF3-CaF2 melt decreases with increasing the CaF2 content, but it slightly raises with the first small addition of CaF2 into the KF-LiF-AlF3-CaF2 melts, enriched with KF, which was explained by the increased K+ ions mobility due to their relatively low ionic potential. The contribution of the Li+ cations in conductivity of the KF-LiF-AlF3-CaF2 electrolyte is not noteworthy. The Al2O3 solubility in the KF-NaF-AlF3 electrolyte rises with the increasing KF content, but the opposite tendency is observed in the cryolite mixtures containing CaF2. The insoluble compounds - KCaAl2F9 or KCaF3 - formed in the molten mixtures containing potassium and calcium ions endorse the increase of the liquidus temperature. The calcium fluoride effect on the side ledge formation in the electrolytic cell during low-temperature aluminum electrolysis is discussed.

  3. Influence of stress change on the fatigue behavior and fatigue life of aluminum oxide-dispersion-strengthening copper alloy at room temperature and 350degC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagoishi, Norio; Kondo, Eiji; Nisitani, Hironobu; Shimamoto, Atsunori; Tashiro, Rieko

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of stress change on the fatigue behavior and fatigue life of an aluminum oxide-dispersion-strengthening copper alloy at elevated temperature, rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out under two-step loading at room temperature and 350degC. Both of static strength and fatigue strength decreased at 350degC. However, at the same relative stress σ a /σ B , fatigue life was longer at 350degC than at room temperature. Although the cumulative ratios Σ(N/N f ) were nearly unity for both the low to high and the high to low block loadings at room temperature, Miner's rule did not hold at 350degC. These results were related to the stress dependence on the log l-N/N f relation. That is, the crack length initiated at the same N/N f was larger in higher stress level at 350degC, whereas there was no stress dependence in the relation at room temperature. The stress dependence on the relation at 350degC was caused by the suppression of crack initiation due to the surface oxidation. (author)

  4. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum alloys containing 10 to 11.5 wt. pct. of iron and 1.5 to 3 wt. pct. of chromium using the technique of rapid solidification powder metallurgy were studied. Alloys were prepared as thin ribbons (.002 inch thick) rapidly solidified at uniform rate of 10(6) C/second by the melt spinning process. The melt spun ribbons were pulverized into powders (-60 to 400 mesh) by a rotating hammer mill. The powders were consolidated by hot extrusion at a high reduction ratio of 50:1. The powder extrusion temperature was varied to determine the range of desirable processing conditions necessary to yield useful properties. Powders and consolidated alloys were characterized by SEM and optical metallography. The consolidated alloys were evaluated for (1) thermal stability, (2) tensile properties in the range, room temperature to 450 F, and (3) notch toughness in the range, room temperature to 450 F.

  5. Permanent Mold Casting of JIS-AC4C Aluminum Alloy Using a Low-Temperature Mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Hiroshi; Nikawa, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Permanent mold casting using mold temperatures below 200 deg. C was conducted to obtain a high-strength, thin-walled casting. Al-7.36 mass% Si -0.18 Cu- 0.27Mg-0.34Fe alloy JIS-AC4C was cast using a bottom pouring cast plan. The product had a rectangular tube shape (70 mm W x 68 mm D x 180 mm H) with wall thicknesses of 1, 3 and 5 mm. The effect of heat insulation at the melt path was compared when using a sand runner insert and when using a steel runner insert as well as a powder mold release agent. Fine microstructures were observed in the casting. The smaller the thickness, the higher the hardness with smaller secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS). However, the hardness and the SDAS were unaffected by the mold temperature. It was proposed that the avoidance of the formation of primary α dendrite at the melt path generates a higher strength casting with adequate mold filling.

  6. Vapor corrosion of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium fuel materials in storage environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.L.; Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1997-04-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of vapor environments on the corrosion of aluminum spent nuclear fuel (A1 SNF) has been performed. Aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium fuel alloys have been exposed to environments of air/water vapor/ionizing radiation and characterized for applications to degradation mode analysis for interim dry and repository storage systems. Models have been developed to allow predictions of the corrosion response under conditions of unlimited corrodant species. Threshold levels of water vapor under which corrosion does not occur have been identified through tests under conditions of limited corrodant species. Coupons of aluminum 1100, 5052, and 6061, the US equivalent of cladding alloys used to manufacture foreign research reactor fuels, and several aluminum-uranium alloys (aluminum-10, 18, and 33 wt% uranium) were exposed to various controlled vapor environments in air within the following ranges of conditions: Temperature -- 80 to 200 C; Relative Humidity -- 0 to 100% using atmospheric condensate water and using added nitric acid to simulate radiolysis effects; and Gamma Radiation -- none and 1.8 x 10 6 R/hr. The results of this work are part of the body of information needed for understanding the degradation of the A1 SNF waste form in a direct disposal system in the federal repository. It will provide the basis for data input to the ongoing performance assessment and criticality safety analyses. Additional testing of uranium-aluminum fuel materials at uranium contents typical of high enriched and low enriched fuels is being initiated to provide the data needed for the development of empirical models

  7. Retention and release of tritium in aluminum clad, Al-Li alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium retention in and release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys is modeled from experimental and operational data developed during the thirty plus years of tritium production at the Savannah River Site. The model assumes that tritium atoms, formed by the 6 Li(n,α) 3 He reaction, are produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly becomes supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms are trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability is the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release is determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. This model is used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys. 9 refs., 3 figs

  8. Solidification paths of multicomponent monotectic aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2008-10-15

    Solidification paths of three ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, are studied using thermodynamic calculations, both for the pertinent phase diagrams and also for specific details concerning the solidification of selected alloy compositions. The coupled composition variation in two different liquids is quantitatively given. Various ternary monotectic four-phase reactions are encountered during solidification, as opposed to the simple binary monotectic, L' {yields} L'' + solid. These intricacies are reflected in the solidification microstructures, as demonstrated for these three aluminum alloy systems, selected in view of their distinctive features. This examination of solidification paths and microstructure formation may be relevant for advanced solidification processing of multicomponent monotectic alloys.

  9. Reduction of Oxidative Melt Loss of Aluminum and Its Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Subodh K. Das; Shridas Ningileri

    2006-03-17

    identified as the primary factor that accelerates dross formation specifically in the transition from two phases to three phase growth. Limiting magnesium oxidation on the surface of molten aluminum therefore becomes the key to minimizing melt loss, and technology was developed to prevent magnesium oxidation on the aluminum surface. This resulted in a lot of the work being focused on the control of Mg oxidation. Two potential molten metal covering agents that could inhibit dross formation during melting and holding consisting of boric acid and boron nitride were identified. The latter was discounted by industry as it resulted in Boron pick up by the melt beyond that allowed by specifications during plant trials. The understanding of the kinetics of dross formation by the industry partners helped them understand how temperature, alloy chemistry and furnace atmosphere (burner controls--e.g. excess air) effected dross formation. This enables them to introduce in their plant process changes that reduced unnecessary holding at high temperatures, control burner configurations, reduce door openings to avoid ingress of air and optimize charge mixes to ensure rapid melting and avoid excess oxidation.

  10. Etching Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Extrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang

    2014-11-01

    The etching treatment is an important process step in influencing the surface quality of anodized aluminum alloy extrusions. The aim of etching is to produce a homogeneously matte surface. However, in the etching process, further surface imperfections can be generated on the extrusion surface due to uneven materials loss from different microstructural components. These surface imperfections formed prior to anodizing can significantly influence the surface quality of the final anodized extrusion products. In this article, various factors that influence the materials loss during alkaline etching of aluminum alloy extrusions are investigated. The influencing variables considered include etching process parameters, Fe-rich particles, Mg-Si precipitates, and extrusion profiles. This study provides a basis for improving the surface quality in industrial extrusion products by optimizing various process parameters.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Low Density Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, X. D.; Liu, H. J.; Li, L. F.; Yang, K.

    2006-01-01

    Low-density alloys include aluminum alloys, titanium alloys and magnesium alloys. Aluminum alloys and titanium alloys have been widely investigated and used as structural materials for cryogenic applications because of their light weight and good low-temperature mechanical properties.For aerospace applications, persistent efforts are being devoted to reducing weight and improving performance. Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural alloys among those mentioned above. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to magnesium alloys and to investigate their behaviors at cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, we have investigated the mechanical properties and microstructures of some magnesium alloys at cryogenic temperatures. Experimental results on both titanium and magnesium alloys are taken into account in considering these materials for space application

  12. Building A Simulation Model For The Prediction Of Temperature Distribution In Pulsed Laser Spot Welding Of Dissimilar Low Carbon Steel 1020 To Aluminum Alloy 6061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Adel K. M.; Taha, Ziad A.; Shehab, Abeer A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a computer model used to analyze the heat flow during pulsed Nd: YAG laser spot welding of dissimilar metal; low carbon steel (1020) to aluminum alloy (6061). The model is built using ANSYS FLUENT 3.6 software where almost all the environments simulated to be similar to the experimental environments. A simulation analysis was implemented based on conduction heat transfer out of the key hole where no melting occurs. The effect of laser power and pulse duration was studied.Three peak powers 1, 1.66 and 2.5 kW were varied during pulsed laser spot welding (keeping the energy constant), also the effect of two pulse durations 4 and 8 ms (with constant peak power), on the transient temperature distribution and weld pool dimension were predicated using the present simulation. It was found that the present simulation model can give an indication for choosing the suitable laser parameters (i.e. pulse durations, peak power and interaction time required) during pulsed laser spot welding of dissimilar metals.

  13. Yield and flow properties of aluminum alloy AA 8001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, J.S.; Johnson, H.W.; Han, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum alloy AA 8001 is being used at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for nuclear reactor fuel and target components. The objective of this research was to determine parameters for predictive models of the compressive flow properties of AA 8001. Seventy-five true strain-rate, hot compression tests were performed. New, quantitative information about the yield and flow behavior of aluminum alloy AA 8001 was determined. Parameters were determined to use in a hyperbolic sine constitutive law so that the yield stress, the peak stress, and the peak strain can be predicted from the temperature-compensated strain-rate, Z. It was found that the onset of strain softening was more strongly dependent on Z than the onset of yielding was

  14. In situ 3D characterization of high temperature fatigue damage mechanisms in a cast aluminum alloy using synchrotron X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezecot, Sebastien; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Koster, Alain; Maurel, Vincent; Szmytka, Fabien; Charkaluk, Eric; Dahdah, Nora; El Bartali, Ahmed; Limodin, Nathalie; Witz, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue tests were performed at 250 °C on a cast AlSi7Cu3Mg aluminum alloy and monitored with Synchrotron in situ X-ray tomography in order to understand the micro-mechanisms of crack initiation and propagation. The analysis of the 3D images reveals that internal shrinkage pores are responsible for the main crack initiation. Crack propagation is mainly due to the complex and highly interconnected network of hard particles of the eutectic regions.

  15. Microstructures and properties of aluminum die casting alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. M. Makhlouf; D. Apelian; L. Wang

    1998-10-01

    This document provides descriptions of the microstructure of different aluminum die casting alloys and to relate the various microstructures to the alloy chemistry. It relates the microstructures of the alloys to their main engineering properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, fatigue life, impact resistance, wear resistance, hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Finally, it serves as a reference source for aluminum die casting alloys.

  16. High temperature niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  17. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

    1987-01-01

    Marko's rapid solidification technology was applied to processing high strength aluminum alloys. Four classes of alloys, namely, Al-Li based (class 1), 2124 type (class 2), high temperature Al-Fe-Mo (class 3), and PM X7091 type (class 4) alloy, were produced as melt-spun ribbons. The ribbons were pulverized, cold compacted, hot-degassed, and consolidated through single or double stage extrusion. The mechanical properties of all four classes of alloys were measured at room and elevated temperatures and their microstructures were investigated optically and through electron microscopy. The microstructure of class 1 Al-Li-Mg alloy was predominantly unrecrystallized due to Zr addition. Yield strengths to the order of 50 Ksi were obtained, but tensile elongation in most cases remained below 2 percent. The class 2 alloys were modified composition of 2124 aluminum alloy, through addition of 0.6 weight percent Zr and 1 weight percent Ni. Nickel addition gave rise to a fine dispersion of intermetallic particles resisting coarsening during elevated temperature exposure. The class 2 alloy showed good combination of tensile strength and ductility and retained high strength after 1000 hour exposure at 177 C. The class 3 Al-Fe-Mo alloy showed high strength and good ductility both at room and high temperatures. The yield and tensile strength of class 4 alloy exceeded those of the commercial 7075 aluminum alloy.

  18. Investigation of the Precipitation Behavior in Aluminum Based Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna S.

    2015-11-30

    ternary Al-Li-Cu alloys. Atom probe tomography and statistical testing are combined to investigate the fine scale segregation effects of dilute solutes in aluminum alloys. The optimum application of atom probe tomography in a wide range of materials is enabled by the integration of a laser pulse mode in the atom probe analysis. However, the nature of the laser mechanism used during atom probe tomography analyses is still debated. Systematic investigation of the microstructural change of δ′(Al3Li) precipitates influenced by different pulsed laser energies are used to describe the important phenome associated with the laser pulse mode. In this study, atom probe tomography presented a series of snapshots during in-situ reversion of ′(Al3Li) precipitates, initiated by laser irradiation, using different laser energies for the first time. An estimation method to investigate real sample temperatures during laser-APT analyses using an interface reaction itself as a probe has been proposed. Finally, the considerable potential of aluminum liquid is demonstrated as a powerful synthesis solvent of important intermetallic phases such as: Mg2Si, Al2Mg and CaMgSi .The atom probe tomography technique is utilized to characterize the intermediate reaction steps of the flux-grown intermetallic phases. The study proposed a direct approach to investigate the involved reactions during the formation of the synthesized intermetallic phase.

  19. In-situ neutron diffraction measurements of temperature and stresses during friction stir welding of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Wan Chuck; Feng, Zhili; Wang, Xun-Li; Brown, D.W.; Clausen, B.; An, Ke; Choo, Hahn; Hubbard, Camden R.; David, Stan A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of temperature and thermal stresses during friction stir welding of Al6061-T6 was investigated by means of in-situ, time-resolved neutron diffraction technique. A method is developed to deconvolute the temperature and stress from the lattice spacing changes measured by neutron diffraction. The deep penetration capability of neutrons made it possible for the first time to obtain the temperature and thermal stresses inside a friction stir weld

  20. Evaluation of Sc-Bearing Aluminum Alloy C557 for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Dicus, Dennis L.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of the Al-Mg-Sc alloy C557 was evaluated to assess its potential for a broad range of aerospace applications, including airframe and launch vehicle structures. Of specific interest were mechanical properties at anticipated service temperatures and thermal stability of the alloy. Performance was compared with conventional airframe aluminum alloys and with other emerging aluminum alloys developed for specific service environments. Mechanical properties and metallurgical structure were evaluated for commercially rolled sheet in the as-received H116 condition and after thermal exposures at 107 C. Metallurgical analyses were performed to de.ne grain morphology and texture, strengthening precipitates, and to assess the effect of thermal exposure.

  1. High strength cast aluminum alloy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschitz, Edward A.

    The goal of this research was to understand how chemistry and processing affect the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength cast aluminum alloys. Two alloy systems were investigated including the Al-Cu-Ag and the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu systems. Processing variables included solidification under pressure (SUP) and heat treatment. This research determined the range in properties that can be achieved in BAC 100(TM) (Al-Cu micro-alloyed with Ag, Mn, Zr, and V) and generated sufficient property data for design purposes. Tensile, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue testing were performed. CuAl2 and Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallics were identified as the ductility limiting flaws. A solution treatment of 75 hours or longer was needed to dissolve most of the intermetallic CuAl 2. The Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallic was unaffected by heat treatment. These results indicate that faster cooling rates, a reduction in copper concentration and a reduction in iron concentration might increase the ductility of the alloy by decreasing the size and amount of the intermetallics that form during solidification. Six experimental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu series alloys were produced. Zinc concentrations of 8 and 12wt% and Zn/Mg ratios of 1.5 to 5.5 were tested. Copper was held constant at 0.9%. Heat treating of the alloys was optimized for maximum hardness. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu samples were solution treated at 441°C (826°F) for 4 hours before ramping to 460°C (860°F) for 75 hours and then aged at 120°C (248°F) for 75 hours. X-ray diffraction showed that the age hardening precipitates in most of these alloys was the T phase (Mg32Zn 31.9Al17.1). Tensile testing of the alloys showed that the best mechanical properties were obtained in the lowest alloy condition. Chilled Al-8.2Zn-1.4Mg-0.9Cu solidified under pressure resulted in an alloy with a yield strength of 468MPa (68ksi), tensile strength of 525MPa (76ksi) and an elongation of 9%.

  2. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  3. High strength corrosion-resistant zirconium aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulson, E.M.; Cameron, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A zirconium-aluminum alloy is described possessing superior corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. This alloy, preferably 7.5-9.5 wt% aluminum, is cast, worked in the Zr(Al)-Zr 2 Al region, and annealed to a substantially continuous matrix of Zr 3 Al. (E.C.B.)

  4. Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys by the binary Al-Ti and Ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining to the cast industry and the parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the cast, parameters related to the grain refining alloy and parameters related to the process. The different mechanisms, suggested in the literature for the process of grain refining are presented and discussed, from which it is found that although the mechanism of refining by the binary Al-Ti is well established the mechanism of grain refining by the ternary Al-Ti-B is still a controversial matter and some research work is still needed in this area. The effect of the addition of other alloying elements in the presence of the grain refiner on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. It is found that some elements e.g. V, Mo, C improves the grain refining efficiency, whereas other elements e.g. Cr, Zr, Ta poisons the grain refinement. Based on the parameters affecting the grain refinement and its mechanism, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is forwarded and discussed. (author)

  5. Using Neural Networks to Predict the Hardness of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zahran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloys have gained significant industrial importance being involved in many of the light and heavy industries and especially in aerospace engineering. The mechanical properties of aluminum alloys are defined by a number of principal microstructural features. Conventional mathematical models of these properties are sometimes very complex to be analytically calculated. In this paper, a neural network model is used to predict the correlations between the hardness of aluminum alloys in relation to certain alloying elements. A backpropagation neural network is trained using a thorough dataset. The impact of certain elements is documented and an optimum structure is proposed.

  6. Biaxial Testing of 2195 Aluminum Lithium Alloy Using Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W. M.; Pollock, W. D.; Dawicke, D. S.; Wagner, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A cruciform biaxial test specimen was used to test the effect of biaxial load on the yield of aluminum-lithium alloy 2195. Fifteen cruciform specimens were tested from 2 thicknesses of 2195-T8 plate, 0.45 in. and 1.75 in. These results were compared to the results from uniaxial tensile tests of the same alloy, and cruciform biaxial tests of aluminum alloy 2219-T87.

  7. Recrystallization resistance in aluminum alloys containing zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, K.

    1991-01-01

    Zirconium forms a fine dispersion of the metastable β' (Al 3 Zr) phase that controls recrystallization by retarding the motion of high-angle boundaries. The primary material chosen for this research was aluminum alloy 7150 containing zinc, magnesium, and copper as the major solute elements and zirconium as the dispersoid-forming element. The size, distribution, and the volume fraction of β' was controlled by varying the alloy composition and preheat practices. Preheated ingots were subjected to a specific sequence of hot-rolling operations to evaluate the resistance to recrystallization of the different microstructures. Optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to investigate the influence of dispersoid morphology resulting from the thermal treatments and deformation processing on the recrystallization behavior of the alloy. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the individual solute elements present in 7150 on the precipitation of β' and consequently on the recrystallization behavior of the material. These studies were done on compositional variants of commercial 7150

  8. Stress corrosion in high-strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, R. C.; Hasse, K. R.

    1980-01-01

    Report describes results of stress-corrosion tests on aluminum alloys 7075, 7475, 7050, and 7049. Tests compare performance of original stress-corrosion-resistant (SCR) aluminum, 7075, with newer, higher-strength SCR alloys. Alloys 7050 and 7049 are found superior in short-transverse cross-corrosion resistance to older 7075 alloy; all alloys are subject to self-loading effect caused by wedging of corrosion products in cracks. Effect causes cracks to continue to grow, even at very-low externally applied loads.

  9. Functional aluminum alloys for ultra high vacuum use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Isoyama, Eizo

    1985-01-01

    Ultra high vacuum systems made of aluminum alloys are actively developed. The reasons for using aluminum alloys are low residual radioactivity, light weight, good machinability, good thermal conductivity, non-magnetism. The important function required for ultra high vacuum materials is low outgassing rate, but surface gas on ordinary aluminum is much. Then the research on aluminum surface structure with low outgassing rate has been made and the special extrusion method, that is, extrusion method with the conditions of preventing air from entering inside of pipe and of taking in mixture gas of Ar + O 2 , was developed. 6063 alloy obtained by special extrusion method showed low outgassing rate (2 x 10 -13 Torr. 1/s. cm 2 ) by only 150 deg C, 24 h baking. For the future it will be important to develop aluminum alloys with low dynamic outgassing rate as well as low static outgassing rate. (author)

  10. The Effect of Creep Aging on the Fatigue Fracture Behavior of 2524 Aluminum Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Wenke Li; Lihua Zhan; Lingfeng Liu; Yongqian Xu

    2016-01-01

    Normal temperature tensile and fatigue tests were adopted to test the mechanical performance and fatigue life of 2524 aluminum alloy under the three states of T3, artificial aging, and creep aging, and scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were also used to observe the fatigue fracture morphology and aging precipitation features of the alloy under the above three states. Results showed that the alloy treated by creep aging can obtain higher fatigue life, but that t...

  11. Characterization of acoustic cavitation in water and molten aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Sergey; Oda, Kazuhiro; Ishiwata, Yasuo; Dezhkunov, Nikolay

    2013-03-01

    High-intensive ultrasonic vibrations have been recognized as an attractive tool for refining the grain structure of metals in casting technology. However, the practical application of ultrasonics in this area remains rather limited. One of the reasons is a lack of data needed to optimize the ultrasonic treatment conditions, particularly those concerning characteristics of cavitation zone in molten aluminum. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the intensity and spectral characteristics of cavitation noise generated during radiation of ultrasonic waves into water and molten aluminum alloys, and to establish a measure for evaluating the cavitation intensity. The measurements were performed by using a high temperature cavitometer capable of measuring the level of cavitation noise within five frequency bands from 0.01 to 10MHz. The effect of cavitation treatment was verified by applying high-intense ultrasonic vibrations to a DC caster to refine the primary silicon grains of a model Al-17Si alloy. It was found that the level of high frequency noise components is the most adequate parameter for evaluating the cavitation intensity. Based on this finding, it was concluded that implosions of cavitation bubbles play a decisive role in refinement of the alloy structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  13. Fatigue crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. T. V.; Ritchie, R. O.; Piascik, R. S.; Gangloff, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    The principal mechanisms which govern the fatigue crack propagation resistance of aluminum-lithium alloys are investigated, with emphasis on their behavior in controlled gaseous and aqueous environments. Extensive data describe the growth kinetics of fatigue cracks in ingot metallurgy Al-Li alloys 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091 and in powder metallurgy alloys exposed to moist air. Results are compared with data for traditional aluminum alloys 2024, 2124, 2618, 7075, and 7150. Crack growth is found to be dominated by shielding from tortuous crack paths and resultant asperity wedging. Beneficial shielding is minimized for small cracks, for high stress ratios, and for certain loading spectra. While water vapor and aqueous chloride environments enhance crack propagation, Al-Li-Cu alloys behave similarly to 2000-series aluminum alloys. Cracking in water vapor is controlled by hydrogen embrittlement, with surface films having little influence on cyclic plasticity.

  14. Corrosion resistance of aluminum-magnesium alloys in glacial acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.V.; Romaniv, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Vessels for the storage and conveyance of glacial acetic acid are produced from ADO and AD1 aluminum, which are distinguished by corrosion resistance, weldability and workability in the hot and cold conditions but have low tensile strength. Aluminum-magnesium alloys are stronger materials close in corrosion resistance to technical purity aluminum. An investigation was made of the basic alloying components on the corrosion resistance of these alloys in glacial acetic acid. Both the base metal and the weld joints were tested. With an increase in temperature the corrosion rate of all of the tested materials increases by tens of times. The metals with higher magnesium content show more pitting damage. The relationship of the corrosion resistance of the alloys to magnesium content is confirmed by the similar intensity of failure of the joint metal of all of the investigated alloys and by electrochemical investigations. The data shows that AMg3 alloy is close to technically pure ADO aluminum. However, the susceptibility of even this material to local corrosion eliminates the possibility of the use of aluminum-magnesium alloys as reliable constructional materials in glacial acetic acid

  15. Friction Pull Plug Welding in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Shane A.; Bradford, Vann

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently invested much time and effort into the process development of Friction Pull Plug Welding (FPPW). FPPW, is a welding process similar to Friction Push Plug Welding in that, there is a small rotating part (plug) being spun and simultaneously pulled (forged) into a larger part. These two processes differ, in that push plug welding requires an internal reaction support, while pull plug welding reacts to the load externally. FPPW was originally conceived as a post proof repair technique for the Space Shuttle fs External Tank. FPPW was easily selected as the primary weld process used to close out the termination hole on the Constellation Program's ARES I Upper Stage circumferential Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds (SR-FSW). The versatility of FPPW allows it to also be used as a repair technique for both SR-FSW and Conventional Friction Stir Welds. To date, all MSFC led development has been concentrated on aluminum alloys (2195, 2219, and 2014). Much work has been done to fully understand and characterize the process's limitations. A heavy emphasis has been spent on plug design, to match the various weldland thicknesses and alloy combinations. This presentation will summarize these development efforts including weld parameter development, process control, parameter sensitivity studies, plug repair techniques, material properties including tensile, fracture and failure analysis.

  16. Preparation of three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foam by two-step foaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, J.T.; Xuming, Chu; Deping, He

    2008-01-01

    A novel method, named two-step foaming, was investigated to prepare three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foam used in car industry, spaceflight, packaging and related areas. Calculations of thermal decomposition kinetics of titanium hydride showed that there is a considerable amount of hydrogen releasing when the titanium hydride is heated at a relatively high temperature after heated at a lower temperature. The hydrogen mass to sustain aluminum alloy foam, having a high porosity, was also estimated by calculations. Calculations indicated that as-received titanium hydride without any pre-treatment can be used as foaming agents in two-step foaming. The processes of two-step foaming, including preparing precursors and baking, were also studied by experiments. Results showed that, low titanium hydride dispersion temperature, long titanium hydride dispersion time and low precursors porosity are beneficial to prepare three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foams with uniform pores

  17. Investigation of the Precipitation Behavior in Aluminum Based Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna S.

    2015-01-01

    A complete study examining the influence of common industrial heat treatment on the precipitation kinetics and phase transformations of complex aluminum alloy is performed. The qualitative evaluation results of the precipitation

  18. Deformation and fracture behavior of titanium-aluminum-niobium-(chromium,molybdenum) alloys with a gamma+sigma microstructure at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Michael Steiner

    Titanium aluminides are of interest as a candidate material for aerospace turbine applications due to their high strength to weight ratio. gamma-TiAl + alpha2-Ti3Al alloys have recently been incorporated in the low pressure turbine region but their loss of strength near 750C limits their high temperature use. Additions of Nb have been shown to have several beneficial effects in gamma+alpha2 alloys, including enhancements in strength and ductility of the gamma-phase, along with the stabilization of the cubic BCC beta-phase at forging temperatures allowing for thermomechanical processing. In the ternary Ti-Al-Nb system at high Nb-contents above approximately 10at%, there exists a two-phase gamma-TiAl + sigma-Nb2Al region at and above current service temperature for the target application. Limited research has been conducted on the mechanical properties of alloys with this microstructure, though they have demonstrated excellent high temperature strength, superior to that of gamma+alpha2 alloys. Because the sigma-phase does not deform at room temperature, high volume fractions of this phase result in poor toughness and no tensile elongation. Controlling the microstructural morphology by disconnecting the brittle matrix through heat treatments has improved the toughness at room temperature. In this study, attempts to further improve the mechanical properties of these alloys were undertaken by reducing the volume fraction of the sigma-phase and controlling the scale of the gamma+sigma microstructure through the aging of a meta-stable parent phase, the beta- phase, that was quenched-in to room temperature. Additions of beta-stabilizing elements, Cr and Mo, were needed in order to quench-in the beta-phase. The room temperature mechanical properties were evaluated by compression, Vickers' indentation and single edge notch bend tests at room temperature. The formation of the large gamma-laths at prior beta- phase grain boundaries was found to be detrimental to ductility due

  19. Electrochemical behaviour of aluminum alloy containing various stanum concentration tested in tropical seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin; Muhamad Daud; Mohd Shariff Satar

    2004-01-01

    A study has been carried out to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of sacrificial anodes with different Sh concentration in tropical seawater environment. In this work, samples of Aluminum alloy with the addition of Sn in a range of 1. 0% - 1. 7% were tested in tropical seawater at room temperature. Tafel technique was used to produce a graph of the measured current versus potential for each different Sh concentration of aluminum alloy. The results show that the variation in alloy compositions affected the values of corrosion rate, corrosion current density and potential compared to alloy without Sn content. Furthermore, it was found that small addition of Sn successfully increased aluminum ion dissolution into seawater by producing a higher value of corrosion current density and corrosion rate. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of microstructure of A356 aluminum alloy casting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of vibrations (during solidification) on the metallurgical properties of A356 aluminum casting. Mechanical vibrations were applied to A356 aluminum alloy through set up. A356 melt has been subjected to mechanical vibration with the frequency range from 0 to 400 ...

  1. An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Coston, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory test method that is only mildly corrosive to aluminum and discriminating for use in classifying the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys is presented along with the method used in evaluating the media selected for testing. The proposed medium is easier to prepare and less expensive than substitute ocean water.

  2. Method of Heat Treating Aluminum-Lithium Alloy to Improve Formability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor); Russell, Carolyn Kurgan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method is provided for heat treating aluminum-lithium alloys to improve their formability. The alloy is heated to a first temperature, maintained at the first temperature for a first time period, heated at the conclusion of the first time period to a second temperature, maintained at the second temperature for a second time period, actively cooled at the conclusion of the second time period to a third temperature, maintained at the third temperature for a third time period, and then passively cooled at the conclusion of the third time period to room temperature.

  3. The behavior of ZrO{sub 2}/20%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings deposited on aluminum alloys at high temperature regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintilei, G.L., E-mail: laura_rares082008@yahoo.com [Pitesti University, Faculty of Mechanics and Technology, Str. Targu din Vale nr.1, 110040 Pitesti, Arges (Romania); Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanics, Bld D. Mangeron nr. 61, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Crismaru, V.I. [Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanics, Bld D. Mangeron nr. 61, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Abrudeanu, M. [Pitesti University, Faculty of Mechanics and Technology, Str. Targu din Vale nr.1, 110040 Pitesti, Arges (Romania); Munteanu, C. [Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanics, Bld D. Mangeron nr. 61, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Baciu, E.R. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr.T.Popa”, Department Implantology, Removable Restorations, Technology, Str. Universitatii nr. 16, 700115 Iasi (Romania); Istrate, B.; Basescu, N. [Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanics, Bld D. Mangeron nr. 61, 700050 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In both the ZrO{sub 2}/20%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings the high temperature caused a decrease of pores volume and a lower thickness of the interface between successive splats. • The NiCr bond layer in the sample with a ZrO{sub 2}/20%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} suffered a fragmentation due to high temperature exposure and thermal expansion which can lead to coating exfoliation. • The NiCr bond layer in the sample with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating showed an increase of pore volume due to high temperature. - Abstract: Aluminum alloy present numerous advantages like lightness, high specific strength and diversity which recommend them to a high number of applications from different fields. In extreme environments the protection of aluminum alloys is difficult and requires a high number of requirements like high temperature resistance, thermal fatigue resistance, corrosion fatigue resistance and galvanic corrosion resistance. To obtain these characteristics coatings can be applied to the surfaces so they can enhance the mechanical and chemical properties of the parts. In this paper two coatings were considered for deposition on an AA2024 aluminum alloy, ZrO{sub 2}/20%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To obtain a better adherence of the coating to the base material an additional bond layer of NiCr is used. Both the coatings and bond layer were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying on the samples. The samples were subjected to a temperature of 500 °C and after that slowly cooled to room temperature. The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to determine the morphological and phase changes that occurred during the temperature exposure. To determine the stress level in the parts due to thermal expansion a finite element analysis was performed in the same conditions as the tests.

  4. Relationships Between Solidification Parameters in A319 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersluis, E.; Ravindran, C.

    2018-03-01

    The design of high-performance materials depends on a comprehensive understanding of the alloy-specific relationships between solidification and properties. However, the inconsistent use of a particular solidification parameter for presenting materials characterization in the literature impedes inter-study comparability and the interpretation of findings. Therefore, there is a need for accurate expressions relating the solidification parameters for each alloy. In this study, A319 aluminum alloy castings were produced in a permanent mold with various preheating temperatures in order to control metal cooling. Analysis of the cooling curve for each casting enabled the identification of its liquidus, Al-Si eutectic, and solidus temperatures and times. These values led to the calculation of the primary solidification rate, total solidification rate, primary solidification time, and local solidification time for each casting, which were related to each other as well as to the average casting SDAS and material hardness. Expressions for each of their correlations have been presented with high coefficients of determination, which will aid in microstructural prediction and casting design.

  5. Study of the controllable reactivity of aluminum alloys and their promising application for hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Meiqiang; Sun Lixian; Xu Fen

    2010-01-01

    The hydrolysis performances of two aluminum alloys are investigated as their reactivity can be controlled via the different additives. The additive of NaCl has the positive effect to improve the hydrolysis properties of the aluminum alloys with quicker hydrolysis kinetic and lower hydrolysis temperature. For examples, in 6 min of hydrolysis reaction, the Al-5 wt%Hg-5 wt%NaCl can produce 971 mL g -1 hydrogen, higher than 917 mL g -1 hydrogen from Al-10 wt%Hg alloy. The Al-In-NaCl alloy has lower hydrolysis temperature about 10 K than that of Al-In alloy. Meanwhile, the reactivity of Al alloys can be improved or reduced via the additive metals. It can be found that the additive cadmium can reduce the reactivity of Al-Hg alloy. The Al-Hg-Cd alloys can keep good stability at the moist atmosphere below 343 K and have excellent hydrolysis performance around 343-373 K. The debased reactivity of Al-Hg-Cd composite comes from the formation of CdHg 2 compounds in the milling process. But the additive Zn and Ga doped into the Al-In-NaCl alloys can quickly increase the reactivity of the alloy which can quickly react with water at room temperature and have high hydrogen yield up to the theoretic value. Therefore, it is a promising possibility that the controllable reactivity of aluminum alloys can be obtained through the different additive according to the practical request, and the Al alloys can produce pure hydrogen for the fuel cell via the hydrolysis reaction.

  6. Discharge behaviors during plasma electrolytic oxidation on aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Run; Wu, Jie; Xue, Wenbin; Qu, Yao; Yang, Chaolin; Wang, Bin; Wu, Xianying

    2014-01-01

    A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was performed on the 2024 aluminum alloy in silicate electrolyte to fabricate ceramic coatings under a constant voltage. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed to evaluate the characteristics of plasma discharge during PEO process. The plasma electron temperature and density were obtained by analyzing the spectral lines of OES, and the atomic ionization degree in discharge zone was calculated in terms of Saha thermal ionization equation. The illumination intensity of plasma discharge and the temperature in the interior of alloy were measured. Combining the surface morphology and cross-sectional microstructure with the optical emission spectra and illumination at different discharge stage, a discharge model in the growth of PEO ceramic coatings was proposed. It is found that there are two discharge modes of type A with small spark size and type B with large spark size, and the latter only appears in the intermediate stage of PEO process. The illumination intensity has a maximum value in the initial stage of oxidation with many sparks of discharge type A. The electron temperature in plasma discharge zone is about 3000 K–7000 K and atomic ionization degree of Al is about 2.0 × 10 −5 –7.2 × 10 −3 , which depend on discharge stage. The discharge type B plays a key role on the electron temperature and atomic ionization degree. The electron density keeps stable in the range of about 8.5 × 10 21  m −3 –2.6 × 10 22  m −3 . - Highlights: • The characteristics of PEO plasma discharge was evaluated by OES. • Electron temperature, concentration, atomic ionization degree were calculated. • Discharge model for the growth of PEO coatings was proposed. • Temperature in the interior of alloy during PEO process was measured

  7. Acoustic emission from a solidifying aluminum-lithium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, D. P.; Wood, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Physical phenomena associated with the solidification of an AA2090 Al-Li alloy have been characterized by AE methods. Repeatable patterns of AE activity as a function of solidification time are recorded and explained for ultrahigh-purity (UHP) aluminum and an Al-4.7 wt pct Cu binary alloy, in addition to the AA2090 Al-Li alloy, by the complementary utilization of thermal, AE, and metallographic methods. One result shows that the solidification of UHP aluminum produces one discrete period of high AE activity as the last 10 percent of solid forms.

  8. Characterization of Aluminum Magnesium Alloy Reverse Sensitized via Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    when magnesium comes out of solution as a second phase, Al3Mg2, on the grain boundaries, eventually forming a continuous network and increasing...alloys. Al-Mg alloys can become sensitized when magnesium comes out of solution as a second phase, Al3Mg2, on the grain boundaries, eventually...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. MOTIVATION Aluminum alloys are attractive ship-building materials. They are lightweight

  9. Microstructure Development and Characteristics of Semisolid Aluminum Alloys; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merton Flemings; Srinath Viswanathan

    2001-01-01

    A drop forge viscometer was employed to investigate the flow behavior under very rapid compression rates of A357, A356 diluted with pure aluminum and Al-4.5%Cu alloys. The A357 alloys were of commercial origin (MHD and SIMA) and the rheocast, modified A356 and Al-4.5Cu alloys were produced by a process developed at the solidification laboratory of MIT

  10. Finite Element Analysis and Die Design of Non-specific Engineering Structure of Aluminum Alloy during Extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.-C.; Lu, Y.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extension applies to industrial structure, light load, framework rolls and conveyer system platform. Many factors must be controlled in processing the non-specific engineering structure (hollow shape) of the aluminum alloy during extrusion, to obtain the required plastic strain and desired tolerance values. The major factors include the forming angle of the die and temperature of billet and various materials. This paper employs rigid-plastic finite element (FE) DEFORM 3D software to investigate the plastic deformation behavior of an aluminum alloy (A6061, A5052, A3003) workpiece during extrusion for the engineering structure of the aluminum alloy. This work analyzes effective strain, effective stress, damage and die radius load distribution of the billet under various conditions. The analytical results confirm the suitability of the current finite element software for the non-specific engineering structure of aluminum alloy extrusion.

  11. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy L277 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Cho, A.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties and improved damage tolerance. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate and a limited study on extrusions. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy L277 is typically aged at 290 F for 40 hours. In the study for plate, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a design of experiments study and the one step aging used as a control. Based on the earlier NASA studies on 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 220 F and 260 F. The second step aging temperatures was varied between 290 F and 310 F, which is in the range of the single-step aging temperature. For extrusions, two, single-step, and one two-step aging condition were evaluated. The results of the design of experiments used for the T8 temper as well as a smaller set of experiments for the T6 temper for plate and the results for extrusions will be presented.

  12. A study of hydrogen permeation in aluminum alloy treated by various oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wenhai; Long Bin

    1997-01-01

    A set of oxide coatings was formed on the surface of an Al alloy (wt%: Fe, 0.24; Si, 1.16; Cu, 0.05-0.2; Zn, 0.1; Al, residual) by means of various oxidation processes. The hydrogen permeability through the aluminum alloy and its coating materials was determined by a vapor phase permeation technique at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 C using high-purity H 2 (99.9999%) gas with an upstream hydrogen pressure of 10 4 -10 5 Pa. The experimental results show that the hydrogen permeability through aluminum oxide coating is 100-2000 times lower than that through the aluminum alloy substrate. This means that the aluminum oxide is a significant hydrogen permeation barrier. A high hydrogen permeation resistance was observed in an oxide layer prefilmed in 200 C water, while an anodized aluminum oxide film had a less obstructive effect, possibly caused by the porous structure of the anodic oxide. The hydrogen permeability through films of aluminum oxide was not a simple function of the aluminum-oxide phase configuration. (orig.)

  13. Method of preparing an electrode material of lithium-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Jack L.; Myles, Kevin M.; Battles, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A solid compact having a uniform alloy composition of lithium and aluminum is prepared as a negative electrode for an electrochemical cell. Lithium losses during preparation are minimized by dissolving aluminum within a lithium-rich melt at temperatures near the liquidus temperatures. The desired alloy composition is then solidified and fragmented. The fragments are homogenized to a uniform composition by annealing at a temperature near the solidus temperature. After comminuting to fine particles, the alloy material can be blended with powdered electrolyte and pressed into a solid compact having the desired electrode shape. In the preparation of some electrodes, an electrically conductive metal mesh is embedded into the compact as a current collector.

  14. The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

  15. Thermoelectrical power analysis of precipitation in 6013 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdala, M.R.W.S.; Garcia de Blas, J.C.; Barbosa, C.; Acselrad, O.

    2008-01-01

    The 6013 aluminum alloy was first developed for application in the aircraft industry and, more recently, as a replacement option for the use of the 6061 alloy in the automotive industry. The present work describes the evolution of the process of formation and dissolution of different kinds of precipitates in 6013 aluminum alloy, subjected to different conditions of heat treatment, using for this purpose measurements of thermoelectrical power, Vickers microhardness and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Although in the last years many works have been published on the use of thermoelectrical power (TEP) measurements for the analysis of precipitation process in traditional alloys such as 6061, there is still little information related to 6013 alloy. The results obtained are compared with a previous characterization work on the same alloy using transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that TEP measurements are very sensitive to precipitation phenomena in this alloy, and it has been found that there is an inverse relation between TEP and Vickers microhardness values, which allowed proposing a precipitation sequence for 6013 aluminum alloy

  16. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy C458 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Rioja, R.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 (Al-1.0 Li-4.0 Cu-0.4 Mg-0.4 Ag-0.12 Zr) for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. These newer alloys generally have lithium content less than 2 wt. % and their composition and processing have been carefully tailored to increase the toughness and reduce the mechanical property anisotropy of the earlier generation alloys such 2090 and 8090. Alloy processing, particularly the aging treatment, has a significant influence on the strength-toughness combinations and their dependence on service environments for aluminum-lithium alloys. Work at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on alloy 2195 has shown that the cryogenic toughness can be improved by employing a two-step aging process. This is accomplished by aging at a lower temperature in the first step to suppress nucleation of the strengthening precipitate at sub-grain boundaries while promoting nucleation in the interior of the grains. Second step aging at the normal aging temperature results in precipitate growth to the optimum size. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy C458 (Al-1.8 Li-2.7 Cu-0.3 Mg- 0.08 Zr-0.3 Mn-0.6 Zn) is typically aged at 300 F for 24 hours. In this study, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a comprehensive 24 full factorial design of experiments study and the typical one-step aging used as a reference. Based on the higher lithium content of C458 compared with 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 175 F and 250 F. The second step aging temperatures was

  17. Pore structure and mechanical properties of directionally solidified porous aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarchuk Olga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous aluminum alloys produced by the metal-gas eutectic method or GASAR process need to be performed under a certain pressure of hydrogen, and to carry over melt to a tailor-made apparatus that ensures directional solidification. Hydrogen is driven out of the melt, and then the quasi-cylindrical pores normal to the solidification front are usually formed. In the research, the effects of processing parameters (saturation pressure, solidification pressure, temperature, and holding time on the pore structure and porosity of porous aluminum alloys were analyzed. The mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloys were studied by the compressive tests, and the advantages of the porous structure were indicated. By using the GASAR method, pure aluminum, Al-3wt.%Mg, Al-6wt.%Mg and Al-35wt.%Mg alloys with oriented pores have been successfully produced under processing conditions of varying gas pressure, and the relationship between the final pore structure and the solidification pressure, as well as the influences of Mg quantity on the pore size, porosity and mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloy were investigated. The results show that a higher pressure of solidification tends to yield smaller pores in aluminum and its alloys. In the case of Al-Mg alloys, it was proved that with the increasing of Mg amount, the mechanical properties of the alloys sharply deteriorate. However, since Al-3%Mg and Al-6wt.%Mg alloys are ductile metals, their porous samples have greater compressive strength than that of the dense samples due to the existence of pores. It gives the opportunity to use them in industry at the same conditions as dense alloys with savings in weight and material consumption.

  18. The influence of the deoxidization on the aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q.; Wu, X.; Wang, W. [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    2000-07-01

    Though the composition of the 7075 and 7050 aluminum alloys are quite similar, the anodic behaviors of the two alloys were quite different. Unlike the 7075 alloy, a chromic acid anodic film could not be formed on the 7050 alloy surface with a conventional anodizing process, unless a so-called deoxidization was employed. Therefore, the effects of the deoxidization were studied. The results showed that the deoxidization affected the 7050 quite obviously, introducing numerous number of the ''pits'' to the sample surface, and hence the film obtained was relatively thick but rather weak. In addition, the anodizing voltage also brought remarkable effect to the anodic behavior of the 7050 alloy. The test results showed that the deoxidization lowered the corrosion resistance of the 7050 alloys. By contrast, neither oxidization nor the voltage affected the anodic behavior and the corrosion resistance of the 7075 alloy very much. (orig.)

  19. Development of low activation aluminum alloys for reacting plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Kawai, H.; Saida, T.; Onozuka, M.

