WorldWideScience

Sample records for temperate organic farming

  1. Organic Farming in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C. R.; Heß, J.

    1999-01-01

    During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...

  2. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  3. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  4. Ashes for organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kousa, T.; Heinonen, M.; Suoniitty, T.; Peltonen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays only eight percent of the cultivated field area is used for organic farming. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has published the guidelines for the program of organic farming to diversify the supply and the consumption of organic food. The aim is to increase organically arable land to 20% by the year 2020.The demand of organic fertilizer products is strongly increasing. Interest in forestry by-products (ash, bark, zero fiber, etc.) for use in organic production has recently be...

  5. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...... is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...

  6. Organic Sheep and Goat Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmann, Gerold

    2007-01-01

    Organic sheep and goat farming is on the rise in Germany and the EU. Many consumers see organic farms as an example of the "intact world" of farming and rural living. Agrienvironmental schemes support conversion from conventional towards organic farming. Only few know how difficult organic sheep and goat farming is from animal welfare, ecological and economic perspective. Newcomers particularly overestimate the production and marketing potential of the field, and underestimate the associated ...

  7. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation....

  8. Dissolved organic matter uptake by temperate macrophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Engeland, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Morris, E.P.; Brun, F.G.; Peralta, G.; Lara, M.; Hendriks, I.E.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Veuger, B.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems dominated by seagrasses often exhibit low inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Given the high productivity in these systems, recycling of nitrogen is expected to be high. We investigated the use of inorganic and organic nitrogen compounds by co-occuring primary producers in a temperate

  9. Technologies in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    (pollution) and consequences for human health. Broader ideas about ecosystems and the recycling of nutrients between the agricultural sector and the urban population are notably absent. On the basis of these findings the paper concludes by discussing the relationship between the consumers’ values that guide...... to phase out their use of conventional manure before 2021. This, however, raises a number of questions about consumers’ acceptance of the alternative technologies that have been proposed to close the nutrient gap. Drawing on qualitative interviews with Danish organic consumers, this paper first discusses...... what, from a consumers perspective, characterizes the technologies consumers associate with organic production. This part of the analysis shows that by and large consumers regard organic technologies as the opposite of conventional farming. Second, consumers’ perceptions of solutions suggested to close...

  10. Nature Quality in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Alrøe, Hugo; Frederiksen, Pia

    2004-01-01

    will explore how criteria for nature quality based on the Ecologist View can be developed and thereby feed into the ongoing discussion of the development of the organic farming practices. We suggest additional criteria for nature quality based on an Ecologist View of Nature: biodiversity, habitat diversity......Nature quality in relation to farming is a complex field. It involves different traditions and interests, different views of what nature is, and different ways of valuing nature. Furthermore there is a general lack of empirical data on many aspects of nature quality in the farmed landscape....... In this paper we discuss nature quality from the perspective of organic farming, which has its own values and goals in relation to nature – the Ecologist View of Nature. This is in contrast to the Culturist View characteristic of much conventional agriculture and the Naturalist View characteristic...

  11. Organic poultry farming

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansen, John E.; Horsted, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    The development in organic livestock production can be attributed to an increased consumer inter-est in organic products while, at the same time, farmers are interested in converting to organic pro-duction methods – often stimulated by governmental support or subsidies. It is important that the organic production systems can fulfil the expectations of each of these stakeholders if the organic livestock production is to increase further. This is in particular important if the organic poultry p...

  12. Impact of Organic farming on aquatic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Erik Steen; Knudsen, Marie Trydemann

    2004-01-01

    The effects of conversion to organic farming on N leaching are discussed in the presentation. Problems in European aquatic environment are presented along with the development of organic farming in Denmark and the rest of Europe. Recent Danish studies on the N leaching effects by conversion of mixed dairy and arable farms are presented. The studies estimate that N leaching is lower from organic compared to conventional mixed dairy farms, whereas N leaching at organic arable farms are comparab...

  13. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    are in search for new products, and new ways of creating outlets that can enhance or boost their image in an increasing international competitive environment. The organic products have a well-respected brand of trust and quality, and thereby a very strong position to create new possibilities of gaining store...... space and growth among supermarkets and discounters. A report of the results is in printing....

  14. Spatial relationships between intensive land cover and residual plant species diversity in temperate farmed landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Marrs, R.H.; Duc, Le M.G.; Thompson, K.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Firbank, L.G.; Rossall, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    1. In temperate farmed landscapes conservation policies increasingly emphasize large-scale reductions in land-use intensity. Yet despite a managed reversion to more favourable abiotic conditions, depleted regional species pools may prevent the re-assembly of target communities. 2. Using

  15. Biogas and Bioethanol Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    The thesis consists of two parts. First one is an introduction providing background information on organic farming, ethanol and anaerobic digestion processes, and concept of on‐farm bioenergy production. Second part consists of 8 papers....

  16. Organic farming in the Peruvian Andes

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Increased emphasis on organic farming and the consumption of local Andean crops. • Identification of superior indigenous crops that smallholder farmers can grow. • Establishment of a community- and local government- operated monitoring system on conservation practices. • Implementation of sustainable organic farming.

  17. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P.

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  18. Australia: Organic farming to soar in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2013-01-01

    An analysis by IBIS World predicts that organic farming is one of the top five Australian “industries to fly” in 2013. The value of revenue from organic farming is predicted to grow by 12.5%, and to rise from AU$549 million in 2012, to AU$617 million in 2013 (€434 m to €488 m). Of the five proposed high fliers, organic farming is forecast to grow slower than oil and gas production (15.9%), but faster than the other three high fliers: online education (10.5% growth), online shopping (9.1%) and...

  19. Prospect for organic farming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo

    2005-01-01

    Concerns about the impact of modern agriculture on the environment have led to public support for the development of organic farming during the last 10-15 years. Besides generating environmental benefits and supplying food, organic farming is supposed to be “multifunctional”, such as providing...... scenarios aiming at benefiting organic production are analysed and the strength and weakness of these policy scenarios are discussed....... rural amenities and promoting rural development. In Denmark, conversion into organic production has increased rapidly through the 1990s. Nevertheless, despite increased consumption of organic products in Denmark (in fact, Denmark has the highest organic share in consumption), drastic increases...

  20. Soil Fertility and Biodiversity in Organic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Mäder, Paul; Fliessbach, Andreas; Dubois, David; Gunst, Lucie; Fried, Padruot; Niggli, Urs

    2002-01-01

    An understanding of agroecosystems is a key to determining effective farming systems. Here we report results from a 21-year study of agronomic and ecological performance of biodynamic, bioorganic, and conventional farming systems in Central Europe. We found crop yields to be 20% lower in the organic systems, although input of fertilizer and energy was reduced by 34 to 53% and pesticide input by 97%. Enhanced soil fertility and higher biodiversity found in organic plots may render these system...

  1. Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Paul; Fliessbach, Andreas; Dubois, David; Gunst, Lucie; Fried, Padruot; Niggli, Urs

    2002-05-31

    An understanding of agroecosystems is key to determining effective farming systems. Here we report results from a 21-year study of agronomic and ecological performance of biodynamic, bioorganic, and conventional farming systems in Central Europe. We found crop yields to be 20% lower in the organic systems, although input of fertilizer and energy was reduced by 34 to 53% and pesticide input by 97%. Enhanced soil fertility and higher biodiversity found in organic plots may render these systems less dependent on external inputs.

  2. Opinions on biogas in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiske, Stefan; Østergård, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The application of biogas technologies in organic farming involves many considerations: Benefits like improved fertilizer supply and fossil fuel savings are opposed to concerns about economical risks and incompliance with organic principles. A questionnaire developed by Risø DTU gives an idea about...

  3. Organic farming and multi-criteria decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Dubgaard, Alex

    of the many different Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques available and their relative advantages and disadvantages. In addition, theoretical and practical problems related to the use of Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) and MCA respectively are briefly discussed. We then review the MCA literature on case...... studies on organic farming. Based on this review we provide directional markers for future research where MCA may possibly be applied and adapted in order to provide useful knowledge and support for decision makers in the context of organic farming....

  4. Potato Organic Farming in Batu City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Sulistiono, Rudi; Sudiarso, Sudiarso; Soemarno, Soemarno

    2013-01-01

    Organic potato cultivation was an effort to improve declining quality of potato agroecosystems and to preserve soil fertility. This study was conducted to analyze pattern of farming system and land management on the area of organic potatoes in Batu city. Research was conducted by the survey method, respondents were determined by the method of stratified cluster sampling. Farmer respondents were experienced organic potato farmer and as "expert leaders". Results show that the mindset of farmer...

  5. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain; David, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios. (letter)

  6. Soil management practices under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Adel; Chami Ziad, Al; Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology and modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. Soil building practices such as crop rotations, intercropping, symbiotic associations, cover crops, organic fertilizers and minimum tillage are central to organic practices. Those practices encourage soil formation and structure and creating more stable systems. In farm nutrient and energy cycling is increased and the retentive abilities of the soil for nutrients and water are enhanced. Such management techniques also play an important role in soil erosion control. The length of time that the soil is exposed to erosive forces is decreased, soil biodiversity is increased, and nutrient losses are reduced, helping to maintain and enhance soil productivity. Organic farming as systematized and certifiable approach for agriculture, there is no surprise that it faces some challenges among both farmers and public sector. This can be clearly demonstrated particularly in the absence of the essential conditions needed to implement successfully the soil management practices like green manure and composting to improve soil fertility including crop rotation, cover cropping and reduced tillage. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed highlighting their beneficial impact on the environmental soil characteristics. Keywords: soil fertility, organic matter, plant nutrition

  7. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms. PMID:27537548

  8. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Helfenstein

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India, and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1 did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms.

  9. Niche farm fresh products: organic and biodynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    There has been a general increase in demand for ‘organic’ or ‘biodynamic’ produce. As mineral nitrogen fertilizers are prohibited in organic farming, livestock manure often becomes the central fertilizer. Livestock manure is a known potential source of human pathogens, so it can be speculated...

  10. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  11. Evaluation of wildlife management through organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    for six common agricultural wildlife species. ALMaSS outputs can be expressed as a simple index of relative change in abundance and distribution, allowing easy comparison between scenarios. Results indicate that organic farming generally had a beneficial effect, but the degree was variable with all...

  12. The Economics of Smallholder Organic Contract Farming in Tropical Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the revenue effects of certified organic contract farming for smallholders and of adoption of organic agricultural farming methods in a tropical African context. The comparison in both cases is with farming systems that are "organic by default." Survey data from a large organic...

  13. ORGANIC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.

  14. Selective Sorption of Dissolved Organic Carbon Compounds by Temperate Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie A.; Phillips, Jana R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physico-chemical sorption onto soil minerals is one of the major processes of dissolved organic carbon (OC) stabilization in deeper soils. The interaction of DOC on soil solids is related to the reactivity of soil minerals, the chemistry of sorbate functional groups, and the stability of sorbate to microbial degradation. This study was conducted to examine the sorption of diverse OC compounds (D-glucose, L-alanine, oxalic acid, salicylic acid, and sinapyl alcohol) on temperate climate soil orders (Mollisols, Ultisols and Alfisols). Methodology Equilibrium batch experiments were conducted using 0–100 mg C L−1 at a solid-solution ratio of 1∶60 for 48 hrs on natural soils and on soils sterilized by γ-irradiation. The maximum sorption capacity, Qmax and binding coefficient, k were calculated by fitting to the Langmuir model. Results Ultisols appeared to sorb more glucose, alanine, and salicylic acid than did Alfisols or Mollisols and the isotherms followed a non-linear pattern (higher k). Sterile experiments revealed that glucose and alanine were both readily degraded and/or incorporated into microbial biomass because the observed Qmax under sterile conditions decreased by 22–46% for glucose and 17–77% for alanine as compared to non-sterile conditions. Mollisols, in contrast, more readily reacted with oxalic acid (Qmax of 886 mg kg−1) and sinapyl alcohol (Qmax of 2031 mg kg−1), and no degradation was observed. The reactivity of Alfisols to DOC was intermediate to that of Ultisols and Mollisols, and degradation followed similar patterns as for Ultisols. Conclusion This study demonstrated that three common temperate soil orders experienced differential sorption and degradation of simple OC compounds, indicating that sorbate chemistry plays a significant role in the sorptive stabilization of DOC. PMID:23209742

  15. Farm-specific factors affecting the choice between conventional and organic dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2003-01-01

    Organic dairy farming in the Netherlands is a growing sector. This paper investigates the impact of a number of economic and farm-specific variables on the choice between conventional and organic farming. Based on expected utility maximization, a theoretical framework is developed that explicitly

  16. Biochar Decelerates Soil Organic Nitrogen Cycling but Stimulates Soil Nitrification in a Temperate Arable Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50–80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies. PMID:24497947

  17. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prommer

    Full Text Available Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  18. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  19. Utilization of Natural Farm Resources for Promoting High Energy Efficiency in Low-Input Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Arthurson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Both organic and conventional farming processes require energy input in the form of diesel fuel for farming equipment, animal feed, and fertilizer compounds. The most significant difference between the two methods is the use in conventional farming of mineral fertilizers and pesticides that are minimally employed in organic management. It is argued that organic farming is more environmentally friendly, given that synthetic fertilizers mainly used at conventional farms are replaced with animal manure and cover crops. Nutrient uptake by plants is additionally enhanced by the effective use of rhizobia and other types of plant growth-promoting bacteria, in combination with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This article aims to compare the amounts and/or types of energy and nutrients required for both farming systems and provide feasible suggestions for the sustainable use of farm resources in combination with good crop yields.

  20. Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  1. Organic Farming Benefits Local Plant Diversity in Vineyard Farms Located in Intensive Agricultural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  2. Does organic farming enhance biodiversity in Mediterranean vineyards? A case study with bats and arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, Jérémy S P; Louboutin, Bastien; Jones, Gareth

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of organic farming for promoting biodiversity has been widely documented, yet most studies have been undertaken in temperate agroecosystems with a focus on birds, insects and plants. Despite the Mediterranean basin being a biodiversity hotspot for conservation priorities, the potential benefits of organic farming for biodiversity there has received little attention. Here, we assessed the effect of farming system, landscape characteristics and habitat structure on biodiversity in Mediterranean vineyards using two taxa with different functional traits (in terms of mobility, dispersal ability and home range size): bats and arachnids. We also tested the "intermediate landscape-complexity" hypothesis, which predicts that local conservation measures have greatest success in landscapes of intermediate complexity. Our study design involved pairs of matched organic and conventional vineyard plots in the south of France situated along a landscape complexity gradient. Abundance of arachnids were higher in organic vineyards, although arachnid species richness was positively associated with the amount of ground vegetation cover. Organic farming was ineffective on its own to enhance bat activity and species richness regardless of the landscape context. Rather, our results suggested that landscape features were more important for bats than vineyard management, with significantly higher bat activity recorded on vineyard plots located at close proximity to hedgerows and rivers. When designing conservation strategies in Mediterranean farmlands, we strongly recommend the implementation of a multi-scale approach to assure benefits for a wide range of species.

  3. Farming strategies in organic dairy farming: Effects on breeding goal and choice of breed. An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Weenink, D.; Roep, D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming principles give rise to multifunctionality: different activities are combined at farm level to create ecological and economic synergies. These principles do however allow for different operationalisations and different farm development strategies, for example with regard to the use

  4. Organic and inorganic nitrogen uptake by 21 dominant tree species in temperate and tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Changcheng; Xu, Xingliang; Wanek, Wolfgang; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Huimin; Yang, Xiaodong

    2017-11-01

    Evidence shows that many tree species can take up organic nitrogen (N) in the form of free amino acids from soils, but few studies have been conducted to compare organic and inorganic N uptake patterns in temperate and tropical tree species in relation to mycorrhizal status and successional state. We labeled intact tree roots by brief 15N exposures using field hydroponic experiments in a temperate forest and a tropical forest in China. A total of 21 dominant tree species were investigated, 8 in the temperate forest and 13 in the tropical forest. All investigated tree species showed highest uptake rates for NH4+ (ammonium), followed by glycine and NO3- (nitrate). Uptake of NH4+ by temperate trees averaged 12.8 μg N g-1 dry weight (d.w.) root h-1, while those by tropical trees averaged 6.8 μg N g-1 d.w. root h-1. Glycine uptake rates averaged 3.1 μg N g-1 d.w. root h-1 for temperate trees and 2.4 μg N g-1 d.w. root h-1 for tropical trees. NO3- uptake was the lowest (averaging 0.8 μg N g-1 d.w. root h-1 for temperate trees and 1.2 μg N g-1 d.w. root h-1 for tropical trees). Uptake of NH4+ accounted for 76% of the total uptake of all three N forms in the temperate forest and 64% in the tropical forest. Temperate tree species had similar glycine uptake rates as tropical trees, with the contribution being slightly lower (20% in the temperate forest and 23% in the tropical forest). All tree species investigated in the temperate forest were ectomycorrhizal and all species but one in the tropical forest were arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM). Ectomycorrhizal trees showed significantly higher NH4+ and lower NO3- uptake rates than AM trees. Mycorrhizal colonization rates significantly affected uptake rates and contributions of NO3- or NH4+, but depended on forest types. We conclude that tree species in both temperate and tropical forests preferred to take up NH4+, with organic N as the second most important N source. These findings suggest that temperate and tropical forests

  5. Appreciation to Organic Agriculture Function: Case Study of Rice Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinjung Mary Prihtanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities are not only producing the visible (tangible output in the form of food but also the non-visible output (non-marketable goods/non-tangible services. Non-visible output refers to a multifunctionality to supply food to ensure the food sufficiency of farmer household and job opportunities at rural area. The article aims to compare the capability of organic rice farming to conventional, to ensure the food sufficiency of farmer household, the economic value of rice farming to produce food, and the economic estimation of rice farming to its function as an job opportunities. The data for the research is collected in Gentungan Village, Mojogedang District, Karanganyar Regency during the crop year of 2015. In order to study the differences of two rice farming systems, the total of 60 farmers, 30 farmers are dealing with organic farming and other 30 farmers from conventional farming, are subjected for the interview in this research. The results found that the food security of organic farming is higher than conventional farming. The organic rice farming gives the economic value as the food producing and the labor-absorbing function in the study area is higher than the  conventional farming.

  6. POPULAR COOPERATIVES OF WAY FAMILY FARMING ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alair Ferreira de Freitas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperatives popular if together build up in principle as solidarity and self-management. However, note that many difficulties in many respects managerial and market access restrictions. Within this context, the main goal of this project was to support the Organization of family farmers in a cooperative (COOFELIZ of the municipality of happy-mg expected. To this end were undertaken actions such as workshops, training for project planning and preparation, discussions with partners and organizational support intended to help with learning processes for strengthening social COOFELIZ framework. There are indicative of the project has contributed to a better organization of cooperated, allowing access of the cooperative programmes of public policies and elaboration and adoption of a rural extension project with funding from the MDA. Can be concluded that the joints and partnerships formed of family farming organisations are fundamental to promote local development-related actions, and the involvement of members on the actions of cooperatives is fundamental to your organizational growth and overcoming the problems faced by enterprises in solidarity.

  7. Relationships between Danish organic farming and landscape composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor Philipp

    2007-01-01

    in landscape composition between organic and conventional farms were not a direct implication of organic farming practices, but were related to variations within other parameters and to the location of organically farmed land. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved......This article presents an investigation of relationships between organic farming and landscape composition in Denmark. Landscape composition was analysed in terms of density of uncultivated landscape elements (I), number of land uses per hectare (II), diversity of land use (III) and mean field size...... (IV). Two analytical approaches were used. The first was based on an examination of the national agricultural registers for 1998, 2001 and 2004. The second approach used aerial photo interpretation for an analysis of 72 conventional and 40 organic farms within three sample areas for 1982, 1995...

  8. A farm platform approach to optimizing temperate grazing-livestock systems: metrics for trade-off assessments and future innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Blackwell, Martin; Cardenas, Laura; Collins, Adrian; Dungait, Jennifer; Eisler, Mark; Hawkins, Jane; Misselbrook, Tom; Mcauliffe, Graham; Mcfadzean, Jamie; Murray, Phil; Orr, Robert; Jordana Rivero, M.; Wu, Lianhai; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Global agriculture is at a critical juncture when competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. Livestock production, especially ruminant livestock is central to this debate. Ruminants make an important contribution to global food security by converting feed that is unsuitable for human consumption to high value protein, demand for which is currently increasing at an unprecedented rate. Sustainable intensification of ruminant livestock production may be applied to pastoral grazing, mixed-cropping, feedlot and housed production systems. All these systems have associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, such as reduced animal fertility, health and welfare, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. Further, in many societies livestock represent a resource far greater than just food, e.g. fibre, draught, fertiliser, fuel, bank and social. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice, e.g. temperate grassland. The North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) was established during 2010 as a UK national capability for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences. Its remit is to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices for beef and sheep production in lowland temperate grasslands. Following construction, a typical beef and sheep system based on permanent pasture receiving chemical fertilisers on first grade pasture (>60% perennial ryegrass) was implemented across the 67.2 ha farm platform in order to obtain baseline

  9. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  10. Is organic farming safer to farmers’ health? A comparison between organic and traditional farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carla; García-Lestón, Julia; Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Silva, Susana; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Mattei, Francesca; Dall’Armi, Valentina; Bonassi, Stefano; Laffon, Blanca; Snawder, John; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to pesticides is a major public health concern, because of the widespread distribution of these compounds and their possible long term effects. Recently, organic farming has been introduced as a consumer and environmental friendly agricultural system, although little is known about the effects on workers’ health. Objectives To evaluate genetic damage and immunological alterations in workers of both traditional and organic farming. Methods Eighty-five farmers exposed to several pesticides, thirty–six organic farmers and sixty-one controls took part in the study. Biomarkers of exposure (pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and thioethers in urine and butyrylcholinesterase activity in plasma), early effect (micronuclei in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, T-cell receptor mutation assay, chromosomal aberrations, comet assay and lymphocytes subpopulations) and susceptibility (genetic polymorphisms related to metabolism - EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 - and DNA repair – XRCC1 and XRCC2) were evaluated. Results When compared to controls and organic farmers, pesticide farmers presented a significant increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes (frequency ratio, FR=2.80) and reticulocytes (FR=1.89), chromosomal aberrations (FR=2.19), DNA damage assessed by comet assay (mean ratio, MR=1.71), and a significant decrease in the proportion of B lymphocytes (MR=0.88). Overall, organic farmers presented similar levels of genetic damage as controls, in some cases modulated by GSTT1 and GSTM1, GSTP1 105Ile/Ile and XRCC1 399Gln/Gln genotypes. Conclusions Results confirmed the increased presence of DNA damage in farmers exposed to pesticides, and showed as exposure conditions and genetic background influence observed effects. Findings from this study indicate that no evident genetic or immunologic damage can be observed in organic farmers. PMID:24576785

  11. Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stock of Temperate Coniferous Forests in Northern Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood A. Dar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  Soil organic carbon (SOC estimation in temperate forests of the Himalaya is important to estimate their contribution to regional, national and global carbon stocks. Physico chemical properties of soil were quantified to assess soil organic carbon density (SOC and SOC CO2 mitigation density at two soil depths (0-10 and 10-20 cms under temperate forest in the Northern region of Kashmir Himalayas India. The results indicate that conductance, moisture content, organic carbon and organic matter were significantly higher while as pH and bulk density were lower at Gulmarg forest site. SOC % was ranging from 2.31± 0.96 at Gulmarg meadow site to 2.31 ± 0.26 in Gulmarg forest site. SOC stocks in these temperate forests were from 36.39 ±15.40 to 50.09 ± 15.51 Mg C ha-1. The present study reveals that natural vegetation is the main contributor of soil quality as it maintained the soil organic carbon stock. In addition, organic matter is an important indicator of soil quality and environmental parameters such as soil moisture and soil biological activity change soil carbon sequestration potential in temperate forest ecosystems.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12186International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15; page: 161-178

  12. Is organic farming safer to farmers' health? A comparison between organic and traditional farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carla; García-Lestón, Julia; Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Silva, Susana; Pingarilho, Marta; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Mattei, Francesca; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Bonassi, Stefano; Laffon, Blanca; Snawder, John; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to pesticides is a major public health concern, because of the widespread distribution of these compounds and their possible long term effects. Recently, organic farming has been introduced as a consumer and environmental friendly agricultural system, although little is known about the effects on workers' health. The aim of this work was to evaluate genetic damage and immunological alterations in workers of both traditional and organic farming. Eighty-five farmers exposed to several pesticides, thirty-six organic farmers and sixty-one controls took part in the study. Biomarkers of exposure (pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and thioethers in urine and butyrylcholinesterase activity in plasma), early effect (micronuclei in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, T-cell receptor mutation assay, chromosomal aberrations, comet assay and lymphocytes subpopulations) and susceptibility (genetic polymorphisms related to metabolism - EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 - and DNA repair-XRCC1 and XRCC2) were evaluated. When compared to controls and organic farmers, pesticide farmers presented a significant increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes (frequency ratio, FR=2.80) and reticulocytes (FR=1.89), chromosomal aberrations (FR=2.19), DNA damage assessed by comet assay (mean ratio, MR=1.71), and a significant decrease in the proportion of B lymphocytes (MR=0.88). Results were not consistent for organic farmers when compared to controls, with a 48% increase of micronuclei in lumphocytes frequency (p=0.016) contrasted by the significant decreases of TCR-Mf (p=0.001) and %T (p=0.001). Our data confirm the increased presence of DNA damage in farmers exposed to pesticides, and show as exposure conditions may influence observed effects. These results must be interpreted with caution due to the small size of the sample and the unbalanced distribution of individuals in the three study groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of organic farming practices amongst crop farmers in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. atoma & Family

    organic farming are manufactured using resources such as fossil fuels which are not renewable and using such resources may cause pollution and contribute to environmental degradation, thus making such agricultural practices unsustainable.

  14. The effect of organic farming systems on species diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksono, Amin Setyo

    2017-11-01

    Organic farming systems have been well known to support the diversity of a wide range of taxa, including microorganisms, arable flora, invertebrates, birds, and mammals, which benefit from organic management leading to increases in abundance and/or species richness. The objective of this paper is to review the effect of organic farming on species diversity reported in several articles and compare this with the current study in Gondanglegi, Malang. A review of several studies showed that organic farming systems have been reported to increase species diversity, including that of mammals, birds, arthropods, vascular plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The researchers about arthropod groups consisted of carabid beetles, butterflies, wasps, predators, and bees. Agricultural landscape, habitat type, farming system, landscape composition and connectivity all contribute to explaining species biodiversity and richness. Moreover, based on current and relevant studies, the results showed that the application of refugia blocks has increased arthropod diversity and composition.

  15. Contribution of organic farming to public goods in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen, Lizzie Melby; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Fog, Erik; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Hermansen, J.E.; Andreasen, Lise; Strandberg, Beate; Halberg, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The potential contribution of organic farming to the public goods, ‘Nature and Biodiversity’, ‘Environment’, ‘Energy and Climate’, ‘Human Health and Welfare’ and ‘Animal Health and Welfare’ in Denmark is guided and partly secured by the principles and specific requirements of the EU Organic Regulation. However, other factors, such as the production type, farm size, geographical location and—not the least—the management of the farm, also influence the contribution. Using the ban on synthetic p...

  16. On autochtonous organic production and its implication for the consolidation of temperate salt marshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Bartholdy, Anders; Kim, Daehyun

    2014-01-01

    The organic production related to minerogene salt marsh deposits represents a challenge to all attempts to model the development of these areas, and evaluate their chances of survival under different sea level scenarios. Salt marsh deposits on a typical temperate backbarrier saltmarsh area...

  17. Comparative evaluation of organic and conventional farming on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five samples of organic fruits with seal certification, organic fruits without seal certification and conventional fruits were acquired from supermarkets and farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Organic lime and orange showed higher mean values of acidity, being 4.5 and 34.8% higher, when compared to conventional fruit, ...

  18. A review of nitrous oxide mitigation by farm nitrogen management in temperate grassland-based agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Watson, Catherine J; Yan, Ming Jia; Lalor, Stan; Rafique, Rashid; Hyde, Bernard; Lanigan, Gary; Richards, Karl G; Holden, Nicholas M; Humphreys, James

    2013-10-15

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from grassland-based agriculture is an important source of atmospheric N2O. It is hence crucial to explore various solutions including farm nitrogen (N) management to mitigate N2O emissions without sacrificing farm profitability and food supply. This paper reviews major N management practices to lower N2O emission from grassland-based agriculture. Restricted grazing by reducing grazing time is an effective way to decrease N2O emissions from excreta patches. Balancing the protein-to-energy ratios in the diets of ruminants can also decrease N2O emissions from excreta patches. Among the managements of synthetic fertilizer N application, only adjusting fertilizer N rate and slow-released fertilizers are proven to be effective in lowering N2O emissions. Use of bedding materials may increase N2O emissions from animal houses. Manure storage as slurry, manipulating slurry pH to values lower than 6 and storage as solid manure under anaerobic conditions help to reduce N2O emissions during manure storage stage. For manure land application, N2O emissions can be mitigated by reducing manure N inputs to levels that satisfy grass needs. Use of nitrification inhibitors can substantially lower N2O emissions associated with applications of fertilizers and manures and from urine patches. N2O emissions from legume based grasslands are generally lower than fertilizer-based systems. In conclusion, effective measures should be taken at each step during N flow or combined options should be used in order to mitigate N2O emission at the farm level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare......Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines. The average herd size was 3.15 in Kiambu and 3.91 in Kajiado, with all the cows’ zero-grazed. Seventy five percent of the cubicles were small (less than 2.50m2). Many of the farmers sprayed their animals weekly (47...

  20. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in these environmental conditions, offering a sustainable production with minimal inputs.

  1. Yesterday and Today of Organic Farming in KOP Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva Eda Üstüntaş

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming aims not to use chemical inputs, to increase quality not the yield, control and certify every steps of the production and is a human and environmental friendly production system. In recent years, use of organic food has increased parallel with the increasing interest in the environmental protection and safe foods in the developed countries. Turkey has a great potential for organic farming due to its wide diversity of climatic and soil conditions. KOP (Konya Plain Project Region, includes the provinces as Aksaray, Karaman, Konya, Niğde, has a wide agricultural fields where not used chemical fertilizer and not contaminated with pesticides. Therefore this region is very important for organic agriculture. In 2013 year, planting area is 769.014 hectares and organic production is 1.620.466 tons in Turkey. KOP Region has a 0.47% planting area and 3.4% organic production in Turkey. Niğde which had the first rank in terms of organic production, constituted about 61% organic production amount. KOP Region could present significant opportunities and benefits to potential investors in terms of organic farming. In KOP Region, organic farming practices should be cared and supported.

  2. Effects of organic fertilizers on yield and quality of potato tubers in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    In this lecture, an overview was given over effects of organic fertilizers (compost, farmyard manure, slurry, organic commercial fertilizers) on yield and quality (DM, starch, contents of N, P, K) of potato tubers in organic farming.

  3. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Romanian Farms through Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development of any sector involves respecting the principles of sustainability, which means economic, social and environmental development. Moreover, organic farming is a very important field for ensuring sustainable development. Romania has great potential for the development of organic agriculture, especially due to the large number of available farmland and reduced use of fertilizers and other chemicals. However, the development of organic farming in Romania is in an early stage, due to the numerous problems that Romanian agriculture is still facing. Concern for the environment should be reflected at the level of production processes and consumption. As market demand influences and stimulates production, we can ask the question to what extent stimulating the consumption of organic products through green marketing can boost organic agriculture development and competitiveness of Romanian farms. Using several methods of research, such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, statistical methods and by calling on studies, reports and data series on organic farming in the EU and Romania, this paper highlights Romania's position in terms of the level of development of organic agriculture and recommends several ways to improve the outcomes obtained by Romania in the field. Moreover, based on regression equations, the trend of convergence of Romanian organic agriculture development in relation to the EU countries is analysed. The paper demonstrates that one of the measures that can be taken by Romanian farms is green marketing strategy development that can stimulate both consumption and production of organic products. Therefore, with increasing interest in the development of organic agriculture in Romania, green marketing can play an increasingly important role in promoting the benefits of consuming organic products, thus contributing to business development of organic products as well as to the development of Romanian agriculture

  4. Indian farmers’ experience with and perceptions of organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peramaiyan, Panneer; Halberg, Niels; Vaarst, Mette

    2012-01-01

    In India, the number of farmers converting to organic farming has increased in the recent past despite the lack of government support in providing knowledge and extension to the farmers. The aim of this article is to investigate the perceived relevance, benefits and barriers to a conversion...... constraints to adopting organic farming, while the age and education of the farmer were not deemed a problem. Lack of knowledge and lack of institutional support were other barriers to conversion. Some farmers were, however, interested in converting to organic farming in the near future in Madhya Pradesh due...... to the low cost of production, and in Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand due to the price premium and health benefits. On the other hand, organic farmers were more concerned with health, environmental and production factors when institutional support was available. The years under conversion were positively...

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN CHINA AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the impact of factors determining the transition to organic farming and provide some recommendations for government’s policy relating to organic farming. Material and research method. An analysis was based on questionnaire survey on the willingness of organic farming by small farmers in the province of Jiangsu. Binary logistic regression model was used in the research. Concluding remarks. Five factors affecting organic agricultural production were discovered: farmers’ age, risk preferences, labour costs, expected benefi ts and the environment. On this ground, the authors suggest, that Chinese government should adopt policies assisting farmers in the transition to organic farming for the sustainable development of China’s organic agriculture. Cooperation of farmers’ cooperatives and research institutions to improve organic farming techniques should also be promoted.

  6. Stability in Organic Milk Farm Prices: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Ye; Brown, Scott; Cook, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The organic milk pay price is more stable year round and increases every year. However, the conventional milk price varies within the year and from year to year. As an emerging segment of the milk industry, consumer demand for organic milk is increasing rapidly. The growth in demand relative to supply provides organic milk producers and processors large premiums over the conventional milk price. Many conventional dairy farms have converted to organic operations for the more stable price. The ...

  7. Assessing the Sustainability Performance of Organic Farms in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde, De Evelien; Oudshoorn, Frank; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Stubsgaard, Anke; Sørensen, Claus; Boer, De Imke

    2016-01-01

    The growth of organic agriculture in Denmark raises the interest of both producers and consumers in the sustainability performance of organic production. The aim of this study was to examine the sustainability performance of farms in four agricultural sectors (vegetable, dairy, pig and poultry)

  8. Organic Farming as a Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic Farming as a Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Policy. ... departments of organic agriculture in higher institutions of learning, train extension workers in OF practices, disseminate emerging indigenous OF knowledge, skills, technologies and crop varieties.

  9. 36 Problems and Prospect of Organic Farming in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    address issues of environmental, economic and social sustainability in its approach apart from inputs or tools .... environment-friendly products. At the same time, the public were gradually recognizing organic farming ..... foods in term of growing, harvesting, transportation and storage. Organically produced foods must meet.

  10. Reconciling scientific approaches for organic farming research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, T.

    2002-01-01

    Part I : Reflection on research methods in organic grassland and animal production at the Louis Bolk Institute, The Netherlands

    Key words: organic agriculture, anthroposophy, methodology, research strategy, experiential science,

  11. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study the researcher attempted 1 to understand the basic features of organic farming in The Paguyuban Pasundans Cianjur 2 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community 3 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize and applied the values of benefits of organic farming in support of environmental health on their lived experiences in the community 4 The purpose was to describe and understand how the stakeholders who are able to articulate their ideas regarding the model of sustainable organic farming 5 The Policy Recommendation for Organic Farming. The researcher employed triangulation thorough finding that provides breadth and depth to an investigation offering researchers a more accurate picture of the phenomenon. In the implementation of triangulation researchers conducted several interviews to get saturation. After completion of the interview results are written compiled and shown to the participants to check every statement by every participant. In addition researchers also checked the relevant documents and direct observation in the field The participants of this study were the stakeholders namely 1 The leader of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic Farmer Cianjur PPOFC 2 Members of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic FarmersCianjur 3 Leader of NGO 4 Government officials of agriculture 5 Business of organic food 6 and Consumer of organic food. Generally the findings of the study revealed the following 1 PPOFC began to see the reality as the impact of modern agriculture showed in fertility problems due to contaminated soil by residues of agricultural chemicals such as chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. So he wants to restore the soil fertility through environmentally friendly of farming practices 2 the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community farmers did not

  12. What are the effects of agricultural management on soil organic carbon in boreo-temperate systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddaway, Neal R.; Hedlund, Katarina; Jackson, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    intensification has led to practices that may decrease soil organic carbon (SOC), and agricultural management has the potential to be a powerful tool for climate change mitigation and increased soil fertility through SOC sequestration. Here, we systematically map evidence relating to the impacts of agricultural......Background Soils contain the largest stock of organic carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems and changes in soil C stocks may significantly affect atmospheric CO2. A significant part of soil C is present in cultivated soils that occupy about 35 % of the global land surface. Agricultural...... management on SOC in arable systems of the warm temperate and snow climate zones (subset of temperate and continental climates: Köppen–Geiger Classification)....

  13. Ecological concepts in organic farming and their consequences for an organic crop ideotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Struik, P.C.; Jacobsen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, organic farmers largely depend on varieties supplied by conventional plant breeders and developed for farming systems in which artificial fertilizers and agro-chemicals are widely used. The organic farming system differs fundamentally in soil fertility, weed, pest and disease management,

  14. Use of homeopathy in organic dairy farming in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjales, Inmaculada; López-Alonso, Marta; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Ruth; Rey-Crespo, Francisco; Villar, Ana; Miranda, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Organic farming principles promote the use of unconventional therapies as an alternative to chemical substances (which are limited by organic regulations), with homeopathy being the most extensive. Traditionally, Spain has had little faith in homeopathy but its use in organic farming is growing. Fifty-six Spanish organic dairy farmers were interviewed to obtain what we believe to be the first data on the use of homeopathy in organic dairy cattle in Spain. Only 32% of farms use some sort of alternative therapy (16.1% homeopathy, 10.7% phytotherapy and 5.3% using both therapies) and interestingly, a clear geographical pattern showing a higher use towards the East (similar to that in the human population) was observed. The main motivation to use homeopathy was the need to reduce chemical substances promoted by organic regulations, and the treatment of clinical mastitis being the principle reason. The number of total treatments was lower in farms using homeopathy compared with those applying allopathic therapies (0.13 and 0.54 treatments/cow/year respectively) and although the bulk SCC was significantly higher (p Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming

    OpenAIRE

    Aabo, Søren; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Can the restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming be documented to provide a safer, high quality meat product with less antibiotic resistant bacteria? The project SafeOrganic aims to document that the restricted use of antimicrobials in organic pig production leads to lower levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria compared with the level in conventional pigs. However, the project will also address the risk of losing this quality parameter, due to a widespread practice of slaught...

  16. Orchid bees as bio-indicators for organic coffee farms in Costa Rica: Does farm size affect their abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Euglossini bees, especially Euglossa, as biological indicators of organic vs non-organic coffee farms was studied in Atenas and San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica using 1.8-cineole as lure. Observations were made for three days at each of four farms and complemented with data from a year of observations. Orchid bees were in greater abundance in the organic farms (t-Student test. However, lower abundances suggest that an organic farm may be negatively affected by the proximity of non-organic farms, depending on its size and distance. Orchid bees may be indicators of organic coffee farms. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 965-969. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  17. On Farm Feeding;Replacing Bought in Pig Feed with Home-Grown Straights at Sheepdrove Organic Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Nelder, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Organic systems aim to operate in an ecological and economical way, importing cereals grown thousands of miles away, processed at a mill and then transported again to our farms is costly in oil and therefore money. It is neither ecologically nor economically sustainable. British farms are capable of producing a large amount of high quality cereal, the majority of which is usually sold. Transportation and processing of the grain uses oil and leaves farms vulnerable to market prices. If farm...

  18. Effect of Localities and organic Fertilizers on Yield in Conditions of Organic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Antosovsky; Pavel Ryant; Martin Prudil; Milan Gruber; Ivana Komprsová

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization cannot be used by actual needs of plants during vegetation in organic farming. The proper crop rotation and harmonic nutrition are necessary for good and quality products. The methods of treatment are mainly realized by cultivation of green manure crop and fertilizing by organic fertilizers. The aim of the long-term experiment was to evaluate the effect of different localities and different organic fertilizers on crop yield in organic farming. Variants of fertilization ...

  19. Farmers’ reasons for deregistering from organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Flaten, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Every year since 2002, 150 to 200 farmers in Norway have deregistered from certified organic production. The aim of this study was to get behind these figures and improve our understanding of the reasoning leading to decisions to opt out. Four cases of deregistered organic farmers with grain, sheep......, such as regulations getting stricter over time and low income, personal reasons such as disappointment and need for acceptance were also important. This shows that hard mechanisms, such as economic support and premium prices, are not sufficient to motivate farmers for sustained organic management. Support...... and encouragement, for example from people in the local community, politicians and other spokespersons, would likely contribute to increase farmers’ motivation....

  20. Organic farming in the Peruvian Andes | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Poverty in Peru is almost three times higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and is even worse in the Andean region. Organic agriculture is often promoted as a sustainable way to increase overall farm performance, reduce poverty, mitigate climate change, and improve food security. However, without ...

  1. Contribution of organic farming to public goods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lizzie Melby; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Fog, Erik

    2017-01-01

    €”in particular in relation to the public goods Energy and Climate, which at present are not addressed in the EU Organic Regulation. Moreover, some organic farming requirements and practices cause dilemmas; e.g. more space per animal and outdoor access improves Animal Health and Welfare but at the same time has......The potential contribution of organic farming to the public goods, ‘Nature and Biodiversity’, ‘Environment’, ‘Energy and Climate’, ‘Human Health and Welfare’ and ‘Animal Health and Welfare’ in Denmark is guided and partly secured by the principles and specific requirements...... of the EU Organic Regulation. However, other factors, such as the production type, farm size, geographical location and—not the least—the management of the farm, also influence the contribution. Using the ban on synthetic pesticides and restricted use of antibiotics, including the requirements...

  2. Biodiversity management of organic farming enhances agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Meng, Jie; Bo, Wenjing; Cheng, Da; Li, Yong; Guo, Liyue; Li, Caihong; Zheng, Yanhai; Liu, Meizhen; Ning, Tangyuan; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Feng, Sufei; Wuyun, Tana; Li, Jing; Li, Lijun; Zeng, Yan; Liu, Shi V.; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-04-01

    Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on OF may produce adequate crops and reduce environmental pollutions from CF. This paper makes comparative analysis of crop yield, soil organic matter and economic benefits within the practice on Biodiversity Management of Organic Farming (BMOF) at Hongyi Organic Farm (HOF) over eight years and between BMOF and CF. Linking crop production with livestock to maximal uses of by-products from each production and avoid xenobiotic chemicals, we have achieved beneficial improvement in soil properties, effective pest and weed control, and increased crop yields. After eight years experiment, we have obtained a gradual but stable increase in crop yields with a 9.6-fold increase of net income. The net income of HOF was 258,827 dollars and 24,423 dollars in 2014 and 2007 respectively. Thus, BMOF can not only feed more population, but also increase adaptive capacity of agriculture ecosystems and gain much higher economic benefits.

  3. Prospects of Organic Farming in Bhutan: A SWOT Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Tashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the prospects of organic agriculture (OA in Bhutan from the experts’ perspective, particularly the SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat aspect. Thirty-five Bhutanese experts were interviewed. The strengths of OA were (i good alignment of the principles of OA with Bhutan’s development philosophy, (ii strong policy and political support, (iii pristine environment, (iv OA practices similar to traditional farming, and (v compatibility of OA with the local farming knowledge. The major weaknesses were (i a lack of awareness of the benefits of OA, (ii lack of incentives, (iii shortage of farm labor, (iv small and irregular supply of organic product, (v lack of clarity in policy, (vi limited plant protection materials, and (vii a lack of coordination between agencies. Opportunities were (i a huge regional and global organic market, (ii promoting healthy lifestyle, (iii sustainable use of resources, (iv lowering dependence on food and input imports, (v development of local organic manure suppliers, (vi creating seed sovereignty, (vii conserving local crops, (viii building soil fertility, (ix introducing premium price for organic products, and (x addressing unemployment. Threats included (i increasing incidences of pests and diseases, (ii decline in sources of organic manure, and (iii limited sources of organic manures and fertilizers.

  4. Niche farm fresh products: organic and biodynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    that the observed increase in vegetable-associated foodborne outbreaks of pathogens is linked to its use. Legislation and guidelines vary regarding minimization of contamination risk in relation to use of livestock manure. An assessment of the effect of differences in management between organic and conventional...... production systems would help to provide more science-based recommendations for prevention of contamination....

  5. Comparison of Management Styles in Organic and Conventional Farming with Respect to Disruptive External Influences. The Case of Organic Dairy Farming and Conventional Horticulture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Gremmen, H.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional Dutch farming systems are constantly improving their technology to withstand disruptive external influences, while organic farming tends to focus on methods that stress conservation of natural and nonrenewable resources. We hypothesize that management styles to withstand disruptive

  6. Influence of Organic Farming on the Potato Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pacifico

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture sparks a lively debate on its potential health and environmental benefits. Comparative studies often investigate the response of crops to organic farming through targeted approaches and within a limited experimental work. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of a cultivar of the potato grown for two years under organic and conventional farming was compared with the profile of an experimental clone grown in the same location of Southern Italy for one year. Transcriptomic raw data were obtained through Potato Oligo Chip Initiative (POCI microarrays and were processed using unsupervised coupling multivariate statistical analysis and bioinformatics (MapMan software. One-hundred-forty-four genes showed the same expression in both years, and 113 showed the same expression in both genotypes. Their functional characterization revealed the strong involvement of the farming system in metabolism associated with the nutritional aspects of organic tubers (e.g., phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, glycoalcaloid, asparagine, ascorbic acid. Moreover, further investigation showed that eight of 42,034 features exhibited the same trend of expression irrespective of the year and genotype, making them possible candidates as markers of traceability. This paper raises the issue regarding the choice of genotype in organic management and the relevance of assessing seasonal conditions effects when studying the effects of organic cultivation on tuber metabolism.

  7. Restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Can the restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming be documented to provide a safer, high quality meat product with less antibiotic resistant bacteria? The project SafeOrganic aims to document that the restricted use of antimicrobials in organic pig production leads to lower levels...... of antibiotic resistant bacteria compared with the level in conventional pigs. However, the project will also address the risk of losing this quality parameter, due to a widespread practice of slaughtering organic pigs together with conventional pigs, implying a risk of cross-contamination....

  8. First Evidence of an Important Organic Matter Trophic Pathway between Temperate Corals and Pelagic Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonvielle, J. A.; Reynaud, S.; Jacquet, S.; LeBerre, B.; Ferrier-Pages, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mucus, i.e., particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM) released by corals, acts as an important energy carrier in tropical ecosystems, but little is known on its ecological role in temperate environments. This study assessed POM and DOM production by the temperate coral Cladocora caespitosa under different environmental conditions. The subsequent enzymatic degradation, growth of prokaryotes and virus-like particles (VLPs) as well as changes in the structure of the prokaryotic communities were also monitored. C. caespitosa produced an important quantity of mucus, which varied according to the environmental conditions (from 37.8 to 67.75 nmol carbon h-1 cm-2), but remained higher or comparable to productions observed in tropical corals. It has an important nutritional value, as highlighted by the high content in dissolved nitrogen (50% to 90% of the organic matter released). Organic matter was rapidly degraded by prokaryotes’ enzymatic activities, and due to its nitrogen content, aminopeptidase activity was 500 fold higher than the α-glucosidase activity. Prokaryotes, as well as VLPs, presented a rapid growth in the mucus, with prokaryote production rates as high as 0.31 μg h-1 L-1. Changes in bacterial and archaeal communities were observed in the ageing mucus and between mucus and the water column, suggesting a clear impact of mucus on microorganism diversity. Overall, our results show that the organic matter released by temperate corals, such as C. caespitosa, which can form reef structures in the Mediterranean Sea, stimulates microbial activity and thereby functions as a significant carbon and nitrogen supplier to the microbial loop. PMID:26466126

  9. First Evidence of an Important Organic Matter Trophic Pathway between Temperate Corals and Pelagic Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Fonvielle

    Full Text Available Mucus, i.e., particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM released by corals, acts as an important energy carrier in tropical ecosystems, but little is known on its ecological role in temperate environments. This study assessed POM and DOM production by the temperate coral Cladocora caespitosa under different environmental conditions. The subsequent enzymatic degradation, growth of prokaryotes and virus-like particles (VLPs as well as changes in the structure of the prokaryotic communities were also monitored. C. caespitosa produced an important quantity of mucus, which varied according to the environmental conditions (from 37.8 to 67.75 nmol carbon h-1 cm-2, but remained higher or comparable to productions observed in tropical corals. It has an important nutritional value, as highlighted by the high content in dissolved nitrogen (50% to 90% of the organic matter released. Organic matter was rapidly degraded by prokaryotes' enzymatic activities, and due to its nitrogen content, aminopeptidase activity was 500 fold higher than the α-glucosidase activity. Prokaryotes, as well as VLPs, presented a rapid growth in the mucus, with prokaryote production rates as high as 0.31 μg h-1 L-1. Changes in bacterial and archaeal communities were observed in the ageing mucus and between mucus and the water column, suggesting a clear impact of mucus on microorganism diversity. Overall, our results show that the organic matter released by temperate corals, such as C. caespitosa, which can form reef structures in the Mediterranean Sea, stimulates microbial activity and thereby functions as a significant carbon and nitrogen supplier to the microbial loop.

  10. Some criteria for landscape quality applied on an organic goat farm in Gelderland, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, K.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Mansvelt, van J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of the concerted action 'The landscape and nature production capacity of organic/sustainable types of agriculture', the authors visited the organic goat farm Caprica to test some criteria on farm level

  11. Epidemiological study concerning the characteristics of organic pig farming in selected European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert; Goebel, Amke; Bochicchio, Davide; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Bourgoin, Aude; Cartaud, Gérald; Dietze, Klaas; Dippel, Sabine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Hegelund, Lene; Leeb, Christine; Lindgren, Kristina; Lubac, Stanislas; Prunier, Armelle; Wiberg, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Interviews and on-farm assessments were conducted in a total of 101 organic pig farms in different European countries (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden) to gain knowledge about farm management and health status of organic pigs in Europe. 66 farms kept at least one age group outdoors while 35 farms kept their pigs exclusively indoors, for the most part with a concrete outside run. Housing and feeding conditions were characterised by a large heterogeneity within and betw...

