WorldWideScience

Sample records for telomeres

  1. Telomerer og telomerase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to EH Blackburn, CW Greider and JW Szostak for their work on "How chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase". Telomeres are specialized DNA structures localized at the end of linear chromosomes. Telomeres are known as the biol......In 2009 the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to EH Blackburn, CW Greider and JW Szostak for their work on "How chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase". Telomeres are specialized DNA structures localized at the end of linear chromosomes. Telomeres are known...... as the biological clock of the cell, since they shorten with each cell division. Telomerase can elongate telomeres. Telomeres protect chromosome ends against being recognized as double stranded DNA breaks, and are thought to be a guard against cancer. It has furthermore been suggested that telomeres may play a role...

  2. Telomerers rolle i cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are a double-edged sword when it comes to cancer. On one hand, telomeres limit the cells' ability to divide and thereby restrict the uninhibited growth seen in cancer. On the other hand, short telomeres can initiate the chromosome instability that characterizes cancer. Diseases...... with the combination of short telomeres and high cancer risk are seen, but until now the use of telomeres as predictors of cancer has, in general, been unsuccessful. Telomeres and telomerase play an important role in further cancer development. Researchers are trying to exploit this in the development of new cancer...

  3. Telomeres and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, S E

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres are the tips of chromosomes and consist of proteins and hexanucleotide tandem repeats of DNA. The DNA repeats are shortened at each mitotic division of normal cells, and the telomere length chronicles how many divisions the cell has undergone. Thus, telomere length is a marker of fundam...

  4. Telomeres and human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, Keri Horan; Fontes Antunes, Danielle Mota; Dracxler, Roberta Caetano; Knier, Taylor Warner; Seth-Smith, Michelle Louise; Wang, Fang; Liu, Lin; Keefe, David Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres mediate biologic aging in organisms as diverse as plants, yeast, and mammals. We propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging that posits telomere shortening in the female germ line as the primary driver of reproductive aging in women. Experimental shortening of telomeres in mice, which normally do not exhibit appreciable oocyte aging, and which have exceptionally long telomeres, recapitulates the aging phenotype of human oocytes. Telomere shortening in mice reduces synapsis and chiasmata, increases embryo fragmentation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, spindle dysmorphologies, and chromosome abnormalities. Telomeres are shorter in the oocytes from women undergoing in vitro fertilization, who then produce fragmented, aneuploid embryos that fail to implant. In contrast, the testes are replete with spermatogonia that can rejuvenate telomere reserves throughout the life of the man by expressing telomerase. Differences in telomere dynamics across the life span of men and women may have evolved because of the difference in the inherent risks of aging on reproduction between men and women. Additionally, growing evidence links altered telomere biology to endometriosis and gynecologic cancers, thus future studies should examine the role of telomeres in pathologies of the reproductive tract. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Telomeres and disease: enter TERRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicher, André; Kastner, Lisa; Luke, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Telomere function is tightly regulated in order to maintain chromosomal stability. When telomeres become dysfunctional, the replicative capacity of cells diminishes and cellular senescence ensues. This can lead to impaired tissue replenishment and eventually degenerative disorders, referred to as telomere syndromes. Cancer can also develop as a result of the genomic instability associated with telomere dysfunction. TERRA (TElomeric Repeat containing RNA) is a long non-coding transcript that stems from sub-telomeric regions and continues into the telomeric tract and is therefore a hybrid of both sub-telomeric and telomeric sequence. In general, increased TERRA transcription is associated with telomere shortening and compromised telomere function. Here we will briefly outline the general principles behind telomere dysfunction-associated diseases. Furthermore, we will discuss the few known links that exist between telomere transcription (TERRA) and disease. Finally, we will speculate on how the understanding, and eventual manipulation, of TERRA transcription could potentially be used in terms of therapeutic strategies.

  6. Telomeres: Hallmarks of radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayouaz, A.; Raynaud, C.; Heride, C.; Revaud, D.; Sabatier, L. [CEA, DSV, IRCM/SRO, F-92265 Fontenay Aux Roses (France)

    2008-07-01

    Telomeres are the very ends of the chromosomes. They can be seen as natural double-strand breaks (DSB), specialized structures which prevent DSB repair and activation of DNA damage checkpoints. In somatic cells, attrition of telomeres occurs after each cell division until replicative senescence. In the absence of telomerase, telomeres shorten due to incomplete replication of the lagging strand at the very end of chromosome termini. Moreover, oxidative stress and accumulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to an increased telomere shortening due to a less efficient repair of SSB in telomeres. The specialized structures at telomeres include proteins involved in both telomere maintenance and DNA repair. However when a telomere is damaged and has to be repaired, those proteins might fail to perform an accurate repair of the damage.This is the starting point of this article in which we first summarize the well-established relationships between DNA repair processes and maintenance of functional telomeres. We then examine how damaged telomeres would be processed, and show that irradiation alters telomere maintenance leading to possibly dramatic consequences. Our point is to suggest that those consequences are not restricted to the short term effects such as increased radiation-induced cell death. On the contrary, we postulate that the major impact of the loss of telomere integrity might occur in the long term, during multistep carcinogenesis. Its major role would be to act as an amplifying event unmasking in one single step recessive radiation-induced mutations among thousands of genes and providing cellular proliferative advantage. Moreover, the chromosomal instability generated by damaged telomeres will favour each step of the transformation from normal to fully transformed cells. (authors)

  7. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than...

  8. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication.......0-21.5). The genetic analyses suggested that telomere length was not causally associated with attendance at hospital for depression or with purchase of antidepressant medication. CONCLUSIONS: Short telomeres were not associated with depression in prospective or in causal, genetic analyses.......BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...

  9. What Makes Telomeres Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieradzan, Adam K; Krupa, Paweł; Wales, David J

    2017-03-16

    Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences, which are essential for protecting the termini of chromosomes. Thousands of such repetitions are necessary to maintain the stability of the whole chromosome. Several similar repeated telomeric sequences have been found in different species, but why has nature chosen them? What features do telomeres have in common? In this article, we study the physical properties of human-like (TTAGGG), plant (TTTAGG), insect (TTAGG), and Candida guilermondi (GGTGTAC) telomeres in comparison with seven control, nontelomeric sequences. We used steered molecular dynamics with the nucleic acid united residue (NARES) coarse-grained force field, which we compared with the all-atom AMBER14 force field and experimental data. Our results reveal important features in all of the telomeric sequences, including their exceptionally high mechanical resistance and stability to untangling and stretching, compared to those of nontelomeric sequences. We find that the additional stability of the telomeres comes from their ability to form triplex structures and wrap around loose chains of linear DNA by regrabbing the chain. We find that, with slower pulling speed, regrabbing and triplex formation is more frequent. We also found that some of the sequences can form triplexes experimentally, such as TTTTTCCCC, and can mimic telomeric properties.

  10. Chromatin structure in telomere dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eGalati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a specific nucleoprotein structure, the telomere, is required to ensure the protection of chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage sites. Telomere shortening below a critical length triggers a DNA damage response that leads to replicative senescence. In normal human somatic cells, characterized by telomere shortening with each cell division, telomere uncapping is a regulated process associated with cell turnover. Nevertheless, telomere dysfunction has also been associated with genomic instability, cell transformation and cancer. Despite the essential role telomeres play in chromosome protection and in tumorigenesis, our knowledge of the chromatin structure involved in telomere maintenance is still limited. Here we review the recent findings on chromatin modifications associated with the dynamic changes of telomeres from protected to de-protected state and their role in telomere functions.

  11. Telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is induced by telomere shortening to nucleate telomerase molecules at short telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusanelli, Emilio; Romero, Carmina Angelica Perez; Chartrand, Pascal

    2013-09-26

    Elongation of a short telomere depends on the action of multiple telomerase molecules, which are visible as telomerase RNA foci or clusters associated with telomeres in yeast and mammalian cells. How several telomerase molecules act on a single short telomere is unknown. Herein, we report that the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is involved in the nucleation of telomerase molecules into clusters prior to their recruitment at a short telomere. We find that telomere shortening induces TERRA expression, leading to the accumulation of TERRA molecules into a nuclear focus. Simultaneous time-lapse imaging of telomerase RNA and TERRA reveals spontaneous events of telomerase nucleation on TERRA foci in early S phase, generating TERRA-telomerase clusters. This cluster is subsequently recruited to the short telomere from which TERRA transcripts originate during S phase. We propose that telomere shortening induces noncoding RNA expression to coordinate the recruitment and activity of telomerase molecules at short telomeres. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Telomere attrition due to infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilmonen, Petteri; Kotrschal, Alexander; Penn, Dustin J

    2008-01-01

    Telomeres--the terminal caps of chromosomes--become shorter as individuals age, and there is much interest in determining what causes telomere attrition since this process may play a role in biological aging...

  13. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling

  14. Telomerers rolle ved aldersbetingede sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are specialized DNA structures, protecting the ends of linear chromosomes. The association between telomeres and cellular aging is well-established, and it has been shown that there is a negative correlation between telomere length and chronological age for many types of human tissue. O...

  15. Break-induced telomere synthesis underlies alternative telomere maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Robert L; Verma, Priyanka; Cho, Nam Woo; Winters, Harrison D; Wondisford, Anne R; Greenberg, Roger A

    2016-11-03

    Homology-directed DNA repair is essential for genome maintenance through templated DNA synthesis. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) necessitates homology-directed DNA repair to maintain telomeres in about 10-15% of human cancers. How DNA damage induces assembly and execution of a DNA replication complex (break-induced replisome) at telomeres or elsewhere in the mammalian genome is poorly understood. Here we define break-induced telomere synthesis and demonstrate that it utilizes a specialized replisome, which underlies ALT telomere maintenance. DNA double-strand breaks enact nascent telomere synthesis by long-tract unidirectional replication. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) loading by replication factor C (RFC) acts as the initial sensor of telomere damage to establish predominance of DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) through its POLD3 subunit. Break-induced telomere synthesis requires the RFC-PCNA-Pol δ axis, but is independent of other canonical replisome components, ATM and ATR, or the homologous recombination protein Rad51. Thus, the inception of telomere damage recognition by the break-induced replisome orchestrates homology-directed telomere maintenance.

  16. Telomeres: Implications for Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Bernal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres facilitate the protection of natural ends of chromosomes from constitutive exposure to the DNA damage response (DDR. This is most likely achieved by a lariat structure that hides the linear telomeric DNA through protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. The telomere shortening associated with DNA replication in the absence of a compensatory mechanism culminates in unmasked telomeres. Then, the subsequent activation of the DDR will define the fate of cells according to the functionality of cell cycle checkpoints. Dysfunctional telomeres can suppress cancer development by engaging replicative senescence or apoptotic pathways, but they can also promote tumour initiation. Studies in telomere dynamics and karyotype analysis underpin telomere crisis as a key event driving genomic instability. Significant attainment of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT-pathway to maintain telomere length may be permissive and required for clonal evolution of genomically-unstable cells during progression to malignancy. We summarise current knowledge of the role of telomeres in the maintenance of chromosomal stability and carcinogenesis.

  17. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  18. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres remains elusive. Mounting evidence suggests that the long noncoding telomeric RNA TERRA renders ALT telomeres recombinogenic by forming RNA:DNA hybrids with the telomeric C-rich strand. TERRA and telomeric hybrids act in concert with a number of other factors, including the RNA endoribonuclease RNaseH1 and the single stranded DNA binding protein RPA. The functional interaction network built upon these different players seems indispensable for ALT telomere maintenance, and digging into the molecular details of this previously unappreciated network might open the way to novel avenues for cancer treatments.