    1986-01-01

    In the advanced fusion devices aiming at D-T burning, structural components such as vacuum vessels, coil casings are exposed to high energy neutrons produced by D-T reaction. From a view point of maintenability of accessibility, low radioactive structural materials are strongly preferred. The authors have developed two types of improved alloys of reduced radioactivity based on 5083 aluminum alloy: Al-Mg-Bi . Cr and Al-Mg-Cu . Zr. Both of the alloys of 50mm thickness have been proved to have excellent material properties virtually equivalent to those of 5083 alloy

  20. Comments on process of duplex coatings on aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samir H.A.; QIAN Han-cheng(钱翰城); XIA Bo-cai(夏伯才); WU Shi-ming(吴仕明)

    2004-01-01

    Despite the great achievements made in improvement of wear resistance properties of aluminum alloys,their applications in heavy surface load-bearing are limited. Single coating is insufficient to produce the desired combination of surface properties. These problems can be solved through the duplex coatings. The aim of the present study is to overview the research advances on processes of duplex coatings on aluminum alloys combined with micro plasma oxidation process and with other modern processes such as physical vapour deposition and plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition and also to evaluate the performance of micro plasma oxidation coatings in improving the load-bearing, friction and wear resistance properties of aluminum alloys in comparison with other coatings. Wherein, a more detailed presentation of the processes and their performances and disadvantages are given as well.

  1. Characterization of 2024-T3: An aerospace aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Zainul; Taib, Nur Iskandar; Zaharinie, Tuan

    2009-01-01

    The 2024-T3 aerospace aluminum alloy, reported in this investigation, was acquired from a local aerospace industry: Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF). The heat treatable 2024-T3 aluminum alloy has been characterized by use of modern metallographic and material characterization techniques (e.g. EPMA, SEM). The microstructural characterization of the metallographic specimen involved use of an optical microscope linked with a computerized imaging system using MSQ software. The use of EPMA and electron microprobe elemental maps enabled us to detect three types of inclusions: Al-Cu, Al-Cu-Fe-Mn, and Al-Cu-Fe-Si-Mn enriched regions. In particular, the presence of Al 2 CuMg (S-phase) and the CuAl 2 (θ') phases indicated precipitation strengthening in the aluminum alloy

  2. Characterization of 2024-T3: An aerospace aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, Zainul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: drzainulhuda@hotmail.com; Taib, Nur Iskandar [Department of Geology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: ntaib@alumni.indiana.edu; Zaharinie, Tuan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: rinie_3483@hotmail.com

    2009-02-15

    The 2024-T3 aerospace aluminum alloy, reported in this investigation, was acquired from a local aerospace industry: Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF). The heat treatable 2024-T3 aluminum alloy has been characterized by use of modern metallographic and material characterization techniques (e.g. EPMA, SEM). The microstructural characterization of the metallographic specimen involved use of an optical microscope linked with a computerized imaging system using MSQ software. The use of EPMA and electron microprobe elemental maps enabled us to detect three types of inclusions: Al-Cu, Al-Cu-Fe-Mn, and Al-Cu-Fe-Si-Mn enriched regions. In particular, the presence of Al{sub 2}CuMg (S-phase) and the CuAl{sub 2} ({theta}') phases indicated precipitation strengthening in the aluminum alloy.

  3. Friction stir welding process to repair voids in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Charles D. (Inventor); Litwinski, Edward (Inventor); Valdez, Juan M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides an in-process method to repair voids in an aluminum alloy, particularly a friction stir weld in an aluminum alloy. For repairing a circular void or an in-process exit hole in a weld, the method includes the steps of fabricating filler material of the same composition or compatible with the parent material into a plug form to be fitted into the void, positioning the plug in the void, and friction stir welding over and through the plug. For repairing a longitudinal void (30), the method includes machining the void area to provide a trough (34) that subsumes the void, fabricating filler metal into a strip form (36) to be fitted into the trough, positioning the strip in the trough, and rewelding the void area by traversing a friction stir welding tool longitudinally through the strip. The method is also applicable for repairing welds made by a fusing welding process or voids in aluminum alloy workpieces themselves.

  4. Aerospace Patented High-Strength Aluminum Alloy Used in Commercial Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA structural materials engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama developed a high-strength aluminum alloy for aerospace applications with higher strength and wear-resistance at elevated temperatures. The alloy is a solution to reduce costs of aluminum engine pistons and lower engine emissions for the automobile industry. The Boats and Outboard Engines Division at Bombardier Recreational Products of Sturtevant, Wisconsin is using the alloy for pistons in its Evinrude E-Tec outboard, 40-90 horsepower, engine line. The alloy pistons make the outboard motor quieter and cleaner, while improving fuel mileage and increasing engine durability. The engines comply with California Air resources Board emissions standards, some of the most stringent in the United States. (photo credit: Bombardiier Recreational Products)

  5. Superplasticity in powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.S.; Bieler, T.R.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Superplasticity in powder metallurgy Al alloys and composites has been reviewed through a detailed analysis. The stress-strain curves can be put into 4 categories: classical well-behaved type, continuous strain hardening type, continuous strain softening type and complex type. The origin of these different types of is discussed. The microstructural features of the processed material and the role of strain have been reviewed. The role of increasing misorientation of low angle boundaries to high angle boundaries by lattice dislocation absorption is examined. Threshold stresses have been determined and analyzed. The parametric dependencies for superplastic flow in modified conventional aluminum alloys, mechanically alloyed alloys and Al alloy matrix composites is determined to elucidate the superplastic mechanism at high strain rates. The role of incipient melting has been analyzed. A stress exponent of 2, an activation energy equal to that for grain boundary diffusion and a grain size dependence of 2 generally describes superplastic flow in modified conventional Al alloys and mechanically alloyed alloys. The present results agree well with the predictions of grain boundary sliding models. This suggests that the mechanism of high strain rate superplasticity in the above-mentioned alloys is similar to conventional superplasticity. The shift of optimum superplastic strain rates to higher values is a consequence of microstructural refinement. The parametric dependencies for superplasticity in aluminum alloy matrix composites, however, is different. A true activation energy of superplasticity in aluminum alloy matrix composites, however, is different. A true activation energy of 313 kJ/mol best describes the composites having SiC reinforcements. The role of shape of the reinforcement (particle or whisker) and processing history is addressed. The analysis suggests that the mechanism for superplasticity in composites is interface diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding

  6. Interactions between drops of a molten aluminum-lithium alloy and liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    In certain hypothesized nuclear reactor accident scenarios, 1- to 10-g drops of molten aluminum-lithium alloys might contact liquid water. Because vigorous steam explosions have occurred when large amounts of molten aluminum-lithium alloys were released into water or other coolants, it becomes important to know whether there will be explosions if smaller amounts of these molten alloys similarly come into contact with water. Therefore, the authors released drops of molten Al-3.1 wt pct Li alloy into deionized water at room temperature. The experiments were performed at local atmospheric pressure (0.085 MPa) without pressure transient triggers applied to the water. The absence of these triggers allowed them to (a) investigate whether spontaneous initiation of steam explosions would occur with these drops and (b) study the alloy-water chemical reactions. The drop sizes and melt temperatures were chosen to simulate melt globules that might form during the hypothesized melting of the aluminum-lithium alloy components

  7. Microscopic analysis of effect of shot peening on corrosion fatigue behavior of aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Cheon; Cheong, Seong Kyun

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study considers corrosion fatigue improvement of 7075-T6 aluminum by using shot peening treatment on 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. Aluminum alloy is generally used in aerospace structural components because of the light weight and high strength characteristics. Many studies have shown that an aluminum alloy can be approximately 50% lighter than other materials. Mostly, corrosion leads to earlier fatigue crack propagation under tensile conditions and severely reduces the life of structures. Therefore, the technique to improve material resistance to corrosion fatigue is required. Shot peening technology is widely used to improve fatigue life and other mechanical properties by induced compressive residual stress. Even the roughness of treated surface causes pitting corrosion, the compressive residual stress, which is induced under the surface layer of material by shot peening, suppersses the corrosion and increases the corrosion resistance. The experimental results for shot peened specimens were compared with previous work for non treated aluminum alloy. The results show that the shot peening treatment affects the corrosion fatigue improvement of aluminum alloys and the induced compressive residual stress by shot peening treatment improves the resistance to corrosion fatigue

  8. Microscopic analysis of effect of shot peening on corrosion fatigue behavior of aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Cheon; Cheong, Seong Kyun [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The object of this study considers corrosion fatigue improvement of 7075-T6 aluminum by using shot peening treatment on 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. Aluminum alloy is generally used in aerospace structural components because of the light weight and high strength characteristics. Many studies have shown that an aluminum alloy can be approximately 50% lighter than other materials. Mostly, corrosion leads to earlier fatigue crack propagation under tensile conditions and severely reduces the life of structures. Therefore, the technique to improve material resistance to corrosion fatigue is required. Shot peening technology is widely used to improve fatigue life and other mechanical properties by induced compressive residual stress. Even the roughness of treated surface causes pitting corrosion, the compressive residual stress, which is induced under the surface layer of material by shot peening, suppersses the corrosion and increases the corrosion resistance. The experimental results for shot peened specimens were compared with previous work for non treated aluminum alloy. The results show that the shot peening treatment affects the corrosion fatigue improvement of aluminum alloys and the induced compressive residual stress by shot peening treatment improves the resistance to corrosion fatigue.

  9. Susceptibility of ternary aluminum alloys to cracking during solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Kou, Sindo

    2017-01-01

    The crack susceptibility map of a ternary Al alloy system provides useful information about which alloy compositions are most susceptible to cracking and thus should be avoided by using a filler metal with a significantly different composition. In the present study the crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems were calculated based on the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | as an index for the crack susceptibility, where T is temperature and f S fraction solid. Due to the complexity associated with ternary alloy solidification, commercial thermodynamic software Pandat and Al database PanAluminum, instead of analytical equations, were used to calculate f S as a function of T and hence the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | for ternary Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si alloy systems. A crack susceptibility map covering 121 alloy compositions was constructed for each of the three ternary alloy systems at each of the following three levels of back diffusion: no back diffusion, back diffusion under a 100 °C/s cooling rate, and back diffusion under 20° C/s. The location of the region of high crack susceptibility, which is the most important part of the map, was shown in each of the nine calculated maps. These locations were compared with those observed in crack susceptibility tests by previous investigators. With back diffusion considered, either under 20 or 100 °C/s, the agreement between the calculated and observed maps was good especially for Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mg. Thus, the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | can be used as a crack susceptibility index to construct crack susceptibility maps for ternary Al alloys and to evaluate the effect of back diffusion on their crack susceptibility. - Graphical abstract: The crack susceptibility map of a ternary alloy system indicates the composition range most susceptible to cracking, which should be avoided in welding or casting. The crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si were calculated based

  10. Effect of aging on the corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Bedawy, M.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Not only alloying additions may affect the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys, but also practices that result in a nonuniform microstructure may introduce susceptibility to some forms of corrosion, especially if the microstructural effect is localized. This work was intended to study the effect of aging time at 225, 185 and 140 degree C and the effect of constant aging time ( 24 hrs ) in the temperature range 100 - 450 degree C as well as the influence of the solution ph on the corrosion characteristics of 6061 aluminum alloy, (Al-Mg-Si alloy) containing 0.22 wt% Cu. The investigation was performed by standard immersion corrosion test according to the British Standard BS 11846 method B and by applying potentiodynamic polarization technique in neutral deaerated 0.5 % M NaCl solution as well as in alkaline NaOH solution (ph = 10). The susceptibility to corrosion and the dominant corrosion type was evaluated by examination of transverse cross sections of corroded samples after the immersion test and examination of the corroded surfaces after potentiodynamic polarization using optical microscope. Analysis of the polarization curves was used to determine the effect of different aging parameters on corrosion characteristics such as the corrosion current density I (corr), the corrosion potential E (corr), the cathodic current densities and the passivation behavior.Results of the immersion test showed susceptibility to intergranular corrosion in the under aged tempers while pitting was the dominant corrosion mode for the over aged tempers after aging at 225 and 185 degree C.Analysis of the potentiodynamic polarization curves showed similar dependence of I (corr) and cathodic current densities on the aging treatment in the neutral 0.5 %M NaCl solution and in the alkaline NaOH solution. It was observed that E(corr) values in the NaCl solution were shifted in the more noble direction for the specimens aged before peak aging while it decreased again with aging time for

  11. EFFECT OF CONTROLLED QUENCHING ON THE AGING OF 2024 ALUMINUM ALLOY CONTAINING BORON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khatami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of alloying elements, sometimes in a very small amount, affects mechanical properties one of these elements is Boron. In Aluminum industries, Boron master alloy is widely used as a grain refiner In this research, the production process of Aluminum –Boron master alloy was studied at first then, it was concurrently added to 2024 Aluminum alloy. After rolling and homogenizing the resulting alloy, the optimal temperature and time of aging were determined during the precipitation hardening heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C. Then, in order to find the effect of controlled quenching, different cycles of heat treatment including precipitation heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C and conventional quenching (T6 were applied on the alloy at the aging temperature of 110°C. Mechanical properties of the resulting alloy were evaluated after aging at optimum temperature of 110°C by performing mechanical tests including hardness and tensile tests. The results of hardness test showed that applying the controlled quenching instead of conventional quenching in precipitation heat treatment caused reduction in the time of reaching the maximum hardness and also increase in hardness rate due to the generated thermo-elastic stresses rather than hydrostatic stresses and increased atomic diffusion coefficient as well. Tensile test results demonstrated that, due to the presence of boride particles in the microstructure of the present alloy, the ultimate tensile strength in the specimens containing Boron additive increased by 3.40% in comparison with the specimens without such an additive and elongation (percentage of relative length increase which approximately increased by 38.80% due to the role of Boron in the increase of alloy ductility

  12. Microstructure and Properties of Selected Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys Prepared for SPD Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizek L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing interest in wrought magnesium alloys has been noticed recently, mainly due to development of various SPD (severe plastic deformation methods that enable significant refinement of the microstructure and – as a result – improvement of various functional properties of products. However, forming as-cast magnesium alloys with the increased aluminum content at room temperature is almost impossible. Therefore, application of heat treatment before forming or forming at elevated temperature is recommended for these alloys. The paper presents the influence of selected heat treatment conditions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the as-cast AZ91 alloy. Deformation behaviour of the as-cast AZ61 alloy at elevated temperatures was analysed as well. The microstructure analysis was performed by means of both light microscopy and SEM. The latter one was used also for fracture analysis. Moreover, the effect of chemical composition modification by lithium addition on the microstructure of the AZ31-based alloy is presented. The test results can be helpful in preparation of the magnesium-aluminum alloys for further processing by means of SPD methods.

  13. X-ray thickness measurement of aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of x-ray thickness gauging is extended to reveal the conditions under which a fixed anode voltage is ideal. A mathematical model of an alloy and computations reveal that two voltages can be used to measure the aluminum alloys with an error of roughly 1 percent, determined by the tolerance on manganese content rather than the large errors ordinarily a consequence of the tolerances on copper and zinc content. Implementation is discussed

  14. Microstructural Characterization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloys 1460 and 2195

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. M.; Shenoy, R. N.

    1998-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were employed to characterize the precipitate distributions in lithium-containing aluminum alloys 1460 and 2195 in the T8 condition. TEM examinations revealed delta prime and T1 as the primary strengthening precipitates in alloys 1460 and 2195 respectively. TEM results showed a close similarity of the Russian alloy 1460 to the U.S. alloy 2090, which has a similar composition and heat treatment schedule. DSC analyses also indicate a comparable delta prime volume fraction. TEM study of a fractured tensile sample of alloy 1460 showed that delta prime precipitates are sheared by dislocations during plastic deformation and that intense stress fields arise at grain boundaries due to planar slip. Differences in fracture toughness of alloys 1460 and 2195 are rationalized on the basis of a literature review and observations from the present study.

  15. The Influence of Aluminum on the Microstructure and Hardness of Mg-5Si-7Sn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzychoń T.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys due the low density and good mechanical properties are mainly used in the automotive and aerospace industry. In recent years, magnesium alloys are extensively developed for use in high temperatures (above 120°C. Among these alloys, magnesium alloys containing tin and silicon have large possibilities of application due to the formation of thermally stable intermetallic Mg2Sn and Mg2Si. In this paper the influence of aluminum and heat treatment on the on the microstructure and hardness of Mg-7Sn-5Si alloy is reported. It was found that the microstructure of Mg-7Sn-5Si alloy consist of α-Mg solid solution, Mg2Sn and Mg2Si compounds. Addition of 2 wt% of Al to Mg-7Sn-5Si alloy causes the formation of Al2Sn phase. Moreover, Al dissolves in the α-Mg solid solution. The solution heat-treatment of tested alloys at 500°C for 24 h causes the dissolve the Mg2Sn phase in the α-Mg matrix and spheroidization of Mg2Si compound. The Mg2Si primary crystals are stable at solution temperature. After ageing treatment the precipitation process of equilibrium Mg2Sn phase was found in both alloys. The addition of aluminum has a positive effect on the hardness of Mg-7Sn-5Si alloy. In case of Mg-5Si-7Sn-2Al alloy the highest hardness was obtained for sample aged for 148 h at 250°C (88 HV2, while in case of Al-free alloy the highest hardness is 70 HV for material aged for 148 h at 250°C.

  16. Study of Shell Zone Formation in Lithographic and Anodizing Quality Aluminum Alloys: Experimental and Numerical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Christine; Larouche, André; Hark, Robert

    Shell thickness is an important quality factor for lithographic and anodizing quality aluminum alloys. Increasing pressure is placed on casting plants to produce a thinner shell zone for these alloys. This study, based on plant trials and mathematical modelling highlights the most significant parameters influencing shell zone formation. Results obtained show the importance of metal temperature and distribution and mould metal level on shell zone formation. As an answer to specific plant problems, this study led to the development of improved metal distribution systems for DC casting of litho and anodizing quality alloys.

  17. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  18. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Ren, Daxin; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research. PMID:28788646

  19. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Ren, Daxin; Liu, Fei

    2014-05-08

    Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg 17 Al 12 and Mg₂Al₃. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  20. Environment assisted degradation mechanisms in aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Section 1 of this report records the progress achieved on NASA-LaRC Grant NAG-1-745 (Environment Assisted Degradation Mechanisms in Al-Li Alloys), and is based on research conducted during the period April 1 to November 30, 1987. A discussion of work proposed for the project's second year is included. Section 2 provides an overview of the need for research on the mechanisms of environmental-mechanical degradation of advanced aerospace alloys based on aluminum and lithium. This research is to provide NASA with the basis necessary to permit metallurgical optimization of alloy performance and engineering design with respect to damage tolerance, long term durability and reliability. Section 3 reports on damage localization mechanisms in aqueous chloride corrosion fatigue of aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 4 reports on progress made on measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 5 provides a detailed technical proposal for research on environmental degradation of Al-Li alloys, and the effect of hydrogen in this.

  1. Fabrication of Aluminum Tubes Filled with Aluminum Alloy Foam by Friction Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Hangai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum foam is usually used as the core of composite materials by combining it with dense materials, such as in Al foam core sandwich panels and Al-foam-filled tubes, owing to its low tensile and bending strengths. In this study, all-Al foam-filled tubes consisting of ADC12 Al-Si-Cu die-cast aluminum alloy foam and a dense A1050 commercially pure Al tube with metal bonding were fabricated by friction welding. First, it was found that the ADC12 precursor was firmly bonded throughout the inner wall of the A1050 tube without a gap between the precursor and the tube by friction welding. No deformation of the tube or foaming of the precursor was observed during the friction welding. Next, it was shown that by heat treatment of an ADC12-precursor-bonded A1050 tube, gases generated by the decomposition of the blowing agent expand the softened ADC12 to produce the ADC12 foam interior of the dense A1050 tube. A holding time during the foaming process of approximately tH = 8.5 min with a holding temperature of 948 K was found to be suitable for obtaining a sound ADC12-foam-filled A1050 tube with sufficient foaming, almost uniform pore structures over the entire specimen, and no deformation or reduction in the thickness of the tube.

  2. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  3. Strength and Ductility of Forged 1200 Aluminum Alloy Reinforced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With 50% reduction and fine-sized steel particles (512μm) in aluminum alloy, tensile strength dropped to 160MPa without significant decrease in ductility (1.7). Microstructure of cast samples show the presence of fine Fe particles at grain boundaries after annealing with most of the particles in solid solution. Al3Fe and AlFeSi ...

  4. Quality Management and Control of Low Pressure Cast Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianxi; Zhang, Yanbo; Yang, Xiufan; Chen, Zhaosong; Jiang, Zelan

    2018-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the history of low pressure casting and summarizes the major production processes of low pressure casting. It briefly introduces the quality management and control of low pressure cast aluminum alloy. The main processes include are: preparation of raw materials, Melting, refining, physical and chemical analysis, K-mode inspection, sand core, mold, heat treatment and so on.

  5. Characteristics of aluminum alloy microplastic deformation in different structural states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seregin, G.V.; Efimenko, L.L.; Leonov, M.V. [Novosibirsk Pedagogical Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    The solution to the problem of improving the mechanical properties (including cyclic strength) of structural materials is largely dependent on our knowledge of the laws governing the development of microplastic deformations in them. The effect of heat and mechanical treatment on the elastoplastic properties and fatigue resistance of the commercial aluminum alloys AK4-1 and D16 is analyzed.

  6. Fracture behavior of low-density replicated aluminum alloy foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, E.; Goodall, R.; Mortensen, A.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on replicated aluminum alloy foams of relative density between 4.5% and 8%. During the test the electrical resistance was measured with a four-point set-up and the displacements along the gage section were measured using a digital image correlation (DIC) technique.

  7. Effect of micro alloying elements on the interfacial reactions between molten aluminum alloy and tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, K.A.; Shabestari, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    The morphology and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds that are formed in the interface of H13 tool steel and A380 molten aluminum has been investigated through immersion experiments. The effect of addition of micro alloying elements to the melt on the formation and thickness of intermetallic layer was also studied. Microstructural investigation showed that three intermetallic layers formed through the liquid-solid reaction during immersion of steel samples in the liquid aluminum at a temperature of 680 deg. C for the duration time of 2 min to 2.5 h. These intermetallic compounds are Al 8 Fe 2 Si, Al 5 FeSi and Al 12 Fe 5 Si. The effect of nitride coating of the surface of H13 steel on the growth of intermetallic phases has also been studied. Micro alloying elements such as strontium and titanium have been used in the melt and their effects on the morphology of intermetallic compound and their growth rate have been investigated by the immersion experiments at the temperature of 680 deg. C for the time of 0.5-2.5 h. The results showed that two layers of Al 8 Fe 2 Si and Al 5 FeSi formed at the interface and Al 12 Fe 5 Si layer was not observed. Nitride coating decreased the overall thickness of the intermetallic layer about 50% after immersion time of 0.5 h. Addition of micro alloying elements such as Sr (0.05 wt%) and Ti (0.2 wt%) to the melt decreased the total thickness of the intermetallic layer about 31% after immersion of steel for 0.5 h in the melt. Both nitride coating and addition of strontium (0.05 wt%) and titanium (0.2 wt%) micro alloying elements to the melt had the most influence on decreasing the overall thickness of the intermetallic layer. The thickness of the intermetallic layer decreased about 60% after immersion of steel for 2.5 h in the aluminum melt. The experimental results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of strontium on the kinetics of the formation and growth of the intermetallic layers.

  8. Precipitation behavior of aluminum alloy 2139 fabricated using additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, Craig, E-mail: craig.a.brice@lmco.com [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Shenoy, Ravi [Northrop Grumman Corporation Technical Services, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Kral, Milo; Buchannan, Karl [University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2015-11-11

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging technology capable of producing near net shape structures in a variety of materials directly from a computer model. Standard metallic alloys that were developed for cast or wrought processing have largely been adopted for AM feedstock. In many applications, these legacy alloys are quite acceptable. In the aluminum alloy family, however, there is a significant performance gap between the casting alloys currently being used in AM processes and the high strength/toughness capability available in certain wrought alloys. The precipitation hardenable alloys, most often used in high performance structures, present challenges for processing by AM. The near net shape nature of AM processes does not allow for mechanical work prior to the heat treatment that is often necessary to develop a uniform distribution of precipitates and give peak mechanical performance. This paper examines the aluminum (Al) alloy 2139, a composition that is strengthened by homogeneous precipitation of Ω (Al{sub 2}Cu) plates and thus ideally suited for near net shape processes like AM. Transmission electron microscopy, microhardness, and tensile testing determined that, with proper processing conditions, Al 2139 can be additively manufactured and subsequently heat treated to strength levels comparable to those of peak aged wrought Al 2139.

  9. Precipitation behavior of aluminum alloy 2139 fabricated using additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, Craig; Shenoy, Ravi; Kral, Milo; Buchannan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging technology capable of producing near net shape structures in a variety of materials directly from a computer model. Standard metallic alloys that were developed for cast or wrought processing have largely been adopted for AM feedstock. In many applications, these legacy alloys are quite acceptable. In the aluminum alloy family, however, there is a significant performance gap between the casting alloys currently being used in AM processes and the high strength/toughness capability available in certain wrought alloys. The precipitation hardenable alloys, most often used in high performance structures, present challenges for processing by AM. The near net shape nature of AM processes does not allow for mechanical work prior to the heat treatment that is often necessary to develop a uniform distribution of precipitates and give peak mechanical performance. This paper examines the aluminum (Al) alloy 2139, a composition that is strengthened by homogeneous precipitation of Ω (Al_2Cu) plates and thus ideally suited for near net shape processes like AM. Transmission electron microscopy, microhardness, and tensile testing determined that, with proper processing conditions, Al 2139 can be additively manufactured and subsequently heat treated to strength levels comparable to those of peak aged wrought Al 2139.

  10. Laser Surface Alloying of Aluminum for Improving Acid Corrosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiru, Woldetinsay Gutu; Sankar, Mamilla Ravi; Dixit, Uday Shanker

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, laser surface alloying of aluminum with magnesium, manganese, titanium and zinc, respectively, was carried out to improve acid corrosion resistance. Laser surface alloying was conducted using 1600 and 1800 W power source using CO2 laser. Acid corrosion resistance was tested by dipping the samples in a solution of 2.5% H2SO4 for 200 h. The weight loss due to acid corrosion was reduced by 55% for AlTi, 41% for AlMg alloy, 36% for AlZn and 22% for AlMn alloy. Laser surface alloyed samples offered greater corrosion resistance than the aluminum substrate. It was observed that localized pitting corrosion was the major factor to damage the surface when exposed for a long time. The hardness after laser surface alloying was increased by a factor of 8.7, 3.4, 2.7 and 2 by alloying with Mn, Mg, Ti and Zn, respectively. After corrosion test, hardness was reduced by 51% for AlTi sample, 40% for AlMg sample, 41.4% for AlMn sample and 33% for AlZn sample.

  11. Corrosion of aluminum alloys in a reactor disassembly basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.; Zapp, P.E.; Nelson, D.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This document discusses storage of aluminum clad fuel and target tubes of the Mark 22 assembly takes place in the concrete-lined, light-water-filled, disassembly basins located within each reactor area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A corrosion test program has been conducted in the K-Reactor disassembly basin to assess the storage performance of the assemblies and other aluminum clad components in the current basin environment. Aluminum clad alloys cut from the ends of actual fuel and target tubes were originally placed in the disassembly water basin in December 1991. After time intervals varying from 45--182 days, the components were removed from the basin, photographed, and evaluated metallographically for corrosion performance. Results indicated that pitting of the 8001 aluminum fuel clad alloy exceeded the 30-mil (0.076 cm) cladding thickness within the 45-day exposure period. Pitting of the 1100 aluminum target clad alloy exceeded the 30-mil (0.076 cm) clad thickness in 107--182 days exposure. The existing basin water chemistry is within limits established during early site operations. Impurities such as Cl - , NO 3 - and SO 4 - are controlled to the parts per million level and basin water conductivity is currently 170--190 μmho/cm. The test program has demonstrated that the basin water is aggressive to the aluminum components at these levels. Other storage basins at SRS and around the US have successfully stored aluminum components for greater than ten years without pitting corrosion. These basins have impurity levels controlled to the parts per billion level (1000X lower) and conductivity less than 1.0 μmho/cm

  12. Ultrasonic texture characterization of aluminum, zirconium and titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    This work attempts to show the feasibility of nondestructive characterization of non-ferrous alloys. Aluminum alloys have a small single crystal anisotropy which requires very precise ultrasonic velocity measurements for derivation of orientation distribution coefficients (ODCs); the precision in the ultrasonic velocity measurement required for aluminum alloys is much greater than is necessary for iron alloys or other alloys with a large single crystal anisotropy. To provide greater precision, some signal processing corrections need to be applied to account for the inherent, half-bandwidth offset in triggered pulses when using a zero-crossing technique for determining ultrasonic velocity. In addition, alloys with small single crystal anisotropy show a larger dependence on the single crystal elastic constants (SCECs) when predicting ODCs which require absolute velocity measurements. Attempts were made to independently determine these elastics constants in an effort to improve correlation between ultrasonically derived ODCs and diffraction derived ODCs. The greater precision required to accurately derive ODCs in aluminum alloys using ultrasonic nondestructive techniques is easily attainable. Ultrasonically derived ODCs show good correlation with derivations made by Bragg diffraction techniques, both neutron and X-ray. The best correlation was shown when relative velocity measurements could be used in the derivations of the ODCs. Calculation of ODCs in materials with hexagonal crystallites can also be done. Because of the crystallite symmetries, more information can be extracted using ultrasonic techniques, but at a cost of requiring more physical measurements. Some industries which use materials with hexagonal crystallites, e.g. zirconium alloys and titanium, have traditionally used texture parameters which provide some specialized measure of the texture. These texture parameters, called Kearns factors, can be directly related to ODCs

  13. Temperature, Frequency, and Young’s Modulus of an Aluminum Tuning Fork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery L. Greer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency produced by a standard C (523.3 Hz aluminum alloy tuning fork when struck at temperatures ranging from 29 ̊C to 300 ̊C was studied. It was found that frequency decreased with increasing temperature with an inverse exponential relationship. The frequency was used to calculate Young’s Modulus for aluminum, with the results being in close agreement with published values.

  14. Charge-density-shear-moduli relationships in aluminum-lithium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, M

    2001-11-12

    Using the first principles full-potential linear-augmented-Slater-type orbital technique, the energies and charge densities of aluminum and aluminum-lithium supercells have been computed. The experimentally observed increase in aluminum's shear moduli upon alloying with lithium is argued to be the result of predictable changes to aluminum's total charge density, suggesting that simple rules may allow the alloy designer to predict the effects of dilute substitutional elements on alloy elastic response.

  15. Anti-icing/frosting and self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Libang; Yan, Zhongna; Shi, Xueting; Sultonzoda, Firdavs

    2018-02-01

    Ice formation and frost deposition on cryogenic equipment and systems can result in serious problems and huge economic loss. Hence, it is quite necessary to develop new materials to prevent icing and frosting on cold surfaces in engineering fields. Here, a superhydrophobic aluminum alloy with enhanced anti-frosting, anti-icing, and self-cleaning performance has been developed by a facile one-step method. The anti-frosting/icing performance of superhydrophobic aluminum alloys is confirmed by frosting/icing time delay, consolidating and freezing temperature reduction, and lower amount of frost/ice adhesion. Meanwhile, the excellent self-cleaning performance is authenticated by the fact that simulated pollution particles can be cleaned out by rolling water droplets completely. Finally, based on the classical nucleation theory, anti-icing and anti-frosting mechanisms of the superhydrophobic aluminum alloys are deduced. Results show that grounded on "air cushion" and "heat insulation" effect, a larger nucleation barrier and a lower crystal growth rate can be observed, which, hence, inhibit ice formation and frost deposition. It can be concluded that preparing superhydrophobic surfaces would be an effective strategy for improving anti-icing, anti-frosting, and self-cleaning performance of aluminum alloys.

  16. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M.P.; Hihn, J.Y., E-mail: jean-yves.hihn@univ-fcomte.fr

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Result of an etching step in ultrasound presence on intermetallic particles on a 2024 aluminum alloy. - Highlights: • Etching step prior to anodization on 2024 aluminum alloy. • Etching rate measurement and hydroxide film characterization by GDOES and SEM. • Various etching parameters (temperature, presence or absence of ultrasound). • Improvement of corrosion resistance show by electrochemical tests. - Abstract: Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  17. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M.P.; Hihn, J.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Result of an etching step in ultrasound presence on intermetallic particles on a 2024 aluminum alloy. - Highlights: • Etching step prior to anodization on 2024 aluminum alloy. • Etching rate measurement and hydroxide film characterization by GDOES and SEM. • Various etching parameters (temperature, presence or absence of ultrasound). • Improvement of corrosion resistance show by electrochemical tests. - Abstract: Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  18. High-Temperature Cast Aluminum for Efficient Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobel, Andrew C.

    Accurate thermodynamic databases are the foundation of predictive microstructure and property models. An initial assessment of the commercially available Thermo-Calc TCAL2 database and the proprietary aluminum database of QuesTek demonstrated a large degree of deviation with respect to equilibrium precipitate phase prediction in the compositional region of interest when compared to 3-D atom probe tomography (3DAPT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experimental results. New compositional measurements of the Q-phase (Al-Cu-Mg-Si phase) led to a remodeling of the Q-phase thermodynamic description in the CALPHAD databases which has produced significant improvements in the phase prediction capabilities of the thermodynamic model. Due to the unique morphologies of strengthening precipitate phases commonly utilized in high-strength cast aluminum alloys, the development of new microstructural evolution models to describe both rod and plate particle growth was critical for accurate mechanistic strength models which rely heavily on precipitate size and shape. Particle size measurements through both 3DAPT and TEM experiments were used in conjunction with literature results of many alloy compositions to develop a physical growth model for the independent prediction of rod radii and rod length evolution. In addition a machine learning (ML) model was developed for the independent prediction of plate thickness and plate diameter evolution as a function of alloy composition, aging temperature, and aging time. The developed models are then compared with physical growth laws developed for spheres and modified for ellipsoidal morphology effects. Analysis of the effect of particle morphology on strength enhancement has been undertaken by modification of the Orowan-Ashby equation for 〈110〉 alpha-Al oriented finite rods in addition to an appropriate version for similarly oriented plates. A mechanistic strengthening model was developed for cast aluminum alloys containing

  19. Effect and kinetic mechanism of ultrasonic vibration on solidification of 7050 aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripeng Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The work described in this paper dealt with the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the solidification of 7050 aluminum alloy. Two experiments were carried out through introducing ultrasound into the semi-continuous direct-chill (DC casting of aluminum alloy and into alloy solidifying in a crucible, respectively. Results show that ultrasonic vibration can refine grains in the whole cross-section of a billet in the first experiment and is able to increase the cooling rate within the temperature range from 625 °C to 590 °C in the other one. The mechanism of particle resonance caused by ultrasonic vibration was illustrated on the basis of theoretical analysis of the kinetics and energy conversion during the solidification. It is demonstrated that the kinetic energy of resonant particles are mainly from the latent heat energy of solidification, which can shorten the cooling time, inhibit the crystal growth and then lead to the grain refinement.

  20. Joining of dissimilar metals by diffusion bonding. Titanium alloy with aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akca, Enes [International Univ. of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Research and Development Center; International Univ. of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Gursel, Ali [International Univ. of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a novel diffusion bonding process of commercially pure aluminum to Ti-6Al-4V alloy at 520, 560, 600 and 640 C for 30, 45 and 60 minutes under argon gas shielding without the use of interlayer. The approach is to overcome the difficulties in fusion welding of dissimilar alloys. Diffusion bonding is a dissimilar metal welding process which can be applied to the materials without causing any physical deformations. Processed samples were metallographically prepared, optically examined followed by Vickers microhardness test and subjected to tensile test in order to determine joint strength. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used in this work to investigate the compositional changes across the joint region. Elemental composition of the region has been successfully defined between titanium alloy and aluminum. The maximum tensile strength was obtained from the samples bonded at the highest temperatures of 600 and 640 C.

  1. Modeling of plastic localization in aluminum and Al–Cu alloys under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnikov, V.S.; Mayer, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modeling of plastic deformation localization in pure aluminum and aluminum–copper alloys during the propagation of a plane shock wave. Modeling is carried out with the use of continual dislocation plasticity model in 2-D geometry. It is shown that the formation of localization bands occurs at an angle of 45° to the direction of propagation of the shock front. Effective initiators for plastic localization in pure aluminum are the perturbations of the initial dislocation density, in the alloys – perturbations of the dislocation density and the concentration of copper atoms. Perturbations of temperature field in a range of tens of kelvins are not so effective for plastic localization. In the alloy plastic localization intensity decreases with an increase of strain rate due to the thermally activated nature of the dislocation motion

  2. Origin of grain orientation during solidification of an aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, H.L.; Elmer, J.W.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of grain morphology during solidification of a moving aluminum alloy pool is simulated by considering heat transfer, flow of liquid metal in the molten pool and solidification parameters. The computationally efficient model consists of a 3D coupled heat transfer and fluid flow simulation to predict the molten pool shape and temperature field, and a 2D model of grain formation in the molten pool. The results demonstrate that columnar grains grow in a curved pattern rather than along straight lines from the fusion boundary towards the center of the molten pool. The calculated results are validated with independent experimental data. The computed ratio of local temperature gradient to solidification rate, G/R, is used to model the columnar to equiaxed transition during solidification. The simulated results show that only curved columnar grains are formed when the scanning speed is low (2.0 mm/s). In contrast, a transition from curved columnar to equiaxed morphologies occurs at the higher scanning speeds of 8.0 mm/s and 11.5 mm/s, with higher equiaxed grain fraction at higher speed. The similarities between the physical processes governing fusion welding and additive manufacturing (AM) make the model capable of predicting grain orientation in both processes.

  3. Effect of hot-humid exposure on static strength of adhesive-bonded aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hot-humid exposure (i.e., 40 °C and 98% R.H. on the quasi-static strength of the adhesive-bonded aluminum alloys was studied. Test results show that the hot-humid exposure leads to the significant decrease in the joint strength and the change of the failure mode from a mixed cohesive and adhesive failure with cohesive failure being dominant to adhesive failure being dominant. Careful analyses of the results reveal that the physical bond is likely responsible for the bond adhesion between L adhesive and aluminum substrates. The reduction in joint strength and the change of the failure mode resulted from the degradation in bond adhesion, which was primarily attributed to the corrosion of aluminum substrate. In addition, the elevated temperature exposure significantly accelerated the corrosion reaction of aluminum, which accelerated the degradation in joint strength.

  4. Impression creep properties of a semi-solid processed magnesium-aluminum alloy containing calcium and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nami, B.; Razavi, H.; Miresmaeili, S.M.; Mirdamadi, Sh.; Shabestari, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    The creep properties of a thixoformed magnesium-aluminum alloy containing calcium and rare earth elements were studied under shear modulus-normalized stresses ranging from 0.0225 to 0.035 at temperatures of 150-212 o C using the impression creep technique. Analysis of the creep mechanism based on a power-law equation indicated that pipe diffusion-controlled dislocation climb is the dominant mechanism during creep. The alloy has a better creep resistance than high-pressure die-cast magnesium-aluminum alloy.

  5. Performance of iron–chromium–aluminum alloy surface coatings on Zircaloy 2 under high-temperature steam and normal BWR operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Weicheng; Mouche, Peter A.; Han, Xiaochun [University of Illinois, Department of Nuclear, Radiological, and Plasma Engineering, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Heuser, Brent J., E-mail: bheuser@illinois.edu [University of Illinois, Department of Nuclear, Radiological, and Plasma Engineering, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mandapaka, Kiran K.; Was, Gary S. [University of Michigan, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) coatings deposited on Zircaloy 2 (Zy2) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by magnetron sputtering have been tested with respect to oxidation weight gain in high-temperature steam. In addition, autoclave testing of FeCrAl-coated Zy2 coupons under pressure-temperature-dissolved oxygen coolant conditions representative of a boiling water reactor (BWR) environment has been performed. Four different FeCrAl compositions have been tested in 700 °C steam; compositions that promote alumina formation inhibited oxidation of the underlying Zy2. Parabolic growth kinetics of alumina on FeCrAl-coated Zy2 is quantified via elemental depth profiling. Autoclave testing under normal BWR operating conditions (288 °C, 9.5 MPa with normal water chemistry) up to 20 days demonstrates observable weight gain over uncoated Zy2 simultaneously exposed to the same environment. However, no FeCrAl film degradation was observed. The 900 °C eutectic in binary Fe–Zr is addressed with the FeCrAl-YSZ system. - Graphical abstract: Weight gain normalized to total sample surface area versus time during 700 °C steam exposure for FeCrAl samples with different composition (A) and Fe/Cr/Al:62/4/34 (B). In both cases, the responses of uncoated Zry2 (Zry2-13A and Zry2-19A) are shown for comparison. This uncoated Zry2 response shows the expected pre-transition quasi-cubic kinetic behavior and eventual breakaway (linear) kinetics. Highlights: • FeCrAl coatings deposited on Zy2 have been tested with respect to oxidation in high-temperature steam. • FeCrAl compositions promoting alumina formation inhibited oxidation of Zy2 and delay weight gain. • Autoclave testing to 20 days of coated Zy2 in a simulated BWR environment demonstrates minimal weight gain and no film degradation. • The 900 °C eutectic in binary Fe-Zr is addressed with the FeCrAl-YSZ system.

  6. Effect of aluminum coatings on corrosion properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu Liuho; Lin Hsingan; Chen Chunchin; Yang Chihfu [Dept. of materials engineering, Tatung Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); Chang Chiahua; Wu Jenchin [Physical chemistry section, chemical systems research div., Chung-Shan Inst. of Science and Technology, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan)

    2003-07-01

    This investigation aimed to increase the corrosion resistance of an AZ31 magnesium alloy by an aluminum arc spray coating and a post-treatment consisted of hot pressing and anodizing. It was found that the aluminum arc spraying alone was incapable of protection against corrosion due to the high amount of pores present in the coating layer. In order to solve the problem, densification of the Al arc-sprayed layer was carried out by hot pressing the coated AZ31 Mg alloy plate under an appropriate range of temperature, time and pressure. After hot pressing the Al coated AZ31 Mg alloy plate exhibited a much improved corrosion resistance. A final anodizing treatment applied to the AZ31 alloy with the dense Al coating further improved its resisting to corrosion. The results showed that, by adopting the Al arc spraying, hot pressing and anodizing process, the corrosion current density of the AZ31 alloy in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was from 2.1 x 10{sup -6} A/cm{sup 2} (original AZ31) to 3.7 x 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} (after the surface treatment), which value is close to that of an anodized aluminum plate. (orig.)

  7. Hydrogen interactions in aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. W.; Scully, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    A program is described which seeks to develop an understanding of the effects of dissolved and trapped hydrogen on the mechanical properties of selected Al-Li-Cu-X alloys. A proposal is made to distinguish hydrogen (H2) induced EAC from aqueous dissolution controlled EAC, to correlate H2 induced EAC with mobile and trapped concentrations, and to identify significant trap sites and hydride phases (if any) through use of model alloys and phases. A literature review shows three experimental factors which have impeded progress in the area of H2 EAC for this class of alloys. These are as listed: (1) inter-subgranular fracture in Al-Li alloys when tested in the S-T orientation in air or vacuum make it difficult to readily detect H2 induced fracture based on straight forward changes in fractography; (2) the inherently low H2 diffusivity and solubility in Al alloys is further compounded by a native oxide which acts as a H2 permeation barrier; and (3) H2 effects are masked by dissolution assisted processes when mechanical testing is performed in aqueous solutions.

  8. Age hardening in rapidly solidified and hot isostatically pressed beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.H.; McGeorge, A.C.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Three different alloys of beryllium, aluminum and silver were processed to powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium atmosphere. Alloy compositions were, by weight, 50% Be, 47.5% Al, 2.5% Ag, 50% Be, 47% Al, 3% Ag, and 50% Be, 46% Al, 4% Ag. Due to the low solubility of both aluminum and silver in beryllium, the silver was concentrated in the aluminum phase, which appeared to separate from the beryllium in the liquid phase. A fine, continuous composite beryllium-aluminum microstructure was formed, which did not significantly change after hot isostatically pressing at 550 C for one hour at 30,000 psi argon pressure. Samples of HIP material were solution treated at 550 C for one hour, followed by a water quench. Aging temperatures were 150, 175, 200 and 225 C for times ranging from one half hour to 65 hours. Hardness measurements were made using a diamond pyramid indenter with a load of 1 kg. Results indicate that peak hardness was reached in 36--40 hours at 175 C and 12--16 hours at 200 C aging temperature, relatively independent of alloy composition

  9. Soft x-ray emission studies of several aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.L.; Zhang, C.H.; Callcott, T.A.; Arakawa, E.T.; Ederer, D.L.; Biancaniello, F.; Curelaru, I.

    1986-01-01

    During the first few months of operation of our soft x-ray spectrometer at the NSLS, we have measured the L emission spectrum for three classes of aluminum alloys: dilute aluminum-magnesium alloys to extend the Al-Mg system to the impurity limit; a 50-50 alloy of aluminum-lithium to characterize the band structure of bulk samples of this potential battery electrolite; and the icosahedral and normal Al-Mn alloys to see if the two phases had measurably different density of states which have been predicted. All spectra shown are produced when core holes generated by energetic electrons or photons are filled by radiative transitions from conduction band states. Dipole selection rules govern the transitions. Thus, K spectra provide a measure of the p-symmetic partial density of states (DOS) near the atom. Similarly, L spectra produced by transitions to p-core holes map the s and d symmetric DOS in the vicinity of the atom with the core hole

  10. Soft x-ray emission studies of several aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, K.L.; Zhang, C.H.; Callcott, T.A.; Arakawa, E.T.; Ederer, D.L.; Biancaniello, F.; Curelaru, I.

    1986-09-23

    During the first few months of operation of our soft x-ray spectrometer at the NSLS, we have measured the L emission spectrum for three classes of aluminum alloys: dilute aluminum-magnesium alloys to extend the Al-Mg system to the impurity limit; a 50-50 alloy of aluminum-lithium to characterize the band structure of bulk samples of this potential battery electrolite; and the icosahedral and normal Al-Mn alloys to see if the two phases had measurably different density of states which have been predicted. All spectra shown are produced when core holes generated by energetic electrons or photons are filled by radiative transitions from conduction band states. Dipole selection rules govern the transitions. Thus, K spectra provide a measure of the p-symmetic partial density of states (DOS) near the atom. Similarly, L spectra produced by transitions to p-core holes map the s and d symmetric DOS in the vicinity of the atom with the core hole.