  12. Energy use on organic farming: A comparative analysis on organic versus conventional apricot production on small holdings in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendogmus, Erdemir

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the energy use in apricot production on organic and conventional farms in Turkey in terms of energy ratio, benefit/cost ratio and amount of renewable energy use. The total energy requirement under organic apricot farming was 13,779.35 MJ ha -1 , whereas 22,811.68 MJ ha -1 was consumed under conventional apricot farming, i.e. 38% higher energy input was used on conventional apricot farming than the use on organic farms. The energy ratios of 2.22 and 1.45 were achieved under the organic and conventional farming systems, respectively

  13. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina AGAPIEVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to follow trends in the development of organic farming in Bulgaria, and to identify the factors’ strength and direction of their impact on organic production of agricultural products. The study covers the period from 2003 to 2013 and is based on information from official statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, and the author's own research. There are distinct rates of increase in both areas and organic agricultural production in Bulgaria. While in 2003 the areas under organic management are 8,364 ha by 2013 they numbered 56, 287 ha. Bulgaria has a high potential for production and export of organic agricultural products fresh and processed, but significantly lags behind other European countries. However, there is increasing momentum in organic farming, driven by a group of economic, market, social and legislative initiatives. The main reason for this growth is consumer demand of organic products in Bulgaria. In general, the motivations of Bulgarian consumers of organic products are related to the benefits for health and the environment, to the improvement of food quality and to the support of local small farmers, communities and markets.

  14. ORGANIC FARMING AS A DEVELOPMENT FACTOR OF SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The market of organic products is now one of the fastest growing sectors of food production in the world and especially in the EU countries. The purpose of this article is to present the status of organic farming in Poland and in the EU countries and to show the impact of these products on sustainable consumption. The article uses data from FiBL, IFOAM and IJHARS. For the presentation of the data we used the time series, cluster analysis, and multidimensional clustering of features and objects. In Europe, in 2012, organic products were produced by approx. 320 thousand manufacturers with a total value of 22.8 billion euros, of which 250 thousand in the EU and its value amounted to 20.9 billion euros. In Poland 26 376 organic producers were registered and the value of organic products was valued at 650 thousand PLN. It is crucial for organic farming to invent capital into processing and distribution of organic products. This will provide for continual development and increase the consumer’s awareness of the importance of organic food for both their health and the environment.

  15. WHAT ARE THE BARRIERS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afagh VEISI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the main barriers to development of organic farming system in Kermanshah Province, Iran. Statistical population in this study consisted of all farmers in Kermanshah province, Iran. Applying stratified random sampling method, 137 farmers were selected as a sample. The main instrument in this study was questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by the panel of experts and its reliability was established by Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. Data was analyzed by SPSSWin16 software. Principal component analysis was used as main statistical technique to analyze the data. The results of factor analysis revealed that 4 factors including “Infrastructural”, “technical-managerial”, “economic-financial” and “educational” explained 42.36 percent of the variance. Results of this study have applications for agriculture development policy- makers for development of organic farming in Iran.

  16. PERSPECTIVE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING IN LUBUSKIE VOIVODSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagoda ZBOROWSKA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the development of organic farming in lubuskie voivodship. Presented in it analysis of changes in this production sector in recent years and identified critical factors for growth for this area of production in the nearest term. In analysis used statistic data coming from public statistics and public institutions dealing with agricul-tural production sector in Poland.

  17. Conversion to organic of a goat dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Sucarrat Coll, Clàudia

    2014-01-01

    Póster Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agroecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. It emphasizes the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs. This is accomplished by using, where possible, cultural, biological and mechanical methods, as opposed to using synthetic materials (Codex Alimentarius, 1999). The Regulations (CE) 834/2007 and 889/2008 set dow...

  18. Soil respiration and organic carbon dynamics with grassland conversions to woodlands in temperate china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon store and soil respiration is the second-largest flux in ecosystem carbon cycling. Across China's temperate region, climatic changes and human activities have frequently caused the transformation of grasslands to woodlands. However, the effect of this transition on soil respiration and soil organic carbon (SOC dynamics remains uncertain in this area. In this study, we measured in situ soil respiration and SOC storage over a two-year period (Jan. 2007-Dec. 2008 from five characteristic vegetation types in a forest-steppe ecotone of temperate China, including grassland (GR, shrubland (SH, as well as in evergreen coniferous (EC, deciduous coniferous (DC and deciduous broadleaved forest (DB, to evaluate the changes of soil respiration and SOC storage with grassland conversions to diverse types of woodlands. Annual soil respiration increased by 3%, 6%, 14%, and 22% after the conversion from GR to EC, SH, DC, and DB, respectively. The variation in soil respiration among different vegetation types could be well explained by SOC and soil total nitrogen content. Despite higher soil respiration in woodlands, SOC storage and residence time increased in the upper 20 cm of soil. Our results suggest that the differences in soil environmental conditions, especially soil substrate availability, influenced the level of annual soil respiration produced by different vegetation types. Moreover, shifts from grassland to woody plant dominance resulted in increased SOC storage. Given the widespread increase in woody plant abundance caused by climate change and large-scale afforestation programs, the soils are expected to accumulate and store increased amounts of organic carbon in temperate areas of China.

  19. The development of organic farming in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMOROWSKA Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to present the size of organic farming and organic food market in each region of the world based on available statistics. The largest area of agricultural land farmed using organic methods is located in Australia, Europe and South America, while the biggest organic food markets are located in the rich countries of North America, mainly in the United States, and in the Western European countries. Fruits and vegetables are the organic products that are the most eagerly bought and dominate the organic food market. Rezumat. Articolul îşi propune să prezinte dimensiunea agriculturii ecologice şi a pieţei produselor alimentare ecologice în fiecare regiune a lumii în baza datelor statistice disponibile. Cea mai mare suprafaţă de teren agricol cultivat folosind metode organice se află în Australia, Europa şi America de Sud, în timp ce cele mai mari pieţe de produse alimentare ecologice sunt situate în ţările bogate din America de Nord, în special în Statele Unite ale Americii, precum şi în ţările din Europa de Vest. Fructele şi legumele sunt produsele organice care se vând cel mai bine şi care domină piaţa produselor alimentare ecologice.

  20. Organic farming: Biodiversity impacts can depend on dispersal characteristics and landscape context

    OpenAIRE

    Feber, RE; Johnson, PJ; Bell, JR; Chamberlain, DE; Firbank, LG; Fuller, RJ; Manley, W; Mathews, F; Norton, LR; Townsend, M; Macdonald, DW

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming, a low intensity system, may offer benefits for a range of taxa, but what affects the extent of those benefits is imperfectly understood. We explored the effects of organic farming and landscape on the activity density and species density of spiders and carabid beetles, using a large sample of paired organic and conventional farms in the UK. Spider activity density and species density were influenced by both farming system and surrounding landscape. Hunting spiders, which tend...

  1. Consumer perception and communication on welfare in organic laying hen farming

    OpenAIRE

    Heerkens, Jasper; Tuyttens, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A major reason for increased societal popularity of organic production systems is the growing general discontent with intensive farming practices. However, urbanization leads to limited knowledge of farming and farm animal welfare. Consumers believe organic farming leads to better animal welfare, although most health and welfare issues seen in conventional systems are also found in organic poultry systems. The majority of consumers do not translate attitude and good intention into action, the...

  2. Organic and Conventional Farming: a Comparison Analysis through the Italian FADN

    OpenAIRE

    Cisilino, Federica; Madau, Fabio A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows some results arisen from a wider research on economic and environmental sustainability of organic farming. It focuses on organic and conventional farming comparison through an investigation of Italian FADN data. In order to identify some of the main differences between organic and conventional farms a “distance analysis” has been carried out. The study aims to highlight some of the main characteristics of those two groups of farms to better address differences (if any) in pro...

  3. Effect of yield and price risk on conversion from conventional to organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acs, S.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although the benefits of organic farming are already well known, the conversion to organic farming does not proceed as the Dutch government expected. In order to investigate the conversion decisions of Dutch arable farms, a discrete stochastic dynamic utility-efficient programming (DUEP) model is

  4. Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarberg Karl-Erik

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999 are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so.

  5. Organic Trends 12 - Newsletter for Organic farming and food development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sternfeld, Eva

    2008-01-01

    ORGANIC TRENDS aims to promote environmentally friendly and healthy food production and processing. Offering a forum for producers, distributors, retailers, consumers as well as academicians, it reports on recent trends in organic farming and food development and provides consumer information. Contributions are welcome!

  6. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    to quantify GHG emissions and explore climate change mitigation strategies for livestock systems. This paper analyses the limitations and strengths of the different existing approaches for modelling GHG mitigation by considering basic model structures, approaches for simulating GHG emissions from various farm...... components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services.......The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed...

  7. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, J E; Rotz, C A

    2013-06-01

    The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed to quantify GHG emissions and explore climate change mitigation strategies for livestock systems. This paper analyses the limitations and strengths of the different existing approaches for modelling GHG mitigation by considering basic model structures, approaches for simulating GHG emissions from various farm components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services.

  8. OPPORTUNITIES TO USE PEA - WHEAT MIXES IN ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigori Ivanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presented the results of productivity and quality of the green mass of pea-wheat mixes grown in conditions of organic farming. Are explored 5 wheat varieties - Sadovo 1, Geia 1, Guinness, Farmer, Liusil and 4 varieties of winter peas -Mir, Vesela, №11, L12AB, at different ratio between them - 50:50 and 30:70%. The selection of varieties is made based on previous studies of their complex characteristics – ripening, yield, chemistry (Angelova S., T.Georgieva, M.Sabeva, 2011. Setting up and raising the experimental mixture of seeds has been made in a medium free of organic and mineral fertilizers. We have studied the changes in green mass yield and the biochemistry of surface biomass. The cultivation of pea–wheat mixtures under conditions of organic farming leads to increased yields of green mass in comparison with the self-seeding of wheat and peas. According to the results obtained at early ripening and the highest crude protein content average of three years is the mixture Sadovo1–Mir 30:70%. The most productive is the mixture Sadovo1-Mir 50-50%.

  9. A meta-analysis approach to the effects of fish farming on soft bottom polychaeta assemblages in temperate regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Elena; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Aguado-Giménez, Felipe; Ávila, Pablo; Guerrero, Alejandro; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Victoria; González, Nieves; Gairin, Joan Ignasi; Carballeira, Carlos; García-García, Benjamín; Carreras, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study was carried out in ten fish farms along the Spanish coast. ► Fish farm caused a decline in abundance and family richness in polychaete assemblages. ► There are two main groups of polychaeta, sensitive families and tolerant families. ► The main influence is associated to percentage of silt and clays. ► Total free sulfides, silt and clays and 15 N, have influence on polychaete populations. -- Abstract: Marine fish farms could cause environmental disturbances on the sediment due to uneaten food and fish faeces that impact the marine benthos. Polychaete assemblages are considered good indicators of environmental perturbations. The present study aimed to establish groups of polychaetes as potential indicators of fish farm pollution. This study was carried out in ten fish farms along the Spanish coast. Changes in polychaete assemblage were analyzed with meta-analysis and multivariate techniques. Abundance, richness and diversity showed significant decreases under fish farm conditions. Distribution patterns of polychaetes responded to combinations of physicochemical variables. The main ones are sulfide concentration, silt and clays percentage, and stable nitrogen isotope ratio. The results showed that some families are tolerant, Capitellidae, Dorvilleidae, Glyceridae, Nereididae, Oweniidae and Spionidae; while others are sensitive to fish farm pollution, Magelonidae, Maldanidae, Nephtyidae, Onuphidae, Paralacydoniidae, Paraonide, Sabellidae and also Cirratulidae in spite of being reported as a tolerant family

  10. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Echeveste, Pedro

    2016-07-26

    Semivolatile and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) undergo atmospheric transport before being deposited to the oceans, where they partition to phytoplankton organic matter. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of naturally occurring complex mixtures of organic pollutants to temperate and polar phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, the North East (NE) Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. The cell abundance of the different phytoplankton groups, chlorophyll a concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly affected by the complex mixtures of non-polar and polar organic pollutants, with toxicity being greater for these mixtures than for single POPs or simple POP mixtures. Cocktails\\' toxicity arose at concentrations as low as tenfold the field oceanic levels, probably due to a higher chemical activity of the mixture than of simple POPs mixtures. Overall, smaller cells were the most affected, although Mediterranean picophytoplankton was significantly more tolerant to non-polar POPs than picophytoplankton from the Atlantic Ocean or the Bellingshausen Sea microphytoplankton. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Economic and Financial Comparison between Organic and Conventional Farming in Sicilian Lemon Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sicily has a long tradition in citrus fruit cultivations that with vineyard and olive tree represent the main Mediterranean tree crops. In this paper we have evaluated the economic and financial sustainability of lemon production, both in organic farming and in conventional farming; the two systems differing just for inputs utilized in production process. Economic analysis has been carried out in a representative case study located in the Sicilian northwestern coast, considering an orchard economic life equal to 50 years. Results, which referred to one hectare area, showed both a higher economic and financial sustainability of organic farming respect to conventional farming. The higher profitability of organic farming was due to minor labor requirement and to greater market appreciation for organic products that granted a premium price respect to conventional prices. Moreover, greater profitability of organic farming and use of environmentally friendly inputs in production process make farms competitive and eco-friendly.

  12. Altitudinal variation of soil organic carbon stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalayas, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Dar, Javid; Somaiah, Sundarapandian

    2015-02-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks were measured at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) in seven altitudes dominated by different forest types viz. Populus deltoides, 1550-1800 m; Juglans regia, 1800-2000 m; Cedrus deodara, 2050-2300 m; Pinus wallichiana, 2000-2300 m; mixed type, 2200-2400 m; Abies pindrow, 2300-2800 m; and Betula utilis, 2800-3200 m in temperate mountains of Kashmir Himalayas. The mean range of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks varied from 39.07 to 91.39 Mg C ha(-1) in J. regia and B. utilis forests at 0-30 cm depth, respectively. Among the forest types, the lowest mean range of SOC at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) was observed in J. regia (18.55, 11.31, and 8.91 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type, and the highest was observed in B. utilis (54.10, 21.68, and 15.60 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type. SOC stocks showed significantly (R (2) = 0.67, P = 0.001) an increasing trend with increase in altitude. On average, the percentages of SOC at 0-10-, 10-20-, and 20-30-cm depths were 53.2, 26.5, and 20.3 %, respectively. Bulk density increased significantly with increase in soil depth and decreased with increase in altitude. Our results suggest that SOC stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya vary greatly with forest type and altitude. The present study reveals that SOC stocks increased with increase in altitude at high mountainous regions. Climate change in these high mountainous regions will alter the carbon sequestration potential, which would affect the global carbon cycle.

  13. Comparison of the Farming System and Carbon Sequestration between Conventional and Organic Rice Production in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faiz Syuaib

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming provides many benefits in Indonesia: it can improve soil quality, food quality and soil carbon sequestration. This study was designed to compare soil carbon sequestration levels between conventional and organic rice farming fields in west Java, Indonesia. The results from soil analysis indicate that organic farming leads to soil with significantly higher soil carbon storage capacity than conventional farming. Organic farming can also cut some farming costs, but it requires about twice as much labor. The sharecropping system of rice farming in Indonesia is highly exploitative of workers; therefore, research should be conducted to develop a fairer organic farming system that can enhance both local and global sustainability.

  14. Changes of Organic Carbon Quantity and Quality in Temperate Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, Anna; Satwika Lestari, Annisa; Schubert, Alfred; Wiesmeier, Martin; Spörlein, Peter; Schilling, Bernd; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will have profound impacts on organic matter stocks and thus on the functionality of soils. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil is mainly regulated by the fluxes of organic matter which are highly associated with the aboveground and root litter production and their decompositions into CO2 by soil microorganism. The predicted rising temperatures in Bavaria might lead to an increased decomposition and release of soil carbon into the atmosphere, which would deteriorate a number of important soil functions. Here, we present an assessment of SOC stocks in three temperate forest sites over the last 30 years. Soil to a depth of 30 cm was analysed with density fractionation to evaluate SOC stocks and distribution in different pools. Additionally, tree-aboveground organic carbon (OC) stocks were measured to assess their influence on SOC. SOC stocks decreased between 1988 and 2004 and increased between 2004 and 2016. OC changes of litter + O layer and mineral soil differed. Highest changes of SOC occurred in the light fractions, followed by the mineral fractions. Tree-aboveground biomass, stand composition, and changing climate had an influence on SOC stocks. Precipitation change was correlated with the litter + O layer OC stocks. Further studies on the changes of each SOC fraction and the influence of other edaphic factors are needed to better understand the changes in SOC stocks and quality.

  15. Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in organized cattle farms of Meghalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the gastrointestinal parasitic infections in cattle of Meghalaya, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 676 faecal samples of cattle were collected for a period of two years from different organized cattle farms of Meghalaya for detection of gastrointestinal parasitic infections, using standard techniques. Results: Out of 676 faecal samples examined, 191 (28.25% faecal samples were found positive for gastrointestinal parasitic infections. The eggs of Strongyle spp. were found predominant (65.96 % followed by Strongyloides spp. (25.13%, Eimeria spp. (17.80%, Trichuris spp. (13.08%, Moniezia spp. (10.47% and Nematodirus spp.(2.61%. The Nematodirrus spp. was identified as Nematodirus helvetianus, a first report of its kind from cattle of North-Eastern Region of India, particularly from the state Meghalaya. The eggs per gram of faeces in case of nematode parasites were ranged between 50 to 4000 and in case of coccidian infections the range of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG was between 50 to 1400. Conclusion: Cattle maintained in organized cattle farms of Meghalaya suffers from GI parasitic infections throughout the year. It is highest during rainy season followed by cool, cold and hot season. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 109-112

  16. The formation and fate of chlorinated organic substances in temperate and boreal forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Fuksová, Kvetoslava; Gryndler, Milan; Lachmanová, Zora; Liste, Hans-Holger; Rohlenová, Jana; Schroll, Reiner; Schröder, Peter; Matucha, Miroslav

    2009-03-01

    Chlorine is an abundant element, commonly occurring in nature either as chloride ions or as chlorinated organic compounds (OCls). Chlorinated organic substances were long considered purely anthropogenic products; however, they are, in addition, a commonly occurring and important part of natural ecosystems. Formation of OCls may affect the degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus the carbon cycle with implications for the ability of forest soils to sequester carbon, whilst the occurrence of potentially toxic OCls in groundwater aquifers is of concern with regard to water quality. It is thus important to understand the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine, both inorganic and organic, to get information about the relevant processes in the forest ecosystem and the effects on these from human activities, including forestry practices. A survey is given of processes in the soil of temperate and boreal forests, predominantly in Europe, including the participation of chlorine, and gaps in knowledge and the need for further work are discussed. Chlorine is present as chloride ion and/or OCls in all compartments of temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. It contributes to the degradation of SOM, thus also affecting carbon sequestration in the forest soil. The most important source of chloride to coastal forest ecosystems is sea salt deposition, and volcanoes and coal burning can also be important sources. Locally, de-icing salt can be an important chloride input near major roads. In addition, anthropogenic sources of OCls are manifold. However, results also indicate the formation of chlorinated organics by microorganisms as an important source, together with natural abiotic formation. In fact, the soil pool of OCls seems to be a result of the balance between chlorination and degradation processes. Ecologically, organochlorines may function as antibiotics, signal substances and energy equivalents, in descending order of significance. Forest management practices can affect

  17. The effect of feed demand on greenhouse gas emissions and farm profitability for organic and conventional dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Lukas; Menzel, Friederike; Bahrs, Enno

    2014-12-01

    The reduction of product-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in milk production appears to be necessary. The reduction of emissions on an individual farm might be highly accepted by farm owners if it were accompanied by an increase in profitability. Using life cycle assessments to determine the product carbon footprints (PCF) and farm-level evaluations to record profitability, we explored opportunities for optimization based on analysis of 81 organic and conventional pasture-based dairy farms in southern Germany. The objective of the present study was to detect common determining factors for low PCF and high management incomes (MI) to achieve GHG reductions at the lowest possible operational cost. In our sample, organic farms, which performed economically better than conventional farms, produced PCF that were significantly higher than those produced by conventional farms [1.61 ± 0.29 vs. 1.45 ± 0.28 kg of CO₂ equivalents (CO₂eq) per kg of milk; means ± SD)]. A multiple linear regression analysis of the sample demonstrated that low feed demand per kilogram of milk, high grassland yield, and low forage area requirements per cow are the main factors that decrease PCF. These factors are also useful for improving a farm's profitability in principle. For organic farms, a reduction of feed demand of 100 g/kg of milk resulted in a PCF reduction of 105 g of CO₂eq/kg of milk and an increase in MI of approximately 2.1 euro cents (c)/kg of milk. For conventional farms, a decrease of feed demand of 100 g/kg of milk corresponded to a reduction in PCF of 117 g of CO₂eq/kg of milk and an increase in MI of approximately 3.1 c/kg of milk. Accordingly, farmers could achieve higher profits while reducing GHG emissions. Improved education and training of farmers and consultants regarding GHG mitigation and farm profitability appear to be the best methods of improving efficiency under traditional and organic farming practices.

  18. Organic dairy farms in the EU: Productions systems, economics and future development

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic farming is increasingly considered in the European Common Agricultural Policy. Sound evaluations of the effects of policy measures on organic farms in the EU are needed to face the challenges in future policy design. The effects of various policy scenarios on profitability and development strategies of typical organic dairy farms are analysed for the EU countries––Germany, Denmark, the United Kingdom and Italy. Based on an approach which links simulation modelling and focus groups con...

  19. Biomass energy in organic farming - the potential role of short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Uffe; Dalgaard, Tommy [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS), Dept. of Agroecology, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Kristensen, Erik Steen [Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF), Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark)

    2005-02-01

    One of the aims of organic farming is to 'reduce the use of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) to a minimum'. So far, however, only very little progress has been made to introduce renewable energy in organic farming. This paper presents energy balances of Danish organic farming compared with energy balances of conventional farming. In general, the conversion to organic farming leads to a lower energy use (approximately 10% per unit of product). But the production of energy in organic farming is very low compared with the extensive utilisation of straw from conventional farming in Denmark (energy content of straw used for energy production was equivalent to 18% of total energy input in Danish agriculture in 1996). Biomass is a key energy carrier with a good potential for on-farm development. Apart from utilising farm manure and crop residues for biogas production, the production of nutrient efficient short rotation coppice (SRC) is an option in organic farming. Alder (Alnus spp.) is an interesting crop due to its symbiosis with the actinomycete Frankia, which has the ability to fix up to 185 kg/ha nitrogen (N{sub 2}) from the air. Yields obtained at different European sites are presented and the R and D needed to implement energy cropping in organic farming is discussed. Possible win-win solutions for SRC production in organic farming that may facilitate its implementation are; the protection of ground water quality in intensively farmed areas, utilisation of wastewater for irrigation, or combination with outdoor animal husbandry such as pigs or poultry. (Author)

  20. An evaluation of fertilizer, environment and organic farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akca, H.; Sayili, M.; Esenguen, K.

    1999-01-01

    In the past agricultural policy makers, agricultural economists, and governments considered the extensive input use (particularly fertilizers and pesticides) and the application of modern agricultural techniques as a quickest way to increase yield per area and consequently, reach self-sufficiency level in agricultural production. Recently, the concepts of sustainable agriculture, low-input agriculture and organic farming have gained an importance especially in developed countries as parallel to increase in the conscious of the people to the environmental problems and human health. Until last decade, there was a dilemma between agricultural economists and ecologists. Although the former emphasize improvement of the living standards of farmers and increasing yield per area with taking little or no account of the environmental side-effects of agricultural activities, the latter emphasize the conservation of natural resources. However, today, the aim of both is to protect the nature and to meet the food needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations. Refs. 18 (author)

  1. Amplified recruitment pressure of biofouling organisms in commercial salmon farms: potential causes and implications for farm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloecher, Nina; Floerl, Oliver; Sunde, Leif Magne

    2015-01-01

    The development of biofouling on finfish aquaculture farms presents challenges for the industry, but the factors underlying nuisance growths are still not well understood. Artificial settlement surfaces were used to examine two possible explanations for high rates of biofouling in Norwegian salmon farms: (1) increased propagule release during net cleaning operations, resulting in elevated recruitment rates; and (2) potential reservoir effects of farm surfaces. The presence of salmon farms was associated with consistently and substantially (up to 49-fold) elevated recruitment rates. Temporal patterns of recruitment were not driven by net cleaning. Resident populations of biofouling organisms were encountered on all submerged farm surfaces. Calculations indicate that a resident population of the hydroid Ectopleura larynx, a major biofouling species, could release between 0.3 × 10(9) and 4.7 × 10(9) larvae per farm annually. Such resident populations could form propagule reservoirs and be one explanation for the elevated recruitment pressure at salmon farms.

  2. Chlorinated pesticides in stream sediments from organic, integrated and conventional farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J.; Matthaei, Christoph D.; Magbanua, Francis S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine if current sheep/beef farming practices affect pesticide residues in streams, current-use and legacy chlorinated pesticides were quantified in 100 sediment samples from 15 streams on the South Island of New Zealand. The study involved five blocks of three neighboring farms, with each block containing farms managed by organic, integrated and conventional farming practices. Significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, ∑ endosulfans, ∑ current-use pesticides, and ∑ chlorinated pesticides were measured in sediments from conventional farms compared to organic and integrated farms. However, streams in the latter two farming categories were not pesticide-free and sometimes contained relatively high concentrations of legacy pesticides. Comparison of measured pesticide concentrations with sediment quality guidelines showed that, regardless of farming practice, mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. However, up to 23% of individual samples contained chlorpyrifos, endosulfan sulfate, ∑ DDT, dieldrin, or ∑ chlordane concentrations above these thresholds. -- Highlights: •Pesticides were measured in streams in organic, integrated, and conventional farms. •Higher concentrations of some pesticides were found in conventional sites. •Streams in organic and integrated sites were not pesticide free. •Mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. -- Higher concentrations of several chlorinated pesticides were found in conventional farms; however, organic and integrated practices were not pesticide-free

  3. Orchid bees as bio-indicators for organic coffee farms in Costa Rica: Does farm size affect their abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Euglossini bees, especially Euglossa, as biological indicators of organic vs non-organic coffee farms was studied in Atenas and San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica using 1.8-cineole as lure. Observations were made for three days at each of four farms and complemented with data from a year of observations. Orchid bees were in greater abundance in the organic farms (t-Student test. However, lower abundances suggest that an organic farm may be negatively affected by the proximity of non-organic farms, depending on its size and distance. Orchid bees may be indicators of organic coffee farms. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 965-969. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Por un año estudiamos las abejas de la tribu Euglossini (abejas de las orquídeas, especialmente el género Euglossa en Atenas y San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica, para identificar su potencial como bioindicadoras de fincas orgánicas y fincas "convencionales" de café. Usamos como atrayente aceite de eucalipto (1.8-cineole. Las abejas son más abundantes en las fincas de café orgánico (t-Student. Sin embargo, el relativamente bajo número de abejas en la menor de las dos fincas orgánicas sugiere que el tamaño de una finca orgánica y la proximidad a las fincas convencionales, podrían tener efectos negativos en la orgánica. Estas abejas podrían servir como bioindicadores de fincas orgánicas.

  4. Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in a deep-sea, temperate food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, Sonia; Herrero, Laura; Fernández, Mario; Gómara, Belén; Acuña, José Luis

    2017-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in a temperate, deep-sea ecosystem, the Avilés submarine Canyon (AC; Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay). There was an increase of contaminant concentration with the trophic level of the organisms, as calculated from stable nitrogen isotope data (δ 15 N). Such biomagnification was only significant for the pelagic food web and its magnitude was highly dependent on the type of top predators included in the analysis. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) for PCB-153 in the pelagic food web (spanning four trophic levels) was 6.2 or 2.2, depending on whether homeotherm top predators (cetaceans and seabirds) were included or not in the analysis, respectively. Since body size is significantly correlated with δ 15 N, it can be used as a proxy to estimate trophic magnification, what can potentially lead to a simple and convenient method to calculate the TMF. In spite of their lower biomagnification, deep-sea fishes showed higher concentrations than their shallower counterparts, although those differences were not significant. In summary, the AC fauna exhibits contaminant levels comparable or lower than those reported in other systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences in sheep and goats milk microbiological profile between conventional and organic farming systems in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malissiova, Eleni; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Kyriazi, Aikaterini; Mparda, Maria; Sakorafa, Christina; Katsioulis, Antonios; Katsiaflaka, Anna; Kyritsi, Maria; Zdragas, Antonios; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the microbiological profile and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from milk from organic and conventional sheep and goat farms. Twenty-five organic and 25 conventional sheep and goat farms in the region of Thessaly, Greece participated in this study. A standardised detailed questionnaire was used to describe farming practices. A total of 50 samples were collected and analysed for total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC) and somatic cell count (SCC), while Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were isolated using standard methods. Isolates were identified at species level by Api-test and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Susceptibility to a panel of 20 for E. coli and 16 for S. aureus antimicrobials was determined by the agar dilution method. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for S. aureus and E. coli isolates to determine predominant clones. Lower counts of TVC, TCC and SCC were identified in milk from the organic farms, possibly due to differences in the hygienic farming practices found on those farms. API-tests and MALDI-TOF MS showed no significant differences in the S. aureus and E. coli isolates. Overall, antimicrobial resistance rates were low, while a statistically higher percentage was estimated among strains originating from conventional farms in comparison with organic farms, possibly due to the restriction of antibiotic use in organic farming. PFGE revealed diversity among S. aureus and E. coli populations in both organic and conventional farms indicating circulation of 2-3 main clones changing slightly during their evolution. Consequently, there is evidence that milk from the organic farms presents a better microbiological profile when compared with milk from conventional farms.

  6. Effects of organic farming duration on field boundary vegetation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sune; Axelsen, Jørgen A.; Tybirk, Knud

    2006-01-01

    was found to be higher under organic than under conventional farming. Analysis of community patterns revealed that ruderal species and species with affinity to nutrient rich conditions were most common in conventional field borders, whereas stress-tolerant species were more abundant around organic farming...

  7. A Comparison of the Attitudes of the Michigan Cooperative Extension Staff Toward Marketing, Agricultural Policy, and Farm Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Herbert Harlan

    Comparisons were made of commercial farmers' and Extension agents' views of the general farm situation; the effects of government price supports on farm prices; the existing market structure and acceptable ways of bargaining for increased farm product prices; and views of the general farm organizations and how they should be organized and run.…

  8. Allelopathy relationship between plants and their use in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, M.; Voşgan, Z.; Mare Roşca, O.; Mihalescu, L.

    2017-05-01

    Allelopathy is a process still little studied in the plant world, if we refer to the diversity of biochemical compounds, through which plants can interact with each other, with fungi or bacteria. Biochemical "dialogue" between organisms may have stimulatory or inhibitory effects, contributing to numerical setting of the populations, the assertion of some species over others, the establishment and strengthen of plant communities. Practically, the allelopathy can be exploited in organic farming in understanding and identifying compatibility between species, to finding natural substances with herbicide potential. In experiments conducted, diluted extracts of Taraxacum officinale and Cirsium vulgare strongly inhibited the germination and growth of corn and beans, while Hedera helix produced the same effect, but at higher concentrations of the extract. Humulus lupulus extract has a stimulating effect on the two species and it is possible to use as natural fertilizer. Extracts of Chenopodium album works as stimulator for Beta vulgaris, and potent inhibitor for Triticum aestivum. Agropyron repens is an aggressive competitor for Lycopersicon esculentum and Capsicum annuum, producing a strong inhibition. Juglans regia extracts and especially those of Satureja hortensis, can be used as natural herbicides for up delay germination and growth suppression for the species: Echinochloa crus-galli and Setaria glauca.

  9. Effect of Localities and organic Fertilizers on Yield in Conditions of Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Antosovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization cannot be used by actual needs of plants during vegetation in organic farming. The proper crop rotation and harmonic nutrition are necessary for good and quality products. The methods of treatment are mainly realized by cultivation of green manure crop and fertilizing by organic fertilizers. The aim of the long-term experiment was to evaluate the effect of different localities and different organic fertilizers on crop yield in organic farming. Variants of fertilization included in the experiment are: 1. Unfertilized control, 2. Green manure, 3. Green manure + renewable external sources, 4. Green manure + renewable external sources + auxiliary substances, 5. Green manure + farm fertilizers, 6. Green manure + farm fertilizers + auxiliary substances. The experiment started by sowing of winter wheat so green manure crop was not grown in the first experimental year. The highest yield of winter wheat grain coming from the first year of the experiment was observed on the variant with renewable external sources (digestate. Average grain yield on this variant was about 7.12 t/ha (up to 0.74 t/ha increased than the unfertilized control. Average yield of potatoes from the second year of the experiment was the highest after combination with green manure + renewable external sources (compost + digestate + auxiliary substances. This variant achieved yield about 34.08 t/ha, which is increased by 9.35 t/ha compared to the control variant. Results from this two-year experiment showed that the most suitable combination of fertilization with or without green manure crop is compost + digestate. These results were probably caused by higher content of nitrogen in organic fertilizers (compost + digestate used in this variant compared to other variants. Statistical difference of achieved yields was observed between each experimental station in both experimental years.

  10. Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of land degradation evidences in an organic farm using probability maps (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Bogunovic, Igor; Estebaranz, Ferran

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation is a biophysical process with important impacts on society, economy and policy. Areas affected by land degradation do not provide services in quality and with capacity to full-field the communities that depends on them (Amaya-Romero et al., 2015; Beyene, 2015; Lanckriet et al., 2015). Agricultural activities are one of the main causes of land degradation (Kraaijvanger and Veldkamp, 2015), especially when they decrease soil organic matter (SOM), a crucial element for soil fertility. In temperate areas, the critical level of SOM concentration in agricultural soils is 3.4%. Below this level there is a potential decrease of soil quality (Loveland and Weeb, 2003). However, no previous work was carried out in other environments, such as the Mediterranean. The spatial distribution of potential degraded land is important to be identified and mapped, in order to identify the areas that need restoration (Brevik et al., 2016; Pereira et al., 2017). The aim of this work is to assess the spatial distribution of areas with evidences of land degradation (SOM bellow 3.4%) using probability maps in an organic farm located in Croatia. In order to find the best method, we compared several probability methods, such as Ordinary Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK), Universal Kriging (UK), Indicator Kriging (IK), Probability Kriging (PK) and Disjunctive Kriging (DK). The study area is located on the Istria peninsula (45°3' N; 14°2' E), with a total area of 182 ha. One hundred eighty-two soil samples (0-30 cm) were collected during July of 2015 and SOM was assessed using wet combustion procedure. The assessment of the best probability method was carried out using leave one out cross validation method. The probability method with the lowest Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) was the most accurate. The results showed that the best method to predict the probability of potential land degradation was SK with an RMSE of 0.635, followed by DK (RMSE=0.636), UK (RMSE=0.660), OK (RMSE

  12. Current situation, potentials and prospects for the development of organic farming in Šumadija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković Duško

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Šumadija is rich in natural potentials which provide a good basis for the future development of organic farming, given the fact that natural resources are limited. The composition and structure of natural resources are highly suitable for organic production. The region's relatively unpolluted land, favourable climate, abundant water resources and preserved biodiversity are some of the main organic farming requirements satisfied. Organic production is not possible without ensuring at least a minimum level of preservation of natural resources in areas where organic farming is practised; on the other hand, organic production itself has a positive effect on the preservation and improvement of environmental quality in these areas. Small plots of land can be advantageous for this production, particularly in upland areas, and used specifically for organic production as the conversion period is short. They can be used for vegetable farming because the soil is uncontaminated owing to distance from roads. Positive experience indicates that potatoes, rye, oats and root vegetables can be successfully grown in these areas. Another advantage is the wealth of indigenous cultivars of apples, pears and plums which are highly resistant to pathogenic pests and environmental conditions, and hence suitable for cultivation without the use of mineral fertilisers and chemical agents. Major issues currently facing organic farming are a small-scale organic market and low prices of organic products, a low level of consumer awareness of the advantages of organic farming, suspicion and ignorance, low purchasing power, low availability of organic products through sales channels, etc.

  13. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  14. Organic farming brand identity : meeting trends, building trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Nikodemska-Wolowik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Farming (OF concept plays a significant role in contemporary market competition in European and other economies. This issue is the main target of the paper. The OF certification mark is dealt with as a specific brand and its meaning is presented from different points of view. The author puts special emphasis on creating customer benefits and trust due to the OF certification mark. The mark can become an effective tool of building strong relationship between supply and demand sides of the market.El concepto de Agricultura Ecológica (AE tiene un papel importante en la competencia del mercado contemporáneo tanto en la economía europea como en la de otros países. Este aspecto es el objetivo principal de este artículo. La certificación de AE se considera como marca específica y su significado se presenta desde diferentes perspectivas. El autor centra su atención en la creación del beneficio del consumidor y confianza debido a la certificación de marca de AL Ésta puede convertirse en una herramienta efectiva para la creación de una estrecha relación entre la oferta y la demanda del mercado.

  15. Increases of dissolved organic carbon in temperate and boreal lakes in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Suzanne; Houle, Daniel; Gagnon, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have been reported in surface waters worldwide in the last 10 to 20 years. The causes behind these increases have been attributed to many factors, including climate change and decreasing depositions of atmospheric sulphate (SO₄²⁻). Trends in DOC concentrations and their potential causal factors were examined in a network of 30 lakes lying in undisturbed temperate and boreal catchments in the province of Quebec, Canada. Temporal trends in lake DOC concentrations were analysed with the seasonal Kendall test. For each lake, the variation in DOC concentration over time was assessed in light of the variation in SO₄²⁻ concentration in precipitation, air temperature, precipitation and solar radiation using the forward stepwise multiple regression. Between 1989 and 2006, significant increases in DOC were observed in most of the lakes, the mean rate of change being 0.05 mg L(-1) year(-1). Lake DOC concentrations were significantly explained by different models that yielded a variance explanation ranging from 13% to 77%. The models included long-term temperature variables (i.e. averaged over intervals of 10 years), short-term precipitation variables (i.e. summed over intervals 6 months), radiation (i.e. ice-free period prior to the DOC observation) and precipitation SO₄²⁻ concentration as explanatory variables. Temporal changes in DOC concentrations seem more consistent with the evolution of climate parameters rather than SO₄²⁻ concentrations despite the fact that most lakes were in the process of recovery, showing increases in pH.

  16. What is the benefit of organically-reared dairy cattle? Societal perception towards conventional and organic dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Christoph-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.

  17. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Organic Farming: Biodiversity Impacts Can Depend on Dispersal Characteristics and Landscape Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Feber

    Full Text Available Organic farming, a low intensity system, may offer benefits for a range of taxa, but what affects the extent of those benefits is imperfectly understood. We explored the effects of organic farming and landscape on the activity density and species density of spiders and carabid beetles, using a large sample of paired organic and conventional farms in the UK. Spider activity density and species density were influenced by both farming system and surrounding landscape. Hunting spiders, which tend to have lower dispersal capabilities, had higher activity density, and more species were captured, on organic compared to conventional farms. There was also evidence for an interaction, as the farming system effect was particularly marked in the cropped area before harvest and was more pronounced in complex landscapes (those with little arable land. There was no evidence for any effect of farming system or landscape on web-building spiders (which include the linyphiids, many of which have high dispersal capabilities. For carabid beetles, the farming system effects were inconsistent. Before harvest, higher activity densities were observed in the crops on organic farms compared with conventional farms. After harvest, no difference was detected in the cropped area, but more carabids were captured on conventional compared to organic boundaries. Carabids were more species-dense in complex landscapes, and farming system did not affect this. There was little evidence that non-cropped habitat differences explained the farming system effects for either spiders or carabid beetles. For spiders, the farming system effects in the cropped area were probably largely attributable to differences in crop management; reduced inputs of pesticides (herbicides and insecticides and fertilisers are possible influences, and there was some evidence for an effect of non-crop plant species richness on hunting spider activity density. The benefits of organic farming may be greatest for

  19. Organic Farming: Biodiversity Impacts Can Depend on Dispersal Characteristics and Landscape Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feber, Ruth E.; Johnson, Paul J.; Bell, James R.; Chamberlain, Dan E.; Firbank, Leslie G.; Fuller, Robert J.; Manley, Will; Mathews, Fiona; Norton, Lisa R.; Townsend, Martin; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming, a low intensity system, may offer benefits for a range of taxa, but what affects the extent of those benefits is imperfectly understood. We explored the effects of organic farming and landscape on the activity density and species density of spiders and carabid beetles, using a large sample of paired organic and conventional farms in the UK. Spider activity density and species density were influenced by both farming system and surrounding landscape. Hunting spiders, which tend to have lower dispersal capabilities, had higher activity density, and more species were captured, on organic compared to conventional farms. There was also evidence for an interaction, as the farming system effect was particularly marked in the cropped area before harvest and was more pronounced in complex landscapes (those with little arable land). There was no evidence for any effect of farming system or landscape on web-building spiders (which include the linyphiids, many of which have high dispersal capabilities). For carabid beetles, the farming system effects were inconsistent. Before harvest, higher activity densities were observed in the crops on organic farms compared with conventional farms. After harvest, no difference was detected in the cropped area, but more carabids were captured on conventional compared to organic boundaries. Carabids were more species-dense in complex landscapes, and farming system did not affect this. There was little evidence that non-cropped habitat differences explained the farming system effects for either spiders or carabid beetles. For spiders, the farming system effects in the cropped area were probably largely attributable to differences in crop management; reduced inputs of pesticides (herbicides and insecticides) and fertilisers are possible influences, and there was some evidence for an effect of non-crop plant species richness on hunting spider activity density. The benefits of organic farming may be greatest for taxa with lower

  20. Organic Farming: Biodiversity Impacts Can Depend on Dispersal Characteristics and Landscape Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feber, Ruth E; Johnson, Paul J; Bell, James R; Chamberlain, Dan E; Firbank, Leslie G; Fuller, Robert J; Manley, Will; Mathews, Fiona; Norton, Lisa R; Townsend, Martin; Macdonald, David W

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming, a low intensity system, may offer benefits for a range of taxa, but what affects the extent of those benefits is imperfectly understood. We explored the effects of organic farming and landscape on the activity density and species density of spiders and carabid beetles, using a large sample of paired organic and conventional farms in the UK. Spider activity density and species density were influenced by both farming system and surrounding landscape. Hunting spiders, which tend to have lower dispersal capabilities, had higher activity density, and more species were captured, on organic compared to conventional farms. There was also evidence for an interaction, as the farming system effect was particularly marked in the cropped area before harvest and was more pronounced in complex landscapes (those with little arable land). There was no evidence for any effect of farming system or landscape on web-building spiders (which include the linyphiids, many of which have high dispersal capabilities). For carabid beetles, the farming system effects were inconsistent. Before harvest, higher activity densities were observed in the crops on organic farms compared with conventional farms. After harvest, no difference was detected in the cropped area, but more carabids were captured on conventional compared to organic boundaries. Carabids were more species-dense in complex landscapes, and farming system did not affect this. There was little evidence that non-cropped habitat differences explained the farming system effects for either spiders or carabid beetles. For spiders, the farming system effects in the cropped area were probably largely attributable to differences in crop management; reduced inputs of pesticides (herbicides and insecticides) and fertilisers are possible influences, and there was some evidence for an effect of non-crop plant species richness on hunting spider activity density. The benefits of organic farming may be greatest for taxa with lower

  1. Heavy metals and other elements in serum of cattle from organic and conventional farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Pilarczyk, Renata; Wójcik, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, lead, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, nickel, aluminium and arsenium were analysed in blood serum of cattle from organic (n=20) and conventional (n=21) farms. The elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry using an Optima 2000 DV instrument (Perkin Elmer Inc.). Animals from the organic farm were characterised by significantly lower (Panimals from the conventional farm. The concentration of Cd was similar in animals from both organic and conventional farms. The concentration of toxic elements in cattle from organic and conventional farms studied was very low. The trace essential elements were generally within the adequate ranges except Zn and Cu, which were deficient. In organically reared animals, also serum Fe content was below the critical level for diagnosing iron deficiency. Pb was significantly correlated with Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni. A significant positive correlation between the concentration of Cd and Zn, Cu and Ni concentrations was only observed in cows from the organic farm. The present results suggest that organically raised animals are less exposed to harmful environmental influences such as the environmental pollution with heavy metals. On the other hand, these animals are at a greater risk of mineral deficiency compared to animals kept on conventional farms.

  2. Can the Adoption of Organic Farming Be Predicted by Biogeographic Factors? A French Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pautasso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming adoption is on the rise in many countries, due to the increased awareness of farmers, citizens, governments and other stakeholders of its more sustainable nature. Various studies have investigated the socio-economic drivers (e.g., consumer demand, support measures, agricultural policies of organic farming adoption, but less attention has been paid to whether biogeographic factors could also be associated with variation in rates of organically managed farms in certain regions within countries. We investigate whether biogeographic factors are associated with variation in the proportion of land under organic farming in French departments. The proportion of land under organic farming increased with decreasing latitude and increasing department area. Non-significant factors were number of plant taxa, proportion of Natura 2000 protected areas, connectivity, longitude, altitude and department population. These results were robust to controlling for spatial autocorrelation. Larger and southern French departments tend to have a greater adoption of organic farming, possibly because of the more extensive nature of agriculture in such regions. Biogeographic factors have been relatively neglected in investigations of the drivers of organic farming adoption, but may have an important explanatory value.

  3. Ecological traps in shallow coastal waters-Potential effect of heat-waves in tropical and temperate organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Vinagre

    Full Text Available Mortality of fish has been reported in tide pools during warm days. That means that tide pools are potential ecological traps for coastal organisms, which happen when environmental changes cause maladaptive habitat selection. Heat-waves are predicted to increase in intensity, duration and frequency, making it relevant to investigate the role of tide pools as traps for coastal organisms. However, heat waves can also lead to acclimatization. If organisms undergo acclimatization prior to being trapped in tide pools, their survival chances may increase. Common tide pool species (46 species in total were collected at a tropical and a temperate area and their upper thermal limits estimated. They were maintained for 10 days at their mean summer sea surface temperature +3°C, mimicking a heat-wave. Their upper thermal limits were estimated again, after this acclimation period, to calculate each species' acclimation response. The upper thermal limits of the organisms were compared to the temperatures attained by tide pool waters to investigate if 1 tide pools could be considered ecological traps and 2 if the increase in upper thermal limits elicited by the acclimation period could make the organisms less vulnerable to this threat. Tropical tide pools were found to be ecological traps for an important number of common coastal species, given that they can attain temperatures higher than the upper thermal limits of most of those species. Tide pools are not ecological traps in temperate zones. Tropical species have higher thermal limits than temperate species, but lower acclimation response, that does not allow them to survive the maximum habitat temperature of tropical tide pools. This way, tropical coastal organisms seem to be, not only more vulnerable to climate warming per se, but also to an increase in the ecological trap effect of tide pools.

  4. Ecological traps in shallow coastal waters—Potential effect of heat-waves in tropical and temperate organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Vanessa; Cereja, Rui; Abreu-Afonso, Francisca; Dias, Marta; Mizrahi, Damián; Flores, Augusto A. V.

    2018-01-01

    Mortality of fish has been reported in tide pools during warm days. That means that tide pools are potential ecological traps for coastal organisms, which happen when environmental changes cause maladaptive habitat selection. Heat-waves are predicted to increase in intensity, duration and frequency, making it relevant to investigate the role of tide pools as traps for coastal organisms. However, heat waves can also lead to acclimatization. If organisms undergo acclimatization prior to being trapped in tide pools, their survival chances may increase. Common tide pool species (46 species in total) were collected at a tropical and a temperate area and their upper thermal limits estimated. They were maintained for 10 days at their mean summer sea surface temperature +3°C, mimicking a heat-wave. Their upper thermal limits were estimated again, after this acclimation period, to calculate each species’ acclimation response. The upper thermal limits of the organisms were compared to the temperatures attained by tide pool waters to investigate if 1) tide pools could be considered ecological traps and 2) if the increase in upper thermal limits elicited by the acclimation period could make the organisms less vulnerable to this threat. Tropical tide pools were found to be ecological traps for an important number of common coastal species, given that they can attain temperatures higher than the upper thermal limits of most of those species. Tide pools are not ecological traps in temperate zones. Tropical species have higher thermal limits than temperate species, but lower acclimation response, that does not allow them to survive the maximum habitat temperature of tropical tide pools. This way, tropical coastal organisms seem to be, not only more vulnerable to climate warming per se, but also to an increase in the ecological trap effect of tide pools. PMID:29420657

  5. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivemeyer, S.; Smolders, E.A.A.; Brinkmann, J.; Gratzer, E.; Hansen, B.; Henriksen, B.I.F.; Huber, J.; Leeb, C.; March, S.; Mejdell, C.; Nicholas, P.; Roderick, S.; Stöger, E.; Vaarst, M.; Whistance, L.K.; Winckler, C.; Walkenhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising

  6. Carbon footprints of organic dairying in six European countries—real farm data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sanna; Smith, Laurence; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2015-01-01

    Dairy farming is the largest agricultural contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. In this study, the carbon footprint of organic dairying was evaluated by means of a life cycle assessment, based on real farm data from six European countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy...

  7. Student Outcomes from Experiential Learning on a Student-Run Certified Organic Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Jennifer R.; Hall, Kelsey; Kalkman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The USU Student Organic Farm was initiated in April 2008 on 1 acre (0.4 ha) of land at Utah State University (USU). Students plant, weed, harvest, and market the produce on campus. Proceeds support the student farm in terms of operating expenses, equipment purchases, and modest student stipends. Since 2009, the students have operated a community…

  8. Update welzijnsprestaties biologische veehouderij = Update animal welfare status of organic farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, M.A.W.; Pinxterhuis, J.B.; Vrolijk, M.