  19. Predictors of telomere content in dragon lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballen, Cissy; Healey, Mo; Wilson, Mark; Tobler, Michael; Olsson, Mats

    2012-08-01

    Telomeres shorten as a consequence of DNA replication, in particular in cells with low production of telomerase and perhaps in response to physiological stress from exposure to reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide. This process of telomere attrition is countered by innate antioxidation, such as via the production of superoxide dismutase. We studied the inheritance of telomere length in the Australian painted dragon lizard ( Ctenophorus pictus) and the extent to which telomere length covaries with mass-corrected maternal reproductive investment, which reflects the level of circulating yolk precursor and antioxidant, vitellogenin. Our predictors of offspring telomere length explained 72 % of telomere variation (including interstitial telomeres if such are present). Maternal telomere length and reproductive investment were positively influencing offspring telomere length in our analyses, whereas flow cytometry-estimated superoxide level was negatively impacting offspring telomere length. We suggest that the effects of superoxide on hatchling telomere shortening may be partly balanced by transgenerational effects of vitellogenin antioxidation.

  20. Inheritance of telomere length in a bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Horn

    Full Text Available Telomere dynamics are intensively studied in human ageing research and epidemiology, with many correlations reported between telomere length and age-related diseases, cancer and death. While telomere length is influenced by environmental factors there is also good evidence for a strong heritable component. In human, the mode of telomere length inheritance appears to be paternal and telomere length differs between sexes, with females having longer telomeres than males. Genetic factors, e.g. sex chromosomal inactivation, and non-genetic factors, e.g. antioxidant properties of oestrogen, have been suggested as possible explanations for these sex-specific telomere inheritance and telomere length differences. To test the influence of sex chromosomes on telomere length, we investigated inheritance and sex-specificity of telomere length in a bird species, the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, in which females are the heterogametic sex (ZW and males are the homogametic (ZZ sex. We found that, contrary to findings in humans, telomere length was maternally inherited and also longer in males. These results argue against an effect of sex hormones on telomere length and suggest that factors associated with heterogamy may play a role in telomere inheritance and sex-specific differences in telomere length.

  1. Long Telomeres Bypass the Requirement for Telomere Maintenance in Human Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A.S. Taboski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of telomere maintenance in cancer cell survival via the elongation of telomeres by telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT, it had not been tested directly whether telomere maintenance is dispensable for human tumorigenesis. We engineered human tumor cells containing loxP-flanked hTERT to enable extensive telomere elongation prior to complete hTERT excision. Despite unabated telomere erosion, hTERT-excised cells formed tumors in mice and proliferated in vitro for up to 1 year. Telomerase reactivation or ALT was not observed, and the eventual loss of telomeric signal coincided with loss of tumorigenic potential and cell viability. Crisis was averted via the reintroduction of active but not inactive hTERT. Thus, telomere maintenance is dispensable for human tumorigenesis when telomere reserves are long. Yet, despite telomere instability and the presence of oncogenic RAS, human tumors remain susceptible to crisis induced by critically short telomeres.

  2. Dynamics of protein binding to telomeres in living cells: implications for telomere structure and function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Mattern (Karin); S.J. Swiggers (Susan); A.L. Nigg (Alex); B. Löwenberg (Bob); A.B. Houtsmuller (Adriaan); J.M. Zijlmans (Mark)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractTelomeric proteins have an essential role in the regulation of the length of the telomeric DNA tract and in protection against end-to-end chromosome fusion. Telomere organization and how individual proteins are involved in different telomere functions in living cells is

  3. Telomere homeostasis in IUGR placentas - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron-Shental, Tal; Sadeh-Mestechkin, Dana; Amiel, Aliza

    2016-03-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures located at the termini of chromosomes. They are essential for chromosome stability. Telomeres become shorter due to mitotic cycles and environmental factors. When telomeres are shortened and therefore dysfunctional, cellular senescence occurs and organ dysfunction might develop. During pregnancy, fetal growth restriction secondary to placental insufficiency has been linked to impaired telomere homeostasis in which telomeres are shorter, telomerase is decreased, and compensatory mechanisms of telomere capture are enhanced. These characteristics, along with increased signs of senescence, indicate telomere dysfunction in trophoblasts from placentas affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This review summarizes the information currently available regarding telomere homeostasis in trophoblasts from human pregnancies affected by IUGR. Improved understanding of placental physiology might help in the development of treatment options for fetuses with IUGR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Engineered telomere degradation models dyskeratosis congenita

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hockemeyer, Dirk; Palm, Wilhelm; Wang, Richard C; Couto, Suzana S; de Lange, Titia

    2008-01-01

    .... However, mice with extensively shortened telomeres due to telomerase deficiency do not develop the characteristics of DC, raising questions about the etiology of DC and/or mouse models for human telomere dysfunction...

  5. Persistent telomere cohesion triggers a prolonged anaphase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Smith, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres use distinct mechanisms (not used by arms or centromeres) to mediate cohesion between sister chromatids. However, the motivation for a specialized mechanism at telomeres is not well understood. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization and live-cell imaging, that persistent sister chromatid cohesion at telomeres triggers a prolonged anaphase in normal human cells and cancer cells. Excess cohesion at telomeres can be induced by inhibition of tankyrase 1, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase that is required for resolution of telomere cohesion, or by overexpression of proteins required to establish telomere cohesion, the shelterin subunit TIN2 and the cohesin subunit SA1. Regardless of the method of induction, excess cohesion at telomeres in mitosis prevents a robust and efficient anaphase. SA1- or TIN2-induced excess cohesion and anaphase delay can be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Moreover, we show that primary fibroblasts, which accumulate excess telomere cohesion at mitosis naturally during replicative aging, undergo a similar delay in anaphase progression that can also be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Our study demonstrates that there are opposing forces that regulate telomere cohesion. The observation that cells respond to unresolved telomere cohesion by delaying (but not completely disrupting) anaphase progression suggests a mechanism for tolerating excess cohesion and maintaining telomere integrity. This attempt to deal with telomere damage may be ultimately futile for aging fibroblasts but useful for cancer cells. PMID:24173716

  6. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an 'epigenetic' mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans...

  7. Peroxiredoxin 1 Protects Telomeres from Oxidative Damage and Preserves Telomeric DNA for Extension by Telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Aeby

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage of telomeres can promote cancer, cardiac failure, and muscular dystrophy. Specific mechanisms protecting telomeres from oxidative damage have not been described. We analyzed telomeric chromatin composition during the cell cycle and show that the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1 is enriched at telomeres during S phase. Deletion of the PRDX1 gene leads to damage of telomeric DNA upon oxidative stress, revealing a protective function of PRDX1 against oxidative damage at telomeres. We also show that the oxidized nucleotide 8-oxo-2′deoxyguanosine-5′-triphosphate (8oxodGTP causes premature chain termination when incorporated by telomerase and that some DNA substrates terminating in 8oxoG prevent extension by telomerase. Thus, PRDX1 safeguards telomeres from oxygen radicals to counteract telomere damage and preserve telomeric DNA for elongation by telomerase.

  8. The JIL-1 kinase affects telomere expression in the different telomere domains of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Silva-Sousa

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, the non-LTR retrotransposons HeT-A, TART and TAHRE build a head-to-tail array of repetitions that constitute the telomere domain by targeted transposition at the end of the chromosome whenever needed. As a consequence, Drosophila telomeres have the peculiarity to harbor the genes in charge of telomere elongation. Understanding telomere expression is important in Drosophila since telomere homeostasis depends in part on the expression of this genomic compartment. We have recently shown that the essential kinase JIL-1 is the first positive regulator of the telomere retrotransposons. JIL-1 mediates chromatin changes at the promoter of the HeT-A retrotransposon that are necessary to obtain wild type levels of expression of these telomere transposons. With the present study, we show how JIL-1 is also needed for the expression of a reporter gene embedded in the telomere domain. Our analysis, using different reporter lines from the telomere and subtelomere domains of different chromosomes, indicates that JIL-1 likely acts protecting the telomere domain from the spreading of repressive chromatin from the adjacent subtelomere domain. Moreover, the analysis of the 4R telomere suggests a slightly different chromatin structure at this telomere. In summary, our results strongly suggest that the action of JIL-1 depends on which telomere domain, which chromosome and which promoter is embedded in the telomere chromatin.

  9. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidinger, Britt J; Blount, Jonathan D; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Metcalfe, Neil B; Monaghan, Pat

    2012-01-31

    The attrition of telomeres, the ends of eukaryote chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cell deterioration with advancing age. The observed variation in telomere length among individuals of the same age is therefore thought to be related to variation in potential longevity. Studies of this relationship are hampered by the time scale over which individuals need to be followed, particularly in long-lived species where lifespan variation is greatest. So far, data are based either on simple comparisons of telomere length among different age classes or on individuals whose telomere length is measured at most twice and whose subsequent survival is monitored for only a short proportion of the typical lifespan. Both approaches are subject to bias. Key studies, in which telomere length is tracked from early in life, and actual lifespan recorded, have been lacking. We measured telomere length in zebra finches (n = 99) from the nestling stage and at various points thereafter, and recorded their natural lifespan (which varied from less than 1 to almost 9 y). We found telomere length at 25 d to be a very strong predictor of realized lifespan (P telomeres at all points at which they were measured. Reproduction increased adult telomere loss, but this effect appeared transient and did not influence survival. Our results provide the strongest evidence available of the relationship between telomere length and lifespan and emphasize the importance of understanding factors that determine early life telomere length.

  10. Telomere functions grounding on TERRA firma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalin, Claus M; Lingner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding telomeric repeat-containing RNAs - TERRAs - are transcribed in a regulated manner from telomeres throughout eukaryotes. TERRA molecules consist of chromosome end-specific subtelomeric sequences and telomeric repeats at their 3' ends. Recent work suggests that TERRA sustains several important functions at chromosome ends. TERRA can regulate telomere length through modulation of exonuclease 1 and telomerase, it may promote recruitment of chromatin modifiers to damaged telomeres and thereby enable DNA end-processing, and it may promote telomere protein composition changes during cell cycle progression. Furthermore, telomere transcription regulates chromosome-end mobility within the nucleus. We review how TERRA, by regulated expression and by providing a molecular scaffold for various protein enzymes, can support a large variety of vital functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental stresses disrupt telomere length homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Hagit Romano

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation and play crucial roles in cellular aging and disease. Recent studies have additionally found a correlation between psychological stress, telomere length, and health outcome in humans. However, studies have not yet explored the causal relationship between stress and telomere length, or the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship. Using yeast as a model organism, we show that stresses may have very different outcomes: alcohol and acetic acid elongate telomeres, whereas caffeine and high temperatures shorten telomeres. Additional treatments, such as oxidative stress, show no effect. By combining genome-wide expression measurements with a systematic genetic screen, we identify the Rap1/Rif1 pathway as the central mediator of the telomeric response to environmental signals. These results demonstrate that telomere length can be manipulated, and that a carefully regulated homeostasis may become markedly deregulated in opposing directions in response to different environmental cues.

  12. Regulation of homologous recombination at telomeres in budding yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Lisby, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination is suppressed at normal length telomere sequences. In contrast, telomere recombination is allowed when telomeres erode in the absence of telomerase activity or as a consequence of nucleolytic degradation or incomplete replication. Here, we review the mechanisms...... that contribute to regulating mitotic homologous recombination at telomeres and the role of these mechanisms in signalling short telomeres in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae....

  13. Telomeres and Telomerase in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Kai Yeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences present at the ends of each eukaryotic chromosome to stabilize the genome structure integrity. Telomere lengths progressively shorten with each cell division. Inflammation and oxidative stress, which are implicated as major mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases, increase the rate of telomere shortening and lead to cellular senescence. In clinical studies, cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and hypertension have been associated with short leukocyte telomere length. In addition, low telomerase activity and short leukocyte telomere length have been observed in atherosclerotic plaque and associated with plaque instability, thus stroke or acute myocardial infarction. The aging myocardium with telomere shortening and accumulation of senescent cells limits the tissue regenerative capacity, contributing to systolic or diastolic heart failure. In addition, patients with ion-channel defects might have genetic imbalance caused by oxidative stress-related accelerated telomere shortening, which may subsequently cause sudden cardiac death. Telomere length can serve as a marker for the biological status of previous cell divisions and DNA damage with inflammation and oxidative stress. It can be integrated into current risk prediction and stratification models for cardiovascular diseases and can be used in precise personalized treatments. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of telomeres and telomerase in the aging process and their association with cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we discuss therapeutic interventions targeting the telomere system in cardiovascular disease treatments.