  11. All-Aluminum Thin Film Transistor Fabrication at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihui Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-gate all-aluminum thin film transistors with multi conductor/insulator nanometer heterojunction were investigated in this article. Alumina (Al2O3 insulating layer was deposited on the surface of aluminum doping zinc oxide (AZO conductive layer, as one AZO/Al2O3 heterojunction unit. The measurements of transmittance electronic microscopy (TEM and X-ray reflectivity (XRR revealed the smooth interfaces between ~2.2-nm-thick Al2O3 layers and ~2.7-nm-thick AZO layers. The devices were entirely composited by aluminiferous materials, that is, their gate and source/drain electrodes were respectively fabricated by aluminum neodymium alloy (Al:Nd and pure Al, with Al2O3/AZO multilayered channel and AlOx:Nd gate dielectric layer. As a result, the all-aluminum TFT with two Al2O3/AZO heterojunction units exhibited a mobility of 2.47 cm2/V·s and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. All processes were carried out at room temperature, which created new possibilities for green displays industry by allowing for the devices fabricated on plastic-like substrates or papers, mainly using no toxic/rare materials.

  12. Subthreshold displacement damage in copper--aluminum alloys during electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosd, R.; Kosel, T.; Washburn, J.

    1976-12-01

    During electron irradiation at low energies which results in a negligible damage rate in a pure material, lighter solute atoms are displaced, which may in turn indirectly displace solvent atoms by a focussed replacement collision or an interstitial diffusion jump. The extent to which lighter solute atoms contribute to the subthreshold damage rate has been examined by irradiating copper--aluminum alloys at high temperatures in a high voltage electron microscope. The damage rate, as measured by monitoring the growth rate of dislocation loops, at 300 kV was found to increase linearly with the aluminum concentration

  13. First-principles surface interaction studies of aluminum-copper and aluminum-copper-magnesium secondary phases in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago H.; Nelson, Eric B.; Williamson, Izaak; Efaw, Corey M.; Sapper, Erik; Hurley, Michael F.; Li, Lan

    2018-05-01

    First-principles density functional theory-based calculations were performed to study θ-phase Al2Cu, S-phase Al2CuMg surface stability, as well as their interactions with water molecules and chloride (Cl-) ions. These secondary phases are commonly found in aluminum-based alloys and are initiation points for localized corrosion. Density functional theory (DFT)-based simulations provide insight into the origins of localized (pitting) corrosion processes of aluminum-based alloys. For both phases studied, Cl- ions cause atomic distortions on the surface layers. The nature of the distortions could be a factor to weaken the interlayer bonds in the Al2Cu and Al2CuMg secondary phases, facilitating the corrosion process. Electronic structure calculations revealed not only electron charge transfer from Cl- ions to alloy surface but also electron sharing, suggesting ionic and covalent bonding features, respectively. The S-phase Al2CuMg structure has a more active surface than the θ-phase Al2Cu. We also found a higher tendency of formation of new species, such as Al3+, Al(OH)2+, HCl, AlCl2+, Al(OH)Cl+, and Cl2 on the S-phase Al2CuMg surface. Surface chemical reactions and resultant species present contribute to establishment of local surface chemistry that influences the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys.

  14. Aluminum alloy nanosecond vs femtosecond laser marking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, No. ... molten material. One can identify local melting of circular shape, subsequently solidified with partial superimposing of molten alloy. The laser writing presents a ... Abbott–Firestone curve (Abbott and Firestone 1933), which.

  15. Experimental Study of Laser - enhanced 5A03 Aluminum Alloy and Its Stress Corrosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guicheng; Chen, Jing; Pang, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Based on the study of improving the stress corrosion resistance of 5A03 aluminum alloy for ship, this paper mainly studied the tensile test, surface morphology and residual stress under laser shock, high temperature and stress corrosion. It is found that the residual compressive stress and the grain refinement on the surface of the material during the heat strengthening process increase the breaking strength of the sample in the stress corrosion environment. Appropriate high temperature maintenance helps to enhance the effect of deformation strengthening. In the 300°C environment insulation, due to recrystallization of the material, the performance decreased significantly. This study provides an experimental basis for effectively improving the stress corrosion resistance of 5A03 aluminum alloy.

  16. Adiabatic shear localization in ultrafine grained 6061 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingfeng, E-mail: biw009@ucsd.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego (United States); State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Key Lab of Nonferrous Materials, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ma, Rui; Zhou, Jindian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Zezhou; Zhao, Shiteng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego (United States); Huang, Xiaoxia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Localized shear is an important mode of deformation; it leads to catastrophic failure with low ductility, and occurs frequently during high strain-rate deformation. The hat-shaped specimen has been successfully used to generate shear bands under controlled shock-loading tests. The microstructure in the forced shear band was characterized by optical microscopy, microhardness, and transmission electron microscopy. The true flow stress in the shear region can reach 800 MPa where the strain is about 2.2. The whole shear localization process lasts for about 100 μs. The shear band is a long and straight band distinguished from the matrix by boundaries. It can be seen that the grains in the boundary of the shear band are highly elongated along the shear direction and form the elongated cell structures (0.2 µm in width), and the core of the shear band consists of a number of recrystallized equiaxed grains with 0.2−0.3 µm in diameters, and the second phase particles distribute in the boundary of the ultrafine equiaxed new grains. The calculated temperature in the shear band can reach about 667 K. Finally, the formation of the shear band in the ultrafine grained 6061 aluminum alloy and its microstructural evolution are proposed.

  17. Research of Plasma Spraying Process on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricija Kavaliauskaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines plasma sprayed 95Ni-5Al coatings on alu-minum-magnesium (Mg ≈ 2,6‒3,6 % alloy substrate. Alumi-num-magnesium samples prior spraying were prepared with mechanical treatment (blasting with Al2O3. 95Ni-5Al coatings on aluminum-magnesium alloys were sprayed with different parameters of process and coating‘s thickness, porosity, micro-hardness and microstructure were evaluated. Also numerical simulations in electric and magnetic phenomena of plasma spray-ing were carried out.

  18. Cracking susceptibility of aluminum alloys during laser welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Abbaschian

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of laser parameters in welding aluminum alloys was studied in order to reduce hot cracking. The extension of cracks at the welding surface was used as a cracking susceptibility (CS index. It has been shown that the CS changes with changing welding velocity for binary Al-Cu alloys. In general, the CS index increased until a maximum velocity and then dropped to zero, generating a typical lambda-curve. This curve is due to two different mechanisms: 1 the refinement of porosities with increasing velocity and 2 the changes in the liquid fraction due to decreasing microsegregation with increasing velocities.

  19. Semi-solid rheocasting of grain refined aluminum alloy 7075

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, UA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available mm×6 mm. Fig.1 shows the whole casting including the runner and the biscuit. A batch of the 7075 alloy was melted in a 20 kg tilting furnace and degassed with argon. A sample was poured and cooled to analyze the starting chemical composition... of the liquid metal by optical emission spectroscopy (Thermo Quantris OES). Thermodynamic properties of the starting alloy were then calculated (Scheil solidification model) with an aluminum thermodynamic database (ProCast 2009.1) using the OES composition...

  20. Development of new low activation aluminum alloys for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kohji; Kakihana, Hidetake.

    1985-01-01

    As the materials for the R facility (a tokamak nuclear fusion device in the R project intended for D-T burning) in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, Al-4 % Mg-0.2 % Bi (5083 improved type) and Al-4 % Mg-1 % Li, aimed at low radioactivability, high electric resistance and high strength, have been developed. The results of the nuclear properties evaluation with 14 MeV neutrons and of the measurements of electric resistance and mechanical properties were satisfactory. The possibility of producing large Al-4 % Mg-1 % Li plate (1 m x 2 m x 25 mm) in the existing factory was confirmed, with the properties retained. The electric resistances were higher than those in the conventional aluminum alloys, and still with feasibility for the further improvement. General properties of the fusion aluminum alloys and the 26 Al formation in (n, 2n) reaction were studied. (Mori, K.)

  1. Dynamic Mechanical Behaviors of 6082-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yibo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural components of high speed trains are usually made of aluminum alloys, for example, 6082. The dynamic mechanical behavior of the material is one of key factors considered in structural design and safety assessment. In this paper, dynamic mechanical experiments were conducted with strain rate ranging from 0.001 s−1 to 100 s−1 using Instron tensile testing machine. The true stress-strain curves were fitted based on experimental data. Johnson-Cook model of 6082-T6 aluminum alloy was built to investigate the effect of strain and strain rate on flow stress. It has shown that the flow stress was sensitive to the strain rate. Yield strength and tensile strength increased with a high strain rate, which showed strain rate effect to some extent. Fracture analysis was carried out by using Backscattered Electron imaging (BSE. As strain rate increased, more precipitates were generated in fracture.

  2. Stuy on Fatigue Life of Aluminum Alloy Considering Fretting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maosheng; Zhao, Hongqiang; Wang, Yunxiang; Chen, Xiaofei; Fan, Jiali

    2018-01-01

    To study the influence of fretting on Aluminum Alloy, a global finite element model considering fretting was performed using the commercial code ABAQUS. With which a new model for predicting fretting fatigue life has been presented based on friction work. The rationality and effectiveness of the model were validated according to the contrast of experiment life and predicting life. At last influence factor on fretting fatigue life of aerial aluminum alloy was investigated with the model. The results revealed that fretting fatigue life decreased monotonously with the increasing of normal load and then became constant at higher pressures. At low normal load, fretting fatigue life was found to increase with increase in the pad radius. At high normal load, however, the fretting fatigue life remained almost unchanged with changes in the fretting pad radius. The bulk stress amplitude had the dominant effect on fretting fatigue life. The fretting fatigue life diminished as the bulk stress amplitude increased.

  3. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum-4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  4. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  5. Modeling aluminum-lithium alloy welding characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Edward L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a finite element model of the heat-affected zone in the vicinity of a weld line on a plate in order to determine an accurate plastic strain history. The resulting plastic strain increments calculated by the finite element program were then to be used to calculate the measure of damage D. It was hoped to determine the effects of varying welding parameters, such as beam power, efficiency, and weld speed, and the effect of different material properties on the occurrence of microfissuring. The results were to be compared first to the previous analysis of Inconel 718, and then extended to aluminum 2195.

  6. Fatigue damage monitoring of structural aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.Р. Ігнатович

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  Results of the experiments directed on creation of a new tool method of fatigue damage diagnostics and an estimation of a residual life of aviation designs are presented. It is shown, that the defo rmation relief formed on a surface of cladding  layer of sheets of constructional alloys Д-16АТ, 2024-Т3, 7075-Т6  can be considered as the metal damage indicator  under cyclically repeating loadings.

  7. Die Casting Mold Design for Aluminum Alloy Shell of Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about die casting mold design for aluminum alloy shell of instrument. Three-dimensional model of the casting and mold are designed by using Pro/Engineer and AutoCad which can analyze forming quality. Digital design and theoretical calculation can greatly shorten product development cycle and mold design cycle, improve the accuracy of product design and mold design, and reduce the cost of mold design.

  8. WC-3015 alloy (high-temperature alloy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    WC-3015 Nb alloy containing 28 to 30 Hf, 1 to 2 Zr, 13 to 16 W, 0 to 4 Ta, 0 to 5 Ti, 0.07 to 0.33 C, less than or equal to 0.02 N, less than or equal to 0.03 O, less than or equal to 0.001 H was developed for use at high temperature in oxidizing environments. Its composition can be tailored to meet specific requirements. When WC-3015 is exposed to O at elevated temperature, Hf and Nb oxidized preferentially and HfO 2 dissolves in Nb 2 O 5 to form 6HfO-Nb 2 O 5 . This complex oxide has a tight cubic lattice which resists the diffusion of O into the substrate. During 24-h exposure to air at 2400 0 F, the alloy oxidizes to a depth of approximately 0.035 in. with a surface recession of 0 to 0.004 in. Oxidation resistance of WC-3015 welds and base material can be further enhanced greatly by applying silicide coatings. WC-3015 alloy can be machined by conventional and electrical-discharge methods. It can be hot worked readily by extrusion, forging or rolling. Cold working can be used at room or elevated temperature. It can be welded by the electron-beam or Tig processes. Physical constants, typical mechanical properties at 75 to 2400 0 F, and effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile and stress-rupture properties of the alloy are tabulated

  9. In-situ Investigation of the Fracture Behaviors of 2195-T8 Aluminum-Lithium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the tensile crack initiation and propagation behavior of 2195-T8 Aluminum-Lithium alloy was studied by in situ scanning electron microscope observation at room temperature. It was found that cracks initiated at second phases which propagated along the grain boundaries only as T1 phases could retard crack growth inside grains. With further increase of strain, within the grain a large number of slip bands were produced, resulting in the deflection of the grains, which leaded to transgranular fracture at last. SEM examination show both intergranular and transgranular fracture surface morphology indicating that the 2195-T8 alloy revealed a mix mechanism for the fracture.

  10. Aluminum alloy analysis using microchip-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Andrew [Center for Sensor Systems and Technologies, Aerodyne Research, Inc., 45 Manning Road Billerica, MA, 01821-3976 (United States)]. E-mail: af@aerodyne.com; Iannarilli, Frank J. [Center for Sensor Systems and Technologies, Aerodyne Research, Inc., 45 Manning Road Billerica, MA, 01821-3976 (United States); Wormhoudt, Joda C. [Center for Sensor Systems and Technologies, Aerodyne Research, Inc., 45 Manning Road Billerica, MA, 01821-3976 (United States)

    2005-08-31

    A laser induced breakdown spectroscopy-based apparatus for the analysis of aluminum alloys which employs a microchip laser and a handheld spectrometer with an ungated, non-intensified CCD array has been built and tested. The microchip laser, which emits low energy pulses (4-15 {mu}J) at high repetition rates (1-10 kHz) at 1064 nm, produces, when focused, an ablation crater with a radius on the order of only 10 {mu}m. The resulting emission is focused onto an optical fiber connected to 0.10 m focal length spectrometer with a spectral range of 275-413 nm. The apparatus was tested using 30 different aluminum alloy reference samples. Two techniques for constructing calibration curves from the data, peak integration and partial least squares regression, were quantitatively evaluated. Results for Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Si, and Zn indicated limits of detection (LOD) that ranged from 0.05 to 0.14 wt.% and overall measurement errors which varied from 0.06 to 0.18 wt.%. Higher limits of detection and overall error for Cu (> 0.3 wt.%) were attributed to analysis problems associated with the presence of optically thick lines and a spectral interference from Zn. Improvements in design and component sensitivity should increase overall performance by at least a factor of 2, allowing for dependable aluminum alloy classification.

  11. Effect of electrical pulse on the precipitates and material strength of 2024 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weichao, E-mail: weichao127@gmail.com; Wang, Yongjun, E-mail: t.s.wu@163.com; Wang, Junbiao, E-mail: wangjunb@nwpu.edu.cn; Wei, Shengmin, E-mail: weism@nwpu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    The effect of electrical pulse on the metastable precipitates and material strength of Al–Cu–Mg based 2024 aluminum alloy was investigated by means of tensile tests, hardness measurement, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The experimental results show that the electrical pulse passing through the naturally aged 2024 alloy can cause an electrical pulse retrogression effect which is characterized by the decrease of material strength and the appearance of Portevin–Le Chatelier (PLC) effect. More electrical pulses under higher current densities are more efficient in causing the electrical pulse retrogression effect. TEM and DSC experimental results reveal that, the electrical pulse retrogression effect is owing to the dissolution of the metastable precipitates in naturally aged 2024 alloy. Compared with the traditional retrogression heat treatment that heats the aluminum alloys through bulk heating in furnace for short time to reduce their material strength, the electrical pulse retrogression effect occurs at a much lower temperature and the pulse treated alloy can nearly restore to its original strength at a faster speed at room temperature.

  12. Element segregation behavior of aluminum-copper alloy ZL205A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In aluminum-copper alloy, the segregation has a severe bad effect on the alloying degree, strength and corrosion resistance. A deeper understanding of element segregation behavior will have a great significance on the prevention of segregation. In the study, the element segregation behavior of ZL205A aluminum-copper alloy was investigated by examining isothermally solidified samples using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The calculated results of segregation coefficients show that Cu and Mn are negative segregation elements; while Ti, V and Zr are positive segregation elements. The sequence of element segregation degree from the greatest to the least in ZL205A alloy is Cu, Mn, V, Ti, Zr and Al. The density of residual liquid is expected to increase with a decrease in the quenching temperature ranging from 630 ºC to 550 ºC. The calculated results confirm that the quenching temperature has an insignificant effect on the liquid density; and the variation of density is mainly due to element segregation. Consequently, segregations of Al, Cu and Mn lead to an increase in density, but Ti, V and Zr present the opposite effect. The contribution of each element to the variation of the liquid density was analyzed. The sequence of contributions of alloying elements to the variation of total liquid density is Cu﹥Al﹥Mn﹥V﹥Ti﹥Zr.

  13. Mechanical Performance of Cold-Sprayed A357 Aluminum Alloy Coatings for Repair and Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petráčková, K.; Kondás, J.; Guagliano, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cold-sprayed coatings made of A357 aluminum alloy, a casting alloy widely used in aerospace, underwent set of standard tests as well as newly developed fatigue test to gain an information about potential of cold spray for repair and additive manufacturing of loaded parts. With optimal spray parameters, coating deposition on substrate with smooth surface resulted in relatively good bonding, which can be further improved by application of grit blasting on substrate's surface. However, no enhancement of adhesion was obtained for shot-peened surface. Process temperature, which was set either to 450 or 550 °C, was shown to have an effect on adhesion and cohesion strength, but it does not influence residual stress in the coating. To assess cold spray perspectives for additive manufacturing, flat tensile specimens were machined from coating and tested in as-sprayed and heat-treated (solution treatment and aging) condition. Tensile properties of the coating after the treatment correspond to properties of the cast A357-T61 aluminum alloy. Finally, fatigue specimen was proposed to test overall performance of the coating and coating's fatigue limit is compared to the results obtained on cast A357-T61 aluminum alloy.

  14. In-situ reactions in hybrid aluminum alloy composites during incorporating silica sand in aluminum alloy melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F. Schultz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain a better understanding of the reactions and strengthening behavior in cast aluminum alloy/silica composites synthesized by stir mixing, experiments were conducted to incorporate low cost foundry silica sand into aluminum composites with the use of Mg as a wetting agent. SEM and XRD results show the conversion of SiO2 to MgAl2O4 and some Al2O3 with an accompanying increase in matrix Si content. A three-stage reaction mechanism proposed to account for these changes indicates that properties can be controlled by controlling the base Alloy/SiO2/Mg chemistry and reaction times. Experimental data on changes of composite density with increasing reaction time and SiO2 content support the three-stage reaction model. The change in mechanical properties with composition and time is also described.

  15. Order/disorder in electrodeposited aluminum-titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford G.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition, morphology, and crystallographic microstructure of Al-Ti alloys electrodeposited from two different chloroaluminate molten salt electrolytes were examined. Alloys containing up to 28 % atomic fraction Ti were electrodeposited at 150 °C from 2:1 AlCl3-NaCl with controlled additions of Ti2+. The apparent limit on alloy composition is proposed to be due to a mechanism by which Al3Ti forms through the reductive decomposition of [Ti(AlCl43]-. The composition of Al-Ti alloys electrodeposited from the AlCl3-EtMeImCl melt at 80 °C is limited by the diffusion of Ti2+ to the electrode surface. Alloys containing up to 18.4 % atomic fraction Ti are only obtainable at high Ti2+ concentrations in the melt and low current densities. Alloys electrodeposited from the higher temperature melt have an ordered L12 crystal structure while alloys of similar composition but deposited at lower temperature are disordered fcc. The appearance of antiphase boundaries in the ordered alloys suggests that the deposit may be disordered initially and then orders in the solid state, subsequent to the charge transfer step and adatom incorporation into the lattice. This is very similar to the disorder-trapping observed in rapidly solidified alloys. The measured domain size is consistent with a mechanism of diffusion-controlled doman growth at the examined deposition temperatures and times.

  16. Russian aluminum-lithium alloys for advanced reusable spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, Ray O.; Leonard, Bruce G.; Bozich, William F.; Deamer, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Cryotanks that are cost-affordable, robust, fuel-compatible, and lighter weight than current aluminum design are needed to support next-generation launch system performance and operability goals. The Boeing (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-MDA) and NASA's Delta Clipper-Experimental Program (DC-XA) flight demonstrator test bed vehicle provided the opportunity for technology transfer of Russia's extensive experience base with weight-efficient, highly weldable aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys for cryogenic tank usage. As part of NASA's overall reusable launch vehicle (RLV) program to help provide technology and operations data for use in advanced RLVs, MDA contracted with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS/IMASH) for design, test, and delivery of 1460 Al-Li alloy liquid oxygen (LO 2 ) cryotanks: one for development, one for ground tests, and one for DC-XA flight tests. This paper describes the development of Al-Li 1460 alloy for reusable LO 2 tanks, including alloy composition tailoring, mechanical properties database, forming, welding, chemical milling, dissimilar metal joining, corrosion protection, completed tanks proof, and qualification testing. Mechanical properties of the parent and welded materials exceeded expectations, particularly the fracture toughness, which promise excellent reuse potential. The LO 2 cryotank was successfully demonstrated in DC-XA flight tests

  17. The characteristics of aluminum-scandium alloys processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Rajinikanth, V.; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Xu Cheng; Langdon, Terence G.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum-scandium alloys were prepared having different scandium additions of 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 wt.% and these alloys were processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 473 K. The results show the grain refinement of the aluminum matrix and the morphology of the Al 3 Sc precipitates depends strongly on the scandium concentration. The tensile properties were evaluated after ECAP by pulling to failure at initial strain rates from 1.0 x 10 -3 to 1.0 x 10 -1 s -1 . The Al-1% Sc alloy exhibited the highest tensile strength of ∼250 MPa at a strain rate of 1.0 x 10 -1 s -1 . This alloy also exhibited a superior grain refinement of ∼0.4 μm after ECAP where this is attributed to a smaller initial grain size and an optimum volume fraction of dispersed Al 3 Sc precipitates having both micrometer and nanometer sizes.

  18. CORROSION INHIBITION OF ALUMINUM ALLOY 3SR IN HCl BY POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE AND POLYACRYLAMIDE: EFFECT OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURE ON INHIBITION EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. UMOREN

    2009-01-01

    The inhibitive performance of two water soluble polymers–polyacrylamide (PA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy 3SR in HCl solution was investigated using weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and thermometric methods at 30–60°C. Results obtained indicate that both polymers inhibited acid-induced corrosion of aluminum at the temperatures studied. PVP was found to be a better corrosion inhibitor than PA. All measurements from the three techniques show that in...

  19. Microstructure of Friction Stir Welded AlSi9Mg Cast with 5083 and 2017A Wrought Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C.; Kopyściański, M.; Dymek, S.; Węglowska, A.; Pietras, A.

    2018-03-01

    Wrought aluminum alloys 5083 and 2017A were each joined with cast aluminum alloy AlSi9Mg through friction stir welding in butt weld configurations. For each material system, the wrought and cast alloy positions, i.e., the advancing side or the retreating side, were exchanged between welding trials. The produced weldments were free from cracks and discontinuities. For each alloy configuration, a well-defined nugget comprised of alternating bands of the welded alloys characterized the microstructure. The degree of mixing, however, strongly depended on which wrought alloy was present and on its position during processing. In all cases, the cast AlSi9Mg alloy dominated the weld center regardless of its position during welding. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis showed that the grain size in both alloys (bands) constituting the nugget was similar and that the majority of grain boundaries exhibited a high angle character (20°-60°). Regardless of the alloy, however, all grains were elongated along the direction of the material plastic flow during welding. A numerical simulation of the joining process visualized the material flow patterns and temperature distribution and helped to rationalize the microstructural observations. The hardness profiles across the weld reflected the microstructure formed during welding and correlated well with the temperature changes predicted by the numerical model. Tensile specimens consistently fractured in the cast alloy near the weld nugget.

  20. Effect of creep-aging on precipitates of 7075 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.C., E-mail: yclin@csu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jiang, Yu-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Min; Wen, Dong-Xu [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhou, Hua-Min [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-12-20

    The creep-aging behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy are studied by uniaxial tensile creep experiments under elevated temperatures. The effects of creep-aging temperature and applied stress on the precipitates of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy are investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results show that (1) coarse insoluble precipitates (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}Fe and Mg{sub 2}Si) and intermediate precipitates (Al{sub 18}Mg{sub 3}Cr{sub 2} and Al{sub 3}Zr) are found in the aluminum matrix, and the effects of creep-aging treatment on these precipitates are not obvious; (2) the main aging precipitates are η′ and η phases, and the amount of aging precipitates increase with the increase of creep-aging temperature and applied stress; (3) with the increase of creep-aging temperature and applied stress, the precipitates are discontinuously distributed on the grain boundary, and the width of precipitate free zone increases with the increase of creep-aging temperature and applied stress and (4) compared with the microstructure in the traditional stress-free aged sample, the creep-aging process can refine the precipitates and narrow the width of the precipitate free zone.

  1. Stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloy 7000 series after two-step aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Bore V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of one step-and a new (short two-step aging on the resistance to stress corrosion cracking of an aluminum alloy 7000 series was investigated, using slow strain rate test and fracture mechanics method. Aging level in the tested alloy was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy and measurements of electrical resistivity. It was shown that the alloy after the new two-step aging is significantly more resistant to stress corrosion cracking. Values of tensile properties and fracture toughness are similar for both thermal states. Processes that take place at the crack tip have been considered. The effect of the testing solution temperature on the crack growth rate on the plateau was determined. Two values of the apparent activation energy were obtained. These values correspond to different processes that control crack growth rate on the plateau at higher and lower temperatures. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34028 i br. TR 34016

  2. Accelerated Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low DK, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = Kmin/Kmax). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of Kmax (Kmax less than 0.4 KIC). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and Kmax influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  3. Development of Weldable Superplastic Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheet Final Report CRADA No. TC-1086-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sun, T. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Numerous applications could exist for superplastic formable, weldable aluminum alloys in the automotive, aerospace, architectural, and construction industries. In this project, LLNL and Kaiser worked with the Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems to develop and evaluate weldable superplastic alloys.

  4. Surface treatment of new type aluminum lithium alloy and fatigue crack behaviors of this alloy plate bonded with Ti–6Al–4V alloy strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhen-Qi; Huang, Ming-Hui; Hu, Guo-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new generation aluminum lithium alloy which special made for Chinese commercial plane was investigated. ► Pattern of aluminum lithium alloy and Ti alloy were shown after anodization. ► Crack propagation of samples bonded with different wide Ti straps were studied in this paper. -- Abstract: Samples consisting of new aluminum lithium alloy (Al–Li alloy) plate developed by the Aluminum Company of America and Ti–6Al–4V alloy (Ti alloy) plate were investigated. Plate of 400 mm × 140 mm × 2 mm with single edge notch was anodized in phosphoric solution and Ti alloy plate of 200 mm × 20 (40) mm × 2 mm was anodized in alkali solution. Patterns of two alloys were studied at original/anodized condition. And then, aluminum alloy and Ti alloy plates were assembled into a sample with FM 94 film adhesive. Fatigue crack behaviors of the sample were investigated under condition of nominal stress σ = 36 MPa and 54 MPa, stress ratio of 0.1. Testing results show that anodization treatment modifies alloys surface topography. Ti alloy bonding to Al–Li alloy plate effectively retards crack growth than that of Al–Li alloy plate. Fatigue life of sample bonded with Ti alloy strap improves about 62.5% than that of non-strap plate.

  5. Cast and hipped gamma titanium aluminum alloys modified by chromium, boron, and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shyhchin.

    1993-01-01

    A cast body is described of a chromium, boron, and tantalum modified titanium aluminum alloy, said alloy consisting essentially of titanium, aluminum, chromium, boron, and tantalum in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti-Al 45-50 Cr 1-3 Ta 1-8 B 0.1-0.3 , and said alloy having been prepared by casting the alloy to form said cast body and by HIPping said body

  6. Corrosion Resistance of 7475-T7351 Aluminum Alloy Plate for Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Ming; LI Hui-qu; CHEN Jun-zhou; LI Guo-ai; CHEN Gao-hong

    2017-01-01

    The intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion properties of 7475-T7351 aluminum alloy plate for aviation were investigated, and the corrosion behaviors of the alloy were analyzed by metallographic analysis(MA) and transmission electron microscope(TEM). The results show that no obvious intergranular corrosion is observed, but exfoliation corrosion grade of 7475-T7351 aluminum alloy increases from EA on surface to EC in the core. The exfoliation corrosion of 7475 alloy plate is mainly b...

  7. Steam explosions of single drops of pure and alloyed molten aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.S.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of steam explosion phenomena have been performed related to the hypothetical meltdown of the core and other components of aluminum alloy-fueled production reactors. Our objectives were to characterise the triggers, if any, required to initiate these explosions and to determine the energetics and chemical processes associated with these events. Three basic studies have been carried out with 1-10 g single drops of molten aluminum or aluminum-based alloys: untriggered experiments in which drops of melt were released into water; triggered experiments in which thermal-type steam explosions occurred; and one triggered experiment in which an ignition-type steam explosion occurred. In untriggered experiments, spontaneous steam explosions never occurred during the free fall through water of single drops of pure Al or of the alloys studied here. Moreover, spontaneous explosions never occurred upon or during contact of the globules with several underwater surfaces. When Li was present in the alloy, H 2 was generated as a stream of bubbles as the globules fell through the water, and also as they froze on the bottom surface of the chamber. The triggered experiments were performed with pure Al and the 6061 alloy. Bare bridgewire discharges and those focused with cylindrical reflectors produced a small first bubble that collapsed and was followed by a larger second bubble. When the bridgewire was discharged at one focus of an ellipsoidal reflector, a melt drop at the other focus triggered only very mildly in spite of a 30-fold increase in peak pressure above that of the bridgewire discharge without the reflector. Experiments were also performed with globules of high purity Al in which the melt release temperature was progressively increased. Moderate thermal-type explosions were produced over the temperature range 1273-1673 K. At about 1773 K, however, one experiment produced a brilliant flash of light and bubble growth about an order of magnitude faster than normal; it

  8. Preparing rare earth-silicon-iron-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, J.D.; Morrice, E.; Herve, B.P.; Wong, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    As part of its mission to assure the maximum recovery and use of the Nation's mineral resources, the Bureau of Mines, investigated an improved procedure for producing rare earth-silicon alloys. For example, a charge consisting of 681 grams of mixed rare-earth oxides, 309 grams of ferrosilicon (75 wt-pct Si), and 182 grams of aluminum metal along with a flux consisting of 681 grams of CaO and 45 grams of MgO was reacted at 1500 0 C in an induction furnace. Good slag-metal separation was achieved. The alloy product contained, in weight-percent, 53 RE, 28 Si, 11 Fe, and 4 Al with a rare earth recovery of 80 pct. In current industrial practice rare earth recoveries are usually about 60 pct in alloy products that contain approximately 30 wt-pct each of rare earths and silicon. Metallurgical evaluations showed the alloys prepared in this investigation to be as effective in controlling the detrimental effect of sulfur in steel and cast iron as the commercial rare earth-silicon-iron alloys presently used in the steel industry

  9. Corrosion and protection of aluminum alloys in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisancioglu Kemal [Department of Materials Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    The paper deals with pitting and uniform corrosion and effectiveness of cathodic protection in reducing these corrosion forms. In stagnant waters or presence of low flow rates, pitting may occur. However, pitting corrosion, driven by the Fe-rich cathodic intermetallic compounds, is often of superficial nature. The pits tend to passivate as a result of etching or passivation of the intermetallics with time. Cathodic protection is an effective way of preventing pitting. It also requires low current densities since the cathodic area, defined by the Fe-rich intermetallics, is small in contrast to steel, which is uniformly accessible to the cathodic reaction. Although thermodynamic calculations suggest possible instability of the oxide in slightly alkaline solutions, such as seawater, protective nature of the oxide in practice is attributed to the presence of alloying elements such as Mg and Mn. Thus, the passivity of both the aluminum matrix alloy (the anode) and the intermetallics (cathodes) have to be considered in evaluating the corrosion and protection of aluminum alloys. With increasing flow rate, the possibility of pitting corrosion reduces with increase in the rate of uniform corrosion, which is controlled by the flow dependent chemical dissolution of the oxide. Cathodic protection does not stop this phenomenon, and coatings have to be used. (authors)

  10. Anisotropic Deformation Behavior of Al2024T351 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of material anisotropy on the yielding and hardening behavior of 2024T351 aluminum alloy using isotropic and anisotropic yield criteria. Anisotropy may be induced in a material during the manufacturing through processes like rolling or forging. This induced anisotropy gives rise to the concept of orientation-dependent material properties such as yield strength, ductility, strain hardening, fracture strength, or fatigue resistance. Inclusion of the effects of anisotropy is essential in correctly predicting the deformation behavior of a material. In this study, uniaxial tensile tests were first performed in all three rolling directions, L , T  and S , for smooth bar specimens made from hot rolled plate of Al2024 alloy. The experimental results showed that the L - and T -directions yielded higher yield strengths and a greater percentage of elongation before fracture than the S -direction. Subsequently, finite element analysis of tensile specimens was performed using isotropic (von Mises and anisotropic (Hill yield criteria to predict the onset of yielding and hardening behaviors during the course of deformation. Hill's criterion perfectly fitted with the test data in the S -direction, but slightly underestimated the yield strength in L -direction. The results indicated that the Hill yield criterion is the most suitable one to predict the onset of yielding and hardening behaviors for 2024T351 aluminum alloy in all directions.

  11. Processing, microstructure evolution and properties of nanoscale aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jixiong

    In this project, phase transformations and precipitation behavior in age-hardenable nanoscale materials systems, using Al-Cu alloys as model materials, were first studied. The Al-Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by a Plasma Ablation process and found to contain a 2˜5 nm thick adherent aluminum oxide scale, which prevented further oxidation. On aging of the particles, a precipitation sequence consisting of, nearly pure Cu precipitates to the metastable theta' to equilibrium theta was observed, with all three forming along the oxide-particle interface. The structure of theta' and its interface with the Al matrix has been characterized in detail. Ultrafine Al-Cu nanoparticles (5˜25 nm) were also synthesized by inert gas condensation (IGC) and their aging behavior was studied. These particles were found to be quite stable against precipitation. Secondly, pure Al nanoparticles were prepared by the Exploding Wire process and their sintering and consolidation behavior were studied. It was found that nanopowders of Al could be processed to bulk structures with high hardness and density. Sintering temperature was found to have a dominant effect on density, hardness and microstructure. Sintering at temperatures >600°C led to breakup of the oxide scale, leading to an interesting nanocomposite composed of 100˜200 nm Al oxide dispersed in a bimodal nanometer-micrometer size Al matrix grains. Although there was some grain growth, the randomly dispersed oxide fragments were quite effective in pinning the Al grain boundaries, preventing excessive grain growth and retaining high hardness. Cold rolling and hot rolling were effective methods for attaining full densification and high hardness. Thirdly, the microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior of Al-Al 2O3 nanocomposites were studied. The composites can retain high strength at elevated temperature and thermal soaking has practically no detrimental effect on strength. Although the ductility of the composite remains

  12. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  13. The Effect of Creep Aging on the Fatigue Fracture Behavior of 2524 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal temperature tensile and fatigue tests were adopted to test the mechanical performance and fatigue life of 2524 aluminum alloy under the three states of T3, artificial aging, and creep aging, and scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were also used to observe the fatigue fracture morphology and aging precipitation features of the alloy under the above three states. Results showed that the alloy treated by creep aging can obtain higher fatigue life, but that treated by artificial aging is lower than T3; T3 alloy is mainly dominated by GPB region. Meanwhile, the crystal boundary displays continuously distributed fine precipitated phases; after artificial aging and creep aging treatment, a large amount of needle-shaped S′ phases precipitate inside the alloy, while there are wide precipitated phases at the crystal boundary. Wide precipitation free zones appear at the crystal boundary of artificial-aging samples, but precipitation free zones at the alloy crystal boundary of creep aging become narrower and even disappear. It can be seen that creep aging can change the precipitation features of the alloy and improve its fatigue life.

  14. Electric pulse treatment of welded joint of aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mitiaev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Explanation of the redistribution effect of residual strengthes after electric pulse treatment of ark welding seam of the aluminum alloy. Methodology. Alloy on the basis of aluminium of АК8М3 type served as the research material. As a result of mechanical treatment of the ingots after alloy crystallization the plates with 10 mm thickness were obtained. After edge preparation the elements, which are being connected were butt welded using the technology of semiautomatic argon arc welding by the electrode with a diameter of 3 mm of AK-5 alloy. Metal structure of the welded joint was examined under the light microscope at a magnification of 200 and under the scanning electronic microscope «JSM-6360 LA». The Rockwell hardness (HRF was used as a strength characteristic of alloy. Hardness measuring of the phase constituents (microhardness was carried out using the device PМТ-3, with the indenter loadings 5 and 10 g. The crystalline structure parameters of alloy (dislocation density, second kind of the crystalline grid distortion and the scale of coherent scattering regions were determined using the methods of X-ray structural analysis. Electric pulse treatment (ET was carried out on the special equipment in the conditions of the DS enterprise using two modes A and В. Findings. On the basis of researches the previously obtained microhardness redistribution effect in the area of welded connection after ET was confirmed. As a result of use of the indicated treatment it was determined not only the reduction of microhardness gradient but also the simultaneous hardening effect in the certain thermal affected areas near the welding seam. During study of chemical composition of phase constituents it was discovered, that the structural changes of alloy as a result of ET first of all are caused by the redistribution of chemical elements, which form the connections themselves. By the nature of the influence the indicated treatment can be

  15. Differential ion beam sputtering of segregated phases in aluminum casting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Chuong L.; Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Metson, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel combination of SIMS and SPM for accurate 3D chemical mapping. ► Different removal rates of metallurgical phases by ion beam. ► Faster oxidation rate of silicon vs. aluminum at room temperature in vacuum. - Abstract: Differential sputtering of materials is an important phenomenon in materials science with many implications. One of the practical applications of this phenomenon is the modification of the interface between a substrate and coating during sputter coating of materials. Aluminum casting alloys, as common materials in many applications, are suitable candidates to investigate this phenomenon due to their phase separated microstructures. Changes at the sample surface under ion bombardment can be characterized by a range of complimentary techniques. The novel SIMS–SPM instrument used here enables a thorough investigation into the evolution of topography and composition caused by ion beam sputtering. For the alloy examined in this work, the aluminum regions are removed faster than the silicon particles. The faster oxidation rate of silicon compared to aluminum in the exposed surface can also be deduced from this study.

  16. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Wang, Xiaomin, E-mail: xmwang991011@163.com [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Huang, Cui [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Gou, Guoqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2016-09-05

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  17. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie; Huang, Cui; Gou, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  18. The effect warming time of mechanical properties and structural phase aluminum alloy nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husna Al Hasa, M.; Anwar Muchsin

    2011-01-01

    Ferrous aluminum alloys as fuel cladding will experience the process of heat treatment above the recrystallization temperature. Temperature and time of heat treatment will affect the nature of the metal. Heating time allows will affect change in mechanical properties, thermal and structure of the metal phase. This study aims to determine the effect of time of heat treatment on mechanical properties and phase metal alloys. Testing the mechanical properties of materials, especially violence done by the method of Vickers. Observation of microstructural changes made by metallographic-optical and phase structure were analyzed Based on the x-ray diffraction patterns Elemental analysis phase alloy compounds made by EDS-SEM. Test results show the nature of violence AlFeNiMg alloy by heating at 500°C with a warm-up time 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours respectively decreased range 94.4 HV, 87.6 HV and 85.1 HV. The nature of violence AlFeNi alloy showed a decrease in line with the longer heating time. Metallographic-optical observations show the microstructural changes with increasing heating time. Microstructure shows the longer the heating time trend equi axial shaped grain structure of growing and the results showed a trend analyst diffraction pattern formation and phase θ α phase (FeAl3) in the alloy. (author)

  19. Influence of wire EDM parameters on the damping behaviour of A356.2 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Dora Siva, E-mail: dorasivaprasad@gmail.com [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, 530045 (India); Shoba, Chintada [Dept of Industrial Engineering, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, 530045 (India); Varma, Kalidindi Rahul [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, RAGHU College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam (India); Khurshid, Abdul [M.Tech (CAD/CAM), Dept of Mechanical Engineering, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, 530045 (India)

    2015-10-15

    The effect of different Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on the damping behavior of A356.2 aluminum alloy is investigated. In the present investigation pulse on time (T{sub ON}), pulse off time (T{sub OFF}) and peak current (IP) which are considered to be the most significant process parameters from the previous studies are varied using one factor at a time approach, to study the effect on damping behavior of A356.2 aluminum alloy. Damping experiments are performed on a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA 8000) at constant strain under dual cantilever mode over a frequency range of 1–100 Hz at room temperature. The scanning electron microscope was used for characterization of the wire EDMed samples. Experimental results reveal that the damping behavior greatly depends on the wire EDM process parameters. The related mechanisms are presented. - Highlights: • Damping capacity increase with the increase in frequency. • Increasing pulse on time increases the damping capacity of aluminum alloy. • The damping capacity was found to decrease with the increase in pulse off time. • No significant change in damping capacity was noticed with varied peak current. • The formation of white layer plays an important role in the damping behavior.

  20. Evaluation of the Characteristics of the Aluminum Alloy Casting Material by Heat Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Syung Yul; Park, Dong Hyun; Won, Jong Pil; Kim, Yun Hae; Lee, Myung Hoon; Moon, Kyung Man; Jeong, Jae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum is on active metal, but it is well known that its oxide film plays a role as protective barrier which is comparatively stable in air and neutral aqueous solution. Thus, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in architectural trim, cold and hot-water storage vessels and piping etc., furthermore, the aluminum alloy of AC8A have been widely used in mold casting material of engine piston because of its properties of temperature and wear resistance. In recent years, the oil price is getting higher and higher, thus the using of low quality oil has been significantly increased in engines of ship and vehicle. Therefore it is considered that evaluation of corrosion resistance as well as wear resistance of AC8A material is also important to improve its property and prolong its lifetime. In this study, the effect of solution and tempering heat treatment to corrosion and wear resistance is investigated with electrochemical method and measurement of hardness. The hardness decreased with solution heat treatment compared to mold casting condition, but its value increased with tempering heat treatment and exhibited the highest value of hardness with tempering heat treatment temperature at 190 .deg. C for 24hrs. Furthermore, corrosion resistance increased with decreasing of the hardness, and decreased with increasing of the hardness reversely. As a result, it is suggested that the optimum heat treatment to improve both corrosion and wear resistance is tempering heat treatment temperature at 190 .deg. C for 16hrs

  1. Corrosion Degradation of Coated Aluminum Alloy Systems through Galvanic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-19

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Corrosion  Degradation  of  Coated  Aluminum  Alloy  Systems  through  Galvanic...their  low  density  and  relatively  high  strength.   While  exhibiting  significant  general   corrosion  resistance,  these

  2. Ion implantation and diamond-like coatings of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaczynski, G. W.; Hamdi, A. H.; Elmoursi, A. A.; Qiu, X.

    1997-04-01

    In an attempt to increase the wear resistance of some key automotive components, General Motors Research and Development Center initiated a study to determine the potential of surface modification as a means of improving the tribological properties of automotive parts, and to investigate the feasibility of mass producing such parts. This paper describes the plasma immersion ion implantation system that was designed for the study of various options for surface treatment, and it discusses bench testing procedures used for evaluating the surface-treated samples. In particular, both tribological and microstructural analyses are discussed for nitrogen implants and diamond-like hydrocarbon coatings of some aluminum alloys.

  3. Corrosion fatigue of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmillan, V. C.

    1986-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue studies were conducted on bare, chemical conversion coated, and anodized 2219-T87 aluminum alloy. These tests were performed using a rotating beam machine running at a velocity of 2500 rpm. The corrosive environments tested were distilled water, 100 ppm NaCl, and 3.5 percent NaCl. Results were compared to the endurance limit in air. An evaluation of the effect of protective coatings on corrosion fatigue was made by comparing the fatigue properties of specimens with coatings to those without.

  4. The NBS: Processing/Microstructure/Property Relationships in 2024 Aluminum Alloy Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, L. K.; Swartzendruber, W. J.; Boettinger, W. J.; Rosen, M.; Ridder, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    As received plates of 2024 aluminum alloy were examined. Topics covered include: solidification segregation studies; microsegregation and macrosegregation in laboratory and commercially cast ingots; C-curves and nondestructive evaluation; time-temperature precipitation diagrams and the relationships between mechanical properties and NDE measurements; transmission electron microscopy studies; the relationship between microstructure and properties; ultrasonic characterization; eddy-current conductivity characterization; the study of aging process by means of dynamic eddy current measurements; and Heat flow-property predictions, property degradations due to improve quench from the solution heat treatment temperature.

  5. Damage percolation during stretch flange forming of aluminum alloy sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengtao; Worswick, Michael J.; Keith Pilkey, A.; Lloyd, David J.

    2005-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE)-damage percolation model was employed to simulate stretch flange forming of aluminum alloys AA5182 and AA5754. Material softening and strain gradients were captured using a Gurson-based FE model. FE results were then fed into the so-called damage percolation code, from which the damage development was modelled within measured microstructures. The formability of the stretch flange samples was predicted based upon the onset of catastrophic failure triggered by profuse void coalescence within the measured second-phase particle field. Damage development is quantified in terms of crack and void areal fractions, and compared to metallographic results obtained from interrupted stretch flange specimens. Parametric study is conducted on the effect of void nucleation strain in the prediction of formability of stretch flanges to "calibrate" proper nucleation strains for both alloys.