    2010-01-01

    Organic farming intends to farm in a socially responsible manner, with attention for, among others, environment, climate, nature and landscape, food quality, income and animal welfare. This report focuses on animal welfare, as one of the sustainability themes. The existing knowledge about the

  9. Mastitis incidence and milk quality in organic dairy farms which use suckling systems in calf rearing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.P.; Smolders, E.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify important factors influencing animal health and general disease resistance, detailed qualitative and quantitative farm data were collected from 99 organic dairy farms in the Netherlands. Mastitis incidence and milk quality were focal points of the data collection. In this paper

  10. Organic and low input farming: Pros and cons for soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic and low input farming practices have both advantages and disadvantages in building soil health and maintaining productivity. Examining the effects of farming practices on soil health parameters can aid in developing whole system strategies that promote sustainability. Application of specific...

  11. Consequences of organic farming and landscape heterogeneity for species richness and abundance of farmland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Henrik G; Dänhardt, Juliana; Lindström, Ake; Rundlöf, Maj

    2010-04-01

    It has been suggested that organic farming may benefit farmland biodiversity more in landscapes that have lost a significant part of its former landscape heterogeneity. We tested this hypothesis by comparing bird species richness and abundance during the breeding season in organic and conventional farms, matched to eliminate all differences not directly linked to the farming practice, situated in either homogeneous plains with only a little semi-natural habitat or in heterogeneous farmland landscapes with abundant field borders and semi-natural grasslands. The effect of farm management on species richness interacted with landscape structure, such that there was a positive relationship between organic farming and diversity only in homogeneous landscapes. This pattern was mainly dependent on the species richness of passerine birds, in particular those that were invertebrate feeders. Species richness of non-passerines was positively related to organic farming independent of the landscape context. Bird abundance was positively related to landscape heterogeneity but not to farm management. This was mainly because the abundance of passerines, particularly invertebrate feeders, was positively related to landscape heterogeneity. We suggest that invertebrate feeders particularly benefit from organic farming because of improved foraging conditions through increased invertebrate abundances in otherwise depauperate homogeneous landscapes. Although many seed-eaters also benefit from increased insect abundance, they may also utilize crop seed resources in homogeneous landscapes and conventional farms. The occurrence of an interactive effect of organic farming and landscape heterogeneity on bird diversity will have consequences for the optimal allocation of resources to restore the diversity of farmland birds.

  12. Evaluation of ecofriendly management practices of french beanrust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in organic farming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetry, G. K. N.; Mangang, H. C.

    2012-09-01

    Organic farming system emphasises on sustainable development of agriculture. The traditional agriculture system was much akin to the organic system but modernization of agriculture made a shift to this trend. The north east region of India is potential organic farming sites. Most of the farming systems are traditional and are organic by default; however crops in organic farming are prone to many fungal diseases. Hence for validation of the impact of organic practices on the disease development of plants, a study has been conducted for three years under natural environmental conditions on bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus). Study includes ecofriendly practices like: plant extract treatment, intercropping of beans with maize, organic manure application, influence of cropping season and Trichoderma treatment. Rust is a major prevalent disease in the cultivation of beans as in other parts of the world. Detailed study of the disease in the organic environment and the impact of various treatments and agricultural agronomic practices would help in validation of the practices for the management of the disease in the organic farming system. In our study for three consecutive years it has been revealed that the practices of the traditional farmers likeplant extract application, intercropping, and manure application were found to have significant positive effects in reducing rust development in the bean fields. The treatment of farm yard manure resulted in development of lesser area under disease progress curve. The plant extract of Artemisia vulgaris has marked positive impact on reducing rust disease parameters. Foliar application of Trichoderma reduces the disease parameters of rust. This study would enhance information in understanding the impact of organic farming system on bean rust and would help in validitation of sustainable agricultural practices for use in organic farming system.

  13. Organic farming and social capital building in small holder farmer communities in the Rwenzori region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibasiima, Thaddeo; Nalunga, Jane; Vaarst, Mette

    uniqueness. The approach also promotes whole household participation. The facilitator who basically guides the learning stirs farmers into developing confidence within and among themselves in the organic production processes, using agro-ecological farming methods and practices which are economically...... learning garden and learning involves the growth cycle of the enterprise in question, the FFLG approach considers each farm as being unique and as a special learning entity. The approach therefore, involves farmers rotating from one farm to another to learn and support the particular farm in respect to its...

  14. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon Turnover in Four Temperate Forests Based on Radiocarbon Measurements of Heterotrophic Respiration and Soil Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, B.; Borken, W.; Muhr, J.; Schrumpf, M.; Savage, K. E.; Wutzler, T.; Trumbore, S.; Reichstein, M.

    2011-12-01

    Soils of temperate forests store significant amounts of soil organic matter and are considered to be net sinks of atmospheric CO2. Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics have been studied using the Δ14C signature of bulk SOC or different SOC fractions as observational constraints in SOC models. Further, the Δ14C signature of CO2 evolved during the incubation of soil and roots has been widely used together with Δ14C of total soil respiration to partition soil respiration into heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and root respiration. However, these data have rarely been used together as observational constraints to determine SOC turnover times. Here, we present a multiple constraints approach, where we used SOC stock and its Δ14C signature, and heterotrophic respiration and its Δ14C signature to estimate SOC turnover times of a simple serial two-pool model via Bayesian optimization. We used data from four temperate forest ecosystems in Germany and the USA with different disturbance and management histories from selective logging to afforestation in the late 19th and early 20th century. The Δ14C signature of the atmosphere with its prominent bomb peak was used as a proxy for the Δ14C signature of aboveground and belowground litterfall. The Δ14C signature of litterfall was lagged behind the atmospheric signal to account for the period between photosynthetic fixation of carbon and its addition to SOC pools. We showed that the combined use of Δ14C measurements of Rh and SOC stocks helped to better constrain turnover times of the fast pool (primarily by Δ14C of Rh) and the slow pool (primarily by Δ14C of SOC). In particular, by introducing two additional parameters that describe the deviation from steady state of the fast and slow cycling pool for both SOC and SO14C, we were able to demonstrate that we cannot maintain the often used steady-state assumption of SOC models in general. Furthermore, a new transport version of our model, including SOC transport via

  15. N-losses and energy use in a scenario for conversion to organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Kjeldsen, Chris; Hutchings, Nick

    2002-01-01

    is not straightforward, and different scenarios for conversion to organic farming might lead to reduced or increased N-losses and E-use. This paper presents a scenario tool that uses a Geographical Information System in association with models for crop rotations, fertilisation practices, N-losses, and E...... reduction at the 95% level. We therefore recommend further research in how conversion to organic farming or other changes in the agricultural practice might help to reduce N-surpluses and E-uses. In that context, the presented scenario tool would be useful......The aims of organic farming include the recycling of nutrients and organic matter and the minimisation of the environmental impact of agriculture. Reduced nitrogen (N)-losses and energy (E)-use are therefore fundamental objectives of conversion to organic farming. However, the case...

  16. Soil Decomposition of Added Organic C in an Organic Farming System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpomblekou-A, Kokoasse; Sissoko, Alassane; McElhenney, Wendell

    2015-04-01

    In the United States, large quantities of poultry waste are added every year to soil under organic management. Decomposition of the added organic C releases plant nutrients, promotes soil structure, and plays a vital role in the soil food web. In organic agriculture the added C serves as the only source of nutrients for plant growth. Thus understanding the decomposition rates of such C in organic farming systems are critical in making recommendations of organic inputs to organic producers. We investigated and compared relative accumulation and decomposition of organic C in an organic farming system trial at the George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station at Tuskegee, Alabama on a Marvyn sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Kanhapludults) soil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates and four treatments. The main plot (54' × 20') was split into three equal subplots to plant three sweet potato cultivars. The treatments included a weed (control with no cover crop, no fertilizer), crimson clover alone (CC), crimson clover plus broiler litter (BL), and crimson clover plus NPK mineral fertilizers (NPK). For five years, late in fall, the field was planted with crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L) that was cut with a mower and incorporated into soil the following spring. Moreover, broiler litter (4.65 Mg ha-1) or ammonium nitrate (150 kg N ha-1), triple super phosphate (120 kg P2O5 ha-1), and potassium chloride (160 kg K2O ha-1) were applied to the BL or the NPK plot and planted with sweet potato. Just before harvest, six soil samples were collected within the two middle rows of each sweet potato plot with an auger at incremental depths of 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm. Samples from each subplot and depth were composited and mixed in a plastic bag. The samples were sieved moist through a

  17. Biogenic amines and mycotoxins concentrations in baled silage from organic and conventional farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jovaišienė

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the current study was to investigate biogenic amines and mycotoxins concentrations in baled silage (mainly Poaceae family grasses prepared in organic and conventional farms and to relate these parameters to fermentative parameters. The mean dry matter (DM content was 364.10±93.31 and 424.70±95.93g/kg in the silage from organic and conventional farms respectively. The silage samples from organic farms had 17.00% higher (P≤ 0.05 tyramine (TY than the silage from conventional farms. Conventional farm samples were characterized by 46.00% higher histamine (HIS (P≤ 0.05, 9.80% higher putrescine (PUT (P≤ 0.05, 17.30% higher cadaverine (CAD (P≤ 0.05. Aflatoxins (AFL (total and zearalenone (ZEN, T-2/HT-2 concentrations were higher respectively 16.00% (P≤ 0.05 and 13.40% (P≤ 0.05, 1.80% (P≤ 0.05 in the silage prepared in organic farms. Deoxynivalenol (DON concentration was higher 42.40% (P≤ 0.05 in silage from conventional farms. Volatile fatty acids (VFA, lactic acid, ethanol, pH and ammonia nitrogen showed that the silage samples from organic and conventional farms were of good quality. Our study suggests differences in biogenic amine formation or mycotoxins content in silage from organic and conventional farming, but, overall, the measured values are too low to be relevant for animal health. Furthermore, these differences might as well be due to the difference in dry matter content and plant maturity between the organic and conventional silage samples.

  18. Importance of bee pollination for cotton production in conventional and organic farms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane C. Pires

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the importance of wild bee and feral honeybee visits for cotton production on conventional and organic farms. Experiments were conducted in Brazil, on a conventional cotton farm in Mato Grosso state in the Amazon biome and on an organic farm in Paraíba state in the Caatinga biome. On the conventional farm, bee assemblage and cotton production were measured near to and far from natural vegetation. Bee richness, fibre fraction, seed number and yield (Kg/ha were higher by 57.14, 1.95, 17.77 and 18.44% respectively in plots near natural vegetation, but bee abundance did not vary with distance to natural vegetation. On the organic farm, because the cropping area is surrounded by natural vegetation, pollination deficit was evaluated using an exclusion experiment where cotton production of flowers bagged to prevent bee visitation (spontaneous self-pollination was compared to production of flowers open to bee visitation (open pollination. Open pollinated flowers had higher average boll weight, fibre weight and seed number. Although cotton is not directly dependent on bee pollination, bees increased cotton production on the organic farm by more than 12% for fibre weight and over 17% for seed number. Our data confirm the importance of maintaining communities of pollinators on cotton farms, especially for organic production.

  19. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  20. Nest success of Lapwings (Vanellus vanellus) on organic and conventional arable farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, S.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing agricultural intensification has put farmland bird populations under great stress. Although organically managed farms tend to have higher densities of farmland birds than conventionally managed holdings, differences in crop management may also lead to differences in breeding success. With

  1. Crop yield gap and stability in organic and conventional farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, M.; De Haan, J.; Kroonen, M.; Verstegen, H.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract A key challenge for sustainable intensification of agriculture is to produce increasing amounts of food and feed with minimal biodiversity loss, nutrient leaching, and greenhouse gas emissions. Organic farming is considered more sustainable, however, less productive than conventional

  2. On weed competition and population dynamics : considerations for crop rotations & organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: organic farming, weeds, weed management, weed ecology, weed diversity, matrix population model, elasticity analysis, neighbourhood model, survey, crop row spacing, mechanical hoe, harrow, Polygonum convolvulus ,

  3. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch I: Biological response of sucking insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four systems of organic farming and a conventional farming system were studied over the period 2012-2014. The organic system trial variants included: I – an organic farming system without any biological products used (growth under natural soil fertility – Control; II – an organic farming system involving the use of a biological foliar fertilizer and a biological plant growth regulator (Polyversum+Biofa; III – an organic farming system in which a biological insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was used; IV – an organic farming system including a combination of three organic products: the foliar fertilizer, the plant growth regulator and the bioinsecticide (Polyversum+Biofa+NeemAzal T/S. Variant V represented a conventional farming system in which synthetic products were used in combination (foliar fertilizer, plant growth regulator and insecticide: Masterblend+Flordimex 420+Nurelle D. Treatment of vetch plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal in combination with Biofa and Polyversum resulted in the lowest density of sucking pests, compared to all other organic farming methods tested (i.e. without NeemAzal, with NeemAzal alone, and its combination with Biofa and Polyversum. The greatest reduction in pest numbers during the vegetation period in that variant was observed in species of the order Thysanoptera (36.0-41.4%, followed by Hemiptera, and the families Aphididae (31.6-40.3% and Cicadellidae (27.3-28.6%. This combination showed an efficient synergistic interaction and an increase in biological efficacy as compared to individual application of NeemAzal. The highest toxic impact was found against Thrips tabaci, followed by Acyrthosiphon pisum. An analysis of variance regarding the efficacy against the species A. pisum, E. pteridis and T. tabaci showed that type of treatment had the most dominant influence and statistically significant impact.

  4. The Need for Temperance

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    Karl Inge Tangen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how temperance as a virtue relates to organizational leadership. The study begins with a short survey of classical Greek and Christian notions of temperance before proceeding to ex-plore temperance in relation to self-leadership, visionary and strategic leadership, and relational lead-ership. The final part of the article offers reflections on how temperance might be cultivated from a theological perspective. Temperance is understood not only as sound thinking but also as embodied self-control and active patience. On the level of self-leadership, it is argued that temperance enables the leader to establish forms of integrity that protect the leader’s self from chaos and destruction. Moreover, temperance may also nurture focused visionary leadership that accepts ethical limits and has an eye to the common good. The study also suggests that organizations should cultivate a culture of strategic discipline that is capable of realizing such visions. On the interpersonal level, temperance is viewed as critical in terms of enabling leaders to treat co-workers with respect and wisdom and han-dle conflict with consideration. Finally, is argued that that the cultivation of temperance is not a one-way street from the inside to the outside or a subordination of feelings to reason but rather a very complex process that includes interpersonal humility, finds vision in an encounter with the good, and yet remains a personal responsibility.

  5. ESTABLISHMENT FOR BREAKEVEN POINT IN ORGANIC FARMS WHOSE SURFACE IS LESS THAN 5 HECTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anișoara CHIHAIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture is economically viable, respond the exigencies demand for healthy food and high quality is an agriculture which guarantees the protection and enhancement of natural resources in the long term and forward them unaltered future generations. The paper aims to establish breakeven in organic farm with surface less than five hectares farm which benefits from substantial financial compensation. We considered that the relevant calculation method is the calculation of profitability using gross margin calculating for each type of activity on the farm. In the absence of this support the activity in ecological system production would not be profitable one.

  6. Coastal karren features in temperate microtidal settings: spatial organization and temporal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Gómez-Pujol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Basin pools are the diagnostic feature of Coastal Karren landscape at temperate settings. According to the size and connectivity parameters four morphological zones are identified along limestone coastal profiles. Each zone reflects the balance between the effects of physical and chemical weathering-erosion agents. Broadly, marine abrasion, bioerosion and biological driven solution show a larger influence seaward, whereas non-biological driven solution enhances its participation landward

  7. Why farming with high tech methods should integrate elements of organic agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Klaus

    2009-09-01

    In the previous article [Ammann, K. (2008) Feature: integrated farming: why organic farmers should use transgenic crops. New Biotechnol. 25, 101-107], in a plea for the introduction of transgenic crops into organic and integrated farming, it was announced that the complementary topic, namely that high tech farmers should integrate elements of organic agriculture, will be a follow up. Some selected arguments for such a view are summarised here. Basically, they comprise a differentiated view on agro-biodiversity outside the field of production; landscape management methods to enhance biodiversity levels. Both elements are compatible with basic ideas of organic farming. First, Precision Farming is given as one example of the many ways to support agricultural production through high technology, with the aim of reducing energy input, maintaining excellent soil conditions and enhancing yield. It is clear from this analysis that modern agriculture and certain elements of organic-integrated agriculture are compatible. There are sectors of high tech farming, such as the introduction of a better recycling scheme and also a better focus on socio-economic aspects, which need to be taken up seriously from organic-integrated farming, a system which puts a lot of emphasis on those elements and for which important research data are available. In the final part a new concept of dynamic sustainability is presented.

  8. THE FARMING AND MARKETING OF ORGANIC LETTUCE: STUDY AT BOBOSAN VILLAGE, KEDUNGBANTENG SUB-DISTRICT, BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kartika Eka Wijayanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Banyumas has great potential as a producer of organic lettuce in term of condition of natural, human resources and availability of market. The centre producer of organic lettuce is located in district of Kedungbanteng, and managed by farmers group "abdi tani". The aim of this study is to analyze: 1. The cost and income farming of organic lettuce; 2. Financial feasibility of organic lettuce farm; 3. The channel and structure of organic lettuce market. Processing and data analysis performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The data used is to the production and marketing of organic lettuce in period of June-July 2016. Quantitative analysis performed using analysis of cost, farm income, and R/C. Qualitative analysis was conducted to determine the channel and structure of organic lettuce market. The results showed that organic lettuce farm income generating positive value and the value of R/C is greater than one (R/C >1, the farming is profitable and feasible. Organic lettuce marketing channels through the use of one channel, such farmers, traders, retailers (supermarket. Farmers faced monopsony market structure, while traders and retailers deal with oligopoly one

  9. Organic farming, soil health, and food quality: considering possible links

    Science.gov (United States)

    That the health of soils, plants, animals and people are linked is an ancient idea that still resonates. It is well known that soil nutrient deficiencies and toxicities can adversely impact plant and animal health. Growing evidence also supports the idea of positive links between farm management, so...

  10. Economic efficiency of legume-cereal intercrops in conditions of organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents economic analysis of growing of legume-cereal intercropping in conditions of organic farming. Results of the analysis are based on data monitoring in chosen organic farms that grow LCI. In the paper there is also compared economic efficiency of LCI grown in organic and conventional farming system. Methodological solution results from costingness and earnings monitoring of LCI production in five chosen organic farms in the period 2007–2008.When evaluating costs existing in individual variants of LCI growing it is necessary to say that the selection of individual machines and machine aggregations represents the most important factor of influencing direct costs, namely with regard to the size of organic farms and to the area of individual field blocks. Under conditions of organic farms, the LCI production is also significantly influenced also by agrotechnical (tillage operations. As compared with conventional farms, the final yield of both green fodder and grain is lower by 14–38%. Total direct costs per hectare of harvested LCI acreage ranged in case of fodder production from 9.249 CZK to 11.620 CZK per hectare. In case of grain production, the corresponding costs ranged from 8.848 to 9.970 CZK per hectare. In case of LCI, the direct costs of organic farms per unit of production of both fodder and grain consist mainly of material costs, which represent 63–76% and 61–68% of total expenses associated with production of fodder and grain, respectively. These direct costs are influenced also by higher prices of inputs.

  11. Organic mixed farms in the landscape of a brook valley. How can a co-operative of organic farms contribute to ecological and aesthetic qualities of a landscape?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.

    1997-01-01

    Under which conditions would an organic mixed farm co-operative contribute to the aesthetic and ecological quality of the landscape? The orientation of people in space and time is considered an important aspect of aesthetic quality. To facilitate orientation in space and time a landscape should

  12. Can organic farming feed the world? : a contribution to the debate on the ability of organic farming systems to provide sustainable supplies of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulding, K.W.T.; Trewavas, A.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper Badgley et al. (2007) claimed that organic farming, if used worldwide, would provide sufficient food for a growing world population. The paper stimulated much critical response. Our paper makes a critical assessment of this claim for wheat, a major cereal crop and source of food

  13. Recent productivity developments and technical change in Danish organic farming - stagnation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg; Park, Tim

    This paper attempts to quantitatively measure the change in the productivity of Dan-ish organic farming in recent years by using panel data on 56 organic farms mainly engaged in milk production for the period 2002 to 2004. Based on a translog pro-duction frontier framework the technical and scale...... growth in organic production by estimating a bootstrapped bivariate probit model with respect to factors influencing the probability of organic market exit. The results revealed significant differencies in the organic farms’ technical efficiencies, no sig-nificant total factor productivity growth...... and even a slightly negative rate of technical change in the period investigated. These empirical results seem not strong enough to support the view of a profound stagnation in organic milk farming over the last years. We found evidence for a positive relationship between subsidy payments and an increase...

  14. On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijbeek, Renske

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in

  15. On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijbeek, Renske

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in mineral

  16. Organization of crop and animal production in dairy farms localised in three chosen regions of lubelskie voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Bojarszczuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of organization of crop and animal production in dairy farms localised in three regions in Lubelskie voivodeship was presented in the paper. The data source was questionnaire research. The study was trained in 145 farms. The provided analysis showed that cereals had significantly share in pattern system in tested farms. Researched farms are differentiated of occupied differentiation of cropping pattern and density livestock between farms localised in different regions of Lubelskie voivodeship caused different level of intensity of organization animal and crops production. The differentiation of indicators was especially significant between farms in Krasnystaw and Ryki.

  17. The Application of Bio-Organic Fertilizers (Factory and Swine Farm Wastewater) on Organic Rice Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadang, Nattayana; Chumpoonta, Thosaporn; Wimolphan, Worapong; Dhammapitak, Saksuak; Panyaban, Nut

    2006-09-01

    The two experiments of the application of bio-organic fertilizers on organic rice production were conducted in an area of Chiang-rai College of Agriculture and Technology, with the aim of determining the growth and yield of rice. The different treatments were: liquid microbial fertilizer of cow milk , liquid microbial fertilizer of OAP , factory wastewater , swine farm wastewater , cattle manure and chemical fertilizer compared to the control. Results of the preliminary experiment in the year 2005 revealed that the rice plant applied with the microbial fertilizers produced greater agronomic characters and yield than the control. The greatest yield of 639.57 g/m2 was obtained from chemical fertilizer, followed by liquid

  18. Methods for assessing phosphorus overfeeding on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, M; Holtenius, K; Spörndly, R

    2014-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses from dairy farms can severely damage aquatic ecosystems, so it is important to have tools to assess overfeeding of P. This study screened P intake and faecal excretion of different P fractions in dairy cows on conventional and organic farms, compared the P feeding level of the herds against the recommendations and analysed different sampling and analysis methods for assessing the general status of P feeding on the farms. The organic (n=14) and conventional farms (n=15) were of comparable size and were located in southern Sweden. On each farm, feed intake was registered for 10 cows representing four different lactation stages and their P intake was calculated and related to current recommendations. Faecal samples taken from the same cows were analysed for total P (TP) and soluble P. Milk production data for the cows were obtained from the Swedish official milk recording scheme. TP was determined in one slurry sample per farm. More than 70% of the cows studied, representing both conventional and organic herds, consumed P in excess of the recommendations. Conventional herds had higher P content in the ration than organic herds, and lactating cows in conventional herds had higher faecal concentrations of total and soluble P than those in organic herds. However in dry cows, the P content of the ration and soluble P and TP in faeces did not differ between the two management systems. Soluble P was well correlated to TP in faeces, and both were good indicators of P overfeeding.

  19. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    OpenAIRE

    Lamria Sidauruk; Darma Bakti; Retna Astuti Kuswardani; Chairani Hanum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato mon...

  20. A preliminary study of the effects of organic farming on oocyte quality in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casao, A; María, G A; Abecia, J A

    2017-02-01

    This study tested whether feeding Rasa Aragonesa ewes certified organic feed, from 15 days before mating until lamb weaning, improved oocyte quality and in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) performances of the offspring. In a second experiment, ovaries from ewe lambs that were bred on an organic farm and were of the same breed were compared with those from conventionally bred animals. The number (± standard error of the mean) of healthy oocytes per ewe lamb did not differ significantly between organic (12.2 ± 3.3) and conventionally (13.6 ± 4.0) fed ewes. Ovaries from ewe lambs born on an organic farm had significantly (P ewe lamb (39.6 ± 5.2) than did those born on a conventional farm (25.0 ± 4.2), and higher IVM (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P ewe lambs, although organic feeding alone was insufficient to improve quality.

  1. Statistical coordinates of organic farming in Romania during the period 2000-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUGULEANA Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the importance of developing organic farming in Romania. This sector was not affected by the economic crisis, at the end of 2008, neither in Romania, nor in European Union. The sustainable character of its evolution was doubled by the benefits and the consequences for a better and healthier life of consumers, in the spirit of respecting the principles of environmental and life sustainability. The evolutions of organic areas in Romania in comparison with the level of the European Union, and also of its proportion in the agricultural land, are presented for the period 2000-2014. Some important structural characteristics of organic farming in Romania are analysed for 2011 and 2012, the years when the expansion of organic areas was the highest. These emphasized changes could be the future factors of organic farming development.

  2. Contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with geohelmints eggs on organic farms in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłapeć, Teresa; Borecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with zoonotic parasite eggs on organic and conventional farms in south-eastern Poland. To evaluate the contamination with eggs of zoonotic parasites, examinations were conducted on 8 conventional and 11 organic farms in south-eastern Poland from May-October in 2008 and 2009. The following fruit and vegetables were selected for the experiment: strawberry, leek, onion, carrot, zucchini, beetroot, parsley, potatoes, celery, rhubarb, lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, pumpkin, young beetroot leaves, cauliflower, French beans, turnip, fennel and sorrel. A total of 187 samples of vegetables, fruits and soil were examined by means of a modified flotation method according to Quinn et al. (1980). Contamination with Ascaris, Trichuris and Toxocara eggs was found, with a higher number of positive samples revealed on conventional (34.7%), compared to organic farms (18.9%). The level of contamination in soil samples from conventional farms was higher (88.5% positive samples), than of those from organic farms (32.8%). Of the 15 geohelmints eggs, positive samples were found in vegetables: 9 Toxocara eggs, 4 Ascaris eggs and 2 Trichuris eggs. No geohelmints eggs were observed in the strawberry samples. The consumption of vegetables and fruits contaminated with the eggs of parasites may be the cause of parasitoses in humans. Stricter sanitary standards on farms of all types may limit the incidence of parasitic zoonoses.

  3. Cattle management practices and milk production on mixed smallholder organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nalubwama Muwanga, Sylvia; Kabi, Fred; Vaarst, Mette; Smolders, Gidi; Kiggundu, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A longitudinal study to assess animal management practices and milk production was conducted for a period of 12 months on 30 smallholder farms keeping dairy cattle and certified organic pineapple production in Luwero and Kayunga districts, based on questionnaire and on-farm collected data. Farm sizes were 9.3 ± 6.7 acres in tethering system and 4.3 ± 2.6 acres in zero-grazing. Fifty-four percent of the zero-grazing herds had animal housing facilities. All farmers in tethering system kept cows...

  4. Research Implications of a Paradigm Shift in Agriculture: The Case of Organic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Wynen, Els

    1996-01-01

    It is proposed in this report that organic and conventional agriculture belong to two different paradigms. The first type of agriculture, called conventional farming in this paper, is characterised by an approach of control and reductionism, emphasising treatment of symptoms instead of prevention in management. Solutions to problems within chemistry are an important part of the science involved in conventional agriculture. Although there is awareness of off-farm problems, in general these...

  5. Altitudinal variation in soil organic carbon stock in coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests in Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Munesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Himalayan zones, with dense forest vegetation, cover a fifth part of India and store a third part of the country reserves of soil organic carbon (SOC. However, the details of altitudinal distribution of these carbon stocks, which are vulnerable to forest management and climate change impacts, are not well known. Results This article reports the results of measuring the stocks of SOC along altitudinal gradients. The study was carried out in the coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests of Garhwal Himalaya. The stocks of SOC were found to be decreasing with altitude: from 185.6 to 160.8 t C ha-1 and from 141.6 to 124.8 t C ha-1 in temperature (Quercus leucotrichophora and subtropical (Pinus roxburghii forests, respectively. Conclusion The results of this study lead to conclusion that the ability of soil to stabilize soil organic matter depends negatively on altitude and call for comprehensive theoretical explanation

  6. PERSPECTIVES OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE LIGHT OF EMPIRICAL STUDY SURVEYED AMONG CONVENTIONAL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Kociszewski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the perspectives of development of organic food supply in Poland. The work contains the results of the nationwide survey which was carried out among conventional farms’ owners. It was evaluated that – according to farmers’ declaration – organic farms number can be equal to 6.8-24.2% of all Polish farms. The main incentives influencing conversion into organic farming methods are health and environment care, satisfaction from work and agri-environmental subsidies. The main identified barriers are limited sales possibilities, low profitability of production, high labour intensity, high production cost, and low yield. In a long run the development of organic market could be stimulated by the increase of demand. In the middle time period, there is a need for the increase of subsidies rates which should be combined with the improvement of certification and control system.

  7. The Impact of Values Concerning Nature on Practice and Knowledge in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Pernille

    1997-01-01

    that the view of nature influence practise: The focus of the organic farmers on environmental concerns, product quality concerns, earth-fertility concerns, utilitarian ethics or bioethics means different practical choices. Four paradigms of knowledge related to organic farming has further more been identified...... impact on the development of the organic farming and on the conceptualising of environmental issues in society and thereby the initiatives taken: Priority is given to the more conventional ways of understanding: obtaining sustainability by not using poison, treating manure as a question of optimising...... nitrogen and the other nutrients. On the other hand learning processes take place in and around the organic farms extending the farmers concepts of sustainability....

  8. Long-term citrus organic farming strategy results in soil organic matter recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Pereira, Paulo; Barone, Ettore; Giménez Morera, Antonio; Keesstra, Saskia; Gristina, Luciano; Jordán, Antonio; Parras-Alcantara, Luis; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Soils play a key role in the Earth System (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevick et al., 2015). Soils are a key resource for the human societies (Mol and Keesstra, 2012) and they are relevant to achieve the sustainability such as the United Nations Goals highlight (Keesstra et al., 2016). Agriculture soils, especially those under conventional tillage, are prone to organic matter mineralization, soil erosion, compaction and increase of greenhouse gases emission (Novara et al., 2011; Bruun et al., 2015; de Moraes et al., 2015; Choudhury et al., 2016; del Mar et al., 2016). The adoption of organic farming and sustainable management practices may provide a sustainable crop productivity, and in the meanwhile mitigate the negative impact of agriculture on ecosystem services benefits (Laudicina et al., 2015; Parras-Alcantara et al., 2015; 2016). The aim of this study was to examine, under field conditions, the long-term changes of soil organic matter under organic farming management in citrus orchards in Mediterranean environment and evaluate the ecosystem service on C sequestration in terms of economic benefits. The research was carried out at the Alcoleja Experimental Station located in the Cànyoles river watershed in the Eastern Spain on 45year old citrus plantation. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) content was monitored for 20 years at 6 different soil depth. The profitability of citrus plantation was estimated under conventional and organic management. Results showed that SOM in the 0-30 cm soil depth was the double after 20 years of organic farming management, ranging from 0.8 g kg-1 in 1995 to 1.5 g kg-1 in 2006. The highest SOM increase was in the top soil layer (368% of SOM increase in comparison to the initial SOM content) and decreased with soil depth. The effect of organic farming was relevant after 5 years since land management change, indicating that in Mediterranean environment the duration of long term studies should be higher than five years and proper policy

  9. Breeding skylarks (Alauda arvensis) on organic and conventional arable farms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, S.; Trimbos, K.B.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of differences in cropping pattern between organic and conventional arable farms on the breeding activity of skylarks and to assess the effects of arable crop management on skylark nest survival. Skylark nest density was seven times higher on organic

  10. Comparison of selection efficiency for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under organic and conventional farming conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokare, Aina; Legzdina, Linda; Maliepaard, Chris; Niks, Rients E.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze whether selection under conventional conditions (indirect selection) is as effective as selection under organic conditions (direct selection) to develop varieties suitable for organic farming systems. Two F3 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations

  11. Economic and environmental evaluation of three goal-vision based scenarios for organic dairy farming in Denmark.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.; Sorensen, C.A.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the sustainability of future organic dairy farming systems in Denmark, by evaluating the economic and environmental consequences of three scenarios at the farm level based on different visions of future sustainability leading to different farm-based goals.

  12. FARM LABOR ORGANIZING 1905-1967, A BRIEF HISTORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOONI, LINDA LEWIS; AND OTHERS

    AGRICULTURAL LABORERS HAVE BEEN INEFFECTIVE IN ORGANIZING A LABOR UNION. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT WRITTEN IN 1935 ORIGINALLY HAD PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL LABORERS, BUT IT WAS DELETED BEFORE FINAL PASSAGE. EARLY ORGANIZING ATTEMPTS OCCURRED IN THE LATE YEARS OF THE 19TH CENTURY WHEN CHINESE IMMIGRANTS ORGANIZED PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATIONS…

  13. What can organic agriculture contribute to sustainable development? – Long-term comparisons of farming systems in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Zundel, Ch.; Kilcher, L.; Mäder, P.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the high demand for sound data on the agronomic, ecological and economic performance of organic agriculture in developing countries, systematic comparison of organic and conventional farming systems has not so far been carried out. The Research Institute of Organic Farming (FiBL), together with its partners, is presently establishing long-term comparisons of farming systems in various agro-ecological and agro-economic contexts to study the different parameters that are essential for s...

  14. Identifying sources of metal exposure in organic and conventional dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, M; Rey-Crespo, F; Herrero-Latorre, C; Miranda, M

    2017-10-01

    In humans the main route of exposure to toxic metals is through the diet, and there is therefore a clear need for this source of contamination to be minimized, particularly in food of animal origin. For this purpose, the various sources of toxic metals in livestock farming (which vary depending on the production system) must be taken into account. The objectives of the present study were to establish the profile of metal exposure in dairy cattle in Spain and to determine, by chemometric (multivariate statistical) analysis, any differences between organic and conventional systems. Blood samples from 522 cows (341 from organic farms and 181 from conventional farms) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of 14 elements: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. In conventional systems the generally high and balanced trace element concentrations in the mineral-supplemented concentrate feed strongly determined the metal status of the cattle. However, in organic systems, soil ingestion was an important contributing factor. Our results demonstrate that general information about the effects of mineral supplementation in conventional farming cannot be directly extrapolated to organic farming and special attention should be given to the contribution of ingestion of soil during grazing and/or ingestion of soil contaminated forage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of a commercial vacuum fly trap for controlling flies on organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, M J; Heins, B J; Moon, R D

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial vacuum fly trap (CowVac, Spalding Laboratories, Reno, NV) in on-farm organic dairy production systems to control horn flies, stable flies, and face flies. As cows walk through the trap, flies are brushed off the face, flank, and back with hanging flaps and blown off the belly, udder, and legs from one side, and then vacuumed from the air into a chamber from vacuum inlets opposite the blower and above the cow. The study included 8 organic dairy farms during the summer of 2015 in Minnesota, and herds ranged from 30 to 350 cows in size. The farms were divided into pairs by location; during the first period of the summer (June to July), the trap was set up on 1 farm, whereas during the second period of the summer (August to September) the trap was sent to its paired farm. Farms were visited once per week to collect and count flies from the trap as well as count and record flies on cows. Bulk tank milk, fat, and protein production and somatic cell count were collected on farms during the entire study period. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Independent variables for analyses were the fixed effects of farm, trap presence, housing scenario, and summer period. Horn fly numbers on cows were lower by 44% on farm in the presence of a trap (11.4 vs. 20.5 flies/cow-side) compared with the absence of a trap. Stable fly (5.4 vs. 7.1 flies/leg) and face fly (1.0 vs. 1.0 flies/cow) numbers were similar on farm whether the trap was present or absent on farms, respectively. Milk production was similar for farms with the trap (15.5 kg/d) compared to without (15.3 kg/d) the trap. Bulk tank milk, milk components, and somatic cell count were statistically similar in the presence and absence of the trap, so potential benefits of the trap for those measures were not evident at low fly populations observed during the study. The presence of a trap on farm

  16. Measuring the environmental effects of organic farming: A meta-analysis of structural variables in empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Song; Choe, Young Chan; Park, Sung Hee

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the structural variables affecting the environmental effects of organic farming compared to those of conventional farming. A meta-analysis based on 107 studies and 360 observations published from 1977 to 2012 compared energy efficiency (EE) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) for organic and conventional farming. The meta-analysis systematically analyzed the results of earlier comparative studies and used logistic regression to identify the structural variables that contributed to differences in the effects of organic and conventional farming on the environment. The statistical evidence identified characteristics that differentiated the environmental effects of organic and conventional farming, which is controversial. The results indicated that data sources, sample size and product type significantly affected EE, whereas product type, cropping pattern and measurement unit significantly affected the GHGE of organic farming compared to conventional farming. Superior effects of organic farming on the environment were more likely to appear for larger samples, primary data rather than secondary data, monocropping rather than multicropping, and crops other than fruits and vegetables. The environmental effects of organic farming were not affected by the study period, geographic location, farm size, cropping pattern, or measurement method. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Managing soil nutrients with compost in organic farms of East Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Soil Fertility management in organic farming relies on a long-term integrated approach rather than the more short-term very targeted solutions common in conventional agriculture. Increasing soil organic matter content through the addition of organic amendments has proven to be a valuable practice for maintaining or restoring soil quality. Organic agriculture relies greatly on building soil organic matter with compost typically replacing inorganic fertilizers and animal manure as the fertility source of choice. In Georgia, more and more attention is paid to the development of organic farming, occupying less than 1% of total agricultural land of the country. Due to increased interest towards organic production the question about soil amendments is arising with special focus on organic fertilizers as basic nutrient supply sources under organic management practice. In the frame of current research two different types of compost was prepared and their nutritional value was studied. The one was prepared from organic fraction municipal solid waste and another one using fruit processing residues. In addition to main nutritional properties both composts were tested on heavy metals content, as one of the main quality parameter. The results have shown that concentration of main nutrient is higher in municipal solid waste compost, but it contains also more heavy metals, which is not allowed in organic farming system. Fruit processing residue compost also has lower pH value and is lower in total salt content being is more acceptable for soil in lowlands of East Georgia, mainly characterised by alkaline reaction. .

  18. Relations between views of nature and practices in Danish organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Pernille

    1996-01-01

    research in organic farming: The organic farming in practice represents a variety of views of nature. So does scientific work, but especially the natural scientifical and agrotechnical sciences has no tradition for reflecting that kind of matters. If the scientific approaches do not try to make......The paper presents and discusses empirical results from my ph.d. study concerning environmental ethics as a concept of practice. The theoretical approach to the study of environmental ethics is not purely philosophical. It questions what guides professionals in action with nature (farmers....... These findings are related to the actual manuring strategies, diversity in crops and products and ways of treating the herd at the same farms. The empirical study is methodologically based on qualitative methods inspired by phenomenology, ethnography and narrativity.The outcome is four distinct groups of organic...

  19. Physical attributes of ultisol of Brazil's northeastern semiarid under organic farming of wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardenia R. Feitosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic farming of wine grapes under physical and chemical characteristics of Ultisol Brazil's northeastern semiarid region. The samples of soil were collected from the row and interrow of the farming and from the fallow area, at the depths of 0.0-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30 and 0.30-0.60 m. The samples were collected at six and twelve months after the culture implementation to evaluate the state of aggregation, bulk density and total soil porosity, flocculation index and organic matter contents, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. The results were submitted to statistical analysis. The adoption of organic farming contributed to the soil aggregation process. The bulk density and total soil porosity did not differ significantly between the evaluations, but were within the critical limits for sandy soils. The index flocculation did not have a great influence on the aggregates formation, being this process influenced by organic matter. The period of one year was considered short to obtain conclusive results in improving the soil quality by organic farming, since there are difficulties in tropical soils in promoting significant increases in organic matter content in short time.

  20. Physical attributes of Ultisol of Brazil's northeastern semiarid under organic farming of wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Jardenia R; Mendes, Alessandra M S; Olszevski, Nelci; Cunha, Tony J F; Cortez, Jorge W; Giongo, Vanderlise

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic farming of wine grapes under physical and chemical characteristics of Ultisol Brazil's northeastern semiarid region. The samples of soil were collected from the row and interrow of the farming and from the fallow area, at the depths of 0.0-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30 and 0.30-0.60 m. The samples were collected at six and twelve months after the culture implementation to evaluate the state of aggregation, bulk density and total soil porosity, flocculation index and organic matter contents, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. The results were submitted to statistical analysis. The adoption of organic farming contributed to the soil aggregation process. The bulk density and total soil porosity did not differ significantly between the evaluations, but were within the critical limits for sandy soils. The index flocculation did not have a great influence on the aggregates formation, being this process influenced by organic matter. The period of one year was considered short to obtain conclusive results in improving the soil quality by organic farming, since there are difficulties in tropical soils in promoting significant increases in organic matter content in short time.

  1. Animal breeding in organic farming:Discussion paper

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, Wytze; Baars, Nauta; Groen, Ab; Veerkamp, Roel; Roep, Dirk

    2001-01-01

    It is uncertain whether animals which have been bred for conventional production are capable of optimum performance in organic conditions. In conventional agriculture there is a movement towards maximum control of production conditions in order to optimise animals' yield in intensive production systems. By contrast, organic agriculture is based on natural processes and closed cycles, and takes into account the underlying connections between production factors. Following organic ideology, prod...

  2. Modified 3D time-of-flight camera for object separation in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Florian J.; Holtorf, Tim; Hussmann, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    An important step for the classification of plants in organic farming is the separation of the objects. In our approach a 3D camera will be used for this task. One problem is that most of the available 3D sensors are not suitable due to their bad resolution, low-speed and high costs. The Kinect II is an affordable alternative but designed for another workspace. In this paper it is shown why a 3D sensor is required for the separation of objects in organic farming and how the modification of a Kinect II 3D camera increases the range resolution to solve the given problem.

  3. Differences in soil quality between organic and conventional farming over a maize crop season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Veiga, Adelcia; Puga, João; Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Ferreira, António

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation in agricultural areas is a major concern. The large number of mechanical interventions and the amount of inputs used to assure high crop productivity, such as fertilizers and pesticides, have negative impacts on soil quality and threaten crop productivity and environmental sustainability. Organic farming is an alternative agriculture system, based on organic fertilizers, biological pest control and crop rotation, in order to mitigate soil degradation. Maize is the third most important cereal worldwide, with 2008 million tons produced in 2013 (IGN, 2016). In Portugal, 120000 ha of arable land is devoted to maize production, leading to annual yields of about 930000 ton (INE, 2015). This study investigates soil quality differences in maize farms under organic and conventional systems. The study was carried out in Coimbra Agrarian Technical School (ESAC), in central region of Portugal. ESAC campus comprises maize fields managed under conventional farming - Vagem Grande (32 ha), and organic fields - Caldeirão (12 ha), distancing 2.8 km. Vagem Grande has been intensively used for grain maize production for more than 20 years, whereas Caldeirão was converted to organic farming in 2008, and is being used to select regional maize varieties. The region has a Mediterranean climate. The maize fields have Eutric Fluvisols, with gentle slopes (20cm), using mustard solution.

  4. Is the Modern High Potential Dairy Cow Suitable for Organic Farming Conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harðarson Grétar H

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available It is not acceptable to compromise animal welfare in any system of farming. Feeding should be aimed at meeting the nutritional requirements at the various stages of production. This paper deals with the detrimental effects that organic, extensive or low input farming systems may have on the energy status in early lactation of the high potential dairy cow. Bovine ketosis is the most important disease resulting from insufficient energy intake in early lactation. It is also important to realize that ketosis is a part of the so-called periparturient disease complex, which includes milk fever, mastitis, retained placenta, endometritis and poor fertility also. All these diseases are interrelated and reflect to a large extent the nutritional status of the animal. If organic dairy farming is to be successful the breeding programmes have to divert from selection for high yields as a main goal, to more emphasis on a flatter lactation curve, less production diseases and longevity.

  5. Sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems in Tuscany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Vazzana, C.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic,

  6. Labour Quality Model for Organic Farming Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, B.; Freyer, B.; Leitner, H.

    2008-01-01

    The debate on labour quality in science is controversial as well as in the organic agriculture community. Therefore, we reviewed literature on different labour quality models and definitions, and had key informant interviews on labour quality issues with stakeholders in a regional oriented organic agriculture bread food chain. We developed a labour quality model with nine quality categories and discussed linkages to labour satisfaction, ethical values and IFOAM principles.

  7. Organic Farm Structure by Category of Agricultural Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Dora Orboi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on specific and precise standards of production, pursuing the achievement of optimal agro-systems, easy to sustain in terms of social, environmental and economic. Organic production systems plays a dual social role, because, on the one hand provides for a specific market that is responding to consumer demand for organic products, and on the other hand delivers public goods, contributing to environmental protection, animal welfare and rural development. The main goal of organic agriculture is to optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil, plants, animals and humans, providing new guidance of agricultural diversification in a general context of protecting the environment and promoting the development of sustainable agriculture. In 2013, the continent with the largest organic cultivated surface was Australia / Oceania, over 17.3 million, up to 5 million hectares compared to 2011, followed by Europe with 11.4 mil. Ha, Latin America - 6.6 million ha, Asia - 3.4 million ha North America - 3.0 million ha and Africa - 1.2 million ha of the 43.1 million total hectares grown in organic management system, almost two thirds are permanent pastures (27 million hectares, followed by agricultural land area totaling 10.9 million ha (arable land - 7.7 million ha permanent crops - 3.2 million ha.

  8. Reduced soil cultivation and organic fertilization on organic farms: effects on crop yield and soil physical traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surböck, Andreas; Gollner, Gabriele; Klik, Andreas; Freyer, Bernhard; Friedel, Jürgen K.

    2017-04-01

    A continuous investment in soil fertility is necessary to achieve sustainable yields in organic arable farming. Crucial factors here besides the crop rotation are organic fertilization and the soil tillage system. On this topic, an operational group (Project BIOBO*) was established in the frame of an European Innovation Partnership in 2016 consisting of organic farmers, consultants and scientists in the farming region of eastern Austria. The aim of this group is the development and testing of innovative, reduced soil cultivation, green manure and organic fertilization systems under on-farm and on-station conditions to facilitate the sharing and transfer of experience and knowledge within and outside the group. Possibilities for optimization of the farm-specific reduced soil tillage system in combination with green manuring are being studied in field trials on six organic farms. The aim is to determine, how these measures contribute to an increase in soil organic matter contents, yields and income, to an improved nitrogen and nutrient supply to the crops, as well as support soil fertility in general. Within a long-term monitoring project (MUBIL), the effects of different organic fertilization systems on plant and soil traits have been investigated since 2003, when the farm was converted to organic management. The examined organic fertilization systems, i.e. four treatments representing stockless and livestock keeping systems, differ in lucerne management and the supply of organic manure (communal compost, farmyard manure, digestate from a biogas plant). Previous results of this on-station experiment have shown an improvement of some soil properties, especially soil physical properties, since 2003 in all fertilization systems and without differences between them. The infiltration rate of rainwater has increased because of higher hydraulic conductivity. The aggregate stability has shown also positive trends, which reduces the susceptibility to soil erosion by wind and

  9. [Contamination of soil with geohelminth eggs on vegetable organic farms in the Lublin voivodeship, Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłapeć, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming, despite being more difficult and labour consuming than traditional farming, gains increasingly more followers among farmers. Currently in Poland there are approximately 10 000 organic farms. Pure, uncontaminated soil in the Lublin voivodeship makes this area an ideal location for organic agriculture production. In 2006-2007, 102 soil samples were examined from 40 organic farms specializing in vegetables and berries. Farms for the study were selected by ecology- and food-production specialists from the Lublin Agriculture Advisory Centre in Końskowola. The following plants were cultivated on the farms examined: berry-bearing plants, carrots, parsley, zucchini, cabbage, lettuce, cucumbers, cauliflowers, leeks, onions, kidney beans, beetroots, potatoes, pumpkins, broad beans, rhubarb and herbs. The presently reported parasitological survey was performed on 102 soil samples. Each sample consisted of 100 g of soil and the methodology followed that of the Polish Standard PN-Z-19000-4 (flotation method by Quinn et al.). The survey yielded eggs of parasites representing genera: Ascaris, Trichuris and Toxocara. Contamination with eggs of intestinal parasites was noted in 43 (42.16%) soil samples. Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 24 samples (55.81%). Eggs of Ascaris spp. were detected in 18 samples (41.86%) while eggs of Trichuris spp were present in one sample (2.32%). In total, 29 eggs of Toxocara spp., 19 eggs of Ascaris spp., and 1 egg of Trichuris spp. were found. The largest amount of soil for examination was taken across the plantations of berry-bearing plants - 57 samples. In the group examined, plantations of raspberries and strawberries dominated. The soil was contaminated with the eggs of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. No eggs of Trichuris spp. were detected. The presence of eggs of intestinal parasites in soil poses a threat of geohelminthoses to people who eat contaminated fresh fruits and vegetables.

  10. High-temporal resolution radiocarbon analyses of dissolved organic matter in soils from a mountainous and temperate ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Tessa Sophia; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; McIntyre, Cameron; Hagedorn, Frank; Eglinton, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    A better understanding of the stability and turnover of soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) is key in order to predict the behavior and response of this dynamic carbon pool to climate and land use change. Radiocarbon is increasingly used to determine carbon turnover in carbon cycle studies. However, due to the nature of radiocarbon measurement as well as complexity of in-situ DOM collection, little comprehensive radiocarbon and turnover data is currently available. This project combines a high-resolution temporal DOM sequence for a mountainous (podzol) and temperate (cambisol) forest ecosystem with additional bulk- and fraction-specific soil organic matter analyses. DOM was collected bi-weekly on two sites of the Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) program of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape research (WSL) at four depths, and measured for radiocarbon content. These initial results indicate bi-weekly variation in radiocarbon signatures over the summer season and a strong soil-type dependent pattern in DO14C trend. Overall, these initial radiocarbon results indicate that DOM dynamics are seasonally variable, and thus could potentially be sensitive to future climate change. Furthermore, the DO14C trend helps to better understand the trends as can be seen in the bulk 14C signature of the soil organic matter. Detailed radiocarbon investigations of soil DOM may yield key insights into the complex carbon transport dynamics in different soil systems and their potential behavior under climate change scenarios.