  14. TERRA RNA Antagonizes ATRX and Protects Telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsueh-Ping; Cifuentes-Rojas, Catherine; Kesner, Barry; Aeby, Eric; Lee, Hun-Goo; Wei, Chunyao; Oh, Hyun Jung; Boukhali, Myriam; Haas, Wilhelm; Lee, Jeannie T

    2017-06-29

    Through an integration of genomic and proteomic approaches to advance understanding of long noncoding RNAs, we investigate the function of the telomeric transcript, TERRA. By identifying thousands of TERRA target sites in the mouse genome, we demonstrate that TERRA can bind both in cis to telomeres and in trans to genic targets. We then define a large network of interacting proteins, including epigenetic factors, telomeric proteins, and the RNA helicase, ATRX. TERRA and ATRX share hundreds of target genes and are functionally antagonistic at these loci: whereas TERRA activates, ATRX represses gene expression. At telomeres, TERRA competes with telomeric DNA for ATRX binding, suppresses ATRX localization, and ensures telomeric stability. Depleting TERRA increases telomerase activity and induces telomeric pathologies, including formation of telomere-induced DNA damage foci and loss or duplication of telomeric sequences. We conclude that TERRA functions as an epigenomic modulator in trans and as an essential regulator of telomeres in cis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of TERRA in the regulation of telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caiqin; Zhao, Li; Lu, Shiming

    2015-01-01

    Telomere dysfunction is closely associated with human diseases such as cancer and ageing. Inappropriate changes in telomere length and/or structure result in telomere dysfunction. Telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent, but it was recently demonstrated that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA, a long non-coding RNA, participates in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and heterochromatinization. The correct regulation of telomere length may be crucial to telomeric homeostasis and functions. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of TERRA in the maintenance of telomere length, with focus on the variety of mechanisms by which TERRA is involved in the regulation of telomere length. This review aims to enable further understanding of how TERRA-targeted drugs can target telomere-related diseases.

  16. Do Telomeres Adapt to Physiological Stress? Exploring the Effect of Exercise on Telomere Length and Telomere-Related Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a tissue degeneration phenotype marked by a loss of tissue regenerative capacity. Regenerative capacity is dictated by environmental and genetic factors that govern the balance between damage and repair. The age-associated changes in the ability of tissues to replace lost or damaged cells is partly the cause of many age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and sarcopenia. A well-established marker of the aging process is the length of the protective cap at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and with increasing chronological age and short telomeres have been associated with a range of age-related diseases. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to exercise (i.e., exercise training is associated with telomere length maintenance; however, recent evidence points out several controversial issues concerning tissue-specific telomere length responses. The goals of the review are to familiarize the reader with the current telomere dogma, review the literature exploring the interactions of exercise with telomere phenotypes, discuss the mechanistic research relating telomere dynamics to exercise stimuli, and finally propose future directions for work related to telomeres and physiological stress.

  17. An H2A Histone Isotype, H2ac, Associates with Telomere and Maintains Telomere Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsin Su

    Full Text Available Telomeres are capped at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and are composed of TTAGGG repeats bound to the shelterin complex. Here we report that a replication-dependent histone H2A isotype, H2ac, was associated with telomeres in human cells and co-immunoprecipitates with telomere repeat factor 2 (TRF2 and protection of telomeres protein 1 (POT1, whereas other histone H2A isotypes and mutations of H2ac did not bind to telomeres or these two proteins. The amino terminal basic domain of TRF2 was necessary for the association with H2ac and for the recruitment of H2ac to telomeres. Depletion of H2ac led to loss of telomeric repeat sequences, the appearance of dysfunctional telomeres, and chromosomal instability, including chromosomal breaks and anaphase bridges, as well as accumulation of telomere-associated DNA damage factors in H2ac depleted cells. Additionally, knockdown of H2ac elicits an ATM-dependent DNA damage response at telomeres and depletion of XPF protects telomeres against H2ac-deficiency-induced G-strand overhangs loss and DNA damage response, and prevents chromosomal instability. These findings suggest that the H2A isotype, H2ac, plays an essential role in maintaining telomere functional integrity.

  18. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA TERRA: a noncoding RNA connecting telomere biology to genome integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusanelli, Emilio; Chartrand, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are dynamic nucleoprotein structures that protect the ends of chromosomes from degradation and activation of DNA damage response. For this reason, telomeres are essential to genome integrity. Chromosome ends are enriched in heterochromatic marks and proper organization of telomeric chromatin is important to telomere stability. Despite their heterochromatic state, telomeres are transcribed giving rise to long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) called TERRA (telomeric repeat-containing RNA). TERRA molecules play critical roles in telomere biology, including regulation of telomerase activity and heterochromatin formation at chromosome ends. Emerging evidence indicate that TERRA transcripts form DNA-RNA hybrids at chromosome ends which can promote homologous recombination among telomeres, delaying cellular senescence and sustaining genome instability. Intriguingly, TERRA RNA-telomeric DNA hybrids are involved in telomere length homeostasis of telomerase-negative cancer cells. Furthermore, TERRA transcripts play a role in the DNA damage response (DDR) triggered by dysfunctional telomeres. We discuss here recent developments on TERRA's role in telomere biology and genome integrity, and its implication in cancer.

  19. TERRA and the state of the telomere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Karsten; Luke, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Long noncoding telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been implicated in telomere maintenance in a telomerase-dependent and a telomerase-independent manner during replicative senescence and cancer. TERRA's proposed activities are diverse, thus making it difficult to pinpoint the critical roles that TERRA may have. We propose that TERRA orchestrates different activities at chromosome ends in a manner that depends on the state of the telomere.

  20. Evolutionary ecology of telomeres: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Wapstra, Erik; Friesen, Christopher R

    2017-10-06

    Telomere-induced selection could take place if telomere-associated disease risk shortens reproductive life span and differently reduces relative fitness among individuals. Some of these diseases first appear before reproductive senescence and could thus influence ongoing selection. We ask whether we can estimate the components of the breeder's equation for telomeres, in which the response to selection (R, by definition "evolution") is the product of ongoing selection (S) and heritability (h2 ). However, telomere inheritance is a conundrum: in quantitative genetics, traits can usually be allocated to categories with relatively high or low heritability, depending on their association with relative fitness. Telomere traits, however, show wide variation in heritability from zero to one, across taxa, gender, ethnicity, age, and disease status. In spite of this, there is divergence in telomere length among populations, supporting past and ongoing telomere evolution. Rates of telomere attrition and elongation vary among taxa with some, but not complete, taxonomic coherence. For example, telomerase is commonly referred to as "restricted to the germ line in mammals," but inbred mice and beavers have telomerase upregulation in somatic tissue, as do many ectotherms. These observations provoke a simplistic understanding of telomere evolutionary biology-clearly much is yet to be discovered. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Loss of telomere protection: consequences and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Johanna Leonarda Jacobs

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are repetitive sequences at the natural ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes that protect these from recognition as chromosome breaks. Their ability to do so critically depends on the binding of sufficient quantities of functional shelterin, a six-unit protein complex with specific and crucial roles in telomere maintenance and function. Insufficient telomere length, leading to insufficient concentration of shelterin at chromosome ends, or otherwise crippled shelterin function, causes telomere deprotection. While contributing to aging-related pathologies, loss of telomere protection can act as a barrier to tumorigenesis, as dysfunctional telomeres activate DNA-damage-like checkpoint responses that halt cell proliferation or trigger cell death. In addition, dysfunctional telomeres affect cancer development and progression by being a source of genomic instability. Reviewed here are the different approaches that are being undertaken to investigate the mammalian cellular response to telomere dysfunction and its consequences for cancer. Furthermore, it is discussed how current and future knowledge about the mechanisms underlying telomere damage responses might be applied for diagnostic purposes or therapeutic intervention.

  2. Telomeres, telomerase and premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Košir Pogačnik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of chromosomes, consisting of six repeated nucleotides in TTAGGG sequence. Genome stability is partly maintained by the architecture of telomeres and is gradually lost as telomeres progressively shorten with each cell replication. Critically shortened telomeres are recognized by DNA repair mechanisms as DNA damage and the cell replication cycle stops. The cell eventually dies or undergoes cell apoptosis. Telomere represents a cellular marker of biological age and are therefore also called cell mitotic clock. The enzyme that counteracts telomere shortening by adding nucleotides to the 3’ end of DNA strand is called telomerase. It is composed of the RNA subunit (TR, which is special type of messenger RNA (mRNA, the catalytic protein subunit (TERT, which works as a reverse transcriptase and numerous additional proteins. Telomerase is active in some germline, epithelial and haemopoietic cells, but in most somatic cells the activity is undetectable. In literature, the length of telomeres is closely connected with premature ovarian failure (POF. POF is generally defined as the onset of menopause before the age of 40. The causes of disease are genetical, autoimmune, iatrogenic or if we cannot establish the cause – idiopathic. A lot of studies examined correlation between idiopathic POF, length of telomeres and telomerase activity. The studies mostly show that women with POF have shortened telomeres and decreased activity of telomerase as compared to healthy women.

  3. Leukocyte telomere dynamics in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Troels; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2013-01-01

    Limited data suggest that leukocytes of the elderly display ultra-short telomeres. It was reported that in some elderly persons leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shows age-dependent elongation. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal models, we characterized LTL dynamics in participants......, assuming a 340 bp attrition during this period. This was not significantly different from the empirical observation of 7.5 % of individuals showing LTL elongation. We conclude that accumulation of ultra-short telomeres in leukocytes of the elderly reflects a shift toward shorter telomeres in the entire...

  4. Problem-Solving Test: Telomere Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2009 was awarded to Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider, and Jack W. Szostak for the discovery of "how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase." The discovery has important implications in the processes of cellular aging and carcinogenesis. Telomeres are satellite DNA…

  5. TERRA: telomeric repeat-containing RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Brian; Lingner, Joachim

    2009-09-02

    Telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, consist of tandem arrays of short DNA repeats and a large set of specialized proteins. A recent analysis has identified telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a large non-coding RNA in animals and fungi, which forms an integral component of telomeric heterochromatin. TERRA transcription occurs at most or all chromosome ends and it is regulated by RNA surveillance factors and in response to changes in telomere length. TERRA functions that are emerging suggest important roles in the regulation of telomerase and in orchestrating chromatin remodelling throughout development and cellular differentiation. The accumulation of TERRA at telomeres can also interfere with telomere replication, leading to a sudden loss of telomere tracts. Such a phenotype can be observed upon impairment of the RNA surveillance machinery or in cells from ICF (Immunodeficiency, Centromeric region instability, Facial anomalies) patients, in which TERRA is upregulated because of DNA methylation defects in the subtelomeric region. Thus, TERRA may mediate several crucial functions at the telomeres, a region of the genome that had been considered to be transcriptionally silent.