  6. Process capability improvement through DMAIC for aluminum alloy wheel machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa; Babu, B. Surendra

    2017-07-01

    This paper first enlists the generic problems of alloy wheel machining and subsequently details on the process improvement of the identified critical-to-quality machining characteristic of A356 aluminum alloy wheel machining process. The causal factors are traced using the Ishikawa diagram and prioritization of corrective actions is done through process failure modes and effects analysis. Process monitoring charts are employed for improving the process capability index of the process, at the industrial benchmark of four sigma level, which is equal to the value of 1.33. The procedure adopted for improving the process capability levels is the define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) approach. By following the DMAIC approach, the C p, C pk and C pm showed signs of improvement from an initial value of 0.66, -0.24 and 0.27, to a final value of 4.19, 3.24 and 1.41, respectively.

  7. Improved TIG weld joint strength in aluminum alloy 2219-T87 by filler metal substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, R. M.; Lovoy, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an investigation on weld joint characteristics of aluminum alloy 2219-T87 are given. Five different alloys were utilized as filler material. The mechanical properties of the joints were determined at ambient and cryogenic temperatures for weldments in the as-welded condition and also, for weldments after elevated temperature exposures. Other evaluations included hardness surveys, stress corrosion susceptibility, and to a limited extent, the internal metallurgical weld structures. The overall results indicate that M-943 filler weldments are superior in strength to weldments containing either the standard 2319 filler or fillers 2014, 2020, and a dual wire feed consisting of three parts 2319 and one part 5652. In addition, no deficiencies were evident in M-934 filler weldments with regard to ductility, joint strength after elevated temperature exposure, weld hardness, metallographic structures, or stress corrosion susceptibility.

  8. Studying the Super-cooled Solid Solution Breakdown of V-1341 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Puchkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformable alloys of the Al-Mg-Si system are widely used in aviation industry, rocket engineering, shipbuilding, as well as on railway and highway transport. These alloys are characterized by high stamping ability, weld-ability, and machinability with a comparatively high strength and corrosion resistance in a heat-strengthened state. A promising alloy of the Al-Mg-Si system with increased structural strength and manufacturability is on par with foreign analogues in properties is the V-1341 alloy [1, 2].The properties of heat-treatable aluminum alloys strongly depend on the cooling rate of the product during quenching [3-12], which determines the structure and level of residual stresses. Decrease in structural strength, tendency to pitting and inter-crystalline corrosion with slow cooling from the quenching temperature is caused by formation of coarse unequiaxed precipitate, precipitates-free zones, and also by decreasing proportion of inclusions of the strengthening phase [3-12].Thus, the relevant task is to study the effect of isothermal quenching modes on the structure of deformable V-1341 aluminum alloy thermally hardened.The paper studies the impact of isothermal time in quenching on the composition and morphology of breakdown products of the V-1341 alloy solid solution. It is shown that at isothermal time under the solid solution breakdown, at first on the dispersoid surface and then in the solid solution are formed and grow large needle-like crystals of the β'-phase which are structural concentrators of stresses. An increasing isothermal time leads to decreasing solid solution super-saturation by doping elements and vacancies. This leads to a decrease in the fraction of the coherent finely dispersed hardening β '' phase, and also to an increase in the width of the precipitates-free zone.

  9. Low-temperature resistance of cyclically strained aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, H.R.; Richard, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study of the resistance changes in high-purity, reinforced aluminum due to cyclic straining is presently underway. The purpose of this work is to determine the optimum purity of aluminum to be used as a stabilizing material for superconducting magnets used for energy storage. Since pure aluminum has a low yield strength, it is not capable of supporting the stress levels in an energized magnet. Therefore, it has been bonded to a high-strength material--in this case, 6061 aluminum alloy. This bonding permits pure aluminum to be strained cyclically beyond its elastic limit with recovery of large plastic strains upon release of the load. The resistance change in this composite material is less than that of pure, unreinforced aluminum

  10. Influence of Aging Conditions on Fatigue Fracture Behaviour of 6063 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Ahmed Siddiqui

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum - Magnesium - Silicon (Al-Mg-Si 6063 alloy was heat-treated using under aged, peak aged and overage temperatures. The numbers of cycles required to cause the fatigue fracture, at constant stress, was considered as criteria for the fatigue resistance. Moreover, the fractured surface of the alloy at different aging conditions was evaluated by optical microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The SEM micrographs confirmed the cleavage surfaces with well-defined fatigue striations. It has been observed that the various aging time and temperature of the 6063 Al-alloy, produces different modes of fractures. The most suitable age hardening time and temperature was found to be between 4 to 5 hours and to occur at 460 K. The increase in fatigue fracture property of the alloy due to aging could be attributed to a vacancy assisted diffusion mechanism or due to pinning of dislocations movement by the precipitates produced during aging. However, the decrease in the fatigue resistance, for the over aged alloys, might be due to the coalescence of precipitates into larger grains.

  11. The effects of microstructural stability on the compressive response of two cast aluminum alloys up to 300 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shower, Patrick T.; Technology Division; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Roy, Shibayan; Technology Division; Indian Institute of Technology; Hawkins, Charles Shane; Technology Division)

    2017-01-01

    Here in this study, the high temperature compressive response of cast aluminum alloys 319 and RR350 is compared in light of their microstructures. The 319 alloy is widely used in thermally critical automotive applications and provides a baseline for comparison with the RR350 alloy, whose microstructural stability at high homologous temperatures was recently reported. Cylindrical compression samples from each alloy were tested at four temperatures up to 300 °C at a constant true strain rate that was varied over four orders of magnitude. Although both alloys are strengthened by metastable precipitates (nominally Al 2 Cu) in the as-aged condition, their mechanical response diverges at temperatures greater than 250 °C as the strengthening precipitates evolve in the 319 alloy and retain their as-aged morphology in the RR350 alloy. Deformation mechanisms of each alloy are examined using microstructural analysis and empirical activation energy calculations. The stability of the θ' phase in the RR350 alloy leads to effective precipitation hardening at homologous temperatures up to 0.6 and an extensive regime of grain boundary controlled deformation.

  12. Laser Surface Treatment and Modification of Aluminum Alloy Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass, Muna Khethier

    2018-02-01

    The present work aimed to study the laser surface treatment and modification of Al-4.0%Cu-1.0%Mg alloy matrix composite reinforced with 10%SiC particles produced by stir casting. The specimens of the base alloy and composite were irradiated with an Nd:YAG laser of 1000 mJ, 1064 nm and 3 Hz . Dry wear test using the pin-on -disc technique at different sliding times (5-30 min) at a constant applied load and sliding speed were performed before and after laser treatment. Micro hardness and wear resistance were increased for all samples after laser hardening treatment. The improvement of these properties is explained by microstructural homogenization and grain refinement of the laser treated surface. Modification and refinement of SiC particles and grain refinement in the microstructure of the aluminum alloy matrix (α-Al) were observed by optical and SEM micrographs. The highest increase in hardness was 21.4% and 26.2% for the base alloy and composite sample respectively.

  13. Hot forging of roll-cast high aluminum content magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Tomohiro; Watari, Hisaki; Suzuki, Mayumi; Haga, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on hot forging of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using horizontal twin-roll casting. AZ111 and AZ131 were applied for twin-roll casting, and a hot-forging test was performed to manufacture high-strength magnesium alloy components economically. For twin-roll casting, the casting conditions of a thick sheet for hot forging were investigated. It was found that twin-roll casting of a 10mm-thick magnesium alloy sheet was possible at a roll speed of 2.5m/min. The grain size of the cast strip was 50 to 70µm. In the hot-forging test, blank material was obtained from as-cast strip. A servo press machine with a servo die cushion was used to investigate appropriate forging conditions (e.g., temperature, forging load, and back pressure) for twin-roll casts (TRCs) AZ111 and AZ131. It was determined that high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using twin-roll casting could be forged with a forging load of 150t and a back pressure of 3t at 420 to 430°C. Applying back pressure during hot forging effectively forged a pin-shaped product.

  14. High-strength and high-RRR Al-Ni alloy for aluminum-stabilized superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Wada, K; Sakamoto, H; Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y

    2000-01-01

    The precipitation type aluminum alloys have excellent performance as the increasing rate in electric resistivity with additives in the precipitation state is considerably low, compared to that of the aluminum alloy with additives in the solid-solution state. It is possible to enhance the mechanical strength without remarkable degradation in residual resistivity ratio (RRR) by increasing content of selected additive elements. Nickel is the suitable additive element because it has very low solubility in aluminum and low increasing rate in electric resistivity, and furthermore, nickel and aluminum form intermetallic compounds which effectively resist the motion of dislocations. First, Al-0.1wt%Ni alloy was developed for the ATLAS thin superconducting solenoid. This alloy achieved high yield strength of 79 MPa (R.T.) and 117 MPa (4.2 K) with high RRR of 490 after cold working of 21% in area reduction. These highly balanced properties could not be achieved with previously developed solid-solution aluminum alloys. ...

  15. Stabilizing the strengthening precipitates in aluminum-manganese alloys by the addition of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yangyang; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M., E-mail: mmm@wpi.edu

    2017-04-13

    The Al-Mn-W system has considerable potential as a basis for lightweight aluminum alloys that are intended for use at temperatures approaching 350 °C (623 K). In this ternary system, aluminum, manganese, and tungsten co-precipitate to form the meta-stable Al{sub 12}(Mn{sub (1-x)}W{sub x}) phase, which is thermally stable and will not coarsen when held at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time. This enhanced thermal stability of the Al{sub 12}(Mn{sub (1-x)}W{sub x}) phase in comparison to the Al{sub 12}Mn phase which forms in binary Al-Mn alloys is explained in terms of the Gibbs free energy of the two phases. It is shown that co-precipitating tungsten with aluminum and manganese lowers the Gibbs free energy of the precipitated phase and by so doing, it slows down its coarsening rate and enhances its thermal stability.

  16. Investigation of alloying effects in aluminum dispersion strengthened with Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, G.L.

    1975-10-01

    Two types of alloying elements were investigated to determine if the room-temperature strength could be improved and if, through lowering the oxide content, the high-temperature ductility could be improved. Mg was investigated for its solid solution strengthening in one type alloy. The other type alloy involved further dispersion strengthening through adding Fe, Mo, Zr, Cr, V, and Ti which form highly stable intermetallic compounds with Al. Fabrication techniques were developed which produced uniform and reproducible rods for testing. Prealloyed powders were produced by atomizing the molten alloys and collecting the powders in water. This procedure produced uniform powders with a very fine distribution of the intermetallic compounds. Fabrication into rods then included ball-milling, vacuum hot pressing, vacuum heat treating, and hot extrusion. Mg additions improved strengths up to 200 0 C with little effect above that temperature. Room-temperature tensile strengths up to 77,000 psi were obtained which are comparable to the strengths obtained in conventional aluminum alloys. The additional dispersion strengthening of the intermetallic compounds is additive to that of the oxide from room temperature to 450 0 C. No significant improvements in ductility are obtained by reducing the oxide content since even at very low ball-milling times (i.e., low oxide contents) the uniform elongation at 450 0 C is typically 0.5 percent. Good combinations of strength and ductility at 450 0 C were obtained in some of the alloys containing intermetallic compounds with no ball-milling. Typical properties at this temperature were tensile strengths of 7,000 psi, uniform elongation of 3 percent, and total elongation of 35 percent. (21 tables, 33 fig, 43 references) (auth)

  17. An Influence of Ageing on the Structure, Corrosion Resistance and Hardness of High Aluminum ZnAl40Cu3 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Al-Cu alloys are used primarily because of their tribological properties as an alternative material for bronze, cast iron and aluminum alloy bearings and as a construction material. Particularly interesting are high aluminum zinc alloys. Monoeutectic zinc and aluminum alloys are characterized by the highest hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance of all of the zinc alloys. A significant problem with the use of the Zn-Al-Cu alloys is their insufficient resistance to electrochemical corrosion. Properties of Zn-Al-Cu alloys can be improved by heat treatment. The purpose of examination was to determine the effect of heat treatment (aging at various temperatures on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of the ZnAl40Cu3 alloy. The scope of the examination included: structural examinations, determination of hardness using Brinell’s method and corrosion resistance examinations. Ageing at higher temperatures causes a creation of areas where is an eutectoid mixture. The study showed that ageing causes a decrease in hardness of ZnAl40Cu3 alloy. This decrease is even greater, when the temperature of ageing is lower. The studies have shown a significant influence of ageing on the corrosion resistance of the alloy ZnAl40Cu3. Maximum corrosion resistance were characterized by the sample after ageing at higher temperatures.

  18. Fatigue crack growth in an aluminum alloy-fractographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, I.; Muhammad, W.; Ejaz, N.

    2016-08-01

    A two-fold approach was adopted to understand the fatigue crack growth process in an Aluminum alloy; fatigue crack growth test of samples and analysis of fractured surfaces. Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on middle tension M(T) samples prepared from an Aluminum alloy cylinder. The tests were conducted under constant amplitude loading at R ratio 0.1. The stress applied was from 20,30 and 40 per cent of the yield stress of the material. The fatigue crack growth data was recorded. After fatigue testing, the samples were subjected to detailed scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. The resulting fracture surfaces were subjected to qualitative and quantitative fractographic examinations. Quantitative fracture analysis included an estimation of crack growth rate (CGR) in different regions. The effect of the microstructural features on fatigue crack growth was examined. It was observed that in stage II (crack growth region), the failure mode changes from intergranular to transgranular as the stress level increases. In the region of intergranular failure the localized brittle failure was observed and fatigue striations are difficult to reveal. However, in the region of transgranular failure the crack path is independent of the microstructural features. In this region, localized ductile failure mode was observed and well defined fatigue striations were present in the wake of fatigue crack. The effect of interaction of growing fatigue crack with microstructural features was not substantial. The final fracture (stage III) was ductile in all the cases.

  19. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of the study "Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft" which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX without Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys, and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  20. Corrosion resistance of sodium sulfate coated cobalt-chromium-aluminum alloys at 900 C, 1000 C, and 1100 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion of sodium sulfate coated cobalt alloys was measured and the results compared to the cyclic oxidation of alloys with the same composition, and to the hot corrosion of compositionally equivalent nickel-base alloys. Cobalt alloys with sufficient aluminum content to form aluminum containing scales corrode less than their nickel-base counterparts. The cobalt alloys with lower aluminum levels form CoO scales and corrode more than their nickel-base counterparts which form NiO scales.

  1. Corrosion mechanisms of aluminum alloys in waters of low conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Roberto E; Lanazani, Liliana; Rodriguez, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    After completing their burn cycle, nuclear fuels in experimental reactors made with aluminum alloys have to remain for long periods in distilled water, in interim storage. While aluminum alloys are resistant to corrosion in pure water, severe deterioration occurs in elements that have been immersed for periods of up to 30 years. Pitting-like surface alterations can even occur in nuclear quality waters (conductivity below 5 μS/cm and dissolved ions content below detection thresholds) in time periods of less than one year. An important factor that could become a potential promoter of this phenomena is the presence of dust particles and others, that could settle on the metallic surface, generating a locally aggressive medium. A simple immersion experiment demonstrates that these points can become initiation sites for pitting with very low concentrations of chlorides (under 10 ppm), especially if the electrochemical potential is increased by contact with another metallic material, even staying below the pitting potential in this medium. There are several corrosion mechanisms acting simultaneously, depending on the nature of the deposits. Pitting under glass particles has been detected, which may be related to a simple crevice corrosion process. In the case of iron oxides, however, the results depend on the type of oxide. Pits more than 100 microns deep have been obtained in 7 day immersion tests, so in spent fuel storage sites these mechanisms could easily cause penetration of the 500 micron aluminum plates during the time covering the interim storage under water, which could be decades, with similar chemical conditions (CW)

  2. Liquid oxygen LOX compatibility evaluations of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys: Investigation of the Alcoa 2090 and MMC weldalite 049 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of liquid oxygen (LOX) compatibility of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys is investigated. Alloy systems of Alcoa 2090, vintages 1 to 3, and of Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) Weldalite 049 were evaluated for their behavior related to the LOX compatibility employing liquid oxygen impact test conditions under ambient pressures and up to 1000 psi. The developments of these aluminum lithium alloys are of critical and significant interest because of their lower densities and higher specific strengths and improved mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. Of the different LOX impact tests carried out at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), it is seen that in certain test conditions at higher pressures, not all Al-Li alloys are LOX compatible. In case of any reactivity, it appears that lithium makes the material more sensitive at grain boundaries due to microstructural inhomogeneities and associated precipitate free zones (PFZ). The objectives were to identify and rationalize the microstructural mechanisms that could be relaxed to LOX compatibility behavior of the alloy system in consideration. The LOX compatibility behavior of Al-Li 2090 and Weldalite 049 is analyzed in detail using microstructural characterization techniques with light optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis, and surface studies using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), electron spectroscopy in chemical analysis (ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Differences in the behavior of these aluminum lithium alloys are assessed and related to their chemistry, heat treatment conditions, and microstructural effects.

  3. Physical Modeling of Plastic Working Conditions for Rods of 7xxx Series Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyja H.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuing high level of demand for lightweight structural materials is the reason for the ever-growing interest in aluminum alloys. The main areas of application for aluminum alloys products are the aerospace and automotive industries. Production of profiles and structural elements from lightweight alloys gives possibility to reduce the curb weight of construction, which directly translates into among other reduction of fuel consumption and lower amount of generated exhaust gas.

  4. The Effect of Cold Rolling on the Hydrogen Susceptibility of 5083 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Georgiou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses in investigating the effect of cold deformation on the cathodic hydrogen charging of 5083 aluminum alloy. The aluminium alloy was submitted to a cold rolling process, until the average thickness of the specimens was reduced by 7% and 15%, respectively. A study of the structure, microhardness, and tensile properties of the hydrogen charged aluminium specimens, with and without cold rolling, indicated that the cold deformation process led to an increase of hydrogen susceptibility of this aluminum alloy.

  5. An Experimental Evaluation of Electron Beam Welded Thixoformed 7075 Aluminum Alloy Plate Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Azadi Chegeni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two plates of thixoformed 7075 aluminum alloy were joined using Electron Beam Welding (EBW. A post-welding-heat treatment (PWHT was performed within the semi-solid temperature range of this alloy at three temperatures, 610, 617 and 628 °C, for 3 min. The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of EB welded plates, as well as the heat-treated specimens, were investigated in the Base Metal (BM, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ, and Fusion Zone (FZ, using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, and Vickers hardness test. Results indicated that after EBW, the grain size substantially decreased from 67 µm in both BM and HAZ to 7 µm in the FZ, and a hardness increment was observed in the FZ as compared to the BM and HAZ. Furthermore, the PWHT led to grain coarsening throughout the material, along with a further increase in hardness in the FZ.

  6. Corrosion of aluminum alloys in ocean thermal energy conversion seawaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen-Basse, J.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum alloys 5052, 3004, and Alclad 3003 and 3004 were exposed to flowing seawater at 2.44 m/s (8 fps) at the Seacoast Test Facility on Hawaii. One year data for warm surface water and three mouth data for cold water from 600 m depth are reported for free fouling, chlorinated and sponge ball cleaned conditions. All alloys pit in deep seawater, but show no pitting in warm surface water. Uniform corrosion in the warm water is initially rapid, but after 25 to 30 days the rate becomes slower and extrapolated 30 year material losses are in the 125 to 215 μm range. Chlorination at a level of 0.05 ppm for one hour per day has only a minor effect on corrosion rates, while sponge ball cleaning leads to erosion-corrosion of the Alclad surfaces and has no effect on alloy 5052. The need for additional testing in tropical seawater is discussed, as is the need for an improved understanding of the formation of inorganic scale films, their properties, and their effect on corrosion rates and heat transfer

  7. Rare earth conversion coatings grown on AA6061 aluminum alloys. Corrosion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachetti S, S. B. [Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Madero, Av. 1o. de Mayo y Sor Juana I. de la Cruz, Col. Los Mangos, 89440 Ciudad Madero, Tanaulipas (Mexico); Dominguez C, M. A.; Torres H, A. M.; Onofre B, E. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - Altamira, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira Km. 14.5, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); De la Cruz H, W., E-mail: mdominguezc@ipn.mx [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Apdo. Postal 2681, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The present work is aimed to investigate the corrosion resistance of rare earth protective coatings deposited by spontaneous deposition on AA6061 aluminum alloy substrates. Coatings were deposited from water-based Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions by varing parameters such as rare earth solution concentration, bath temperature and immersion time. The values of the Tafel slopes indicate that the cathodic process is favored by concentration polarization rather than activation polarization. Chemical and morphological characterizations of the surface before and after electrochemical evaluations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (Author)

  8. Rare earth conversion coatings grown on AA6061 aluminum alloys. Corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachetti S, S. B.; Dominguez C, M. A.; Torres H, A. M.; Onofre B, E.; De la Cruz H, W.

    2014-01-01

    The present work is aimed to investigate the corrosion resistance of rare earth protective coatings deposited by spontaneous deposition on AA6061 aluminum alloy substrates. Coatings were deposited from water-based Ce(NO 3 ) 3 and La(NO 3 ) 3 solutions by varing parameters such as rare earth solution concentration, bath temperature and immersion time. The values of the Tafel slopes indicate that the cathodic process is favored by concentration polarization rather than activation polarization. Chemical and morphological characterizations of the surface before and after electrochemical evaluations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (Author)

  9. DSC analyses of static and dynamic precipitation of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manping Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, both static and dynamic precipitations of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu aluminum alloy after solid-solution treatment (SST were comparatively analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Dynamic aging was performed in the SST alloy through equal channel angular pressing (ECAP at different temperatures of room temperature, 110, 170, 191 and 300 °C. For comparison, static artificial aging was conducted in the SST alloy at 191 °C with two aging times of 4 and 10 h. The DSC analyses reveal that the dynamic precipitation has occurred in the ECAPed samples, while the activation energies associated with the strengthening precipitates in the dynamic samples are considerably higher than the energies in the SST and static aged samples. The higher activation energies are probably attributed to the smaller grains and higher dislocation density developed after ECAP. The results in the present investigation allow the prediction of the type of the dynamic precipitates to influence the strength of the ultrafine grained alloy during ECAP at various temperatures.

  10. Microstructure of Nitrided Aluminum Alloys Using an Electron-Beam-Excited-Plasma (EBEP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Liu; A. Yamamoto; T. Hishida; H. Shoyama; T. Hara; T. Hara

    2004-01-01

    Nitriding of surface of aluminum alloys was carried out with using an electron-beam-excited-plasma (EBEP)technique. The EBEP is sustained by electron impact ionization with energetic electron beam. Two kinds of substrates,aluminum alloys AA5052 and AA5083, were exposed to the down flow of EBEP source at 843 K for 45min. The specimens were characterized with respect to following properties: crystallographic structure (XRD), morphology (SEM) and the cross sectional microstructures of the nitrided layer was observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There are some Al2O3 particles on the surface of the nitrided AA5052 and AA5083. The AIN layers were formed on the substrates with the thickness of 4.5 μ m for AA5052 and 0.5 μ m for AA5083. A relatively uniform nitrided surface layer composed of AIN can be observed on the AA5052 substrate. The grains size near the interfaces between the substrate and AIN layer were smaller than that near the surface. On the surface of AIN layer, the concentration of nitrogen was high and in the middle of AIN layer it had a constant concentration like the aluminum and the concentration was decreased with approaching to the interface. On the surface of nitrided AA5083, a uniform AIN layer was not formed as the reason for the high nitriding temperature.

  11. Semi-solid metal forming of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, W.; Lane, L.; Marder, J.; Nicholas, N.

    1995-01-01

    A Powder Metallurgy (PM) based, Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) forming process has been developed to produce low cost near-net shapes of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys. Beryllium acts as a reinforcing additive to the aluminum, in which there is nearly no mutual solid solubility. The modulus of elasticity of the alloy dramatically increases, while the density and thermal expansion coefficient decrease with increasing beryllium content. The material is suitable for complex thermal management and vibration resistance applications, as well as for airborne components which are density and stiffness sensitive. The forming process involves heating a blank of the material to a temperature at which the aluminum is semi-solid and the beryllium is solid. The semi-solid blank is then injected without turbulence into a permanent mold. High quality, near net shape components can be produced which are functionally superior to those produced by other permanent mold processes. Dimensional accuracy is equivalent to or better than that obtained in high pressure die casting. Cost effectiveness is the primary advantage of this technique compared to other forming processes. The advantages and limitations of the process are described. Physical and mechanical property data are presented, as well as directions for future investigation

  12. Auger electron spectroscopy study of initial stages of oxidation in a copper - 19.6-atomic-percent-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine the initial stages of oxidation of a polycrystalline copper - 19.6 a/o-aluminum alloy. The growth of the 55-eV aluminum oxide peak and the decay of the 59-, 62-, and 937-eV copper peaks were examined as functions of temperature, exposure, and pressure. Pressures ranged from 1x10 to the minus 7th power to 0.0005 torr of O2. Temperatures ranged from room temperature to 700 C. A completely aluminum oxide surface layer was obtained in all cases. Complete disappearance of the underlying 937-eV copper peak was obtained by heating at 700 C in O2 at 0.0005 torr for 1 hr. Temperature studies indicated that thermally activated diffusion was important to the oxidation studies. The initial stages of oxidation followed a logarithmic growth curve.

  13. A Prediction Study of Aluminum Alloy Oxidation of the Fuel Cladding in Jordan Research and Training Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahk, Y. W.; Oh, J. Y.; Lee, B. H.; Seo, C. G.; Chae, H. T.; Yim, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion fuel with Al cladding will be used for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR). Aluminum alloy cladding experiences the oxidation layer growth on the surface during the reactor operation. The formation of oxides on the cladding affects fuel performance by increasing fuel temperature. According to the current JRTR fuel management scheme and operation strategy for 5 MW power, a fresh fuel is discharged after 900 effective full power days (EFPD) with 18 cycles of 50 days loading. For the proper prediction of the aluminum oxide thickness of fuel cladding during the long residence time, a reliable model is needed. In this work, several oxide thickness prediction models are compared with the measured data from in-pile test by RERTR program. Moreover, specific parametric studies and a preliminary prediction of the aluminum alloy oxidation using the latest model are performed for JRTR fuel

  14. A modified Johnson–Cook model of dynamic tensile behaviors for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ding-Ni, E-mail: siping4840@126.com [The College of Information, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Shangguan, Qian-Qian [The College of Information, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Xie, Can-Jun [Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China, Ltd., Shanghai 200120 (China); Liu, Fu [Shanghai Aircraft Design and Research Institute of COMAC, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The dynamic mechanical behaviors at various strain rates were measured. • The strain rate hardening effect of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy is significant. • A new Johnson–Cook constitutive model of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy was obtained. • Numerical simulations of tensile tests at different rates were conducted. • Accuracy of the modified Johnson–Cook constitutive equation was proved. - Abstract: The dynamic mechanical behaviors of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy at various strain rates were measured by dynamic tensile tests using the electronic universal testing machine, high velocity testing system and split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB). Stress–strain curves at different rates were obtained. The results show that the strain rate hardening effect of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy is significant. By modifying the strain rate hardening term in the Johnson–Cook constitutive model, a new Johnson–Cook (JC) constitutive model of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy was obtained. The improved Johnson–Cook model matched the experiment results very well. With the Johnson–Cook constitutive model, numerical simulations of tensile tests at different rates for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were conducted. According to tensile loading and stress–strain relation of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, calculation results were compared with experimental results. Accuracy of the modified Johnson–Cook constitutive equation was further proved.

  15. An electrochemical investigation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys in chloride containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Filho, Jorge Eustaquio de

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have been used as cladding materials for nuclear fuel in research reactors due to its corrosion resistance. Aluminum owes its good corrosion resistance to a protective barrier oxide film formed and strongly bonded to its surface. In pool type TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor, located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear in Belo Horizonte, previous immersion coupon tests revealed that aluminum alloys suffer from pitting corrosion, in spite of high quality of water control. Corrosion attack is initiated by breaking the protective oxide film on aluminum alloy surface. Chloride ions can break this oxide film and stimulate metal dissolution. In this study the aluminum alloys 1050, 5052 and 6061 were used to evaluate their corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions. The electrochemical techniques used were potentiodynamic anodic polarization and cyclic polarization. Results showed that aluminum alloys 5052 and 6061 present similar corrosion resistance in low chloride solutions (0,1 ppm NaCl) and in reactor water but both alloys are less resistant in high chloride solution (1 ppm NaCl). Aluminum alloy 1050 presented similar behavior in the three electrolytes used, regarding to pitting corrosion, indicating that the concentration of the chloride ions was not the only variable to influence its corrosion susceptibility. (author)

  16. A modified Johnson–Cook model of dynamic tensile behaviors for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ding-Ni; Shangguan, Qian-Qian; Xie, Can-Jun; Liu, Fu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dynamic mechanical behaviors at various strain rates were measured. • The strain rate hardening effect of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy is significant. • A new Johnson–Cook constitutive model of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy was obtained. • Numerical simulations of tensile tests at different rates were conducted. • Accuracy of the modified Johnson–Cook constitutive equation was proved. - Abstract: The dynamic mechanical behaviors of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy at various strain rates were measured by dynamic tensile tests using the electronic universal testing machine, high velocity testing system and split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB). Stress–strain curves at different rates were obtained. The results show that the strain rate hardening effect of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy is significant. By modifying the strain rate hardening term in the Johnson–Cook constitutive model, a new Johnson–Cook (JC) constitutive model of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy was obtained. The improved Johnson–Cook model matched the experiment results very well. With the Johnson–Cook constitutive model, numerical simulations of tensile tests at different rates for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were conducted. According to tensile loading and stress–strain relation of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, calculation results were compared with experimental results. Accuracy of the modified Johnson–Cook constitutive equation was further proved

  17. High-strength laser welding of aluminum-lithium scandium-doped alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Ivanova, M. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of laser welding of an aluminum alloy (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by cold plastic deformation on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys. The strength of the plastically deformed welded joint, aluminum alloys of the Al-Mg-Li and Al-Cu-Li systems reached 0.95 and 0.6 of the base alloy strength, respectively.

  18. Mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminum alloys 5083 and 5383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeom Kee Paik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of high-strength aluminum alloys is increasing in shipbuilding industry, particularly for the design and construction of war ships, littoral surface craft and combat ships, and fast passenger ships. While various welding methods are used today to fabricate aluminum ship structures, namely gas metallic arc welding (GMAW, laser welding and friction stir welding (FSW, FSW technology has been recognized to have many advantages for the construction of aluminum structures, as it is a low-cost welding process. In the present study, mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminum alloys are examined experimentally. Tensile testing is undertaken on dog-bone type test specimen for aluminum alloys 5083 and 5383. The test specimen includes friction stir welded material between identical alloys and also dissimilar alloys, as well as unwelded (base alloys. Mechanical properties of fusion welded aluminum alloys are also tested and compared with those of friction stir welded alloys. The insights developed from the present study are documented together with details of the test database. Part of the present study was obtained from the Ship Structure Committee project SR-1454 (Paik, 2009, jointly funded by its member agencies.

  19. Inhibitive Action of Ferrous Gluconate on Aluminum Alloy in Saline Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Abimbola Idowu Popoola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of aluminum in saline environment in the presence of ferrous gluconate was studied using weight loss and linear polarization methods. The corrosion rates were studied in different concentrations of ferrous gluconate 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/mL at 28°C. Experimental results revealed that ferrous gluconate in saline environment reduced the corrosion rate of aluminum alloy at the different concentrations studied. The minimum inhibition efficiency was obtained at 1.5 g/mL concentration of inhibitor while the optimum inhibition efficiency was achieved with 1.0 g/mL inhibitor concentration. The results showed that adsorption of ferrous gluconate on the aluminium alloy surface fits Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The potentiodynamic polarization results showed that ferrous gluconate is a mixed type inhibitor. Ferrous gluconate acted as an effective inhibitor for aluminium alloy within the temperature and concentration range studied. The data obtained from weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods were in good agreement.

  20. Standard guide for conducting exfoliation corrosion tests in aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This guide differs from the usual ASTM standard in that it does not address a specific test. Rather, it is an introductory guide for new users of other standard exfoliation test methods, (see Terminology G 15 for definition of exfoliation). 1.2 This guide covers aspects of specimen preparation, exposure, inspection, and evaluation for conducting exfoliation tests on aluminum alloys in both laboratory accelerated environments and in natural, outdoor atmospheres. The intent is to clarify any gaps in existent test methods. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Use of Permanent Magnets in Electromagnetic Facilities for the Treatment of Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinerts, Toms; Bojarevičs, Andris; Bucenieks, Imants; Gelfgat, Yuri; Kaldre, Imants

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of applying the electromagnetic induction pump with permanent magnets for the transportation and stirring of aluminum melts in metallurgical furnaces is investigated. The electromagnetic and hydraulic characteristics of the pump have been investigated theoretically and experimentally with regard to its position in the furnace. The results of the experiments performed with a model in a eutectic InGaSn melt are in good agreement with the calculation data. Extrapolation of the experimental results on the physical characteristics of aluminum melts allows recommending such pumps for contactless control of motion and heat/mass transfer in aluminum melts in different technological processes. A high temperature and the aggressive properties of aluminum alloys make it complicated to use different mechanical devices to solve technological problems, such as liquid metal transportation, dosing, stirring, etc. In this case, any device units or elements moving in or contacting with the melt suffer from corrosion polluting the melt. Therefore, of more importance and topicality are contactless electromagnetic methods for processing of molten metals.

  2. Dynamic and Thermal Properties of Aluminum Alloy A356/Silicon Carbide Hollow Particle Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cox

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloy A356 matrix syntactic foams filled with SiC hollow particles (SiCHP are studied in the present work. Two compositions of syntactic foams are studied for quasi-static and high strain rate compression. In addition, dynamic mechanical analysis is conducted to study the temperature dependent energy dissipation and damping capabilities of these materials. The thermal characterization includes study of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE. A356/SiCHP syntactic foams are not strain rate sensitive as the compressive strength displayed little variation between the tested strain rates of 0.001–2100 s−1. Microscopic analysis of the high strain rate compression tested specimens showed that the fracture is initiated by the failure of hollow particles at the onset of the plastic deformation region. This is followed by plastic deformation of the matrix material and further crushing of particles. The syntactic foams showed decrease in storage modulus with increasing temperature and the trend was nearly linear up to 500 °C. The alloy shows a similar behavior at low temperature but the decrease in storage modulus increases sharply over 375 °C. The loss modulus is very small for the tested materials because of lack of viscoelasticity in metallic materials. The trend in the loss modulus is opposite, where the matrix alloy has lower loss modulus than syntactic foams at low temperature. However, over 250 °C the matrix loss modulus starts to increase rapidly and attains a peak around 460 °C. Syntactic foams have higher damping parameter at low temperatures than the matrix alloy. Incorporation of SiCHP helps in decreasing CTE. Compared to the CTE of the matrix alloy, 23.4 × 10−6 °C−1, syntactic foams showed CTE values as low as 11.67 × 10−6 °C−1.

  3. Properties of welded joints in laser welding of aeronautic aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of the laser welding of the aluminum-lithium alloys (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of the nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by the cold plastic deformation method on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys.

  4. Long term immersion test of aluminum alloy AA 6061 used for fuel cladding in MTR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linardi, Evelina M.; Rodriguez, Sebastian; Haddad, Roberto; Lanzani, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present the results of long term immersion tests performed in the aluminum alloy AA 6061, used for fuel cladding in MTR type reactors. The tests were performed at open circuit potential in high purity water (ρ = 18.2 MΩ.cm) and in 10 -3 M NaCl solution. Two kinds of assemblies were studied: simple sheets and artificial crevices, immersed during 6, 12 and 18 months at room temperature. In both media and both assemblies, the aluminum hydroxide phases crystalline bayerite and bohemite were identified. It was found that a kind of localized attack named alkaline attack occurs around the iron-rich intermetallics. These particles were confirmed to control the corrosion of the AA 6061 alloy in an aerated medium. Immersion times for up to 18 months did not increase the oxide growth or the alkaline attack on the AA 6061 alloy. (author)

  5. Recent Developments in the Formability of Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banabic, Dorel; Cazacu, Oana; Paraianu, Liana; Jurco, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The paper presents a few recent contributions brought by the authors in the field of the formability of aluminum alloys. A new concept for calculating Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) using the finite element method is presented. The article presents a new strategy for calculating both branches of an FLD, using a Hutchinson - Neale model implemented in a finite element code. The simulations have been performed with Abaqus/Standard. The constitutive model has been implemented using a UMAT subroutine. The plastic anisotropy of the sheet metal is described by the Cazacu-Barlat and the BBC2003 yield criteria. The theoretical predictions have been compared with the results given by the classical Hutchinson - Neale method and also with experimental data for different aluminum alloys. The comparison proves the capability of the finite element method to predict the strain localization. A computer program used for interactive calculation and graphical representation of different Yield Loci and Forming Limit Diagrams has also been developed. The program is based on a Hutchinson-Neale model. Different yield criteria (Hill 1948, Barlat-Lian and BBC 2003) are implemented in this model. The program consists in three modules: a graphical interface for input, a module for the identification and visualization of the yield surfaces, and a module for calculating and visualizing the forming limit curves. A useful facility offered by the program is the possibility to perform the sensitivity analysis both for the yield surface and the forming limit curves. The numerical results can be compared with experimental data, using the import/export facilities included in the program.

  6. Recent Developments in the Formability of Aluminum Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banabic, Dorel; Paraianu, Liana; Jurco, Paul; Cazacu, Oana

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a few recent contributions brought by the authors in the field of the formability of aluminum alloys. A new concept for calculating Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) using the finite element method is presented. The article presents a new strategy for calculating both branches of an FLD, using a Hutchinson - Neale model implemented in a finite element code. The simulations have been performed with Abaqus/Standard. The constitutive model has been implemented using a UMAT subroutine. The plastic anisotropy of the sheet metal is described by the Cazacu-Barlat and the BBC2003 yield criteria. The theoretical predictions have been compared with the results given by the classical Hutchinson - Neale method and also with experimental data for different aluminum alloys. The comparison proves the capability of the finite element method to predict the strain localization. A computer program used for interactive calculation and graphical representation of different Yield Loci and Forming Limit Diagrams has also been developed. The program is based on a Hutchinson-Neale model. Different yield criteria (Hill 1948, Barlat-Lian and BBC 2003) are implemented in this model. The program consists in three modules: a graphical interface for input, a module for the identification and visualization of the yield surfaces, and a module for calculating and visualizing the forming limit curves. A useful facility offered by the program is the possibility to perform the sensitivity analysis both for the yield surface and the forming limit curves. The numerical results can be compared with experimental data, using the import/export facilities included in the program

  7. Water and oil wettability of anodized 6016 aluminum alloy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S. P.; Alves, C. F. Almeida; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on the control of wettability behaviour of a 6000 series aluminum (Al) alloy surface (Al6016-T4), which is widely used in the automotive and aerospace industries. In order to induce the surface micro-nanostructuring of the surface, a combination of prior mechanical polishing steps followed by anodization process with different conditions was used. The surface polishing with sandpaper grit size 1000 promoted aligned grooves on the surface leading to static water contact angle (WCA) of 91° and oil (α-bromonaphthalene) contact angle (OCA) of 32°, indicating a slightly hydrophobic and oleophilic character. H2SO4 and H3PO4 acid electrolytes were used to grow aluminum oxide layers (Al2O3) by anodization, working at 15 V/18° C and 100 V/0 °C, respectively, in one or two-steps configuration. Overall, the anodization results showed that the structured Al surfaces were hydrophilic and oleophilic-like with both WCA and OCA below 90°. The one-step configuration led to a dimple-shaped Al alloy surface with small diameter of around 31 nm, in case of H2SO4, and with larger diameters of around 223 nm in case of H3PO4. The larger dimples achieved with H3PO4 electrolyte allowed to reach a slight hydrophobic surface. The thicker porous Al oxide layers, produced by anodization in two-step configuration, revealed that the liquids can penetrate easily inside the non-ordered porous structures and, thus, the surface wettability tended to superhydrophilic and superoleophilic character (CA OCA. This inversion in favour of the hydrophilic-oleophobic surface behaviour is of great interest either for lubrication of mechanical components or in water-oil separation process.

  8. Method and alloys for fabricating wrought components for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.D.; Johnson, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Wrought, nickel-based alloys, suitable for components of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor exhibit strength and excellent resistance to carburization at elevated temperatures and include aluminum and titanium in amounts and ratios to promote the growth of carburization resistant films while preserving the wrought character of the alloys. These alloys also include substantial amounts of molybdenum and/or tungsten as solid-solution strengtheners. Chromium may be included in concentrations less than 10% to assist in fabrication. Minor amounts of carbon and one or more carbide-forming metals also contribute to high-temperature strength. The range of compositions of these alloys is given. (author)

  9. Indentation Creep Behavior of Nugget Zone of Friction Stir Welded 2014 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayashree; Robi, P. S.; Sankar, M. Ravi

    2018-04-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the creep behavior of the nugget zone of friction welded 2014 Aluminum alloy by indentation creep tests. Impression creep testing was carried out at different temperatures of 300°C, 350°C and 400 °C with stress 124.77MPa, 187.16MPa, 249.55 MPa using a 1.0 mm diameter WC indenter. Experiments were conducted till the curve enters the steady state creep region. Constitutive modeling of creep behavior was carried out considering the temperature, stress and steady state creep rate. Microstructural investigation of the crept specimen at 400°C temperature and 187.16 MPa load was carried out and found that the small precipitates accumulate along the grain boundaries at the favorable conditions of the creep temperature and stress, new precipitates evolve due to the ageing. The grains are broken and deformed due to the creep phenomena.

  10. Thermal Management in Friction-Stir Welding of Precipitation-Hardening Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Piyush; Reynolds, Anthony

    2015-05-25

    Process design and implementation in FSW is mostly dependent on empirical information gathered through experience. Basic science of friction stir welding and processing can only be complete when fundamental interrelationships between process control parameters and response variables and resulting weld microstructure and properties are established to a reasonable extent. It is known that primary process control parameters like tool rotation and translation rate and forge axis force have complicated and interactive relationships to the process response variables such as peak temperature, time at temperature etc. Of primary influence to the other process response parameters are temperature and its gradient at the deformation and heat affected zones. Through review of pertinent works in the literature and some experimental results from boundary condition work performed in precipitation hardening aluminum alloys this paper will partially elucidate the nature and effects of temperature transients caused by variation of thermal boundaries in Friction Stir Welding.

  11. Fractal nature of aluminum alloys substructures under creep and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Bruno, G.; González-Doncel, G.

    2018-04-01

    The present work offers an explanation for the variation of the power-law stress exponent, n, with the stress σ normalized to the shear modulus G in aluminum alloys. The approach is based on the assumption that the dislocation structure generated with deformation has a fractal nature. It fully explains the evolution of n with σ/G even beyond the so-called power law breakdown region. Creep data from commercially pure Al99.8%, Al-3.85%Mg, and ingot AA6061 alloy tested at different temperatures and stresses are used to validate the proposed ideas. Finally, it is also shown that the fractal description of the dislocation structure agrees well with current knowledge.

  12. Primary and secondary creep in aluminum alloys as a solid state transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Bruno, G.; González-Doncel, G.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the massive literature and the efforts devoted to understand the creep behavior of aluminum alloys, a full description of this phenomenon on the basis of microstructural parameters and experimental conditions is, at present, still missing. The analysis of creep is typically carried out in terms of the so-called steady or secondary creep regime. The present work offers an alternative view of the creep behavior based on the Orowan dislocation dynamics. Our approach considers primary and secondary creep together as solid state isothermal transformations, similar to recrystallization or precipitation phenomena. In this frame, it is shown that the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation, typically used to analyze these transformations, can also be employed to explain creep deformation. The description is fully compatible with present (empirical) models of steady state creep. We used creep curves of commercially pure Al and ingot AA6061 alloy at different temperatures and stresses to validate the proposed model.

  13. Kinetic characterization and of recrystallization of the aluminum alloy 6063 after S work hardening treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Iara Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aluminum 6063 alloy possesses a great industrial interest, presenting characteristics that justify its frequent use, when compared to the other aluminum alloys: the precipitation hardening and high cold work capacity. These alloys present high ductility, that allows their use in operations with high deformation degrees, as the cold work. The objective of this work is to show comparative analysis of the hardness Vickers of the commercial aluminum 6063 alloy, after cold work with different area reduction degree and thermal treatment. Considering the frequent utilization aluminium 6063 alloy, this work studies the characterization and recrystallization of this alloy, after the plastic deformation in different area reduction degrees, thermal treatment and convenient treatment times - Thermo mechanic Treatments. (author)

  14. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  15. Microstructures of erbium modified aluminum-copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghof-Hasselbaecher, Ellen; Schmidt, Gerald; Galetz, Mathias; Schuetze, Michael [DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Masset, Patrick J. [Fraunhofer UMSICHT-ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Zhang, Ligang [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). ZIK Virtuhcon; Liu, Libin; Jin, Zhanpeng [Central South Univ., Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Alloying with rare earth metals improves to the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of aluminium base alloys at high temperatures. The rare earth metal erbium may be used for grain refinement. Within a project of computer-aided alloy development based on the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) method various alloys were melted on the Al-rich side of the ternary system Al-Cu-Er under argon atmosphere and their microstructures were characterized in the as-cast state or after long-term isothermal annealing (400 C/960 h) by means of different investigation techniques. As a result, the phases fcc (Al), {tau}{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Er, {theta}-CuAl{sub 2}, {eta}-CuAl, and Al{sub 3}Er were identified, their compositions and fractions were quantified, and their hardnesses were determined. The experimental obtained microstructures agree very well with the calculated solidification behaviors of the cast alloys. The knowledge gained from this work about the phase compositions and microstructures can also be utilized for the fine optimization of the phase diagram. (orig.)