  11. Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in Pakistan Antinematicidal resistance has been rooted on all the continents particularly in areas where ovine and caprine are being reared intensively due to frequent annual use of broad-spectrum dewormers. Farmers rely on mono-strategic scheme by using synthetic drugs to treat their livestock which is deemed the easier way to control gastrointestinal nematode infections as compared to the other strategies. On the other hand, recurrent employment of antinematicidal chemotherapeutics has conduced to development and prevalence of resistance among nematode populations. In this regard, other advocating strategies such as grazing management, rotation of antinematicidal drugs (although it is too late), amelioration of animal immunity, genetic approaches, biological control, nutritional supplementation, avoidance of mass treatment, improvement of management, eradication of concurrent diseases, and phytotherapy should be considered too. Although, by far there are no commercialized substantial alternatives to chemotherapy, but the current substitutes could decrease the parasitic burden, which, in turn, restrict indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. The resistance is more rampant on organized farms as compared to non organized farms in rural areas in Asian, African and South Latin American countries because tamed animal raisers in those areas depend on ethnobotanicals to treat parasitism due to high cost of allopathic drugs. Therefore, in this review, the different strategies to control the antinematicidal resistance on organized farms in Pakistan will be elaborated. (author)

  12. Improvements in the life cycle approach as an environmental evaluation tool in organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antón, A.; Núñez, M.; Montero, J.I.; Muñoz, P.; Stanghellini, C.

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies objectively quantify environmental impact of organic farming practices. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool has proved to be an accurate, objective, and transparent tool to quantify many environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the LCA methodology,

  13. Controlling risks of pathogen transmission by flies on organic pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Vermeer, H.M.; Kijlstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fly prevention and control on animal production units is necessary to prevent the transmission of pathogens that could affect animal and human health and the maintenance of good hygiene. Organic farmers are often hesitant to apply insecticides for this purpose because of their farming philosophy.

  14. Analysing Profits and Economic Behaviour of Organic and Conventional Dutch arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Jensma, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a micro-econometric model to analyse differences in variable profits and economic behaviour between organic and conventional arable farms. Insight in factors underlying these differences is essential in designing policy measures that aim at encouraging the transition to a more

  15. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  16. Abundance of invertebrate prey for birds on organic and conventional arable farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, S.; Tamis, W.L.M.; Gentenaar, E.; Midcap Ramiro, S.M.; Poll, van der R.J.; Wang, J.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of agricultural intensification, populations of farmland birds have been in steep decline for several decades. Reduction in food abundance has been mentioned as one factor behind these declines. Extensive farm management, such as use of organic methods, is expected to provide more food

  17. A Critical Race and Class Analysis of Learning in the Organic Farming Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etmanski, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to add to a growing body of literature that critiques the whiteness of the organic farming movement and analyse potential ramifications of this if farmers are to be understood as educators. Given that farmers do not necessarily self-identify as educators, it is important to understand that in raising this critique,…

  18. Measures to support the development of organic farming in the EU and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roljević-Nikolić Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper work is analyzing the situation in the sector of organic agriculture, as well as system of support that this production provides in the European Union and Serbia. Organic farming shows a dynamic process of growth and development, especially in economically developed countries. In the past ten years, the area under organic production in the EU increased by 70%, the number of certified producers increased by 60%, while the total market value doubled. On the other hand, the growth and development of organic agriculture in Serbia is very slow. Currently, the area under organic production accounted for only 0.4% of total utilized agricultural area, while in this mode of food production certified 0.3% of the total number of farms. Intensive growth of organic farming in the EU provides a stable support both in terms of rate and financial resources, while in Serbia has been changed not only amount of support from year to year but also types of support. On this basis, it can be concluded that a stable government support is crucial for boosting growth and improving the sector of organic agriculture.

  19. I Have a Dream: Organic Movements Include Gene Manipulation to Improve Sustainable Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhart U. Ryffel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several papers in a Special Issue of Sustainability have recently discussed various aspects to evaluate whether organic farming and gene manipulation are compatible. A special emphasis was given to new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs. These new approaches allow the most predictable genetic alterations of crop plants in ways that the genetically modified plant is identical to a plant generated by conventional breeding. The articles of the Special Issue present the arguments pro and contra the inclusion of the plants generated by NPBTs in organic farming. Organic movements have not yet made a final decision whether some of these techniques should be accepted or banned. In my view these novel genetically manipulated (GM crops could be used in such a way as to respect the requirements for genetically manipulated organisms (GMOs formulated by the International Federation of Organic Movements (IFOAM. Reviewing the potential benefits of disease-resistant potatoes and bananas, it seems possible that these crops support organic farming. To this end, I propose specific requirements that the organic movements should proactively formulate as their standards to accept specific GM crops.

  20. Experiencing organic farms and food by regional tourism innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Sørensen, Søren; Bram Pedersen, Line Maria

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses strategies and findings from an explorative R&D project: a transition theory-inspired research and development effort to green the tourism trade by niche formation. The paper analyses part of this transition effort in mobilizing organic farmers to become involved as niche agen...

  1. Comparative evaluation of organic and conventional farming on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... Synthetic pesticides and fertilizers are used in the traditional fruit production, whereas the organic agricul ... were divided into peel and pulp fractions. For each independent analysis, at least 300 g of ..... conditions for enzymatic clarification of banana juice response surface methodology (RSM). J. Food Eng.

  2. Building Soil for Organic and Sustainable Farms: Where to start?

    OpenAIRE

    Morrone, V.; Snapp, S.

    2012-01-01

    This is a bulletin published by the Extension Bulletin for the purpose to provide general, background knowledge on soil properties, management, and conservation. They reccommend using organic and ecologically based managements that rely on biological processes. It provides definitions, processes, advice, and documents on how to monitor soil quality as part of a long-term management plan.

  3. Evaluation of fodder production systems for organic dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouted grains have gained renewed interest among organic dairy farmers in response to high grain prices, grain scarcity, limited supplementation options and challenges in producing high-quality forages. This interest has been spurred by high-profile sales pitches and farmer testimonials. Little sc...

  4. Temporal effects of organic and conventional farming systems on the chemical properties of vineyard

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Ulfet; Ongun, Ali Rıza; Sökmen, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    In this study, It is aim to compare the effects of chemical properties in organic and conventional vineyard farming system for 9 year long between 2000-2009.in Manisa,Salihli, in Aegean Region. The study was carried out in 5 replicates completely randomized design According to soil analysis results, certified fertilizer and green manure and ground pruned branches were applied as plant nutrition material in organic plots. On the other hand, 21% ammonium sulphate, 26% ammonium nitrate, 43% trip...

  5. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Yingrong Wen; Gerrit Schoups; Nick van de Giesen

    2017-01-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2)...

  6. Basal organic phosphorus mineralization in soils under different farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oehl, F.; Frossard, E.; Fliessbach, A.; Dubois, D.; Oberson, A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil organic P (Po) mineralization plays an important role in soil P cycling. Quantitative information on the release of available inorganic P (Pi) by this process is difficult to obtain because any mineralized Pi gets rapidly sorbed. We applied a new approach to quantify basal soil Po mineralization, based on 33PO4 isotopic dilution during 10 days of incubation, in soils differing in microbiological activity. The soils originated from a 20 years old field experiment, including a conventional...

  7. Uptake of allochthonous dissolved organic matter from soil and salmon in coastal temperate rainforest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Fellman; Eran Hood; Richard T. Edwards; Jeremy B. Jones

    2009-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important component of aquatic food webs. We compare the uptake kinetics for NH4-N and different fractions of DOM during soil and salmon leachate additions by evaluating the uptake of organic forms of carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), and proteinaceous DOM, as measured by parallel factor (PARAFAC) modeling of...

  8. Economic Sustainability of Organic Aloe Vera Farming in Greece under Risk and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Liontakis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, an encouraging environment for the restructuring and modernization of the agricultural sector has formed in Greece. The diversification into higher-value crops can be a promising option for small and average-sized farms, particularly during the current economic crisis. One of the most promising alternative crops that have been recently established in Greece is the organic Aloe vera crop. The main advantage of this crop is that it can utilize poor farmlands and, therefore, can facilitate rural development in marginal areas. This study explores the economic sustainability of the Aloe vera crop, considering the embedded risk and uncertainty. The results indicate that organic aloe farming is a promising alternative to “traditional” crops in Greece, particularly for family farms in rural areas. In contrast, this activity is not advisable to the most entrepreneurial type of farmers, unless their crop size allows economies of scales. Finally, the Stochastic Efficiency with Respect to a Function (SERF analysis associates farmers’ risk attitude with their willingness to be involved in organic Aloe vera farming. SERF analysis highlights the crucial role of farmers’ risk aversion and concludes that, above a certain level of risk aversion, farmers have no incentive to adopt this economic activity.

  9. Temper Tantrums

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whining and crying to screaming, kicking, hitting, and breath holding. They're equally common in boys and girls ... Child's Preschool Teacher Your Child's Habits Separation Anxiety Breath-Holding Spells Train Your Temper View more Partner Message ...

  10. Cattle management practices and milk production on mixed smallholder organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, S; Kabi, F; Vaarst, M

    2016-01-01

    A longitudinal study to assess animal management practices and milk production was conducted for a period of 12 months on 30 smallholder farms keeping dairy cattle and certified organic pineapple production in Luwero and Kayunga districts, based on questionnaire and on-farm collected data. Farm...... sizes were 9.3 ± 6.7 acres in tethering system and 4.3 ± 2.6 acres in zero-grazing. Fifty-four percent of the zero-grazing herds had animal housing facilities. All farmers in tethering system kept cows on earthen floors and calves without bedding. Hygiene level in existing farms was low. Majority...... of calves were fed once a day by restricted suckling (77 %). Seventy-four percent of tethered cows were only fed on natural grass, while cows under zero-grazing system had a more diversified diet but with 82 % feeding mainly Napier grass. Most farms (87 %) used bulls for breeding. Milk production was higher...

  11. Effects of crop rotation and soil tillage on weeds in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, Franz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An organic long-term field experiment with two factors has been carried out since 1998 at the experimental station Gladbacherhof, University of Giessen. Effects of 3 different farm types (with lifestock raising, stockless farming with rotational set-aside, stockless farming only cash crops combined with 4 tillage treatments (mouldboard plough, two-layer-plough, reduced tillage depth and tillage without plough on plants, soil and environment have been investigated. This article presents results on the coverage rate of arable wild plants (weed coverage, the range of weed species, the abundance of C. arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle and the weed phytomass during harvest time of the main crops dependent on farm type and soil tillage. It can be concluded that, compared to conventional economic weed thresholds, the weed coverage was generally relatively low and only limited ranges of species were found. Wild arable plants probably did not have any impact on yields of the cultivated plants due to intensive mechanical regulatory measures. In stockless organic farming without alfalfa-grass in the crop rotation Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle might become a problem whereas this perennial root-weed does not seem to raise a long term problem in a soil tillage system without ploughing. In all treatments the abundance of weeds like Galium aparine L. (catchweed bedstraw and Stellaria media L. (chickweed was high. However, none of the farm types or soil tillage systems succeeded in providing evidence of promoting rare species or encouraging biodiversity. In order to achieve this special support measures should be implemented.

  12. Helminth infections on organic dairy farms in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orjales, I.; Mezo, M.; Miranda, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the major helminth infections affecting organic dairy cattle in northern Spain. Milk and faecal samples were obtained from 443 milking cows. Ostertagia ostertargi and Fasciola hepatica exposure was assessed by detection of specific antibodies...... in milk samples and F. hepatica infection was diagnosed by the detection of coproantigens in faecal samples. Dictyocaulus viviparus and Calicophoron daubneyi infections were diagnosed by conventional coprological techniques. The prevalence of infections caused by F. hepatica was considerable low...... into account the administration of effective anthelmintics and the number of lactations. Treatment of cows with fasciolicides decreased the risk of F. hepatica infection in multiparous cows, whereas treatment with oxiclozanide or albendazol did not decrease the risk of C. daubneyi infection or O. ostertargi...

  13. Effects of organic versus conventional arable farming on soil structure and organic matter dynamics in a marine loam in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulleman, M.M.; Jongmans, A.G.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Bouma, J.

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of conventional and organic arable farming on soil organic matter (SOM) content, soil structure, aggregate stability and C and N mineralization, which are considered important factors in defining sustainable land management. Within one soil series, three different farming

  14. Comparing milk yield, chemical properties and somatic cell count from organic and conventional mountain farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of farming systems (organic vs. conventional, diet (hay/concentrate vs. pasture and their interaction on milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid (FA profile of dairy cows bred in mountainous areas. For this purpose four dairy farms (two organic and two conventional were chosen in the alpine territory of Aosta Valley (NW Italy; individual milk yield was recorded daily and bulk milk samples were collected monthly from February to September 2007 to cover dietary variations. Higher levels of milk production (P<0.05 and lower milk protein amounts (P<0.01 were observed in the organic farms with respect to the conventional ones, while no significant differences were noticed in milk fat and lactose contents and in somatic cell count. Concerning fatty acids, only small differences were detected between organic and conventional milk and such differences seemed to be related mainly to the stabled period. Diet affected almost all variables studied: pasture feeding provided a significant improvement in the fatty acid composition in both organic and conventional systems leading to lower hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid amounts (P<0.001.

  15. Feeding strategies on certified organic dairy farms in Wisconsin and their effect on milk production and income over feed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457 kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632 kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417 kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day

  16. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) export to a temperate estuary: Seasonal variations and implications of land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stedmon, C. A.; Markager, S.; Søndergaard, M.

    2006-01-01

    more natural areas the patterns observed were largely driven by seasonal temperature fluctuations. The material exported from agricultural areas was more variable and largely controlled by precipitation events. Positive exponential relationships were found between the nitrogen and phosphorus loading......, and the percentage of catchment area used for agriculture. Colored DOM (CDOM) loading measurements were found to be a good predictor of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loading across the different subcatchments, offering a rapid and inexpensive alternative of operationally monitoring DOC export. For all the dissolved...... nutrient inputs to the estuary, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved organic phosphorus dominated the loadings. Although 81% of the nitrogen annually supplied to the estuary was DIN, 83% of the nitrogen exported from the estuary was dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Results show that increasing...

  17. Farm Organization, Ownership and Food Productivity in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available African food production is in crisis. Today, despite Africa’s vast physical and climatic potentials to produce food, most African States depend on food importation. Africa’s capacity to deal with its food battles is severely constrained by its political instability, its early stage of scientific and institutional development, and a rapidly changing and complex global environment. In Nigeria and in most developing economies, there is a fundamental lack of political commitment to come grips with poverty, malnutrition and access to food. Because of these barriers, traditional economics is a rather limited tool to understand food production and other related variables. Poverty, hunger, malnutrition, famine and starvation in developing economies are just as much a function of political, macroeconomic, and institutional barriers as lack of technology. Illustrations from the agrarian chaos in Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad and others are too numerous to conclude otherwise. The aim of this paper is to determine and analyze economics incentives and strategies, which could stimulate commercial agriculture in Nigeria. The analysis is based on the premise that the form of production organization in Nigerian agriculture is the major constraint to commercialization. The paper concludes that output price subsidy is the over-riding factor in the commercialization of agriculture in Nigeria.

  18. Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Storage in Vegetable Farms Using Different Farming Practices in the Kanto Region of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Eri Matsuura; Masakazu Komatsuzaki; Rahmatullah Hashimi

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural fields can store substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon in the soil. In 2011, the Environmentally Friendly Farming Direct Payment Program (EFFDPP) began as a way to promote sustainable agriculture, but the approved methods for receiving the subsidy are limited to the use of manure and cover crops. For evaluating other options for the EFFDPP, we calculated soil carbon inputs and CO2 emissions in four nature farming (NF) systems for comparisons with conventional farming (CF) and...

  19. Bee interactions with wild flora around organic and conventional coffee farms in Kiambu district, central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary W. Gikungu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flower scarcity outside coffee flowering periods leads to a decline of pollinators’ abundance and diversity possibly through death or migration. The objective of this study was to assess whether other flowering plants within and around coffee farms act as alternative floral resources that may impact on abundance and diversity of pollinators of coffee flowers. Bee pollinators of coffee were assessed and identified for a period of 27 months. Their abundance and diversity were examined within and around organically and conventionally managed coffee farms in Kiambu District in Kenya. This study provides evidence that 42 plant species from 19 families were alternative floral resources for bees that pollinate coffee. Bee pollinators of coffee were observed to visit coffee flowers as well as other flowering plants close by. Significant relationship existed between plant species and bee species richness in the organic farming (R2=0.5918; P<0.0001 and in conventional farming (R2=0.6744; P<0.0001. Therefore in coffee monocultures, presence of other flowering plants should be encouraged to support bee pollinators when coffee is not flowering and to enhance abundance and diversity of bees visiting coffee flowers.

  20. A process-based emission model of volatile organic compounds from silage sources on farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, H. F.; Rotz, C. A.; Hafner, S. D.; Montes, F.; Cohen, M.; Mitloehner, F. M.

    2017-03-01

    Silage on dairy farms can emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a precursor in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Because of the challenges associated with direct measurements, process-based modeling is another approach for estimating emissions of air pollutants from sources such as those from dairy farms. A process-based model for predicting VOC emissions from silage was developed and incorporated into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM, v. 4.3), a whole-farm simulation of crop, dairy, and beef production systems. The performance of the IFSM silage VOC emission model was evaluated using ethanol and methanol emissions measured from conventional silage piles (CSP), silage bags (SB), total mixed rations (TMR), and loose corn silage (LCS) at a commercial dairy farm in central California. With transport coefficients for ethanol refined using experimental data from our previous studies, the model performed well in simulating ethanol emission from CSP, TMR, and LCS; its lower performance for SB could be attributed to possible changes in face conditions of SB after silage removal that are not represented in the current model. For methanol emission, lack of experimental data for refinement likely caused the underprediction for CSP and SB whereas the overprediction observed for TMR can be explained as uncertainty in measurements. Despite these limitations, the model is a valuable tool for comparing silage management options and evaluating their relative effects on the overall performance, economics, and environmental impacts of farm production. As a component of IFSM, the silage VOC emission model was used to simulate a representative dairy farm in central California. The simulation showed most silage VOC emissions were from feed lying in feed lanes and not from the exposed face of silage storages. This suggests that mitigation efforts, particularly in areas prone to ozone non-attainment status, should focus on reducing emissions during feeding. For

  1. Closing the natural cycles - using biowaste compost in organic farming in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Rogalski, Wojciech; Maurer, Ludwig; Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    One of the basic principles of organic farming - that organic management should fit the cycles and ecological balances in nature - is put into practice in Vienna on a large scale. In Vienna, compost produced from separately collected biowaste and greenwaste is used on more than 1000 ha of organic farmland. These municipally owned farms are managed organically, but are stockless, like the vast majority of farms in the region. The apparent need for a substitute for animal manure triggered the development of an innovative biowaste management. Together with the Municipal Department 48 responsible for waste management, which was keen for the reduction of residual waste, the Municipal Department 49 - Forestry Office and Urban Agriculture and Bio Forschung Austria developed Vienna's biowaste management model. Organic household wastes and greenwastes are source-separated by the urban population and collected in a closely monitored system to ensure high compost quality. A composting plant was constructed which today produces a total of 43000 t compost per year in a monitored open windrow process. The quality of the compost produced conforms to the EU regulation 834/2007. A large part of the compost is used as organic fertilizer on the organic farmland in Vienna, and the remainder is used in arable farming and in viticulture in the region around Vienna and for substrate production. Vienna`s biowaste management-model is operating successfully since the 1980s and has gained international recognition in form of the Best Practice-Award of the United Nations Development Programme. In order to assess the effects of biowaste compost fertilization on crop yield and on the environment, a field experiment was set up near Vienna in 1992, which is now one of the longest standing compost experiments in Europe. The results showed, that the yields increased for 7 - 10 % with compost fertilization compared to the unfertilized control and the nitrogen recovery by crops was between 4 and 6

  2. Leaf litter and roots as sources of mineral soil organic matter in temperate deciduous forest with and without earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, T.; Yavitt, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    We labeled sugar maple trees with 13C to quantify the separate contributions of decaying leaf litter and root turnover/rhizosphere C flux to mineral soil organic matter (SOM). Labeled leaf litter was applied to forest plots with and without earthworms and recovery of the label in SOM was quantified over three years. In parallel, label recovery was quantified in soils from the labeling chambers where all label was supplied by belowground C flux. In the absence of earthworms about half of the label added as leaf litter remained in the surface organic horizons after three years, with about 3% recovered in mineral SOM. The label was most enriched on silt + clay surfaces, representing precipitation of DOC derived from litter. Earthworms mixed nearly all the leaf litter into mineral soil within one year, and after two years the label was most enriched in particulate organic matter held within soil aggregates produced by worms. After three years 15-20% of the added label was recovered in mineral SOM. In the labeling chambers over 75% of belowground C allocation (BCA) was used in root and rhizosphere respiration in the first year after labeling. We recovered only 3.8% of estimated BCA in SOM after 3 years; however, expressed as a proportion of fine root production plus rhizosphere C flux, this value is 15.4%, comparable to that for leaf litter in the presence of earthworms. In conclusion, both roots and leaf litter contribute significantly to the formation of stabilized mineral SOM in temperate deciduous forests, and this process is profoundly altered by the invasion of lumbricid earthworms.

  3. The value of woody hedgerows for moth diversity on organic and conventional farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, C; Baril, A; McCabe, S K; Martin, P A; Guy, M

    2011-06-01

    Habitat destruction and degradation are important drivers of biodiversity loss within agro-ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of farming practices and the value of woody hedgerows on Lepidoptera in North America. The purpose of this work was to study moth diversity in woody hedgerows and croplands of organic and conventional farms. In addition, the influence of vegetation composition and abiotic variables on species richness, abundance, and composition was examined. Moths were sampled with light traps during six weeks in the summer of 2001. Vegetation data and abiotic variables were obtained for all sites. In total, 26,020 individuals from 12 families and 408 species were captured. Most species were uncommon. Only 35 species included >100 individuals while for 71% of species hedgerows harbored more species and in greater number than croplands. There was no significant difference in moth diversity between organic and conventional farms, except that the Notodontidae were significantly more species rich in organic than in conventional sites. Results show that species richness, abundance, and composition were greatly influenced by habitat types (hedgerow versus crop field) and abiotic variables (minimum temperature which was correlated to moon illumination, rainfall, and cloud cover). Moth species composition was significantly correlated to vegetation composition. This study broadens our understanding of the factors driving moth diversity and expands our knowledge of their geographic range. The maintenance of noncrop habitats such as woody hedgerows within agro-ecosystems seems paramount to preserving the biodiversity and abundance of many organisms, including moths.

  4. Rapid mineralization of biogenic volatile organic compounds in temperate and Arctic soils

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, Christian Nyrop; Kramshøj, Magnus; Rinnan, Riikka

    2018-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced by all life forms. Their release into the atmosphere is important with regards to a number of physical and chemical processes and great effort has been put into determining sources and sinks of these compounds in recent years. Soil microbes as a possible sink for BVOCs in the atmosphere has been suggested, however, experimental evidence for this sink is scarce despite its potentially high importance to both carbon cycling and atmospheri...

  5. Chronic consumption of farmed salmon containing persistent organic pollutants causes insulin resistance and obesity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Madani Ibrahim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary interventions are critical in the prevention of metabolic diseases. Yet, the effects of fatty fish consumption on type 2 diabetes remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a diet containing farmed salmon prevents or contributes to insulin resistance in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were fed control diet (C, a very high-fat diet without or with farmed Atlantic salmon fillet (VHF and VHF/S, respectively, and Western diet without or with farmed Atlantic salmon fillet (WD and WD/S, respectively. Other mice were fed VHF containing farmed salmon fillet with reduced concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (VHF/S(-POPs. We assessed body weight gain, fat mass, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, ex vivo muscle glucose uptake, performed histology and immunohistochemistry analysis, and investigated gene and protein expression. In comparison with animals fed VHF and WD, consumption of both VHF/S and WD/S exaggerated insulin resistance, visceral obesity, and glucose intolerance. In addition, the ability of insulin to stimulate Akt phosphorylation and muscle glucose uptake was impaired in mice fed farmed salmon. Relative to VHF/S-fed mice, animals fed VHF/S(-POPs had less body burdens of POPs, accumulated less visceral fat, and had reduced mRNA levels of TNFα as well as macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue. VHF/S(-POPs-fed mice further exhibited better insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance than mice fed VHF/S. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that intake of farmed salmon fillet contributes to several metabolic disorders linked to type 2 diabetes and obesity, and suggest a role of POPs in these deleterious effects. Overall, these findings may participate to improve nutritional strategies for the prevention and therapy of insulin resistance.

  6. Isotopic discrimination as a tool for organic farming certification in sweet pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Amor, Francisco M; Navarro, Joaquín; Aparicio, Pedro M

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming is a form of agriculture that excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and genetically modified organisms. These fertilizers have been traditionally overused in conventional farming to avoid lost revenue, but this often not does not take into account the potential contamination of aquifers and river due to nitrate leaching. Transition to organic farming practices could provide an instrument to reduce contamination and increase potential income. It is difficult to determine to what extent those fertilizers could have been used within a complete traceability of the production process. In this experiment, we evaluated the use of (15)N/(14)N isotopic discrimination in sweet pepper plants to test the hypothesis that synthetic fertilizers significantly reduce (15)N/(14)N compared with exclusively organic practices. Therefore, three common types of organic manures (sheep, hen, or horse) were applied at a rate of 8 kg m(-2) with or without synthetic fertilizer amendments under fully controlled environmental and irrigation conditions. Results indicate that (i) use of synthetic fertilizers significantly reduced (15/14)N(2)vsN(2)atm compared with treatments that only received water; (ii) with respect to the plant organs, old leaves and fruits were more sensitive to the synthetic fertilizer additions with reductions in (15/14)N(2)vsN(2)atm of 24.1 and 27.8%, respectively; and (iii) independently of the organic manure used, no additional fertilization (synthetic or organic) is required before 106 days after transplanting at that dosage because plant fresh weight was not reduced.

  7. Tackling pollution by organic farming is capable of increasing fortified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Aviñó, J P; Navarro, J J Fernández; Castro, V Vargas; Ripoll, I Ilzarbe; Sahuquillo, M J Márquez

    2016-01-01

    The global pollution stage is poisoning the biosphere and causing global temperatures to rise, necessitating a drastic change in the way man is dealing with nature. One change that may produce many beneficial effects on the biosphere and human health is the use of specific organic farming to produce food in a more integrated way in nature and to increase the capacity of man's own response. Despite many experts' opinion another way to deal with environmental contamination is possible: organic farming, which can increase man's ability to fortify foods. After more than 20 years working under this discipline, Bodegas Dagon is able to achieve the highest stilbenes concentrations (as resveratrol). Versus 14.3 mg/l, "Bodegas Dagón" wines contain resveratrol (HPLC and UV-spectroscopy) up to 1611.73 ± 72.66 mg/l, standing as world's potentially healthiest wine reported to date.

  8. Distinct soil microbial diversity under long-term organic and conventional farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Martin; Frey, Beat; Mayer, Jochen; Mäder, Paul; Widmer, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Low-input agricultural systems aim at reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in order to improve sustainable production and ecosystem health. Despite the integral role of the soil microbiome in agricultural production, we still have a limited understanding of the complex response of microbial diversity to organic and conventional farming. Here we report on the structural response of the soil microbiome to more than two decades of different agricultural management in a long-term field experiment using a high-throughput pyrosequencing approach of bacterial and fungal ribosomal markers. Organic farming increased richness, decreased evenness, reduced dispersion and shifted the structure of the soil microbiota when compared with conventionally managed soils under exclusively mineral fertilization. This effect was largely attributed to the use and quality of organic fertilizers, as differences became smaller when conventionally managed soils under an integrated fertilization scheme were examined. The impact of the plant protection regime, characterized by moderate and targeted application of pesticides, was of subordinate importance. Systems not receiving manure harboured a dispersed and functionally versatile community characterized by presumably oligotrophic organisms adapted to nutrient-limited environments. Systems receiving organic fertilizer were characterized by specific microbial guilds known to be involved in degradation of complex organic compounds such as manure and compost. The throughput and resolution of the sequencing approach permitted to detect specific structural shifts at the level of individual microbial taxa that harbours a novel potential for managing the soil environment by means of promoting beneficial and suppressing detrimental organisms. PMID:25350160

  9. Distinct soil microbial diversity under long-term organic and conventional farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Martin; Frey, Beat; Mayer, Jochen; Mäder, Paul; Widmer, Franco

    2015-05-01

    Low-input agricultural systems aim at reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in order to improve sustainable production and ecosystem health. Despite the integral role of the soil microbiome in agricultural production, we still have a limited understanding of the complex response of microbial diversity to organic and conventional farming. Here we report on the structural response of the soil microbiome to more than two decades of different agricultural management in a long-term field experiment using a high-throughput pyrosequencing approach of bacterial and fungal ribosomal markers. Organic farming increased richness, decreased evenness, reduced dispersion and shifted the structure of the soil microbiota when compared with conventionally managed soils under exclusively mineral fertilization. This effect was largely attributed to the use and quality of organic fertilizers, as differences became smaller when conventionally managed soils under an integrated fertilization scheme were examined. The impact of the plant protection regime, characterized by moderate and targeted application of pesticides, was of subordinate importance. Systems not receiving manure harboured a dispersed and functionally versatile community characterized by presumably oligotrophic organisms adapted to nutrient-limited environments. Systems receiving organic fertilizer were characterized by specific microbial guilds known to be involved in degradation of complex organic compounds such as manure and compost. The throughput and resolution of the sequencing approach permitted to detect specific structural shifts at the level of individual microbial taxa that harbours a novel potential for managing the soil environment by means of promoting beneficial and suppressing detrimental organisms.

  10. Organic Farming and Small-Scale Farmers: Main Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jouzi, Zeynab; Azadi, Hossein; Taheri, Fatemeh; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya; Van Passel, Steven; Lebailly, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Producing enough food to meet the needs of a growing population has always been the greatest concern of food policy-makers around the world. Given the increasing attention to organic farming (OF), we conducted this study to investigate the main opportunities and challenges of the food production system of small-scale farmers in developing countries with an emphasis on their livelihoods. The study showed that the most significant advantages of OF are environmental protection and a higher resil...

  11. Assessment of tillage systems in organic farming: influence of soil structure on microbial biomass. First results

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Jean François; Peigné, Joséphine; Chaussod, Rémi; Roger-Estrade, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Soil tillage modifies environmental conditions of soil microorganisms and their ability to release nitrogen. We compare the influence of reduced tillage (RT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP) on the soil microbial functioning in organic farming. In order to connect soil structure generated by these tillage systems on the soil microbial biomass we adopt a particular sampling scheme based on the morphological characterisation of the soil structure by the description of the soil profile. This method...

  12. Mixed effects of organic farming and landscape compexity on farmland biodiversity and biological control potential across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winqvist, C.; Bengtsson, J.; Aavik, T.; Berendse, F.; Clement, L.W.; Eggers, S.; Fischer, C.; Flohre, A.; Geiger, F.; Liira, J.

    2011-01-01

    1. Organic farming in Europe has been shown to enhance biodiversity locally, but potential interactions with the surrounding landscape and the potential effects on ecosystem services are less well known. 2. In cereal fields on 153 farms in five European regions, we examined how the species richness

  13. Organic farming enhances soil microbial abundance and activity—A meta-analysis and meta-Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lori, Martina; Symnaczik, Sarah; Mäder, Paul; Deyn, De Gerlinde; Gattinger, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and climate change challenge our food and farming systems and provide arguments for an increased intensification of agriculture. A promising option is eco-functional intensification through organic farming, an approach based on using and enhancing internal natural resources and

  14. Soil, crop and emission responses to seasonal-controlled traffic in organic vegetable farming on loam soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2009-01-01

    Some organic arable and vegetable farms in the Netherlands use cm-precise guidance of machinery to restrict wheel traffic to fixed traffic lanes and to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimized soil structure in between the lanes. Contrary to controlled traffic farming (CTF) the traffic

  15. Effect of crop rotation on soil nutrient balance and weediness in soddy podzolic organic farming fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarina, Livija; Zarina, Liga

    2017-04-01

    The nutrient balance in different crop rotations under organic cropping system has been investigated in Latvia at the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics since 2006. Latvia is located in a humid and moderate climatic region where the rainfall exceeds evaporation (soil moisture coefficient > 1) and the soil moisture regime is characteristic with percolation. The average annual precipitation is 670-850 mm. The average temperature varies from -6.7° C in January to 16.5 °C in July. The growing season is 175 - 185 days. The most widespread are podzolic soils and mainly they are present in agricultural fields in all regions of Latvia. In a wider sense the goal of the soil management in organic farming is a creation of the biologically active flora and fauna in the soil by maintaining a high level of soil organic matter which is good for crops nutrient balance. Crop rotation is a central component of organic farming systems and has many benefits, including growth of soil microbial activity, which may increase nutrient availability. The aim of the present study was to calculate nutrient balance for each crop in the rotations and average in each rotation. Taking into account that crop rotations can limit build-up of weeds, additionally within the ERA-net CORE Organic Plus transnational programs supported project PRODIVA the information required for a better utilization of crop diversification for weed management in North European organic arable cropping systems was summarized. It was found that the nutrient balance was influenced by nutrients uptake by biomass of growing crops in crop rotation. The number of weeds in the organic farming fields with crop rotation is dependent on the cultivated crops and the succession of crops in the crop rotation.

  16. Forage management to improve on-farm feed production, nitrogen fluxes and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy systems in a wet temperate region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, J; Villar, A.; Moros, R

    2018-01-01

    and heifers, diet, milk yield and slurry management. The model was applied to simulate carbon (C) and N fluxes at the farm level, and to calculate feed balances, GHG emissions and the N surplus. Farms were simulated under current forage management (baseline) and under scenarios of enhanced forage production....... Milk yield, the balance between forage production and consumption in the animal diet, and between manure generation and application in the field, were used as reference for accepting model simulations. The results from the scenarios indicate that increasing forage productivity, not only reduces...... the external dependence for feeding animals, but also would have a clear potential for mitigating yield-scaled farm GHG emissions. However, this potential appears to have a limit when N surplus exceeds a threshold value. Rotational grassclover would have additional benefits in terms of reduced N fertilizer...

  17. Dynamics of mammary infections in organic dairy farms in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Villar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate the microbiological state and the dynamics of the mammary infections of organic farms in North Spain to discover if the high somatic cell count (SCC observed in these farms is associated to a high incidence of mastitis. Microbiological cultures and SCC were performed in 8,496 foremilk samples collected from 160 cows in five representative organic farms from February 2006 to January 2008. Even though 79.3% of cultures were positive, only 21.2% of the total fit our diagnosis of mastitis (clinical, subclinical and chronic. The great prevalence of Corynebacterium bovis (teat canal-region pathogen in the positive cultures that did not fit the mastitis diagnosis criteria (nearly 70% compared with those that did (27% was found to be related to lack of post-milking teat disinfection. The study prevalence of mastitis was 69.2% (66.7% subclinical mastitis, 27.8% clinical mastitis; the mean monthly prevalence was 47.4%; the mean monthly incidence was 12.9% and the mean duration of infection was 3.84 ± 3.98 months The high SCC in foremilk samples from old cows (three or more lactations not diagnosed as mastitis compared to the heifers, reflects a worsening health status of the animals over time. When compared with the conventional sector in Northern Spain, these parameters indicate a poorer udder health in the studied organic herds with a high presence of chronic subclinical processes.

  18. Breeding for Improved Disease Resistance in Organic Farming – Possibilities and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Ulf

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Lowered incidences of disease may be reached in several ways: management and rearing measures, vaccination programmes and preventive medications as well as breeding for improved disease resistance. Here the focus is on breeding for improved resistance to infectious diseases. In comparison to conventional farming, one has to acknowledge that the spectrum of diseases in animals reared under organic conditions is different and that the proportion of the breeding stock of animals in organic farming is considerably smaller. There are at least four different approaches that may be used in breeding towards resistance to infectious diseases. The most obvious is to record disease incidence in the progeny and select those parents that produce the progeny with the lowest incidences of disease. Another approach is to use breeders possessing certain major histo-compatibility complex antigens suggested being associated with resistance to certain infections. A third approach is to analyse the heritability of a set of immune functions or related traits crucial for resistance to infections and then use the traits with high heritability in breeding programmes. Finally, one may genetically select animals for high immune response using an index that combines estimated breeding values for several immunological traits. Examples of these various approaches are given and the feasibility for using these in organic farming are discussed.

  19. Dynamics of mammary infections in organic dairy farms in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, A.; Gradillas, G.; Fernandez-Ruiz, C.; Rodriguez-Bermudez, R.; Lopez-Alonso, M.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the microbiological state and the dynamics of the mammary infections of organic farms in North Spain to discover if the high somatic cell count (SCC) observed in these farms is associated to a high incidence of mastitis. Microbiological cultures and SCC were performed in 8,496 foremilk samples collected from 160 cows in five representative organic farms from February 2006 to January 2008. Even though 79.3% of cultures were positive, only 21.2% of the total fit our diagnosis of mastitis (clinical, subclinical and chronic). The great prevalence of Corynebacterium bovis (teat canal-region pathogen) in the positive cultures that did not fit the mastitis diagnosis criteria (nearly 70%) compared with those that did (27%) was found to be related to lack of post-milking teat disinfection. The study prevalence of mastitis was 69.2% (66.7% subclinical mastitis, 27.8% clinical mastitis); the mean monthly prevalence was 47.4%; the mean monthly incidence was 12.9% and the mean duration of infection was 3.84 ± 3.98 months The high SCC in foremilk samples from old cows (three or more lactations) not diagnosed as mastitis compared to the heifers, reflects a worsening health status of the animals over time. When compared with the conventional sector in Northern Spain, these parameters indicate a poorer udder health in the studied organic herds with a high presence of chronic subclinical processes. (Author)

  20. Organic farming enhances soil microbial abundance and activity-A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Martina; Symnaczik, Sarah; Mäder, Paul; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Gattinger, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and climate change challenge our food and farming systems and provide arguments for an increased intensification of agriculture. A promising option is eco-functional intensification through organic farming, an approach based on using and enhancing internal natural resources and processes to secure and improve agricultural productivity, while minimizing negative environmental impacts. In this concept an active soil microbiota plays an important role for various soil based ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, erosion control and pest and disease regulation. Several studies have reported a positive effect of organic farming on soil health and quality including microbial community traits. However, so far no systematic quantification of whether organic farming systems comprise larger and more active soil microbial communities compared to conventional farming systems was performed on a global scale. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis on current literature to quantify possible differences in key indicators for soil microbial abundance and activity in organic and conventional cropping systems. All together we integrated data from 56 mainly peer-reviewed papers into our analysis, including 149 pairwise comparisons originating from different climatic zones and experimental duration ranging from 3 to more than 100 years. Overall, we found that organic systems had 32% to 84% greater microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, total phospholipid fatty-acids, and dehydrogenase, urease and protease activities than conventional systems. Exclusively the metabolic quotient as an indicator for stresses on microbial communities remained unaffected by the farming systems. Categorical subgroup analysis revealed that crop rotation, the inclusion of legumes in the crop rotation and organic inputs are important farming practices affecting soil microbial community size and activity. Furthermore, we show that differences in microbial size and activity

  1. Characteristics of organic pig farms in selected European countries and their possible influence on litter size and piglet mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunier, Armelle; Dippel, Sabine; Bochicchio, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Better knowledge of piglet losses around birth and during lactation, and the role of litter size, housing and management characteristics, should help to identify critical points and hence to improve the situation in organic pig farms. For this purpose, a project was initiated in five EU countries...... collecting interview data, measures of animal and housing characteristics and production records. This paper presents results regarding production characteristics from 82 herds. Among them, 42 farms were included in an analysis based on the production records. Based on sows’ housing system during the first 2...... characteristics were used after binary transformation when necessary. Three types of indoor farms and two types of outdoor farms were identified. Regarding litter size at birth and weaning, there was no clear difference between all types of indoor farms and one type of outdoor farms, whereas the second type...

  2. Retrogressive thaw slumps temper dissolved organic carbon delivery to streams of the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, Cara A.; Tank, Suzanne E.; Kokelj, Steven V.

    2017-12-01

    In Siberia and Alaska, permafrost thaw has been associated with significant increases in the delivery of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to recipient stream ecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs) on DOC concentration and transport, using data from eight RTS features on the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada. Like extensive regions of northwestern Canada, the Peel Plateau is comprised of thick, ice-rich tills that were deposited at the margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. RTS features are now widespread in this region, with headwall exposures up to 30 m high and total disturbed areas often exceeding 20 ha. We find that intensive slumping on the Peel Plateau is universally associated with decreasing DOC concentrations downstream of slumps, even though the composition of slump-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM; assessed using specific UV absorbance and slope ratios) is similar to permafrost-derived DOM from other regions. Comparisons of upstream and downstream DOC flux relative to fluxes of total suspended solids suggest that the substantial fine-grained sediments released by RTS features may sequester DOC. Runoff obtained directly from slump rill water, above entry into recipient streams, indicates that the deepest RTS features, which thaw the greatest extent of buried, Pleistocene-aged glacial tills, release low-concentration DOC when compared to paired upstream, undisturbed locations, while shallower features, with exposures that are more limited to a relict Holocene active layer, have within-slump DOC concentrations more similar to upstream sites. Finally, fine-scale work at a single RTS site indicates that temperature and precipitation serve as primary environmental controls on above-slump and below-slump DOC flux, but it also shows that the relationship between climatic parameters and DOC flux is complex for these dynamic thermokarst features. These results demonstrate that we should expect clear variation in thermokarst

  3. Retrogressive thaw slumps temper dissolved organic carbon delivery to streams of the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Littlefair

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Siberia and Alaska, permafrost thaw has been associated with significant increases in the delivery of dissolved organic carbon (DOC to recipient stream ecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs on DOC concentration and transport, using data from eight RTS features on the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada. Like extensive regions of northwestern Canada, the Peel Plateau is comprised of thick, ice-rich tills that were deposited at the margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. RTS features are now widespread in this region, with headwall exposures up to 30 m high and total disturbed areas often exceeding 20 ha. We find that intensive slumping on the Peel Plateau is universally associated with decreasing DOC concentrations downstream of slumps, even though the composition of slump-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM; assessed using specific UV absorbance and slope ratios is similar to permafrost-derived DOM from other regions. Comparisons of upstream and downstream DOC flux relative to fluxes of total suspended solids suggest that the substantial fine-grained sediments released by RTS features may sequester DOC. Runoff obtained directly from slump rill water, above entry into recipient streams, indicates that the deepest RTS features, which thaw the greatest extent of buried, Pleistocene-aged glacial tills, release low-concentration DOC when compared to paired upstream, undisturbed locations, while shallower features, with exposures that are more limited to a relict Holocene active layer, have within-slump DOC concentrations more similar to upstream sites. Finally, fine-scale work at a single RTS site indicates that temperature and precipitation serve as primary environmental controls on above-slump and below-slump DOC flux, but it also shows that the relationship between climatic parameters and DOC flux is complex for these dynamic thermokarst features. These results demonstrate that we should expect clear variation in

  4. How organic farming of wheat may affect the sourdough and the nutritional and technological features of leavened baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontonio, Erica; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Dousset, Xavier; Clément, Héliciane; Filannino, Pasquale; Onno, Bernard; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-19

    Organic farming is gaining broad recognition as a system that complies well with sustainability, an overarching principle that should drive agriculture now and in the coming year. Different cultivars and products can harbour different abundances of specific bacterial groups, farming system may influence the composition and abundances of microbial communities found on food product. Despite the growing interest towards organic foods, we still have a limited understanding of the diversity of food-associated microbial communities and the factors that influence the composition of these communities. Consumers in developed nations are commonly exposed to differences in farming practices through their choice between organic and conventionally farmed foods. Organic farming practices can differ from conventional farming practices in a variety of ways, including the types of fertilizer and pesticides that are used. This review aiming to gather current knowledge on chemical, technological, toxicological and functional properties and microbiota composition of wheat flours originating from organic and conventional farming systems and how the use of these may affect the sourdough fermentation and breadmaking. Sourdough fermentation is the most natural and best-performing process to ensure optimal sensory and functional characteristics. It fits perfectly into the processing chain that starts with the organic farming, especially for old wheat varieties with weaker technological properties. Recently, organic and sourdough microbiota diversity was investigated and in some case a comparison between organic and conventional microbial ecosystem was also carried out. Opposites evidences arise. Once a higher diversity of lactic acid bacteria species was found in conventional wheat sourdoughs, while when the diversity of Firmicutes was investigated, organic sourdoughs showed the highest complexity. When occurring, the differences between conventional and organic sourdough microbiota and

  5. Factors controlling soil organic carbon stability along a temperate forest altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qiuxiang; He, Hongbo; Cheng, Weixin; Bai, Zhen; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stability may alter carbon release from the soil and, consequently, atmospheric CO2 concentration. The mean annual temperature (MAT) can change the soil physico-chemical characteristics and alter the quality and quantity of litter input into the soil that regulate SOC stability. However, the relationship between climate and SOC stability remains unclear. A 500-day incubation experiment was carried out on soils from an 11 °C-gradient mountainous system on Changbai Mountain in northeast China. Soil respiration during the incubation fitted well to a three-pool (labile, intermediate and stable) SOC decomposition model. A correlation analysis revealed that the MAT only influenced the labile carbon pool size and not the SOC stability. The intermediate carbon pool contributed dominantly to cumulative carbon release. The size of the intermediate pool was strongly related to the percentage of sand particle. The decomposition rate of the intermediate pool was negatively related to soil nitrogen availability. Because both soil texture and nitrogen availability are temperature independent, the stability of SOC was not associated with the MAT, but was heavily influenced by the intrinsic processes of SOC formation and the nutrient status. PMID:26733344

  6. Impacts of beaver ponds on dissolved organic matter cycling in small temperate streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J.; Lambert, T.; Larsen, A.; Lane, S.

    2017-12-01

    Beavers are engineers that modify the structure of river reaches and their hydrological functioning. By building dams, they modify the travel time of running waters and can lead to the flooding of surrounding soils and terrestrial vegetation, with potentially significant impact on biogeochemical cycles. Contradictory effects of beaver ponds on dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration and composition have however been reported, and the underlying reasons are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the landscape morphology as an important driver determining how a beaver population can affect stream DOM cycling. Four streams localized in Switzerland and Germany were visited during different seasons (spring, summer, winter) and monitored at upstream and downstream locations of beaver ponds across a hydrological cycle. The sites differed in terms of river channel morphology, presence or absence of floodplain, and vegetation cover. DOM composition was investigated through absorbance and fluorescence measurements coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) along with stream water quality (nutrients, pH, dissolved oxygen and water temperature). The results show that the effects of beaver dams were variable, and emphasizes the importance of the geomorphological context.

  7. No Clear Differences between Organic or Conventional Pig Farms in the Genetic Diversity or Virulence of Campylobacter coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Denis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of pig farm management on the genetic diversity and on the virulence of Campylobacter coli, we characterized isolates from 19 organic pig farms (62 isolates and from 24 conventional pig farms (58 isolates. The 120 C. coli isolates were typed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST and the presence of nine virulence genes was screened using real-time PCR. The capacity of adhesion and invasion of 61 isolates (32 from organic and 29 from conventional farms were then tested on human intestinal Caco-2 cells. A total of 59 PFGE types and of 50 sequence types (STs were identified. Twelve PFGE types and nine STs, accounting for 34 and 41.6% of the isolates, respectively, were common between the two production systems with ST854 dominating (18.3% of the isolates. Twenty-nine PFGE types and 25 STs were only found in isolates from organic farms, and 18 PFGE types and 16 STs from conventional farms. No significant differences were found in diversity despite the differences in rearing systems, except at the locus level for the glnA, gltA, and uncA genes. All isolates, regardless of their origin, carried the ceuE, iam, ciaB, and flaA genes and more than 95% of the isolates carried the cadF and cdtABC genes. No significant differences were found in pathogenicity between the two farming systems. The pathogenicity of the C. coli isolates was low compared to C. jejuni control strains tested. The plasmid gene virb11 was detected in only 13 isolates from organic farms; these isolates showed greater invasion capacity than those without this gene. Our study indicates that pig farm management does not significantly affect the diversity and the virulence of Campylobacter coli isolated from pigs. The common genotypes between conventional and organic farms may indicate that some genotypes are adapted to pigs.

  8. Living roots magnify the response of soil organic carbon decomposition to temperature in temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul W; Garnett, Mark H; Farrar, John; Iqbal, Zafar; Khalid, Muhammad; Soleman, Nawaf; Jones, Davey L

    2015-03-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration is both a strong driver of primary productivity and widely believed to be the principal cause of recent increases in global temperature. Soils are the largest store of the world's terrestrial C. Consequently, many investigations have attempted to mechanistically understand how microbial mineralisation of soil organic carbon (SOC) to CO2 will be affected by projected increases in temperature. Most have attempted this in the absence of plants as the flux of CO2 from root and rhizomicrobial respiration in intact plant-soil systems confounds interpretation of measurements. We compared the effect of a small increase in temperature on respiration from soils without recent plant C with the effect on intact grass swards. We found that for 48 weeks, before acclimation occurred, an experimental 3 °C increase in sward temperature gave rise to a 50% increase in below ground respiration (ca. 0.4 kg C m(-2) ; Q10  = 3.5), whereas mineralisation of older SOC without plants increased with a Q10 of only 1.7 when subject to increases in ambient soil temperature. Subsequent (14) C dating of respired CO2 indicated that the presence of plants in swards more than doubled the effect of warming on the rate of mineralisation of SOC with an estimated mean C age of ca. 8 years or older relative to incubated soils without recent plant inputs. These results not only illustrate the formidable complexity of mechanisms controlling C fluxes in soils but also suggest that the dual biological and physical effects of CO2 on primary productivity and global temperature have the potential to synergistically increase the mineralisation of existing soil C. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Poverty and Gender Effects of Smallholder Organic Contract Farming in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon

    considered how the costs and benefits of participation are distributed among men and women. In order to meet these objectives, two predominantly qualitative Ugandan case studies were used: the organic pineapple and the organic coffee smallholder contract farming schemes previously mentioned. The study found...... relations were a critical factor for these welfare outcomes, and women generally had much less control over the benefits from scheme participation than did men, while often carrying an equal or larger share of the labor and management burden. The distribution of the benefits and costs of participation...... was much more skewed against women in the coffee scheme than in the pineapple one....