  6. Telomere biology in healthy aging and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, Hisko; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van der Harst, Pim

    Aging is a biological process that affects most cells, organisms and species. Telomeres have been postulated as a universal biological clock that shortens in parallel with aging in cells. Telomeres are located at the end of the chromosomes and consist of an evolutionary conserved repetitive

  7. Comparative biology of telomeres: where plants stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J Matthew; Riha, Karel

    2010-09-10

    Telomeres are essential structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Work on their structure and function began almost 70 years ago in plants and flies, continued through the Nobel Prize winning work on yeast and ciliates, and goes on today in many model and non-model organisms. The basic molecular mechanisms of telomeres are highly conserved throughout evolution, and our current understanding of how telomeres function is a conglomeration of insights gained from many different species. This review will compare the current knowledge of telomeres in plants with other organisms, with special focus on the functional length of telomeric DNA, the search for TRF homologs, the family of POT1 proteins, and the recent discovery of members of the CST complex. Copyright 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Telomeres and telomerase in prostate cancer development and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mindy Kim; Meeker, Alan

    2017-10-01

    Aberrations in telomere biology are among the earliest events in prostate cancer tumorigenesis and continue during tumour progression. Substantial telomere shortening occurs in prostate cancer cells and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Not all mechanisms of telomere shortening are understood, but oxidative stress from local inflammation might accelerate prostatic telomere loss. Critically short telomeres can drive the accumulation of tumour-promoting genomic alterations; however, continued telomere erosion is unsustainable and must be mitigated to ensure cancer cell survival and unlimited replication potential. Prostate cancers predominantly maintain telomeres by activating telomerase, but alternative mechanisms of telomere extension can occur in metastatic disease. Telomerase activity and telomere length assessment might be useful in prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Telomere shortening in normal stromal cells has been associated with prostate cancer, whereas variable telomere lengths in prostate cancer cells and telomere shortening in cancer-associated stromal cells correlated with lethal disease. Single-agent telomerase-targeted treatments for solid cancers were ineffective in clinical trials but have not been investigated in prostate cancer and might be useful in combination with established regimens. Telomere-directed strategies have not been explored as extensively. Telomere deprotection strategies have the advantage of being effective in both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent cancers. Disruption of androgen receptor function in prostate cancer cells results in telomere dysfunction, indicating telomeres and telomerase as potential therapeutic targets in prostate cancer.

  9. Telomere Chromatin Condensation Assay (TCCA): a novel approach to study structural telomere integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vasconcellos, Iria; Alonso-Rodríguez, Silvia; López-Baltar, Isidoro; Fernández, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres, the DNA-protein complexes located at the end of linear eukaryotic chromosomes are essential for genome stability. Improper higher-order chromatin organization at the chromosome ends can give rise to telomeric recombination and genomic instability. We report the development of an assay to quantify differences in the condensation of telomeric chromatin, thereby offering new opportunities to study telomere biology and stability. We have combined a DNA nuclease digestion with a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay of telomeric DNA, which we term the Telomere Chromatin Condensation Assay (TCCA). By quantifying the relative quantities of telomeric DNA that are progressively digested with the exonuclease Bal 31 the method can discriminate between different levels of telomeric chromatin condensation. The structural chromatin packaging at telomeres shielded against exonuclease digestion delivered an estimate, which we term Chromatin Protection Factor (CPF) that ranged from 1.7 to 2.3 fold greater than that present in unpacked DNA. The CPF was significantly decreased when cell cultures were incubated with the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-azacytidine, demonstrating the ability of the TCCA assay to discriminate between packaging levels of telomeric DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. RNaseH1 regulates TERRA-telomeric DNA hybrids and telomere maintenance in ALT tumour cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajika; Lee, Yongwoo; Wischnewski, Harry; Brun, Catherine M.; Schwarz, Tobias; Azzalin, Claus M.

    2014-01-01

    A fraction of cancer cells maintain telomeres through the telomerase-independent, ‘Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres’ (ALT) pathway. ALT relies on homologous recombination (HR) between telomeric sequences; yet, what makes ALT telomeres recombinogenic remains unclear. Here we show that the RNA endonuclease RNaseH1 regulates the levels of RNA–DNA hybrids between telomeric DNA and the long noncoding RNA TERRA, and is a key mediator of telomere maintenance in ALT cells. RNaseH1 associated to telomeres specifically in ALT cells and its depletion led to telomeric hybrid accumulation, exposure of single-stranded telomeric DNA, activation of replication protein A at telomeres and abrupt telomere excision. Conversely, overexpression of RNaseH1 weakened the recombinogenic nature of ALT telomeres and led to telomere shortening. Altering cellular RNaseH1 levels did not perturb telomere homoeostasis in telomerase-positive cells. RNaseH1 maintains regulated levels of telomeric RNA–DNA hybrids at ALT telomeres to trigger HR without compromising telomere integrity too severely. PMID:25330849

  11. Telomeres and telomerase in prostate cancer development and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Mindy Kim; Meeker, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Aberrations in telomere biology are among the earliest events in prostate cancer tumorigenesis and continue during tumour progression. Substantial telomere shortening occurs in prostate cancer cells and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Not all mechanisms of telomere shortening are understood, but oxidative stress from local inflammation might accelerate prostatic telomere loss. Critically short telomeres can drive the accumulation of tumour-promoting genomic alterations; howeve...

  12. The differential processing of telomeres in response to increased telomeric transcription and RNA-DNA hybrid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Bettina; Dees, Martina; Bender, Katharina; Luke, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are protective nucleoprotein structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Despite the heterochromatic state of telomeres they are transcribed, generating non-coding telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). Strongly induced TERRA transcription has been shown to cause telomere shortening and accelerated senescence in the absence of both telomerase and homology-directed repair (HDR). Moreover, it has recently been demonstrated that TERRA forms RNA-DNA hybrids at chromosome ends. The accumulation of RNA-DNA hybrids at telomeres also leads to rapid senescence and telomere loss in the absence of telomerase and HDR. Conversely, in the presence of HDR, telomeric RNA-DNA hybrid accumulation and increased telomere transcription promote telomere recombination, and hence, delayed senescence. Here, we demonstrate that despite these similar phenotypic outcomes, telomeres that are highly transcribed are not processed in the same manner as those that accumulate RNA-DNA hybrids.

  13. Telomere Length in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, Carlos A; Verde, Zoraida; Diaz-Ureña, Germán; Santiago, Catalina; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Díaz, Enrique; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Lucia, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that regular moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with an attenuation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening. However, more controversy exists regarding higher exercise loads such as those imposed by elite-sport participation. The authors investigated LTL differences between young elite athletes (n = 61, 54% men, age [mean ± SD] 27.2 ± 4.9 y) and healthy nonsmoker, physically inactive controls (n = 64, 52% men, 28.9 ± 6.3 y) using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Elite athletes had, on average, higher LTL than control subjects, 0.89 ± 0.26 vs 0.78 ± 0.31, P = .013 for the group effect, with no significant sex (P = .995) or age effect (P = .114). The results suggest that young elite athletes have longer telomeres than their inactive peers. Further research might assess the LTL of elite athletes of varying ages compared with both age-matched active and inactive individuals.

  14. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    .... However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases...

  15. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence: e0140189

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryusaku Matsumoto; Hidenori Fukuoka; Genzo Iguchi; Yukiko Odake; Kenichi Yoshida; Hironori Bando; Kentaro Suda; Hitoshi Nishizawa; Michiko Takahashi; Shozo Yamada; Wataru Ogawa; Yutaka Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    .... However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases...

  16. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) and telomerase are components of telomeres during mammalian gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig-Viader, Rita; Vila-Cejudo, Marta; Vitelli, Valerio; Buscà, Rafael; Sabaté, Montserrat; Giulotto, Elena; Caldés, Montserrat Garcia; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2014-05-01

    Telomeres are ribonucleoprotein structures at the end of chromosomes composed of telomeric DNA, specific-binding proteins, and noncoding RNA (TERRA). Despite their importance in preventing chromosome instability, little is known about the cross talk between these three elements during the formation of the germ line. Here, we provide evidence that both TERRA and the telomerase enzymatic subunit (TERT) are components of telomeres in mammalian germ cells. We found that TERRA colocalizes with telomeres during mammalian meiosis and that its expression progressively increases during spermatogenesis until the beginning of spermiogenesis. While both TERRA levels and distribution would be regulated in a gender-specific manner, telomere-TERT colocalization appears to be regulated based on species-specific characteristics of the telomeric structure. Moreover, we found that TERT localization at telomeres is maintained throughout spermatogenesis as a structural component without affecting telomere elongation. Our results represent the first evidence of colocalization between telomerase and telomeres during mammalian gametogenesis. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  17. Short Telomere Length and Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madrid, Alexander Scheller; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short telomeres are associated with aging and have been associated with a high risk of ischemic heart disease in observational studies; however, the latter association could be due to residual confounding and/or reverse causation. We wanted to test the hypothesis that short telomeres...... are associated with high risk of ischemic heart disease using a Mendelian randomization approach free of reverse causation and of most confounding. METHODS: We genotyped 3 genetic variants in OBFC1 (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold containing 1), TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase), and TERC...... (telomerase RNA component), which code for proteins and RNA involved in telomere maintenance. We studied 105 055 individuals from Copenhagen; 17 235 of these individuals were diagnosed with ischemic heart disease between 1977 and 2013, and 66 618 had telomere length measured. For genetic studies, we further...

  18. Telomere Maintenance in the Absence of Telomerase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundblad, Vicki

    2000-01-01

    .... In the budding yeasts S. cerevisiae and K. lactis, telomerase- independent survival is mediated via RAD52-dependent recombination which results in amplification of telomeric and subtelomeric repeat sequences...

  19. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Heidinger, B. J.; Blount, J.D.; Boner, W.; Griffiths, K.; Metcalfe, N.B.; Monaghan, P.

    2012-01-01

    The attrition of telomeres, the ends of eukaryote chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cell deterioration with advancing age. The observed variation in telomere length among individuals of the same age is therefore thought to be related to variation in potential longevity. Studies of this relationship are hampered by the time scale over which individuals need to be followed, particularly in long-lived species where lifespan variation is greatest. So far, data are based either ...

  20. Telomeres, histone code, and DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misri, S; Pandita, S; Kumar, R; Pandita, T K

    2008-01-01

    Genomic stability is maintained by telomeres, the end terminal structures that protect chromosomes from fusion or degradation. Shortening or loss of telomeric repeats or altered telomere chromatin structure is correlated with telomere dysfunction such as chromosome end-to-end associations that could lead to genomic instability and gene amplification. The structure at the end of telomeres is such that its DNA differs from DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) to avoid nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), which is accomplished by forming a unique higher order nucleoprotein structure. Telomeres are attached to the nuclear matrix and have a unique chromatin structure. Whether this special structure is maintained by specific chromatin changes is yet to be thoroughly investigated. Chromatin modifications implicated in transcriptional regulation are thought to be the result of a code on the histone proteins (histone code). This code, involving phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, and sumoylation of histones, is believed to regulate chromatin accessibility either by disrupting chromatin contacts or by recruiting non-histone proteins to chromatin. The histone code in which distinct histone tail-protein interactions promote engagement may be the deciding factor for choosing specific DSB repair pathways. Recent evidence suggests that such mechanisms are involved in DNA damage detection and repair. Altered telomere chromatin structure has been linked to defective DNA damage response (DDR), and eukaryotic cells have evolved DDR mechanisms utilizing proficient DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints in order to maintain genomic stability. Recent studies suggest that chromatin modifying factors play a critical role in the maintenance of genomic stability. This review will summarize the role of DNA damage repair proteins specifically ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and its effectors and the telomere complex in maintaining genome stability. Copyright 2008 S. Karger

  1. Telomeres and the ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    In search of a potential problem with cloning, I investigate the phenomenon of telomere shortening which is caused by cell replication; clones created from somatic cells will have shortened telomeres and therefore reach a state of senescence more rapidly. While genetic intervention might fix this problem at some point in the future, I ask whether, absent technological advances, this biological phenomenon undermines the moral permissibility of cloning.

  2. Telomere--the twilight to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Samarth; Acharya, Sourya; Rajput, Devendra; Vagha, S; Grover, Shobha

    2010-09-01

    Besides forming a very important component of the chromosome, the telomeres have extremely significant modes of action and functions, right from maintaining a basic infrastructure and integrity of the chromosome vis a vis the other chromosomes, telomeres are responsible for the cell divisions and replicative senescence of the cell. The number of mitotic divisions which a cell will go through in its life span while passing through the cell cycle is governed inturn by these telomeres, the crux of the entire functioning of these chromosomal components suggests that they are the ticking clocks of the cell and when they diminish or are worn out so does the cell reach it's senility at the fag end of it's replicative life--resulting fate being--the cell is sent to it's grave yard (the final destination). Clinical implications include--regulation of cell life spans, regulating the cell's replicative behavior and it's utility in forming cells which usually are impossible to divide or replicate, telomeres regulate the cloning process,the telomeres play a major role in predicting the fate of a neoplastic cell and finally enhancing the life span of a single cell, the organ, the body as a whole by enzymes which expand the telomeres--the telomerase.