  16. Development of powder metallurgy Al alloys for high temperature aircraft structural applications, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    In this continuing study, the development of mechanically alloyed heat resistant aluminum alloys for aircraft were studied to develop higher strength targets and higher service temperatures. The use of higher alloy additions to MA Al-Fe-Co alloys, employment of prealloyed starting materials, and higher extrusion temperatures were investigated. While the MA Al-Fe-Co alloys exhibited good retention of strength and ductility properties at elevated temperatures and excellent stability of properties after 1000 hour exposure at elevated temperatures, a sensitivity of this system to low extrusion strain rates adversely affected the level of strength achieved. MA alloys in the Al-Li family showed excellent notched toughness and property stability after long time exposures at elevated temperatures. A loss of Li during processing and the higher extrusion temperature 482 K (900 F) resulted in low mechanical strengths. Subsequent hot and cold working of the MA Al-Li had only a mild influence on properties.

  17. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing: Part II. Precipitates by in situ aluminum alloy corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Kasza, Ken E.; Shack, William J.; Natesan, Ken; Klein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Sump strainer head loss testing to evaluate chemical effects. → Aluminum hydroxide precipitates by in situ Al alloy corrosion caused head loss. → Intermetallic particles released from Al alloy can also cause significant head loss. → When evaluating Al effect on head loss, intermetallics should be considered. - Abstract: Vertical loop head loss tests were performed with 6061 and 1100 aluminum (Al) alloy plates immersed in borated solution at pH = 9.3 at room temperature and 60 o C. The results suggest that the potential for corrosion of an Al alloy to result in increased head loss across a glass fiber bed may depend on its microstructure, i.e., the size distribution and number density of intermetallic particles that are present in Al matrix and FeSiAl ternary compounds, as well as its Al release rate. Per unit mass of Al removed from solution, the WCAP-16530 aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ) surrogate was more effective in increasing head loss than the Al(OH) 3 precipitates formed in situ by corrosion of Al alloy. However, in choosing a representative amount of surrogate for plant specific testing, consideration should be given to the potential for additional head losses due to intermetallic particles and the apparent reduction in the effective solubility of Al(OH) 3 when intermetallic particles are present.

  18. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Aluminum Alloy Plate AA 7055

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junzhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through-thickness microstructure and mechanical property of AA 7055-T7751 aluminum alloy plate were investigated by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD, transmission electron microscope (TEM and small angle X-ray scattering(SAXS. The results indicate an inhomogeneous distribution of microstructure through the thickness. The degree of recrystallization decreases gradually from 69% to 19.1%, as deepening from the surface to the center of the plate. The size of subgrains decreases from 10 μm at the surface to around 2 μm at the center. Strong texture of rolling type is observed near the center but the intensity decreases gradually as nearing the surface and the shear texture becomes the dominant. High density of plate-like η' phases are observed in the alloy, indicating the sufficient precipitation. η' precipitates of this condition are around 3.7 nm in radius, 1-3 nm in thickness and are found coherent with the Al matrix with a coherent strain of 0.0133, showing a strong strengthening effect. The heterogeneity in grain scale does not influence the distribution and the morphology of precipitates. The yield strength (L direction varies linearly along the thickness direction of the plate, fitting an equation of σy=-38.7S+604.8 (0≤S≤1. The variation of yield strength is related to the heterogeneity of grain structure.

  19. Chemically activated nanodiamonds for aluminum alloy corrosion protection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannstein, Inga; Adler, Anne-Katrin; Lapina, Victoria; Osipov, Vladimir; Opitz, Jörg; Schreiber, Jürgen; Meyendorf, Norbert

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, a smart coating for light metal alloys was developed and investigated. Chemically activated nanodiamonds (CANDiT) were electrophoretically deposited onto anodized aluminum alloy AA2024 substrates in order to increase corrosion resistance, enhance bonding properties and establish a means of corrosion monitoring based on the fluorescence behavior of the particles. In order to create stable aqueous CANDiT dispersions suitable for electrophoretic deposition, mechanical milling had to be implemented under specific chemical conditions. The influence of the CANDiT volume fraction and pH of the dispersion on the electrochemical properties of the coated samples was investigated. Linear voltammetry measurements reveal that the chemical characteristics of the CANDiT dispersion have a distinct influence on the quality of the coating. The fluorescence spectra as well as fluorescence excitation spectra of the samples show that corrosion can be easily detected by optical means. Furthermore, an optimization on the basis of "smart" - algorithms for the data processing of a surface analysis by the laser-speckle-method is presented.

  20. Wear resistance analysis of the aluminum 7075 alloy and the nanostructured aluminum 7075 - silver nanoparticles composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Ruiz R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured composites of the aluminum 7075 alloy and carbon-coated silver nanoparticles were synthetized by the mechanical milling technique using a high-energy mill SPEX 8000M; the powders generated were compacted, sintered and hot-extruded to produce 1 cm-diameter bars. The composites were then subjected to a wear test using a pin-on-disc device to validate the hypothesis that second phase-ductile nanometric particles homogenously distributed throughout the metalmatrix improve the wear resistance of the material. It was found that silver nanoparticles prevent the wear of the material by acting as an obstacle to dislocations movement during the plastic deformation of the contact surface, as well as a solid lubricant when these are separated from the metal-matrix.

  1. Study on Friction and Wear Characteristics of Aluminum Alloy Hydraulic Valve Body and Its Antiwear Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order for the working status of the aluminum alloyed hydraulic valve body to be controlled in actual conditions, a new friction and wear design device was designed for the cast iron and aluminum alloyed valve bodies comparison under the same conditions. The results displayed that: (1 The oil leakage of the aluminum alloyed hydraulic valve body was higher than the corresponding oil leakage of the iron body during the initial running stage. Besides during a later running stage, the oil leakage of the aluminum alloyed body was lower than corresponding oil leakage of the iron body; (2 The actual oil leakage of different materials consisted of two parts: the foundation leakage that was the leakage of the valve without wear and wear leakage that was caused by the worn valve body; (3 The aluminum alloyed valve could rely on the dust filling furrow and melting mechanism that led the body surface to retain dynamic balance, resulting in the valve leakage preservation at a low level. The aluminum alloy modified valve body can meet the requirements of hydraulic leakage under pressure, possibly constituting this alloy suitable for hydraulic valve body manufacturing.

  2. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characteristics in Heat-Treated Aluminum Alloy (Al-Mg-Si-Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongBeom Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear ultrasonic technique has been known to be more sensitive to minute variation of elastic properties in material than the conventional linear ultrasonic method. In this study, the ultrasonic nonlinear characteristics in the heat-treated aluminum alloy (Al-Mg-Si-Cu have been evaluated. For this, the specimens were heat treated for various heating period up to 50 hours at three different heating temperatures: 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C. The ultrasonic nonlinear characteristics of each specimen were evaluated by measuring the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter β from the amplitudes of fundamental and second harmonic frequency components in the transmitted ultrasonic wave. After the ultrasonic test, tensile strengths and elongations were obtained by the tensile test to compare with the parameter β. The heating time showing a peak in the parameter β was identical to that showing critical change in the tensile strength and elongation, and such peak appeared at the earlier heating time in the higher heating temperature. These results suggest that the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter β can be used for monitoring the variations in elastic properties of aluminum alloys according to the heat treatment.

  3. Analysis and Comparison of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Sabina Luisa; Casalino, Giuseppe; Casavola, Caterina; Moramarco, Vincenzo

    2013-12-18

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process; i.e. , no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than conventional fusion welding, nevertheless it has some disadvantages. Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding (LAFSW) is a combination in which the FSW is the dominant welding process and the laser pre-heats the weld. In this work FSW and LAFSW tests were conducted on 6 mm thick 5754H111 aluminum alloy plates in butt joint configuration. LAFSW is studied firstly to demonstrate the weldability of aluminum alloy using that technique. Secondly, process parameters, such as laser power and temperature gradient are investigated in order to evaluate changes in microstructure, micro-hardness, residual stress, and tensile properties. Once the possibility to achieve sound weld using LAFSW is demonstrated, it will be possible to explore the benefits for tool wear, higher welding speeds, and lower clamping force.

  4. Some properties of aluminum-uranium alloys in the cast, rolled and annealed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.I.; McGee, I.J.; Norlock, L.R.

    1960-06-01

    The metallographic and hardness changes associated with the rolling and subsequent. annealing of aluminum alloys containing up to 30-wt.% uranium have been described. The alloys possessed good rolling properties. However the richer alloys were unusual in that after an initial reduction,, further cold rolling caused softening. In the alloy range examined, increasing uranium contents caused reduced preferred orientation. Qualitative explanations have been proposed to account for the observations on roll softening and preferred orientation. Heat-treating and ageing experiments confirmed that the solid solubility of uranium in aluminum is negligible. (author)

  5. Preparation of rare earth and other metal alloys containing aluminum and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.; Goldsmith, J.R.; Gray, M.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for making alloys of aluminum and silicon with a third metal which may be a rare earth or a member of groups 4b, 5b, or 6b of the periodic table. The flux system CaF 2 -CaO-Al 2 O 3 is used as a solvent to provide a reactive medium for the alloy-forming reactions. Aluminum is supplied as a reducing agent, and silicon is added as a sink for the alloying metal. The resulting alloy may be used in steels. (L.L.)

  6. Influence of quenching cooling rate on residual stress and tensile properties of 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-xun, E-mail: zhangyuxun198@163.com; Yi, You-ping, E-mail: yyp@csu.edu.cn; Huang, Shi-quan, E-mail: huangsqcsu@sina.com; Dong, Fei

    2016-09-30

    To balance the quenching residual stress and the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys, the influence of cooling rate on the residual stress and tensile properties was investigated by numerical simulation and quenching experiments. During the quenching experiments, 2A14 aluminum alloy samples were treated with different water temperatures (20 °C, 70 °C, 100 °C) and a step quenching process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to measure the residual stress. Prior to them, the quenching sensitivity was studied. For this purpose, the time-temperature-properties (TTP) curves were measured and the alloy microstructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2A14 aluminum alloys were mainly determined by the cooling rate within the quenching sensitive temperature range from 300 to 400 °C. Lower cooling rates reduced the tensile strength and yield strength due to a decrease amount of fine precipitates, and reduced the residual stress with the reduction of plastic strain and the degree of inhomogeneous plastic deformation. In addition, the residual stress changed faster than the tensile properties with decreasing cooling rate. Therefore, warm water (70 °C) was used to balance the residual stress and tensile properties of 140-mm-thick 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings, since it can achieve low cooling rates. Furthermore, by combining this characteristic and the material quenching sensitivity, step quenching produced similar tensile properties and lower residual stress, compared with the sample quenched in warm water (70 °C), by increasing cooling rate within quenching sensitivity range and reducing it in other ranges.

  7. Influence of quenching cooling rate on residual stress and tensile properties of 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-xun; Yi, You-ping; Huang, Shi-quan; Dong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    To balance the quenching residual stress and the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys, the influence of cooling rate on the residual stress and tensile properties was investigated by numerical simulation and quenching experiments. During the quenching experiments, 2A14 aluminum alloy samples were treated with different water temperatures (20 °C, 70 °C, 100 °C) and a step quenching process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to measure the residual stress. Prior to them, the quenching sensitivity was studied. For this purpose, the time-temperature-properties (TTP) curves were measured and the alloy microstructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2A14 aluminum alloys were mainly determined by the cooling rate within the quenching sensitive temperature range from 300 to 400 °C. Lower cooling rates reduced the tensile strength and yield strength due to a decrease amount of fine precipitates, and reduced the residual stress with the reduction of plastic strain and the degree of inhomogeneous plastic deformation. In addition, the residual stress changed faster than the tensile properties with decreasing cooling rate. Therefore, warm water (70 °C) was used to balance the residual stress and tensile properties of 140-mm-thick 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings, since it can achieve low cooling rates. Furthermore, by combining this characteristic and the material quenching sensitivity, step quenching produced similar tensile properties and lower residual stress, compared with the sample quenched in warm water (70 °C), by increasing cooling rate within quenching sensitivity range and reducing it in other ranges.

  8. Material characterization and finite element simulations of aluminum alloy sheets during non-isothermal forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan

    The utilization of more non-ferrous materials is one of the key factors to succeed out of the constantly increasing demand for lightweight vehicles in automotive sector. Aluminum-magnesium alloys have been identified as the most promising substitutions to the conventional steel without significant compromise in structural stiffness and strength. However, the conventional forming methods to deform the aluminum alloy sheets are either costly or insufficient in formability which limit the wide applications of aluminum alloy sheets. A recently proposed non-isothermal hot stamping approach, which is also referred as Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) stamping, aims at fitting the commercial grade aluminum alloy sheets, such as AA5XXX and AA7XXX, into high-volume and cost-effective production for automotive sector. In essence, HB-CD is a mutation of the conventional hot stamping approach for boron steel (22MnB5) which deforms the hot blank within the cold tool set. By elevating the operation temperature, the formability of aluminum alloy sheets can be significantly improved. Meanwhile, heating the blank only and deforming within the cold tool sets allow to reduce the energy and time consumed. This research work aims at conducting a comprehensive investigation of HB-CD with particular focuses on material characterization, constitutive modeling and coupled thermo-mechanical finite element simulations with validation. The material properties of AA5182-O, a popular commercial grade of aluminum alloy sheet in automotive sector, are obtained through isothermal tensile testing at temperatures from 25° to 300°, covering a quasi-static strain-rate range (0.001--0.1s-1). As the state-of-the-art non-contact strain measurement technique, digital image correlation (DIC) system is utilized to evaluate the stress-strain curves as well as to reveal the details of material deformation with full-field and multi-axis strain measurement. Material anisotropy is characterized by extracting the

  9. Corrosion properties of aluminum based alloys deposited by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enders, B.; Krauss, S.; Wolf, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    The replacement of cadmium coatings by other protective measures is an important task because of the environmentally detrimental properties of cadmium. Therefore, aluminum and aluminum alloy coatings containing elements such as silicon or magnesium with more positive or negative positions in the galvanic series in relation to pure aluminum were deposited by ion beam assisted deposition onto glass and low carbon steel. Pure aluminum films were deposited onto low carbon steel in order to study the influence of the ion-to-atom arrival ratio and the angle of ion incidence on the corrosion properties. For examination of the pitting behavior as a function of the concentration of alloying element, quasipotentiostatic current-potential and potentiostatic current-time plots were measured in chlorine-containing acetate buffer. It is shown that these alloys can protect steel substrates under uniform and pitting corrosion conditions considerably better than pure aluminum coatings. ((orig.))

  10. Joint properties of dissimilar Al6061-T6 aluminum alloy/Ti–6%Al–4%V titanium alloy by gas tungsten arc welding assisted hybrid friction stir welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, HanSur; Bang, HeeSeon; Song, HyunJong; Joo, SungMin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid friction stir welding for Al alloy and Ti alloy joint has been carried out. • Mechanical strength of dissimilar joint by HFSW and FSW has been compared. • Microstructure of dissimilar joint by HFSW and FSW has been compared. - Abstract: Hybrid friction stir butt welding of Al6061-T6 aluminum alloy plate to Ti–6%Al–4%V titanium alloy plate with satisfactory acceptable joint strength was successfully achieved using preceding gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) preheating heat source of the Ti alloy plate surface. Hybrid friction stir welding (HFSW) joints were welded completely without any unwelded zone resulting from smooth material flow by equally distributed temperature both in Al alloy side and Ti alloy side using GTAW assistance for preheating the Ti alloy plate unlike friction stir welding (FSW) joints. The ultimate tensile strength was approximately 91% in HFSW welds by that of the Al alloy base metal, which was 24% higher than that of FSW welds without GTAW under same welding condition. Notably, it was found that elongation in HFSW welds increased significantly compared with that of FSW welds, which resulted in improved joint strength. The ductile fracture was the main fracture mode in tensile test of HFSW welds

  11. Demonstration of the Impact of Thermomagnetic Processing on Cast Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Bart L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kesler, Michael S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, Hunter B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This project builds on an earlier Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Technical Collaboration phase 1 project to investigate application of high magnetic fields during solution heat treating and aging of three different cast aluminum alloys.

  12. Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Aircraft Aluminum Alloys Damaged by Prior Corrosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, J

    2002-01-01

    At the time of the initiation of this project, there was no comprehensive data describing corrosion's effect on the fatigue and fracture behavior of aluminum alloys typically found in aging aircraft...

  13. The "Lazy S" Feature in Friction Stir Welding of AA2099 Aluminum -Lithium Alloy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klages, Holli K

    2007-01-01

    The addition of Lithium to Aluminum-Lithium (Al-Li) alloys results in reduced density as well as increased stiffness and strength, and so these materials are attractive for selected aerospace structures...

  14. Corrosion of Aluminum Alloys in the Presence of Fire-Retardant Aircraft Interior Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This research project was to evaluate the potential for fire-retardant materials used in aircraft interiors to cause corrosion of aluminum structural alloys. Service Difficulty Reports (SDR's) were reviewed for several aircraft types, and the most fr...

  15. Corrosion and Corrosion Fatigue of Aluminum Alloys: Chemistry, Micromechanics and Reliability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Robert

    1998-01-01

    ... No. F49620-98-1-0198, to further develop a basic mechanistic understanding of the damage evolution processes of localized corrosion and corrosion fatigue crack nucleation and growth in aluminum alloys...

  16. Study of Henna (Lawsonia inermis) as Natural Corrosion Inhibitor for Aluminum Alloy in Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nik, W B Wan; Zulkifli, F; Sulaiman, O; Samo, K B; Rosliza, R

    2012-01-01

    Commercial henna (Lawsonia inermis) was investigated to inhibit the corrosion of aluminum alloy through immersion in seawater. The aluminum alloy (5083) was prepared in size of 25mm × 25mm × 3mm. The immersion test was conducted in seawater with different concentration of henna, 100ppm, 300ppm, 500ppm for duration of 60 days. Four characterizations were performed in this study which was weight loss study, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and adsorption isotherm. The results indicated that henna has major constituents of lawsone which contributed to the chemisorptions or adsorption process by forming an isolation layers on the aluminum alloy surface which follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the protection layer attached on metal was not permanent and precipitation occurred as the time increases. The highest inhibition efficiency was found at 88% (500ppm). This research found that henna is an excellent natural inhibitor for aluminum alloy in seawater.

  17. Aluminum-Lithium Alloy 2050 for Reduced-Weight, Increased-Stiffness Space Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Touchstone Research Laboratory, along with Alcan Rolled Products -- Ravenswood WV, has identified the Aluminum-Lithium Alloy 2050 as a potentially game-changing...

  18. Analysis of the Transition in Deformation Mechanisms in Superplastic 5083 Aluminum Alloys by Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrell, James

    2001-01-01

    Recently developed Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) methods have been applied to the analysis of microstructure and microtexture of 5083 aluminum alloy materials that have been processed to enable superplasticity...

  19. Phase transformations in nickel-aluminum alloys during ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eridon, J.; Rehn, L.; Was, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of ion beam mixing of nickel-aluminum alloys with 500 keV krypton ions has been investigated over a range of temperature, composition, ion dose, and post-irradiation thermal treatments. Samples were formed by alternate evaporation of layers of aluminum and nickel. A portion of these samples was subsequently annealed to form intermetallic compounds. Irradiations were performed at both room temperature and 80 0 K using the 2MV ion accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. Phase transformations were observed during both in situ irradiations in the High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM) at Argonne, and also in subsequent analysis of an array of irradiated samples. Electron diffraction indicates the presence of metastable crystalline structures not present in the conventional nickel-aluminum phase diagram. Transformations occur at doses as low as 5 x 10 14 cm -2 and continue to develop as the irradiation progresses up to 2 x 10 16 cm -2 . Layer mixing is followed through Rutherford Backscattering analysis. Samples are also checked with x-rays and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). A thermodynamic argument is presented to explain the phase transformations in terms of movements on a free energy diagram. This analysis explains the interesting paradox concerning the radiation hardness of the NiAl phase and the amorphous structure of mixed Ni-50% Al layers

  20. Control of back surface reflectance from aluminum alloyed contacts on silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cudzinovic, M.; Sopori, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A process for forming highly reflective aluminum back contacts with low contact resistance to silicon solar cells is described. By controlling the process conditions, it is possible to vary the silicon/aluminum interface from a specular to a diffuse reflector while maintaining a high interface reflectance. The specular interface is found to be a uniform silicon/aluminum alloy layer a few angstroms thick that has epitaxially regrown on the silicon. The diffuse interface consists of randomly distributed (111) pyramids produced by crystallographic out-diffusion of the bulk silicon. The light trapping ability of the diffuse contact is found to be close to the theoretical limit. Both types of contacts are found to have specific contact resistivities of 10{sup {minus}5} {Omega}-cm{sup 2}. The process for forming the contacts involves illuminating the devices with tungsten halogen lamps. The process is rapid (under 100 s) and low temperature (peak temperature < 580{degrees}C), making it favorable for commercial solar cell fabrication.

  1. Accelerated Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Effect-Powder Metallurgy Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, R. S.; Newman, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low (Delta) K, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = K(sub min)/K(sub max)). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of K(sub max) (K(sub max) = 0.4 K(sub IC)). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and K(sub max) influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  2. Fatigue crack growth resistance and crack closure behavior in two aluminum alloys for aeronautical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Maria Rodrigues

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-lithium alloys are candidate materials for many aerospace applications because of their high specific strength and elastic modulus. These alloys have several unique characteristics such as excellent fatigue crack growth resistance when compared with that of the conventional 2000 and 7000 series alloys. In this study, fatigue crack propagation behavior has been examined in a commercial thin plate of Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloy (8090, with specific emphasis at the fatigue threshold. The results are compared with those of the traditional Al-Cu-Mg alloy (2024. Fatigue crack closure is used to explain the different behavior of the compared alloys.

  3. Low Cost Al-Si Casting Alloy As In-Situ Composite for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloy has been successfully developed at NASA- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that has significant improvement in tensile and fatigue strength at elevated temperatures (500 F-700 F). The alloy offers a number of benefits such as light weight, high hardness, low thermal expansion and high surface wear resistance. In hypereutectic form, this alloy is considered as an in-situ Al-Si composite with tensile strength of about 90% higher than the auto industry 390 alloy at 600 F. This composite is very economically produced by using either conventional permanent steel molds or die casting. The projected material cost is less than $0.90 per pound, and automotive components such as pistons can be cast for high production rate using conventional casting techniques with a low and fully accounted cost. Key Words: Metal matrix composites, In-situ composite, aluminum-silicon alloy, hypereutectic alloy, permanent mold casting, die casting.

  4. Study of localized corrosion in aluminum alloys by the scanning reference electrode technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1995-01-01

    Localized corrosion in 2219-T87 aluminum (Al) alloy, 2195 aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy, and welded 2195 Al-Li alloy (4043 filler) have been investigated using the relatively new scanning reference electrode technique (SRET). Anodic sites are more frequent and of greater strength in the 2195 Al-Li alloy than in the 2219-T87 Al alloy, indicating a greater tendency toward pitting for the latter. However, the overall corrosion rates are about the same for these two alloys, as determined using the polarization resistance technique. In the welded 2195 Al-Li alloy, the weld bean is entirely cathodic, with rather strongly anodic heat affected zones (HAZ) bordering both sides, indicating a high probability of corrosion in the HAZ parallel to the weld bead.

  5. Physical simulation method for the investigation of weld seam formation during the extrusion of aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, G; Zhou, J.

    2017-01-01

    Extrusion through the porthole die is a predominant forming process used in the production of hollow aluminum alloy profiles across the aluminum extrusion industry. Longitudinal weld seams formed during the process may negatively influence the quality of extruded profiles. It is therefore of

  6. Review and Study of Physics Driven Pitting Corrosion Modeling in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    aluminum subjected to pitting corrosion under fatigue conditions ”, Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 1253-1259 Wei, R.P. (2001) “A model for...and material microstructure applied to corrosion and fatigue of aluminum and steel alloys”, Engineering Fracture Mechanics , Vol. 76, pp. 695-708 Wei...Fatigue Behavior of Aluminum Alloy 7075 -T6: Modeling and Experimental Studies", Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 297, Issue: 1-2, 15, pp. 223

  7. Microstructural analysis of the 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, George E.

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of this research was to explain a tendency of 2195 Al-Li alloy to crack at elevated temperature during welding. Therefore, a study was made on the effect of welding and thermal treatment on the microstructure of Al-Li Alloy 2195. The critical roles of precipitates, boundaries, phases, and other features of the microstructure were inferred from the crack propagation paths and the morphology of fracture surface of the alloy with different microstructures. Particular emphasis was placed on the microstructures generated by the welding process and the mechanisms of crack propagation in such structures. Variation of the welding parameters and thermal treatments were used to alter the micro/macro structures, and they were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. A theoretical model is proposed to explain changes in the microstructure of welded material. This model proposes a chemical reaction in which gases from the air (i.e., nitrogen) release hydrogen inside the alloy. Such a reaction could generate large internal stresses capable to induce porosity and crack-like delamination in the material.

  8. An investigation into hot deformation of aluminum alloy 5083

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinipour, S.J. [Manufacturing Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, Nushirvani Institute of Technology, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 484, Shariati Avenue, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: j.hosseini@nit.ac.ir

    2009-02-15

    In this paper the hot deformation behavior of Al-5083 commercial alloy is studied. For this purpose, hot tensile tests have been carried out at various temperatures and strain rates. Velocity jump tests have been performed to determine stress-strain rate curves at various temperatures and strains. The microstructures have been studied by optical and electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that continuous recrystallization occurs during hot deformation of the AA5083. Maximum elongation about 250% is obtained at 450 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}. The failure surface is narrow and failure occurs by necking.

  9. An investigation into hot deformation of aluminum alloy 5083

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinipour, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the hot deformation behavior of Al-5083 commercial alloy is studied. For this purpose, hot tensile tests have been carried out at various temperatures and strain rates. Velocity jump tests have been performed to determine stress-strain rate curves at various temperatures and strains. The microstructures have been studied by optical and electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that continuous recrystallization occurs during hot deformation of the AA5083. Maximum elongation about 250% is obtained at 450 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s -1 . The failure surface is narrow and failure occurs by necking

  10. Interfacial Reaction During Dissimilar Joining of Aluminum Alloy to Magnesium and Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, J. D.; Panteli, A.; Zhang, C. Q.; Baptiste, D.; Cai, E.; Prangnell, P. B.

    Ultrasonic welding (USW), a solid state joining process, has been used to produce welds between AA6111 aluminum alloy and AZ31 magnesium alloys or titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The mechanical properties of the welds have been assessed and it has been shown that it is the nature and thickness of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the joint line that are critical in determining joint strength and particularly fracture energy. Al-Mg welds suffer from a very low fracture energy, even when strength is comparable with that of similar metal Mg-Mg welds, due to a thick IMC layer always being formed. It is demonstrated that in USW of Al-Ti alloy the slow interdiffusion kinetics means that an IMC layer does not form during welding, and fracture energy is greater. A model has been developed to predict IMC formation during welding and provide an understanding of the critical factors that determine the IMC thickness. It is predicted that in Al-Mg welds, most of the lMC thickening occurs whilst the IMC regions grow as separate islands, prior to the formation of a continuous layer.

  11. Enhancement of heat dissipation of LED module with cupric-oxide composite coating on aluminum-alloy heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Junho; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Chung, Wonsub

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We fabricate the CuO/resin composite coating layer on aluminum alloy heat sink. • CuO/resin coating considerably improved the surface emissivity. • The LED junction temperature was reduced by CuO/resin coated heat sink. • The thermal resistance of heat sink was decreased by CuO/resin composite coating at 200 μm thickness. - Abstract: A composite coating composed of cupric oxide (CuO) and silicon-based resin was applied to an aluminum-alloy heat sink for a light emitting diode (LED) module. The purpose of the composite coating is to improve the heat dissipation performance of heat sink by enhancing thermal radiation emission. The heat dissipation performance was investigated in terms of LED junction temperature and thermal resistance using a thermal transient method. The CuO and silicon-based resin composite coating showed higher emissivity, and the lower junction temperature and thermal resistance of the heat sink was achieved. In addition, a continuous operation test of the LED chip with the heat sink revealed that the surface treated with the CuO composite coating stably dissipated heat without degradation. In conclusion, the composite coating proposed here showed a significant improvement of the heat dissipation performance of the aluminum-alloy heat sink due to the enhanced thermal radiation property.

  12. Oxidation of aluminum alloy cladding for research and test reactor fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hofman, G. L.; Robinson, A. B.; Snelgrove, J. L.; Hanan, N.

    2008-08-01

    The oxide thicknesses on aluminum alloy cladding were measured for the test plates from irradiation tests RERTR-6 and 7A in the ATR (advanced test reactor). The measured thicknesses were substantially lower than those of test plates with similar power from other reactors available in the literature. The main reason is believed to be due to the lower pH (pH 5.1-5.3) of the primary coolant water in the ATR than in the other reactors (pH 5.9-6.5) for which we have data. An empirical model for oxide film thickness predictions on aluminum alloy used as fuel cladding in the test reactors was developed as a function of irradiation time, temperature, surface heat flux, pH, and coolant flow rate. The applicable ranges of pH and coolant flow rates cover most research and test reactors. The predictions by the new model are in good agreement with the in-pile test data available in the literature as well as with the RERTR test data measured in the ATR.

  13. Oxidation of aluminum alloy cladding for research and test reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: yskim@anl.gov; Hofman, G.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Robinson, A.B. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Snelgrove, J.L.; Hanan, N. [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2008-08-31

    The oxide thicknesses on aluminum alloy cladding were measured for the test plates from irradiation tests RERTR-6 and 7A in the ATR (advanced test reactor). The measured thicknesses were substantially lower than those of test plates with similar power from other reactors available in the literature. The main reason is believed to be due to the lower pH (pH 5.1-5.3) of the primary coolant water in the ATR than in the other reactors (pH 5.9-6.5) for which we have data. An empirical model for oxide film thickness predictions on aluminum alloy used as fuel cladding in the test reactors was developed as a function of irradiation time, temperature, surface heat flux, pH, and coolant flow rate. The applicable ranges of pH and coolant flow rates cover most research and test reactors. The predictions by the new model are in good agreement with the in-pile test data available in the literature as well as with the RERTR test data measured in the ATR.

  14. Effect of natural aging on the properties of heat-treated A356 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Paz, J.F.; Paray, F.; Gruzleski, J.E.; Emadi, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the heat treatment of aluminum alloys, there is usually a delay time between quenching and the final artificial aging. This delay is called natural aging or preaging at room temperature. This research was conducted in order to study the effect of various natural aging times (0, 6, 12 and 20 hours) on the properties of unmodified and strontium modified A356 aluminum alloys solution heat-treated 4 hours at 540 o C, water quenched and artificially aged 6 hours at 155 o C and 170 o C. The samples were tested for electrical conductivity, microhardness, and tensile properties. In the case of the samples artificially aged at 155 o C from the results it can be seen a decrease in the microhardness and yield strength with natural aging. Regarding the samples aged at 170 o C it is noticed that natural aging at 12 hours will result in the lowest electrical conductivity, yield strength and microhardness. However, there is evidence of recovery of those properties at 20 hours of natural aging. Regarding the elongation, natural aging seems to have a positive effect when artificial aging is carried out at 155 o C, but at 170 o C an optimum elongation is obtained only at 12 hours. (author)

  15. Characteristics of plasma plume in fiber laser welding of aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Cong; Hu, Ming; Guo, Lianbo; Wang, Zemin, E-mail: zmwang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Spectroscopic properties of fiber laser induced Al plasma plume are measured. • The plume is usually a metal vapor dominated weakly ionized plasma. • The plume is a strongly ionized plasma after laser power is higher than 5 kW. • Plasma shielding effect must be considered after laser power reaches 5 kW. • Plasma shielding effect is dominated by inverse bremsstrahlung absorption. - Abstract: To understand the laser–matter interaction in fiber laser welding of aluminum alloys, the effects of laser power on the characteristics of fiber laser induced plasma plume were studied by emission spectroscopic analysis firstly. The plasma characteristic parameters including electron temperature, electron density, ionization degree, and inverse bremsstrahlung linear absorption coefficient were computed according to the spectral data. It was found that the laser power of 5 kW is a turning point. After the laser power reaches 5 kW, the plume changes from a metal vapor dominated weakly ionized plasma to a strongly ionized plasma. The corresponding phenomena are the dramatic increase of the value of characteristic parameters and the appearance of strong plasma shielding effect. The calculation of effective laser power density demonstrated that the plasma shielding effect is dominated by inverse bremsstrahlung absorption. The finding suggested the plasma shielding effect must be considered in fiber laser welding of aluminum alloys, rather than is ignored as claimed in previous view.

  16. Springback of aluminum alloy brazing sheet in warm forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu Bin; George, Ryan; Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J.; Winkler, Sooky

    2017-10-01

    The use of aluminum is increasing in the automotive industry due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, recyclability and corrosion resistance. However, aluminum is prone to significant springback due to its low elastic modulus coupled with its high strength. In this paper, a warm forming process is studied to improve the springback characteristics of 0.2 mm thick brazing sheet with an AA3003 core and AA4045 clad. Warm forming decreases springback by lowering the flow stress. The parts formed have complex features and geometries that are representative of automotive heat exchangers. The key objective is to utilize warm forming to control the springback to improve the part flatness which enables the use of harder temper material with improved strength. The experiments are performed by using heated dies at several different temperatures up to 350 °C and the blanks are pre-heated in the dies. The measured springback showed a reduction in curvature and improved flatness after forming at higher temperatures, particularly for the harder temper material conditions.

  17. Corrosion behaviour of zinc and aluminum magnesium alloys by scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and electrochemical noise (EN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, R.D.; Roberge, P.R.; Lafront, A.-M.; Oteyaka, M.O.; Ghali, E.

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion characteristics of five permanent mould magnesium alloys were studied. Two contained aluminum (AZ91D and AZ91E) and three contained zinc as the primary alloying element (ZA104 (Zn 10%, Al 4%), ZAC and ZACS). ZAC contained a small amount of calcium and ZACS contained small amounts of calcium and strontium. Two techniques were used in this study, namely 1) scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and 2) electrochemical noise (EN). The test solution for each case was 5% NaCl saturated with Mg(OH)2 at room temperature. According to the EN measurements, the corrosion rate of AZ91D was the lowest followed by AZ91E, ZACS, ZAC and ZA104. The EN measurements showed that both the frequency and magnitude of current transients were much higher for the zinc based alloys than for the aluminum based alloys. The SRET measurements illustrated that localized corrosion occurred more frequently on the ZA104 sample than on the AZ91D sample. It seemed that increasing the level of zinc and lowering the level of aluminum relative to the levels in AZ91D does not improve corrosion resistance. (author)

  18. A novel anti-frictional multiphase layer produced by plasma nitriding of PVD titanium coated ZL205A aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Yao, J. W.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhu, Y. D.; Guo, J. H.; Wang, Y.; Fu, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Yan, M. F.

    2018-02-01

    The heat treatment (consisting of solid solution and aging), is integrated with the nitriding process of titanium coated ZL205A aluminum alloy to improve the surface and matrix mechanical properties simultaneously. Two-step duplex treatment is adopted to prepare the gradient multiphase layer on a magnesium-free ZL205A aluminum-copper based alloy. Firstly, pure titanium film is deposited on the aluminum alloy substrate using magnetron sputtering. Secondly, the Ti-coated specimen is nitrided at the solid solution temperature of the substrate alloying elements in a gas mixture of N2 and H2 and aged at 175 °C. The microstructure evolution, microhardness as well as the wear resistance of obtained multiphase layers are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), microhardness tester and pin-on-disc tribometer. The multiphase layer, dominated by TiN0.3 or Al3Ti, is prepared with significantly increased layer depth after duplex treatment. The surface hardness of multiphase layer is remarkably improved from 23.7HV to 457HV. The core matrix hardness is also increased to 65HV after aging. The wear rate of the multiphase layer decreases about 55.22% and 49.28% in comparison with the aged and Ti coated specimens, respectively. The predominant wear mechanism for the multiphase layer is abrasive and oxidation, but severe adhesive wear for the aged and Ti coated specimens.

  19. Effect of liquid properties on laser ablation of aluminum and titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Peixuan, E-mail: oypx12@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Peijie [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Leksina, E.G.; Michurin, S.V. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); He, Liangju [School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous surfaces are formed in Al alloy after wet ablation due to phase explosion. • A higher ablation rate is produced in glycerin than that in water and isopropanol. • Effect of liquid properties on mass-removal mechanisms was discussed. • Phase explosion and plasma-induced pressure contribute greatly to mass removal. • Density, heat conductivity and shock impendence of liquid affect ablation rates. - Abstract: In order to study the effect of liquid properties on laser ablation in liquids, aluminum 5A06 and titanium TB5 targets were irradiated by single-pulse infrared laser in isopropanol, distilled water, glycerin and as a comparison, in air, respectively. Craters induced by laser ablation were characterized using scanning electron and white-light interferometric microscopies. The results show that for liquid-mediated ablation, craters with porous surface structures were formed in aluminum target through phase explosion, while no micro-cavities were formed in titanium target owing to high critical temperature of titanium. In addition, ablation rates of aluminum and titanium targets vary with types of ambient media in accordance with such sequence: air < isopropanol < water < glycerin. Further, the influence of liquid properties on material-removal mechanisms for laser ablation in liquid is discussed. It is concluded that the density, thermal conductivity and acoustical impedance of liquid play a dominant role in laser ablation efficiency.

  20. Microstructure, mechanical analysis and optimal selection of 7075 aluminum alloy based composite reinforced with alumina nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezatpour, H.R.; Torabi Parizi, M.; Sajjadi, S.A.; Ebrahimi, G.R.; Chaichi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum metal-matrix nanocomposites (AMMNCs) fabricated by conventional stir-casting process usually show high porosity and poor distribution of nanoparticles within the matrix. In the current study, for the improvement of nanoparticles distribution in the aluminum matrix and enhancement of the mechanical properties, a mixture of Al/nano-Al 2 O 3 powders were injected by pure argon gas into the molten 7075 aluminum alloy and this mixture was extruded at high temperature. Mechanical behavior of the final product was investigated by tensile and compression tests, hardness measurements, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Optical Microscopy. This nanocomposite exhibited some superior properties such as a fine grain microstructure and a reasonable uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the matrix. Mechanical experiments results confirmed that the addition of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles and the extrusion process effectively improved ultimate tensile strength, compression strength and hardness. In next step, we used a Preference Selection Index (PSI) materials selection method to select best combination of strength and workability of Al7075−Al 2 O 3 nanocomposites. By this method, extruded Al7075/0.4 and 0.8 wt % Al 2 O 3 has best combination of strength and workability. - Highlights: • Injection Al/Al 2 O 3 powder is benefit way for improving nanoparticles distribution. • Nanocomposites present superior mechanical properties. • Extrusion process improved significantly mechanical properties of nanocomposites. • Preference Selection Index is a simple and benefit method in material selection.

  1. Microstructural and mechanical properties of pure aluminum, 5083 and 7075 alloys joined by friction stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Selim Sarper [Celal Bayar Univ., Manisa, Muradiye (Turkey)

    2012-07-01

    In this study, microstructural and mechanical properties of pure aluminum, 5083 and 7075 alloys joined by friction stir welding were investigated. Hardness, tensile, bending and impact tests were applied to the welded samples. In addition, optical and SEM tests were carried out. The effects of welding speed on microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated in these materials. Then, the optimal conditions for friction stir welding were determined for pure aluminum, 5083 and 7075 alloys. The maximum hardness was observed for 7075 while the minimum hardness was observed for pure aluminum. (orig.)

  2. Role of Tool Shoulder End Features on Friction Stir Weld Characteristics of 6082 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugada, Krishna Kishore; Adepu, Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the temperature generation around the tool shoulder contact is one of the important aspects of the friction stir welding process. In the present study, the effects of various tool shoulder end feature on the temperature and mechanical properties of the 6082 aluminum alloy were investigated. The experimental results show that the axial force during the welding is considerably reduced by using tools with shoulder end features. The detailed observation revealed that around the tool shoulder contact, the amount of heat generation is higher between trialing edge (TE) to retreating side-leading edge corner (RS-LE) counter clockwise direction and lower between RS-LE to TE clockwise direction. Out of the four shoulder end featured tools, the welds produced with ridges shoulder tool resulted in superior properties with significantly lower axial force (approximately 32%) compared to plane shoulder tool.

  3. Bake hardening of nanograin AA7075 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The bake hardening behavior of AA7075 was studied and compared with its coarse-grain counterpart. ► Nanograin AA7075 exhibited 88–100% increase in bake hardenability. ► Nanograin AA7075 exhibited 36–38% increase in final yield strength after baking. ► Maximum bake hardenability and final yield stress were about 185 MPa and 719 MPa. - Abstract: In the present work, the bake hardening of nanostructured AA7075 aluminum alloy was compared with that of its coarse-grain counterpart. Surface severe plastic deformation (SSPD) was used to produce nanograin layers on both surfaces of workpieces. The nanostructured layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The thickness of nanostructured layer, having the grains of 50–110 nm, was about 75 μm on each side of workpiece. The bake hardenability of nanograin and coarse-grain AA7075 was then compared by pre-straining to 2, 4 and 6% followed by baking at 100 °C and 200 °C for 20 min. Comparing to coarse-grain case, there was about 88–100% increase in bake hardenability and about 36–38% increase in yield strength after the bake hardening of present nanograin AA7075. Such an increase in bake hardenability and strength was achieved when the thickness of two nanograin layers was about only one-tenth of the whole thickness.

  4. Copper, Aluminum and Nickel: A New Monocrystalline Orthodontic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Mark

    Introduction: This study was designed to evaluate, via tensile and bend testing, the mechanical properties of a newly-developed monocrystalline orthodontic archwire comprised of a blend of copper, aluminum, and nickel (CuAlNi). Methods: The sample was comprised of three shape memory alloys; CuAlNi, copper nickel titanium (CuNiTi), and nickel titanium (NiTi); from various orthodontic manufacturers in both 0.018" round and 0.019" x 0.025" rectangular dimensions. Additional data was gathered for similarly sized stainless steel and beta-titanium archwires as a point of reference for drawing conclusions about the relative properties of the archwires. Measurements of loading and unloading forces were recorded in both tension and deflection testing. Repeated-measure ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare loading and unloading forces across wires and one-way ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare elastic moduli and hysteresis. To identify significant differences, Tukey post-hoc comparisons were performed. Results: The modulus of elasticity, deflection forces, and hysteresis profiles of CuAlNi were significantly different than the other superelastic wires tested. In all tests, CuAlNi had a statistically significant lower modulus of elasticity compared to the CuNiTi and NiTi wires (P orthodontic metallurgy.

  5. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of LD10 Aluminum Alloy in UDMH and N2O4 propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhong; Chang, Xinlong; Liu, Wanlei

    2018-03-01

    The LD10 aluminum alloy double cantilever beam specimens were corroded under the conditions of Unsymmetric Uimethyl Hydrazine (UDMH), Dinitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4), and 3.5% NaCl environment. The crack propagation behavior of the aluminum alloy in different corrosion environment was analyzed. The stress corrosion cracking behavior of aluminum alloy in N2O4 is relatively slight and there are not evident stress corrosion phenomenons founded in UDMH.

  6. Determination of Impurities in Aluminum Alloy by INAA Single Comparator Method (K0-Standardization Method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarheel, A.; Khamis, I.; Somel, N.

    2007-01-01

    Multielement determination by the k0 based INAA using k0-IAEA program has been performed at Syrian Atomic Energy Commission using alloys. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Sn and Ti in addition to aluminum element were determined in an aluminum alloy and Ni, Cr, Mo were determined in dental alloys using INAA k0-standardization method. Al-0.1%Au, Ni and Zn certified reference materials were analyzed to assess the suitability and accuracy of the method. Elements were determined in reference materials and samples after short and long irradiations, according to element half-lives.

  7. Effect of surface modifications and environment on the interfacial adhesion of polymer/aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.F. [Xi' an High-technology Institute, Xi' an 710025 (China)], E-mail: xiaofang_liu@263.net; Wu, Q.Y.; Wang, H.G. [Xi' an High-technology Institute, Xi' an 710025 (China)

    2008-06-15

    This work investigates the influence of surface modifications and environmental conditions on the interfacial adhesion of epoxy resin films on a 6016 aluminum alloy, as measured by peeling experiments. The alloy surfaces were pretreated with an etching solution, and then modified, respectively, with aminopropyl silane solution, aminopropyl phosphonate solution, and hexamethyldisiloxane plasma. The modified surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and their roughness was quantified by a fractal index. The peeling experiments show that the interfacial adhesion of epoxy on the aluminum alloy mainly results from the chemical and mechanical characteristics of the material surface. Environmental factors such as humidity can also weaken interfacial adhesion.

  8. Effect of surface modifications and environment on the interfacial adhesion of polymer/aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.F.; Wu, Q.Y.; Wang, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of surface modifications and environmental conditions on the interfacial adhesion of epoxy resin films on a 6016 aluminum alloy, as measured by peeling experiments. The alloy surfaces were pretreated with an etching solution, and then modified, respectively, with aminopropyl silane solution, aminopropyl phosphonate solution, and hexamethyldisiloxane plasma. The modified surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and their roughness was quantified by a fractal index. The peeling experiments show that the interfacial adhesion of epoxy on the aluminum alloy mainly results from the chemical and mechanical characteristics of the material surface. Environmental factors such as humidity can also weaken interfacial adhesion

  9. Creep-resistant aluminum alloys for use in MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlinski, R.; Ratchev, P.; Witvrouw, A.; Puers, R.; DeWolf, I.

    2005-07-01

    Creep is expected to be a reliability issue in MEMS where high temperatures and stresses are present in the moving part. In this paper, we describe a method of measuring the creep parameters, ΔF and τ, in metal thin films. Substrate curvature measurements were used to study different Al alloys—Al98.3Cu1.7, Al99.7V0.2Pd0.1, Al93.5Cu4.4Mg1.5Mn0.6 and Al99.6Cu0.4 films—during isothermal tensile stress relaxation. We show that there is a direct relation between the measured creep parameters and the coherency, size and spacing of precipitates observed by TEM and SEM in the alloys. Furthermore, we confirm that the plastic deformation is controlled by the motion of dislocations inside grains in the Al alloy films. A strengthening process called precipitation hardening was used to create stronger precipitates within the grains in Al99.6Cu0.4 to hinder the movement of dislocations more effectively and thus to make the alloy more creep resistant.