  10. A Simulation Model of Combined Biogas, Bioethanol and Protein Fodder Co-Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate new strategies for the production of renewable energy within sustainable organic agriculture, a process-simulation model for a 100 ha organic farm was developed. Data used for the model was obtained from laboratory trials, literature data, consultancy with experts, and results...... from the BioConcens project (http://www.bioconcens.elr.dk). Different design approaches were evaluated in order to establish the most suitable configuration. Rye grains, clover grass silage, maize silage, whey and cattle manure were selected as raw materials for co-production of fuels, feed...

  11. The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections.

  12. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others......Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising...... be regarded as a feasible approach to minimising medicine use without the impairment of production and herd health under several organic dairy farming conditions in Europe....

  13. Tightly-Coupled Plant-Soil Nitrogen Cycling: Comparison of Organic Farms across an Agricultural Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M Bowles

    Full Text Available How farming systems supply sufficient nitrogen (N for high yields but with reduced N losses is a central challenge for reducing the tradeoffs often associated with N cycling in agriculture. Variability in soil organic matter and management of organic farms across an agricultural landscape may yield insights for improving N cycling and for evaluating novel indicators of N availability. We assessed yields, plant-soil N cycling, and root expression of N metabolism genes across a representative set of organic fields growing Roma-type tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. in an intensively-managed agricultural landscape in California, USA. The fields spanned a three-fold range of soil carbon (C and N but had similar soil types, texture, and pH. Organic tomato yields ranged from 22.9 to 120.1 Mg ha-1 with a mean similar to the county average (86.1 Mg ha-1, which included mostly conventionally-grown tomatoes. Substantial variability in soil inorganic N concentrations, tomato N, and root gene expression indicated a range of possible tradeoffs between yields and potential for N losses across the fields. Fields showing evidence of tightly-coupled plant-soil N cycling, a desirable scenario in which high crop yields are supported by adequate N availability but low potential for N loss, had the highest total and labile soil C and N and received organic matter inputs with a range of N availability. In these fields, elevated expression of a key gene involved in root N assimilation, cytosolic glutamine synthetase GS1, confirmed that plant N assimilation was high even when inorganic N pools were low. Thus tightly-coupled N cycling occurred on several working organic farms. Novel combinations of N cycling indicators (i.e. inorganic N along with soil microbial activity and root gene expression for N assimilation would support adaptive management for improved N cycling on organic as well as conventional farms, especially when plant-soil N cycling is rapid.

  14. A participatory approach to design monitoring indicators of production diseases in organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, J E; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bareille, N

    2016-06-01

    Production diseases have an important negative effect on the health and welfare of dairy cows. Although organic animal production systems aim for high animal health levels, compliance with European organic farming regulations does not guarantee that this is achieved. Herd health and production management (HHPM) programs aim at optimizing herd health by preventing disease and production problems, but as yet they have not been consistently implemented by farmers. We hypothesize that one reason is the mismatch between what scientists propose as indicators for herd health monitoring and what farmers would like to use. Herd health monitoring is a key element in HHPM programs as it permits a regular assessment of the functioning of the different components of the production process. Planned observations or measurements of these components are indispensable for this monitoring. In this study, a participatory approach was used to create an environment in which farmers could adapt the indicators proposed by scientists for monitoring the five main production diseases on dairy cattle farms. The adaptations of the indicators were characterized and the farmers' explanations for the changes made were described. The study was conducted in France and Sweden, which differ in terms of their national organic regulations and existing advisory services. In both countries, twenty certified organic dairy farmers and their animal health management advisors participated in the study. All of the farmers adapted the initial monitoring plan proposed by scientists to specific production and animal health situation on their farm. This resulted in forty unique and farm-specific combinations of indicators for herd health monitoring. All but three farmers intended to monitor five health topics simultaneously using the constructed indicators. The qualitative analysis of the explanations given by farmers for their choices enabled an understanding of farmers' reasons for selecting and adapting

  15. Seed quality of common bean accessions under organic and conventional farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Medeiros Gindri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agrobiodiversity is essential for a sustainable food production, and the knowledge of the potential characteristics of landrace seeds may prompt farmers to adopt the habit of seed conservation for this species. This study aimed at categorizing landrace and commercial common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. accessions, according to the physiological quality (viability and vigor of seeds produced in the field, during two growing seasons, under organic and conventional farming systems. Germination percentage, field emergence, electrical conductivity, accelerated aging, cold test and seedling length were assessed. The landrace bean accessions exhibit diversity in the physiological seed quality, in terms of their viability and vigor. No differences were observed between the farming systems, in relation to the physiological quality of the seeds produced. The categorization of landrace common bean accessions allows to identify those with superior physiological seed quality.

  16. Trends in Organic Farming Development in Bulgaria: Applying Circular Economy Principles to Sustainable Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Dimitar K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the development of organic farming in Bulgaria through the viewpoint of its links to circular economy concept and its potential to contribute to sustainable rural development. The significant increase in the number of organic operators and areas is analyzed in the context of stable growth in the European sector and worldwide and the increase in consumer demand. Main indicators reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Bulgaria and the support provided by the National Rural Development Program are used to present the characteristics of organic production and agricultural holdings. The advantages of Bulgaria are underlined as a country offering the necessary conditions, along with the main problems in production and marketing. Recommendations are provided for organic sector encouragement as a sustainable business model and an entrepreneurial initiative for sustainable rural development putting a special accent on networking and capacity building activities in connection to potential solutions and policy development.

  17. Influence of antibiotic selection on genetic composition of Escherichia coli populations from conventional and organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, Seth T; Mladonicky, Janice M; Middleton, Jaclyn A; Heidt, Anthony J; Cunningham, Julie R; Bartlett, Paul; Sato, Kenji; Whittam, Thomas S

    2007-10-01

    The widespread agricultural use of antimicrobials has long been considered a crucial influence on the prevalence of resistant genes and bacterial strains. It has been suggested that antibiotic applications in agricultural settings are a driving force for the development of antimicrobial resistance, and epidemiologic evidence supports the view that there is a direct link between resistant human pathogens, retail produce, farm animals, and farm environments. Despite such concerns, little is understood about the population processes underlying the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance and the reversibility of resistance when antibiotic selective pressure is removed. In this study, hierarchical log-linear modeling was used to assess the association between farm type (conventional versus organic), age of cattle (calf versus cow), bacterial phenotype (resistant versus susceptible), and the genetic composition of Escherichia coli populations (E. coli Reference Collection [ECOR] phylogroup A, B1, B2, or D) among 678 susceptible and resistant strains from a previously published study of 60 matched dairy farms (30 conventional and 30 organic) in Wisconsin. The analysis provides evidence for clonal resistance (ampicillin resistance) and genetic hitchhiking (tetracycline resistance [Tet(r)]), estimated the rate of compositional change from conventional farming to organic farming (mean, 8 years; range, 3 to 15 years), and discovered a significant association between low multidrug resistance, organic farms, and strains of the numerically dominant phylogroup B1. These data suggest that organic farming practices not only change the frequency of resistant strains but also impact the overall population genetic composition of the resident E. coli flora. In addition, the results support the hypothesis that the current prevalence of Tet(r) loci on dairy farms has little to do with the use of this antibiotic.

  18. Why Organic Farming Should Embrace Co-Existence with Cisgenic Late Blight–Resistant Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godelieve Gheysen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU regulation on organic farming does not allow the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs which are subject to Directive 2001/18/EC. Mutagenesis using irradiation or chemicals is genetic modification, but the organisms obtained through these techniques are not subject to the provisions of the GMO directive. Such mutants can therefore be used in organic agriculture. Derived from its basic principles, organic farming can only use natural substances to control disease and crops should be resilient, which, in the case of disease resistance, means that durable (horizontal resistance is preferred to vertical (single gene resistance. Cisgenesis can achieve such a durable resistance by introducing multiple resistance genes in one step. These multiple-resistant plants only contain natural genes that can also be introduced by breeding. In case cisgenic plants are not subject to the provisions of the GMO legislation, they can even be legally used in organic agriculture. In case they are not exempted from the GMO regulation, the question is: why obstruct a cisgenic potato crop that can hardly be distinguished from a potato crop that is the result of conventional breeding? Among the reasons why organic agriculture does not allow the use of GMOs it is mentioned that genetic engineering is unpredictable, it causes genome disruption and it is unnatural. However, our knowledge of plant genome evolution and breeding has increased dramatically. We now know that breeding is more unpredictable and causes more genome disruption than genetic engineering. Recent field trials have shown the efficacy of cisgenic late blight–resistant potatoes carrying multiple resistance genes. Large-scale growing of such durably resistant potatoes would not only be environmentally beneficial by it would strongly reducing the need for fungicide sprays in conventional potato cultivation and it would also reduce the disease pressure in organic potato cultivation.

  19. COMPARISON OF QUALITY BETWEEN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL STRAWBERRIES FROM MULTIPLE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA AMANDA WIPPICH ANDRADE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Strawberries are appreciated worldwide. However, a large quantity of agrochemicals is used in their production because of their highly susceptibility to pests and diseases. Many studies have compared the quality of fruits grown on organic production system and conventional system, but results are often contradictory. The aim of this study was to compare the strawberries fruits quality (Fragaria ananassa Duch grown under organic and conventional production systems. Seven pairs of farms were selected, and fruits were collected at different times and production locations. Experimental design was completely randomized, with a 2 x 5 factorial scheme (two production system types x five storage periods with four replicates of ten strawberries. Strawberries produced under organic production system exhibited higher soluble solids contents and firmer pulp than those produced under conventional system. Weight loss, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid concentrations were not influenced by farming systems. Conventional system resulted in fruits with lower rot index, while strawberries produced under organic production system exhibited higher soluble solids contents and firmer pulp. Thus, in this study it was observed that each production system was responsible for benefit different attributes in strawberries.

  20. Integrated Bioenergy and Food Production—A German Survey on Structure and Developments of Anaerobic Digestion in Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blumenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts, organic farmers were also prime movers in anaerobic digestion (AD in Germany. This study’s aim was to identify the structure, development, and characteristics of biogas production associated with organic farming systems in order to estimate further development, as well as energetic and associated agronomic potentials. Surveys were conducted among organic farms with AD technology. 144 biogas plants could be included in the analysis. Total installed electrical capacity was 30.8 MWel, accounting for only 0.8% of the total installed electrical capacity in the German biogas sector. Recently, larger plant types (>250 kWel with increased use of (also purchased energy crops have emerged. Farmers noticed increases in yields (22% on average and quality of cash crops in arable farming through integrated biogas production. In conclusion, although the share of AD in organic farming is relatively small it can provide various complementary socio-ecological benefits such as the enhancement of food output through digestate fertilization without additional need for land, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock manures and soils. However, to achieve this eco-functional intensification, AD systems and their management have to be well adapted to farm size and production focus and based primarily on residue biomass.

  1. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......Organic farming (OF) principles include the idea of reducing dependence of fossil fuels, but little has been achieved on this objective so far in Danish OF. Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an average 39 ha cash crop farm were calculated and alternative crop rotations for bio......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...

  2. Temper Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Fabricated by Expanded Rubber & Plastics Corporation, Temper Foam provides better impact protection for airplane passengers and enhances passenger comfort on long flights because it distributes body weight and pressure evenly over the entire contact area. Called a "memory foam" it matches the contour of the body pressing against it and returns to its original shape once the pressure is removed. As a shock absorber, a three-inch foam pad has the ability to absorb the impact of a 10-foot fall by an adult. Applications include seat cushioning for transportation vehicles, padding for furniture and a variety of athletic equipment medical applications including wheelchair padding, artificial limb socket lining, finger splint and hand padding for burn patients, special mattresses for the bedridden and dental stools. Production and sales rights are owned by Temper Foam, Inc. Material is manufactured under license by the Dewey and Almy Division of Grace Chemical Corporation. Distributors of the product are Kees Goebel Medical Specialties, Inc. and Alimed, Inc. They sell Temper Foam in bulk to the fabricators who trim it to shapes required by their customers.

  3. Development of Organic Farming in Europe at the Crossroads: Looking for the Way Forward through System Archetypes Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Brzezina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, policymakers and stakeholders in the European Union (EU have put considerable effort into increasing the adoption of organic farming, with the overall objective of its sustainable development. However, the growth of the organic sector has come with many challenges that jeopardize its sustainability. The question then is how to move organic farming in Europe forward and at the same time capitalize on its potential contribution to sustainability? Organic farming in the EU is a highly complex and dynamic food system and as such this question cannot be answered in isolation using a one-dimensional mind-set and tools of the past. In this paper, we use three system archetypes—Limits to Growth, Shifting the Burden and Eroding Goals—to sharpen our ability: (1 to analyze and anticipate difficulties in the development of organic farming in the EU under the current policy measures; and (2 to find effective ways to address these difficulties. A system archetype consists of a generic system structure that leads to unintended behavior over time and effective strategies for changing the structure into one that generates desirable behavior. The analysis reveals that in order to move forward, policymakers and stakeholders should reemphasize fundamental solutions rather than quick fixes that often generate unintended consequences. Specifically, Limits to Growth shows us that the leverage for moving organic farming out of the niche does not necessarily lie in increasing subsidies that push engines of growth, but rather in anticipating and managing its limits arising from, for instance, market dynamics or intrinsic environmental motivation. In turn, Shifting the Burden brings to attention how easily and unnoticeably the EU’s organic farming system can become dependent on third countries thereby undermining its own sustainability. Finally, Eroding Goals highlights that is it important to continuously improve regulatory standards

  4. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: A survey of recent literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Samar, P.; Cox, H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can...... codigestion to identify applications of. codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal...... wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes. industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey...

  5. The North Wyke Farm Platform, a UK national capability for research into sustainability of temperate agricultural grassland management: progress and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Dungait, Jennifer; Griffith, Bruce; Shepherd, Anita; Sint, Hadewij; Blackwell, Martin; Cardenas, Laura; Collins, Adrian; Goulding, Keith; Lee, Michael; Orr, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) at Rothamsted Research in the South-West of England, is a large, farm-scale experiment for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences; with the aim of addressing agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. The 63 ha NWFP site, captures the spatial and/or temporal data necessary to develop a better understanding of the dynamic processes and underlying mechanisms that can be used to model how agricultural grassland systems respond to different management inputs. Here, via beef and sheep production, the underlying principle is to manage each of three farmlets (each consisting of five man-made, hydrologically-isolated sub-catchments) in three contrasting ways: (i) improvement through use of mineral fertilizers; (ii) improvement through use of legumes; and (iii) improvement through innovation. The connectivity between the timing and intensity of the different management operations, together with the transport of nutrients and potential pollutants from the NWFP is evaluated using various data collection and data modelling exercises. The primary data collection strategy involves the use of a ground-based, wireless sensor network, where in each of the fifteen sub-catchments, water characteristics such as flow, turbidity and chemistry are measured at a flume laboratory that captures the sub-catchment's water drainage (via a system of directed French drains). This sensor network also captures: precipitation, soil moisture and soil temperature data for each sub-catchment; greenhouse gas data across key subsets of the fifteen sub-catchments; and meteorological data (other than precipitation) at a single site only (representative of the NWFP site, as a whole). Such high temporal resolution data sets (but with limited spatial resolution) are coupled with a secondary data collection strategy, for high spatial resolution data sets (but with limited temporal

  6. Organic farming and cover crops as an alternative to mineral fertilizers to improve soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Cima, Diego; Luik, Anne; Reintam, Endla

    2015-10-01

    For testing how cover crops and different fertilization managements affect the soil physical properties in a plough based tillage system, a five-year crop rotation experiment (field pea, white potato, common barley undersown with red clover, red clover, and winter wheat) was set. The rotation was managed under four different farming systems: two conventional: with and without mineral fertilizers and two organic, both with winter cover crops (later ploughed and used as green manure) and one where cattle manure was added yearly. The measurements conducted were penetration resistance, soil water content, porosity, water permeability, and organic carbon. Yearly variations were linked to the number of tillage operations, and a cumulative effect of soil organic carbon in the soil as a result of the different fertilization amendments, organic or mineral. All the systems showed similar tendencies along the three years of study and differences were only found between the control and the other systems. Mineral fertilizers enhanced the overall physical soil conditions due to the higher yield in the system. In the organic systems, cover crops and cattle manure did not have a significant effect on soil physical properties in comparison with the conventional ones, which were kept bare during the winter period. The extra organic matter boosted the positive effect of crop rotation, but the higher number of tillage operations in both organic systems counteracted this effect to a greater or lesser extent.

  7. Associations between the proportion of Salmonella seropositive slaughter pigs and the presence of herd level risk factors for introduction and transmission of Salmonella in 34 Danish organic, outdoor (non-organic) and indoor finishing-pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, D.M.; Bonde, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the association between herd level risk factors for introduction and transmission of Salmonella in farms with three different production systems: organic, outdoor (non-organic) and indoor finishing-pig farms, and the presence of seropositive animals in the herds. Potential risk...... factors for Salmonella in the three pig production systems were identified through a literature review, and management information as well as serological data were collected in 34 pig farms: 11 organic farms, 12 outdoor farms, and 11 indoor farms. There were no general differences in the proportion...

  8. Exposure to Inhalable Dust, Endotoxin, and Total Volatile Organic Carbons on Dairy Farms Using Manual and Automated Feeding Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Cronin, Garvin; Hogan, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    was collected during the surveys. Associations between exposure concentrations and feeding systems, worker tasks, and other farm characteristics were explored in linear mixed-effect regression models with farmer identity treated as a random effect. Results: Exposure concentrations were variable and had......Introduction: Agricultural workers tend to have high exposures to organic dusts which may induce or exacerbate respiratory disorders. Studies investigating the effect of work tasks and farm characteristics on organic dust exposures among farm workers suggest that handling of animal feed...... in farms using semi-automatic feeding systems when compared to those using manual feeding systems but in multivariate regression analysis associations were not statistically significant (β = -0.54, P = 0.4). Performance of activities related to handling and spreading of hay or straw was the strongest...

  9. EVALUATION OF FARMERS APPRECIATION IN REDUCING PESTICIDE BY ORGANIC FARMING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih Indraningsih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables and dairy milk are important commodities in Pangalengan and Lembang, West Java. However, agrochemicals are used intensively and excessively in production system. Therefore, pesticide residues and contamination commonly occurred in agricultural products and environments. The study aimed to assess farmers’ attitudes on pesticide toxicity and reducing pesticide residues in animal and food crops products, and investigate the attitude changes of farmers on pesticide use. It was an on-farm research and farmers were directly involved in the study. The attitude change was analyzed on questionnaire and interview base for over 99 respondents in Pangalengan and Lembang between 2001 and 2003. Samples of soils, weeds, cabbages and milk were collected for pesticide residue analysis. Results showed that farmers did not aware on toxicity effects of pesticides in both animal and human health. There was misinterpretation among the farmers where pesticides were regarded as drugs rather than toxic compound to increase productivity. The organochlorines/OCs (lindane and heptachlor were common pesticide contaminants found in soils of 7.9- 11.4 ppb, but no organophospates (OPs were detected. Both OCs and OPs were also detected in soils of Lembang at a range of 11.53-65.63 ppb and 0.6-2.6 ppb, respectively. There were pesticide residues detected in weeds collected from Pangalengan (8.93 ppb lindane, 2.05 ppb heptachlor, and 33.27 ppb chlorpyriphos methyl/CPM and Lembang (6.45 ppb lindane, 2.65 ppb endosulfan, 6.85 ppb diazinon, and 0.5 ppb CPM. Only endosulfan with least residue level (0.1 ppb was detected in organic cabbages, whereas lindane was detected much higher (3.7 ppb in non-organic cabbages. Pesticide residues were not detected in milk of dairy cattle fed on by-products of organic cabbages, but lindane was still present in milk of dairy cattle fed on non-organic cabbages for 7 days subsequently. The present study indicates that the organic farming

  10. Comparative analysis of the diversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in raw milk from organic and conventional dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorevits, An; De Jonghe, Valerie; Vandroemme, Joachim; Reekmans, Rieka; Heyrman, Jeroen; Messens, Winy; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial contamination of raw milk can originate from different sources: air, milking equipment, feed, soil, faeces and grass. It is hypothesized that differences in feeding and housing strategies of cows may influence the microbial quality of milk. This assumption was investigated through comparison of the aerobic spore-forming flora in milk from organic and conventional dairy farms. Laboratory pasteurized milk samples from five conventional and five organic dairy farms, sampled in late summer/autumn and in winter, were plated on a standard medium and two differential media, one screening for phospholipolytic and the other for proteolytic activity of bacteria. Almost 930 isolates were obtained of which 898 could be screened via fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Representative isolates were further analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (GTG)(5)-PCR. The majority of aerobic spore-formers in milk belonged to the genus Bacillus and showed at least 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with type strains of Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus subtilis and with type strains of species belonging to the Bacillus cereus group. About 7% of all isolates may belong to possibly new spore-forming taxa. Although the overall diversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in milk from organic vs. conventional dairy farms was highly similar, some differences between both were observed: (i) a relatively higher number of thermotolerant organisms in milk from conventional dairy farms compared to organic farms (41.2% vs. 25.9%), and (ii) a relatively higher number of B. cereus group organisms in milk from organic (81.3%) and Ureibacillus thermosphaericus in milk from conventional (85.7%) dairy farms. One of these differences, the higher occurrence of B. cereus group organisms in milk from organic dairy farms, may be linked to differences in housing strategy between the two types of dairy farming. However, no plausible clarification was found for

  11. Prevalence of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium on three organic pig farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Jianmin, Wang; Mejer, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are a potential source of contamination with Cryptosporidium spp., which can lead to infection in humans. Two species C. parvum and C. hominis can cause an acute diarrheal illness in humans, which can become severe in e.g. patients with HIV. The oocyst can survive for long periods in the env......Pigs are a potential source of contamination with Cryptosporidium spp., which can lead to infection in humans. Two species C. parvum and C. hominis can cause an acute diarrheal illness in humans, which can become severe in e.g. patients with HIV. The oocyst can survive for long periods...... in the environment and is resistant to many common disinfectants. In order to estimate the prevalence of the zoonotic parasite Cryptosporidium in organic pigs and to improve our knowledge of the parasite epidemiology, the prevalence was monitored four times between September 2011 and June 2012 in three Danish...... organic pig farms. Faecal samples were collected for examination of Cryptosporidium spp. with a total of 994 pigs grouped as sows, fatteners, young pigs and piglets. The number of pigs in each age group was 298, 232, 315 and 161 respectively, distributed on the three farms. Faecal samples were collected...

  12. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, TM; Bloem, J

    2008-01-01

    that received farmyard manure, which is in line with the responses of their potential food sources (microbes and organic matter). Mineral fertilizer application detrimentally affected enchytraeids and Diptera larvae, whereas aphids benefited. Spider abundance was favoured by organic management, most likely...... Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological...... parameters of two organic and two conventional wheat farming systems that primarily differed in fertilization and weed management strategies. Contrast analyses identified management related differences between "herbicide-free" bioorganic (BIOORG) and biodynamic (BIODYN) systems and conventional systems...

  13. Acting discursively: the development of UK organic food and farming policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOMLINSON, Isobel Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the early evolution of UK organic food and farming policy networks and locates this empirical focus in a theoretical context concerned with understanding the contemporary policy-making process. While policy networks have emerged as a widely acknowledged empirical manifestation of governance, debate continues as to the concept's explanatory utility and usefulness in situations of network and policy transformation since, historically, policy networks have been applied to "static" circumstances. Recognizing this criticism, and in drawing on an interpretivist perspective, this paper sees policy networks as enacted by individual actors whose beliefs and actions construct the nature of the network. It seeks to make links between the characteristics of the policy network and the policy outcomes through the identification of discursively constructed "storylines" that form a tool for consensus building in networks. This study analyses the functioning of the organic policy networks through the discursive actions of policy-network actors.

  14. Innovative technology and sustainable development of organic dairy farming : the case of automatic milking systems in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.

    2009-01-01

    Development of organic dairy farming in Denmark is characterized by up-scaling, increasing productivity and automation. Increasing discussion on compliance with organic principles and sustainability has been forwarded. Automatic milking systems (AMS) are part of this development and have been

  15. Implications of feed concentrate reduction in organic grassland-based dairy systems: a long-term on-farm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber, F; Schenk, I K; Maeschli, A; Ivemeyer, S; Zeitz, J O; Moakes, S; Klocke, P; Staehli, P; Notz, C; Walkenhorst, M

    2017-11-01

    In response to increasing efforts for reducing concentrate inputs to organic dairy production in grassland-rich areas of Europe, a long-term study was conducted, which assessed the impacts of concentrate reductions on cows' performance, health, fertility and average herd age. In total, 42 Swiss commercial organic dairy cattle farms were monitored over 6 years ('Y0', 2008/09 until 'Y5', 2013/14). In comparison with overall data of Swiss herdbooks (including conventional and organic farms), the herds involved in the project had lower milk yields, similar milk solids, shorter calving intervals and higher average lactation numbers. During the first 3 project years farmers reduced the concentrate proportion (i.e. cereals, oilseeds and grain legumes) in the dairy cows' diets to varying degrees. In Y0, farms fed between 0% and 6% (dietary dry matter proportion per year) of concentrates. During the course of the study they changed the quantity of concentrates to voluntarily chosen degrees. Retrospectively, farms were clustered into five farm groups: Group '0-conc' (n=6 farms) already fed zero concentrates in Y0 and stayed at this level. Group 'Dec-to0' (n=11) reduced concentrates to 0 during the project period. Groups 'Dec-strong' (n=8) and 'Dec-slight' (n=12) decreased concentrate amounts by >50% and farms) remained at the initial level of concentrates during the project. Milk recording data were summarised and analysed per farm and project year. Lactation number and calving intervals were obtained from the databases of the Swiss breeders' associations. Dietary concentrate amounts and records of veterinary treatments were obtained from the obligatory farm documentations. Data were analysed with GLMs. Daily milk yields differed significantly between farm groups already in Y0, being lowest in groups 0-conc (16.0 kg) and Dec-to0 (16.7 kg), and highest in groups Dec-slight (19.6 kg) and Const-conc (19.2 kg). Milk yield decreases across the years within groups were not

  16. Holstein-Friesian milk performance in organic farming in North Spain: Comparison with other systems and breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Rodríguez-Bermúdez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic systems are highly dependent on the environment and require animals well adapted to local conditions. In Spain, organic dairy farmers are not satisfied with the productive performance of their herds and ask for technical advice to obtain suitable animals for organic systems. The milk productive performance (milk yield, nutritional composition, and somatic cell count of Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming in North Spain compared with conventional farms has been analysed. When breed diversity was present in the same organic farm, Holstein-Friesian milk performance was compared with other breeds and/or crosses. Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming produce slightly less milk than grazing conventional cows, but milk was similar in composition and somatic cell count across systems. The limited data from organic farms where breed diversity exists indicate that Holstein-Friesian cows produce numerically more milk than other breeds and crosses but with statistically lower protein content. Considering that in Spain organic milk production is mostly used for liquid milk consumption and that the payment system is based only on milk volume, Holstein-Friesian cows would better fit the farmer interests than other breeds or crosses. However, in addition to productive performance, reproductive efficiency, animal health and consumer’s preferences should be fully considered when selecting a breed for organic production. If Holstein-Friesian was the selected breed, efforts should be made to identify cows within the breed that are best adapted to organic conditions. New productive, reproductive, nutritional and economic studies would be needed to develop a genetic merit index for organic systems.

  17. Collective action as a way to develop Organic Farming in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Ghazaryan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Armenia is a landlocked country which gained its independence about 24 years ago. A big portion of population (44.2% is still involved in agriculture and mostly consists of smallholder farmers. More than 20% of Armenia’s GDP comes from agriculture. The government considers organic agriculture as a priority area in the country’s agro-food policy as well as part of sustainable development. However, organic farming is still on its early stages of development just like in other Eastern European, Caucasian and Central Asian countries. Yet, the country already has an organic certification body which is recognized both in the US and the EU, organic supermarket in the capital city and a growing demand for organic products. Those smallholder farmers and especially the organic producers face difficulties accessing markets, gathering necessary information, meeting quality control and food safety requirements, certifying their production as organic or fair trade, accessing credits and so on. Researchers believe that smallholder agriculture can play an important role in reducing global poverty as a vast number of world’s poor are rural households that are involved in agriculture. Armenian smallholders are no exception and they face most of the same challenges and problems that peasants from other parts of the world do. This paper studies one of the ways that these challenges can be overcome, that is, collective action which has proved to be successful in many cases. Although collective action can be very useful and helpful for smallholder farmers and there is even a small successful example from the organic sector in Armenia, it is not a panacea. Organizing a collective action is not an easy task and its success depends on many factors such as small group size, clearly defined boundaries, shared norms, past successful experiences and others.

  18. Tempered fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  19. Tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: sabzika2@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: mcubed@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: cjhdzdz@163.com [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  20. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2014-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

  1. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Sabzikar, Farzad; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  2. Effect of Organic Amendment Application Rate on Greenhouse Gas Emissions at an Organic Farm in Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, M.; King, J. Y.; Cleveland, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Though greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) from mineral fertilizer application in agriculture have been well studied, the effect of organic amendment (OA) application rate on GHGEs is not yet understood. Application of multiple OAs can improve different properties that control soil fertility, including nutrient availability, aggregate stability, and water-holding capacity. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) flux at an organic farm in Goleta, CA in order to understand how OA application rate affects GHGEs and crop yield from agricultural soils. Based on management practices in the region, we asked farm managers to establish high compost (HC) and low compost (LC) treatments during the growing season of an annual crop (18.2, 9.13 Mg ha-1, respectively), and we measured GHGEs in beds and furrows using static chambers. Organic fertilizer (672 kg ha-1) was applied equally to HC and LC beds six weeks after compost application. Overall, emissions of N2O and CO2 were higher in HC than LC, but yield-scaled emissions were higher in LC. Importantly, treatment differences in both N2O and CO2 emissions were not apparent until after mid-season fertilizer application. Net CH4 uptake was higher in HC than LC in the furrows, but there was no difference in the beds. Our data suggest that high compost application rates likely increased SOM mineralization, soil water content, and nitrification and denitrification rates in HC relative to LC, which led to higher N2O emissions during the growing season. Fertilization primed SOM decomposition and increased soil respiration, which led to increased CO2 emissions. Our results suggest that improved management of application rate and timing during use of multiple OAs could reduce GHGEs while maintaining high crop yield. Understanding the mechanisms by which OA application rates alter the balance between GHGEs and yield is an important step toward reducing agriculture's contribution to climate change through

  3. Digital soil mapping in assessment of land suitability for organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Kentchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Jolokhava, Tamar; Meskhi, Tea

    2017-04-01

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) is a fast-developing sub discipline of soil science which gets more importance along with increased availability of spatial data. DSM is based on three main components: the input in the form of field and laboratory observational methods, the process used in terms of spatial and non-spatial soil inference systems, and the output in the form of spatial soil information systems, which includes outputs in the form of rasters of prediction along with the uncertainty of prediction. Georgia is one of the countries who are under the way of spatial data infrastructure development, which includes soil related spatial data also. Therefore, it is important to demonstrate the capacity of DSM technics for planning and decision making process, in which assessment of land suitability is a major interest for those willing to grow agricultural crops. In that term land suitability assessment for establishing organic farms is in high demand as market for organically produced commodities is still increasing. It is the first attempt in Georgia to use DSM to predict areas with potential for organic farming development. Current approach is based on risk assessment of soil pollution with toxic elements (As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr) and prediction of bio-availability of those elements to plants on example of the region of Western Georgia, where detailed soil survey was conducted and spatial database of soil was created. The results of the study show the advantages of DSM at early stage assessment and depending on availability and quality of the input data, it can achieve acceptable accuracy.

  4. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and carbon balance for eight temperate organic soils under agricultural management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Görres, C.-M.; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the first annual estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) of contrasting Danish agricultural peatlands. Studies were done at eight sites representing permanent grasslands (PG) and rotational (RT) arable soils cropped to barley...... and temperate climate zones. It was stressed that evaluation of emission factors should explicitly differentiate between data representing net C balance from a soil perspective and CO2-C balance from an atmospheric perspective. Modelling of inter-annual variability in NEE for three selected sites during a 21...

  5. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions.

  6. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-02-23

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions.

  7. ARIZONA FARM LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALTER, RICHARD H.

    THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT PROGRAM IS DESCRIBED. INCLUDED ARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS, THE LOCAL LEVELS, THE STATE FARM LABOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, AND THE PLANNING AND OPERATING METHODS USED BY FARM PLACEMENT PERSONNEL IN MEETING FARM LABOR NEEDS. MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO COTTON AND VEGETABLES. THE LABOR FORCE IS…

  8. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental...... factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: (1) catch crop (with and without), and (2) manure (with and without). The four-course crop rotation was spring barley undersown with grass/clover - grass/clover - winter wheat or wheat rye - pulse crop. All cuttings of the grass-clover were...... not significantly affect yield. The use of catch crops interacts with other management factors, including row spacing and weed control, and this may have contributed to the negligible effects of catch crops. There was considerable variation in the amount of N (100-600 kg N ha-1 year-1) accumulated in the mulched...

  9. THE COMMUNITY MENTORING IN ORGANIC WASTE MANAGEMENT AT COMMUNAL SCALE TO SUPPORT THE URBAN FARMING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Amaranti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The waste management in urban areas should get treatment from various parties (communities, governments, and businesses to prevent environmental damage increases. Waste management can be done in the management area of the Rukun Tetangga (RT and Rukun Warga (RW level, also the village level. The main problem for the current partner that doesn’t spread evenly of knowledge and the capabilities in utilizing waste into something that has economic valuable and the low level of public participation in the program launched by the government especially Kampung Berkebun programs that have been implemented at the level of Rukun Warga (RW. Community Service activity is done by providing assistance to communities to manage organic waste in the local environment (communal scale-Rukun Tetangga program to support the Urban Farming to utilize all potentials and resources that have been owned and has not been utilized properly.

  10. Relationships among Contrasting Measurements of Microbial Dynamics in Pasture and Organic Farm Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenborn, S.L; Sexstone, A.J; Sutanto, Y; Chapman, J.A

    2011-01-01

    Soil bacteria exhibit short-term variations in community structure, providing an indication of anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN), community level physiological profiling (CLPP), and culture-dependent DGGE (CD DGGE) fingerprinting of the 16 S r RNA gene were used to compare microbial communities in organic farm and pasture soils subjected to differing agronomic treatments. Correlation analyses revealed significant relationships between MBC, PMN, and data derived from microbial community analyses. All measures separated soil types but varied in their ability to distinguish among treatments within a soil type. Overall, MBC, PMN, and CLPP were most responsive to compost and manure amendments, while CD DGGE resolved differences in legume cropping and inorganic fertilization. The results support the hypothesis that culturable soil bacteria are a responsive fraction of the total microbial community, sensitive to agronomic perturbations and amenable to further studies aimed at linking community structure with soil functions.

  11. Content of TDF, SDF and IDF in Cereals Grown by Organic and Conventional Farming – a Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menkovska Mirjana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this article were to determine the content of total dietary fibre (TDF as well as of its fractions – soluble dietary fibre (SDF and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF of different cereals grown by conventional and organic farming in Macedonia, as well as to find out the influence of the cereal type and farming method on their values. Standardized enzymatic-gravimetric method (Megazyme Total Dietary Fiber Kit was used for determination of soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber in 27 different cereal samples of wheat, rye, barley, oat, and millet, which were grown at three locations. The content of TDF, IDF and SDF was influenced by both cereal type and farming type. The organically grown cereals, primarily oat and barley, have shown higher values of TDF and of its fractions than the conventionally grown cereals. Their values (% db for oat and barley for TDF were 42.00±1.39 and 21.91±2.01, for IDF 39.22±0.58 and 15.06±1.84 and for SDF 2.78±1.25 and 6.85±3.85, respectively. Barley grown by either organic or in conversion farming method proved to have the highest value of SDF content among the other cereals investigated, whereas oat produced by organic farming method exhibited the highest values of TDF and ISF content. The organic farming method proved to have a good perspective in cereal processing and technology, food market and nutrition.

  12. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W; Kristensen, Troels; van der Zijpp, A J

    2012-01-01

    conventional milking systems (CMS). Sustainability indicators were quantified for economic performance of the farm, on-farm eutrophication, on-farm biodiversity, animal welfare (including health), grazing time, milk composition and labour time. Milk yield per cow per year was higher for AMS farms (9021 kg...... though the lower number of grazing hours per cow per year on the AMS farms did not affect indicator scores for animal health or milk quality, this reduction in grazing hours might be a problem for consumers to accept AMS use....

  13. A process-based emission model of volatile organic compounds from silage sources on farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonifacio, H. F.; Rotz, C. A.; Hafner, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    such as those from dairy farms. A process-based model for predicting VOC emissions from silage was developed and incorporated into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM, v. 4.3), a whole-farm simulation of crop, dairy, and beef production systems. The performance of the IFSM silage VOC emission model...... performance, economics, and environmental impacts of farm production. As a component of IFSM, the silage VOC emission model was used to simulate a representative dairy farm in central California. The simulation showed most silage VOC emissions were from feed lying in feed lanes and not from the exposed face...

  14. Nitrogen Utilization and Environmental Losses from Organic Farming and Biochar's Potential to Improve N Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E. I.; SIX, J. W. U. A.

    2014-12-01

    The response of plant performance and nitrogen (N) dynamics to biochar amendments were studied across various levels of N input for two growing seasons in mesocosms representing an organic lettuce production systems. A silt loam soil was amended with pine chip (PC) and walnut shell (WS) biochar (10 t ha-1) in combination with five organic N fertilization rates 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of 225 kg N ha-1. N output through harvest, leachate, and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were determined to assess N utilization and environmental losses of biochar-amended soils. Analysis of plant performance indicate that PC and WS biochar did not provide any increases in plant biomass in soils that received less than business-as-usual fertilization rates. At 100% N fertilization rate, biochar amendments (both PC and WS) improved lettuce biomass production, which resulted in significant increases in NUE with no effects on N2O emissions. Furthermore, N losses via leaching were decreased by PC biochar at 100% N fertilization rates. Thus, due to increases in plant biomass and decreases in N losses via leachate, PC biochar significantly decreased the ratio of N lost over N exported in biomass. Findings from this study suggest that biochar can provide some beneficial effects to organic farming systems, however, not in all circumstances, given the effects seem to vary with biochar type and fertilization level.

  15. Soil organic carbon and physical properties in vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Souza, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Alliaume, F.; Mancassola, V.

    2011-01-01

    The South of Uruguay is the area of the country most severely affected by soil erosion and where the most important vegetable production area is located. Soil degradation has been aggravated by a process of intensification and specialization of the vegetable production due to an unfavorable socio-economic context and lack of adequate planning of the production systems. The objectives of this work were the description of current soil quality (Typic Hapluderts, Paquic (vertic) Argiudolls, and Abruptic Argiudolls) in 16 vegetable farms in the region, and the evaluation of the impact of improved management techniques on soil quality. We evaluated soil organic carbon (SOC), soil structure stability and the evolution of SOC in time. We found a degradation of soil quality under vegetable cropping compared to the reference sites, given by an average loss of SOC of 31 to 44% and 0.4 mm in structure stability. A linear regression model was fitted to explain the change in SOC content observed in fields under vegetable cultivation during the period under study. The change in SOC content was explained by the organic matter inputs by green manures and chicken bed, the initial SOC content and length of the period in years. This model is a simple tool to estimate the effect of soil organic amendments on SOC balance in soils under vegetable cropping in this region

  16. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long......Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping...... strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9%) while average age of respondents was 42.5 years...

  17. Temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon after land-use change in the temperate zone – carbon response functions as a model approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Don, Axel; Vesterdal, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Land-use change (LUC) is a major driving factor for the balance of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and the global carbon cycle. The temporal dynamic of SOC after LUC is especially important in temperate systems with a long reaction time. On the basis of 95 compiled studies covering 322 sites...... in the temperate zone, carbon response functions (CRFs) were derived to model the temporal dynamic of SOC after five different LUC types (mean soil depth of 30±6 cm). Grassland establishment caused a long lasting carbon sink with a relative stock change of 128±23% and afforestation on former cropland a sink of 116...... of 0.38±0.04 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in afforestations adding up to 38±4 Mg ha-1 labile carbon after 100 years. Carbon loss after deforestation (-32±20%) and grassland conversion to cropland (-36±5%), was rapid with a new SOC equilibrium being reached after 23 and 17 years, respectively. The change rate of SOC...

  18. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: a survey of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Samar, Parviz; Cox, Huub H J; Ahring, Birgitte K; Iranpour, Reza

    2006-06-01

    Codigestion of organic wastes is a technology that is increasingly being applied for simultaneous treatment of several solid and liquid organic wastes. The main advantages of this technology are improved methane yield because of the supply of additional nutrients from the codigestates and more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can increase digester gas production and provide savings in the overall energy costs of plant operations. Methane recovery also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The goal of this literature survey was to summarize the research conducted in the last four years on anaerobic codigestion to identify applications of codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes, industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey as codigestates. The literature provides many laboratory studies (batch assays and bench-scale digesters) that assess the digestibility of codigestates and evaluate the performance and monitoring of codigestion, inhibition of digestion by codigestates, the design of the process (e.g., single-stage or two-stage processes), and the operation temperature (e.g., mesophilic or thermophilic). Only a few reports on pilot- and full-scale studies were found. These evaluate general process

  19. Large intestinal fermentation capacity of fattening pigs on organic farms as measured in vitro using contrasting substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sappok, M.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Bosch, Guido; Sundrum, A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In accordance with the EU regulations, organic farms require pigs to be fed diets high in fibre, which may impact on the pigs' large intestinal fermentation capacity. The ability of pigs to ferment non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) depends on characteristics of the dietary NSP source and

  20. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kiggundu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9% while average age of respondents was 42.5 years. Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05 to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1% and sweet potato vines (24.7% were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production. Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9% of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore, concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long term strategy to address feed challenges for organic livestock farmers.

  1. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    OpenAIRE

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2015-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly obs...

  2. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ivan; Martinez Bueno, Maria J.; Agueera, Ana; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  3. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan, E-mail: ivanmuno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Martinez Bueno, Maria J., E-mail: mjbueno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Agueera, Ana, E-mail: aaguera@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R., E-mail: amadeo@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  4. Evaluation of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems: a farm and field-scale analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.; Wossink, G.A.A.; Vazzana, C.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of organic,

  5. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: a Simulation Study in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Marie Godde

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage and residue management in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model’s outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66%, 18% and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (Queensland on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils

  6. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godde, Cécile M; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Meier, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model's outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and climates in

  7. Tillage and herbicide reduction mitigate the gap between conventional and organic farming effects on foraging activity of insectivorous bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Kévin; Le Viol, Isabelle; Julliard, Romain; Chiron, François; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2018-02-01

    The increased use of pesticides and tillage intensification is known to negatively affect biodiversity. Changes in these agricultural practices such as herbicide and tillage reduction have variable effects among taxa, especially at the top of the trophic network including insectivorous bats. Very few studies compared the effects of agricultural practices on such taxa, and overall, only as a comparison of conventional versus organic farming without accurately accounting for underlying practices, especially in conventional where many alternatives exist. Divergent results founded in these previous studies could be driven by this lack of clarification about some unconsidered practices inside both conventional and organic systems. We simultaneously compared, over whole nights, bat activity on contiguous wheat fields of one organic and three conventional farming systems located in an intensive agricultural landscape. The studied organic fields (OT) used tillage (i.e., inversion of soil) without chemical inputs. In studied conventional fields, differences consisted of the following: tillage using few herbicides (T), conservation tillage (i.e., no inversion of soil) using few herbicides (CT), and conservation tillage using more herbicide (CTH), to control weeds. Using 64 recording sites (OT = 12; T = 21; CT = 13; CTH = 18), we sampled several sites per system placed inside the fields each night. We showed that bat activity was always higher in OT than in T systems for two ( Pipistrellus kuhlii and Pipistrellus pipistrellus ) of three species and for one ( Pipistrellus spp.) of two genera, as well as greater species richness. The same results were found for the CT versus T system comparison. CTH system showed higher activity than T for only one genus ( Pipistrellus spp.). We did not detect any differences between OT and CT systems, and CT showed higher activity than CTH system for only one species ( Pipistrellus kuhlii ). Activity in OT of Pipistrellus spp. was

  8. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Senwo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the soil rhizosphere has been limited by the lack of robust assessments that can explore the vast complex structure and diversity of soil microbial communities. Our objective was to combine fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and pyrosequencing techniques to evaluate soil microbial community structure and diversity. In addition, we evaluated biogeochemical functionality of the microbial communities via enzymatic activities of nutrient cycling. Samples were taken from a silt loam at 0–10 and 10–20 cm in an organic farm under lettuce (Lactuca sativa, potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa L, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Tall fescue pasture grass (Festuca arundinacea. Several FAMEs (a15:0, i15:0, i15:1, i16:0, a17:0, i17:0, 10Me17:0, cy17:0, 16:1ω5c and 18:1ω9c varied among the crop rhizospheres. FAME profiles of the soil microbial community under pasture showed a higher fungal:bacterial ratio compared to the soil under lettuce, potato, onion, and broccoli. Soil under potato showed higher sum of fungal FAME indicators compared to broccoli, onion and lettuce. Microbial biomass C and enzyme activities associated with pasture and potato were higher than the other rhizospheres. The lowest soil microbial biomass C and enzyme activities were found under onion. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences regarding the maximum operational taxonomic units (OTU at 3% dissimilarity level (roughly corresponding to the bacterial species level at 0–10 cm (581.7–770.0 compared to 10–20 cm (563.3–727.7 soil depths. The lowest OTUs detected at 0–10 cm were under broccoli (581.7; whereas the lowest OTUs found at 10–20 cm were under potato (563.3. The predominant phyla (85% in this soil at both depths were Bacteroidetes (i.e., Flavobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Flavobacteriaceae and Xanthomonadaceae were predominant under broccoli. Rhizobiaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, and Acidobacteriaceae were more

  9. Agroedutourism and Ecopreneurship Activities on the Organic Farming Practice in Lawang, Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa’

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five farmer groups in Lawang, Malang Regency, East Java Provinces, established organic agricultural practices almost two decades. They were visited frequently for farmer benchmarking activities; therefore they had planned to develop agroedutourism. The aims of this research were to identify potential organic farming activities as agroedutourism attractions as well as farmer ecopreneurship, to find out the existing agroedutourism facilities profile and to propose some strategies for further sustainable development. The data were gathered by interviewing key person of each farmer group in Lawang. Their agroedutourism profiles compared with a developed local agro-tourism using gap analysis. Farmer groups offered some distinct attractions and become their strengths such as out door activities in the organic perfumed and pigmented rice field, fruits and vegetable garden, zero waste management, biological pest control and healthy agricultural products. Establishment of this agroedutourism would be advantageous to lesson sharing among farmers and students, to be ecopreneur activity shown by an effective market system, to show real benefits of healthy agro-ecosystem and its products, as well as to show promising green business or ecopreneurship. Collaboration among them would improve available attractions and length of visit. Moreover, the results showed that 80% of farmer groups were visited regularly 5-10 times per month by potential visitors such as other farmer groups, house wives, staffs of agricultural departments and students. All farmer groups planned to develop agroedutourism; however the policy was only issued by 60% of farmer groups. Most of farmer groups showed a high variability in providing edutourism tours and guides. For sustainable development, farmer groups should provide more interesting attractions and facilities, develop their human resource, net working, and public promotion. Keywords: agroedutourism, attraction, ecopreneurship

  10. A concept of food-web structure in organic arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, F.W.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2003-01-01

    A proposal for a descriptive or topological farm food web is derived from field observations and from references in literature. Important themes in the food-web theory are tentatively applied to this preliminary model, explaining differences between local farm food-web structures and how they are

  11. Resilience of Organic versus Conventional Farming Systems in Tropical Africa: The Kenyan Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Muriuki, Anne; Musyoka, Martha; Fließbach, Andreas; Forster, Dionys

    2012-01-01

    In Kenya, agriculture is largely carried out by smallholder farmers, in a mixed farming noncommercialised setting where application of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides is minimal. Agricultural production is low and constrained by declining soil fertility, pest and diseases and increasingly unpredictable weather due to global warming. This calls for more resilient farming systems.

  12. Enzymatic activity of anthropogenic proto-organic soils in soilless farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bireescu, Geanina; Dazzi, Carmelo; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Lo Papa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    In soilless agriculture and horticulture coir is the more used substratum to grow plants because it is widely available and more environmentally friendly than sphagnum or peat. In Italy, soilless agriculture concerns an area of about 1,000 hectares, particularly concentrated in Sicily. The southern coastal belt of this region is the area interested by the most significant experiences in the application of techniques of soilless cultivation that, recently, has been used also for growing table grapes. Starting from the above consideration we suppose that the features of the coconut fiber underlay an evident transformation and that even after few years of table grape cultivation, such organic material undergone to a transformation that allows for the formation of a proto-organic soil (a proto-Histosol, we supposed). If this is true, we believe that, in this case, to speak about soilless cultivation is for sure misleading for the common people, as we should define this cultivation "on anthropogenic soils" instead. To fit the aims of this survey we used a big greenhouse devoted to soilless cultivation of table grape in a farm in the Southern Sicily We have considered the enzymatic activity that characterized the coconut fiber after 3 cycles of cultivation of table grapes. We used as a control the coconut fiber that the farmer used to prepare pots for soilless cultivation and coconut fiber of: 6 pots at the end of the first productive cycle 6 pots at the end of the second cycle and 3 pots at the end of the third cycle. On these organic samples we investigated three enzymes, belonging to oxydoreductase (catalase and dehydrogenase) and hydrolase (urease) classes. Statistical analysis of the investigated enzymes was developed using IBM Statistic SPSS v20 by ANOVA, Tukey test HSD for p ≤ 0.01 and Multivariate Statistical Analysis. Results have shown significant differences in enzymes content and quality among coir tests. The use of the coco fiber, as nutritive substratum

  13. Effects of organic-farming-compatible insecticides on four aphid natural enemy species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jean P; Defrance, Thibaut; Warnier, Anne M

    2010-06-01

    The toxicities of pyrethrins + rapeseed oil, pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide (PBO), potassium salts of fatty acids and linseed oil were assessed in the laboratory on the parasitic wasp Aphidius rhopalosiphi (Destefani-Perez), the ladybird Adalia bipunctata (L.), the rove beetle Aleochara bilineata (Gyll.) and the carabid beetle Bembidion lampros (Herbst.). The methods selected were residual contact toxicity tests on inert and natural substrates. Both the pyrethrin products led to 100% mortality in the adult parasitic wasps and ladybird larvae on glass plates and plants. The pyrethrins + PBO formulation was toxic for B. lampros on sand and natural soil, but the pyrethrins + rapeseed oil formulation was harmless for this species. Insecticidal soaps were harmless for all these beneficial species. None of the tested products significantly affected the parasitism of the onion fly pupae by A. bilineata. The results indicated the potentially high toxicity of natural pyrethrins for beneficial arthropods. Although this toxicity needs to be confirmed in field conditions, the toxicity levels obtained in the laboratory were similar to or higher than those of several synthetic insecticides known to be toxic in the field. Insecticidal soaps could be considered as an alternative for aphid control in organic farming in terms of selectivity.