  3. Telomere Capping Proteins are Structurally Related to RPA with an additional Telomere-Specific Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelinas, A.; Paschini, M; Reyes, F; Heroux, A; Batey, R; Lundblad, V; Wuttke, D

    2009-01-01

    Telomeres must be capped to preserve chromosomal stability. The conserved Stn1 and Ten1 proteins are required for proper capping of the telomere, although the mechanistic details of how they contribute to telomere maintenance are unclear. Here, we report the crystal structures of the C-terminal domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Stn1 and the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ten1 proteins. These structures reveal striking similarities to corresponding subunits in the replication protein A complex, further supporting an evolutionary link between telomere maintenance proteins and DNA repair complexes. Our structural and in vivo data of Stn1 identify a new domain that has evolved to support a telomere-specific role in chromosome maintenance. These findings endorse a model of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of DNA maintenance that has developed as a result of increased chromosomal structural complexity.

  4. Expression of Telomere-Associated Proteins is Interdependent to Stabilize Native Telomere Structure and Telomere Dysfunction by G-Quadruplex Ligand Causes TERRA Upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Ratan; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Sourav; Ghosh, Utpal

    2017-11-13

    Telomere DNA can form specialized nucleoprotein structure with telomere-associated proteins to hide free DNA ends or G-quadruplex structures under certain conditions especially in presence of G-quadruplex ligand. Telomere DNA is transcribed to form non-coding telomere repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) whose biogenesis and function is poorly understood. Our aim was to find the role of telomere-associated proteins and telomere structures in TERRA transcription. We silenced four [two shelterin (TRF1, TRF2) and two non-shelterin (PARP-1, SLX4)] telomere-associated genes using siRNA and verified depletion in protein level. Knocking down of one gene modulated expression of other telomere-associated genes and increased TERRA from 10q, 15q, XpYp and XqYq chromosomes in A549 cells. Telomere was destabilized or damaged by G-quadruplex ligand pyridostatin (PDS) and bleomycin. Telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIFs) were observed for each case of depletion of proteins, treatment with PDS or bleomycin. TERRA level was elevated by PDS and bleomycin treatment alone or in combination with depletion of telomere-associated proteins.

  5. Telomeres and Telomerase in The Aging Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aging per se is a risk factor for reduced cardiac function and heart diseases, even when adjusted for aging-associated cardiovascular risk factors. Accordingly, aging-related biochemical and cell-biological changes lead to pathophysiological conditions, especially reduced heart function and heart disease. CONTENT: Telomere dysfunction induces a profound p53-dependent repression of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1a and PGC-1b in the heart, which leads to bioenergetic compromise due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation and ATP generation. This telomere-p53-PGC mitochondrial/metabolic axis integrates many factors linked to heart aging including increased DNA damage, p53 activation, mitochondrial, and metabolic dysfunction and provides a molecular basis of how dysfunctional telomeres can compromise cardiomyocytes and stem cell compartments in the heart to precipitate cardiac aging. SUMMARY: The aging myocardium with telomere shortening and accumulation of senescent cells restricts the tissue regenerative ability, which contributes to systolic or diastolic heart failure. Moreover, patients with ion-channel defects might have genetic imbalance caused by oxidative stress-related accelerated telomere shortening, which may subsequently cause sudden cardiac death. Telomere length can serve as a marker for the biological status of previous cell divisions and DNA damage with inflammation and oxidative stress. It can be integrated into current risk prediction and stratification models for cardiovascular diseases and can be used in precise personalized treatments. KEYWORDS: aging, telomere, telomerase, aging heart, mitochondria, cardiac stem cell

  6. Single-Molecule Studies of Telomeres and Telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joseph W; Stone, Michael D

    2017-05-22

    Telomeres are specialized chromatin structures that protect chromosome ends from dangerous processing events. In most tissues, telomeres shorten with each round of cell division, placing a finite limit on cell growth. In rapidly dividing cells, including the majority of human cancers, cells bypass this growth limit through telomerase-catalyzed maintenance of telomere length. The dynamic properties of telomeres and telomerase render them difficult to study using ensemble biochemical and structural techniques. This review describes single-molecule approaches to studying how individual components of telomeres and telomerase contribute to function. Single-molecule methods provide a window into the complex nature of telomeres and telomerase by permitting researchers to directly visualize and manipulate the individual protein, DNA, and RNA molecules required for telomere function. The work reviewed in this article highlights how single-molecule techniques have been utilized to investigate the function of telomeres and telomerase.

  7. Renal failure induces telomere shortening in the rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, L. S.; Windt, W. A.; Roks, A. J.; van Dokkum, R. P.; Schoemaker, R. G.; de Zeeuw, D.; Henning, R. H.

    Background. Renal failure aggravates pathological cardiac remodelling induced by myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac remodelling is associated with telomere shortening, a marker for biological ageing. We investigated whether mild and severe renal failure shorten cardiac telomeres and excessively

  8. Mice with Pulmonary Fibrosis Driven by Telomere Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Povedano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a degenerative disease of the lungs with an average survival post-diagnosis of 2–3 years. New therapeutic targets and treatments are necessary. Mutations in components of the telomere-maintenance enzyme telomerase or in proteins important for telomere protection are found in both familial and sporadic IPF cases. However, the lack of mouse models that faithfully recapitulate the human disease has hampered new advances. Here, we generate two independent mouse models that develop IPF owing to either critically short telomeres (telomerase-deficient mice or severe telomere dysfunction in the absence of telomere shortening (mice with Trf1 deletion in type II alveolar cells. We show that both mouse models develop pulmonary fibrosis through induction of telomere damage, thus providing proof of principle of the causal role of DNA damage stemming from dysfunctional telomeres in IPF development and identifying telomeres as promising targets for new treatments.

  9. Tumor viruses and replicative immortality--avoiding the telomere hurdle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinsong; Kamranvar, Siamak Akbari; Masucci, Maria G

    2014-06-01

    Tumor viruses promote cell proliferation in order to gain access to an environment suitable for persistence and replication. The expression of viral products that promote growth transformation is often accompanied by the induction of multiple signs of telomere dysfunction, including telomere shortening, damage of telomeric DNA and chromosome instability. Long-term survival and progression to full malignancy require the bypassing of senescence programs that are triggered by the damaged telomeres. Here we review different strategies by which tumor viruses interfere with telomere homeostasis during cell transformation. This frequently involves the activation of telomerase, which assures both the integrity and functionality of telomeres. In addition, recent evidence suggests that oncogenic viruses may activate a recombination-based mechanism for telomere elongation known as Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT). This error-prone strategy promotes genomic instability and could play an important role in viral oncogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Linking telomere loss and mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Ebsen, Ana Carlota; Gregersen, Niels; Olsen, Rikke Kj

    2017-01-01

    Telomeres and mitochondria are known to deteriorate over time. Telomere shortening is associated with aging, early senescence, and premature cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction produces indiscriminate amounts of reactive oxygen species that may lead to oxidative damage to cellular constituents,...

  11. Telomere stability and telomerase in mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Graakjaer, Jesper; Kølvrå, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Telomeres are repetitive genetic material that cap and thereby protect the ends of chromosomes. Each time a cell divides, telomeres get shorter. Telomere length is mainly maintained by telomerase. This enzyme is present in high concentrations in the embryonic stem cells and in fast growing...... embryonic cells, and declines with age. It is still unclear to what extent there is telomerase in adult stem cells, but since these are the founder cells of cells of all the tissues in the body, understanding the telomere dynamics and expression of telomerase in adult stem cells is very important....... In the present communication we focus on telomere expression and telomere length in stem cells, with a special focus on mesenchymal stem cells. We consider different mechanisms by which stem cells can maintain telomeres and also focus on the dynamics of telomere length in mesenchymal stem cells, both the overall...

  12. SMARCAL1 Resolves Replication Stress at ALT Telomeres

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    Kelli E. Cox

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells overcome replicative senescence by exploiting mechanisms of telomere elongation, a process often accomplished by reactivation of the enzyme telomerase. However, a subset of cancer cells lack telomerase activity and rely on the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT pathway, a recombination-based mechanism of telomere elongation. Although the mechanisms regulating ALT are not fully defined, chronic replication stress at telomeres might prime these fragile regions for recombination. Here, we demonstrate that the replication stress response protein SMARCAL1 is a critical regulator of ALT activity. SMARCAL1 associates with ALT telomeres to resolve replication stress and ensure telomere stability. In the absence of SMARCAL1, persistently stalled replication forks at ALT telomeres deteriorate into DNA double-strand breaks promoting the formation of chromosome fusions. Our studies not only define a role for SMARCAL1 in ALT telomere maintenance, but also demonstrate that resolution of replication stress is a crucial step in the ALT mechanism.

  13. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Ji

    Full Text Available Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  14. Telomeres, workload and life-history in great tits

    OpenAIRE

    Atema, Els

    2017-01-01

    Ageing and the effects of increased workload in great tits A new measurement to quantify variation in quality and rate of ageing between individuals is telomere length. Telomeres are a piece of DNA at the end of chromosomes, and they protect the other DNA. In many species shortening of telomere length with increasing age was demonstrated. This shortening is accelerated by processes that also decrease life expectancy. In this project we discovered that telomeres of great tits differ from telom...

  15. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  16. Mechanisms of telomere loss and their consequences for chromosome instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko eMuraki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The ends of chromosomes in mammals, called telomeres, are composed of a 6 base pair repeat sequence, TTAGGG, which is added on by the enzyme telomerase. In combination with a protein complex called shelterin, these telomeric repeat sequences form a cap that protects the ends of chromosomes. Due to insufficient telomerase expression, telomeres shorten gradually with each cell division in human somatic cells, which limits the number of times they can divide. The extensive cell division involved in cancer cell progression therefore requires that cancer cells must acquire the ability to maintain telomeres, either through expression of telomerase, or through an alternative mechanism involving recombination. It is commonly thought that the source of many chromosome rearrangements in cancer cells is a result of the extensive telomere shortening that occurs prior to the expression of telomerase. However, despite the expression of telomerase, tumor cells can continue to show chromosome instability due to telomere loss. Dysfunctional telomeres in cancer cells can result from oncogene-induced replication stress, which results in double-strand breaks (DSBs at fragile sites, including telomeres. DSBs near telomeres are especially prone to chromosome rearrangements, because telomeric regions are deficient in DSB repair. The deficiency in DSB repair near telomeres is also an important mechanism for ionizing radiation-induced replicative senescence in normal human cells. In addition, DSBs near telomeres can result in chromosome instability in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that telomere loss can contribute to heritable chromosome rearrangements. Consistent with this possibility, telomeric regions in humans are highly heterogeneous, and chromosome rearrangements near telomeres are commonly involved in human genetic disease. Understanding the mechanisms of telomere loss will therefore provide important insights into both human cancer and genetic disease.