  10. A mechanism for the formation of equiaxed grains in welds of aluminum-lithium alloy 2090

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, D.C.; Wang, G.-X.; Srivatsan, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this technical note, the formation and presence of a zone of equiaxed grains (EQZ) along the fusion boundary of welded aluminum-lithium alloy 2090 using filler metals containing zirconium and lithium is presented and discussed. However, no EQZ was evident in welded joints of alloy 2090 using the commercial filler metals: aluminum alloy 2319 and 4145. Under identical conditions, aluminum-lithium alloy 2090 was fusion welded using several new filler metals containing various amounts of zirconium and lithium. Results reveal an increase in the width of the zone of equiaxed grains with an increase in zirconium and lithium content in the filler metal. A viable mechanism for the formation of equiaxed grains and its relationship to filler metal composition is highlighted

  11. Electrosynthesized polyaniline for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy 2024-T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huerta-Vilca Domingo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Adherent polyaniline films on aluminum alloy 2024-T3 have been prepared by electrodeposition from aniline containing oxalic acid solution. The most appropriate method to prepare protective films was a successive galvanostatic deposition of 500 seconds. With this type of film, the open circuit potential of the coating shifted around 0.065V vs. SCE compared to the uncoated alloy. The polyaniline coatings can be considered as candidates to protect copper-rich (3 - 5% aluminum alloys by avoiding the galvanic couple between re-deposited copper on the surface and the bulk alloy. The performance of the polyaniline films was verified by immersion tests up to 2.5 months. It was good with formation of some aluminum oxides due to electrolyte permeation so, in order to optimize the performance a coating formulation would content an isolation topcoat.

  12. Thermal effects in equilibrium surface segregation in a copper/10-atomic-percent-aluminum alloy using Auger electron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.

    1972-01-01

    Equilibrium surface segregation of aluminum in a copper-10-atomic-percent-aluminum single crystal alloy oriented in the /111/ direction was demonstrated by using Auger electron spectroscopy. This crystal was in the solid solution range of composition. Equilibrium surface segregation was verified by observing that the aluminum surface concentration varied reversibly with temperature in the range 550 to 850 K. These results were curve fitted to an expression for equilibrium grain boundary segregation and gave a retrieval energy of 5780 J/mole (1380 cal/mole) and a maximum frozen-in surface coverage three times the bulk layer concentration. Analyses concerning the relative merits of sputtering calibration and the effects of evaporation are also included.

  13. Microstructure/mechanical property relationships for various thermal treatments of Al-Cu-Mg-X PM aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal response and aging behavior of three 2XXX-series powder metallurgy aluminum alloys have been investigated, using Rockwell B hardness measurements, optical and electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive chemical analysis, in order to correlate microstructure with measured mechanical properties. Results of the thermal response study indicated that an increased solution heat treatment temperature was effective in resolutionizing large primary constituents in the alloy bearing more copper but had no apparent effect on the microconstituents of the other two. Aging studies conducted at room temperature and at 120, 150, and 180 C for times ranging up to 60 days indicated that classic aging response curves, as determined by hardness measurements, occurred at lower aging temperatures than were previously studied for these alloys, as well as at lower aging temperatures than are commonly used for ingot metallurgy alloys of similar compositions. Microstructural examination and fracture surface analysis of peak-aged tension specimens indicated that the highest tensile strengths are associated with extremely fine and homogeneous distributions of theta-prime or S-prime phases combined with low levels of both large constituent particles and dispersoids. Examination of the results suggest that refined solution heat treatments and lower aging temperatures may be necessary to achieve optimum mechanical properties for these 2XXX series alloys.

  14. Anodic behavior of mechanically alloyed Cu–Ni–Fe and Cu–Ni–Fe–O electrodes for aluminum electrolysis in low-temperature KF-AlF3 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goupil, G.; Helle, S.; Davis, B.; Guay, D.; Roué, L.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study on the anodic behavior of Cu 65 Ni 20 Fe 15 and (Cu 65 Ni 20 Fe 15 ) 98.6 O 1.4 materials during the electrolysis of aluminum was conducted. Both materials were prepared in powder form by ball milling and subsequently consolidated to form dense pellets that were used as anodes. The electrochemical characterization was performed at 700 °C in a potassium cryolite-based electrolyte, and the composition-morphology of the oxide scales formed on both anodes were determined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. On Cu 65 Ni 20 Fe 15 , a thick (170 μm) and porous oxide scale is formed after 15 min of electrolysis that readily dissolves (or spalls) before a denser oxide layer is formed after a longer electrolysis time (1 and 5 h). In comparison, a thin (2 μm) and dense oxide layer mainly composed of NiFe 2 O 4 is observed on a (Cu 65 Ni 20 Fe 15 ) 98.6 O 1.4 electrode after 15 min of electrolysis. The thickness of this oxide layer increases to 10 and 30 μm after 1 h and 5 h of electrolysis. However, the outward diffusion of Cu to form CuO x at the surface of the electrode is not totally hampered by the presence of NiFe 2 O 4 and a porous Cu-depleted region is formed at the oxide/alloy interface. As a result, electrolyte penetration occurs in the scale, which favors the progressive formation of an iron fluoride layer at the oxide/alloy interface

  15. M551 metals melting experiment. [space manufacturing of aluminum alloys, tantalum alloys, stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. H.; Busch, G.; Creter, C.

    1976-01-01

    The Metals Melting Skylab Experiment consisted of selectively melting, in sequence, three rotating discs made of aluminum alloy, stainless steel, and tantalum alloy. For comparison, three other discs of the same three materials were similarly melted or welded on the ground. The power source of the melting was an electron beam unit. Results are presented which support the concept that the major difference between ground base and Skylab samples (i.e., large elongated grains in ground base samples versus nearly equiaxed and equal sized grains in Skylab samples) can be explained on the basis of constitutional supercooling, and not on the basis of surface phenomena. Microstructural observations on the weld samples and present explanations for some of these observations are examined. In particular, ripples and their implications to weld solidification were studied. Evidence of pronounced copper segregation in the Skylab A1 weld samples, and the tantalum samples studied, indicates a weld microhardness (and hence strength) that is uniformly higher than the ground base results, which is in agreement with previous predictions. Photographs are shown of the microstructure of the various alloys.

  16. Effect of Aluminum Alloying on the Hot Deformation Behavior of Nano-bainite Bearing Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. N.; Dai, L. Q.; Chu, C. H.; Zhang, F. C.; Wang, L. W.; Xiao, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Interest in using aluminum in nano-bainite steel, especially for high-carbon bearing steel, is gradually growing. In this study, GCr15SiMo and GCr15SiMoAl steels are introduced to investigate the effect of Al alloying on the hot deformation behavior of bearing steel. Results show that the addition of Al not only notably increases the flow stress of steel due to the strong strengthening effect of Al on austenite phase, but also accelerates the strain-softening rates for its increasing effect on stacking fault energy. Al alloying also increases the activation energy of deformation. Two constitutive equations with an accuracy of higher than 0.99 are proposed. The constructed processing maps show the expanded instability regions for GCr15SiMoAl steel as compared with GCr15SiMo steel. This finding is consistent with the occurrence of cracking on the GCr15SiMoAl specimens, revealing that Al alloying reduces the high-temperature plasticity of the bearing steel. On the contrary, GCr15SiMoAl steel possesses smaller grain size than GCr15SiMo steel, manifesting the positive effect of Al on bearing steel. Attention should be focused on the hot working process of bearing steel with Al.

  17. Study on Hot Deformation Behavior of 7085 Aluminum Alloy during Backward Extrusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Mei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compression test was carried out and the true stress-strain curves were obtained from the hot compression of 7085 alloy. A numerical simulation on the deformation behavior of 7085 aluminum alloy during the backward extrusion was also performed by finite element method. The results show that dynamic recrystallization occurs in the hot compression of 7085 alloy and the peak stress reaches higher values as the strain rate increases and deformation temperature decreases. The backward extrusion processes include contact deformation, initial deformation, and steady deformation. Severe plastic deformation of shear and compression occurs when the metal flowed into the channel between fillet of punch and wall of die so that the grain size can be refined by backward extrusion. The deformation in the region of top of wall is too small to meet the mechanical properties of requirements and the metal usually needs to be trimmed. The experiments with the same parameters as simulation had been carried out and the experimental cup after extrusion has better quality.

  18. Effects of heat pipe cooling on permanent mold castings of aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.; Mucciardi, F.; Gruzleski, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The temperature distribution within molds is a critical parameter in determining the ultimate casting quality in permanent mold casting processes, so there is a considerable incentive to develop a more effective method of mold cooling. Based on this consideration, a novel, effective and controllable heat pipe has been successfully developed and used as a new method of permanent mold cooling. Symmetric step casting of A356 alloy have been produced in an experimental permanent mold made of H13 tool steel, which is cooled by such heat pipes. The experimental results show that heat pipes can provide extremely high cooling rates in permanent mold castings of aluminum. The dendrite arm spacing of A356 alloy is refined considerably, and porosity and shrinkage of the castings are redistributed by the heat pipe cooling. Moreover, the heat pipe can be used to determine the time when the air gap forms at the interface between the mold and the casting. The effect of heat pipe cooling on solidification time of castings of A356 alloy with different coating types is also discussed in this paper. (author)

  19. The stress-corrosion cracking behavior of high-strength aluminum powder metallurgy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, J. R.; Christodoulou, L.

    1987-01-01

    The susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of rapidly solidified (RS) aluminum powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys 7090 and 7091, mechanically alloyed aluminum P/M alloy IN* 9052, and ingot metallurgy (I/M) alloys of similar compositions was compared using bolt-loaded double cantilever beam specimens. In addition, the effects of aging, grain size, grain boundary segregation, pre-exposure embrittlement, and loading mode on the SCC of 7091 were independently assessed. Finally, the data generated were used to elucidate the mechanisms of SCC in the three P/M alloys. The IN 9052 had the lowest SCC susceptibility of all alloys tested in the peak-strength condition, although no SCC was observed in the two RS alloys in the overaged condition. The susceptibility of the RS alloys was greater in the underaged than the peak-aged temper. We detected no significant differences in susceptibility of 7091 with grain sizes varying from 2 to 300 μm. Most of the crack advance during SCC of 7091 was by hydrogen embrittlement (HE). Furthermore, both RS alloys were found to be susceptible to preexposure embrittlement—also indicative of HE. The P/M alloys were less susceptible to SCC than the I/M alloys in all but one test.

  20. Aluminum alloy production for the reinforcement of the CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S; Campi, D; Curé, B; Horváth, I L; Riboni, P; Sgobba, Stefano; Smith, R P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. To reinforce the high-purity (99.998%) Al-stabilized conductor of the magnet against the magnetic loadings experienced during operation at 4.2 K, two continuous sections of Al-alloy (AA) reinforcement are Electron Beam (EB) welded to it. The reinforcements have a section of 24*18 mm and are produced in continuous 2.55 km lengths. The alloy EN AW-6082 has been selected for the reinforcement due to its excellent extrudability, high strength in the precipitation hardened states, high toughness and strength at cryogenic temperature and good EB weldability. Each of the continuous lengths of the reinforcement is extruded billet on billet and press quenched on-line from the extrusion temperature in an industrial extrusion plant. In order to insure the ready EB welda...

  1. Friction stir welding of T joints of dissimilar aluminum alloy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Shrikant B.; Kalyankar, Vivek D.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum alloys are preferred in the mechanical design due to their advantages like high strength, good corrosion resistance, low density and good weldability. In various industrial applications T joints configuration of aluminum alloys are used. In different fields, T joints having skin (horizontal sheet) strengthen by stringers (vertical sheets) were used to increase the strength of structure without increasing the weight. T joints are usually carried out by fusion welding which has limitations in joining of aluminum alloy due to significant distortion and metallurgical defects. Some aluminum alloys are even non weldable by fusion welding. The friction stir welding (FSW) has an excellent replacement of conventional fusion welding for T joints. In this article, FSW of T joints is reviewed by considering aluminum alloy and various joint geometries for defect analysis. The previous experiments carried out on T joints shows the factors such as tool geometry, fixturing device and joint configurations plays significant role in defect free joints. It is essential to investigate the material flow during FSW to know joining mechanism and the formation of joint. In this study the defect occurred in the FSW are studied for various joint configurations and parameters. Also the effect of the parameters and defects occurs on the tensile strength are studied. It is concluded that the T-joints of different joint configurations can be pretended successfully. Comparing to base metal some loss in tensile strength was observed in the weldments as well as overall reduction of the hardness in the thermos mechanically affected zone also observed.

  2. Odontologic use of copper/aluminum alloys: mitochondrial respiration as sensitive parameter of biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Luiz Erlon A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper/aluminum alloys are largely utilized in odontological restorations because they are less expensive than gold or platinum. However, tarnishing and important corrosion in intrabuccal prostheses made with copper/aluminum alloys after 28 days of use have been reported. Several kinds of food and beverage may attack and corrode these alloys. Copper is an essential component of several important enzymes directly involved in mitochondrial respiratory metabolism. Aluminum, in contrast, is very toxic and, when absorbed, plasma values as small as 1.65 to 21.55 mg/dl can cause severe lesions to the nervous system, kidneys, and bone marrow. Because mitochondria are extremely sensitive to minimal variation of cellular physiology, the direct relationship between the mitocondrial respiratory chain and cell lesions has been used as a sensitive parameter to evaluate cellular aggression by external agents. This work consisted in the polarographic study of mitochondrial respiratory metabolism of livers and kidneys of rabbits with femoral implants of titanium or copper/aluminum alloy screws. The experimental results obtained did not show physiological modifications of hepatic or renal mitochondria isolated from animals of the three experimental groups, which indicate good biocompatibility of copper/aluminum alloys and suggest their odontological use.

  3. Development of high-strength aluminum alloys for basket in transport and storage cask for high burn-up spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeguchi, T.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Kamiwaki, Y.; Ishii, M.; Yamamoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has developed high-strength borated aluminum alloys (high-strength B-Al alloys), suitable for application to baskets in transport and storage casks for high burn-up spent fuels. Aluminum is a suitable base material for the baskets due to its low density and high thermal conductivity. The aluminum basket would reduce weight of the cask, and effectively release heat generated by spent fuels. MHI had already developed borated aluminum alloys (high-toughness B-Al alloy), and registered them as ASME Code Case ''N-673''. However, there has been a strong demand for basket materials with higher strength in the case of MSF (Mitsubishi Spent Fuel) casks for high-burn up spent fuels, since the basket is required to stand up to higher stress at higher temperature. The high-strength basket material enables the design of a compact cask under a limitation of total size and weight. MHI has developed novel high-strength B-Al alloys which meet these requirements, based on a new manufacturing process. The outline of mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of the high-strength B-Al alloys is described in this paper

  4. Influence of Composition on the Environmental Impact of a Cast Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Gómez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of alloy composition on the environmental impact of the production of six aluminum casting alloys (Al Si12Cu1(Fe, Al Si5Mg, Al Si9Cu3Zn3Fe, Al Si10Mg(Fe, Al Si9Cu3(Fe(Zn and Al Si9 has been analyzed. In order to perform a more precise environmental impact calculation, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA with ReCiPe Endpoint methodology has been used, with the EcoInvent v3 AlMg3 aluminum alloy dataset as a reference. This dataset has been updated with the material composition ranges of the mentioned alloys. The balanced, maximum and minimum environmental impact values have been obtained. In general, the overall impact of the studied aluminum alloys varies from 5.98 × 10−1 pts to 1.09 pts per kg, depending on the alloy composition. In the analysis of maximum and minimum environmental impact, the alloy that has the highest uncertainty is AlSi9Cu3(Fe(Zn, with a range of ±9%. The elements that contribute the most to increase its impact are Copper and Tin. The environmental impact of a specific case, an LED luminaire housing made out of an Al Si12Cu1(Fe cast alloy, has been studied, showing the importance of considering the composition. Significant differences with the standard datasets that are currently available in EcoInvent v3 have been found.

  5. Influence of Composition on the Environmental Impact of a Cast Aluminum Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Patricia; Elduque, Daniel; Sarasa, Judith; Pina, Carmelo; Javierre, Carlos

    2016-05-25

    The influence of alloy composition on the environmental impact of the production of six aluminum casting alloys (Al Si12Cu1(Fe), Al Si5Mg, Al Si9Cu3Zn3Fe, Al Si10Mg(Fe), Al Si9Cu3(Fe)(Zn) and Al Si9) has been analyzed. In order to perform a more precise environmental impact calculation, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with ReCiPe Endpoint methodology has been used, with the EcoInvent v3 AlMg3 aluminum alloy dataset as a reference. This dataset has been updated with the material composition ranges of the mentioned alloys. The balanced, maximum and minimum environmental impact values have been obtained. In general, the overall impact of the studied aluminum alloys varies from 5.98 × 10 -1 pts to 1.09 pts per kg, depending on the alloy composition. In the analysis of maximum and minimum environmental impact, the alloy that has the highest uncertainty is AlSi9Cu3(Fe)(Zn), with a range of ±9%. The elements that contribute the most to increase its impact are Copper and Tin. The environmental impact of a specific case, an LED luminaire housing made out of an Al Si12Cu1(Fe) cast alloy, has been studied, showing the importance of considering the composition. Significant differences with the standard datasets that are currently available in EcoInvent v3 have been found.

  6. Dry sliding behavior of aluminum alloy 8011 with 12% fly ash composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magibalan, S.; Senthilkumar, P.; Palanivelu, R.; Senthilkumar, C.; Shivasankaran, N.; Prabu, M.

    2018-05-01

    This research focused on the fabrication of aluminum alloy 8011 with 12% fly ash (FA) composite (AA8011%–12% FA) using the stir casting method. A three-level central composite design experiment was developed using response surface methodology with various parameters such as load, time, and sliding velocity varied in the range of 5 to 15 N, 5 to 15 min, and 1.5 to 4.5 m.s‑1, respectively. Dry sliding wear tests were performed as per the experimental design using a pin on disc at room temperature. The obtained regression result indicated that the developed model performed well in relating the wear process parameters and predicted the wear behavior of the composite. The surface plot showed that the wear rate increases with increase in load, time, and sliding velocity. Hardness was evaluated by Vickers hardness testing machine. Moreover, the surface morphology of the worn-out composite was examined using a scanning electron microscope.

  7. Preparation of Trivalent Chromium and Rare Earth Composite Conversion Coating on Aluminum Alloy Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianzhen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the surface conversion film on 6063 aluminum alloy was prepared by chemical plating process with chromium sulfate, lanthanum sulfate and sodium phosphate as film forming agent. The corrosion resistance and surface morphology of the conversion film were analyzed by pitting corrosion test of copper sulfate and SEM. The results show that when Cr2(SO4)3 is 10 g/L, La2(SO4)3 is 2 g/L, Na3PO4 is 8 g/L, pH value is 3, temperature is 40 °C, reaction time is 10 min, the corrosion resistance of the surface conversion film is the best. The conversion coating is light green, composed of Cr, La, P, Al, O and other elements.

  8. Experimental Observation and Analytical Modeling of Melting and Solidification during Aluminum Alloy Repair by Turbulence Flow Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muki Satya Permana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the state of the art of applicable casting technology for applications in the field of repairing aluminum alloy components. Repair process on the Al alloy sample using similar metal has been carried out to investigate the micro-structural effect. Joining occurs as a result of convection heat transfer of molten flow into the sand mold which melts the existing base metal inside the mold and subsequent solidification. The analytical model has been developed to describe aluminum alloy component repair by turbulence flow casting. The model is designed based on heat transfer principle that can handle the phenomena of heat flow. The experimental result and analytical model analyses pointed out that joint quality are greatly affected by parameters of preheating temperature and duration of molten metal flow in the mold. To obtain a desired metallurgical sound at the joint, the optimum temperature and time were adjusted in order to obtain a similarity of microstructure between filler and base metal. This model is aimed to predict the use of the process parameter ranges in order to have the optimum parameters when it is applied to the experiment. The fixed parameters are flow rate, sand ratio, and pouring temperature. The process parameters are preheating temperature and pouring time. It is concluded that analytical modeling has good agreement with the experimental result.

  9. Application of physical and numerical simulations for interpretation of peripheral coarse grain structure during hot extrusion of AA7020 aluminum alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eivani, A.R.; Zhou, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, hot compression test is used to simulate the metallurgical phenomena occurring in the peripheral part of AA7020 aluminum alloy extrudates during hot extrusion and leading to the formation of the peripheral coarse grain (PCG) structure. The temperature profiles at a tracking

  10. Thermomechanical processing of aluminum micro-alloyed with Sc, Zr, Ti, B, and C

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Cameron T.

    Critical exploration of the minimalistic high strength low alloy aluminum (HSLA-Al) paradigm is necessary for the continued development of advanced aluminum alloys. In this study, scandium (Sc) and zirconium (Zr) are examined as the main precipitation strengthening additions, while magnesium (Mg) is added to probe the synergistic effects of solution and precipitation hardening, as well as the grain refinement during solidification afforded by a moderate growth restriction factor. Further, pathways of recrystallization are explored in several potential HSLA-Al syste =ms sans Sc. Aluminum-titanium-boron (Al-Ti-B) and aluminum-titanium-carbon (Al-Ti-C) grain refining master alloys are added to a series of Al-Zr alloys to examine both the reported Zr poisoning effect on grain size reduction and the impact on recrystallization resistance through the use of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) imaging. Results include an analysis of active strengthening mechanisms and advisement for both constitution and thermomechanical processing of HSLA-Al alloys for wrought or near-net shape cast components. The mechanisms of recrystallization are discussed for alloys which contain a bimodal distribution of particles, some of which act as nucleation sites for grain formation during annealing and others which restrict the growth of the newly formed grains.

  11. Superior light metals by texture engineering: Optimized aluminum and magnesium alloys for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.; Al-Samman, T.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum and magnesium are two highly important lightweight metals used in automotive applications to reduce vehicle weight. Crystallographic texture engineering through a combination of intelligent processing and alloying is a powerful and effective tool to obtain superior aluminum and magnesium alloys with optimized strength and ductility for automotive applications. In the present article the basic mechanisms of texture formation of aluminum and magnesium alloys during wrought processing are described and the major aspects and differences in deformation and recrystallization mechanisms are discussed. In addition to the crystal structure, the resulting properties can vary significantly, depending on the alloy composition and processing conditions, which can cause drastic texture and microstructure changes. The elementary mechanisms of plastic deformation and recrystallization comprising nucleation and growth and their orientation dependence, either within the homogeneously formed microstructure or due to inhomogeneous deformation, are described along with their impact on texture formation, and the resulting forming behavior. The typical face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed rolling and recrystallization textures, and related mechanical anisotropy and forming conditions are analyzed and compared for standard aluminum and magnesium alloys. New aspects for their modification and advanced strategies of alloy design and microstructure to improve material properties are derived

  12. The relationship of dislocation and vacancy cluster with yield strength in magnetic annealed UFG 1050 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yiheng [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); He, Lizi, E-mail: helizi@epm.neu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Cao, Xingzhong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Yizhou [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Ping; Cui, Jianzhong [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-01-02

    The evolutions of tensile properties and microstructures of ultrafine grained (UFG) 1050 aluminum alloy after annealing at 90–210 °C for 4 h without and with 12 T high magnetic field were investigated by tensile test, electron back scattering diffraction pattern (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). When annealing temperature increases from 90 °C to 150 °C, the yield strength (YS) of UFG 1050 aluminum alloy increases, it is because that the increase in the density of vacancy clusters due to the activated monovacancies and the high angle boundaries (HABs) having more stable structures, both of them can act as effective barriers to dislocation motion during tensile deformation. When annealing at 210 °C, the YS of UFG 1050 aluminum alloy deceases, it is because that the decrease in the vacancy clusters density due to the thermally activated the vacancy clusters annihilating at sinks and the dislocation density decreases. The YS of magnetic annealed samples are lower at 90 °C and 150 °C due to the lower density of dislocations and vacancy clusters. The difference of YS between samples annealed without and with magnetic field disappears at 210 °C due to the sharply reduced strain hardening stage.

  13. Experimental study on the warm forming and quenching behavior for hot stamping of high-strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, J.; Horn, A.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Within the last decades, stringent regulations on fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and product recyclability forced the automotive sector to implement new strategies within the field of car body manufacturing. Due to their low density and good corrosion resistance, aluminum became one of the most relevant lightweight materials. Recently, especially high- strength aluminum alloys for structural components gained importance. Since the low formability of these alloys limits their application, there is a need for novel process strategies in order to enhance the forming behavior. One promising approach is the hot stamping of aluminum alloys. The combination of quenching and forming in one step after solution heat treatment leads to a significant improvement of the formability. Furthermore, higher manufacturing accuracy can be achieved due to reduced spring back. Within this contribution, the influence of forming temperature on the subsequent material behavior and the heat transfer during quenching will be analyzed. Therefore, the mechanical and thermal material characteristics such as flow behavior and heat transfer coefficient during hot stamping are investigated.

  14. Mechanical properties of aluminium-uranium alloy and aluminium commercially pure at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadros, N.F. de.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Ai-U (18,4 wt %) alloy with and without heat treatment were determined, and they were compared with the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy of commercial purity, AI-1100, at tempiratures of 25, 500, 550 and 600 0 C, the changes of both the yield point stress and the ultimate tensile strength as a function of temperature may be described through two emperical relationships. A fractography study was also made [pt

  15. Room temperature creep in metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibler, Lisa Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Characterization and Performance

    2014-09-01

    Time dependent deformation in the form of creep and stress relaxation is not often considered a factor when designing structural alloy parts for use at room temperature. However, creep and stress relaxation do occur at room temperature (0.09-0.21 Tm for alloys in this report) in structural alloys. This report will summarize the available literature on room temperature creep, present creep data collected on various structural alloys, and finally compare the acquired data to equations used in the literature to model creep behavior. Based on evidence from the literature and fitting of various equations, the mechanism which causes room temperature creep is found to include dislocation generation as well as exhaustion.

  16. Improving of Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloys by Removing Intermetallic Compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seri, Osami [Muroran it., Hokkaido (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    It is well known that iron is one of the most common impurity elements sound in aluminum and its alloys. Iron in the aluminum forms an intermetallic compounds such as FeAl{sub 3}. The FeAl{sub 3} particles on the aluminum surface are one of the most detrimental phases to the corrosion process and anodizing procedure for aluminum and its alloys. Trial and error surface treatment will be carried out to find the preferential and effective removal of FeAl{sub 3} particles on the surfaces without dissolution of aluminum matrix around the particles. One of the preferable surface treatments for the aim of getting FeAl{sub 3} free surface was an electrochemical treatment such as cathodic current density of -2 kAm{sup -2} in a 20-30 mass% HNO{sub 3} solution for the period of 300s. The corrosion characteristics of aluminum surface with FeAl{sub 3} free particles are examined in a 0.1 kmol/m{sup 3} NaCl solution. It is found that aluminum with free FeAl{sub 3} particles shows higher corrosion resistance than aluminum with FeAl{sub 3} particles.

  17. Improving of Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloys by Removing Intermetallic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri, Osami

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that iron is one of the most common impurity elements sound in aluminum and its alloys. Iron in the aluminum forms an intermetallic compounds such as FeAl 3 . The FeAl 3 particles on the aluminum surface are one of the most detrimental phases to the corrosion process and anodizing procedure for aluminum and its alloys. Trial and error surface treatment will be carried out to find the preferential and effective removal of FeAl 3 particles on the surfaces without dissolution of aluminum matrix around the particles. One of the preferable surface treatments for the aim of getting FeAl 3 free surface was an electrochemical treatment such as cathodic current density of -2 kAm -2 in a 20-30 mass% HNO 3 solution for the period of 300s. The corrosion characteristics of aluminum surface with FeAl 3 free particles are examined in a 0.1 kmol/m 3 NaCl solution. It is found that aluminum with free FeAl 3 particles shows higher corrosion resistance than aluminum with FeAl 3 particles

  18. A comparison of corrosion inhibition of magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum vanadate intercalated layered double hydroxides on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Jun-Cai; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Shuo-Qi; Song, Liang; Zeng, Jian-Min

    2018-04-01

    The magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with NO3 -(MgAl-NO3-LDH and ZnAl-NO3-LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the magnesium aluminum and the zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with VO x -(MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH) were prepared by the anion-exchange method. Morphologies, microstructures and chemical compositions of LDHs were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, Raman and TG analyses. The immersion tests were carried to determine the corrosion inhibition properties of MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH on AZ31 Mg alloys. The results showed that ZnAl-VO x -LDH possesses the best anion-exchange and inhibition abilities. The influence of treatment parameters on microstructures of LDHs were discussed. Additionally, an inhibition mechanism for ZnAl-VO x -LDH on the AZ31 magnesium alloy was proposed and discussed.

  19. Effect of small additions of silicon, iron, and aluminum on the room-temperature tensile properties of high-purity uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven binary and ternary alloys of uranium and very low concentrations of iron, silicon, and aluminum were prepared and tested for room-temperature tensile properties after various heat treatments. A yield strength approximately double that of high-purity derby uranium was obtained from a U-400 ppM Si-200 ppM Fe alloy after beta solution treatment and alpha aging. Higher silicon plus iron alloy contents resulted in increased yield strength, but showed an unacceptable loss of ductility

  20. Prediction of as-cast grain size of inoculated aluminum alloys melt solidified under non-isothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Qiang; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-scale as-cast grain size prediction model is proposed to predict as-cast grain size of inoculated aluminum alloys melt solidified under non-isothermal condition, i.e., the existence of temperature gradient. Given melt composition, inoculation and heat extraction boundary conditions, the model is able to predict maximum nucleation undercooling, cooling curve, primary phase solidification path and final as-cast grain size of binary alloys. The proposed model has been applied to two Al-Mg alloys, and comparison with laboratory and industrial solidification experimental results have been carried out. The preliminary conclusion is that the proposed model is a promising suitable microscopic model used within the multi-scale casting simulation modelling framework. (paper)

  1. Development of boronated aluminum alloy for basket of cask for nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Y.; Saida, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Kuri, S.; Ohsono, K.; Hode, S.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1980's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been contributing to develop metal cask technologies for utilities and competent authorities in Japan, and have established transport and storage cask design ''MSF series'' which realizes higher payload and reliability for long term storage. MSF series transport and storage cask uses new-developed boronated aluminum as basket material. This boronated aluminum has been developed to improve characteristics of material. To achieve this object, powder metallurgy method has been adopted for manufacturing boronated material. It is well known that this method provides excellent characteristics for the material and this boronated aluminum alloy has obtained excellent both mechanical and neutron absorbing characteristics. In addition, in order to maintain material properties for long-term use this boronated material is not strengthened by aging treatment. This paper summarizes an outline of the boronated aluminum alloy for basket assemblies by powder metallurgy. (author)

  2. Effect of Aluminum Coating on the Surface Properties of Ti-(~49 at. pct) Ni Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Arijit; Khan, Gobinda Gopal; Mondal, Bholanath; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta; Chattopadhyay, Partha Protim

    2015-08-01

    Stable porous layer of mixed Al2O3 and TiO2 has been formed on the Ti-(~49 at. pct) Ni alloy surface with an aim to suppress leaching of Ni from the alloy surface in contact with bio-fluid and to enhance the process of osseointegration. Aluminum coating on the Ni-Ti alloy surface prior to the anodization treatment has resulted in enhancement of depth and uniformity of pores. Thermal oxidation of the anodized aluminum-coated Ni-Ti samples has exhibited the formation of Al2O3 and TiO2 phases with dense porous structure. The nanoindentation and nanoscratch measurements have indicated a remarkable improvement in the hardness, wear resistance, and adhesiveness of the porous aluminum-coated Ni-Ti sample after thermal oxidation.

  3. Aluminum alloy for cladding excellent in sacrificial anode property and erosion-corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, S.; Mikami, K.; Yamada, K.

    1980-01-01

    An aluminum alloy for cladding excellent in sacrificial anode property and erosion-corrosion resistance, which consists essentially of, in weight percentage: zinc - 0.3 to 3.0%, magnesium - 0.2 to 4.0%, manganese - 0.3 to 2.0%, and, the balance aluminum and incidental impurities; said alloy including an aluminum alloy also containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of, in weight percentage: indium - 0.005 to 0.2%, tin - 0.01 to 0.3%, and, bismuth - 0.01 to 0.3%; provided that the total content of indium, tin and bismuth being up to 0.3%

  4. Reshock Response of 2A12 Aluminum Alloy at High Pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ri-Li, Hou; Jian-Xiang, Peng; Fu-Qian, Jing; Jian-Hua, Zhang; Ping, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    By means of mounting the specimen on a low-impedance buffer, reshock experiments were carried out on a 2A12 aluminum alloy up to shock stresses of 67.6 GPa. Reshock wave profiles from the initial shock stresses of 60.9–67.6 GPa were measured with a velocity interferometer, and it shows that the 2A12 aluminum alloy characterizes as quasi-elastic response during recompression process. The Lagrange longitudinal velocities along the reloading path from initial shock state were obtained from two shots of experiments, while the bulk velocities at corresponding shock stresses were determined via extrapolating from the public reported unloading plastic sound velocities. Combining the reshock and the release experimental results, the yield strength of 2A12 aluminum alloy at shock stress of 60.9 GPa was estimated to be about 1.7 GPa

  5. Research on the Treatment of Aluminum Alloy Chemical Milling Wastewater with Fenton Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong-liang, Huang; Ru, Li; Peng, Luo; Jun-li, Gu

    2018-03-01

    The aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater was treated by Fenton method. The effect of pH value, reaction time, rotational speed, H2O2 dosage, Fe2+ dosage and the molar ratio between H2O2 and Fe2+ on the COD removal rate of aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater were investigated by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the optimum operating conditions for Fenton oxidation were as follows: the initial pH value was 3, the rotational speed was 250r/min, the molar ratio of H2O2 and Fe2+ was 8, the reaction time was 90 min. Under the optimum conditions, the removal rate of the wastewater’s COD is about 72.36%. In the reaction kinetics that aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater was oxidized and degraded by Fenton method under the optimum conditions, the reaction sequence of the initial COD was 0.8204.

  6. Development of technology of complex aluminum-silicon-chrome alloy with utilization of off grade raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mekhtiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies on obtaining a complex aluminum-silicon-chrome alloy (FASCh from Karaganda high-ash coals and high-carbon ferrochromefines were carried out. A method for smelting low-carbon ferrochrome using aluminum-silicon-chrome alloy as a reductant is suggested.

  7. The dynamic and quasi-static mechanical response of three aluminum armor alloys: 5059, 5083 and 7039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bergquist, Sara J., E-mail: sara.perezbergquist@gmail.com [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States); Gray, G.T.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Perez-Bergquist, Alex [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Aluminum alloys for use in armor applications. {yields} Mechanical response in dynamic and quasi-static regimes with temperature dependence. {yields} Shear localization with evidence of early stages of dynamic recrystallization. - Abstract: The mechanical response and microstructural evolution of aluminum alloys 5083, 5059 and 7039 was examined in compression and shear in both the quasi-static (0.001 s{sup -1}) and dynamic ({approx}2000 s{sup -1}) strain rate regimes. Electron Back Scattered Diffraction was utilized for detailed post-mortem analysis of the specimens following loading. The mechanical responses in shear were found to be strain-rate sensitive. At the slowest strain rates, all of the alloys had relatively large volumes of highly deformed material with 5083 and 5059 having the largest shear affected volumes. The dynamic strain rate test samples all formed highly compact shear localized volumes across the sheared zone with 7039 consistently displaying the narrowest shear regions. The morphology of these shear bands, along with the limited hardening during deformation, indicate a mechanism change at the higher strain rates. Higher resolution orientation image mapping has shown that between the three alloys there are varying degrees of crystallographic order within the shear bands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed various stages of dynamic recrystallization were present suggesting that while low strain rate deformation is controlled by dislocation multiplication and glide, high strain and strain-rate deformation is influenced in part due to mechanical recrystallization.

  8. Thermal conductivity prediction of closed-cell aluminum alloy considering micropore effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of micro-scale pores are observed in the matrix of closed-cell aluminum alloy by scanning electron microscope, which indicates the dual-scale pore characteristics. Corresponding to this kind of special structural morphology, a new kind of dual-scale method is proposed to estimate its effective thermal conductivity. Comparing with the experimental results, the article puts forward the view that the prediction accuracy can be improved by the dual-scale method greatly. Different empirical formulas are also investigated in detail. It provides a new method for thermal properties estimation and makes preparation for more suitable empirical formula for closed-cell aluminum alloy.

  9. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M. P.; Hihn, J. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  10. An Economic Model and Experiments to Understand Aluminum-Cerium Alloy Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ananth V.; Lim, Heejong; Rios, Orlando; Sims, Zachary; Weiss, David

    2018-04-01

    We provide an economic model to understand the impact of adoption, sorting and pricing of scrap on the recycling of a new aluminum-cerium (AlCe) alloy for use in engine blocks in the automobile industry. The goal of the laboratory portion of this study is to investigate possible effects of cerium contamination on well-established aluminum recycling streams. Our methodology includes three components: (1) focused data gathering from industry supply chain participants, (2) experimental data through laboratory experiments to understand the impact of cerium on existing alloys and (3) an economic model to understand pricing incentives on a recycler's separation of AlCe engine blocks.

  11. Optimization of pulsed TIG welding process parameters on mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506 004 (India)], E-mail: adepu_kumar7@yahoo.co.in; Sundarrajan, S. [Scientist ' G' , Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 028 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The present work pertains to the improvement of mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds through pulsed tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process. Taguchi method was employed to optimize the pulsed TIG welding process parameters of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds for increasing the mechanical properties. Regression models were developed. Analysis of variance was employed to check the adequacy of the developed models. The effect of planishing on mechanical properties was also studied and observed that there was improvement in mechanical properties. Microstructures of all the welds were studied and correlated with the mechanical properties.

  12. Optimization of pulsed TIG welding process parameters on mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Sundarrajan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The present work pertains to the improvement of mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds through pulsed tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process. Taguchi method was employed to optimize the pulsed TIG welding process parameters of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds for increasing the mechanical properties. Regression models were developed. Analysis of variance was employed to check the adequacy of the developed models. The effect of planishing on mechanical properties was also studied and observed that there was improvement in mechanical properties. Microstructures of all the welds were studied and correlated with the mechanical properties

  13. Pore formation during C.W.Nd: YAG laser welding of aluminum alloys for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, M.; Zhao, H.; DebRoy, T.

    2000-01-01

    Pore formation is an important concern in laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys. This paper investigates the influence of the laser beam defocusing on pore formation during continuous wave Nd:YAG laser welding of aluminum automotive alloys 5182 and 5754. It was found that the instability of the keyhole during welding was a dominant cause of pore formation while hydrogen rejection played an insignificant role. The defocusing of the laser beam greatly affected the stability of the keyhole. Finally, the mechanism of the collapse of the keyhole and pore formation is proposed. (Author) 45 refs

  14. Temperature and concentration transients in the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsy, R. V.

    1981-08-01

    Coupled conservation equations of heat and mass transfer are solved that predict temperature and concentration of the electrolyte of an aluminum-air battery system upon start-up and shutdown. Results of laboratory studies investigating the crystallization kinetics and solubility of the caustic-aluminate electrolyte system are used in the predictions. Temperature and concentration start-up transients are short, while during standby conditions, temperature increases to maximum and decreases slowly.

  15. Corrosion and nanomechanical behaviors of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AA7020-T6 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, A., E-mail: arjun_venu@hotmail.com [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Srinath, J. [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Rama Krishna, L. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur P.O., Hyderabad 500005 (India); Ramesh Narayanan, P.; Sharma, S.C.; Venkitakrishnan, P.V. [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India)

    2016-04-13

    Alumina coating was deposited on AA7020 aluminum alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and nano-mechanical behaviors were examined by means of potentiodynamic polarization, slow strain rate test (SSRT) and nano-indentation tests. Potentiodynamic polarization (PP) was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coating and slow strain rate test (SSRT) was used for evaluating the environmental cracking resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution. The mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) were obtained from each indentation as a function of the penetration depth across the coating cross section. The above results were compared with similar PEO coated aluminum and magnesium alloys. Results indicated that PEO coating on AA7020 alloy significantly improved the corrosion resistance. However the environmental cracking resistance was found to be only marginal. The hardness and elastic modulus values were found to be much higher when compared to the base metal and similar PEO coated 7075 aluminum alloys. The fabricated coating also exhibited good adhesive strength with the substrate similar to other PEO coated aluminum alloys reported in the literature.

  16. Diffraction-based study of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in aerospace aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul K.

    The crack initiation sites and microstructure-sensitive growth of small fatigue cracks are experimentally characterized in two precipitation-hardened aluminum alloys, 7075-T651 and 7050-T7451, stressed in ambient temperature moist-air (warm-humid) and -50°C dry N2 (cold-dry) environmental conditions. Backscattered electron imaging (BSE) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of the fracture surfaces showed that Fe-Cu rich constituent particle clusters are the most common initiation sites within both alloys stressed in either environment. The crack growth within each alloy, on average, was observed to be slowed in the cold-dry environment than in the warm-humid environment, but only at longer crack lengths. Although no overwhelming effects of grain boundaries and grain orientations on small-crack growth were observed, crack growth data showed local fluctuations within individual grains. These observations are understood as crack propagation through the underlying substructure at the crack surface and frequent interaction with low/high-angle grain and subgrain boundaries, during cyclic loading, and, are further attributed to periodic changes in crack propagation path and multiple occurrences of crack-branching observed in the current study. SEM-based stereology in combination with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) established fatigue crack surface crystallography within the region from ˜1 to 50 mum of crack initiating particle clusters. Fatigue crack facets were parallel to a wide variety of crystallographic planes, with pole orientations distributed broadly across the irreducible stereographic triangle between the {001} and {101}-poles within both warm-humid and cold-dry environments. The results indicate environmentally affected fatigue cracking in both cases, given the similarity between the observed morphology and crystallography with that of a variety of aerospace aluminum alloys cracked in the presence of moist-air. There was no evidence of

  17. Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnO thin films on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca; Chen, X-Grant

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of superhydrophobic ZnO thin films surfaces by electrophoretic deposition process on aluminum substrates. • Effect of bath temperature on the physical and superhydrophobic properties of thin films. • The water contact angle of 155° ± 3 with roll off property has been observed on the film that was grown at bath temperatures of 50 °C. • The activation energy for electrophoretic deposition of SA-functionalized ZnO nanoparticle is calculated to be 0.50 eV. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic thin films have been fabricated on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using stearic acid (SA) functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles suspension in alcohols at varying bath temperatures. The deposited thin films have been characterized using both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy and it is found that the films contain low surface energy zinc stearate and ZnO nanoparticles. It is also observed that the atomic percentage of Zn and O, roughness and water contact angle of the thin films increase with the increase of the deposited bath temperature. Furthermore, the thin film deposited at 50 °C, having a roughness of 4.54 ± 0.23 μm, shows superhydrophobic properties providing a water contact angle of 155 ± 3° with rolling off properties. Also, the activation energy of electrophoretic deposition of stearic-acid-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles is calculated to be 0.5 eV.

  18. Contributions to yield strength in an ultrafine grained 1050 aluminum alloy after DC current annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yiheng; He, Lizi; Zhou, Yizhou; Wang, Ping; Cui, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafine grained (UFG) 1050 aluminum alloy was prepared by equal channel angular pressing at cryogenic temperature (cryoECAP). The evolution of the yield strength and microstructures of UFG 1050 aluminum alloy after direct electric current (DC current) annealing at 150–400 °C for 1 h were investigated by tensile test, electron back scattering diffraction pattern (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For the cryoECAPed and annealed samples at 150–250 °C, the predominant boundaries are high angle boundaries (HABs) (>60%), many dislocations accumulate at subgrain and/or grain boundaries, the yield strength (126–159 MPa) mainly comes from the dislocation and grain boundary strengthening contributions. While an unusual increase in the yield strength (by 8.1–11.2%) observed in samples annealed at 150–200 °C is attributed to an additional strengthening contribution from the more HABs having stable structures which can act as effective barriers to dislocation motion during tensile deformation. When annealing at 300–400 °C, the microstructures are free of dislocations, the yield strength (29–45 MPa) comes from the grain boundary strengthening contribution. With the application of DC current, the larger grain size, lower dislocation density and higher fraction of LABs having misorientation angle between 3−7° in samples annealed at 150–250 °C result in the lower yield strength, while the smaller average grain sizes in samples annealed at 300–400 °C cause the higher yield strength.

  19. Contributions to yield strength in an ultrafine grained 1050 aluminum alloy after DC current annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yiheng [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); He, Lizi, E-mail: helizi@epm.neu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhou, Yizhou [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Ping; Cui, Jianzhong [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-09-30

    The ultrafine grained (UFG) 1050 aluminum alloy was prepared by equal channel angular pressing at cryogenic temperature (cryoECAP). The evolution of the yield strength and microstructures of UFG 1050 aluminum alloy after direct electric current (DC current) annealing at 150–400 °C for 1 h were investigated by tensile test, electron back scattering diffraction pattern (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For the cryoECAPed and annealed samples at 150–250 °C, the predominant boundaries are high angle boundaries (HABs) (>60%), many dislocations accumulate at subgrain and/or grain boundaries, the yield strength (126–159 MPa) mainly comes from the dislocation and grain boundary strengthening contributions. While an unusual increase in the yield strength (by 8.1–11.2%) observed in samples annealed at 150–200 °C is attributed to an additional strengthening contribution from the more HABs having stable structures which can act as effective barriers to dislocation motion during tensile deformation. When annealing at 300–400 °C, the microstructures are free of dislocations, the yield strength (29–45 MPa) comes from the grain boundary strengthening contribution. With the application of DC current, the larger grain size, lower dislocation density and higher fraction of LABs having misorientation angle between 3−7° in samples annealed at 150–250 °C result in the lower yield strength, while the smaller average grain sizes in samples annealed at 300–400 °C cause the higher yield strength.