  14. The Carbon and Global Warming Potential Impacts of Organic Farming: Does It Have a Significant Role in an Energy Constrained World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph C. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About 130 studies were analyzed to compare farm-level energy use and global warming potential (GWP of organic and conventional production sectors. Cross cutting issues such as tillage, compost, soil carbon sequestration and energy offsets were also reviewed. Finally, we contrasted E and GWP data from the wider food system. We concluded that the evidence strongly favours organic farming with respect to whole-farm energy use and energy efficiency both on a per hectare and per farm product basis, with the possible exception of poultry and fruit sectors. For GWP, evidence is insufficient except in a few sectors, with results per ha more consistently favouring organic farming than GWP per unit product. Tillage was consistently a negligible contributor to farm E use and additional tillage on organic farms does not appear to significantly deplete soil C. Energy offsets, biogas, energy crops and residues have a more limited role on organic farms compared to conventional ones, because of the nutrient and soil building uses of soil organic matter, and the high demand for organic foods in human markets. If farm E use represents 35% of total food chain E use, improvements shown of 20% or more in E efficiency through organic farm management would reduce food-chain E use by 7% or more. Among other food supply chain stages, wholesale/retail (including cooling and packaging and processing often each contribute 30% or more to total food system E. Thus, additional improvements can be obtained with reduced processing, whole foods and food waste minimization.

  15. Evaporation losses and dispersion of volatile organic compounds from tank farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howari, Fares M

    2015-05-01

    The present study is an application of a Gaussian dispersion model to evaluate volatilization losses from tank farms. It reports methodology to estimate evaporation losses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from organic liquid in storage tanks. This study used fixed roof and floating roof equations for breathing and working losses. Total loss, the breathing loss, vapor pressure, molecular weight of the product, tank diameter, diurnal temperature, paint factor, tank capacity, and number of turnovers were considered and factored in the calculation. AERMOD and ALOHA softwares were used to simulate the dispersion of VOCs under normal and accidental scenarios. For the modeling purposes, meteorological data such as annual average ambient temperature, annual average atmospheric pressure, daily minimum ambient temperature, daily maximum ambient temperature, solar insulation factor, and average wind speed were included as input in the calculation and modeling activities. The study took place in Sharjah Emirate in United Arab Emirates, which borders Dubai to the south and Ajman to the north, and the three form a conurbation. The reported method was used to estimate evaporation losses for baseline and hypothetical leak scenarios. Results of this research show that liquid storage tanks in the study area emit a low concentration of VOC under the studied and assumed conditions, e.g., new tanks with high performance sealing as well as the noted earlier climatic conditions. The dispersion of those concentrations is controlled by the prevailing wind direction. The predicted VOCs concentrations were within the range of the measured VOCs values in air. The study found that the spatial distributions of the predicted concentration attenuate with time and distance. Under the reported accidental spill scenario, the Gaussian model indicates that the danger area starts within the zone of less than 10 m. The danger area is subjected to flame pockets, and the VOC concentrations in this

  16. Cropping systems affect paddy soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks (in rice-garlic and rice-fava systems) in temperate region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Anqiang; Liu, Jian; Liu, Hongbin; Lei, Baokun; Zhai, Limei; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-12-31

    The accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils is critical to food security and climate change. However, there is still limited information on the dynamic trend of SOC sequestration following changes in cropping systems. Paddy soils, typical of temperate region of southern China, have a large potential for carbon (C) sequestration and nitrogen (N) fixation. It is of great importance to study the impacts of changes in cropping systems on stocks of SOC and total nitrogen (TN) in paddy soils. A six-year field experiment was conducted to clarify the dynamics of SOC and TN stocks in the paddy topsoil (0-20cm) when crop rotation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) -garlic (Allium sativum) (RG) was changed to rice-fava (Vicia faba L.) (RF), and to examine how the dynamics were affected by two N management strategies. The results showed that SOC stocks increased by 24.9% in the no N (control) treatment and by 18.9% in the treatment applied with conventional rate of N (CON), when RG was changed to RF. Correspondingly, TN stocks increased by 8.5% in the control but decreased by 2.6% in the CON. Compared with RG, RF was more conducive to increase the contents of soil microbial biomass C and N. Moreover, changing the cropping system from RG to RF increased the year-round N use efficiency from 21.6% to 34.4% and reduced soil N surplus in the CON treatment from 547kg/ha to 93kg/ha. In conclusion, changes in the cropping system from RG to RF could markedly increase SOC stocks, improve N utilization, reduce soil N surplus, and thus reduce the risk of N loss in the paddy soil. Overall, this study showed the potential of paddy agro-ecological systems to store C and maintain N stocks in the temperate regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of an organic package of practice towards integrated management of Solanum tuberosum and its comparison with conventional farming in terms of yield, quality, energy efficiency and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Seal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken up during 2014-16 for evaluating the potential of an organic package of practice towards integrated crop production (green farming in comparison to conventional farmers’ practice in West Bengal, India. Under green farming, compost was integrated with chemical fertilizer for soil management while organic plant/ pest management was undertaken utilizing Inhana Rational Farming (IRF Technology. The study indicated higher yield (9.7 %, higher nutrient use efficiency and economic sustainability under green farming irrespective of study area or potato variety. Higher qualitative expression in terms of starch content, pulp pH, vitamin C etc. under green farming might be due to the organic plant management aimed at energization of plant biochemical functions. Soil quality development as noted under green farming might have been influenced by the on-farm produced compost containing rich self- generated micro flora (in order of 1016 per colony forming unit.. The study indicated that green farming may serve as an efficient substitute of conventional farming towards yield sustenance, abatement of food toxicity and quality end product; through higher use of renewable energy and activation of plant physiological functions.

  18. Ecological principles underlying the increase of productivity achieved by cereal-grain legume intercrops in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    fertilizers use and associated fossil energy consumption. Organic farming, which does not allow the use of chemical, is also regarded as one prototype to enhance the sustainability of modern agriculture while decreasing environmental impacts. Here, we review the potential advantages of eco......-functional intensification in organic farming by intercropping cereal and grain legume species sown and harvested together. Our review is based on a literature analysis reinforced with integration of an original dataset of 58 field experiments conducted since 2001 in contrasted pedo-climatic European conditions in order...... mechanistic understanding is required to propose generic crop management procedures. Also, development of this practice must be achieved with the collaboration of value chain actors such as breeders to select cultivars suited to intercropping...

  19. Study of the degradation of mulch materials in vegetable crops for organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Moreno, Marta; Mancebo, Ignacio; Moreno, Carmen; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón

    2014-05-01

    early but once they have fulfilled their functions, appearing as a good alternative to PE, especially in organic farming. Project INIA RTA2011-00104-C04-03. References: Kasirajan, S.; Ngouajio, M. 2012. Polyethylene and biodegradable mulches for agricultural applications: a review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 32: 501-529. Martín-Closas, L.; Pelacho, A.M. 2011. Agronomic potential of biopolymer films. p. 277-299. In: Biopolymers. New materials for sustainable films and coating. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Moreno, M.M.; Moreno A. 2008. Effect of different biodegradable and polyethylene mulches on productivity and soil thermal and biological properties in a tomato crop. Sci. Hort. 116(3): 256-263.

  20. Acute coccidiosis in an organic dairy farm in tropical region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica M. Florião

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Florião M.M., Lopes B. do B., Berto B.P. & Lopes C.W.G. Acute coccidiosis in an organic dairy farm in tropical region, Brazil. [Coccidiose aguda em uma fazenda de gado leiteiro orgânico na região tropical, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:6-12, 2015. Curso de Pós- -Graduação em Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação em Agropecuária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23897- 970, Brasil. E-mail: monicafloriao@hotmail.com Coccidiosis or bovine eimeriosis is an intestinal disease caused by species of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875. It is responsible for gastrointestinal disorders and in some cases, animals died, especially the young animals. The proposed organic management for the system was relevant in establishing the health of the studied herd. Only some of the animals had clinical signs of acute eimeriosis. In nursing calves clinical signs appeared at 30 days old, during the first period of the study (2013-2014, occurring shortly after abrupt change in management, when the amount of milk supplied to animals of this extract was reduced. The other two cases occurred during the second period of the study (2014-2015, after fire in the area of pastures, causing the batch of weaned calves come into pasture destined to cows, with such abrupt change in management developed clinical signs of acute eimeriosis. The most frequent species was E. zuernii in both extracts, followed by E. cylindrica in nursing calves, and E. bovis and E. bukidnonensis in the weaned calves. The recovery of the animals was performed with the return to the proposed organic management associated with use of homeopathic medication. In addition, the animals recovered their body weight gains established for Gir breed (zebu dairy cattle and its cross breeds.

  1. Tillage and herbicide reduction mitigate the gap between conventional and organic farming effects on foraging activity of insectivorous bats

    OpenAIRE

    Barré, Kévin; Le Viol, Isabelle; Julliard, Romain; Chiron, François; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2018-01-01

    International audience; The increased use of pesticides and tillage intensification is known to negatively affect biodiversity. Changes in these agricultural practices such as herbicide and tillage reduction have variable effects among taxa, especially at the top of the trophic network including insectivorous bats. Very few studies compared the effects of agricultural practices on such taxa, and overall, only as a comparison of conventional versus organic farming without accurately accounting...

  2. The role of catch crops in the ecological intensification of spring cereals in organic farming under Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    common practices in organic farming. Measurements of dry matter (DM) and N content of grain cereals at harvest, above-ground biomass in catch crops and green manure crops in autumn and of the green manure crop at the first cutting were performed. The effect of catch crops on grain yield varied...... the nitrate leaching and increasing N retention, but also by improving yields. Management practices in relation to catch crops must be adapted to the specific soil and cropping systems....

  3. Care Farms in the Netherlands: An Underexplored Example of Multifunctional Agriculture--Toward an Empirically Grounded, Organization-Theory-Based Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, Jan; Hulsink, Willem; Grin, John

    2012-01-01

    For agricultural and rural development in Europe, multifunctionality is a leading concept that raises many questions. Care farming is a promising example of multifunctional agriculture that has so far received little attention. An issue that has not been examined thoroughly is the strategic mapping of different care farm organizations in this…

  4. Soil microbial biomass in organic farming system Biomassa microbiana do solo em sistemas orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production systems have to combine management practices in order to sustain soil's profitability and quality. Organic farming is gaining worldwide acceptance and has been expanding at an annual rate of 20% in the last decade, accounting for over 24 million hectares worldwide. Organic practices avoid applications of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, rely on organic inputs and recycling for nutrient supply, and emphasize cropping system design and biological processes for pest management, as defined by organic farming regulation in the world. In comparison with conventional farming, organic farming has potential benefits in improving food quality and safety. Plant production in organic farming mainly depends on nutrient release as a function of mineralization processes in soils. The build-up of a large and active soil microbial biomass is important pool of accessible nutrients, therefore, is an important priority in organic farming. In organic farming, there is positive effect of quantity and quality of inputs of organic residues on soil microbial biomass. In this way, the organic systems are extremely important for the increase of the soil fertility and the maintenance of the environmental sustainability.A produção agrícola tem de combinar práticas para prover a sustentabilidade do solo. A agricultura orgânica está ganhando aceitação mundial e cresce à taxa anual de 20% na última década, contabilizando mais de 24 milhões de hectares. As práticas orgânicas evitam o uso de fertilizantes sintéticos e pesticidas, enfatiza a aplicação de matéria orgânica, como também a reciclagem de nutrientes e de processos biológicos para manejo de pragas, através das regras dos sistemas orgânicos no mundo. Em comparação com a agricultura convencional, os sistemas orgânicos têm potencial de melhorar a qualidade e a segurança dos alimentos. A produção das plantas no sistema orgânico depende da liberação de nutrientes

  5. Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenstra, F; Maurer, V; Bestman, M; van Sambeek, F; Zeltner, E; Reuvekamp, B; Galea, F; van Niekerk, T

    2012-01-01

    1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes (brands) were present on the farms. In France, all birds were brown feathered hens laying brown eggs. In Switzerland and The Netherlands, there were brown, white (white feathered hens laying white eggs) and silver (white feathered hens laying brown eggs) hens. In Switzerland, mixed flocks were also present. 3. The overall effect of system (organic vs. conventional free range) on egg production and mortality was significant, with higher mortality and lower egg production among organic hens. In pair wise comparisons within country, the difference was highly significant in The Netherlands, and showed a non-significant tendency in the same direction in Switzerland and France. 4. White hens tended to perform better than brown hens. Silver hens appeared to have a higher mortality and lower production per hen housed at 60 weeks of age. 5. There were no significant relationships between production, mortality, feather condition and use of outside run or with flock size. 6. There was more variation in mortality and egg production among farms with a small flock size than among farms with a large flock size.

  6. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st) crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008) for cotton (-29%) and wheat (-27%), whereas in the 2(nd) crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton and

  7. No Clear Differences between Organic or Conventional Pig Farms in the Genetic Diversity or Virulence ofCampylobacter coliIsolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Martine; Nagard, Bérengère; Rose, Valérie; Bourgoin, Kévin; Cutimbo, Mélina; Kerouanton, Annaëlle

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of pig farm management on the genetic diversity and on the virulence of Campylobacter coli , we characterized isolates from 19 organic pig farms (62 isolates) and from 24 conventional pig farms (58 isolates). The 120 C. coli isolates were typed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the presence of nine virulence genes was screened using real-time PCR. The capacity of adhesion and invasion of 61 isolates (32 from organic and 29 from conventional farms) were then tested on human intestinal Caco-2 cells. A total of 59 PFGE types and of 50 sequence types (STs) were identified. Twelve PFGE types and nine STs, accounting for 34 and 41.6% of the isolates, respectively, were common between the two production systems with ST854 dominating (18.3% of the isolates). Twenty-nine PFGE types and 25 STs were only found in isolates from organic farms, and 18 PFGE types and 16 STs from conventional farms. No significant differences were found in diversity despite the differences in rearing systems, except at the locus level for the glnA, gltA , and uncA genes. All isolates, regardless of their origin, carried the ceuE, iam, ciaB , and flaA genes and more than 95% of the isolates carried the cadF and cdtABC genes. No significant differences were found in pathogenicity between the two farming systems. The pathogenicity of the C. coli isolates was low compared to C. jejuni control strains tested. The plasmid gene virb11 was detected in only 13 isolates from organic farms; these isolates showed greater invasion capacity than those without this gene. Our study indicates that pig farm management does not significantly affect the diversity and the virulence of Campylobacter coli isolated from pigs. The common genotypes between conventional and organic farms may indicate that some genotypes are adapted to pigs.

  8. Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus sources on mycorrhizal lettuces under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Seguel, Alex; Cornejo, Pablo; Rao, Maria A.; Borie, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) develop symbiotic associations with plants roots. These associations are very common in the natural environment and can provide a range of benefits to the host plant. AMF improve nutrition, enhance resistance to soil-borne pests and disease, increase resistance to drought and tolerance to heavy metals, and contribute to a better soil structure. However, agricultural intensive managements, such as the use of mineral fertilizes, pesticides, mouldboard tillage, monocultures and use of non-mycorrhizal crops, are detrimental to AMF. As a consequence, agroecosystems are impoverished in AMF and may not provide the full range of benefits to the crop. Organic farming systems may be less unfavourable to AMF because they exclude the use of water-soluble fertilisers and most pesticides, and generally they plan diverse crop rotations. The AMF develop the most common type of symbiosis in nature: about 90% of the plants are mycorrhizal and many agricultural crops are mycorrhizal. One of more mycorrhizal crops is lettuce, that is very widespread in intensive agricultural under greenhouse. Therefore, cultivated lettuce is know to be responsive to mycorrhizal colonization which can reach 80% of root length and contribute to phosphorus and nitrogen absorption by this plant specie. For this work four different lettuce cultivars (Romana, Milanesa, Grande Lagos and Escarola) were used to study mycorrhization under organic agricultural system, supplying compost from agricultural waste (1 kg m-2) as background fertilization for all plots, red guano as phosphorus source (75 U ha-1 and 150 U ha-1 of P2O5), lupine flour as nitrogen source (75 and 150 U/ha of N) and a combination of both. Lettuce plants were cultivated under greenhouse and after two months of growing, plants were harvested and dried and fresh weight of lettuce roots and shoots were evaluated. The number of spores, percentage of colonization, total mycelium and glomalin content were also

  9. Approaches to characterize extended spectrum beta-lactamase/beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in healthy organized vis-a-vis backyard farmed pigs in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Indranil; Joardar, Siddhartha N; Mahanti, Achintya; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Sar, Tapas K; Dutta, Tapan K

    2015-12-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence and to characterize the ESBL/beta-lactamase producing-Escherichia coli in healthy pigs of organized and backyard farms in West Bengal, India. Total 200 rectal swabs were collected randomly from healthy pigs maintained in four organized farms and 10 backyard farms (n=100 each) and 76 isolates were identified as E. coli from organized (48/100, 48%) and backyard pigs (28/100, 28%). Twelve E. coli isolates (6%) in the present study were detected to possess any of the ESBL/beta-lactamase genes studied. ESBL/beta-lactamase producers were isolated with significantly more frequency from backyard pigs than the organized farm pigs (p=0.026). Six of ESBL/beta-lactamase producing isolates were phenotypically confirmed as CTX-M producers and ten of them were confirmed as TEM/SHV producers. PCR and sequencing of the amplified product from representative isolates revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-9, blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. No unique combination of the studied beta lactamase genes for organized and backyard farm pig isolates was noted. The ESBL isolates belonged to O13, O55, O133, O153, O157, O158, O166, rough and OUT serogroups. The association of heat labile toxin (elt) (pbeta-lactamase producers from organized farm (Ak/Ex) and indigenous pigs (Ak/Ex/Te; Ak/CoT/G) showed a characteristic phenotypical antibiotic resistance pattern. Two pairs of isolates from organized and backyard farm pigs showed clonal relationship indicating a possible transmission between the farms which were situated adjacently. Thus the present study revealed backyard farm pigs as major source of ESBL/beta-lactamase producing-E. coli associated with STa and characteristic antibiotic resistance pattern in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence and levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in farmed and wild marine fish from Tanzania. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakalapa, Eliezer Brown; Mmochi, Aviti John; Müller, Mette Helen Bjorge; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Polder, Anuschka

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, farmed and wild milkfish (Chanos chanos) and mullet (Mugil cephalus) from Tanzania mainland (Mtwara) and Zanzibar islands (Pemba and Unguja) were collected for analyses of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Fish livers were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Muscle tissue was used for analyses of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The major contaminant was p,p'-DDE. The highest p,p'-DDE concentration was found in wild milkfish from Mtwara (715.27 ng/g lipid weight (lw)). This was 572 times higher than the maximum level detected in farmed milkfish from the same area. The ratios of p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in wild milkfish and mullet from Mtwara and Pemba indicate historical use of DDT. In contrast, ratios in farmed milkfish from Unguja and Mtwara, suggest recent use. The levels of HCB, HCHs and trans-nonachlor were low. ∑ 10 PCBs levels were low, ranging from  -180> -138. PBDEs were detected in low and varying levels in all locations. BDE-47 was the dominating congener, and the highest level was found in farmed milkfish from Jozani (1.55 ng/g lw). HBCDD was only detected in wild mullet from Pemba at a level of 16.93 ng/g lw. PFAS was not detected in any of the samples. POP levels differed between geographic areas and between farmed and wild fish. Human activities seem to influence levels on PCBs and PBDEs on Unguja. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of C/N controlled periphyton based organic farming of freshwater prawn on water quality parameters and biotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezoanul Haque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of C:N controlled periphyton based organic farming of freshwater prawn on water quality parameters and biotic factors were investigated. The experiment had two treatments: T1 and T2 each with three replications. Stocking density was maintained at 20,000 juveniles ha-1. In T1, only commercially available prawn feed was applied and in T2, a locally formulated and prepared feed containing 24% crude protein with C:N ratio close to 20 was used, and maize flour and bamboo side shoots were provided for maintaining C:N ratio 20.Mean values of water quality parameters did not vary significantly (P>0.05 between treatments. Periphytic biomass in terms of dry matter, ash free dry matter (AFDM and chlorophyll a showed significant difference (P<0.05 among different sampling months. Individual harvesting weight, individual weight gain, specific growth rates, gross and net yields of prawn were significantly higher (P<0.05 in T2 than T1. Therefore, it was concluded that freshwater prawn might consume periphyton biomass in C:N controlled periphyton based organic farming practices resulted a significantly (P<0.05 higher production of freshwater prawn than traditional farming.

  12. Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

    2012-03-01

    Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties.

  13. Tracing the source of soil organic matter eroded from temperate forest catchments using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma P. McCorkle; Asmeret Asefaw Berhe; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Dale W. Johnson; Karis J. McFarlane; Marilyn L. Fogel; Stephen C. Hart

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion continuously redistributes soil and associated soil organic matter (SOM) on the Earth's surface, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). We used natural abundance...

  14. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamria Sidauruk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato monoculture potato with cabbage potato with mustard potato with celery potato with cabbage and mustard potato with cabbage and celery potato with mustard and celery potato with cabbage mustard and celery. Research carried out for two planting season. The first at May-August and the second at September-December. The results showed that M. persicae was consistently at different densities in different intercropping system on potato. The aphid was first recorded at three week until planting. The kind of intercroppingculture plants significantly reduced the number of aphid at two planting season. Intercropping system decrease population of M. persicae at potato. At 9 weeks after planting the decreased are respectively at intercropping potato with mustard 3.97 aphidleaf potato with cabbage and mustard 4.43 aphidleaf and potato with celery 4.45 aphidleaf. At 11 weeks after planting the decreased are respectively at intercropping potato with mustard 2.99 aphid per leaf potato with cabbage 3.10 aphidleaf and potato with cabbage and mustard 3.60 aphidleaf. At 7 weeks after planting the highest population of natural enemies Braconid wasp was found on intercropping potato with cabbage2.62 braconid waspplant and at 9 weeks was found on intercropping potato with cabbage mustard and celery 2.38 braconid waspplant. The highest population of Coccinellidae found on intercropping potato with cabbage mustard and celery 1.80plant at 11 weeks after planting.

  15. Occurrence and risk assessment of tetracycline antibiotics in soil from organic vegetable farms in a subtropical city, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lei; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Jiang, Yuan-Neng; Yan, Qing-Yun; Li, Yan-Wen; Huang, Xian-Pei; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of tetracycline antibiotics in soils from different organic vegetable farms in Guangzhou, a subtropical city, South China and evaluated their ecological risk. Four tetracycline compounds (oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline) were extracted ultrasonically from soil samples (n = 69), with a solid-phase extraction cleanup, and were then measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that four compounds were detected in all samples, with the concentrations of the individual compounds ranging from 0.04 to 184.8 μg/kg (dry weight). The concentrations of tetracycline compounds in the soils from different vegetable farms varied greatly, but their patterns of distribution were similar. Doxycycline was the predominant compound with a mean of 21.87 μg/kg, followed by chlortetracycline. The concentrations of doxycycline and chlortetracycline in 7.46 % of the samples were higher than the ecotoxic effect trigger value (100 μg/kg) set by the Steering Committee of Veterinary International Committee on Harmonization. Additionally, the concentrations of tetracyclines in greenhouse soils were significantly lower than those in open-field soils. Risk assessment based on single compound exposure showed that doxycycline could pose medium or high risks. Compared with other studies, the levels of tetracyclines in this study were relatively low. The hypothesis that antibiotic residues in the soil of organic farms fertilized with manure are higher than in the soils of conventional farms was not supported in the area studied due to the high levels of moisture, temperature, and microbial activity.

  16. Projection of corn production and stover-harvesting impacts on soil organic carbon dynamics in the U.S. Temperate Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Young, Claudia J.; Dahal, Devendra; Sohl, Terry L.; Davis, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon sequestration potential is widely considered as a realistic option for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. However, this potential may be threatened by global changes including climate, land use, and management changes such as increased corn stover harvesting for rising production of cellulosic biofuel. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) at regional or global scale. This study simulated the corn production and spatiotemporal changes of SOC in the U.S. Temperate Prairies, which covers over one-third of the U.S. corn acreage, using a biogeochemical model with multiple climate and land-use change projections. The corn production (either grain yield or stover biomass) could reach 88.7–104.7 TgC as of 2050, 70–101% increase when compared to the base year of 2010. A removal of 50% stover at the regional scale could be a reasonable cap in view of maintaining SOC content and soil fertility especially in the beginning years. The projected SOC dynamics indicated that the average carbon sequestration potential across the entire region may vary from 12.7 to 19.6 g C/m2/yr (i.e., 6.6–10.2 g TgC/yr). This study not only helps understand SOC dynamics but also provides decision support for sustainable biofuel development.

  17. The response of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the ecosystem carbon balance to experimental drought in a temperate shrubland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, A.; Emmett, B.A.; Williams, D.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change has been proposed as a driver of carbon (C) loss from the large pool of C held in soils. Aqueous (dissolved organic carbon, DOC) and gaseous (soil respiration or net ecosystem CO2 exchange) forms of C loss from soils have been considered. Under some climate change scenarios, gaseous...... drought, there was a 26% increase in concentrations of DOC in soil water in the mineral soil in the drought plots and this further increased to 52% after 8 years. A similar pattern was not observed in the organic soil horizons. Despite higher DOC concentrations in the mineral soil horizon, decreased...... drainage of water from the drought-treated soils resulted in an overall decrease of 9% in total DOC export. Calculating the carbon (C) balance for the below-ground component of the ecosystem reveals that DOC represents 3% of gross C export. Previous studies at the site have demonstrated large increases...

  18. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  19. Novel organization of genes involved in prophage excision identified in the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuner, Anne; Brøndsted, Lone; Hammer, Karin

    1999-01-01

    is the only phage protein present. However, 100% excision is observed when the phage protein Orf7 is provided as well as the integrase. Thus, Orf7 is the TP901-1 excisionase, and it is the first excisionase identified that is used during excisive recombination catalyzed by an integrase belonging to the family...... use for many organisms and also for types of deletion events other than excision....

  20. Integrated Organic Farm; a model aimed at contributing to food security for indigenous communities in Talamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Díaz

    2015-06-01

    Traditional farming in Talamanca comes from the continuous and balanced relationship between humans and their natural environment; however, there is evidence of deterioration in this relationship. As a result of this initiative, this proposal intends to be a model to be replicated in neighboring communities and so contribute to sustainable human development in the region of Talamanca.

  1. Organic foods from family farms in the National School Food Program: Perspectives of social actors from Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Andrade Silverio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze suggestions that facilitate the use of organic foods produced by family farms made by the social actors responsible for Santa Catarina's school meals. METHODS: This qualitative and exploratory study used an electronic questionnaire for surveying 293 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina in 2010 and identified the percentage of organic school foods purchased from family farms. The social actors from 52 municipalities who were responsible for organic food acquisition were interviewed in person. Their suggestions were categorized and analyzed by content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 446 social actors made 684 suggestions categorized into four themes: Awareness strategies for the use of organic foods (n=286 were proposed by principals and dieticians, who emphasized the need of educating social actors and community and raising community awareness; Better Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar management (n=148 was suggested by principals and family farmers, who wanted less bureaucracy and outsourcing, fewer taxes, and more management involvement; Better coordination between the demand and supply of organic foods (n=130 was suggested by principals, family farmers, and cooks because of logistic and supply problems; and Better management of school food production (n=120 was suggested by principals and cooks, who reported problems with the supply of specific foods, low organic food diversity, and lack of certification. CONCLUSION: For the social actors, the use of organic foods in the schools of Santa Catarina requires the education of those involved (technical support, educational strategies, and community awareness, government support, coordination between demand and supply, and better management of organic food production.

  2. Carbon input control over soil organic matter dynamics in a temperate grassland exposed to elevated CO2 and warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Y.; Pendall, E.; Dijkstra, F. A.; Morgan, J. A.; Newcomb, J. M.

    2010-03-01

    Elevated CO2 generally increases soil C pools. However, greater available C concentrations can potentially stimulate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. The effects of climate warming on C storage can also be positive or negative. There is a high degree of uncertainty on the combined effects of climate warming and atmospheric CO2 increase on SOM dynamics and its potential feedbacks to climate change. Semi-arid systems are predicted to show strong ecosystem responses to both factors. Global change factors can have contrasting effects for different SOM pools, thus, to understand the mechanisms underlying the combined effects of multiple factors on soil C storage, effects on individual C pools and their kinetics should be evaluated. We assessed SOM dynamics by conducting long-term laboratory incubations of soils from PHACE (Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment experiment), an elevated CO2 and warming field experiment in semi-arid, native northern mixed grass prairie, Wyoming, USA. We measured total C mineralization and estimated the size of the labile pool and the decomposition rates of the labile and resistant SOM pools. To examine the role of plant inputs on SOM dynamics we measured aboveground biomass, root biomass, and soil dissolved organic C (DOC). Greater aboveground productivity under elevated CO2 translated into enlarged pools of readily available C (measured as total mineralized C, labile C pool and DOC). The effects of warming on the labile C only occurred in the first year of warming suggesting a transient effect of the microbial response to increased temperature. Experimental climate change affected the intrinsic decomposability of both the labile and resistant C pools. Positive relationships of the rate of decomposition of the resistant C with aboveground and belowground biomass and dissolved organic C suggested that plant inputs mediated the response by enhancing the degradability of the resistant C. Our results contribute to a growing body of

  3. A Multiyear Study of the Variability in Organic Matter Concentration and Composition in a Flashy Temperate Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, E. C.; Macdonald, M. J.; Zigah, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    River and stream systems are highly dynamic, exhibiting strong temporal and spatial variability in the processing of organic matter. In this study the temporal variability in organic matter concentration and composition in a flashy local stream (Amity Creek, Duluth, MN) was analyzed over the course of 2.5 years in an attempt to better understand the delivery of organic matter from this stream into its receiving body (Lake Superior). Amity Creek is a relatively pristine (2% urban), primarily forested (71%) stream system with a watershed area of 42.6 km2 and an average slope of 9.6°. Sixty-five grab samples of whole water were taken from a sample site 0.3 km from the confluence of this stream with Lake Superior. The samples were analyzed for total, particulate, and dissolved organic carbon (TOC, POC, and DOC) concentrations and characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for isotopic (stable and radiocarbon) signatures. UV-visible proxies (spectral slope, E2/E3 values) show variations with both season and flow. Spectral slopes are lower in spring, higher in the summer and early fall, and more variable in late fall. Higher S values are also seen in low flow periods (which often correspond to mid-to-late summer). E2/E3 values, inversely related to molecular weight, are lower in spring and fall relative to summer and also increase as flow decreases. TOC and DOC concentrations do not appear to vary systematically with season. They are correlated with stream flow in low to mid flow conditions but not at high flow. POC and DOC during high flow (in June 2008) have modern (post-1950s) radiocarbon signatures while DOC sampled during low flow (September 2008) has a pre-bomb radiocarbon signature (Δ14C of -13‰). DIC from the same September sample has a modern signature (Δ14C of 21‰), indicating that the DOC is not from concurrent primary production affected by a reservoir effect but from an older allochthonous source.

  4. A Diagnosis of Biophysical and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers’ Choice to Adopt Organic or Conventional Farming Systems for Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritbir Riar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture is one of the most widely known alternative production systems advocated for its benefits to soil, environment, health and economic well-being of farming communities. Rapid increase in the market demand for organic products presents a remarkable opportunity for expansion of organic agriculture. A thorough understanding of the context specific motivations of farmers for adoption of organic farming systems is important so that appropriate policy measures are put in place. With an aim of understanding the social and biophysical motivations of organic and conventional cotton farmers for following their respective farming practices, a detailed farm survey was conducted in Nimar valley of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. The study area was chosen for being an important region for cotton production, where established organic and conventional farms operate under comparable circumstances. We found considerable variation among organic and conventional farmers for their social and biophysical motivations. Organic farmers were motivated by the sustainability of cotton production and growing safer food without pesticides, whereas conventional farmers were sensitive about their reputation in community. Organic farmers with larger holdings were more concerned about closed nutrient cycles and reducing their dependence on external inputs, whereas medium and small holding organic farmers were clearly motivated by the premium price of organic cotton. Higher productivity was the only important motivation for conventional farmers with larger land holdings. We also found considerable yield gaps among different farms, both under conventional and organic management, that need to be addressed through extension and training. Our findings suggest that research and policy measures need to be directed toward strengthening of extension services, local capacity building, enhancing availability of suitable inputs and market access for organic farmers.

  5. Physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitika; Punia, Darshan; Khetarpaul, N

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the investigation was to analyse physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions. The seeds of five varieties of wheat (C-306, WH-283, WH-711, WH-896 and WH-912) grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions were ground in a Junior Mill to pass through 60-mesh sieves and were stored in air-tight containers until use. Standard methods were used to estimate the physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient composition. Consumer acceptability was studied by carrying out the organoleptic evaluation of wheat chapatis, a common item in diets of the Indian population. The results of study revealed that inorganically grown wheat varieties had significantly higher 1,000-grain weight and more grain hardness as compared with organically grown wheat varieties, and a non-significant difference was observed in their gluten content, water absorption capacity and hydration capacity. On average, wheat varieties grown under inorganic conditions contained significantly higher protein and crude fibre content as compared with varieties grown under organic conditions. WH-711 variety had maximum protein content. Protein fractions (i.e. albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin) were significantly higher in varieties grown under inorganic conditions than those of varieties grown under organic conditions. The variety WH-711 had the highest total soluble sugars and variety WH-912 had the highest starch content. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents were significantly higher in inorganically grown wheat varieties as compared with organically grown wheat varieties. The wheat varieties grown under organic conditions had significantly higher protein and starch digestibility than the wheat grown under inorganic conditions. The data revealed that there were significant differences in total calcium and phosphorus contents of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic

  6. Spatial Organization of "Farmed" Wetlands in Iowa's Prairie Pothole Landscape: Geomorphic and Anthropogenic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunkel, K. B.; Basu, N. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Des Moines Lobe landform within North Central Iowa is the southernmost portion of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) that extends northwest into Canada. The PPR is a vast landscape dotted with thousands of glacially formed depressional wetlands known as prairie potholes. These potholes provide a wide range of ecological and hydrological services and are notable for their high waterfowl productivity. Within Iowa it is estimated that 95% of the wetlands in the Des Moines Lobe have been drained for agricultural purposes. Wetlands in this region are typically drained by subsurface tile drains in an attempt to lower the water table and increase agricultural productivity. Efforts are also underway in restoring some of these drained wetlands. In order to better understand the hydrological impacts of restoring drained wetlands at the watershed scale, it is important to understand how these depressions are distributed in space throughout the Des Moines Lobe. The overall objective of this study was to (1) understand the size-distribution and spatial organization of depressional features in the Des Moines Lobe as a function of watershed area and landform type; and (2) Explore the role of human impact on the size-distribution and spatial organization by comparing depressions based on 1m LIDAR DEM (surrogate for historic wetlands) with "farmed" wetlands based on National Wetlands Inventory (NWI ) data. It was found that the size-frequency relationship follows a power law regression that varies based on the landform type and the size of the study area. The power law function varies predictably with changes in area, suggesting fractal properties within the watersheds examined. Comparison between the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) database and the LIDAR images was used to evaluate the effect of human disturbance on the landscape. The LIDAR captures the depressional areas that correspond to wetlands before the landscape was extensively tile-drained, while NWI captures the

  7. Positive relationship detected between soil bioaccessible organic pollutants and antibiotic resistance genes at dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Wu, Jun; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Tian, Da; Shen, Fangyuan; Liu, Kuan; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Linzhang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-01-01

    Co-contaminated soils by organic pollutants (OPs), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been becoming an emerging problem. However, it is unclear if an interaction exists between mixed pollutants and ARG abundance. Therefore, the potential relationship between OP contents and ARG and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) abundance was investigated from seven dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China. Phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, associated ARG genes, and intI1 had the highest detection frequencies. Correlation analysis suggested a stronger positive relationship between the ARG abundance and the bioaccessible OP content than the total OP content. Additionally, the significant correlation between the bioaccessible mixed pollutant contents and ARG/intI1 abundance suggested a direct/indirect impact of the bioaccessible mixed pollutants on soil ARG dissemination. This study provided a preliminary understanding of the interaction between mixed pollutants and ARGs in co-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Coexistence of OPs, antibiotics, and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous. • Bioaccessible pollutants exhibited positive correlation with ARG abundance. • ARGs significantly correlated with intI1. • Bioaccessible pollutants demonstrated strong correlation with intI1. • The intI1 gene might serve as a potential proxy for mixed pollution. - Coexistence of mixed OPs and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous; a positive correlation can be found between the bioaccessible OP fractions and ARG/intI1 abundance.

  8. Effects of compost fertilization in organic farming on micronutrients and heavy metals in soil and crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Sager, Manfred; Bonell, Marion; Fuchs, Katrin; Haas, Dieter; Ableidinger, Christoph; Hartl, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    For organic stockless and vegetable farms using biowaste compost is a way to sustain soil humus content. At the same time compost use in agriculture closes local nutrient cycles. Besides organic matter and main nutrients, biowaste compost also imports micronutrients and heavy metals in amounts determined by the compost input material. The aim of this work was to assess total and plant-available contents of micronutrients B, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn, beneficial elements Co and Se and heavy metals Cd, Cr and Pb in the soil and in crops after 20 years of fertilization with compost produced from source-separated organic waste. Topsoil and wheat grain samples were collected from the long-term field experiment 'STIKO' situated near Vienna on a Molli-gleyic Fluvisol. Between 1992 and 2012 the organic treatments C1, C2 and C3 had received 5, 10 and 14 t ha-1 yr-1 (wet wt.) biowaste compost on average. They were compared with the unfertilized organic control treatment and with three mineral fertilization treatments, which had received 20, 32 and 44 kg N ha-1 yr 1, respectively, plus 40 kg P and 68 kg K ha-1 yr-1 on average. Total soil element contents of B, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn were measured in aqua regia digestion. Immediately water-soluble elements were analysed in soil saturation extract, elements in exchangeable form in LiCl extract following Husz (2001), and long-term available elements in 0.5 N HCl extract. Wheat grains were dehulled, milled and subjected to microwave digestion with HNO3 and H2O2. Wheat was analyzed for Cd and Pb with ICP-MS. All other elements in wheat and all soil extracts were analyzed using ICP-AES. Total soil concentrations of micronutrients, heavy metals and beneficial elements were in the range of usual soil contents and lower than the Austrian background values for arable land with comparable pH and carbonate concentration (Schwarz and Freudenschuss, 2004) in all treatments (all mg kg-1: B 14-19, Fe 16000-18000, Mn

  9. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch II: Biological response of Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall and Coccinella septempunctata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four systems of organic farming of spring vetsch on Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae and Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae population density and the toxicity of several products on predatory insects were studied. The variants were: Control (without using any biological products; combined treatment with Polyversum (biological foliar fertilizer and Biofa (biological plant growth regulator; treatment with NeemAzal T/S (biological insecticide, a.i. azadirachtin and treatment with a combination of NeemAzal with Polyversum and Biofa. Variant V was a conventional farming system in which a combination of Nurelle D (synthetic insecticide, Masterblend (foliar fertilizer and Flordimex 420 (growth regulator was used as a standard treatment. In the organic farming system that included treatment of plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal (azadirachtin, the reduction in A. intermedius abundance was 20.7% when it was applied alone and 24.6 % in combination with the organic products Polyversum and Biofa. NeemAzal achieved a lower reduction in the counts of predatory ladybirds C. septempunctata, from 14.9% (alone to 21.9% (combination. The biological insecticide, applied alone or in combination, was mostly harmless and rarely harmful to A. intermedius. NeemAzal manifested harmlessness to C. septempunctata as its toxic action did not exceed 25%. An analysis of variance regarding product toxicity to A. intermedius and C. septempunctata demonstrated that the type of treatment (the application of insecticides alone or in combination had the strongest effect on product toxicity. Тhe use of neem-based insecticides can be a substantial contribution towards preservation of biodiversity in ecosystems.

  10. Prevalence of Bovine Brucellosis in Organized Dairy Farms, Using Milk ELISA, in Quetta City, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 200 milk samples from cattle (=86 and buffalo (=114 were evaluated using milk ring test (MRT and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence was found to be 3% and 8.5% in cattle and buffaloes using MRT and i-ELISA, respectively. The prevalence was 4.6% and 1.7% in cattle and buffalo using MRT, respectively, while i-ELISA exhibited 20% and 0% in cattle and buffalo, respectively. The prevalence was higher in government dairy farm, compared to privately owned dairy farm. This paper points out an alarming situation in the target area with respect to the public health significance.

  11. Short-term effects of fertility management under organic farming in Mediterranean region on soil properties and tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Jarrar, Mohammad; Dumontet, Stefano; Mondelli, Donato

    2014-05-01

    In organic farming, plant production depends almost exclusively on nutrient deriving from the decomposition of exogenous organic matter in soil which is able to provide significant quantities of several important nutrients for the plant growth. However, in the soil the timing and amount of mineralization often does not coincide with crop nutritional need, making in-season fertilization necessary. The Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 on organic farming standards recognizes these needs and allows the use of a limited range fertilizers and soil conditioners (inputs) in order to meet nutritional needs of the plants and to achieve short term economically viable yield. Short-term open field experiment was conducted at the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (MAIB) located in Apulia region (Southern Italy) in order study the effects of different fertilization scenarios based on equilibrated nutritional requirement on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv. San Marzano) production efficiency and soil chemical properties. In soil dressing phase, three months before planting, biochar (BCH), organic fertilizers (OF), combined treatment (BCH+OF), cattle manure and vineyard wood compost (MVC), dairy wastes industry and vineyard wood compost (DVC) and unamended soil as control (CON) were established. In the pre-crop phase, organic and/or mineral fertilizers were incorporated into the previous treatments except CON and BCH in order to achieve balanced N, P and K application rates for tomato plants. Different fertilization scenarios significantly increased the yields over CON and BCH treatments, maintaining fruits quality. In short period of time, most of the soil parameters remained invariable, only available phosphorus significantly increased in the treatments which received organic fertilizers maybe due to the slight reduction in soil pH. However, such results are not surprising, if we consider the quantity of amendments and fertilizers applied in the experiment, as well as

  12. Ecosystem-scale volatile organic compound fluxes during an extreme drought in a broadleaf temperate forest of the Missouri Ozarks (central USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Roger; Karl, Thomas; Guenther, Alex; Hosman, Kevin P; Pallardy, Stephen G; Gu, Lianhong; Geron, Chris; Harley, Peter; Kim, Saewung

    2015-10-01

    Considerable amounts and varieties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are exchanged between vegetation and the surrounding air. These BVOCs play key ecological and atmospheric roles that must be adequately represented for accurately modeling the coupled biosphere-atmosphere-climate earth system. One key uncertainty in existing models is the response of BVOC fluxes to an important global change process: drought. We describe the diurnal and seasonal variation in isoprene, monoterpene, and methanol fluxes from a temperate forest ecosystem before, during, and after an extreme 2012 drought event in the Ozark region of the central USA. BVOC fluxes were dominated by isoprene, which attained high emission rates of up to 35.4 mg m(-2)  h(-1) at midday. Methanol fluxes were characterized by net deposition in the morning, changing to a net emission flux through the rest of the daylight hours. Net flux of CO2 reached its seasonal maximum approximately a month earlier than isoprenoid fluxes, which highlights the differential response of photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions to progressing drought conditions. Nevertheless, both processes were strongly suppressed under extreme drought, although isoprene fluxes remained relatively high compared to reported fluxes from other ecosystems. Methanol exchange was less affected by drought throughout the season, confirming the complex processes driving biogenic methanol fluxes. The fraction of daytime (7-17 h) assimilated carbon released back to the atmosphere combining the three BVOCs measured was 2% of gross primary productivity (GPP) and 4.9% of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on average for our whole measurement campaign, while exceeding 5% of GPP and 10% of NEE just before the strongest drought phase. The meganv2.1 model correctly predicted diurnal variations in fluxes driven mainly by light and temperature, although further research is needed to address model BVOC fluxes during drought events. © 2015 John Wiley

  13. Effect of farming systems on the yield, quality parameters and sensory properties of conventionally and organically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinskiene, V; Asakaviciute, R; Miezeliene, A; Alencikiene, G; Ivanauskas, L; Jakstas, V; Viskelis, P; Razukas, A

    2014-02-15

    The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (pfarming. The farming type has no significant effect (p>0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of feeding strategies and cropping systems on greenhouse gas emission from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Sun, F; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Hedtcke, J L; Silva, E M

    2017-07-01

    Organic agriculture continues to expand in the United States, both in total hectares and market share. However, management practices used by dairy organic producers, and their resulting environmental impacts, vary across farms. This study used a partial life cycle assessment approach to estimate the effect of different feeding strategies and associated crop production on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. Field and livestock-driven emissions were calculated using 2 data sets. One was a 20-yr data set from the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping System Trial documenting management inputs, crop and pasture yields, and soil characteristics, used to estimate field-level emissions from land associated with feed production (row crop and pasture), including N 2 O and soil carbon sequestration. The other was a data set summarizing organic farm management in Wisconsin, which was used to estimate replacement heifer emission (CO 2 equivalents), enteric methane (CH 4 ), and manure management (N 2 O and CH 4 ). Three combinations of corn grain (CG) and soybean (SB) as concentrate (all corn = 100% CG; baseline = 75% CG + 25% SB; half corn = 50% CG + 50% SB) were assigned to each of 4 representative management strategies as determined by survey data. Overall, GHG emissions associated with crop production was 1,297 ± 136 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM without accounting for soil carbon changes (ΔSC), and GHG emission with ΔSC was 1,457 ± 111 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM, with greater reliance on pasture resulting in less ΔSC. Higher levels of milk production were a major driver associated with reduction in GHG emission per metric tonne of ECM. Emissions per metric tonne of ECM increased with increasing proportion of SB in the ration; however, including SB in the crop rotation decreased N 2 O emission per metric tonne of ECM from cropland due to lower applications of organically approved N fertility inputs. More SB at the expense of CG

  15. Sustainable extensification as an alternative model for reducing GHG emissions from agriculture. The case of an extensively managed organic farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Braun, Martin; Henriksen, Christian Bugge

    2015-01-01

    GHG emissions of an extensively managed Danish organic farm were estimated upstream and on-farm. The results were compared to Danish national levels based on land area and output. Overall, the farm emitted 2.12 t CO2eq ha−1 yr−1. Excluding land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF) related...... emissions, the combined GHG emissions from energy- and agriculture-based activities at the case farm were 47% lower (per unit area) and 12% higher (per unit output), than GHG emissions from Danish agriculture. With current livestock density (0.64 LU ha−1) and crop production area, the case study farm would...... supply at average 1,466 kcal per inhabitant per day in Denmark, if the farm was scaled up to Danish national level. With a reduction of livestock density to 0.36 LU ha−1 and proportional cropland area expansion for food production (ceteris paribus), the case study farm could supply around 4,940 kcal...

  16. Rages or Temper Tantrums? The Behavioral Organization, Temporal Characteristics, and Clinical Significance of Angry-Agitated Outbursts in Child Psychiatry Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potegal, Michael; Carlson, Gabrielle; Margulies, David; Gutkovitch, Zinoviy; Wall, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Angry, agitated outbursts (AAOs) are a common precipitant of children's psychiatric hospitalization. In the hospital, AAOs present both management and diagnostic challenges, e.g., while they have recently been described as manic "rages", older studies suggest that they may be exacerbated temper tantrums. Factor analyses of 109 AAOs had by 46…

  17. Analysis of the complete DNA sequence of the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1: Evolution, structure, and genome organization of lactococcal bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Lone; Østergaard, Solvej; Pedersen, Margit

    2001-01-01

    A complete analysis of the entire genome of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 has been performed and the function of 21 of 56 TP901-1-encoded ORFs has been assigned. This knowledge has been used to propose 10 functional modules each responsible for specific functions during bacterio...