  17. Characterization of oxidative guanine damage and repair in mammalian telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG are among the most common oxidative DNA lesions and are substrates for 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1-initiated DNA base excision repair (BER. Mammalian telomeres consist of triple guanine repeats and are subject to oxidative guanine damage. Here, we investigated the impact of oxidative guanine damage and its repair by OGG1 on telomere integrity in mice. The mouse cells were analyzed for telomere integrity by telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomere-FISH, by chromosome orientation-FISH (CO-FISH, and by indirect immunofluorescence in combination with telomere-FISH and for oxidative base lesions by Fpg-incision/Southern blot assay. In comparison to the wild type, telomere lengthening was observed in Ogg1 null (Ogg1(-/- mouse tissues and primary embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs cultivated in hypoxia condition (3% oxygen, whereas telomere shortening was detected in Ogg1(-/- mouse hematopoietic cells and primary MEFs cultivated in normoxia condition (20% oxygen or in the presence of an oxidant. In addition, telomere length abnormalities were accompanied by altered telomere sister chromatid exchanges, increased telomere single- and double-strand breaks, and preferential telomere lagging- or G-strand losses in Ogg1(-/- mouse cells. Oxidative guanine lesions were increased in telomeres in Ogg1(-/- mice with aging and primary MEFs cultivated in 20% oxygen. Furthermore, oxidative guanine lesions persisted at high level in Ogg1(-/- MEFs after acute exposure to hydrogen peroxide, while they rapidly returned to basal level in wild-type MEFs. These findings indicate that oxidative guanine damage can arise in telomeres where it affects length homeostasis, recombination, DNA replication, and DNA breakage repair. Our studies demonstrate that BER pathway is required in repairing oxidative guanine damage in telomeres and maintaining telomere integrity

  18. Telomeres, workload and life-history in great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atema, Els

    2017-01-01

    Ageing and the effects of increased workload in great tits A new measurement to quantify variation in quality and rate of ageing between individuals is telomere length. Telomeres are a piece of DNA at the end of chromosomes, and they protect the other DNA. In many species shortening of telomere

  19. Acute coronary syndrome: Role of the telomere dynamic | Behjati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Telomeres, or historically named "terminal genes" are first discovered by Muller working on fruit fly in 1930s. Since then, the great progress was made in understanding the consequences of telomere erosion on the human health and disease states, as age related vascular diseases. The overlapping links between telomere ...

  20. Approaching TERRA Firma: Genomic Functions of Telomeric Noncoding RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roake, Caitlin M; Artandi, Steven E

    2017-06-29

    Functions of the telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcribed from telomeres, have eluded researchers. In this issue of Cell, Graf el al. and Chu et al. uncover new regulatory roles for TERRA at the telomere and at distant genomic sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Telomere Length Correlates with Life Span of Dog Breeds

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    Laura J. Fick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Telomeric DNA repeats are lost as normal somatic cells replicate. When telomeres reach a critically short length, a DNA damage signal is initiated, inducing cell senescence. Some studies have indicated that telomere length correlates with mortality, suggesting that telomere length contributes to human life span; however, other studies report no correlation, and thus the issue remains controversial. Domestic dogs show parallels in telomere biology to humans, with similar telomere length, telomere attrition, and absence of somatic cell telomerase activity. Using this model, we find that peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC telomere length is a strong predictor of average life span among 15 different breeds (p < 0.0001, consistent with telomeres playing a role in life span determination. Dogs lose telomeric DNA ∼10-fold faster than humans, which is similar to the ratio of average life spans between these species. Breeds with shorter mean telomere lengths show an increased probability of death from cardiovascular disease, which was previously correlated with short telomere length in humans.

  2. Telomere-binding proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentgraf, U

    1995-02-01

    The nucleoprotein structure of Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres was investigated. A protein specifically binding to telomeric sequences was characterized by gel mobility shift assays with synthetic oligonucleotides consisting of four 7 bp telomeric repeats of Arabidopsis (TTTAGGG) and crude nuclear protein extracts of Arabidopsis leaves. These DNA-protein binding studies revealed that the binding affinity of this telomere-binding protein to the G-rich single-strand as well as to the double-stranded telomeric DNA is much higher than to the C-rich single-strand. The molecular mass of the protein was identified by SDS-PAGE to be 67 kDa. The isoelectric points were determined to be 5.0, 4.85 and 4.7, respectively, indicating that either one protein with different modifications or three slightly different proteins have been isolated. An RNA component, possibly serving as a template for reverse transcription of a plant telomerase, does not mediate the DNA-protein contact because the DNA-protein interactions were not RNAse-sensitive.

  3. SLX4 Assembles a Telomere Maintenance Toolkit by Bridging Multiple Endonucleases with Telomeres

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    Bingbing Wan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SLX4 interacts with several endonucleases to resolve structural barriers in DNA metabolism. SLX4 also interacts with telomeric protein TRF2 in human cells. The molecular mechanism of these interactions at telomeres remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of the TRF2-binding motif of SLX4 (SLX4TBM in complex with the TRFH domain of TRF2 (TRF2TRFH and map the interactions of SLX4 with endonucleases SLX1, XPF, and MUS81. TRF2 recognizes a unique HxLxP motif on SLX4 via the peptide-binding site in its TRFH domain. Telomeric localization of SLX4 and associated nucleases depend on the SLX4-endonuclease and SLX4-TRF2 interactions and the protein levels of SLX4 and TRF2. SLX4 assembles an endonuclease toolkit that negatively regulates telomere length via SLX1-catalyzed nucleolytic resolution of telomere DNA structures. We propose that the SLX4-TRF2 complex serves as a double-layer scaffold bridging multiple endonucleases with telomeres for recombination-based telomere maintenance.

  4. An evolutionary review of human telomere biology: the thrifty telomere hypothesis and notes on potential adaptive paternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Dan T A

    2011-01-01

    Telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences found at the ends of linear chromosomes, play a role in regulating cellular proliferation, and shorten with increasing age in proliferating human tissues. The rate of age-related shortening of telomeres is highest early in life and decreases with age. Shortened telomeres are thought to limit the proliferation of cells and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although natural selection is widely assumed to operate against long telomeres because they entail increased cancer risk, the evidence for this is mixed. Instead, here it is proposed that telomere length is primarily limited by energetic constraints. Cell proliferation is energetically expensive, so shorter telomeres should lead to a thrifty phenotype. Shorter telomeres are proposed to restrain adaptive immunity as an energy saving mechanism. Such a limited immune system, however, might also result in chronic infections, inflammatory stress, premature aging, and death--a more "disposable soma." With an increased reproductive lifespan, the fitness costs of premature aging are higher and longer telomeres will be favored by selection. Telomeres exhibit a paternal effect whereby the offspring of older fathers have longer telomeres due to increased telomere lengths of sperm with age. This paternal effect is proposed to be an adaptive signal of the expected age of male reproduction in the environment offspring are born into. The offspring of lineages of older fathers will tend to have longer, and thereby less thrifty, telomeres, better preparing them for an environment with higher expected ages at reproduction. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Telomere length is shorter in healthy offspring of subjects with coronary artery disease : support for the telomere hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouilette, S. W.; Whittaker, A.; Stevens, S. E.; van der Harst, P.; Goodall, A. H.; Samani, N. J.

    Background: Telomeres are shorter in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) and may indicate premature biological ageing. However, whether shorter telomeres are a primary abnormality or secondary to the disease is unclear. Objective: To investigate whether shorter telomeres are a primary

  6. Telomere length alterations unique to invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Christopher M; Asch-Kendrick, Rebecca; Argani, Pedram; Meeker, Alan K; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley

    2015-08-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes located at the extreme ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and protect chromosomal ends from degradation and recombination. Dysfunctional telomeres contribute to genomic instability, promote tumorigenesis, and, in breast cancer, have been associated with increased cancer risk and poor prognosis. Short telomere lengths have been previously associated with triple-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2)--positive ductal carcinomas. However, these investigations have not specifically assessed invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs), which accounts for 5% to 15% of all invasive breast cancers. Here, we evaluate telomere lengths within 48 primary ILCs with complete characterization of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her2 status, including 32 luminal/Her2- (ER+/PR+/Her2-), 8 luminal/Her2+ (ER+/PR+/Her2+), 3 Her2+ (ER-/PR-/Her2+), and 5 triple-negative (ER-/PR-/Her2-) carcinomas. A telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization assay, which provides single-cell telomere length resolution, was used to evaluate telomere lengths and compare with standard clinicopathological markers. In contrast to breast ductal carcinoma, in which more than 85% of cases display abnormally short telomeres, approximately half (52%) of the ILCs displayed either normal or long telomeres. Short telomere length was associated with older patient age. Interestingly, 3 cases (6%) displayed a unique telomere pattern consisting of 1 or 2 bright telomere spots among the normal telomere signals within each individual cancer cell, a phenotype that has not been previously described. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the significance of the unique bright telomere spot phenotype and the potential utility of telomere length as a prognostic marker in ILC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Telomere Length Dynamics and the Evolution of Cancer Genome Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kez Cleal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are progressively eroded during repeated rounds of cell division due to the end replication problem but also undergo additional more substantial stochastic shortening events. In most cases, shortened telomeres induce a cell-cycle arrest or trigger apoptosis, although for those cells that bypass such signals during tumour progression, a critical length threshold is reached at which telomere dysfunction may ensue. Dysfunction of the telomere nucleoprotein complex can expose free chromosome ends to the DNA double-strand break (DSB repair machinery, leading to telomere fusion with both telomeric and non-telomeric loci. The consequences of telomere fusions in promoting genome instability have long been appreciated through the breakage–fusion–bridge (BFB cycle mechanism, although recent studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies have uncovered evidence of involvement in a wider spectrum of genomic rearrangements including chromothripsis. A critical step in cancer progression is the transition of a clone to immortality, through the stabilisation of the telomere repeat array. This can be achieved via the reactivation of telomerase, or the induction of the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT pathway. Whilst telomere dysfunction may promote genome instability and tumour progression, by limiting the replicative potential of a cell and enforcing senescence, telomere shortening can act as a tumour suppressor mechanism. However, the burden of senescent cells has also been implicated as a driver of ageing and age-related pathology, and in the promotion of cancer through inflammatory signalling. Considering the critical role of telomere length in governing cancer biology, we review questions related to the prognostic value of studying the dynamics of telomere shortening and fusion, and discuss mechanisms and consequences of telomere-induced genome rearrangements.

  8. Tetrafluoroethylene telomerization initiated by benzoyl peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakov, A. I.; Kuzina, S. I.; Kiryukhin, D. P.

    2017-03-01

    The radical telomerization of tetrafluoroethylene initiated by benzoyl peroxide (BP) photolysis at λ ≥ 365 nm is studied in acetone, dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and Freon 114B2 at 25°C. The products of synthesis are a mixture of telomers of different molar masses, segregated into soluble and insoluble fractions. To characterize the radicals initiating telomerization, crystalline BP and its solution in ethanol are subjected to low-temperature (77 K) photolysis, with the liquid system serving as a model for BP behavior in solutions of telogens. It is established that radicals are not only initiators but also participate in chain termination reactions, lowering the telomers' molar mass and thus raising the proportion of the soluble fraction. Telomerization initiated by an initiator compound versus initiation by gamma radiation are compared and discussed.

  9. The Drosophila HOAP protein is required for telomere capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Giovanni; Siriaco, Giorgia; Raffa, Grazia D; Kellum, Rebecca; Gatti, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    HOAP (HP1/ORC-associated protein) has recently been isolated from Drosophila melanogaster embryos as part of a cytoplasmic complex that contains heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and the origin recognition complex subunit 2 (ORC2). Here, we show that caravaggio, a mutation in the HOAP-encoding gene, causes extensive telomere-telomere fusions in larval brain cells, indicating that HOAP is required for telomere capping. Our analyses indicate that HOAP is specifically enriched at mitotic chromosome telomeres, and strongly suggest that HP1 and HOAP form a telomere-capping complex that does not contain ORC2.

  10. Telomeres and the natural lifespan limit in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Troels; Kark, Jeremy D; Verhulst, Simon

    2017-01-01

    An ongoing debate in demography has focused on whether the human lifespan has a maximal natural limit. Taking a mechanistic perspective, and knowing that short telomeres are associated with diminished longevity, we examined whether telomere length dynamics during adult life could set a maximal...... natural lifespan limit. We define leukocyte telomere length of 5 kb as the 'telomeric brink', which denotes a high risk of imminent death. We show that a subset of adults may reach the telomeric brink within the current life expectancy and more so for a 100-year life expectancy. Thus, secular trends...