  20. Thermomechanical treatment of welded joints of aluminum-lithium alloys modified by scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    At present, the aeronautical equipment manufacture involves up-to-date high-strength aluminum alloys of decreased density resulting from the lithium admixture. Various technologies of fusible welding of these alloys are being developed. The paper presents experimental investigations of the optimization of the laser welding of aluminum alloys with the scandium-modified welded joint after thermomechanical treatment. The effect of scandium on the micro- and macrostructure is studied along with strength characteristics of the welded joint. It is found that thermomechanical treatment allows us to obtain the strength of the welded joint 0.89 for the Al-Mg-Li system and 0.99 for the Al-Cu-Li system with the welded joint modified by scandium in comparison with the base alloy after treatment.

  1. Modeling mechanical properties of cast aluminum alloy using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, M.H.; Panhwar, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling is widely used to investigate the mechanical properties of engineering materials due to increasing demand of low cost and high strength to weight ratio for many engineering applications. The aluminum casting alloys are cost competitive material and possess the desired properties. The mechanical properties largely depend upon composition of alloys and their processing method. Alloy design involves controlling mechanical properties via optimization of the composition and processing parameters. For optimization the possible root is empirical modeling and its more refined version is the analysis of the wide range of data using ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) modeling. The modeling of mechanical properties of the aluminum alloys are the main objective of present work. For this purpose, some data were collected and experimentally prepared using conventional casting method. A MLP (Multilayer Perceptron) network was developed, which is trained by using the error back propagation algorithm. (author)

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Cylinder Heads: Part II—Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence F.; Rodriguez, Andres; Porter, Wallace D.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-05-01

    The first part of this study documented the as-aged microstructure of five cast aluminum alloys namely, 206, 319, 356, A356, and A356+0.5Cu, that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads (Roy et al. in Metall Mater Trans A, 2016). In the present part, we report the mechanical response of these alloys after they have been subjected to various levels of thermal exposure. In addition, the thermophysical properties of these alloys are also reported over a wide temperature range. The hardness variation due to extended thermal exposure is related to the evolution of the nano-scale strengthening precipitates for different alloy systems (Al-Cu, Al-Si-Cu, and Al-Si). The effect of strengthening precipitates (size and number density) on the mechanical response is most obvious in the as-aged condition, which is quantitatively demonstrated by implementing a strength model. Significant coarsening of precipitates from long-term heat treatment removes the strengthening efficiency of the nano-scale precipitates for all these alloys systems. Thermal conductivity of the alloys evolve in an inverse manner with precipitate coarsening compared to the strength, and the implications of the same for the durability of cylinder heads are noted.

  3. Microstructure, mechanical analysis and optimal selection of 7075 aluminum alloy based composite reinforced with alumina nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezatpour, H.R., E-mail: H.R.Ezatpour@gmail.com [Faculty of Engineering, Sabzevar University of New Technology, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabi Parizi, M. [Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Semnan University of Semnan, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sajjadi, S.A. [Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, G.R. [Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chaichi, A. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-01

    Aluminum metal-matrix nanocomposites (AMMNCs) fabricated by conventional stir-casting process usually show high porosity and poor distribution of nanoparticles within the matrix. In the current study, for the improvement of nanoparticles distribution in the aluminum matrix and enhancement of the mechanical properties, a mixture of Al/nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were injected by pure argon gas into the molten 7075 aluminum alloy and this mixture was extruded at high temperature. Mechanical behavior of the final product was investigated by tensile and compression tests, hardness measurements, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Optical Microscopy. This nanocomposite exhibited some superior properties such as a fine grain microstructure and a reasonable uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the matrix. Mechanical experiments results confirmed that the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and the extrusion process effectively improved ultimate tensile strength, compression strength and hardness. In next step, we used a Preference Selection Index (PSI) materials selection method to select best combination of strength and workability of Al7075−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposites. By this method, extruded Al7075/0.4 and 0.8 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has best combination of strength and workability. - Highlights: • Injection Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is benefit way for improving nanoparticles distribution. • Nanocomposites present superior mechanical properties. • Extrusion process improved significantly mechanical properties of nanocomposites. • Preference Selection Index is a simple and benefit method in material selection.

  4. Effects of Alloying Elements on Room and High Temperature Tensile Properties of Al-Si Cu-Mg Base Alloys =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaldin, Loay

    In recent years, aluminum and aluminum alloys have been widely used in automotive and aerospace industries. Among the most commonly used cast aluminum alloys are those belonging to the Al-Si system. Due to their mechanical properties, light weight, excellent castability and corrosion resistance, these alloys are primarily used in engineering and in automotive applications. The more aluminum is used in the production of a vehicle, the less the weight of the vehicle, and the less fuel it consumes, thereby reducing the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The principal alloying elements in Al-Si alloys, in addition to silicon, are magnesium and copper which, through the formation of Al2Cu and Mg2Si precipitates, improve the alloy strength via precipitation hardening following heat treatment. However, most Al-Si alloys are not suitable for high temperature applications because their tensile and fatigue strengths are not as high as desired in the temperature range 230-350°C, which are the temperatures that are often attained in automotive engine components under actual service conditions. The main challenge lies in the fact that the strength of heat-treatable cast aluminum alloys decreases at temperatures above 200°C. The strength of alloys under high temperature conditions is improved by obtaining a microstructure containing thermally stable and coarsening-resistant intermetallics, which may be achieved with the addition of Ni. Zr and Sc. Nickel leads to the formation of nickel aluminide Al3Ni and Al 9FeNi in the presence of iron, while zirconium forms Al3Zr. These intermetallics improve the high temperature strength of Al-Si alloys. Some interesting improvements have been achieved by modifying the composition of the base alloy with additions of Mn, resulting in an increase in strength and ductility at both room and high temperatures. Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys such as the 354 (Al-9wt%Si-1.8wt%Cu-0.5wt%Mg) alloys show a greater response to heat treatment as a

  5. Use of aluminum nitride to obtain temperature measurements in a high temperature and high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsman, Bernard R.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Tittman, Bernhard R.; Parks, David A.

    2016-04-26

    An aluminum nitride piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer successfully operates at temperatures of up to 1000.degree. C. and fast (>1 MeV) neutron fluencies of more than 10.sup.18 n/cm.sup.2. The transducer comprises a transparent, nitrogen rich aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal wafer that is coupled to an aluminum cylinder for pulse-echo measurements. The transducer has the capability to measure in situ gamma heating within the core of a nuclear reactor.

  6. Modeling and Investigation of Elongation in Free Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy Plate

    OpenAIRE

    R. Alipour; F.Najarian

    2011-01-01

    Because of high ductility, aluminum alloys, have been widely used as an important base of metal forming industries. But the main week point of these alloys is their low strength so in forming them with conventional methods like deep drawing, hydro forming, etc have been always faced with problems like fracture during of forming process. Because of this, recently using of explosive forming method for forming of these plates has been recommended. In this paper free explosive forming of A2024 al...

  7. Study of the thermal and kinetic parameters during directional solidification of zinc-aluminum eutectic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueijman, Sergio Fabian; Ares, Alicia Esther; Schvezov, Carlos Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Much work has been done recently on investigating zinc-based binary alloys, with different aluminum content, and modified or not with small amounts of other alloying elements. Some of these alloys have interesting properties, such as, the ZA alloys that have properties similar to some bronzes that are used in applications that require pieces with enough resistance to mechanical stresses. The longitudinal thermal gradients, the minimal gradients, the velocities of the liquid interphases, the velocities of the solid interphases and the accelerations of both interphases as a function of time and position were determined for each diluted alloy of the eutectic concentration considered (Zn-5%Al, % in weight), solidified horizontally with caloric extraction from both ends of the test pieces. The values obtained from the horizontal solidification with two directions of predominant caloric extraction are compared to previous values obtained for the same vertically solidified alloy system with a predominantly caloric extraction direction

  8. On the quench sensitivity of 7010 aluminum alloy forgings in the overaged condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryakioğlu, Murat, E-mail: m.tiryakioglu@unf.edu [School of Engineering, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Robinson, Jeremy S. [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Eason, Paul D. [School of Engineering, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    The quench sensitivity of an overaged 7010 alloy forging was characterized by tensile and Vickers hardness tests, as well as scanning electron microscopy. Longitudinal tensile specimens, excised from a rectilinear open die forging were cooled from the solution treatment temperature following thirty-two different cooling paths including interrupted and delayed quenches. SEM analysis of the microstructure showed that quench precipitates were (i) Al{sub 2}CuMg (S) which nucleated heterogeneously on grain boundaries and (ii) Mg(Zn,Cu,Al){sub 2} (η) on grain boundaries, dispersoid bands, subgrain boundaries as well as in the aluminum matrix. The quench sensitivity of the alloy's yield strength and Vickers hardness was modeled simultaneously by quadruple-C curves, using an improved methodology for Quench Factor Analysis. The four C-curves used in the model represented loss of solute by (i) precipitation of S on grain boundaries, and precipitation of η (ii) on grain boundaries and dispersoid bands, (iii) on subgrain boundaries and (iv) in the matrix. The model yielded coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) values of 0.967 and 0.974 for yield strength and Vickers hardness, respectively. The model and the implications of the results are discussed in this paper.

  9. Dependence of an overvoltage of electrochemical properties of aluminum alloys from various additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karieva, Z.M.; Sidikov, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    It is known, that AI and its alloys are electrochemical behavior in electrolytes appreciably differs from many other metals as chrome, nickel, cobalt and iron. The study behavior of aluminum alloys in investigated electrolytes shows about stability of the oxygenic film that during electrode reactions are supplemented and further there is a moderate dissolution even at high temperatures and concentration of a passive film. The greater affinity to oxygen gives advantage, that the passive site of metal is considerably wide. Stage of transportation it is inherent in any heterogeneous processes. In the same a stage transition of the charged particles (electrons and ions) through border an electrode -solution (the stage of the category of ionization) is specifically electrochemical stage. At the slowed down course electrochemical processes the overvoltage develops of two parts -an overvoltage of transition and an overvoltage of reaction. In the present work is investigated behavior of electrochemical properties at addition in electrolyte-electrode of insignificant amounts of organic substances -inhibitors of corrosion. It is revealed, that adsorption of the given substances on surfaces of an electrode appreciably influences size of an overvoltage not changing thus of value of constants coefficient Taffel' s equation. ' The technique of carrying out of experiment and preparation of samples are resulted in works [3-5]. (author)

  10. Influence of Scanning Strategies on Processing of Aluminum Alloy EN AW 2618 Using Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palousek, David; Pantelejev, Libor; Hoeller, Christian; Pichler, Rudolf; Tesicky, Lukas; Kaiser, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with various selective laser melting (SLM) processing strategies for aluminum 2618 powder in order to get material densities and properties close to conventionally-produced, high-strength 2618 alloy. To evaluate the influence of laser scanning strategies on the resulting porosity and mechanical properties a row of experiments was done. Three types of samples were used: single-track welds, bulk samples and samples for tensile testing. Single-track welds were used to find the appropriate processing parameters for achieving continuous and well-shaped welds. The bulk samples were built with different scanning strategies with the aim of reaching a low relative porosity of the material. The combination of the chessboard strategy with a 2 × 2 mm field size fabricated with an out-in spiral order was found to eliminate a major lack of fusion defects. However, small cracks in the material structure were found over the complete range of tested parameters. The decisive criteria was the elimination of small cracks that drastically reduced mechanical properties. Reduction of the thermal gradient using support structures or fabrication under elevated temperatures shows a promising approach to eliminating the cracks. Mechanical properties of samples produced by SLM were compared with the properties of extruded material. The results showed that the SLM-processed 2618 alloy could only reach one half of the yield strength and tensile strength of extruded material. This is mainly due to the occurrence of small cracks in the structure of the built material. PMID:29443912

  11. Thermal Stability of Copper-Aluminum Alloy Thin Films for Barrierless Copper Metallization on Silicon Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. P.; Dai, T.; Lu, Y.; Shi, Z.; Ruan, J. J.; Guo, Y. H.; Liu, X. J.

    2017-08-01

    Copper thin films with thickness of about 500 nm doped with different aluminum concentrations have been prepared by magnetron sputtering on Si substrate and their crystal structure, microstructure, and electrical resistivity after annealing at various temperatures (200°C to 600°C) for 1 h or at 400°C for different durations (1 h to 11 h) investigated by grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and four-point probe (FPP) measurements. Cu-1.8Al alloy thin film exhibited good thermal stability and low electrical resistivity (˜5.0 μΩ cm) after annealing at 500°C for 1 h or 400°C for 7 h. No copper silicide was observed at the Cu-Al/Si interface by GIXRD analysis or SEM for this sample. This result indicates that doping Cu thin film with small amounts of Al can achieve high thermal stability and low electrical resistivity, suggesting that Cu-1.8Al alloy thin film could be used for barrierless Cu metallization on Si substrate.

  12. Influence of Scanning Strategies on Processing of Aluminum Alloy EN AW 2618 Using Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Daniel; Palousek, David; Pantelejev, Libor; Hoeller, Christian; Pichler, Rudolf; Tesicky, Lukas; Kaiser, Jozef

    2018-02-14

    This paper deals with various selective laser melting (SLM) processing strategies for aluminum 2618 powder in order to get material densities and properties close to conventionally-produced, high-strength 2618 alloy. To evaluate the influence of laser scanning strategies on the resulting porosity and mechanical properties a row of experiments was done. Three types of samples were used: single-track welds, bulk samples and samples for tensile testing. Single-track welds were used to find the appropriate processing parameters for achieving continuous and well-shaped welds. The bulk samples were built with different scanning strategies with the aim of reaching a low relative porosity of the material. The combination of the chessboard strategy with a 2 × 2 mm field size fabricated with an out-in spiral order was found to eliminate a major lack of fusion defects. However, small cracks in the material structure were found over the complete range of tested parameters. The decisive criteria was the elimination of small cracks that drastically reduced mechanical properties. Reduction of the thermal gradient using support structures or fabrication under elevated temperatures shows a promising approach to eliminating the cracks. Mechanical properties of samples produced by SLM were compared with the properties of extruded material. The results showed that the SLM-processed 2618 alloy could only reach one half of the yield strength and tensile strength of extruded material. This is mainly due to the occurrence of small cracks in the structure of the built material.

  13. Influence of Solution-Annealing Parameters on the Continuous Cooling Precipitation of Aluminum Alloy 6082

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Fröck

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We use a systematic approach to investigate the influence of the specific solution condition on quench-induced precipitation of coarse secondary phase particles during subsequent cooling for a wide range of cooling rates. Commercially produced plate material of aluminum alloy EN AW-6082 was investigated and the applied solution treatment conditions were chosen based on heating differential scanning calorimetry experiments of the initial T651 condition. The kinetics of the quench-induced precipitation were investigated by in situ cooling differential scanning calorimetry for a wide range of cooling rates. The nature of those quench-induced precipitates was analyzed by electron microscopy. The experimental data was evaluated with respect to the detrimental effect of incomplete dissolution on the age-hardening potential. We show that if the chosen solution temperature and soaking duration are too low or short, the solution treatment results in an incomplete dissolution of secondary phase particles. This involves precipitation during subsequent cooling to start concurrently with the onset of cooling, which increases the quench sensitivity. However, if the solution conditions allow the formation of a complete solid solution, precipitation will start after a certain degree of undercooling, thus keeping the upper critical cooling rate at the usual alloy-specific level.

  14. Protective coatings for high temperature alloys state of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goward, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings used on nickel- and cobalt-base superalloy blades and vanes in gas turbine engines typify the state of coating technology for high temperature alloys. Coatings formed by interdiffusion of aluminum with the alloys to form layers consisting mainly of intermetallic compounds, such as NiAl and CoAl, were the first systems used for protection of gas turbine airfoils. The protectivity of these systems is derived from the formation of protective alumina scales. In a general way, coating degradation occurs by cyclic oxidation, molten salt hot corrosion and, at higher temperatures, interdiffusion with the substrate. Thermal fatigue properties are governed by the brittle-ductile transition behavior of the intermetallic compounds NiAl and CoAl. Both positive and negative effects occur, depending on the shapes of thermal strain-temperature curves for particular applications. Significant increases in hot corrosion and oxidation resistance have been obtained by the incorporation of noble metals, such as platinum, in aluminide coatings. The so-called MCrAlY overlay coatings, based on nickel, cobalt, iron and combinations thereof with chromium, aluminum and yttrium can be formulated over a wide range of compositions nominally independent of those of substrate alloys. Improved oxidation resistance and, in part, hot corrosion resistance is derived from yttrium which enhances protective oxide adherence. Mechanical properties, principally ductility, and therefore thermal fatigue resistance, can be adjusted to the requirements of specific applications. Incremental improvements in performance of the MCrAlY coatings are expected as research programs define degradation mechanisms in greater detail and more complex compositions are devised. More basic evaluations of mixed metal-ceramic insulative coatings have been initiated to determine if these systems are capable of effecting further increases in airfoil durability

  15. Development and Processing Improvement of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. Barry; Bales, Thomas T.

    2007-01-01

    This final report, in multiple presentation format, describes a comprehensive multi-tasked contract study to improve the overall property response of selected aerospace alloys, explore further a newly-developed and registered alloy, and correlate the processing, metallurgical structure, and subsequent properties achieved with particular emphasis on the crystallographic orientation texture developed. Modifications to plate processing, specifically hot rolling practices, were evaluated for Al-Li alloys 2195 and 2297, for the recently registered Al-Cu-Ag alloy, 2139, and for the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, 7050. For all of the alloys evaluated, the processing modifications resulted in significant improvements in mechanical properties. Analyses also resulted in an enhanced understanding of the correlation of processing, crystallographic texture, and mechanical properties.

  16. A detailed investigation of the strain hardening response of aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadinc, Demircan

    The unusual strain hardening response exhibited by Hadfield steel single and polycrystals under tensile loading was investigated. Hadfield steel, which deforms plastically through the competing mechanisms slip and twinning, was alloyed with aluminum in order to suppress twinning and study the role of slip only. To avoid complications due to a grained structure, only single crystals of the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel were considered at the initial stage of the current study. As a result of alloying with aluminum, twinning was suppressed; however a significant increase in the strain hardening response was also present. A detailed microstructural analysis showed the presence of high-density dislocation walls that evolve in volume fraction due to plastic deformation and interaction with slip systems. The very high strain hardening rates exhibited by the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel single crystals was attributed to the blockage of glide dislocations by the high-density dislocation walls. A crystal plasticity model was proposed, that accounts for the volume fraction evolution and rotation of the dense dislocation walls, as well as their interaction with the active slip systems. The novelty of the model lies in the simplicity of the constitutive equations that define the strain hardening, and the fact that it is based on experimental data regarding the microstructure. The success of the model was tested by its application to different crystallographic orientations, and finally the polycrystals of the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel. Meanwhile, the capability of the model to predict texture was also observed through the rotation of the loading axis in single crystals. The ability of the model to capture the polycrystalline deformation response provides a venue for its utilization in other alloys that exhibit dislocation sheet structures.

  17. Room Temperature Anodization of Aluminum at Low Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, A.; Abdel-Karim, R.; El-Raghy, S.; EL-Sherif, R.M.; Wheed, A.

    2013-01-01

    Membranes with nanometer-scale features have many applications, such as in optics, electronics, catalysis, selective molecule separation, filtration and purification, bio sensing, and single-molecule detection. Anodization process was conducted using 15, 20, 30 and 35% by volume phosphoric acid. Results showed that Porous Anodized Aluminum (PAA) with ideal nano pore arrays can be fabricated at room temperature by one-step anodization on high purity aluminum foil at 5 V. Morphology of the PAA was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical behavior of anodized aluminum was studied in 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 solutions using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The highest resistance of the porous layer (R p ) was detected for the samples anodized in 20% phosphoric acid

  18. Electroerosion formation and technology of cast iron coatings on aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolentsev Vladislav P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present in the course of designing basic production parts and industrial equipment designers pay more and more attention to aluminum alloys having a number of properties compared favorably with other materials. In particular, technological aluminum tool electrodes without coating in the presence of products of processing with alkali in the composition of operation environment are being destroyed at the expense of intensified material dissolution. It is shown in the paper that the method offered by the authors and covered by the patents on cast iron coating of products made of aluminum alloys, allows obtaining on a product surface the layers with high adhesion durability ensuring a high protection against destruction in the friction units including operation in hostile environment. Thereupon, aluminum, as compared with iron-based alloys used at manufacturing technological equipment for electrical methods of processing, has a high electrical and thermal conduction, its application will allow achieving considerable energy-saving in the course of parts production. A procedure for the design of a technological process of qualitative cast iron coatings upon aluminum tool electrodes and parts of basic production used in different branches of mechanical engineering is developed.

  19. EBSD characterization of low temperature deformation mechanisms in modern alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmel, Thomas S., II

    For structural applications, grain refinement has been shown to enhance mechanical properties such as strength, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness. Through control of the thermos-mechanical processing parameters, dynamic recrystallization mechanisms were used to produce microstructures consisting of sub-micron grains in 9310 steel, 4140 steel, and Ti-6Al-4V. In both 9310 and 4140 steel, the distribution of carbides throughout the microstructure affected the ability of the material to dynamically recrystallize and determined the size of the dynamically recrystallized grains. Processing the materials at lower temperatures and higher strain rates resulted in finer dynamically recrystallized grains. Microstructural process models that can be used to estimate the resulting microstructure based on the processing parameters were developed for both 9310 and 4140 steel. Heat treatment studies performed on 9310 steel showed that the sub-micron grain size obtained during deformation could not be retained due to the low equilibrium volume fraction of carbides. Commercially available aluminum alloys were investigated to explain their high strain rate deformation behavior. Alloys such as 2139, 2519, 5083, and 7039 exhibit strain softening after an ultimate strength is reached, followed by a rapid degradation of mechanical properties after a critical strain level has been reached. Microstructural analysis showed that the formation of shear bands typically preceded this rapid degradation in properties. Shear band boundary misorientations increased as a function of equivalent strain in all cases. Precipitation behavior was found to greatly influence the microstructural response of the alloys. Additionally, precipitation strengthened alloys were found to exhibit similar flow stress behavior, whereas solid solution strengthened alloys exhibited lower flow stresses but higher ductility during dynamic loading. Schmid factor maps demonstrated that shear band formation behavior

  20. Effect of Iron Impurity on the Phase Composition, Structure and Properties of Magnesium Alloys Containing Manganese and Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, E. F.

    2017-07-01

    Results of a study of the interaction between iron impurity and manganese and aluminum alloying elements during formation of phase composition in alloys of the Mg - Mn, Mg - Al, Mg - Al - Mn, and Mg - Al - Zn - Mn systems are presented. It is proved that this interaction results in introduction of Fe into the intermetallic phase. The phase compositions of model magnesium alloys and commercial alloys MA2-1 and MA5 are studied. It is shown that both manganese and aluminum may bind the iron impurity into phases. Composite Fe-containing intermetallic phases of different compositions influence differently the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  1. Development of quantitative analysis for cadmium, lead and chromium in aluminum alloys by using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Kurusu, Kazuhiko; Kudou, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    A highly reliable quantitative analysis for cadmium, lead and chromium in aluminum alloys was developed. Standard samples were made by doping cadmium, lead and chromium into several aluminum alloys, and the composition of standard samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and gravimetric method. The calibration curves for these standard samples by using WD-XRF and ED-XRF exhibited linear correlation. Slope of calibration curves for Al-Cu alloy and Al-Zn-Mg alloy were smaller than other alloy's one, because of the effect by coexistent elements. Then, all calibration curves agreed with each other by performing correction with α-coefficient method. (author)

  2. Method of thermally processing superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloys to obtain optimum strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Claire E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Optimum strengthening of a superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloy structure is achieved via a thermal processing technique which eliminates the conventional step of solution heat-treating immediately following the step of superplastic forming of the structure. The thermal processing technique involves quenching of the superplastically formed structure using static air, forced air or water quenching.

  3. Low alloy additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the literature has been made on the experimental results of small additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium. Information is also included on the constitution, mechanical properties, heat treatment, and deformation of various binary and ternary alloys. 42 references, 24 figures, 13 tables

  4. Modeling and simulation of phase-transitions in multicomponent aluminum alloy casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cate, ten A.; Geurts, B.J.; Muskulus, M.; Köster, D.; Muntean, A.; Opheusden, van J.; Peschansky, A.; Vreman, A.W.; Zegeling, P.A.; Bokhove, O.; et al., xx

    2008-01-01

    The casting process of aluminum products involves the spatial distribution of alloying elements. It is essential that these elements are uniformly distributed in order to guarantee reliable and consistent products. This requires a good understanding of the main physical mechanisms that affect the

  5. The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

  6. State of residual stress in laser-deposited ceramic composite coatings on aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadolkar, P. B.; Watkins, T. R.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Kooi, B. J.; Dahotre, N. B.

    The nature and magnitude of the residual stresses within laser-deposited titanium carbide (TiC) coatings on 2024 and 6061 aluminum (Al) alloys were investigated. Macro- and micro-stresses within the coatings were determined using an X-ray diffraction method. Owing to increased debonding between the

  7. PRODUCTION OF ROTARY ENGINES’ PARTS FROM ALUMINUM ALLOYS USING LOST FOAM CASTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The production technology of casting details for rotary engine from the aluminum alloy АК12М2 is developed. The bulk density of expanded polystyrene to ensure the best quality of the surface of castings has been experimentally established. The lost foam casting shop was organized in the experimental department of the Institute.

  8. Performance Comparison of Steam-Based and Chromate Conversion Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 6060

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oxide layers generated on aluminum alloy 6060(UNS A96060) using a steam-based process were compared with conventional chromate and chromate-phosphate conversion coatings. Chemical composition and microstructure of the conversion coatings were investigated and their corrosion perfor...

  9. Laser surface alloying of aluminum (AA1200) with Ni and SiC Powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available . The dissociated C reacted with Al to form Al4C3. The addition of Ni resulted in the formation of the Al3Ni phase. A hardness increase of approximately four times that of aluminum AA1200 was achieved in the alloyed layer....

  10. Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Strength of Three Aluminum Alloys Used in Light Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig C. Menzemer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The conjoint influence of welding and artificial aging on mechanical properties were investigated for extrusions of aluminum alloy 6063, 6061, and 6005A. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on the aluminum alloys 6063-T4, 6061-T4, and 6005A-T1 in both the as-received (AR and as-welded (AW conditions. Tensile tests were also conducted on the AR and AW alloys, subsequent to artificial aging. The welding process used was gas metal arc (GMAW with spray transfer using 120–220 A of current at 22 V. The artificial aging used was a precipitation heat treatment for 6 h at 182 °C (360 °F. Tensile tests revealed the welded aluminum alloys to have lower strength, both for yield and ultimate tensile strength, when compared to the as-received un-welded counterpart. The beneficial influence of post weld heat treatment (PWHT on strength and ductility is presented and discussed in terms of current design provisions for welded aluminum light pole structures.

  11. Fatigue Strength Estimation Based on Local Mechanical Properties for Aluminum Alloy FSW Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittima Sillapasa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overall fatigue strengths and hardness distributions of the aluminum alloy similar and dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW joints were determined. The local fatigue strengths as well as local tensile strengths were also obtained by using small round bar specimens extracted from specific locations, such as the stir zone, heat affected zone, and base metal. It was found from the results that fatigue fracture of the FSW joint plate specimen occurred at the location of the lowest local fatigue strength as well as the lowest hardness, regardless of microstructural evolution. To estimate the fatigue strengths of aluminum alloy FSW joints from the hardness measurements, the relationship between fatigue strength and hardness for aluminum alloys was investigated based on the present experimental results and the available wide range of data from the references. It was found as: σa (R = −1 = 1.68 HV (σa is in MPa and HV has no unit. It was also confirmed that the estimated fatigue strengths were in good agreement with the experimental results for aluminum alloy FSW joints.

  12. Wear behaviors of pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy (AA2024-T4) under variable vertical loads and linear speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeki; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cho, Yi Je; Park, Yong Ho

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transition of wear behavior for pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy 2024-T4 (AA2024-T4). The wear test was carried using a ball-on-disc wear testing machine at various vertical loads and linear speeds. The transition of wear behaviors was analyzed based on the microstructure, wear tracks, wear cross-section, and wear debris. The critical wear rates for each material are occurred at lower linear speed for each vertical load. The transition of wear behavior was observed in which abrasion wears with the generation of an oxide layer, fracture of oxide layer, adhesion wear, severe adhesion wear, and the generation of seizure occurred in sequence. In case of the pure aluminum, the change of wear debris occurred in the order of blocky, flake, and needle-like debris. Cutting chip, flake-like, and coarse flake-like debris was occurred in sequence for the extruded AA2024-T4. The transition in the wear behavior of extruded AA2024-T4 occurred slower than in pure aluminum.

  13. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of microstructural features in aluminum-lithium-copper alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos-Borja, M.; Larson, L. A.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of aluminum-lithium-copper alloys was conducted. The principal purpose is to characterize the nature, size, and distribution of stringer particles which result from the powder metallurgy (P/M) processing of these alloys. Microstructural features associated with the stringer particles are reported that help explain the stress corrosion susceptibility of the powder metallurgy-processed Al-Li-Cu alloys. In addition, matrix precipitaton events are documented for a variety of heat treatments and process variations. Hot rolling is observed to significantly alter the nature of matrix precipitation, and the observations are correlated with concomitant mechanical property variations.

  14. Nonlinear acoustic properties of the B95 aluminum alloy and the B95/nanodiamond composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobov, A. I.; Prokhorov, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Research results for the nonlinear acoustic properties of the B95 polycrystalline aluminum alloy and the B95/nanodiamond composite have been described. The nonlinear properties of the alloys have been studied by the spectral method that measures the efficiency of generation of the second harmonic of a bulk acoustic wave at a frequency of 2 f = 10 MHz in the field of a finite-amplitude longitudinal acoustic wave at a frequency of f = 5 MHz. The results derived by this method have been compared with the results of studies of the nonlinear acoustic properties of the test alloys using the Thurston-Brugger quasi-static method.

  15. Effect of pressure on heat transfer coefficient at the metal/mold interface of A356 aluminum alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fardi Ilkhchy, A.; Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to correlate interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) to applied external pressure, in which IHTC at the interface between A356 aluminum alloy and metallic mold during the solidification of casting under different pressures were obtained using the inverse heat...... conduction problem (IHCP) method. The method covers the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal histories. Temperature profiles obtained from thermocouples were used in a finite difference heat flow program to estimate the transient heat transfer coefficients. The new simple formula...... was presented for correlation between external pressure and heat transfer coefficient. Acceptable agreement with data in literature shows the accuracy of the proposed formula....

  16. Thermal Stability of AA1050 Aluminum Alloy after Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koprowski P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The annealing behavior of AA1050 aluminum alloy deformed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP was studied experimentally. The material was subjected to extrusion through die with channels intersecting at an 90° angle. Samples were pressed for up to 8 passes using route BC, then cut into slices and subsequently annealed for 1 hour at temperatures from 100°C to 350°C. Hardness measurements were performed on each slice. Microstructure of material was analyzed in the longitudinal section by means of Electron Backscatter Diffraction system in a scanning electron microscope (EBSD/SEM. From the obtained sets of Kikuchi diffraction patterns orientation maps and Image Quality maps were determined. Grain size, disorientation distributions and crystallographic texture were also estimated. ECAP caused significant improvement of hardness, with stabilization after 4 passes. Refinement of microstructure was obtained with the increasing amount of passes. Material properties were stable during annealing at temperatures lower than 150°C. Annealing at higher temperatures caused a decrease in hardness corresponding to an increase of the grain size.

  17. Upgrading weld quality of a friction stir welded aluminum alloys AMG6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, I. K.; Vasil'ev, E. V.; Matuzko, E. N.; Krivonos, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    In the course of introduction of FSW technology into the industry there is a keen interest in this process; there are issues such as how does joining take place, what is the structure of the joint, and where there are dangerous zones. The objective of this research is to obtain information about the structure of the joint, what are the temperatures that arise during the joining, what strength is apply to the tool when joining the material, what tensile strength of joint, and where fracture tended to occur. Specimens were produced at different modes of welding at a tool rotation speed of 315 to 625 rpm and tool travel speed of 40 to 125 mm/min. During the experiment, the strength applied to the tool was measured, which reached 800016000 N (Fz) and 400-1400 N (Fx) and the temperature on the surface of the tool, which is in the range 250-400°C. Before the welding process the tool was heated to a temperature in the range of 100-250 degrees, but the tensile strength is not had a tangible impact. The tensile strength is about 80 % of that of the aluminum alloy base metal tensile strength, and fracture tended is occur not at the line of joint but follow the shape of the tool. In the transverse cross section of a FSW material there is a microstructural regions such as weld nugget, thermomechanically affected zone and heat-affected zone with parent material.

  18. The Prediction of Microstructure Evolution of 6005A Aluminum Alloy in a P-ECAP Extrusion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shi; Jiu-Ba, Wen; Chang, Ren

    2018-05-01

    Finite element modeling (FEM) was applied for predicting the recrystallized structure in extruded 6005 aluminum alloy, and simulated results were experimentally validated. First, microstructure evolution of 6005 aluminum alloy during deformation was studied by means of isothermal compression test, where the processing parameters were chosen to reproduce the typical industrial conditions. Second, microstructure evolution was analyzed, and the obtained information was used to fit a dynamic recrystallization model implementing inside the DEFORM-3D FEM code environment. FEM of deformation of 6005 aluminum has been established and validated by microstructure comparison. Finally, the obtained dynamic recrystallization model was applied to tube extrusion by using a portholes-equal channel angular pressing die. The finite element analysis results showed that coarse DRX grains occur in the extruded tube at higher temperature and in the extruded tube at the faster speed of the stem. The test results showed material from the front end of the extruded tube has coarse grains (60 μm) and other extruded tube has finer grains (20 μm).

  19. The Prediction of Microstructure Evolution of 6005A Aluminum Alloy in a P-ECAP Extrusion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shi; Jiu-Ba, Wen; Chang, Ren

    2018-04-01

    Finite element modeling (FEM) was applied for predicting the recrystallized structure in extruded 6005 aluminum alloy, and simulated results were experimentally validated. First, microstructure evolution of 6005 aluminum alloy during deformation was studied by means of isothermal compression test, where the processing parameters were chosen to reproduce the typical industrial conditions. Second, microstructure evolution was analyzed, and the obtained information was used to fit a dynamic recrystallization model implementing inside the DEFORM-3D FEM code environment. FEM of deformation of 6005 aluminum has been established and validated by microstructure comparison. Finally, the obtained dynamic recrystallization model was applied to tube extrusion by using a portholes-equal channel angular pressing die. The finite element analysis results showed that coarse DRX grains occur in the extruded tube at higher temperature and in the extruded tube at the faster speed of the stem. The test results showed material from the front end of the extruded tube has coarse grains (60 μm) and other extruded tube has finer grains (20 μm).

  20. Fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polymeric coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenyong, E-mail: lwy@iccas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Technology for Packaging, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Luo Yuting; Sun Linyu [College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Wu Ruomei, E-mail: cailiaodian2004@126.com [College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Jiang Haiyun [College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Liu Yuejun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Technology for Packaging, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy fabricated by anodizing and polymeric coating. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anodizing and polymeric coating were used to prepare a superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superhydrophobic surfaces with a high water contact angle of 162 Degree-Sign and a low rolling angle of 2 Degree-Sign were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is facile, and the materials are inexpensive, and is expected to be used widely. - Abstract: We reported the preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via anodizing and polymeric coating. Both the different anodizing processes and different polymeric coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. The results showed that a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after anodizing. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. When the concentration of oxalic acid was 10 g/L, the concentration of NaCl was 1.25 g/L, anodization time was 40 min, and anodization current was 0.4 A, the best superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy with the contact angle (CA) of 162 Degree-Sign and the sliding angle of 2 Degree-Sign was obtained. On the other hand, the different polymeric coatings, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the superhydrophobicity was most excellent by coating PP, while the duration of the hydrophobic surface was poor. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved. The morphologies of the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed

  1. Fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polymeric coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyong; Luo Yuting; Sun Linyu; Wu Ruomei; Jiang Haiyun; Liu Yuejun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy fabricated by anodizing and polymeric coating. Highlights: ► Anodizing and polymeric coating were used to prepare a superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy. ► Superhydrophobic surfaces with a high water contact angle of 162° and a low rolling angle of 2° were obtained. ► The method is facile, and the materials are inexpensive, and is expected to be used widely. - Abstract: We reported the preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via anodizing and polymeric coating. Both the different anodizing processes and different polymeric coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. The results showed that a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after anodizing. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. When the concentration of oxalic acid was 10 g/L, the concentration of NaCl was 1.25 g/L, anodization time was 40 min, and anodization current was 0.4 A, the best superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy with the contact angle (CA) of 162° and the sliding angle of 2° was obtained. On the other hand, the different polymeric coatings, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the superhydrophobicity was most excellent by coating PP, while the duration of the hydrophobic surface was poor. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved. The morphologies of the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Combined with the material of PP with the low

  2. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part I Microstructure evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence Frederick Jr; Rodriguez, Andres; Watkins, Thomas R.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-01-01

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to the dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ''θ'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ'θ' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β'β' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Cylinder Heads: Part I—Microstructure Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence F.; Rodriguez, Andres; Watkins, Thomas R.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-05-01

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to the dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ^'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ^' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β^' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.

  4. High temperature tribological behaviour of carbon based (B{sub 4}C and DLC) coatings in sliding contact with aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharam, A. Abou, E-mail: abougha@uwindsor.c [Mechanical Automotive and Materials Engineering Department, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B3P4 (Canada); Lukitsch, M.J.; Balogh, M.P. [Chemical Sciences and Materials Systems Laboratory, General Motors R and D Center, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090-9055 (United States); Alpas, A.T. [Mechanical Automotive and Materials Engineering Department, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B3P4 (Canada)

    2010-12-30

    Carbon based coatings, particularly diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are known to resist aluminum adhesion and reduce friction at room temperature. This attractive tribological behaviour is useful for applications such as tool coatings used for aluminum forming and machining. However, for those operations that are performed at elevated temperatures (e.g. hot forming) or that generate frictional heat during contact (e.g. dry machining) the suitable coatings are required to maintain their tribological properties at high temperatures. Candidates for these demanding applications include boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) and DLC coatings. An understanding of the mechanisms of friction, wear and adhesion of carbon based coatings against aluminum alloys at high temperatures will help in designing coatings with improved high temperature tribological properties. With this goal in mind, this study focused on B{sub 4}C and a hydrogenated DLC coatings sliding against a 319 grade cast aluminum alloy by performing pin-on-disk experiments at temperatures up to 400 {sup o}C. Experimental results have shown that the 319 Al/B{sub 4}C tribosystem generated coefficient of friction (COF) values ranging between 0.42 and 0.65, in this temperature range. However, increased amounts of aluminum adhesion were detected in the B{sub 4}C wear tracks at elevated temperatures. Focused ion beam (FIB) milled cross sections of the wear tracks revealed that the coating failed due to shearing along the columnar grain boundaries of the coating. The 319 Al/DLC tribosystem maintained a low COF (0.15-0.06) from room temperature up to 200 {sup o}C. This was followed by an abrupt increase to 0.6 at 400 {sup o}C. The deterioration of friction behaviour at T > 200 {sup o}C was attributed to the exhaustion of hydrogen and hydroxyl passivants on the carbon transfer layer formed on the Al pin.

  5. Study on the rheoformability of semi-solid 7075 wrought aluminum alloy using seed process =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinfu

    Semisolid metal forming is becoming more and more attractive in the foundry industry due to its low cost and easy operation to produce high quality near-net-shape components. Over the past years, semisolid forming technique is mainly applied on the casting aluminum alloys due to their superior castability because of low melting temperature and viscosity. In semisolid forming field, thixoforming has been majorly used which involves of reheating the billet into semisolid state followed by casting process. Rheocasting is a more economic semisolid processing compared to thixoforming, which the semisolid billet is produced directly from liquid phase. The SEED process is one of reliable rheocasting techniques to produce high quality semisolid billets. To produce high quality semisolid billets, their unique rheological properties have been the most important issue need to be fully investigated. The aim of present project is to produce high quality semisolid AA7075 billets by SEED process and analyze their rheological properties under various process conditions. The effect of the SEED processing parameters and grain refiners on the semisolid microstructure and rheoformability were investigated. The deformation and rheological behavior of the semisolid billets of AA7075 base and its grain-refined alloys were studied using parallel-plate viscometer. In the first part, the evolution of liquid fraction to temperature of semisolid AA7075 alloy was investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). It was found that the liquidus and solidus temperature of AA7075 alloy were 631 °C and 490°C respectively. And the corresponding temperatures of solid fraction of 40% and 60% were 622°C and 610°C, which was recognized as the temperature window for semisolid forming of this alloy. In the second part, the semisolid slurries were rheocasted using SEED technology and the effect of the SEED process parameters like swirling frequency and demolding temperature on evolution of

  6. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Brandon C., E-mail: terry13@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sippel, Travis R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Pfeil, Mark A. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Gunduz, I.Emre; Son, Steven F. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Al-Li alloy propellant has increased ideal specific impulse over neat aluminum. • Al-Li alloy propellant has a near complete reduction in HCl acid formation. • Reduction in HCl was verified with wet bomb experiments and DSC/TGA-MS/FTIR. - Abstract: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (I{sub SP}). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal I{sub SP} by ∼7 s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5 ± 4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  7. Replacement of steel parts with extruded aluminum alloys in an automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggula, Manikantha Reddy

    Over the past years, vehicle emissions have shown a negative impact on environment and human health. A new strategy has been used by automakers to reduce a vehicle's weight which significantly reduce fuel consumption and C02 emissions. A very light car consumes very less fuel as it needs to overcome less inertia, decreasing the required power to movie the vehicle. Reducing weight is the easiest way to increase fuel economy and making it by just 10% can increase its efficiency 6 to 8 percent. For a normal scale 80% of vehicles weight is shared among chassis, power train and other exterior components. Almost 60% of the vehicles weight is comprised of steel and the remaining is with cast and extruded aluminum and magnesium alloys. Our main aim is to look for the parts like Fuel tank holder, Fuel filler neck, Turbo inlet assembly, and Brake lines, Dash board frame which are made from steel and replace them with extruded aluminum alloys, to analyze a conventional rear wheel aluminum drive shaft and replace it with a new design and with a new aluminum alloy. The current project involves dismantling an automobile and looking for feasible steel parts and making samples, analyzing the hardness of the samples. These parts are optimally analyzed using Ansys Finite element analysis tool, these parts are subjected to the constraints such as three-point bending, tensile testing, hydrostatic pressure and also torsional stress action on the drive shaft, the deformation and stress are observed in these parts. The results show the current steel parts can be replaced with 3000 series aluminum alloy and the drive shaft can be replaced with new design with 6061-T6 Al-alloy which decreases 25% of the shaft weight.

  8. Fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polymeric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyong; Luo, Yuting; Sun, Linyu; Wu, Ruomei; Jiang, Haiyun; Liu, Yuejun

    2013-01-01

    We reported the preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via anodizing and polymeric coating. Both the different anodizing processes and different polymeric coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. The results showed that a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after anodizing. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. When the concentration of oxalic acid was 10 g/L, the concentration of NaCl was 1.25 g/L, anodization time was 40 min, and anodization current was 0.4 A, the best superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy with the contact angle (CA) of 162° and the sliding angle of 2° was obtained. On the other hand, the different polymeric coatings, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the superhydrophobicity was most excellent by coating PP, while the duration of the hydrophobic surface was poor. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved. The morphologies of the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Combined with the material of PP with the low surface free energy, the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  9. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, Brandon C.; Sippel, Travis R.; Pfeil, Mark A.; Gunduz, I.Emre; Son, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Al-Li alloy propellant has increased ideal specific impulse over neat aluminum. • Al-Li alloy propellant has a near complete reduction in HCl acid formation. • Reduction in HCl was verified with wet bomb experiments and DSC/TGA-MS/FTIR. - Abstract: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (I_S_P). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal I_S_P by ∼7 s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5 ± 4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  10. Corrosion Performance of New Generation Aluminum-Lithium Alloys for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James P.; Bovard, Francine S.; Chrzan, James D.; Vandenburgh, Peter

    Over the past several years, a new generation of aluminum-lithium alloys has been developed. These alloys are characterized by excellent strength, low density, and high modulus of elasticity and are therefore of interest for lightweight structural materials applications particularly for construction of current and future aircraft. These new alloys have also demonstrated significant improvements in corrosion resistance when compared with the legacy and incumbent alloys. This paper documents the superior corrosion resistance of the current commercial tempers of these materials and also discusses the corrosion performance as a function of the degree of artificial aging. Results from laboratory corrosion tests are compared with results from exposures in a seacoast atmosphere to assess the predictive capability of the laboratory tests. The correlations that have been developed between the laboratory tests and the seacoast exposures provide confidence that a set of available methods can provide an accurate assessment of the corrosion performance of this new generation of alloys.

  11. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defect interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.

  12. Filtration of aluminum alloys and its influence on mechanical properties and shape of eutectical silicium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brůna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Filtration during casting of high quality aluminum alloys belongs to main refining methods. Even when there are many years of experiences and experimental works on this subject, there are still some specific anomalies. While using ceramic filtration media during casting of aluminum alloys, almost in all experiments occurred increase of strength limit and atypical increase of extension. This anomaly was not explained with classical metallurgical methods, black-white contrast after surface etching neither with color surface etching. For that reason was used deep etching on REM. By using pressed ceramic filters, by studying morphology eutectical silicon was observed modification morphology of eutectical silicon, this explains increase extension after filtration. Pressed ceramic filters were used on experimental works. Casting was executed on hardenable alloy AlSi10MgMn.