  18. Animal breeding in organic dairy farming : an inventory of farmers' views and difficulties to overcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Groen, A.F.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Roep, D.; Baars, T.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, most organic dairy farmers in the Netherlands use conventional breeding methods and production stock. In view of the organic objective of closed chains, organic dairy farmers discussed in workshops the desirability and practical merits of different possible scenarios for realizing

  19. Applying the principles of welfare and quality of production in the organic farm of the laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zdechovanová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available European Union  banned with Council Directive No. 74/1999/EC use of the conventional battery cages for laying hens in European Union with effect from January 1, 2012. By this time much attention was paid to the assessment of laying hens welfare in the modified breeding system,namely from aspect of behavior and expression fyziological stress. At present are used the enriched cages,   which device is defined by the Code of laying hens living conditions. Quantification of intensity and sequence of the events in different behaviour and a time regime can contribute to knowledge of time spending of the laying hens  in the breeding area and to determining of prioritizing their behavior.The aim of our research was assessment an application of principles laying hens welfare in the farm, their production and egg quality. An object of investigation was ecological farm of laying hens. In the experiment were observed thehousing conditions and nutrition of laying hens in farm, egg production, egg weight at laying hens old 42 weeks and selected indicators of chemical formation of the eggs. In the farm were reared laying hens ISA Brown, which are high-productive and the most   the most widely used in EU. The informations and data on farm, laying hen hall, breeding facility, breeding conditions, the behavior of the laying hens, nutrition, feeding and egg production were obtained by personal visit an organic farm and informations which  the farmer records and stores. The informations about the behavior of laying hens were obtained by observing and comparing with the knowledge and data of the Slovak Government regulation on December 11, 2002, which   minimum standards determine for the protection of laying hens.The informations on feed were obtained  directly from an organic farm and   feed company that followed by accordance  the minimum content of nutrients and energy in accordance with the needs of the laying hens. Egg production was

  20. Risk Analysis on Organochlorine Pesticides Residue in Potato and Carrot from Conventional and Organic Farms in Citarum Watershed Area, West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphia Rahmawati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Six samples of carrot and potatoes were collected from conventional and organic farms. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs residue was analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction. The concentration of OCPs residue together with the consumption pattern were used to calculate the potential risk. Estimated Daily Intake (EDI of OCPs residue in carrots and potatoes both from conventional and organic farms were below the standard given in SNI 7313:2008 and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs from USEPA . Hazard quotient (HQ and Hazard Index (HI as effect analysis were below the unity, thus there may not be a concern for non-carcinogenic effect. Risk analysis on cancer effects indicated that potatoes samples were above the recommended risk by EPA (10-6. In addition, risk of potatoes samples from organic samples was higher compare to that of the conventional farm. Cancer risk analysis of carrot samples were found below the recommended risk by EPA. Cancer risk effect of carrot samples from conventional farm was slightly higher compare to that of the organic farm.

  1. SEBUAH DILEMA PERTANIAN ORGANIK TERKAIT EMISI METAN (A Dilemma on Organic Farming in Relation to Methane Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernitha Panjaitan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Gas metana (CH4 adalah salah satu gas rumah kaca yang cukup berperan setelah CO2. Peningkatan metana di atmosfer pada belakangan ini perlu diantisipasi mengingat daya pemanasan global yang ditimbulkannya per satu molekul gas metana di troposfer 21 kali lebih tinggi daripada daya pemanasan satu molekul CO2. Tanah sawah adalah salah satu kontributor gas metana sekitar 10-15%. Metana diproduksi sebagai hasil akhir dari proses dekomposisi mikrobial bahan organik secara anaerobik oleh bakteri metanogen. Emisi gas metana ditentukan oleh pengelolaan air, pengolahan tanah, varietas, dan iklim. Seiring dengan kesadaran masyarakat terhadap produk pangan yang sehat, serta ramah lingkungan, maka permintaan akan beras organik meningkat, sehingga perlu diupayakan dengan giat intensifikasi maupun ekstensifikasi budidaya padi organik. Namun, budidaya padi organik menghadapi dilema yaitu peningkatan produksi gas metana lebih tinggi daripada budidaya padi konvensional. ABSTRACT Methane (CH4 is the second main type of gas after CO2 in contributing global warning. The increasing of methane in our atmosphere should be anticipated because its effect of single molecule of methane to the warning up our trophosphere is 21 times higher than single molecule of CO2 . Paddy field soils as one of contributors produce 10-15 % of methane in our atmosphere. The methane is produced as results of microbial processes on aerobic organic matters decomposition by metanogene bacteria. The amount of methane production is determined by soil water management, crop species, and climate. In line with the community awarness in healthy and environmental friendly product of food, the demand of organic rice has increased. However, the organic farming has trade off situation due to its methane production higher than the conventional farming.

  2. Spatio-temporal variations in the composition of organic matter in surface sediments of a mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents (New Caledonia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbroich, Adélaïde, E-mail: adelaide.aschenbroich@univ-brest.fr [UMR BOREA 7208 CNRS/MNHN/UPMC/IRD/UCBN, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CP 53, 61 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris cedex 5 (France); Marchand, Cyril [Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 7590, UR 206, BP A5, 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France); Molnar, Nathalie [UMR BOREA 7208 CNRS/MNHN/UPMC/IRD/UCBN, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CP 53, 61 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris cedex 5 (France); Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 7590, UR 206, BP A5, 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France); Deborde, Jonathan [Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 7590, UR 206, BP A5, 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France); Hubas, Cédric; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Meziane, Tarik [UMR BOREA 7208 CNRS/MNHN/UPMC/IRD/UCBN, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CP 53, 61 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris cedex 5 (France)

    2015-04-15

    In order to investigate spatio-temporal variations in the composition and origin of the benthic organic matter (OM) at the sediment surface in mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents, fatty acid (FA) biomarkers, natural stable isotopes (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N), C:N ratios and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations were determined during the active and the non-active period of the farm. Fatty acid compositions in surface sediments within the mangrove forest indicated that organic matter inputs varied along the year as a result of farm activity. Effluents were the source of fresh particulate organic matter for the mangrove, as evidenced by the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) distribution. The anthropogenic MUFA 18:1ω9 was not only accumulated at the sediment surface in some parts of the mangrove, but was also exported to the seafront. Direct release of bacteria and enhanced in situ production of fungi, as revealed by specific FAs, stimulated mangrove litter decomposition under effluent runoff condition. Also, microalgae released from ponds contributed to maintain high benthic chl-a concentrations in mangrove sediments in winter and to a shift in microphytobenthic community assemblage. Primary production was high whether the farm released effluent or not which questioned the temporary effect of shrimp farm effluent on benthic microalgae dynamic. This study outlined that mangrove benthic organic matter was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by shrimp farm effluent release and that responses to environmental condition changes likely depended on mangrove stand characteristics. - Highlights: • Fatty acid 18:1ω9 is a relevant marker to monitor effluent pathway in the mangrove. • OM nature and distribution at sediment surface varied in relation to farm activity. • Enhancement of litter-decomposer biomass and activity stimulates litter degradation. • Diatoms dominate the microalgae community under effluent runoff conditions. • Chl-a concentrations suggest

  3. Spatio-temporal variations in the composition of organic matter in surface sediments of a mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents (New Caledonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbroich, Adélaïde; Marchand, Cyril; Molnar, Nathalie; Deborde, Jonathan; Hubas, Cédric; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Meziane, Tarik

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate spatio-temporal variations in the composition and origin of the benthic organic matter (OM) at the sediment surface in mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents, fatty acid (FA) biomarkers, natural stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), C:N ratios and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations were determined during the active and the non-active period of the farm. Fatty acid compositions in surface sediments within the mangrove forest indicated that organic matter inputs varied along the year as a result of farm activity. Effluents were the source of fresh particulate organic matter for the mangrove, as evidenced by the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) distribution. The anthropogenic MUFA 18:1ω9 was not only accumulated at the sediment surface in some parts of the mangrove, but was also exported to the seafront. Direct release of bacteria and enhanced in situ production of fungi, as revealed by specific FAs, stimulated mangrove litter decomposition under effluent runoff condition. Also, microalgae released from ponds contributed to maintain high benthic chl-a concentrations in mangrove sediments in winter and to a shift in microphytobenthic community assemblage. Primary production was high whether the farm released effluent or not which questioned the temporary effect of shrimp farm effluent on benthic microalgae dynamic. This study outlined that mangrove benthic organic matter was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by shrimp farm effluent release and that responses to environmental condition changes likely depended on mangrove stand characteristics. - Highlights: • Fatty acid 18:1ω9 is a relevant marker to monitor effluent pathway in the mangrove. • OM nature and distribution at sediment surface varied in relation to farm activity. • Enhancement of litter-decomposer biomass and activity stimulates litter degradation. • Diatoms dominate the microalgae community under effluent runoff conditions. • Chl-a concentrations suggest

  4. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, has made possible a strong land specialisation of agriculture in the Seine watershed: it still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration, but exports 80% of its huge cereal production. On the other hand the meat and milk supply originates mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  5. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  6. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photo-oxidation under a range of controlled conditions (relative humidity or RH ~65-89%, volatile organic compound-to-NOx or VOC / NOx ~3-9 and NOx ~2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measurable amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e. in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photo-oxidation products of the minor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally isoprene-emitting landscapes in Southeast

  7. Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Growth Indices of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Conventional and Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Hajghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of organic fertilizers in sustainable agriculture systems improves yield sustainability of field crop. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is native to Middle East and belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is resistant to saline conditions, water stress, and can reach the deep-lying water of soil. The humic acid (HA mentioned as an environmentally friendly, organic matter with low levels of hormonal-like compounds is useful in improving agriculture production (Samavat and Malakuti 2006. The HA influence on plant growth depends on the source, concentration and molecular weight of the substance. Vermicompost is produced by earthworms, mainly Eisenia foetida, it has higher levels of available nutrients compared to the original materials of composts produced by other methods. Recent evidences suggest that using different amounts of vermicompost increased vegetative traits and concentration of minerals in sunflower. However, there has been little discussion about organic farming of safflower. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of organic treatments on yield, yield components, and growth indices of safflower and to compare it with conventional agriculture. Materials and methods This research was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station in Kerman, Iran during 2012–2013. It was carried out in a randomized complete block (RCB design and had three replications. The current research has been performed to investigate the effects of two different sources of organic fertilizer on spring safflower. Four levels of vermicompost (V: 0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 were considered in the main plots. Liquid humic acid at four different concentrations (HA: 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were examined and kept in the subplots. Humic acid as a foliar treatment on leaf surface was applied twice at the beginning of stem elongation and at flowering times. In this study, aimed to compare organic farming

  8. Humus and energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions with compost fertilization in organic farming compared with mineral fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Schmid, Harald; Hülsbergen, Kurt-Jürgen; Hartl, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    Humus and energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions with compost fertilization in organic farming compared with mineral fertilization E. Erhart, H. Schmid, K.-J. Hülsbergen, W. Hartl The positive effects of compost fertilization on soil humus with their associated benefits for soil quality are well-established. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of compost fertilization on humus and energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions and to compare the results of the humus balances with the changes in soil organic carbon contents measured in the soil of the experimental field. In order to assess the effects of compost use in organic farming as compared to conventional farming practice using mineral fertilizers, the field experiment with compost fertilization 'STIKO' was set up in 1992 near Vienna, Austria, on a Molli-gleyic Fluvisol. It included three treatments with compost fertilization (C1, C2 and C3 with 8, 14 and 20 t ha-1 y-1 f. m. on average of 14 years), three treatments with mineral nitrogen fertilization (N1, N2 and N3 with 29, 46 and 63 kg N ha-1 y 1 on average) and an unfertilized control (0) in six replications in a latin rectangle design. In the field trial, biowaste compost from the composting plant of the City of Vienna was used. Data from the field experiment (from 14 experimental years) were fed into the model software REPRO to calculate humus and energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions. The model software REPRO (REPROduction of soil fertility) couples the balancing of C, N and energy fluxes. For the determination of the net greenhouse effect, REPRO performs calculations of C sequestration in the soil, CO2 emissions from the use of fossil energy and N2O emissions from the soil. Humus balances showed that compost fertilization at a rate of 8 t ha-1 y-1 (C1) resulted in a positive humus balance of +115 kg C ha-1 y-1. With 14 and 20 t ha-1 y-1 compost (C2 and C3), respectively, humus accumulated at rates of 558 and 1021 kg C ha-1

  9. Adoption of Organic Farming as an Opportunity for Syrian Farmers of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Structural Equation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwa Issa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exporting organic fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV to the European Union could represent a great opportunity for Syrian farmers and exporters. Yet, the organic sector in Syria is comparatively young and only a very small area of FFV is organically managed. To date, little is known about Syrian farmers’ attitudes towards organic FFV production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the intentions and attitudes of Syrian farmers of FFV towards organic farming and how likely they are to convert their farms to organic production within the next five years. Using a two-stage cluster sampling procedure, 266 conventional farmers of FFV in 75 villages located in different districts of Syria’s coastal region were selected for this survey. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews by a project partner in Syria (Citrus Fruit Board in Tartous from December 2012 until mid-May 2013. We used the Theory of Planned Behaviour as theoretical framework and Partial Least Squares Path Modelling as the main tool for data analysis. The results show that most farmers used at least one of the practices that are also part of certified organic production (throughout this article, the term organic agriculture, farming, and/or production always refer to certified organic agricultural production, and hold strong positive attitudes and intentions to adopt organic production within the next five years.

  10. BIOFERTILISERS - EFFICIENCY ON THE VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TOMATOES CULTIVATED UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the influence of biofertilisers on the vegetative growth, yield and productivity of tomatoes cultivated under the conditions of organic farming. The research was carried out in the polyethylene greenhouse and experimental field of the Agroecological centre at the Agricultural University- Plovdiv (Bulgaria, in the period from 2013 until 2014 with on determinant tomatoes (solanum lycopersicum l., of the variety of “Trapezitsa”. The standard yield had its highest value upon the application of biofertiliser Emosan on the basic fertilization Boneprot- 3140 kg/da (2013 and 3116 kg/da (2014, thus determining the positive impact of the tested combination of biofertilisers. The combined application of biofertilisers in the form of basic fertilisation and additional vegetation feeding had a positive impact on the formation of the standard yield, the number and the mass of fruits.

  11. Positive relationship detected between soil bioaccessible organic pollutants and antibiotic resistance genes at dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Wu, Jun; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Tian, Da; Shen, Fangyuan; Liu, Kuan; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Linzhang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-11-01

    Co-contaminated soils by organic pollutants (OPs), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been becoming an emerging problem. However, it is unclear if an interaction exists between mixed pollutants and ARG abundance. Therefore, the potential relationship between OP contents and ARG and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) abundance was investigated from seven dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China. Phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, associated ARG genes, and intI1 had the highest detection frequencies. Correlation analysis suggested a stronger positive relationship between the ARG abundance and the bioaccessible OP content than the total OP content. Additionally, the significant correlation between the bioaccessible mixed pollutant contents and ARG/intI1 abundance suggested a direct/indirect impact of the bioaccessible mixed pollutants on soil ARG dissemination. This study provided a preliminary understanding of the interaction between mixed pollutants and ARGs in co-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of contrasting crop rotation systems on soil chemical and biochemical properties and plant root growth in organic farming: First results

    OpenAIRE

    Elga Monaci; Serena Polverigiani; Davide Neri; Michele Bianchelli; Rodolfo Santilocchi; Marco Toderi; Paride D'Ottavio; Costantino Vischetti

    2017-01-01

    Organic farming is claimed to improve soil fertility. Nonetheless, among organic practices, net C-inputs may largely vary in amount and composition and produce different soil conditions for microbial activity and plant-root system adaptation and development. In this study, we hypothesised that, in the regime of organic agriculture, soil chemical and biochemical properties can substantially differ under contrasting crop rotation systems and produce conditions of soil fertility to which the pla...

  13. AESIS: a support tool for the evaluation of sustainability of agroecosystems. Example of applications to organic and integrated farming systems in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaio Cesare Pacini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability on the farm level. Policy makers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This paper presents the outcomes of applications to organic and integrated farming of an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems (Agro-Environmental Sustainability Information System, AESIS. The AESIS was described together with a review of applications dating from 1991 in a previous paper. The objective of the present paper is to present the AESIS application to organic and integrated farming systems in Val d’Elsa (Tuscany and discuss how it is adapted for application to ordinary farms. The AESIS is organised into a number of environmental and production systems. For each system, environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. Possible solutions to sustainability issues, and critical points of relevance to the agricultural sector of the local economic and agro-ecological zone, are formulated by including an experimental layout, identifying indicator thresholds and by defining management systems with corresponding policy measures. Alternative solutions are evaluated by calculating and measuring the relevant indicators. The outcomes of the AESIS applications are discussed with specific relevance to the operational adoptability of AESIS to ordinary, agri-touristic farms managed with the organic and the integrated production method, respectively. The AESIS framework proved to be sufficiently flexible to meet the requirements for ordinary farm applications while keeping a

  14. Interactions between conventional and organic farming for biocontrol services across the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Ives, A.R.; Schellhorn, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    While the area of organic crop production increases at a global scale, the potential interactions between pest management in organic and conventionally managed systems have so far received little attention. Here, we evaluate the landscape-level co-dependence of insecticide-based and natural

  15. Ammonia and Mineral Losses on Dutch Organic Farms with Pregnant Sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova-Peneva, S.G.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify ammonia emissions from organically raised pregnant sows and to compare them with emissions from conventional pig production. A second objective was to quantify the nutrients deposited in the paddock in organic pig grazing systems. Measurements were

  16. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.; Kristensen, T.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact, and

  17. Using cover crops to alleviate compaction in organic grain farms: effects on weeds and yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic producers heavily rely on tillage for mechanical weeding, creating compacted areas ideal for weedy species, and forming a vicious cycle of tillage, compaction and increasing weed populations. In an effort to address the concerns of certified organic farmers from Illinois, we explored the eff...

  18. The level of organic rice farming technology at farmer group in Ketapang village, Susukan sub-district, Semarang district, Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsono; Yafizham; Widjajanto, D. W.

    2018-01-01

    The research was conducted to learn the phenomenon of the level of organic rice cultivation technology in the field at one of organic rice centers in Central Java Province, Indonesia. It was carried out using sample survey of respondents taken at 3 different of Walisongo, Al-Barokah and Dewi Sri farmer groups from organic rice farmer population in the village of Ketapang, Susukan sub-district, Semarang district. Primary data were collected quantitatively by distributing questioner to the respondent. Data were analyzed in order to evaluate the performance of inter-group observation and relationship of behavioral levels of organic rice cultivation. The results showed that the level of organic rice cultivation technology were high category (68.3%), moderate category (31.7%), and none less category, respectively. There was significant regression relationship Y = 7.219 + 0.237 X1 + 0,231 X2 (R = 0.625) between knowledge and attitude toward organic farming cultivation level. There was no significant difference in the application level of organic farming between Dewi Sri and Al-Barokah Farmer Groups (113.3a vs 110.7a), but the application level of organic farming both of Dewi Sri and Al-Barokah farmer groups were significantly (P<0,05) different from Walisongo farmer group (95.5b). It was concluded that the level of organic technology at farmer group was moderate to high category, but still requires further extention to be more equitable among farmer groups

  19. Plant protection means used in organic farming throughout the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2018-03-01

    Following the obligatory implementation of integrated pest management in the European Union (EU), the plant protection means suitable for application in organic agriculture attracted the attention of quite a wide group of potential users. In spite of the common rules of organic production, as well as the uniform principles of placing plant protection products on the market, the availability of products that can be legally used in organic crop protection differs significantly among the Member States. There is a uniform list of 10 basic substances that can be used in the protection of organic crops throughout the entire EU. Twelve Member States have official registers of plant protection products for use in organic agriculture, and the total number of qualified products per country varies from 11 in Lithuania to 576 in Italy. Some products that improve plant vigour or resistance and may be of use in protection of organic crops are placed on the market as biostimulants. They fall under the law that governs fertilisers and the systems of their registration vary widely among the Member States. In addition, there exist a number of products that have been legally introduced onto the markets of some Member States without registration as a consequence of a loophole in the law. The use of unregistered products in organic agriculture raises some doubts, but currently it seems that there is no legal basis on which to explicitly prohibit the practice. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Laboratory development of Capitella sp. A (Annelida: Capitellidae from a NW Mediterranean fish farm reared under different organic enrichment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Méndez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The polychaete Capitella sp. A, collected in a NW Mediterranean fish farm (Les Cases d’Alcanar, Tarragona, Spain, was cultured for the first time under experimental conditions with different organically enriched sediments to study the differences in development and growth. The species proved to be dioecious and had lecithotrophic development. Sizes of individuals and duration of the developmental stages varied widely, as in most known species of Capitella. In organically enriched sediments, the juveniles were seen one day after hatching and immature females (i.e. with yellow ovaries after 52 days. Females may reach maturity (i.e. show white intra-coelomic oocytes at about 64 days old, and the species had a life span of 167 days. According to its development, Capitella sp. A differs from all known lecithotrophic species of the genus. The results also proved that organically enrichment enhanced growth and survival, whereas lowering food can cause morphological alterations such as reduced size in male genital spines.

  1. Spatio-temporal variations in the composition of organic matter in surface sediments of a mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents (New Caledonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbroich, Adélaïde; Marchand, Cyril; Molnar, Nathalie; Deborde, Jonathan; Hubas, Cédric; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Meziane, Tarik

    2015-04-15

    In order to investigate spatio-temporal variations in the composition and origin of the benthic organic matter (OM) at the sediment surface in mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents, fatty acid (FA) biomarkers, natural stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N), C:N ratios and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations were determined during the active and the non-active period of the farm. Fatty acid compositions in surface sediments within the mangrove forest indicated that organic matter inputs varied along the year as a result of farm activity. Effluents were the source of fresh particulate organic matter for the mangrove, as evidenced by the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) distribution. The anthropogenic MUFA 18:1ω9 was not only accumulated at the sediment surface in some parts of the mangrove, but was also exported to the seafront. Direct release of bacteria and enhanced in situ production of fungi, as revealed by specific FAs, stimulated mangrove litter decomposition under effluent runoff condition. Also, microalgae released from ponds contributed to maintain high benthic chl-a concentrations in mangrove sediments in winter and to a shift in microphytobenthic community assemblage. Primary production was high whether the farm released effluent or not which questioned the temporary effect of shrimp farm effluent on benthic microalgae dynamic. This study outlined that mangrove benthic organic matter was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by shrimp farm effluent release and that responses to environmental condition changes likely depended on mangrove stand characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fertilization with liquid digestate in organic farming - effects on humus balance, soil potassium contents and soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Siegl, Thomas; Bonell, Marion; Unterfrauner, Hans; Peticzka, Robert; Ableidinger, Christoph; Haas, Dieter; Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    Biogas production and use of liquid digestate are subject of controversial discussion in organic farming. Using biomass from intercrops as feedstock for biogas production makes it possible to produce renewable energy without compromising food production. With liquid digestate, crops can be fertilized in a more targeted way than by incorporating intercrop biomass into the soil. For long-term sustainability in organic farming, however, this practice must not have adverse effects on soil fertility. In order to assess the effects of fertilization with liquid digestate on soil fertility, two randomised field experiments were conducted for two years on different soil types near Bruck/Leitha (Lower Austria). One experiment was set up on a calcareous chernozem with 4 % humus content, the other on a parachernozem with pH 5.9 and 2.1 % humus. Soil potassium content, both in the water-soluble fraction and in the exchangeable fraction, increased significantly at both sites. As fertilization with liquid digestate exceeded the potassium requirements of the crops by far, the proportion of potassium of the exchangeable cations increased rapidly. Soil physical properties were not influenced by digestate fertilization on the chernozem site. On the parachernozem, aggregate stability was increased by the organic matter applied via digestate. On this acidic site low in humus content, the supply of 4 t/ha organic matter, which featured a lignin content of 37 % and was relatively resistant to decomposition, had a clearly positive impact on soil physical properties. Humus balances were computed both with the 'Humuseinheiten'-method and with the site-adapted method STAND. They were calculated on the basis of equal amounts of intercrop biomass either left on the field as green manure or used for biogas production and the resulting amount of liquid digestate brought back to the field. The humus balances indicated that the humus-efficacy of the liquid digestate was equal to slightly higher

  3. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Österberg

    Full Text Available Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance.

  4. Indices, multispecies and synthesis descriptors in benthic assessments: Intertidal organic enrichment from oyster farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino, Victor; Azevedo, Ana; Magalhães, Luísa; Sampaio, Leandro; Freitas, Rosa; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Elliott, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Intertidal off-bottom oyster culture is shown to cause organic enrichment of the shore and although there are two stressors of interest (the presence of a structure, the trestles, and also the sediment and organic waste from the oysters), these can be separated and their relative impacts determined using an appropriate nested experimental design and data treatments. Although no artificial food sources are involved, the oysters feeding activity and intensity of culture enhances biodeposition and significantly increases the sediment fines content and total organic matter. This in general impoverished the benthic community in culture areas rather than a species succession with the installation of opportunists or a resulting increase in the abundance and biomass of benthic species; the findings can be a direct consequence of the intertidal situation which is less-amenable recruitment of species more common to the subtidal environment. Thus the most appropriate biological descriptors to diagnose the effects associated with the organic enrichment were the multispecies abundance data as well as the primary biological variables species richness and abundance. The effects were however spatially and statistically significantly confined to the area located directly underneath the culture bags compared to the corridors located between the trestles, which do not show such enrichment effects. Synthesis biotic indices were much less effective to diagnose the benthic alterations associated with this organic enrichment. These results show that special attention must be paid when using indices in areas where the organic enrichment induces an impoverishment of the benthic community but not necessarily a species replacement with the installation of opportunists.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Nygaard Jensen, Annette; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Cibin, Veronica; Barco, Lisa; Denis, Martine; Aabo, Sören; Bengtsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance.

  6. Organic pollution of rivers : Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Y.; Schoups, G.H.W.; van de Giesen, N.C.

    2017-01-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time

  7. Human-animal chimeras: ethical issues about farming chimeric animals bearing human organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, Rodolphe; Martinez, Eric; Vialla, François; Giquel, Chloé; Thonnat-Marin, Aurélie; De Vos, John

    2016-06-29

    Recent advances in stem cells and gene engineering have paved the way for the generation of interspecies chimeras, such as animals bearing an organ from another species. The production of a rat pancreas by a mouse has demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The next step will be the generation of larger chimeric animals, such as pigs bearing human organs. Because of the dramatic organ shortage for transplantation, the medical needs for such a transgressive practice are indisputable. However, there are serious technical barriers and complex ethical issues that must be discussed and solved before producing human organs in animals. The main ethical issues are the risks of consciousness and of human features in the chimeric animal due to a too high contribution of human cells to the brain, in the first case, or for instance to limbs, in the second. Another critical point concerns the production of human gametes by such chimeric animals. These worst-case scenarios are obviously unacceptable and must be strictly monitored by careful risk assessment, and, if necessary, technically prevented. The public must be associated with this ethical debate. Scientists and physicians have a critical role in explaining the medical needs, the advantages and limits of this potential medical procedure, and the ethical boundaries that must not be trespassed. If these prerequisites are met, acceptance of such a new, borderline medical procedure may prevail, as happened before for in-vitro fertilization or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

  8. Improving barley yields in organic stockless farming systems through innovations in green manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sissel; Frøseth, Randi B.; Bakken, Anne Kjersti

    Frequent mulching with clover-grass green manure (GM) is used as a means to control perennial weeds in GM-cereal rotations. The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the N-dynamics in such rotations to suggest methods for improving N efficiency and thus organic cereal yields....

  9. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon...

  10. Organic farming practices result in compositional shifts in nematode communities that exceed crop-related changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, Casper W.; Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Janjo J.; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; van der Putten, Wim H.; Helder, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of conventional agriculture has resulted in a decline of soil ecosystem functioning. Organic agriculture intends to manage soil biota in a manner that is more geared towards adequate cycling of nutrients with minimal losses. Ecological interpretation of agricultural practices-induced

  11. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , but overall there were very few fully developed (i.e., infective) eggs in the bedding material. Laboratory embryonation of eggs from the bedding material nevertheless revealed that an overall mean of 79 % of the eggs were viable. Conclusion: The organic pigs of all ages were continuously exposed to A. suum...

  12. Value creation strategies in credence food productions. The case of organic farming in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Capitanio, F.; Giudice, Del T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyse different strategies used by Italian organic farmers to create value from credence food production. More specifically, we consider the following strategies: participation in policy support programmes (i.e. rural development measures and agro-environmental schemes), direct

  13. Producer organizations, family farms and market connection. Lessons for emerging biodiesel supply chains in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Bijman, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Producer organizations (POs) are often recognized as a pathway to boost rural development by enhancing farmers' access to market opportunities. Smallholder production and marketing of new crops (such as those for biodiesel feedstock) are constrained as farmers and buyers face high transaction costs.

  14. Shallow non-inversion tillage in organic farming maintains crop yields and increases soil C stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, Julia; Baranski, Marcin; Stewart, Gavin; Nobel-de Lange, Majimcha; Bàrberi, Paolo; Fließbach, Andreas; Peigné, Josephine; Berner, Alfred; Brock, Christopher; Casagrande, Marion; Crowley, Oliver; David, Christophe; Vliegher, De Alex; Döring, Thomas F.; Dupont, Aurélien; Entz, Martin; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Halde, Caroline; Hammerl, Verena; Huiting, Hilfred; Leithold, Günter; Messmer, Monika; Schloter, Michael; Sukkel, Wijnand; Heijden, van der Marcel G.A.; Willekens, Koen; Wittwer, Raphaël; Mäder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Reduced tillage is increasingly promoted to improve sustainability and productivity of agricultural systems. Nonetheless, adoption of reduced tillage by organic farmers has been slow due to concerns about nutrient supply, soil structure, and weeds that may limit yields. Here, we compiled the

  15. Underseeding clovers in small grains to suppress weeds in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic producers are seeking alternative tactics for weed control so that they can reduce their need for tillage. In this study, we examined the impact of underseeding clovers into small grains to control weeds after harvest. Also, if the clovers winterkill, then control actions would not be need...

  16. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by

  17. Characterisation of organic carbon in mire and heath soils at the Elgea-Urkilla Wind Farm, northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Azkorra

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a detailed comparative study of carbon storage in mire and heath soils within the Elgea-Urkilla Wind Farm (Basque Country, northern Spain. Different methods for estimating organic C stocks in the uppermost 15 cm of the soil profile were evaluated in an attempt to determine whether there was any spatial variability. The dominant vegetation of the study area was acidophilic and Atlantic heathland, with scattered areas of mire vegetation associated with spring lines. Soils were classified as Haplic Leptic Umbrisols (Oxyaquic, Molliglosic. Two sampling plots (900 m2 and 600 m2 were established adjacent to wind turbines. Mire vegetation was present in the larger plot (PLOT-A and absent from the smaller one (PLOT-B. Fourier-transformed infra-red (FTIR spectra indicated no noteworthy structural dissimilarities in the organic matter characteristics of the soils beneath the two types of vegetation. Soil samples were taken every week at systematically chosen points lying on fixed transects. Estimates of organic C stocks based on single sampling dates were 94–141 t C ha-1 for PLOT-A and 70–105 t C ha-1 for PLOT-B, and tended to increase as the weather became drier. When the estimates were derived from samples taken on several dates but from single transects, the range of the estimate for each plot was reduced to 111–116 t ha-1 for PLOT-A and 81–89 t ha-1 for PLOT-B. The results suggest that organic C stocks vary seasonally, and highlight difficulties that may be encountered in attempting to detect long-term changes in C storage.

  18. Dynamics of bacterial metabolic profile and community structure during the mineralization of organic carbon in intensive swine farm wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land application of intensive swine farm wastewater has raised serious environmental concerns due to the accumulation and microbially mediated transformation of large amounts of swine wastewater organic C (SWOC. Therefore, the study of SWOC mineralization and dynamics of wastewater microorganisms is essential to understand the environmental impacts of swine wastewater application. We measured the C mineralization of incubated swine wastewaters with high (wastewater H and low (wastewater L organic C concentrations. The dynamics of bacteria metabolic profile and community structure were also investigated. The results showed that SWOC mineralization was properly fitted by the two-simultaneous reactions model. The initial potential rate of labile C mineralization of wastewater H was 46% higher than that of wastewater L, whereas the initial potential rates of recalcitrant C mineralization of wastewaters H and L were both around 23 mg L-1 d-1. The bacterial functional and structural diversities significantly decreased for both the wastewaters during SWOC mineralization, and were all negatively correlated to specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; P < 0.01. The bacteria in the raw wastewaters exhibited functional similarity, and both metabolic profile and community structure changed with the mineralization of SWOC, mainly under the influence of SUVA254 (P < 0.001. These results suggested that SWOC mineralization was characterized by rapid mineralization of labile C and subsequent slow decomposition of recalcitrant C pool, and the quality of SWOC varied between the wastewaters with different amounts of organic C. The decreased bio-availability of dissolved organic matter affected the dynamics of wastewater bacteria during SWOC mineralization.

  19. Survival and transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in an outdoor organic pig farming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Dalsgaard, Anders; Stockmarr, Anders

    2006-01-01

    , which caused substantial contamination of the environment. This suggests that isolation of animals as soon as a Salmonella infection is indicated by clinical symptoms of diarrhea could be a means of reducing and controlling the spread and persistence of Salmonella in outdoor organic pig production......It was investigated how organic rearing conditions influence the Salmonella enterica infection dynamics in pigs and whether Salmonella persists in the paddock environment. Pigs inoculated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were grouped with Salmonella-negative tracer pigs. Bacteriological...... of Salmonella-negative pigs into four naturally Salmonella-contaminated paddocks caused Salmonella infections of pigs in two paddocks. In one of these paddocks, all tracer pigs (n = 10) became infected, coinciding with a previous high Salmonella infection rate and high Salmonella excretion level. Our results...

  20. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    of digestates affects crop yields, soil characteristics and soil biota (earthworms, springtails, microbiota). The grass-clover system showed comparable yield levels over 3 years when digested slurry was compared to untreated slurry. Digested slurries had no influence on soil nutrient concentrations or on soil......Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...... organic matter levels over the first 2 years. Application of high levels of manure increased the mortality of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms just after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. Springtails...

  1. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: A survey of recent literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Samar, P.; Cox, H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Codigestion of organic wastes is a technology that is increasingly being applied for simultaneous treatment of several solid and liquid organic wastes. The main advantages of this technology are improved methane yield because of the supply of additional nutrients from the codigestates and more...... increase digester gas production and provide savings in the overall energy costs of plant operations. Methane recovery also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The goal of this literature survey was to summarize the research conducted in the last four years on anaerobic...... codigestion to identify applications of. codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal...

  2. No effect of the farming system (organic/conventional) on the bioavailability of apple (Malus domestica Bork., cultivar Golden Delicious) polyphenols in healthy men: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Bub, Achim; Seifert, Stephanie; Weibel, Franco P; Kunz, Clemens; Watzl, Bernhard

    2010-08-01

    The organic food sales have been increasing during the recent years. It has been hypothesised that organically grown fruits are healthier based on their higher content of phytochemicals. However, data on the bioavailability of phytochemicals from organically or conventionally produced plant foods are scarce. Two human intervention studies were performed to compare the bioavailability of polyphenols in healthy men after ingestion of apples from different farming systems. The administered apples were grown organically and conventionally under defined conditions and characterised regarding their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. No significant differences in the polyphenol content and the antioxidant capacity from the organic and conventional farming system were observed. In the short-term intervention study, six men consumed either organically or conventionally produced apples in a randomized cross-over study. After intake of 1 kg apples, phloretin (C (max) 13 + or - 5 nmol/l, t (max) 1.7 + or - 1.2 h) and coumaric acid (C (max )35 + or - 12 nmol/l, t (max) 3.0 + or - 0.8 h) plasma concentrations increased significantly (P farming systems. In the long-term intervention study, 43 healthy volunteers consumed organically or conventionally produced apples (500 g/day; 4 weeks) or no apples in a double-blind, randomized intervention study. In this study, 24 h after the last dosing regime, the apple intake did not result in increasing polyphenol concentrations in plasma and urine compared to the control group suggesting no accumulation of apple polyphenols or degradation products in humans. Our study suggests that the two farming systems (organic/conventional) do not result in differences in the bioavailability of apple polyphenols.

  3. The use of vermicompost in organic farming: overview, effects on soil and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Lim, Pei Nie; Shak, Katrina Pui Yee

    2015-04-01

    Vermicomposting is a process in which earthworms are used to convert organic materials into humus-like material known as vermicompost. A number of researchers throughout the world have found that the nutrient profile in vermicompost is generally higher than traditional compost. In fact, vermicompost can enhance soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Physically, vermicompost-treated soil has better aeration, porosity, bulk density and water retention. Chemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter content are also improved for better crop yield. Nevertheless, enhanced plant growth could not be satisfactorily explained by improvements in the nutrient content of the soil, which means that other plant growth-influencing materials are available in vermicomposts. Although vermicomposts have been shown to improve plant growth significantly, the application of vermicomposts at high concentrations could impede growth due to the high concentrations of soluble salts available in vermicomposts. Therefore, vermicomposts should be applied at moderate concentrations in order to obtain maximum plant yield. This review paper discusses in detail the effects of vermicompost on soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Future prospects and economy on the use of organic fertilizers in the agricultural sector are also examined. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effects of Tissue Culture and Mycorrhiza Applications in Organic Farming on Concentrations of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizomes and Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungrok R; Marsh, Lurline E; Brathwaite, Keegan; Daramola, Adebola O

    2017-04-01

    Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics. Concentrations of the phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities, except for carotenoids and ICC, were significantly higher in organic ginger rhizomes and leaves than in non-organics regardless of the fractions and treatments (P Mycorrhiza application in organic farming significantly increased levels of TP, TF, gingerols, and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P mycorrhiza significantly increased concentrations of TF and gingerols and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P mycorrhiza and tissue culture applications can increase concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in ginger rhizomes and leaves and therefore improve their health-protective potentials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Determination of lead, cadmium, and persistent organic pollutants in wild and orchard-farm-grown fruit in northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Jolanta; Pietrzak, Monika; Osowski, Adam; Wieczorek, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in berries (blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, wild strawberry), and hazelnuts picked from plants in the wild as well as in fruit (blackberry, raspberry, blueberry) and hazelnuts picked from orchard-farmed plants in northeastern Poland. The levels of seven congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH), and sum of dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (SigmaDDT) were also measured in plants and nuts. In addition, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, PCB(7,) gamma-HCH, and SigmaDDT were determined in the surface samples of soil from the sites of fruit picking. The highest acceptable concentrations based upon Polish standards for Pb and Cd were not exceeded in forest fruit. In wild berries, Pb occurred at a level below the detection limit, whereas the concentration of Cd ranged from 6 to 49 microg/kg fresh weight. The levels were Cd 72 microg/kg fresh weight and Pb 290 microg/kg fresh weight in raspberries from orchard plants and exceeded the maximal acceptable limit of 50 microg/kg for Cd and 200 microg/kg for Pb. The level of Pb at 210 microg/kg fresh weight in hazelnuts from orchard plants also exceeded maximal acceptable limits. Individual samples of fruit, regardless of their origin, were found to contain trace amounts of organic pollutants such as 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and PCB congeners 101 and 118. All soil samples contained from 3.2 to 14.9 mg/kg dry weight concentrations of Pb and most soil samples also contained Cd. Further, individual soil samples were found to contain high levels of SigmaDDT (145 microg/kg), including p,p'-DDT at a concentration of 67 microg/kg. The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POP) in wild and orchard-farm-grown fruit in northeastern Poland were generally below threshold permissible limits, and no correlation was found between levels of

  6. Effect of organic farming on selected raw cow milk components and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cermanová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic dairying is an alternative for friendly exploitation of environment. This paper was focused on impacts of organic dairying on milk composition and properties. The conventional (C cow milk was compared to organic (O milk. Holstein bulk milk samples (BMSs from winter and summer season in 4 C and 4 O (n = 32 and 32 BMSs; 2 years herds were investigated. 6 herds were grazed and 2 C herds were not grazed. Mean O cow milk yield (MY, 305 lactation days was 7037.3 ± 421.5 and C MY 7015.8 ± 1068.1 kg. Higher values (P < 0.05 in O milk had: log acetone (0.7321 > 0.6048; titration acidity (8.34 > 7.82 ml 0.25 mol.l−1 NaOH; alcohol stability (0.6 > 0.44 ml; time for enzymatic coagulation (150.75 > 115.03 second; whey protein (0.54 > 0.49%; fat/crude protein (1.2 > 1.15; milk fermentation ability (FAM by titration (31.45 > 22.18 ml 0.25 mol.l−1 NaOH. Lower values (P < 0.05 in O milk had: solids–not–fat (8.64 < 8.73%; urea content (19.91 < 29.03 mg.100ml−1; electrical conductivity (3.66 < 4.08 mS.cm−1; whey volume (32.03 < 34.53 ml; crude protein (3.16 < 3.25%; casein (2.47 < 2.58%; non–protein nitrogen compounds (0.15 < 0.18%; urea nitrogen in non-protein nitrogen ratio (40.81 < 49.0%; casein numbers for crude protein and true protein (78.12 < 79.58 and 81.99 < 84.11%; coli bacteria count in normal and logarithm form (330.56 < 1502.92 CFU.ml−1 and 1.484 < 2.5823; actual yoghurt acidity (4.71 < 4.8. O cows suffered probably from lower energy and nitrogen compounds intake due to feeding under mentioned conditions. O milk could be a little better environment for yoghurt cultivation.

  7. Associations between soil bacterial community structure and nutrient cycling functions in long-term organic farm soils following cover crop and organic fertilizer amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural management practices can produce changes in soil microbial populations whose functions are crucial to crop production and may be detectable using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. To apply sequencing-derived bacterial community structure data to on-farm decision-making will require a better understanding of the complex associations between soil microbial community structure and soil function. Here 16S rRNA sequencing was used to profile soil bacterial communities following application of cover crops and organic fertilizer treatments in certified organic field cropping systems. Amendment treatments were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter rye (Secale cereale), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), beef manure, pelleted poultry manure, Sustane(®) 8-2-4, and a no-amendment control. Enzyme activities, net N mineralization, soil respiration, and soil physicochemical properties including nutrient levels, organic matter (OM) and pH were measured. Relationships between these functional and physicochemical parameters and soil bacterial community structure were assessed using multivariate methods including redundancy analysis, discriminant analysis, and Bayesian inference. Several cover crops and fertilizers affected soil functions including N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-glucosidase activity. Effects, however, were not consistent across locations and sampling timepoints. Correlations were observed among functional parameters and relative abundances of individual bacterial families and phyla. Bayesian analysis inferred no directional relationships between functional activities, bacterial families, and physicochemical parameters. Soil functional profiles were more strongly predicted by location than by treatment, and differences were largely explained by soil physicochemical parameters. Composition of soil bacterial communities was predictive of soil functional profiles. Differences in soil function were

  8. Effects of band-steaming on microbial activity and abundance in organic farming soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Jørgensen, Martin Heide; Elmholt, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Band-steaming of arable soil at 80-90 degrees C kill off weed seeds prior to crop establishment which allows an extensive intra-row weed control. Here we evaluated the side-effects of in situ band-steaming on soil respiration, enzyme activities, and numbers of culturable bacteria and fungi...... in an organic field soil. The results showed that mechanical disturbance created by band-steaming could be neglected as a mediator of microbial changes. Also, soil pH and water content was unaffected by band-steaming. Effects of band-steaming on in situ soil respiration and basal respiration, respectively, were...... whereas the number of fungal propagules was reduced by 50% (P effects, but with weaker recovery potential...

  9. Interrill erosion of carbon and phosphorus from conventionally and organically farmed Devon silt soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J; Armstrong, Elizabeth K; Ling, Amy C

    2012-01-01

    Globally, between 0.57 and 1.33 Pg of soil organic carbon (SOC) may be affected by interrill processes. Also, a significant amount of phosphorus (P) is contained in the surface soil layer transformed by raindrop impact, runoff and crust formation. In the EU, the P content of a crusted (2 mm...... particles by raindrop impacted flow. Resistance to interrill erosion varies between soils depending on their physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. In addition, significant changes in soil resistance to interrill erosion occur during storms as a result of changes in surface roughness, cohesion...... to conventional soil management. The enrichment of P and C in the interrill sediment was not directly related to SOC, P content of the soil and soil interrill erodibility. A comparison of soil and sediment properties indicates that crusting, P and C content as well as density and size of eroded aggregate...

  10. Differentiating Organically Farmed Rice from Conventional and Green Rice Harvested from an Experimental Field Trial Using Stable Isotopes and Multi-Element Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuwei; Zhang, Weixing; Zhang, Yongzhi; Liu, Zhi; Shao, Shengzhi; Zhou, Li; Rogers, Karyne M

    2018-03-21

    Chemometric methods using stable isotopes and elemental fingerprinting were used to characterize organically grown rice from green and conventionally grown rice in experimental field trials in China. Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotopes as well as 26 other elements were determined. Organic rice was found to be more depleted in 13 C than green or conventionally grown rice because of the uptake of enriched 13 C from carbon dioxide and methane respiring bacteria and more enriched in 15 N because of the volatilization of the nitrogen from the urea and ammonium of the animal manures used to manufacture the organic composts. Chemometrics (principal-component analysis and linear-discriminant analysis) were used to separate the three farming methods and provided a promising scientific tool to authenticate the farming methods of different rice cultivars fertilized with animal manures, green composts, and synthetic fertilizers in China or elsewhere.

  11. Can Organic Farming Reduce Vulnerabilities and Enhance the Resilience of the European Food System? A Critical Assessment Using System Dynamics Structural Thinking Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Brzezina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a world of growing complexity and uncertainty, food systems must be resilient, i.e., able to deliver sustainable and equitable food and nutrition security in the face of multiple shocks and stresses. The resilience of the European food system that relies mostly on conventional agriculture is a matter of genuine concern and a new approach is called for. Does then organic farming have the potential to reduce vulnerabilities and improve the resilience of the European food system to shocks and stresses? In this paper, we use system dynamics structural thinking tools to identify the vulnerabilities of the conventional food system that result from both its internal structure as well as its exposure to external disturbances. Further, we evaluate whether organic farming can reduce the vulnerabilities. We argue here that organic farming has some potential to bring resilience to the European food system, but it has to be carefully designed and implemented to overcome the contradictions between the dominant socio-economic organization of food production and the ability to enact all organic farming’s principles—health, ecology, fairness and care—on a broader scale.

  12. SOIL DEGRADATION AND ASSESSMENT OF LAND PRETABILITY FOR ORGANIZATION OF ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara LEAH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the impact of unfavorable factors on agriculture land, pretability and measures to reduce negative consequences. Nowadays, there are about 40 anthropogenic factors of soil degradation, but the erosion is the main factor of soil cover degradation in the Republic of Moldova. This type of degradation is manifested from old times as a natural process depended on the accidental relief and torrential rains. The present quality state of the soil cover denotes that the fields with a high reliability note of 80-100 points occupy about 27% of the total area of agricultural lands. The soils with medium reliability note of 70 points or less occupy 52% from the total area of agricultural fields and are moderate degraded. The soil with low rating are completely destroyed by ravens and active earth flows with a surface of 178 thousand ha and have a very low productivity. The complex of measures and technologies regarding the conservation and the increase of eroded soils fertility includes: the antierosion organization of the territory; the formation of forest framing, including the protection curtains against the erosion provoked by waters and winds; recovering of the hardly eroded soils by grassing and foresting; settling ravens and earth flows by regulating water drainages, their and limitary field grassing and foresting, cultivation of field cultures in bands on the slopes; the formation of protection bands from perennial herbs; the implementation of antierosion crop rotations; the unconditioned apply of antierosion soil works on slopes, agrotechnical actions etc.

  13. Extensions of tempered representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, E.; Solleveld, M.

    2013-01-01

    Let π, π′ be irreducible tempered representations of an affine Hecke algebra H with positive parameters. We compute the higher extension groups Ext nH(π,π′) explicitly in terms of the representations of analytic R-groups corresponding to π and π′. The result has immediate applications to the

  14. The effect of inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum on microorganisms in rhizosphere and sugar beet yield in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrkovački Nastasija B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect on sugar beet yield parameters and microbiological soil status was studied using two techniques of sugar beet inoculation with strains of Azotobacter chroococcum. Cultivar “Drena” was used in the study, and field trial was set under the conditions of organic farming system in Bački Petrovac. A mixture of three strains of Azotobacter chroococcum was used as microbial fertilizer. Inoculation was performed by: (A incorporation of strains into soil before sowing; and (B repeated incorporation of strains into soil two weeks after sowing. PGP characterization of the strains confirmed the ability of producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA from 12.63 μg ml-1 to 14.95 μg ml-1, nitrogen fixation, and P-solubilization. Positive effects on the number of azotobacter and free nitrogen fixers in rhizosphere were obtained by inoculation, as well as positive effects on the tested sugar beet yield parameters. The largest increase in root yield, yield of crystal sugar, and yield of polarised sugar compared with the control was obtained by repeated soil inoculation, ranging from 22 to 23%.

  15. Seasonal dynamics of endoparasitic infections at an organic goat farm and the impact of detected infections on milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriánová, Iveta A; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Kopecký, Oldřich; Langrová, Iva

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated patterns and species composition of parasitic infections detected over a 1-year period at an organic goat farm. As a result of coprological examination, the overall prevalence of observed strongylids (99%), coccidia of the genus Eimeria (98%), and Muellerius capillaris lungworms (93%) was calculated. The most prevalent strongylids recovered from incubated fecal samples were Haemonchus contortus (42%), genera Trichostrongylus (23%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (13%), and Teladorsagia circumcincta (11%). A maximum intensity of coccidia infection 5150 oocysts per gram, strongylids infection 9900 eggs per gram and lungworm infection 867.26 larvae per gram were detected. The various effects (including environment, host, and parasites) on milk yield, lactose, protein, and fat were evaluated using generalized linear mixed models. Milk yield (P milk fat (P goat. With the intensity of infection detected in our study, only protein content was affected (P goat itself can substantially decrease protein content but has much less of an effect on fat, milk yield, and lactose. Based on our results, we can conclude that a low intensity of parasitic infections does not significantly affect milk yield and the qualitative parameters of milk.

  16. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in red fruits produced in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. A. Soutinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were studied three red fruits (raspberry, gooseberry and blueberry produced in organic mode, to evaluate the variations in the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity along maturation. The phenols were extracted from the fruits with two solvents (methanol and acetone and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined with two methods (HPPH and ABTS. Furthermore, HPLC was used to identify and quantify some phenolic compounds present in the fruits analyzed. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all fruits decreased along maturation, either in the methanol or acetone extracts (23 % and 20 % reduction, on average, for methanol and acetone extracts, respectively, although in methanol extracts the levels of phenolic compounds were always higher (0.54 and 0.21 mg GAE/g. The blueberry showed higher level of total phenolics in methanol extract (average 0.67 mg GAE/g, while in the acetone extract it was gooseberry (average 0.31 mg GAE/g. At the end of maturation, all fruits studied had similar values of antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH method (0.52 mmol Trolox/g. For the ABTS method, blueberries showed higher values of antioxidant activity (6.01 mmol Trolox/g against 3.01 and 2.66 mmol Trolox/g, for raspberry and gooseberry, respectively. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis allowed to identify monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids in the three fruits studied.