  11. Telomere in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of elderly population in the world keep increasing. In their advanced ages, many elderly face years of disability because of multiple chronic diseases, frailty, making them lost their independence. Consequently, this could have impacts on social and economic stability. A huge challenge has been sent for biomedical researchers to compress or at least eliminate this period of disability and increase the health span. CONTENT: Over the past decades, many studies of telomere biology have demonstrated that telomeres and telomere-associated proteins are implicated in human diseases. Accelerated telomere erosion was clearly correlated with a pack of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Critically short telomeres or the unprotected end, are likely to form telomeric fusion, generating genomic instability, the cornerstone for carcinogenesis. Enlightening how telomeres involved in the mechanisms underlying the diseases’ pathogenesis was expected to uncover new molecular targets for any important diagnosis or therapeutic implications. SUMMARY: Telomere shortening was foreseen as an imporant mechanism to supress tumor by limiting cellular proliferative capacity by regulating senescence check point activation. Many human diseases and carcinogenesis are causally related to defective telomeres, asserting the importance of telomeres sustainment. Thus, telomere length assessment might serve as an important tool for clinical prognostic, diagnostic, monitoring and management. KEYWORDS: telomerase, cellular senescence, aging, cancer

  12. Telomere Biology—Insights into an Intriguing Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram Venkatesan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and viruses possess circular DNA, whereas eukaryotes with typically very large DNA molecules have had to evolve into linear chromosomes to circumvent the problem of supercoiling circular DNA of that size. Consequently, such organisms possess telomeres to cap chromosome ends. Telomeres are essentially tandem repeats of any DNA sequence that are present at the ends of chromosomes. Their biology has been an enigmatic one, involving various molecules interacting dynamically in an evolutionarily well-trimmed fashion. Telomeres range from canonical hexameric repeats in most eukaryotes to unimaginably random retrotransposons, which attach to chromosome ends and reverse-transcribe to DNA in some plants and insects. Telomeres invariably associate with specialised protein complexes that envelop it, also regulating access of the ends to legitimate enzymes involved in telomere metabolism. They also transcribe into repetitive RNA which also seems to be playing significant roles in telomere maintenance. Telomeres thus form the intersection of DNA, protein, and RNA molecules acting in concert to maintain chromosome integrity. Telomere biology is emerging to appear ever more complex than previously envisaged, with the continual discovery of more molecules and interplays at the telomeres. This review also includes a section dedicated to the history of telomere biology, and intends to target the scientific audience new to the field by rendering an understanding of the phenomenon of chromosome end protection at large, with more emphasis on the biology of human telomeres. The review provides an update on the field and mentions the questions that need to be addressed.

  13. Telomere tracking from birth to adulthood and residential traffic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Zeegers, Maurice P; Derom, Catherine; Martens, Dries S; Gielen, Marij; Hageman, Geja J; Plusquin, Michelle; Thiery, Evert; Vlietinck, Robert; Nawrot, Tim S

    2017-11-21

    Telomere attrition is extremely rapid during the first years of life, while lifestyle during adulthood exerts a minor impact. This suggests that early life is an important period in the determination of telomere length. We investigated the importance of the early-life environment on both telomere tracking and adult telomere length. Among 184 twins of the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey, telomere length in placental tissue and in buccal cells in young adulthood was measured. Residential addresses at birth and in young adulthood were geocoded and residential traffic and greenness exposure was determined. We investigated individual telomere tracking from birth over a 20 year period (mean age (SD), 22.6 (3.1) years) in association with residential exposure to traffic and greenness. Telomere length in placental tissue and in buccal cells in young adulthood correlated positively (r = 0.31, P adulthood was negatively and significantly associated with residential traffic exposure at the birth address, while traffic exposure at the residential address at adult age was not associated with telomere length. Longitudinal evidence of telomere length tracking from birth to adulthood shows inverse associations of residential traffic exposure in association with telomere length at birth as well as accelerated telomere shortening in the first two decades of life.

  14. DNA Replication Origins and Fork Progression at Mammalian Telomeres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Mitsunori; Fujita, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Kazumasa

    2017-01-01

    Telomeres are essential chromosomal regions that prevent critical shortening of linear chromosomes and genomic instability in eukaryotic cells. The bulk of telomeric DNA is replicated by semi-conservative DNA replication in the same way as the rest of the genome. However, recent findings revealed that replication of telomeric repeats is a potential cause of chromosomal instability, because DNA replication through telomeres is challenged by the repetitive telomeric sequences and specific structures that hamper the replication fork. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the mechanisms by which telomeres are faithfully and safely replicated in mammalian cells. Various telomere-associated proteins ensure efficient telomere replication at different steps, such as licensing of replication origins, passage of replication forks, proper fork restart after replication stress, and dissolution of post-replicative structures. In particular, shelterin proteins have central roles in the control of telomere replication. Through physical interactions, accessory proteins are recruited to maintain telomere integrity during DNA replication. Dormant replication origins and/or homology-directed repair may rescue inappropriate fork stalling or collapse that can cause defects in telomere structure and functions. PMID:28350373

  15. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Homeostasis of telomere length rather than telomere shortening after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Helene; de Pauw, Elmar S. D.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Opdam, Sonja M.; Willemze, Roel; Tanke, Hans J.; Fibbe, Willem E.

    2003-01-01

    Hematopoietic reconstitution after stem cell transplantation requires excessive replicative activity because of the limited number of stem cells that are used for transplantation. Telomere shortening has been detected in hematopoietic cells after bone marrow transplantation. This has been thought to

  17. Telomeric protein TRF2 protects Holliday junctions with telomeric arms from displacement by the Werner syndrome helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Gerald J; Buncher, Noah A; Opresko, Patricia L

    2010-07-01

    WRN protein loss causes Werner syndrome (WS), which is characterized by premature aging as well as genomic and telomeric instability. WRN prevents telomere loss, but the telomeric protein complex must regulate WRN activities to prevent aberrant telomere processing. Telomere-binding TRF2 protein inhibits telomere t-loop deletion by blocking Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase cleavage activity, but whether TRF2 also modulates HJ displacement at t-loops is unknown. In this study, we used multiplex fluorophore imaging to track the fate of individual strands of HJ substrates. We report the novel finding that TRF2 inhibits WRN helicase strand displacement of HJs with telomeric repeats in duplex arms, but unwinding of HJs with a telomeric center or lacking telomeric sequence is unaffected. These data, together with results using TRF2 fragments and TRF2 HJ binding assays, indicate that both the TRF2 B- and Myb domains are required to inhibit WRN HJ activity. We propose a novel model whereby simultaneous binding of the TRF2 B-domain to the HJ core and the Myb domain to telomeric arms promote and stabilize HJs in a stacked arm conformation that is unfavorable for unwinding. Our biochemical study provides a mechanistic basis for the cellular findings that TRF2 regulates WRN activity at telomeres.

  18. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction

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    Despoina Sakellariou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines.We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted.We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth.

  19. Elevated levels of TRF2 induce telomeric ultrafine anaphase bridges and rapid telomere deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nera, Bernadette; Huang, Hui-Shun; Lai, Thao; Xu, Lifeng

    2015-12-07

    The shelterin protein TRF2 is essential for chromosome-end protection. Depletion of TRF2 causes chromosome end-to-end fusions, initiating genomic instability that can be cancer promoting. Paradoxically, significant increased levels of TRF2 are observed in a subset of human cancers. Experimental overexpression of TRF2 has also been shown to induce telomere shortening, through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that TRF2 overexpression results in replication stalling in duplex telomeric repeat tracts and the subsequent formation of telomeric ultrafine anaphase bridges (UFBs), ultimately leading to stochastic loss of telomeric sequences. These TRF2 overexpression-induced telomere deletions generate chromosome fusions resembling those detected in human cancers and in mammalian cells containing critically shortened telomeres. Therefore, our findings have uncovered a second pathway by which altered TRF2 protein levels can induce end-to-end fusions. The observations also provide mechanistic insight into the molecular basis of genomic instability in tumour cells containing significantly increased TRF2 levels.

  20. A loopy view of telomere evolution

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    Titia eDe Lange

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available About a decade ago, I proposed that t-loops, the lariat structures adopted by many eukaryotic telomeres, could explain how the transition from circular to linear chromosomes was successfully negotiated by early eukaryotes. Here I reconsider this loopy hypothesis in the context of the idea that eukaryotes evolved through a period of genome invasion by Group II introns.

  1. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    . Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers, which is not seen in monozygotic twins. This phenomenon might result from a paternal age...

  2. Twin correlations of telomere length metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL va...

  3. Functional characterization of the TERRA transcriptome at damaged telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Antonio; Feuerhahn, Sascha; Delafontaine, Julien; Riethman, Harold; Rougemont, Jacques; Lingner, Joachim

    2014-10-31

    Telomere deprotection occurs during tumorigenesis and aging upon telomere shortening or loss of the telomeric shelterin component TRF2. Deprotected telomeres undergo changes in chromatin structure and elicit a DNA damage response (DDR) that leads to cellular senescence. The telomeric long noncoding RNA TERRA has been implicated in modulating the structure and processing of deprotected telomeres. Here, we characterize the human TERRA transcriptome at normal and TRF2-depleted telomeres and demonstrate that TERRA upregulation is occurring upon depletion of TRF2 at all transcribed telomeres. TRF2 represses TERRA transcription through its homodimerization domain, which was previously shown to induce chromatin compaction and to prevent the early steps of DDR activation. We show that TERRA associates with SUV39H1 H3K9 histone methyltransferase, which promotes accumulation of H3K9me3 at damaged telomeres and end-to-end fusions. Altogether our data elucidate the TERRA landscape and defines critical roles for this RNA in the telomeric DNA damage response.

  4. Telomere length modulation in human astroglial brain tumors.

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    Domenico La Torre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres alteration during carcinogenesis and tumor progression has been described in several cancer types. Telomeres length is stabilized by telomerase (h-TERT and controlled by several proteins that protect telomere integrity, such as the Telomere Repeat-binding Factor (TRF 1 and 2 and the tankyrase-poli-ADP-ribose polymerase (TANKs-PARP complex. OBJECTIVE: To investigate telomere dysfunction in astroglial brain tumors we analyzed telomeres length, telomerase activity and the expression of a panel of genes controlling the length and structure of telomeres in tissue samples obtained in vivo from astroglial brain tumors with different grade of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight Low Grade Astrocytomas (LGA, 11 Anaplastic Astrocytomas (AA and 11 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM samples were analyzed. Three samples of normal brain tissue (NBT were used as controls. Telomeres length was assessed through Southern Blotting. Telomerase activity was evaluated by a telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay. The expression levels of TRF1, TRF2, h-TERT and TANKs-PARP complex were determined through Immunoblotting and RT-PCR. RESULTS: LGA were featured by an up-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and by shorter telomeres. Conversely, AA and GBM were featured by a down-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and an up-regulation of both telomerase and TANKs-PARP complex. CONCLUSIONS: In human astroglial brain tumours, up-regulation of TRF1 and TRF2 occurs in the early stages of carcinogenesis determining telomeres shortening and genomic instability. In a later stage, up-regulation of PARP-TANKs and telomerase activation may occur together with an ADP-ribosylation of TRF1, causing a reduced ability to bind telomeric DNA, telomeres elongation and tumor malignant progression.