  13. The Effect of Applied Pressure During Feeding of Critical Cast Aluminum Alloy Components With Particular Reference to Fatigue Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Berry; R. Luck; B. Zhang; R.P. Taylor

    2003-06-30

    the medium to long freezing range alloys of aluminum such as A356, A357, A206, 319 for example are known to exhibit dispersed porosity, which is recognized as a factor affecting ductility, fracture toughness, and fatigue resistance of light alloy castings. The local thermal environment, for example, temperature gradient and freezing from velocity, affect the mode of solidification which, along with alloy composition, heat treatment, oxide film occlusion, hydrogen content, and the extent to which the alloy contracts on solidification, combine to exert strong effects on the porosity formation in such alloys. In addition to such factors, the availability of liquid metal and its ability to flow through the partially solidified casting, which will be affect by the pressure in the liquid metal, must also be considered. The supply of molten metal will thus be controlled by the volume of the riser available for feeding the particular casting location, its solidification time, and its location together with any external pressure that might be applied at the riser.

  14. Microstructural evolution during the homogenization heat treatment of 6XXX and 7XXX aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Pikee

    Homogenization heat treatment of as-cast billets is an important step in the processing of aluminum extrusions. Microstructural evolution during homogenization involves elimination of the eutectic morphology by spheroidisation of the interdendritic phases, minimization of the microsegregation across the grains through diffusion, dissolution of the low-melting phases, which enhances the surface finish of the extrusions, and precipitation of nano-sized dispersoids (for Cr-, Zr-, Mn-, Sc-containing alloys), which inhibit grain boundary motion to prevent recrystallization. Post-homogenization cooling reprecipitates some of the phases, changing the flow stress required for subsequent extrusion. These precipitates, however, are deleterious for the mechanical properties of the alloy and also hamper the age-hardenability and are hence dissolved during solution heat treatment. Microstructural development during homogenization and subsequent cooling occurs both at the length scale of the Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) in micrometers and dispersoids in nanometers. Numerical tools to simulate microstructural development at both the length scales have been developed and validated against experiments. These tools provide easy and convenient means to study the process. A Cellular Automaton-Finite Volume-based model for evolution of interdendritic phases is coupled with a Particle Size Distribution-based model for precipitation of dispersoids across the grain. This comprehensive model has been used to study the effect of temperature, composition, as-cast microstructure, and cooling rates during post-homogenization quenching on microstructural evolution. The numerical study has been complimented with experiments involving Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry and a good agreement has with numerical results has been found. The current work aims to study the microstructural evolution during

  15. Structure-Property Relationships in Aluminum-Copper alloys using Transmission X-Ray Microscopy (TXM) and Micromechanical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaira, Chandrashekara Shashank

    Aluminum alloys are ubiquitously used in almost all structural applications due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Their superior mechanical performance can be attributed to complex dispersions of nanoscale intermetallic particles that precipitate out from the alloy's solid solution and offer resistance to deformation. Although they have been extensively investigated in the last century, the traditional approaches employed in the past haven't rendered an authoritative microstructural understanding in such materials. The effect of the precipitates' inherent complex morphology and their three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution on evolution and deformation behavior have often been precluded. In this study, for the first time, synchrotron-based hard X-ray nano-tomography has been implemented in Al-Cu alloys to measure growth kinetics of different nanoscale phases in 3D and reveal mechanistic insights behind some of the observed novel phase transformation reactions occurring at high temperatures. The experimental results were reconciled with coarsening models from the LSW theory to an unprecedented extent, thereby establishing a new paradigm for thermodynamic analysis of precipitate assemblies. By using a unique correlative approach, a non-destructive means of estimating precipitation-strengthening in such alloys has been introduced. Limitations of using existing mechanical strengthening models in such alloys have been discussed and a means to quantify individual contributions from different strengthening mechanisms has been established. The current rapid pace of technological progress necessitates the demand for more resilient and high-performance alloys. To achieve this, a thorough understanding of the relationships between material properties and its structure is indispensable. To establish this correlation and achieve desired properties from structural alloys, microstructural response to mechanical stimuli needs to be understood in three-dimensions (3D). To

  16. Thermohydrogen processing (THP) of titanium alloy and titanium-aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Javaid Iqbal

    The microstructures, phases and phase transformations occurring in cast and Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIP'd) Ti-6Al-4V-H and the blended elemental (BE) TiAl-H systems were investigated. In this work, the existing Ti-6Al-4V-H phase diagram was revised and the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams for beta-phase (isothermal) and martensite (quench plus aging) decomposition were determined at different hydrogen concentrations. Alloying with hydrogen decreases the nose temperatures for the start of both the beta/martensite decompositions in a linear fashion and increases the nose times for both of these in a non-linear fashion. During aging at temperatures below the beta transus temperature, the martensite decomposes into alpha+betaM (metastable beta) and on quenching, from the aging temperature, the betaM transforms to martensite + beta R (residual beta) with the amount of latter increasing with increasing hydrogen content. Microstructures varying from alpha-lamellar laths to fine equiaxed alpha-grains were produced in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, by using different thermohydrogen processing (THP) treatments. A microstructure consisting of mixed equiaxed and elongated alpha-grains were only produced in samples containing 30at.%H after the complete decomposition of the beta/martensite below a critical temperature (Tc), followed by dehydrogenation. A mixture consisting of partially equiaxed alpha-grains thus produced by THP, increased the tensile strength from 841MPa (starting Ti-6Al-4V) to 965MPa after THP and also increased the % elongation from 7.5% to 10.5%. In addition to other THP parameters, the final microstructure also depends on the starting microstructure and recommendations are made for future work in this regard. Initial results of temperature cycling treatments, which involved heat treating of Ti-6Al-4V samples containing 30at.%H at 680°C for 5 minutes followed by water quenching and repetition of the same treatment for 10 cycles, did not show a decrease in

  17. Detection and removal of molten salts from molten aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Butcher; D. Smith; C. L. Lin; L. Aubrey

    1999-08-02

    Molten salts are one source of inclusions and defects in aluminum ingots and cast shapes. A selective adsorption media was used to remove these inclusions and a device for detection of molten salts was tested. This set of experiments is described and the results are presented and analyzed.

  18. Characteristics of the aluminum alloy plasma produced by a 1064 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using the Boltzmann plot method with nine strong neutral aluminum lines. Due to the ... solids. At the same time, LIBS is considered a non-destructive technique because ... On the one hand, studying the spatial distribution of metal plasma ... sition probability ratios are in excellent agreement with the NIST database within.

  19. TIG Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing of 5A06 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Dan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wire and arc additive manufacturing(WAAM was investigated by tungsten inert gas arc welding method(TIG, in which φ1.2mm filler wire of aluminum alloy 5A06(Al-6Mg-Mn-Si was selected as deposition metal. The prototyping process was conducted by a TIG power source(working in AC mode manipulated by a four-axis linkage CNC machine. Backplate preheating temperature and arc current on deposited morphologies of single layer and multi-layer were researched. The microstructure was observed and the sample tensile strength was tested. For single layer, a criterion that describes the correlation between backplate preheating temperature and arc peak current, of which both contribute to the smoothening of the deposited layer. The results show that the layer height drops sharply from the first layer of 3.4mm and keeps at 1.7mm after the 8th layer. Fine dendrite grain and equiaxed grain are found inside a layer and coarsest columnar dendrite structure at layer boundary zone; whereas the microstructure of top region of the deposited sample changes from fine dendrite grain to equiaxed grain that turns to be the finest structure. Mechanical property of the deposited sample is isotropic, in which the tensile strength is approximately 295MPa with the elongation around 36%.

  20. Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, R.; Russier, V.; Couzinié, J.P.; Guillot, I.; Cailletaud, G.

    2013-01-01

    Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al 2 Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 °C to 300 °C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per μm 3 in a α-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  1. Computational Analysis of Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding of AA5059 Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Pandurangan, B.; Ochterbeck, J. M.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.; Reynolds, A. P.; Sutton, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    Workpiece material flow and stirring/mixing during the friction stir welding (FSW) process are investigated computationally. Within the numerical model of the FSW process, the FSW tool is treated as a Lagrangian component while the workpiece material is treated as an Eulerian component. The employed coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian computational analysis of the welding process was of a two-way thermo-mechanical character (i.e., frictional-sliding/plastic-work dissipation is taken to act as a heat source in the thermal-energy balance equation) while temperature is allowed to affect mechanical aspects of the model through temperature-dependent material properties. The workpiece material (AA5059, solid-solution strengthened and strain-hardened aluminum alloy) is represented using a modified version of the classical Johnson-Cook model (within which the strain-hardening term is augmented to take into account for the effect of dynamic recrystallization) while the FSW tool material (AISI H13 tool steel) is modeled as an isotropic linear-elastic material. Within the analysis, the effects of some of the FSW key process parameters are investigated (e.g., weld pitch, tool tilt-angle, and the tool pin-size). The results pertaining to the material flow during FSW are compared with their experimental counterparts. It is found that, for the most part, experimentally observed material-flow characteristics are reproduced within the current FSW-process model.

  2. Phase Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of the Semi-Solid SIMA Processed 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Binesh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural and mechanical behaviors of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy were investigated during semi-solid processing. The strain induced melt activation (SIMA process consisted of applying uniaxial compression strain at ambient temperature and subsequent semi-solid treatment at 600–620 °C for 5–35 min. Microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. During the isothermal heating, intermetallic precipitates were gradually dissolved through the phase transformations of α-Al + η (MgZn2 → liquid phase (L and then α-Al + Al2CuMg (S + Mg2Si → liquid phase (L. However, Fe-rich precipitates appeared mainly as square particles at the grain boundaries at low heating temperatures. Cu and Si were enriched at the grain boundaries during the isothermal treatment while a significant depletion of Mg was also observed at the grain boundaries. The mechanical behavior of different SIMA processed samples in the semi-solid state were investigated by means of hot compression tests. The results indicated that the SIMA processed sample with near equiaxed microstructure exhibits the highest flow resistance during thixoforming which significantly decreases in the case of samples with globular microstructures. This was justified based on the governing deformation mechanisms for different thixoformed microstructures.

  3. The metallurgy of high temperature alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, J. K.; Purushothaman, S.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel-base, cobalt-base, and high nickel and chromium iron-base alloys are dissected, and their microstructural and chemical components are assessed with respect to the various functions expected of high temperature structural materials. These functions include the maintenance of mechanical integrity over the strain-rate spectrum from creep resistance through fatigue crack growth resistance, and such alloy stability expectations as microstructural coarsening resistance, phase instability resistance and oxidation and corrosion resistance. Special attention will be given to the perennial conflict and trade-off between strength, ductility and corrosion and oxidation resistance. The newest developments in the constitution of high temperature alloys will also be discussed, including aspects relating to materials conservation.

  4. Analysis on High Temperature Aging Property of Self-brazing Aluminum Honeycomb Core at Middle Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Huan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tension-shear test was carried out on middle temperature self-brazing aluminum honeycomb cores after high temperature aging by micro mechanical test system, and the microstructure and component of the joints were observed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy to study the relationship between brazing seam microstructure, component and high temperature aging properties. Results show that the tensile-shear strength of aluminum honeycomb core joints brazed by 1060 aluminum foil and aluminum composite brazing plate after high temperature aging(200℃/12h, 200℃/24h, 200℃/36h is similar to that of as-welded joints, and the weak part of the joint is the base metal which is near the brazing joint. The observation and analysis of the aluminum honeycomb core microstructure and component show that the component of Zn, Sn at brazing seam is not much affected and no compound phase formed after high temperature aging; therefore, the main reason for good high temperature aging performance of self-brazing aluminum honeycomb core is that no obvious change of brazing seam microstructure and component occurs.

  5. Effect of Scandium on the Interaction of Concurrent Precipitation and Recrystallization in Commercial AA3003 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiyou; Qian, Huan; Zhou, Xuefeng; Jiang, Jianqing

    2014-04-01

    In the current study, the effect of Sc addition on the interaction of concurrent precipitation and recrystallization in commercial AA3003 aluminum alloy was investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In case of AA3003 alloy, which was cold rolled to a true strain of 2.20 and heated at a heating rate of 150 K/s, the onset of precipitation and ending of recrystallization are signified by the critical temperature, T C ~740 K (467 °C). There is a change in the shape of the recrystallized grains from pancake-like to equiaxed shape, as the annealing temperature increases greater than T C. In case of AA3003 alloy microalloyed with 0.4 wt pct of Sc, the high no. density precipitation of coherent Al3Sc precipitates always occurs before recrystallization because of the small nucleation barrier and high rate of decomposition. This leads to extremely coarse pancake-like recrystallization grains with high fraction of low-angle grain boundaries in the entire annealing temperature range, even at a high brazing temperature of 883 K (610 °C).

  6. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-05

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of B4C-composite-reinforced aluminum alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram; Rai, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    Dry sliding wear tests conducted on Pin-on-disk wear test machine. The rotational speed of disc is ranging from (400-600rpm) and under loads ranging from (30-70 N) the contact time between the disc and pin is constant for each pin specimen of composites is 15 minute. In all manufacturing industries the uses of composite materials has been increasing globally, In the present study, an aluminum 5083 alloy is used as the matrix and 5% of weight percentage of Boron Carbide (B4C) as the reinforcing material. The composite is produced using stir casting technique. This is cost effective method. The aluminum 5083 matrix can be strengthened by reinforcing with hard ceramic particles like silicon carbide and boron carbide. In this experiment, aluminum 5083 alloy is selected as one of main material for making parts of the ship it has good mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance and it is can welded very easily and does have good strength. The samples are tested for hardness and tensile strength. The mechanical properties like Hardness can be increased by reinforcing aluminum 5083alloy 5% boron carbide (B4C) particles and tensile strength. Finally the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis and EDS is done, which helps to study topography of composites and it produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons and the presence of composition found in the matrix.

  8. The effect of different aluminum alloy surface compositions on barrier anodic film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Sharp, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have grown barrier anodic coatings on samples of aluminum alloy with different elemental surface compositions. In one series of experiments, they characterized the surface composition present on 6061 aluminum alloy samples after different chemical treatments including a detergent-water and methyl-ethyl ketone solvent clean, a 50% nitric acid-water etch, and a concentrated nitric acid-ammonium bifluoride etch. They anodized samples which were prepared similarly to those analyzed to evaluate the practical effects of the three different surface compositions. The anodization voltage rise time to 950V at constant current was used as a figure of merit. The solvent cleaned and the 50% nitric acid etched samples required, respectively, 113% and 41% more time to reach 950V than the concentrated nitric acidammonium bifloride etched samples. In a second series of experiments, they alternately anodized groups of either 6061 or 1100 (commercially pure) aluminum alloy, observed rise times to 950V, and measured chloride ion concentrations in the electrolyte. Longer rise times and higher chloride ion concentrations were observed for the 1100 samples. It was observed that the chloride ion concentration fell from initially high levels when 6061 samples were anodized. The results of both series of experiments augment the results of other investigators, who report that the surface species initially present on aluminum have a significant effect on anodic film formation

  9. Experimental Investigation and FE Analysis on Constitutive Relationship of High Strength Aluminum Alloy under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of 17 high strength aluminum alloy (7A04 specimens were conducted to investigate the constitutive relationship under cyclic loading. The monotonic behavior and hysteretic behavior were focused on and the fracture surface was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM to investigate the microfailure modes. Based on Ramberg-Osgood model, stress-strain skeleton curves under cyclic loading were fitted. Parameters of combined hardening model including isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening were calibrated from test data according to Chaboche model. The cyclic tests were simulated in finite element software ABAQUS. The test results show that 7A04 aluminum alloy has obvious nonlinearity and ultra-high strength which is over 600 MPa, however, with relatively poor ductility. In the cyclic loading tests, 7A04 aluminum alloy showed cyclic hardening behavior and when the compressive strain was larger than 1%, the stiffness degradation and strength degradation occurred. The simulated curves derived by FE model fitted well with experimental curves which indicates that the parameters of this combined model can be used in accurate calculation of 7A04 high strength aluminum structures under cyclic loading.

  10. Effect of oxide film formation on the fatigue behavior of aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Cheon; Cheong, Seong Kyun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of surface oxide film formation on the fatigue behavior of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were analyzed in terms of the corrosion time of the alloy. The aluminum material used is known to have high corrosion resistance due to the passivation phenomenon that prevents corrosion. Aluminum alloys have been widely used in various industrial applications such as aircraft component manufacturing because of their lighter weight and higher strength than other materials. Therefore, studies on the fatigue behavior of materials and passivation properties that prevent corrosion are required. The fatigue behavior in terms of the corrosion time was analyzed by using a four pointing bending machine, and the surface corrosion level of the aluminum material in terms of the corrosion time was estimated by measuring the surface were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that corrosion actively progressed for four weeks during the initial corrosion phase, the fatigue life significantly decreased, and the surface roughness increased. However, after four weeks, the corrosion reaction tended to slow down due to the passivation phenomenon of the material. Therefore, on the basis of SEM analysis results, it was concluded that the growth of the surface oxide film was reduced after four weeks and then the oxide film on the material surface served as a protection layer and prevented further corrosion

  11. Evaluation of interfacial microstructures in dissimilar joints of aluminum alloys to steel using nanoindentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Tomo; Hirose, Akio; Saito, Yuichi; Ueda, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of interfacial microstructures with additional elements in dissimilar 6000 system aluminum/steel joints were basically evaluated using tensile test, EPMA, TEM and nanoindentation. For Si (and Cu)-added alloy (S1 and SC), EPMA analysis showed that Si (and Cu) was enrichment in the reaction layers, which were formed during diffusion bonding. SAED pattern clarified that the reaction compounds at the interface changed from AlFe intermetalic compounds to AlFeSi intermetalic compounds by Si addition. Nanoindentation technique was successfully applied to the interfacial microstructures to understand directly the nanoscopic mechanical properties in the interfacial microstructures. The hardness and Young's modulus of Al 3 Fe intermetalic compounds was lower than those of Al 2 Fe 5 intermetalic compounds. Moreover, the hardness and Young's modulus of AlFeSi(Cu) compounds were lower than those of Al 3 Fe, indicating that the crystal system changed from orthorhombic structure to cubic structure. Joint strength of SC/steel joints was higher than that of the aluminum alloy with no additional element (Base)/ steel joint, indicating that interfacial microstructure was modified by the addition of Si and Cu to the 6000 system aluminum alloy. These results suggest that the nanoscopic mechanical properties at the interface microstructures affect greatly the macroscopic deformation behavior of the aluminum /steel dissimilar joints.

  12. Forming limit diagram of aluminum AA6063 tubes at high temperatures by bulge tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Naeini, Hassan Moslemi; Liaghat, Gholamhossein; Tafti, Rooholla Azizi; Rahmani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    A free bulge test and ductile fracture criteria were used to obtain the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of aluminum alloy AA6063 tubes at high temperatures. Ductile fracture criteria were calibrated using the results of uniaxial tension tests at various elevated temperatures and different strain rates through adjusting the Zener-Holloman parameter. High temperature free bulge test of tubes was simulated in finite element software Abaqus, and tube bursting was predicted using ductile fracture criteria under different loading paths. FLDs which were obtained from finite element simulation were compared to experimental results to select the most accurate criterion for prediction of forming limit diagram. According to the results, all studied ductile fracture criteria predict similarly when forming condition is close to the uniaxial tension, while Ayada criterion predicts the FLD at 473 K and 573 K very well.

  13. Forming limit diagram of aluminum AA6063 tubes at high temperatures by bulge tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Naeini, Hassan Moslemi; Liaghat, Gholamhossein [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafti, Rooholla Azizi [Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, Farzad [Kar Higher Education Institute, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A free bulge test and ductile fracture criteria were used to obtain the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of aluminum alloy AA6063 tubes at high temperatures. Ductile fracture criteria were calibrated using the results of uniaxial tension tests at various elevated temperatures and different strain rates through adjusting the Zener-Holloman parameter. High temperature free bulge test of tubes was simulated in finite element software Abaqus, and tube bursting was predicted using ductile fracture criteria under different loading paths. FLDs which were obtained from finite element simulation were compared to experimental results to select the most accurate criterion for prediction of forming limit diagram. According to the results, all studied ductile fracture criteria predict similarly when forming condition is close to the uniaxial tension, while Ayada criterion predicts the FLD at 473 K and 573 K very well.

  14. Chemical effects in the Corrosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. A Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    tances.II. Effect Of Pomegranate Juice And The Aqueous Extract Of Pomegranate Fruits And Tea leaves On The Corrosion Of Aluminum" The effect of the juices...T7651 tempers to exfoliation and stress- corrosion cracking . 1968-8 D.P. Doyle and H.P. Godard ,a) Tr. Mezhdunar. Kongr. Korroz. Metal, 4, 439-48, (1968...Tapper Brit. Corros. J., 3, 285-87, (1968) "Corrosion Of Aluminum" Summary of the literature of Al corrosion which includes stress- corrosion cracking

  15. High temperature mechanical forming of Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwembela, A.; McQueen, H.J.; Myshlyaev, M.

    2002-01-01

    Mg alloys are hot worked in the range 180-450 o C and 0.0-10 s -1 ; the present project data are compared with a wide selection of published results. The flow stresses and their dependence on temperature and strain rate are fairly similar to simple Al alloys: however, the hot ductility is much lower (≤3 in torsion). Twinning plays a significant role in Mg alloys almost independently of temperature; the twins initiate at low strains in grains poorly oriented for basal slip and in consequence become well disposed for such slip. As T rises, there is increasing formation of subgrains that spread toward the grain centers from grain and twin boundaries: this is indicative of stress concentrations inducing non-basal sup which helps provide the geometrically necessary dislocations. Above about 240 o C, dynamic (DRX) nucleates at grain and twin boundaries, preferentially at intersections; this again is evidence of non-basal slip that provides the highly misoriented cells. The boundaries in which further strain concentrates producing further DRX. The microstructure remains very heterogeneous compared to the uniform dynamically recovered substructure in Al alloys, thus giving rise to the reduced ductility. These results are employed to interpret the mechanical and microstructural behavior of Mg alloys in extrusion, rolling and forging. (author)

  16. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  17. Expanding the Availability of Lightweight Aluminum Alloy Armor Plate Procured from Detailed Military Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kevin; Squillacioti, Richard; Cheeseman, Bryan; Placzankis, Brian; Gallardy, Denver

    For many years, the range of aluminum alloys for armor plate applications obtainable in accordance with detailed military specifications was very limited. However, the development of improved aluminum alloys for aerospace and other applications has provided an opportunity to modernize the Army portfolio for ground vehicle armor applications. While the benefits of offering additional alloy choices to vehicle designers is obvious, the process of creating detailed military specifications for armor plate applications is not trivial. A significant amount of material and testing is required to develop the details required by an armor plate specification. Due to the vast number of material programs that require standardization and with a limited amount of manpower and funds as a result of Standardization Reform in 1995, one typically requires a need statement from a vehicle program office to justify and sponsor the work. This presentation will focus on recent aluminum alloy armor plate specifications that have added capability to vehicle designers' selection of armor materials that offer possible benefits such as lower cost, higher strength, better ballistic and corrosion resistance, improved weldability, etc.

  18. Calibration curves for commercial copper and aluminum alloys using handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B. N.; Martin, M. Z.; Leonard, D. N.; Garlea, E.

    2018-03-01

    Handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (HH LIBS) was used to study the elemental composition of four copper alloys and four aluminum alloys to produce calibration curves. The HH LIBS instrument used is a SciAps Z-500, commercially available, that contains a class-1 solid-state laser with an output wavelength of 1532 nm, laser energy of 5 mJ/pulse, and a pulse duration of 5 ns. Test samples were solid specimens comprising copper and aluminum alloys and data were collected from the samples' surface at three different locations, employing a 12-point-grid pattern for each data set. All three data sets of the spectra were averaged, and the intensity, corrected by subtraction of background, was used to produce the elemental calibration curves. Calibration curves are presented for the matrix elements, copper and aluminum, as well as several minor elements. The surface damage produced by the laser was examined by microscopy. The alloys were tested in air and in a glovebox to evaluate the instrument's ability to identify the constituents within materials under different environmental conditions. The main objective of using this HH LIBS technology is to determine its capability to fingerprint the presence of certain elements related to subpercent level within materials in real time and in situ, as a starting point for undertaking future complex material characterization work.

  19. Compressive strength, plastic flow properties, and surface frictional effects of 1100, 3003 and 6061 aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkerton, Gary Wayne [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find aluminum alloys that are effective for use as wire vacuum seals in the 800MeV particle accelerator located at the Louis Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, NM. Three alloys, Al 1100, Al 3003, and Al 6061, are investigated under uniaxial compression to determine stresses for a given height reduction from 0 to 70 percent, and to find plastic flow and surface interaction effects. Right-circular cylindrical specimens are compressed on-end (cylindrically) and radially (for modeling as compressed wire). Aluminum 1100 and 3003 alloys are compared for length to diameter ratios of 1 and 2 for both compression types, and are then compared to results of radial compression of annealed small diameter Al 1100 wire currently used at LAMPE. The specimens are also compressed between three different platen surfaces, polished steel, etched steel, and aluminum 6061-T6, to determine effects of friction. The Al 3003 alloy exhibits 20 to 25% lower stresses at all height reductions than Al 1100 for both cylindrical and radial compression.

  20. Compressive strength, plastic flow properties, and surface frictional effects of 1100, 3003 and 6061 aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkerton, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find aluminum alloys that are effective for use as wire vacuum seals in the 800MeV particle accelerator located at the Louis Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, NM. Three alloys, Al 1100, Al 3003, and Al 6061, are investigated under uniaxial compression to determine stresses for a given height reduction from 0 to 70 percent, and to find plastic flow and surface interaction effects. Right-circular cylindrical specimens are compressed on-end (cylindrically) and radially (for modeling as compressed wire). Aluminum 1100 and 3003 alloys are compared for length to diameter ratios of 1 and 2 for both compression types, and are then compared to results of radial compression of annealed small diameter Al 1100 wire currently used at LAMPE. The specimens are also compressed between three different platen surfaces, polished steel, etched steel, and aluminum 6061-T6, to determine effects of friction. The Al 3003 alloy exhibits 20 to 25% lower stresses at all height reductions than Al 1100 for both cylindrical and radial compression

  1. Finite element modelling of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 under transverse impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ahmad Sufian; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Yamin, A. F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fiber metal laminate named GLARE is a new aerospace material which has great potential to be widely used in future lightweight aircraft. It consists of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 and glass-fiber reinforced laminate. In order to produce reliable finite element model of impact response or crashworthiness of structure made of GLARE, one can initially model and validate the finite element model of the impact response of its constituents separately. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable finite element model of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 under low velocity transverse impact loading using commercial software ABAQUS. Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage models were used to predict the alloy's material properties and impact behavior. The results of the finite element analysis were compared to the experiment that has similar material and impact conditions. Results showed good correlations in terms of impact forces, deformation and failure progressions which concluded that the finite element model of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy under low velocity transverse impact condition using Johnson-Cook plastic and damage models was reliable.

  2. Formation and stability of aluminum-based metallic glasses in Al-Fe-Gd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.; Poon, S.J.; Shiflet, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    Metallic glasses, a class of amorphous alloys made by rapid solidification, have been studied quite extensively for almost thirty years. It has been recognized for a long time that metallic glasses are usually very strong and ductile, and exhibit high corrosion resistance relative to crystalline alloys with the same compositions. Recently, metallic glasses containing as much as 90 atomic percent aluminum have been discovered independently by two groups. This discovery has both scientific and technological implications. The formability of these new glasses have been found to be unusual. Studies of mechanical properties in these new metallic glasses show that many of them have tensile strengths over 800MPa, greatly exceeding the strongest commercial aluminum alloys. The high strengths of aluminum-rich metallic glasses can be of significant importance in obtaining high strength low density materials. Therefore, from both scientific and technological standpoints, it is important to understand the formation and thermal stability of these metallic glasses. Al-Fe-Gd alloys were chosen for a more detailed study since they exhibit high tensile strengths

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of an aluminum alloy used in external fixation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartner, Jacob L; Haggard, Warren O; Ong, Joo L; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2008-08-01

    Treatment for compound and/or comminuted fractures is frequently accomplished via external fixation. To achieve stability, the compositions of external fixators generally include aluminum alloy components due to their high strength-to-weight ratios. These alloys are particularly susceptible to corrosion in chloride environments. There have been several clinical cases of fixator failure in which corrosion was cited as a potential mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physiological environments on the corrosion susceptibility of aluminum 7075-T6, since it is used in orthopedic external fixation devices. Electrochemical corrosion curves and alternate immersion stress corrosion cracking tests indicated aluminum 7075-T6 is susceptible to corrosive attack when placed in physiological environments. Pit initiated stress corrosion cracking was the primary form of alloy corrosion, and subsequent fracture, in this study. Anodization of the alloy provided a protective layer, but also caused a decrease in passivity ranges. These data suggest that once the anodization layer is disrupted, accelerated corrosion processes occur. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. beta Phase Growth and Precipitation in the 5xxx Series Aluminum Alloy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto D'Antuono, Daniel

    The 5xxx series aluminum alloys are commonly used for structural applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and weldability. This material system is a non-heat treatable aluminum and derives its strength from a super saturation of magnesium (3%>), and from cold rolling. While these materials have many admiral properties, they can undergo a process known as sensitization when exposed to elevated temperatures (50-280°C) for extended periods of time. During this process, magnesium segregates toward the grain boundaries and forms the secondary precipitate β phase (Al3Mg2). When exposed to harsh environments such as sea water, a galvanic couple is formed between the Al matrix and the β phase precipitates. The precipitates become anodic to the matrix and preferentially dissolve leaving gaps along the boundary network, ultimately leading to stress corrosion cracking. While this problem has been known to occur for some time now, questions relating to nucleation sites, misorientation dependence, effect of prior strain, and preferred temperature regimes remain unanswered. The work contained in this thesis attempted to better understand the kinetics, growth, and misorientation dependence, of β phase precipitation using in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments which allowed for direct visualization of the precipitation process. Orientation imaging using a Nanomegas/ASTAR system (OIM in TEM) coupled with the in situ experiments, along with elemental STEM EELs mapping were used to better understand the diffusion of Mg and found low angle boundaries as potential sites for nucleation. The resulting STEM EELs experiments also showed that Mg is much more stable at the grain boundaries than previously thought. Concurrent bulk ex-situ studies were used to compare various heat treatments, as well as to failed in service material showing that the low temperature treatments yield the metastable β’ phase more readily than the

  5. Direct printing of miniscule aluminum alloy droplets and 3D structures by StarJet technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, B.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.; Riegger, L.

    2018-07-01

    Drop-on demand printing of molten metal droplets could be used for prototyping 3D objects as a promising alternative to laser melting technologies. However, to date, only few printheads have been investigated for this purpose, and they used only a limited range of materials. The pneumatically actuated StarJet technology enables the direct and non-contact printing of molten metal microdroplets from metal melts at high temperatures. StarJet printheads utilize nozzle chips featuring a star-shaped orifice geometry that leads to formation of droplets inside the nozzle with high precision. In this paper, we present a novel StarJet printhead for printing aluminum (Al) alloys featuring a hybrid design with a ceramic reservoir for the molten metal and an outer shell fabricated from stainless steel. The micro machined nozzle chip is made from silicon carbide (SiC). This printhead can be operated at up to 950 °C, and is capable of printing high melting point metals like Al alloys in standard laboratory conditions. In this work, an aluminum–silicon alloy that features 12% silicon (AlSi12) is printed. The printhead, nozzle, and peripheral actuation system are optimized for stable generation of AlSi12 droplets with high monodispersity, low angular deviation, and miniaturized droplet diameters. As a result, a stable drop-on-demand printing of droplets exhibiting diameters of d droplet  =  702 µm  ±  1% is demonstrated at 5 Hz with a low angular deviation of 0.3°, when a nozzle chip with 500 µm orifice diameter is used. Furthermore, AlSi12 droplets featuring d droplet  =  176 µm  ±  7% are printed when using a nozzle chip with an orifice diameter of 130 µm. Moreover, we present directly printed objects from molten Al alloy droplets, such as high aspect ratio, free-standing walls (aspect ratio 12:1), and directly printed, flexible springs, to demonstrate the principle of 3D printing with molten metal droplets.

  6. Inertia and friction welding of aluminum alloy 1100 to type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The inertia and friction-welding processes were evaluated for joining aluminum alloy 1100-H14 and Type 316 vacuum-induction melted, vacuum-arc remelted (VIM VAR) stainless steel. While both processes consistently produced joints in which the strength exceeded the strength of the aluminum base metal, 100 percent bonding was not reliably achieved with inertia welding. The deficiency points out the need for development of nondestructive testing techniques for this type of joint. Additionally, solid-state volume diffusion did not appear to be a satisfactory explanation for the inertia and friction-welding bonding mechanism

  7. Influence of melting and filtration processes on the structure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudyk

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article are presented the results of the study on the applied upgrading processes such as refining, modification and filtration of thenear eutectics alloy EN AC- 44000, AlSi11, (AK11, cast into the chill. The upgrading processes applied to the said alloy caused, incomparison to the alloy which was not upgraded, significant differences in the shape of the crystallization curves, obtained in the graphicrecord of the ATD-AED method. It was demonstrated the existence of connections between the thermal and electric phenomena duringsolidification and crystallization of the studied silumin. The obtained results of the metallographic analysis showed the occurrence of theimpurities within the alloy structure in the form of porosity and oxides following the metallurgical processing (in pig sows. The primarystudies on microstructure of the cast ceramic filters have demonstrated the purposefulness of introduction of the filtration process to thetechnology of aluminum alloys manufacturing. The microstructures of the filters cast with the studied alloys illustrate the extent anddeployment of the impurities retained (in the filter during the process of samples casting for measurement of the mechanical strengthproperties. On the example of the near eutectics alloy AK11, it has been demonstrated, that in comparison to the refined alloy there isa possibility to obtain significant improvement of mechanical properties, and especially elongation A5 and impact strength KCV.

  8. ASTM B 117 Screening of Nonchromate Conversion Coatings on Aluminum Alloys 2024, 2219, 5083, and 7075 Using DOD Paint Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Placzankis, Brian

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the corrosion resistance of eight nonchromate conversion coatings versus hexavalent chromium-based Alodine 1200S controls on scribed coated test panels of aluminum alloys 2024, 2219, 5083, and 7075...

  9. Microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of A380 aluminum alloy with and without Li additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamouz, Mostafa; Azarbarmas, Mortaza; Emamy, Masoud; Alipour, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the effects of lithium (Li) on the microstructure, hardness and mechanical properties of A380 aluminum alloy have been investigated. The alloy was produced by conventional casting. Microstructures of the samples were investigated using the optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that with increase of Li content up to 0.1%, the morphology of β-Al 5 FeSi and eutectic Si phases changed from intersected and branched coarse platelets into fine and independent ones. Li decreased hardness values of the alloy. Also, it was revealed from tensile tests that with addition of 0.6% Li, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation values increased from 274 to 300 MPa and 3.8% to 6%, respectively. Fractographic examination of the fracture surfaces indicated that the alloys with Li addition had more ductile dimple and fewer brittle cleavage surfaces

  10. Effect of friction stirring on microstructure in equal channel angular pressed aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y.S.; Urata, M.; Kokawa, H.; Ikeda, K. [Dept. of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Univ., Aoba-yama, Sendai (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) was applied to equal channel angular (ECA) pressed aluminum (Al) alloys with high strength and toughness, and the effect of FSW on microstructure and the hardness profile in ECA-pressed alloys was examined. In the weld of ECA-pressed Al alloy 1050 and 5083, the stir zone had roughly the same hardness as the ECA-pressed material, while the hardness was slightly reduced in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ). The reduction of hardness in the TMAZ was due to dynamic recovery of dislocation cells of the ECA-pressed material. The addition of Zr to Al suppressed the reduction of hardness in the TMAZ. Consequently, friction stir (FS) weld of Al-Zr alloy retained the hardness of the ECA-pressed material throughout the weld. (orig.)

  11. Microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of A380 aluminum alloy with and without Li additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamouz, Mostafa [Research Center of Materials engineering, University of Kerman Industrial Graduate, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center of Materials engineering, University of Kerman Industrial Graduate, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azarbarmas, Mortaza, E-mail: mazarbarmas@ut.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emamy, Masoud [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alipour, Mohammad [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-10

    In this work, the effects of lithium (Li) on the microstructure, hardness and mechanical properties of A380 aluminum alloy have been investigated. The alloy was produced by conventional casting. Microstructures of the samples were investigated using the optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that with increase of Li content up to 0.1%, the morphology of β-Al{sub 5}FeSi and eutectic Si phases changed from intersected and branched coarse platelets into fine and independent ones. Li decreased hardness values of the alloy. Also, it was revealed from tensile tests that with addition of 0.6% Li, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation values increased from 274 to 300 MPa and 3.8% to 6%, respectively. Fractographic examination of the fracture surfaces indicated that the alloys with Li addition had more ductile dimple and fewer brittle cleavage surfaces.

  12. Determination of Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Aluminum-Lithium Alloy ML377

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Bryan C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications is currently being studied at NASA Langley Research Center's Metallic Materials Branch. The alloys in question will operate under stress in a corrosive environment. These conditions are ideal for the phenomena of Stress-Corrosion Cracking (SCC) to occur. The test procedure for SCC calls for alternate immersion and breaking load tests. These tests were optimized for the lab equipment and materials available in the Light Alloy lab. Al-Li alloy ML377 specimens were then subjected to alternate immersion and breaking load tests to determine residual strength and resistance to SCC. Corrosion morphology and microstructure were examined under magnification. Data shows that ML377 is highly resistant to stress-corrosion cracking.

  13. Aluminum alloy weldability. Identification of weld solidification cracking mechanisms through novel experimental technique and model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coniglio, Nicolas

    2008-07-01

    solidification range, refinement in grain size from 63 to 51 {mu}m, centerline columnar grains disappearance, and decreased cooling rate from 113 to 89 C/s. Moreover, in order to make direct comparison with literature, castings of controlled mixtures of alloys 6060 and 4043 were also investigated, thereby simulating weld metal composition under controlled cooling conditions. Castings showed a different trend than welds with small increases in silicon content (i.e. increase in 4043 filler dilution) resulting in huge effect on microstructure, no effect on liquidus temperature, drop in solidus temperature from 577 C to 509 C, increase in quantity of interdendritic constituent from 2% to 14%, and different phase formation. Binary {beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi, Mg{sub 2}Si, and Si phases are replaced with ternary {beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi, {pi}-Al{sub 8}FeMg{sub 3}Si{sub 6}, and a low melting quaternary eutectic involving Mg{sub 2}Si, {pi}, and Si. Also, variation of the cooling conditions in castings revealed the existence of a critical cooling rate, above which the solidification path and microstructure undergo a major change. Cracking Model. Implementing the critical conditions for cracking into the Rappaz- Drezet-Gremaud (RDG) model revealed a pressure drop in the interdendritic liquid on the order of 10{sup -1} atm, originating primarily from straining conditions. Since, according to literature, a minimum of 1,760 atm is required to fracture pure aluminum liquid (theoretical), this demonstrates that cavitation as a liquid fracture mechanism is not likely to occur, even when accounting for dissolved hydrogen gas. Instead, a porosity-based crack initiation model has been developed based upon pore stability criteria, assuming that gas pores expand from pre-existing nuclei. Crack initiation is taken to occur when stable pores form within the coherent dendrite region, critical to crack initiation being weld metal hydrogen content. Following initiation, a mass-balance approach developed by Braccini

  14. Identification of modes of fracture in a 2618-T6 aluminum alloy using stereophotogrammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas Zamarripa, A., E-mail: a.salaszamarripa@gmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Av. Universidad S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, Apartado Postal 076 Suc. ' F' San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Pinna, C.; Brown, M.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield. Sir Frederick Mappin Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Mata, M.P. Guerrero; Morales, M. Castillo; Beber-Solano, T.P. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Av. Universidad S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, Apartado Postal 076 Suc. ' F' San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    The identification and the development of a quantification technique of the modes of fracture in fatigue fracture surfaces of a 2618-T6 aluminum alloy were developed during this research. Fatigue tests at room and high temperature (230 Degree-Sign C) were carried out to be able to compare the microscopic fractographic features developed by this material under these testing conditions. The overall observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fracture surfaces showed a mixture of transgranular and ductile intergranular fracture. The ductile intergranular fracture contribution appears to be more significant at room temperature than at 230 Degree-Sign C. A quantitative methodology was developed to identify and to measure the contribution of these microscopic fractographic features. The technique consisted of a combination of stereophotogrammetry and image analysis. Stereo-pairs were randomly taken along the crack paths and were then analyzed using the profile module of MeX software. The analysis involved the 3-D surface reconstruction, the trace of primary profile lines in both vertical and horizontal directions within the stereo-pair area, the measurements of the contribution of the modes of fracture in each profile, and finally, the calculation of the average contribution in each stereo-pair. The technique results confirmed a higher contribution of ductile intergranular fracture at room temperature than at 230 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, there was no indication of a direct relationship between this contribution and the strain amplitudes range applied during the fatigue testing. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stereophotogrammetry and image analysis as a measuring tool of modes of fracture in fatigue fracture surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mixture of ductile intergranular and transgranular fracture was identified at room temperature and 230 Degree-Sign C testing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of a quantitative methodology to

  15. Identification of modes of fracture in a 2618-T6 aluminum alloy using stereophotogrammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Zamarripa, A.; Pinna, C.; Brown, M.W.; Mata, M.P. Guerrero; Morales, M. Castillo; Beber-Solano, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and the development of a quantification technique of the modes of fracture in fatigue fracture surfaces of a 2618-T6 aluminum alloy were developed during this research. Fatigue tests at room and high temperature (230 °C) were carried out to be able to compare the microscopic fractographic features developed by this material under these testing conditions. The overall observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fracture surfaces showed a mixture of transgranular and ductile intergranular fracture. The ductile intergranular fracture contribution appears to be more significant at room temperature than at 230 °C. A quantitative methodology was developed to identify and to measure the contribution of these microscopic fractographic features. The technique consisted of a combination of stereophotogrammetry and image analysis. Stereo-pairs were randomly taken along the crack paths and were then analyzed using the profile module of MeX software. The analysis involved the 3-D surface reconstruction, the trace of primary profile lines in both vertical and horizontal directions within the stereo-pair area, the measurements of the contribution of the modes of fracture in each profile, and finally, the calculation of the average contribution in each stereo-pair. The technique results confirmed a higher contribution of ductile intergranular fracture at room temperature than at 230 °C. Moreover, there was no indication of a direct relationship between this contribution and the strain amplitudes range applied during the fatigue testing. - Highlights: ► Stereophotogrammetry and image analysis as a measuring tool of modes of fracture in fatigue fracture surfaces. ► A mixture of ductile intergranular and transgranular fracture was identified at room temperature and 230 °C testing. ► Development of a quantitative methodology to obtain the percentage of modes of fracture within the fracture surface.

  16. Alloy model for high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissmann, M.; Saul, A.

    1991-07-01

    An alloy model is proposed for the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors. It is based on the assumption that holes and extra electrons are localized in small copper oxygen clusters, that would be the components of such alloy. This model, when used together with quantum chemical calculations on small clusters, can explain the structure observed in the experimental densities of states of both hole and electron superconductors close to the Fermi energy. The main point is the strong dependence of the energy level distribution and composition on the number of electrons in a cluster. The alloy model also suggests a way to correlate Tc with the number of holes, or extra electrons, and the number of adequate clusters to locate them. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Analysis of the flow property of aluminum alloy AA6016 based on the fracture morphology using the hydroforming technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lihui; Zhang, Quanda; Sun, Zhiying; Wang, Yao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the hydraulic bulging experiments were respectively carried out using AA6016-T4 aluminum alloy and AA6016-O aluminum alloy, and the deformation properties and fracture mechanism of aluminum alloy under the conditions of thermal and hydraulic were analyzed. Firstly, the aluminum alloy AA6016 was dealt with two kinds of heat treatment systems such as solid solution heat treatment adding natural ageing and full annealing, then the aluminum alloy such as AA6016-T4 and AA6016-O were obtained. In the same working environment, the two kinds of materials were used in the process of hydraulic bulging experiments, according to the observation and measurement of the deformation sizes of grid circles and material thicknesses near the fracture region, the flow properties and development trend of fracture defect of the materials were analyzed comprehensively from the perspective of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis; Secondly, the two kinds of materials were sampled in different regions of the fracture area and the microstructure morphology of the fracture was observed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The influence laws of the heat treatment systems on the fracture defect of the aluminum alloy under the condition of the liquid pressure were studied preliminarily by observing the distribution characteristics of the fracture microstructure morphology of dimple. At the same time, the experimental research on the ordinary stamping forming process of AA6016-O was carried out and the influence law of different forming process on the fracture defect of the aluminum alloy material was studied by observing the distribution of the fracture microstructure morphology; Finally, the development process of the fracture defect of aluminum alloy sheet was described theoretically from the view of the stress state.

  18. Effects of Alclad Layer and Anodizing Time on Sulfuric Acid Anodizing and Film Properties of 2E12 Aluminum Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN Gao-hong; HU Yuan-sen; YU Mei; LIU Jian-hua; LI Guo-ai

    2017-01-01

    Alclad and unclad 2E12 aerospace aluminum alloy were treated by sulfuric acid anodic oxidation. The effects of alclad layer and anodizing time on the anodization behaviour and corrosion resistance of anodic oxide layer on 2E12 aluminum alloy were studied. Surface and cross-section morphology of anodic oxide films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of anodic oxide films were analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization curve and electrochemical impedance ...

  19. Preparations and properties of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This short review describes various types of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. It is concerned with synthetic additives classified according to their functional groups; silicone compounds, carboxylic acids and dibasic acids, esters, Diels-Alder adducts, various polymers, nitrogen compounds, phosphoric esters, phosphonic acids, and others. Testing methods for water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials are described for a practical application in a laboratory.

  20. Application of Kelvin probe Force Microscopy (KFM) to evidence localized corrosion of over-aged aeronautical 2024 aluminum alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Radutoiu, Nicoleta; Alexis, Joël; Lacroix, Loïc; Abrudeanu, Marioara; Petit, Jacques-Alain

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The 2xxx serie aluminum alloys are characterized by good mechanical performances and low density, however they are susceptible to different forms of localized corrosion: pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The 2024-T351 aluminum alloy is used in the aircraft industry for numerous applications such as fuselage and door skin. Corrosion damage of the material is also very detrimental for the structural integrity of the aircraft. The p...