  17. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Farming and their effect on San Joaquin Valley Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. R.; Yang, M.; Meinardi, S.; Krauter, C.; Rowland, F. S.

    2009-05-01

    The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District of California issued a report identifying dairies as a main source of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). A dairy study funded by the California Air Resources Board commenced shortly after the report was issued. Our University of California Irvine group teamed with California State University Fresno to determine the major sources of VOCs from various dairy operations and from a variety of dairy types. This study identified ethanol and methanol as two gases produced in major quantities throughout the dairies in the San Joaquin valley as by-products of yeast fermentation of silage. Three different types of sampling protocols were employed in order to determine the degree of enhancement of the target oxygenates in the valley air shed. Their sources, emission profiles, and emission rates were determined from whole air samples collected at various locations at the six dairies studied. An assessment of the impact of dairy emissions in the valley was achieved by using data obtained on low altitude NASA DC-8 flights through the valley, and from ground level samples collected though out the valley in a grid like design. Our data suggest that a significant amount of O3 production in the valley may come from methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde (a photochemical by-product ethanol oxidation). Our findings indicate that improvement to valley air quality may be obtained by focusing on instituting new silage containment practices and regulations.

  18. Annual and seasonal changes in production and composition of grazed clover-grass mixtures in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KUUSELA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A grazed field experiment based on a randomised block design was conducted in Eastern Finland to evaluate the potential of alsike clover (Trifoliun hybridum L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and white clover (Trifolium repens L. to support herbage production from clover-grass mixtures under organic farming practices. The effect of seed mixture (alsike clover, red clover, white clover, white and alsike clover or grass mixture, year (1996, 1997 and 1998 and grazing period (5 per grazing season on pre- and post-grazing herbage mass (HM, botanical and chemical composition of pregrazing HM and post-grazing sward height was assessed. The nutritive value of herbage for milk production was also considered. Seed mixtures resulted in different pre-grazing HM and post-grazing sward heights, but similar pre- minus post-grazing HM. Compared with other mixtures, the proportion of clover was higher for white clover based mixtures. The white clover mixture had the highest crude protein content and lowest concentrations of cellulose and hemicellulose. In addition to seed mixture, the effect of year and grazing period on measured parameters was significant, highlighting the importance of grazing management. Moderate pasture herbage production of relative high nutritive value was achieved under organic practices, but the supply and nutritive value of herbage was variable and, in some cases, unable to meet the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The proportion of clover in all seed mixtures decreased year on year, and was subject to seasonal variations that altered the nutritional value of herbage. White clover was the most suitable perennial clover for pastures in Eastern Finland.;

  19. How do landscape composition and configuration, organic farming and fallow strips affect the diversity of bees, wasps and their parasitoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzschuh, Andrea; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2010-03-01

    1. Habitat destruction and increasing land use intensity result in habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation, and subsequently in the loss of species diversity. The fact that these factors are often highly confounded makes disentangling their effects extremely difficult, if not impossible, and their relative impact on species loss is mostly speculative. 2. In a two-year study, we analysed the relative importance of changed landscape composition (increased areas of cropped habitats), reduced habitat connectivity and reduced habitat quality on nest colonization of cavity-nesting bees, wasps and their parasitoids. We selected 23 pairs of conventional and organic wheat fields in the centre of landscape circles (500 m radius) differing in edge densities (landscape configuration) and % non-crop habitats (landscape composition). Standardized trap nests were established in the field centres and in neighbouring permanent fallow strips (making a total of 92 nesting sites). 3. Factors at all three scales affected nest colonization. While bees were enhanced by high proportions of non-crop habitat in the landscape, wasps profited from high edge densities, supporting our hypothesis that wasps are enhanced by connecting corridors. Colonization of herbivore-predating wasps was lower in field centres than in fallow strips for conventional sites, but not for organic sites, indicating a fallow-like connectivity value of organic fields. The relative importance of habitat type and farming system varied among functional groups suggesting that their perception of crop-non-crop boundaries or the availability of their food resources differed. 4. Local and landscape effects on parasitoids were mainly mediated by their hosts. Parasitism rates were marginally affected by local factors. A specialist parasitoid was more sensitive to high land use intensity than its host, whereas generalist parasitoids were less sensitive. 5. We conclude that the conversion of cropland into non-crop habitat

  20. Short communication: Prevalence of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Belomestnykh, N; Gamroth, M; Ruegg, P L; Tikofsky, L; Schukken, Y H

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. in bulk tank milk samples from 288 organic and conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon from March 2009 to May 2011. Due to recent publications reporting the presence mecC (a mecA homolog not detected by traditional mecA-based PCR methods), a combination of genotypic and phenotypic approaches was used to enhance the recovery of methicillin-resistant organisms from bulk tank milk. In total, 13 isolates were identified as methicillin resistant: Staph. aureus (n=1), Staphylococcus sciuri (n=5), Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=3), Staphylococcus agnetis (n=1), and Macrococcus caseolyticus (n=1). The single methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus isolate was identified from an organic farm in New York, for an observed 0.3% prevalence at the farm level. The methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci prevalence was 2% in the organic population and 5% in the conventional population. We did not identify mecC in any of the isolates from our population. Of interest was the relatively high number of methicillin-resistant Staph. sciuri recovered, as the number of isolates from our study was considerably higher than those recovered from other recent studies that also assessed milk samples. Our research suggests that the presence of a potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus reservoir in milk, and likely the dairy farm population in the United States, is independent of the organic or conventional production system. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties.

  2. Eco-functional intensification by cereal-grain legume intercropping in organic farming systems for increased yields, reduced weeds and improved grain protein concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, Étienne-Pascal; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Intercropping, i.e., simultaneously growing two (or more) species in the same field for a significant period of time but without necessarily concomitant sowing or harvest, is a practice aimed at eco-functional intensification. This chapter integrates a comprehensive amount of original data from...... field experiments conducted since 2001 on spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops in experimental and farm contexts in France and Denmark, in an attempt to generalise the findings and draw up common guidelines. We have shown that intercrops appear to be a useful agronomic solution for organic......, structure and manuring strategies. Consequently, it should be emphasized that: (i) the species and varietal traits suited to intercropping and organic farming will make it necessary to reconsider the varietal selection criteria; (ii) further mechanistic understanding of the behaviour of intercropping...

  3. Evaluation of yielding of mixtures of Pisum sativum L. with Triticum aestivum L. grown in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Księżak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the productivity and quality of feed obtained from the mixtures of field pea (Pisum sativum L. with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., depending on the pea cultivar and its percentage in the weight of sown seeds under the conditions of organic farming. A field experiment was carried out in the years 2011–2013 in a randomized split-plot design with four replications. The first factor was a pea ‘Wiato’ or ‘Tarchalska’. The secondary factor was density of a pea mixture sown: 40, 60, and 80%. The yield of mixture seeds as well as the yield and structure of individual components were evaluated. The contents of crude protein and crude fiber, fat, ash, phosphorus, and potassium were determined in cereal grain and pea seeds. The examined factors and weather conditions during the growing season had a significant impact on the growth and yield of pea–spring wheat mixtures. The seed yields of the mixtures with the semi-leafless ‘Tarchalska’ were lower than with ‘Wiato’ (with bipinnate leaves. Increasing the pea percentage in seed material resulted in lower mixture yields. The percentage of pea seeds (regardless of foliage type in the mixture yields was significantly lower than the weight of sown seeds. Increasing the pea percentage in the mixture yield positively influenced the contents of protein, fat, and ash but it caused a decrease in the content of fiber. The pea percentage at sowing had little influence on the content of phosphorus in the mixture seed yields, but it slightly increased the content of potassium, regardless of the pea cultivar. The mixtures with the ‘Wiato’ and ‘Tarchalska’ cultivars contained a similar amount of protein, fiber, and fat, while the mixtures with ‘Tarchalska’ accumulated more ash.

  4. Risk factors associated with bulk tank standard plate count, bulk tank coliform count, and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M; Richert, R; Ruegg, P L; Stiglbauer, K E; Schukken, Y H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of bulk tank milk standard plate counts, bulk tank coliform counts (CC), and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk with various management and farm characteristics on organic and conventional dairy farms throughout New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from size-matched organic farms (n=192), conventional nongrazing farms (n=64), and conventional grazing farms (n=36) were collected at a single visit for each farm. Of the 292 farms visited, 290 bulk tank milk samples were collected. Statistical models were created using data from all herds in the study, as well as exclusively for the organic subset of herds. Because of incomplete data, 267 of 290 herds were analyzed for total herd modeling, and 173 of 190 organic herds were analyzed for the organic herd modeling. Overall, more bulk tanks from organic farms had Staph. aureus cultured from them (62% of organic herds, 42% conventional nongrazing herds, and 43% of conventional grazing herds), whereas fewer organic herds had a high CC, defined as ≥50 cfu/mL, than conventional farms in the study. A high standard plate count (×1,000 cfu/mL) was associated with decreased body condition score of adult cows and decreased milk production in both models. Several variables were significant only in the model created using all herds or only in organic herds. The presence of Staph. aureus in the bulk tank milk was associated with fewer people treating mastitis, increased age of housing, and a higher percentage of cows with 3 or fewer teats in both the organic and total herd models. The Staph. aureus total herd model also showed a relationship with fewer first-lactation animals, higher hock scores, and less use of automatic takeoffs at milking. High bulk tank CC was related to feeding a total mixed ration and using natural service in nonlactating heifers in both models. Overall, attentive management and use of outside resources were useful with regard to CC

  5. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203 ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuel s farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  6. Effect of Organic Potato Farming on Human and Environmental Health and Benefits from New Plant Breeding Techniques. Is It Only a Matter of Public Acceptance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pacifico

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming practices are commonly thought to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture and to preserve the naturalness of the products. Herein, we report the effect of crop management practices on nutritional and toxicological value of potato tubers. Comparative studies are often controversial and the results are dependent on genotype and methodological approach. Targeted analysis and “omics” strategies are discussed, pointing at the nutritional aspects and the corresponding biological and molecular processes involved. Organic farming supporters still do not accept the use of genetic modification to produce new varieties suited for organic agriculture and crop improvement by genetic engineering still sparks hot debate among various scientific and social factions whose major concern is the possible existence of unintended effects both on human and world health. In this context, the advent of “new plant breeding techniques” has reignited the discussion on genetic engineering and on the compatibility of the new technologies with an eco-friendly agriculture. Could cisgenic and genome-edited potatoes be new good options for organic agriculture? We discuss how these approaches can be used to address food security challenges and to overcome specific problems based on the biological characteristics of potato tubers, producing new varieties that can improve farmers’ profit with a lower impact on public opinion. However, political, ethical, and social fears will probably persist much longer, mainly in Italy, historically a fiercely anti-GM country with a European leadership in organic food production and export.

  7. Effect of short-term versus long-term grassland management and seasonal variation in organic and conventional dairy farming on the composition of bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Govasmark, E

    2013-01-01

    -term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Within ORG farms, SG farms differed from LG farms in herbage botanical composition, but not in concentrate FA concentrations, dry matter intake, or milk yield. Within CON farms, herbage composition...

  8. Evaluation of the impact of a Herd Health and Production Management programme in organic dairy cattle farms: a process evaluation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, J E; Bareille, N; Madouasse, A; de Joybert, M; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bonnet-Beaugrand, F; Fourichon, C

    2017-11-06

    Animal health planning activities are not always providing a satisfactory positive impact on herd health and welfare. Moreover, evaluating the impact of advisory programmes is complex due to multiple interacting elements that influence its outcome. Therefore, measuring solely health outcomes is not sufficient: the whole process of the implementation and use of such programmes should be evaluated. In order to evaluate the impact of an intervention with a Herd Health and Production Management (HHPM) programme a process evaluation framework was designed and used. The intervention involved 20 organic dairy cattle farmers and their advisors, in both France and Sweden. In both countries 20 organic dairy farms were selected as control herds. The evaluation of the HHPM programme was based on: (a) the compliance to the programme; (b) the programme's functions influencing herd health management practices and stimulating dialogue between farmers and advisors; (c) its effectiveness in terms of improving herd health compared with control farms. Complete compliance to the programme was fulfilled by 21 out of 40 farmers-advisors. Results from a questionnaire showed that the programme functioned as intended (e.g. by allowing early identification of herd health problems), stimulated change in farmers' herd health management practices and farmer-advisor dialogue. Even though the majority of the users perceived that the programme contributed to herd health improvements, no significant differences in health outcomes were found when compared with control farms 12 months after the start of the intervention. The programme allowed creating an environment promoting the exchange of information between farmers and advisors, necessary to define pertinent advice in a farm-specific situation. Future research should aim at improving methods for the evaluation of the effect of advisory programmes, by identifying early indicators for effective advice and developing methods to evaluate the quality

  9. Verification of fresh grass feeding, pasture grazing and organic farming by FTIR spectroscopy analysis of bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Rademaker, J.; Bijgaart, van den H.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a total of 116 tank milk samples were collected from 30 farms located in The Netherlands and analysed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Samples were collected in April, May and June 2011 and in February 2012. The samples differed in the time spent by the cows

  10. Seasonal changes in the chemical quality and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter exported from soils to streams in coastal temperate rainforest watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Fellman; Eran Hood; David V. D' Amore; Richard T. Edwards; Dan White

    2009-01-01

    The composition and biodegradability of streamwater dissolved organic matter (DOM) varies with source material and degree of transformation. We combined PARAFAC modeling of fluorescence excitation-emission spectroscopy and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) incubations to investigate seasonal changes in the lability of DOM along a soil-stream continuum in...

  11. Agronomic Management under Organic Farming May Affect the Bioactive Compounds of Lentil (Lens culinaris L. and Grass Pea (Lathyrus communis L.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Menga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A two year field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of three row and eight row seeding on the total phenolic compound (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, hydrolyzed (HTC and condensed tannin (CTC, antioxidant activity (ABTS assay, protein content and soluble dietary fiber (SDF and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF in the extracts of lentil (Lens culinaris L. and grass pea (Lathyrus communis L. cultivated under organic farming. The aim of this study was to determine whether row spacing used for seeding in organic farming systems for lentil and grass pea is a suitable method to increase the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in these crops. Grass pea showed the highest mean SDF and protein while lentil varieties showed the greatest and significant content of all of the antioxidant compounds. In lentil, there were increases in TPC (52%, HTC (73%, TFC (85% and CTC (41%, passing from three rows to eight rows, while in grass pea, the increases were lower, and only significant for TFC and CTC (37%, 13% respectively. In both lentils and grass pea, the highest correlation coefficient was between TPC and HTC, which indicates that the HTC includes the predominant phenolic compounds in lentil as well as in grass pea (r = 0.98, 0.71 p < 0.001, respectively. Regardless of legume species, TPC, HTC, TFC and CTC showed significant (p < 0.001 and linear correlations with the ABTS assay. These data confirm the key role of row spacing for the improvement of the antioxidant properties of lentil in organic farming; moreover, they hint at the major responsiveness and adaptation of lentil to environmental stimulus with respect to grass pea.

  12. Effects of ocean acidification on temperate coastal marine ecosystems and fisheries in the northeast Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Haigh

    Full Text Available As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA. Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC, sport (recreational fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry. Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2-3 (where most local fishery-income is generated, little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty.

  13. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Temperate Coastal Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries in the Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A.; Neate, Holly E.; Edwards, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2–3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty. PMID

  14. Effects of ocean acidification on temperate coastal marine ecosystems and fisheries in the northeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A; Neate, Holly E; Edwards, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2-3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty.

  15. Summary of Data Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Horne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data Farming is a process that has been developed to support decision-makers by answering questions that are not currently addressed. Data farming uses an inter-disciplinary approach that includes modeling and simulation, high performance computing, and statistical analysis to examine questions of interest with a large number of alternatives. Data farming allows for the examination of uncertain events with numerous possible outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that both overall and unexpected results may be captured and examined for insights. Harnessing the power of data farming to apply it to our questions is essential to providing support not currently available to decision-makers. This support is critically needed in answering questions inherent in the scenarios we expect to confront in the future as the challenges our forces face become more complex and uncertain. This article was created on the basis of work conducted by Task Group MSG-088 “Data Farming in Support of NATO”, which is being applied in MSG-124 “Developing Actionable Data Farming Decision Support for NATO” of the Science and Technology Organization, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (STO NATO.

  16. Radiation sterilization of animal farm sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.; Perkowski, J.; Pekala, W.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of irradiation on organisms appearing in farm sewage has been discussed. Practical examples of employing the radiation to sterilization of municipal wastes and liquid sewage from the industrial swine farms have been presented. (author)

  17. A survey on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in feeds and sera collected in conventional and organic poultry farms in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavallarin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey has been conducted on conventional and organic poultry farms located in northern Italy in order to investigate the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA in feeds and sera in 2006. Ten poultry farms were monitored by taking 20 samples of feed and 94 samples of blood. OTA was assessed through immunoaffinity column purification and HPLC analysis. For in-house validation, recovery experiments, carried out on the spiked samples in the range of 1.0-10.0 μg OTA kg-1 and 0.3-3.0 ng OTA ml-1 for the feed and serum samples, respectively, led to overall recovery averages of 80.6% (RDS=7.3%, n=9 and 83.3% (RDS=3.1%, n=9, respectively. All the feed samples were contaminated by OTA with values ranging from 0.04 to 6.50 μg kg-1. Fiftythree percent of the sera samples were positive, with values ranging from 0.003- 0.165 ng ml-1. None of the feed samples was above the limits set by the European Union on OTA contamination in poultry feeds. No statistically significant differences in OTA contamination of feed or sera were observed either between the organic vs conventional group or between the laying hens vs broiler group.

  18. The apparent and potential effects of climate change on the inferred concentration of dissolved organic matter in a temperate stream (the Malše River, South Bohemia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejzlar, Josef; Dubrovský, Martin; Buchtele, Josef; Růžička, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 310, 1-3 (2003), s. 143-152 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912; CEZ:MSM 123100004; CEZ:AV0Z3042911; CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : dissolved organic carbon * climate change * scenario modelling Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2003

  19. Why Don’t More Farmers Go Organic? Using A Stakeholder-Informed Exploratory Agent-Based Model to Represent the Dynamics of Farming Practices in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a growing interest in organic agriculture; there has been relatively little research on why farmers might choose to adopt organic methods, particularly in the developing world. To address this shortcoming, we developed an exploratory agent-based model depicting Philippine smallholder farmer decisions to implement organic techniques in rice paddy systems. Our modeling exercise was novel in its combination of three characteristics: first, agent rules were based on focus group data collected in the system of study. Second, a social network structure was built into the model. Third, we utilized variance-based sensitivity analysis to quantify model outcome variability, identify influential drivers, and suggest ways in which further modeling efforts could be focused and simplified. The model results indicated an upper limit on the number of farmers adopting organic methods. The speed of information spread through the social network; crop yields; and the size of a farmer’s plot were highly influential in determining agents’ adoption rates. The results of this stylized model indicate that rates of organic farming adoption are highly sensitive to the yield drop after switchover to organic techniques, and to the speed of information spread through existing social networks. Further research and model development should focus on these system characteristics.

  20. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K.

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems....... Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts...... and cysts ((oo-) cysts) was monitored at quarterly intervals (September 2011 to June 2012) in piglets (n=152), starter pigs (n=234), fatteners (n=230) and sows (n=240) from three organic farms in Denmark. (Oo-) cysts were quantified by immunofluorescence microscopy; and 56/75 subsamples from Cryptosporidium...

  1. World temperate fruit production: characteristics and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.

  2. Biomass burning emissions and potential air quality impacts of volatile organic compounds and other trace gases from temperate fuels common in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Warneke, C.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic gases, including methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 9 inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern United States. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) provided extensive chemical detail of discrete air samples collected during a laboratory burn and was complemented by real-time measurements of organic and inorganic species via an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) and 3 different chemical ionization-mass spectrometers. These measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The relative magnitude and composition of the gases emitted varied by individual fuel type and, more broadly, by the 3 geographic fuel regions being simulated. Emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; reactivity with the hydroxyl radical, OH; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the 3 different US fuel regions presented here. VOCs contributed less than 0.78 ± 0.12 % of emissions by mole and less than 0.95 ± 0.07 % of emissions by mass (on average) due to the predominance of CO2, CO, CH4, and NOx emissions; however, VOCs contributed 70-90 (±16) % to OH reactivity and were the only measured gas-phase source of SOA precursors from combustion of biomass. Over 82 % of the VOC emissions by mole were unsaturated compounds including highly reactive alkenes and aromatics and photolabile oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) such as formaldehyde. OVOCs contributed 57-68 % of the VOC mass emitted, 42-57 % of VOC-OH reactivity, and aromatic-OVOCs such as benzenediols, phenols, and benzaldehyde were the dominant potential SOA precursors. In addition, ambient air measurements of emissions from the Fourmile Canyon Fire

  3. [Temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon mineralization and β-glucosidase enzymekinetics in the northern temperate forests at different altitudes, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-juan; Li, Dan-dan; Zhang, Xin-yu; He, Nian-peng; Bu, Jin-feng; Wang, Qing; Sun, Xiao-min; Wen, Xue-fa

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples, which were collected from three typical forests, i.e., Betula ermanii forest, coniferous mixed broad-leaved forest, and Pinus koraiensis forest, at different altitudes along the southern slope of Laotuding Mountain of Changbai Mountain range in Liaoning Province of China, were incubated over a temperature gradient in laboratory. Soil organic carbon mineralization rates (Cmin), soil β-1,4-glucosidase (βG) kinetics and their temperature sensitivity (Q₁₀) were measured. The results showed that both altitude and temperature had significant effects on Cmin · Cmin increased with temperature and was highest in the B. ermanii forest. The temperature sensitivity of Cmin [Q₁₀(Cmin)] ranked in order of B. ermanii forest > P. koraiensis forest > coniferous mixed broad-leaved forest, but did not differ significantly among the three forests. Both the maximum activity (Vmax) and the Michaelis constant (Km) of the βG responded positively to temperature for all the forests. The temperature sensitivity of Vmax [Q₁₀(Vmax)] ranged from 1.78 to 1.90, and the temperature sensitivity of Km [Q₁₀(Km)] ranged from 1.79 to 2.00. The Q₁₀(Vmax)/Q10(Km) ratios were significantly greater in the B. ermanii soil than in the other two forest soils, suggesting that the βG kinetics-dependent impacts of the global warming or temperature increase on the decomposition of soil organic carbon were temperature sensitive for the forests at the higher altitudes.

  4. Farm Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  5. Effect of straw mulch residues of previous crop oats on the weed population in direct seeded faba bean in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massucati, Luiz Felipe Perrone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of Organic Farming, we investigated whether direct seeding of faba bean (Vicia faba L. into straw mulch from residues of precrop oats used for weed control enables at least occasional/opportunistic direct seeding in Organic Agriculture. Eight field trials were carried out at different study sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Direct seeding (DS was performed into mulch layers of 0,4 and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues applied to the remaining stubble, simulating different yield levels of the precrop oats. LBS was used as a reference treatment, where straw was harvested, stubble tillage performed and seedbed prepared in fall and oil radish (Raphanus sativus grown as winter cover crop. Mouldboard ploughing combined with conventional seedbed preparation was performed in early spring to V. faba. Compared with LBS, straw mulch with subsequent direct seeding suppressed especially dicotyledonous annuals significantly. DS treatments with straw reduced the abundance of this group by 81 and 85% compared with LBS. Straw mulch resulted in effective suppression of photosensitive weeds such as Matricaria spp. and late germinating Chenopodium album. Grasses and perennial species occurred independent of the amount of straw. Compared with DS, the abundance of these weeds was reduced by 64 and 82% in LBS treatment. The shoot dry matter production of faba bean was retarded by DS compared with LBS, but significant yield losses could be avoided with straw residues of at least 4 t ha-1. Sufficient amount of straw of from the previous crop is a key criterion to facilitate organic no-till farming of faba bean in a suitable crop sequence when pressure of perennials and grasses is low.

  6. Metabolic and physiochemical responses to a whole-lake experimental increase in dissolved organic carbon in a north-temperate lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Jacob A.; Craig, Nicola; Kelly, Patrick T.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last several decades, many lakes globally have increased in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), calling into question how lake functions may respond to increasing DOC. Unfortunately, our basis for making predictions is limited to spatial surveys, modeling, and laboratory experiments, which may not accurately capture important whole-ecosystem processes. In this article, we present data on metabolic and physiochemical responses of a multiyear experimental whole-lake increase in DOC concentration. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in pelagic gross primary production, likely due to a small increase in phosphorus as well as a surprising lack of change in epilimnetic light climate. We also speculate on the importance of lake size modifying the relationship between light climate and elevated DOC. A larger increase in ecosystem respiration resulted in an increased heterotrophy for the treatment basin. The magnitude of the increase in heterotrophy was extremely close to the excess DOC load to the treatment basin, indicating that changes in heterotrophy may be predictable if allochthonous carbon loads are well-constrained. Elevated DOC concentration also reduced thermocline and mixed layer depth and reduced whole-lake temperature. Results from this experiment were quantitatively different, and sometimes even in the opposite direction, from expectations based on cross-system surveys and bottle experiments, emphasizing the importance of whole-ecosystem experiments in understanding ecosystem response to environmental change.

  7. Understanding soil erosion impacts in temperate agroecosystems: bridging the gap between geomorphology and soil ecology using nematodes as a model organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C.; Rowan, J. S.; McKenzie, B. M.; Neilson, R.

    2013-11-01

    Soil is a key asset of natural capital, providing a myriad of goods and ecosystem services that sustain life through regulating, supporting and provisioning roles, delivered by chemical, physical and biological processes. One of the greatest threats to soil is accelerated erosion, which raises a natural process to unsustainable levels, and has downstream consequences (e.g.~economic, environmental and social). Global intensification of agroecosystems is a recognised major cause of soil erosion which, in light of predicted population growth and increased demand for food security, will continue or increase. Transport and redistribution of biota by soil erosion has hitherto been ignored and thus is poorly understood. With the move to sustainable intensification this is a key knowledge gap that needs to be addressed. Here we highlight the erosion-energy and effective-erosion-depth continuum in soils, differentiating between different forms of soil erosion, and argue that nematodes are an appropriate model taxa to investigate impacts of erosion on soil biota across scales. We review the different known mechanisms of soil erosion that impact on soil biota in general, and nematodes in particular, and highlight the few detailed studies, primarily from tropical regions, that have considered soil biota. Based on the limited literature and using nematodes as a model organism we outline future research priorities to initially address the important interrelationships between soil erosion processes and soil biota.

  8. Free Range, Organic? Polish Consumers Preferences Regarding Information on Farming System and Nutritional Enhancement of Eggs: A Discrete Choice Based Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the structure of consumer preferences regarding information on farming system and nutritional enhancement of eggs to verify if consumers are willing to accept products combing sustainability and nutrition related claims. The data was collected within a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviews survey on a representative sample of 935 consumers responsible for food shopping. A discrete choice-based conjoint method was selected in eliciting consumer preferences among different product profiles with varying levels of attributes. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct clusters that differed significantly in terms of importance attached to production system attributes and socio-demographic profiles. The results of the experiment showed that price and farming system had the most significant mean relative importance in shaping consumers’ preferences, while other attributes such as nutrition and health claims, egg size, package size and hen breed were far less important. Free range eggs had the highest relative importance for consumers despite the fact that organic egg production systems are governed by much stricter animal welfare standards. Our segmentation revealed that two of our four clusters may be more easily reached by information on animal welfare related attributes in egg production than the others. The results of our study provide the policy makers and marketing practitioners with insights applicable for communication and pricing strategies for eggs with sustainability claims.

  9. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in organic farming. Approximate quantification of its generation at the organic garden of the School of Agricultural, Food and Biosystems Engineering (ETSIAAB) in the Technical University of Madrid (UPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jorge; Barbado, Elena; Maldonado, Mariano; Andreu, Gemma; López de Fuentes, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    As it well-known, agricultural soil fertilization increases the rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission production such as CO2, CH4 and N2O. Participation share of this activity on the climate change is currently under study, as well as the mitigation possibilities. In this context, we considered that it would be interesting to know how this share is in the case of organic farming. In relation to this, a field experiment was carried out at the organic garden of the School of Agricultural, Food and Biosystems Engineering (ETSIAAB) in the Technical University of Madrid (UPM). The orchard included different management growing areas, corresponding to different schools of organic farming. Soil and gas samples were taken from these different sites. Gas samples were collected throughout the growing season from an accumulated atmosphere inside static chambers inserted into the soil. Then, these samples were carried to the laboratory and there analyzed. The results obtained allow knowing approximately how ecological fertilization contributes to air pollution due to greenhouse gases.

  10. Regional prediction of soil organic carbon content over temperate croplands using visible near-infrared airborne hyperspectral imagery and synchronous field spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Gilliot, J. M.; Bel, L.; Lefevre, J.; Chehdi, K.

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at identifying the potential of Vis-NIR airborne hyperspectral AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soil types comprised haplic luvisols, calcaric cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle data (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks. Tracks were atmospherically corrected then mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution using a set of 24 synchronous field spectra of bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then calculation and thresholding of NDVI from an atmospherically corrected SPOT image acquired the same day enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. A total of 101 sites sampled either in 2013 or in the 3 previous years and in 2015 were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic AISA spectra which were related to topsoil SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples, considering 74 sites outside cloud shadows only, and different sampling strategies for selecting calibration samples. Validation root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were comprised between 3.73 and 4.49 g Kg-1 and were ∼4 g Kg-1 in median. The most performing models in terms of coefficient of determination (R2) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD) values were the calibration models derived either from Kennard-Stone or conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling on smoothed spectra. The most generalizable model leading to lowest RMSE value of 3.73 g Kg-1 at the regional scale and 1.44 g Kg-1 at the within-field scale and low bias was the cross-validated leave

  11. STUDIES ON VEGETATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF NAKED OAT (AVENA SATIVA GREX VAR. NUDAE MORDV VARIETY "MINA" GROWN IN THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING IN SARKAR AGRO REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Vateva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Naked oats is varietal variation of oats, whose potential is necessary to examine for the various agricultural regions in Bulgaria. The objective of this experiment is to track down and to determine opportunities for growing Bulgarian naked oat variety "Mina", in ecological conditions of Sakar agricultural region. The surveys were carried out during the period 2009-2011 in experimental base for the Sakar mountain of ISSAPP "N. Pushkarov" Sofia. Under the too specific conditions of Sakar agricultural region and grown in organic farming the naked oats variety "Mina" shows good adaptability for growth and development. The vegetation period lasts 93-115 days. In the initial phases of its development the naked oats grew by 1.9 – 7.6 cm, in the phases of the active growing season grew by 8.3-12.3 cm. For the vegetation period the naked oats variety "Mina" grew by 64.9-74.2 cm

  12. Winter supplementation of ground whole flaxseed impacts milk fatty acid composition on organic dairy farms in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate supplementation of ground whole flaxseed to organic dairy cows during the non-grazing season to maintain levels of beneficial fatty acid concentrations in milk typically observed during the grazing season. During the winters of 2013-14 and 2014-15, 9 organ...

  13. The need to breed crop varieties suitable for organic farming, using wheat, tomato and broccoli as examples: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Jones, S.S.; Tamm, L.; Murphy, K.M.; Myers, J.R.; Leifert, C.; Messmer, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 95% of organic production is based on crop varieties that were bred for the conventional high-input sector. Recent studies have shown that such varieties lack important traits required under organic and low-input production conditions. This is primarily due to

  14. Animal Health Challenges and Veterinary Aspects of Organic Livestock Farming Identified Through a 3 Year EU Network Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Padel, Susanne; Younie, David

    2008-01-01

    From 2003-2006, an EU network project ‘Sustaining Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming‘ (SAFO), was carried out with 26 partners from 20 EU-countries and 4 related partners from 4 candidate or new member states. The focus was the integration of animal health and welfare issues in orga...... of organic values and, 4) In all participating countries, a strong need for training of farmers and in particular veterinarians in animal health promotion and organic principles was identified. The article presents a summary of papers presented at the five SAFO workshops....

  15. The effect of dairy farm management regime on swallow (Hirundo rustica) abundance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, S.K.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify differences in Swallow abundance between organically and conventionally managed dairy farms, by examining three factors: farm buildings, food availability and farmer attitudes to Swallows. Methods Organic and conventional dairy farm holdings were compared in pairwise fashion. On

  16. (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) in a warm, temperate South African estuary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of and consumption of organic material by the sand-bubbler crab Dotilla fenestrata was studied over neap and spring tides on a sheltered sand bank close to the mouth of the warm, temperate Kowie Estuary, South Africa. Crabs emerged from their burrows only after the tide receded, and it was light. Time to ...

  17. Late Glacial and Holocene Paleoliminology of two temperate lakes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stable carbon isotope (13C) and elemental C/N ratios in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) extracted from radiometrically dated cores from two Midwestern USA lakes were determined to investigate the factors that control these values in temperate lakes. The range of 13C values ( -26 to -32%) and C/N ratios (mean value ...

  18. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M. [University of Lleida, Lleida (Spain). Dept. of Environmental & Soil Science

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  19. Prevalence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli stx1, stx2, eaeA, and rfbE genes and survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure from organic and low-input conventional dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Klerks, M.M.; Vos, de O.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Manure samples were collected from 16 organic (ORG) and 9 low-input conventional (LIC) Dutch dairy farms during August and September 2004 to determine the prevalence of the STEC virulence genes stx(1) (encoding Shiga toxin 1), stx(2) (encoding Shiga toxin 2), and eaeA (encoding intimin), as well as

  20. Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC– time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, V.C.; Lehotay, S.J.; Geis-Asteggiantec, L.; Kwon, H.; Mol, J.G.J.; Kamp, van der H.J.; Mateus, N.; Domingues, V.F.; Delerue-Matos, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over the course of 2 years to compare the residue profiles from organic farming to integrated pest management practices in Portugal. For sample preparation, we used the citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy,

  1. Perceptions of French private veterinary practitioners’ on their role in organic dairy farms and opportunities to improve their advisory services for organic dairy farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, J E; Bareille, N; Fourichon, C

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians could be the expected sparring partners of organic dairy farmers in promoting animal health which is one of the main organic principles. However, in the past organic dairy farmers did not always consider veterinarians to be pertinent advisors for them. The objectives of this study...... for improvement of veterinarians’ advisory services for organic dairy herds. Fourteen veterinarians, providing herd health advisory services to dairy farmers, were interviewed using qualitative semi-structured research interviews. A modified approach to Grounded Theory was used for data collection and analysis...... veterinarians considered that there was no direct economic interest for them in the organic dairy sector and that could diminish their willingness to invest in this sector. Possible opportunities for improvement were identified; for example proposing more proactively advice via existing organisations, by making...

  2. Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Maurer, V.; Bestman, M.W.P.; Sambeek van, F.; Zeltner, E.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Galea, F.; Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes

  3. Potential Contradictions Connected to the Inclusion of Stable Schools in the Legislation for Danish Organic Dairy Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Fisker, I

    2013-01-01

    generally found the Stable Schools useful for many organic farmers, also after introduction to the legislation, given that farmers are motivated and the process is actively supported by a skilled facilitator. We raise the question of a potential mismatch between the legislative aims and the farmer group...

  4. The root systems of onion and Allium fistulosum in the context of organic farming: a breeding approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, de P.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Allium cepa , Allium roylei , Japanese bunching onion, introgression breeding, organic agriculture, linkage map, AFLP, QTL analysis, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, in vitro multiplication

    On-farm assessment of tillage impact on the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and structural soil properties in a semiarid region in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemai, Imene; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Ben Guirat, Saida; Ben-Hammouda, Moncef; Gallali, Tahar

    2012-12-30

    In semiarid areas, low and erratic rainfall, together with the intensive agricultural use of soils, has depleted soil organic carbon and degraded the soil's chemical, biological and physical fertility. To develop efficient soil-management practices for the rapid restoration of severely degraded soils, no-till, mulch-based cropping systems have been adopted. Thus, a study was conducted on a farm to evaluate the effect of a no-tillage system (NT) versus conventional tillage (CT) on the vertical (0-50 cm) distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), structural instability (SI), stable aggregates and infiltration coefficient (Ks) in a clay loam soil under rain-fed conditions in a semiarid region of north-western Tunisia. CT consisting of moldboard plowing to a depth of 20 cm was used for continuous wheat production. NT by direct drilling under residue was used for 3 (NT3) and 7 (NT7) years in wheat/fava bean and wheat/sulla crop rotations, respectively. SOC was more significantly increased (p < 0.05) by NT3 and NT7 than by CT at respective depths of 0-10 and 0-20 cm, but a greater increase in the uppermost 10 cm of soil was observed in the NT7 field. NT3 management decreased BD and consequently increased TP at a depth of 0-10 cm. The same trend was observed for the NT7 treatment at a depth of 0-30 cm. Ks was not affected by the NT3 treatment but was improved at a depth of 0-30 cm by the NT7 treatment. Changes in BD, TP and Ks in the NT7 plot were significant only in the first 10 cm of the soil. Both NT3 and NT7 considerably reduced SI (p < 0.1) and enhanced stable aggregates (p < 0.05) across the soil profile. These differences were most pronounced under NT7 at a depth of 0-10 cm. The stratification ratio (SR) of the selected soil properties, except that of SI, showed significant differences between the CT and NT trials, indicating an improvement in soil quality. NT management in the farming systems of north-western Tunisia was

  5. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... H7 infections among visitors to a dairy farm . New England Journal of Medicine . 2002; 347:555–560. Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak at a Summer Camp – North Carolina, 2009 . Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . 2011 ... in Humans – New York, Illinois, California, and Tennessee, 2004-2005 . Morbidity ...

  6. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  7. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the

  8. Dams release methane even in temperate zoned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarchand, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Wohlen lake (near Bern) is a retaining dam built 90 years ago that has undergone a campaign to measure the quantity of methane released. The campaign lasted 1 year and the result was unexpected: 0.15 g/m 2 *day which one of the highest release rates in temperate zones. This result is all the more stunning since water stays only 2 days in average in the reservoir and that the drowned area is not important. In fact the river Aar that feeds the lake is loaded with organic matter coming from humane activities: agriculture and 3 sewage plants. This organic matter decays in the lake releasing methane. (A.C.)

  9. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analysis of mat-forming and accompanying bacteria covering organically-enriched marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile (Calbuco Island)

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Carlos; Paredes, Javier; Valenzuela, Cristian; Lam, Phyllis; Guillou, Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The mat forming bacteria covering organic matter-enriched and anoxic marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile, were examined using 16S rRNA gene phylogenies. This mat was absent in the sea bed outside the direct influence of the farm (360 m outside fish cages). Based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences (similar to 1500 bp), mat-forming filamentous cells were settled as the sulphur-oxidizing and putatively dissimilative nitrate-reducing Beggict...

  10. Histopathological alterations in the vital organs of Indian Major Carps with parasitic infestation in fish farms West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurva Raghu Ramudu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the histological changes of vital organs such as kidney, gills and brain with the mixed infestation of parasites in Indian Major Carps (IMC. The parasites such as Myxobolus spp., Thelohanellus spp., Trichodina spp., Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus spp. and Nematodes were observed in three IMC. Several histological alterations were observed in the kidney of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala, which includes vacuolar degeneration in the epithelium of renal tubules, focal areas of necrosis, proliferation of bowman′s capsule and many cases the renal tubules lost its shape and canalculi formation was observed. The gills showed focal areas of necrosis, exacerbated swelling of gill arch, deposition of distinct black melanin pigmentation at the basal point of the gill arch, loss of primary and secondary lamellae, prominent vacuolar degeneration and formation of vacuoles. The presence of protozoan parasites in brain tissue resulted necrosis of the brain tissue, black pigmentation, vacuolization of myelin sheath of nerve fibers and common degenerative changes. Aims: To study histological changes of vital organs such as kidney, gills and brain with the mixed infestation of parasites in Indian Major Carps (IMC. Settings and Design: The organs fixed in 4% formalin are transferred to 50% ethyl alcohol and stored for further analysis. Materials and Methods: Histopathological analysis was made as described by Roberts. Statistical Analysis Used: Nil. Results: Described in text. Conclusions: The present study brings about conclusion that impact of mixed infestation of the parasites on their hosts was severe. Histopathological changes were observed in vital organs which might be due to toxins released by different parasites or physical damage of tissue with the presence of parasites.

  11. Soil organic matter doubles the cation exchange capacity of tropical soil under no-till farming in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fabricio T; Dores, Eliana Fg de Carvalho; Weber, Oscarlina L Dos Santos; Beber, Daniel C; Campelo, José H; Maia, João C de Souza

    2018-01-09

    Agricultural conservation practices increase total organic carbon storage in soil (T OCS ), a factor that is correlated with the physical and chemical qualities of highly weathered soils. In this study, we investigated the effects of T OCS on the physicochemical attributes of a Latosol after 10 years of no-till management in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. T COS was highly correlated (r = 0.92) with cation exchange capacity (CEC, pH = 7) and soil density. In the top 0.2 m soil layer, CEC increased by 25% with every 1.8 kg m -2 of stored organic carbon. Eliminating soil organic matter reduced CEC from an already low value of 8.40 cmol c kg -1 to 4.82 cmol c kg -1 . Humus is therefore clearly important for the formation of a negative liquid charge in a predominantly electropositive but clayey soil. We confirmed that T OCS is an indicator related to the physiochemical characteristics of weathered soils. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the increased carbon storage under non-tilling systems is essential for guaranteeing weathered soil fertility in tropical climates. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of contrasting crop rotation systems on soil chemical and biochemical properties and plant root growth in organic farming: First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elga Monaci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming is claimed to improve soil fertility. Nonetheless, among organic practices, net C-inputs may largely vary in amount and composition and produce different soil conditions for microbial activity and plant-root system adaptation and development. In this study, we hypothesised that, in the regime of organic agriculture, soil chemical and biochemical properties can substantially differ under contrasting crop rotation systems and produce conditions of soil fertility to which the plant responds through diverse growth and production. The impact of 13 years of alfalfa-crop rotation (P-C and annual crop rotation (A-C was evaluated on the build up of soil organic carbon (SOC, active (light fraction organic matter, LFOM; water soluble organic carbon, WSOC and humic fraction [fulvic acids carbon (FAC, humic acids carbon (HAC], soil biochemical properties [microbial biomass carbon (MBC, basal respiration (dBR, alkaline phosphatase (AmP, arylsulfatase (ArS, orto-diphenoloxidase (o- DPO] and the amount of available macro-nutrients (N, P, and S at two different soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm before and after cultivation of wheat. We also studied the response of root morphology, physiology and yield of the plant-root system of wheat. Results showed that the level of soil fertility and plant-root system behaviour substantially differed under the two crop rotation systems investigated here. We observed high efficiency of the P-C soil in the build up of soil organic carbon, as it was 2.9 times higher than that measured in the A-C soil. With the exception of o-DPO, P-C soil always showed a higher level of AmP and ArS activity and an initial lower amount of available P and S. The P-C soil showed higher rootability and promoted thinner roots and higher root density. In the P-C soil conditions, the photosynthesis and yield of durum wheat were also favoured. Finally, cultivation of wheat caused an overall depletion of the accrued fertility of soil

  13. Effects of implementing organic rice-duck integrated farming on reducing agricultural diffuse pollution around Dianshan Lake in the western suburbs of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Teng, Qing

    2017-04-01

    incidence of rice pests and diseases, but also significantly improve soil fertility. The rice plants co-cultured with ducks grow healthily, if not applying any herbicides and pesticides, which is conducive to establish organic rice farming. It is estimated that the total amounts of N and P2O5 discharged from the paddy fields into the lake would reduce by 75.8% and 95.2%, respectively, and the potential pollution from pesticides and herbicides can be totally prevented, if implementing the organic rice-duck integrated system at the six towns surrounding Dianshan Lake. This will contribute greatly to improve the water quality of the lake. Moreover, the organic rice produced by the rice-duck integrated system is five times higher in prize than the conventional rice, and the ducks ecologically growing in the fields are four times higher in prize than the intensively cultivated ones. This will also be beneficial to increase farmers' incomes.

  14. Potential and barriers for biogas production in Denmark at widely expanded organic farming with focus on the soil carbon content; Potentiale og barrierer for biogasproduktion i Danmark ved omfattende oekologisk jordbrug med fokus paa dyrkningsjordens kulstofforhold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch Salomonsen, K.

    2000-06-01

    The Ph.D. thesis describes the influence from continued expansion of organic farming systems to the potential for energy production from biogas in Denmark. The project analyses the consequence from three categories of barriers: 1) Practical barriers, 2) The attitude of organic farmers, and 3) Agricultural biological problems. Economic and political barriers are not examined. When the barriers can be quantified, they are included in the calculation of the maximum biogas potential. When not, the implications of barriers are expressed qualitatively. It has been a particular goal to provide new information on whether agricultural biological problems are a barrier to biogas production in organic farming systems. One important question in this connection is whether biogas production has a negative influence on the soil carbon content compared to composting. This question is investigated by an experiment. The project is based on technical and natural science disciplines, with an interdisciplinary basis ranging over energy planning, agricultural science, microbiology, and crop, and animal operation. (au)

  15. Short-term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2015-06-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely affect soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a 5-year period for soil chemical, physical, micro- and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils, and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back-hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed, and they were fertilized with compost only every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from fixed locations in each vineyard every spring from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both tilled and grass-covered inter-rows. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio and electrical conductivity, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still-evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different

  16. POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR GROW THE SPRING NAKED OATS VARIETY "MINA" (AVENA NUDA, L. IN THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING IN SAKAR AGRO REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Vateva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From all cereals the oats is the culture that due to dietary and healthy impact on the human body becomes more sought after in the market. The residual products of oats after harvesting the grain such as straw and chaff are sought after for animal feed. The aim of this research is to test the potential opportunities of the spring naked oats variety "Mina", Bulgarian selection, grown on the principles of organic farming. The research is carried out in real ecological environment under field conditions of Sakar agro-ecological region. In ecological environment and without using of pesticides and mineral fertilizers the vegetative development of the spring naked oats variety "Mina" passes normally. The duration of the vegetation period ranges from 93 to 115 days. For this period the oats grew by an average of 69.7 cm. Under the ecological conditions of Sakar agro-region average yields of grain are 1292.830 kg/ha, and the quantity of straw is 1515.500 kg/ha. The yields of grain of spring naked oat variety "Mina" grown in ecological conditions are lower compared to the average yields of oats in the country for the same period with 452.50 kg/ha. This difference is not alarming considering the fact that the production of this variety oats is ecological clean and there is market demand for dietetic foods.

  17. Effect of protein concentrate supplementation on the composition of amino acids in milk from dairy cows in an organic farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our experiment examined the effect of feeding a protein concentrate supplement on the composition of amino acids in milk from dairy cows managed in an organic farming system. The experiment included two groups of cows. Animals in both groups received an identical basic feed ration composed of maize silage, clover-grass haylage from the first cutting, grass haylage from the first cutting, winter wheat and spring barley. The first group of dairy cows (n = 10 served as a control without the addition of protein concentrate to the feed ration. The second experimental group (n = 10 received in addition to the basic feed ration a protein concentrate composed of soybean, sunflower and linseed cakes at rate 1 kg per head per day. The experiment lasted 30 days. Milk analysed for amino acid content was sampled at 10-day intervals. Addition of the protein concentrate significantly increased milk contents of aspartic acid, proline, threonine, glycine, alanine and glutamic acid. A significant decrease of valine also was recorded in milk from the experimental group. The results of our experiment show that a protein concentrate supplement can affect concentrations of some amino acids in milk from dairy cows. 

  18. First Results of a Detection Sensor for the Monitoring of Laying Hens Reared in a Commercial Organic Egg Production Farm Based on the Use of Infrared Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a monitoring system to identify the presence of laying hens, in a closed room of a free-range commercial organic egg production farm, was the aim of this study. This monitoring system was based on the infrared (IR technology and had, as final target, a possible reduction of atmospheric ammonia levels and bacterial load. Tests were carried out for three weeks and involved 7 ISA (Institut de Sélection Animale brown laying hens. The first 5 days was used to set up the detection sensor, while the other 15 days were used to evaluate the accuracy of the resulting monitoring system, in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The setup procedure included the evaluation of different color background (CB thresholds, used to discriminate the information contents of the thermographic images. At the end of this procedure, a CB threshold equal to an increase of 3 °C from the floor temperature was chosen, and a cutoff level of 196 colored pixels was identified as the threshold to use to classify a positive case. The results of field tests showed that the developed monitoring system reached a fine detection accuracy (sensitivity = 97.9% and specificity = 94.9% and the IR technology proved to be a possible solution for the development of a detection sensor necessary to reach the scope of this study.

  19. First Results of a Detection Sensor for the Monitoring of Laying Hens Reared in a Commercial Organic Egg Production Farm Based on the Use of Infrared Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Redaelli, Veronica; Tirloni, Erica; Bernardi, Cristian; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni

    2016-10-21

    The development of a monitoring system to identify the presence of laying hens, in a closed room of a free-range commercial organic egg production farm, was the aim of this study. This monitoring system was based on the infrared (IR) technology and had, as final target, a possible reduction of atmospheric ammonia levels and bacterial load. Tests were carried out for three weeks and involved 7 ISA (Institut de Sélection Animale) brown laying hens. The first 5 days was used to set up the detection sensor, while the other 15 days were used to evaluate the accuracy of the resulting monitoring system, in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The setup procedure included the evaluation of different color background (CB) thresholds, used to discriminate the information contents of the thermographic images. At the end of this procedure, a CB threshold equal to an increase of 3 °C from the floor temperature was chosen, and a cutoff level of 196 colored pixels was identified as the threshold to use to classify a positive case. The results of field tests showed that the developed monitoring system reached a fine detection accuracy (sensitivity = 97.9% and specificity = 94.9%) and the IR technology proved to be a possible solution for the development of a detection sensor necessary to reach the scope of this study.