  5. Human Rap1 interacts directly with telomeric DNA and regulates TRF2 localization at the telomere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, N Özlem; Griffith, Jack D

    2012-12-07

    The TRF2-Rap1 complex suppresses non-homologous end joining and interacts with DNAPK-C to prevent end joining. We previously demonstrated that hTRF2 is a double strand telomere binding protein that forms t-loops in vitro and recognizes three- and four-way junctions independent of DNA sequence. How the DNA binding characteristics of hTRF2 to DNA is altered in the presence of hRap1 however is not known. Here we utilized EM and quantitative gel retardation to characterize the DNA binding properties of hRap1 and the TRF2-Rap1 complex. Both gel filtration chromatography and mass analysis from two-dimensional projections showed that the TRF2-Rap1 complex exists in solution and binds to DNA as a complex consisting of four monomers each of hRap1 and hTRF2. EM revealed for the first time that hRap1 binds to DNA templates in the absence of hTRF2 with a preference for double strand-single strand junctions in a sequence independent manner. When hTRF2 and hRap1 are in a complex, its affinity for ds telomeric sequences is 2-fold higher than TRF2 alone and more than 10-fold higher for telomeric 3' ends. This suggests that as hTRF2 recruits hRap1 to telomeric sequences, hRap1 alters the affinity of hTRF2 and its binding preference on telomeric DNA. Moreover, the TRF2-Rap1 complex has higher ability to re-model telomeric DNA than either component alone. This finding underlies the importance of complex formation between hRap1 and hTRF2 for telomere function and end protection.

  6. Human Rap1 Interacts Directly with Telomeric DNA and Regulates TRF2 Localization at the Telomere*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, N. Özlem; Griffith, Jack D.

    2012-01-01

    The TRF2-Rap1 complex suppresses non-homologous end joining and interacts with DNAPK-C to prevent end joining. We previously demonstrated that hTRF2 is a double strand telomere binding protein that forms t-loops in vitro and recognizes three- and four-way junctions independent of DNA sequence. How the DNA binding characteristics of hTRF2 to DNA is altered in the presence of hRap1 however is not known. Here we utilized EM and quantitative gel retardation to characterize the DNA binding properties of hRap1 and the TRF2-Rap1 complex. Both gel filtration chromatography and mass analysis from two-dimensional projections showed that the TRF2-Rap1 complex exists in solution and binds to DNA as a complex consisting of four monomers each of hRap1 and hTRF2. EM revealed for the first time that hRap1 binds to DNA templates in the absence of hTRF2 with a preference for double strand-single strand junctions in a sequence independent manner. When hTRF2 and hRap1 are in a complex, its affinity for ds telomeric sequences is 2-fold higher than TRF2 alone and more than 10-fold higher for telomeric 3′ ends. This suggests that as hTRF2 recruits hRap1 to telomeric sequences, hRap1 alters the affinity of hTRF2 and its binding preference on telomeric DNA. Moreover, the TRF2-Rap1 complex has higher ability to re-model telomeric DNA than either component alone. This finding underlies the importance of complex formation between hRap1 and hTRF2 for telomere function and end protection. PMID:23086976

  7. Short telomeres in hatchling snakes: erythrocyte telomere dynamics and longevity in tropical pythons.

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    Beata Ujvari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL has been found to be associated with life span in birds and humans. However, other studies have demonstrated that TL does not affect survival among old humans. Furthermore, replicative senescence has been shown to be induced by changes in the protected status of the telomeres rather than the loss of TL. In the present study we explore whether age- and sex-specific telomere dynamics affect life span in a long-lived snake, the water python (Liasis fuscus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Erythrocyte TL was measured using the Telo TAGGG TL Assay Kit (Roche. In contrast to other vertebrates, TL of hatchling pythons was significantly shorter than that of older snakes. However, during their first year of life hatchling TL increased substantially. While TL of older snakes decreased with age, we did not observe any correlation between TL and age in cross-sectional sampling. In older snakes, female TL was longer than that of males. When using recapture as a proxy for survival, our results do not support that longer telomeres resulted in an increased water python survival/longevity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In fish high telomerase activity has been observed in somatic cells exhibiting high proliferation rates. Hatchling pythons show similar high somatic cell proliferation rates. Thus, the increase in TL of this group may have been caused by increased telomerase activity. In older humans female TL is longer than that of males. This has been suggested to be caused by high estrogen levels that stimulate increased telomerase activity. Thus, high estrogen levels may also have caused the longer telomeres in female pythons. The lack of correlation between TL and age among old snakes and the fact that longer telomeres did not appear to affect python survival do not support that erythrocyte telomere dynamics has a major impact on water python longevity.

  8. Trypanosoma brucei RAP1 maintains telomere and subtelomere integrity by suppressing TERRA and telomeric RNA:DNA hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanavaty, Vishal; Sandhu, Ranjodh; Jehi, Sanaa E; Pandya, Unnati M; Li, Bibo

    2017-06-02

    Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis and regularly switches its major surface antigen, VSG, thereby evading the host's immune response. VSGs are monoallelically expressed from subtelomeric expression sites (ESs), and VSG switching exploits subtelomere plasticity. However, subtelomere integrity is essential for T. brucei viability. The telomeric transcript, TERRA, was detected in T. brucei previously. We now show that the active ES-adjacent telomere is transcribed. We find that TbRAP1, a telomere protein essential for VSG silencing, suppresses VSG gene conversion-mediated switching. Importantly, TbRAP1 depletion increases the TERRA level, which appears to result from longer read-through into the telomere downstream of the active ES. Depletion of TbRAP1 also results in more telomeric RNA:DNA hybrids and more double strand breaks (DSBs) at telomeres and subtelomeres. In TbRAP1-depleted cells, expression of excessive TbRNaseH1, which cleaves the RNA strand of the RNA:DNA hybrid, brought telomeric RNA:DNA hybrids, telomeric/subtelomeric DSBs and VSG switching frequency back to WT levels. Therefore, TbRAP1-regulated appropriate levels of TERRA and telomeric RNA:DNA hybrid are fundamental to subtelomere/telomere integrity. Our study revealed for the first time an important role of a long, non-coding RNA in antigenic variation and demonstrated a link between telomeric silencing and subtelomere/telomere integrity through TbRAP1-regulated telomere transcription. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. The yeast VPS genes affect telomere length regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rog, Ofer; Smolikov, Sarit; Krauskopf, Anat; Kupiec, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells invest a large proportion of their genome in maintaining telomere length homeostasis. Among the 173 non-essential yeast genes found to affect telomere length, a large proportion is involved in vacuolar traffic. When mutated, these vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) genes lead to telomeres shorter than those observed in the wild type. Using genetic analysis, we characterized the pathway by which VPS15, VPS34, VPS22, VPS23 and VPS28 affect the telomeres. Our results indicate that these VPS genes affect telomere length through a single pathway and that this effect requires the activity of telomerase and the Ku heterodimer, but not the activity of Tel1p or Rif2p. We present models to explain the link between vacuolar traffic and telomere length homeostasis.

  10. Short Telomere Load, Telomere Length, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The PESA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Fuster, Valentin; Dorado, Beatriz; Soberón, Nora; Flores, Ignacio; Gallardo, Mercedes; Pocock, Stuart; Blasco, María A; Andrés, Vicente

    2016-05-31

    Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is associated with cardiovascular ischemic events and mortality in humans, but data on its association with subclinical atherosclerosis are scarce. Whether the incidence and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with the abundance of critically short telomeres, a major trigger of cellular senescence, remains unknown. The authors conducted a cross-sectional exploration of the association between subclinical atherosclerosis burden and both average LTL and the abundance of short telomeres (%LTLSubclinical Atherosclerosis) study. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated by coronary artery calcium scan and 2-dimensional/3-dimensional ultrasound in different aortic territories. Statistical significance of differences among multiple covariates was assessed with linear regression models. Independent associations of telomere parameters with plaque presence were evaluated using general linear models. In men and women, age was inversely associated with LTL (Pearson's r = -0.127, p subclinical atherosclerosis. Longitudinal follow-up of PESA participants will assess long-term associations between telomere length and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular recognition in complexes of TRF proteins with telomeric DNA.

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    Miłosz Wieczór

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein assemblies that protect the ends of linear chromosomes. In humans and many other species, telomeres consist of tandem TTAGGG repeats bound by a protein complex known as shelterin that remodels telomeric DNA into a protective loop structure and regulates telomere homeostasis. Shelterin recognizes telomeric repeats through its two major components known as Telomere Repeat-Binding Factors, TRF1 and TRF2. These two homologous proteins are therefore essential for the formation and normal function of telomeres. Indeed, TRF1 and TRF2 are implicated in a plethora of different cellular functions and their depletion leads to telomere dysfunction with chromosomal fusions, followed by apoptotic cell death. More specifically, it was found that TRF1 acts as a negative regulator of telomere length, and TRF2 is involved in stabilizing the loop structure. Consequently, these proteins are of great interest, not only because of their key role in telomere maintenance and stability, but also as potential drug targets. In the current study, we investigated the molecular basis of telomeric sequence recognition by TRF1 and TRF2 and their DNA binding mechanism. We used molecular dynamics (MD to calculate the free energy profiles for binding of TRFs to telomeric DNA. We found that the predicted binding free energies were in good agreement with experimental data. Further, different molecular determinants of binding, such as binding enthalpies and entropies, the hydrogen bonding pattern and changes in surface area, were analyzed to decompose and examine the overall binding free energies at the structural level. With this approach, we were able to draw conclusions regarding the consecutive stages of sequence-specific association, and propose a novel aspartate-dependent mechanism of sequence recognition. Finally, our work demonstrates the applicability of computational MD-based methods to studying protein-DNA interactions.

  12. Cancer and aging: The importance of telomeres in genome maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, Francis; Kim, Sahn-ho; Nijjar, Tarlochan; Yaswen, Paul; Campisi, Judith

    2004-10-01

    Telomeres are the specialized DNA-protein structures that cap the ends of linear chromosomes, thereby protecting them from degradation and fusion by cellular DNA repair processes. In vertebrate cells, telomeres consist of several kilobase pairs of DNA having the sequence TTAGGG, a few hundred base pairs of single-stranded DNA at the 3' end of the telomeric DNA tract, and a host of proteins that organize the telomeric double and single stranded DNA into a protective structure. Functional telomeres are essential for maintaining the integrity and stability of genomes. When combined with loss of cell cycle checkpoint controls, telomere dysfunction can lead to genomic instability, a common cause and hallmark of cancer. Consequently, normal mammalian cells respond to dysfunctional telomeres by undergoing apoptosis (programmed cell death) or cellular senescence (permanent cell cycle arrest), two cellular tumor suppressor mechanisms. These tumor suppressor mechanisms are potent suppressors of cancer, but recent evidence suggests that they can antagonistically also contribute to aging phenotypes. Here, we review what is known about the structure and function of telomeres in mammalian cells, particularly human cells, and how telomere dysfunction may arise and contribute to cancer and aging phenotypes.

  13. Telomere Q-PNA-FISH--reliable results from stochastic signals.

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    Andrea Cukusic Kalajzic

    Full Text Available Structural and functional analysis of telomeres is very important for understanding basic biological functions such as genome stability, cell growth control, senescence and aging. Recently, serious concerns have been raised regarding the reliability of current telomere measurement methods such as Southern blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Since telomere length is associated with age related pathologies, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, both at the individual and population level, accurate interpretation of measured results is a necessity. The telomere Q-PNA-FISH technique has been widely used in these studies as well as in commercial analysis for the general population. A hallmark of telomere Q-PNA-FISH is the wide variation among telomere signals which has a major impact on obtained results. In the present study we introduce a specific mathematical and statistical analysis of sister telomere signals during cell culture senescence which enabled us to identify high regularity in their variations. This phenomenon explains the reproducibility of results observed in numerous telomere studies when the Q-PNA-FISH technique is used. In addition, we discuss the molecular mechanisms which probably underlie the observed telomere behavior.

  14. PRL-3 promotes telomere deprotection and chromosomal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lin; Yang, Yongyong; Ma, Ting; Xing, Xiaofang; Feng, Qin; Song, Qian; Liu, Caiyun; Tian, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL-3) promotes cell invasiveness, but its role in genomic integrity remains unknown. We report here that shelterin component RAP1 mediates association between PRL-3 and TRF2. In addition, TRF2 and RAP1 assist recruitment of PRL-3 to telomeric DNA. Silencing of PRL-3 in colon cancer cells does not affect telomere integrity or chromosomal stability, but induces reactive oxygen species-dependent DNA damage response and senescence. However, overexpression of PRL-3 in colon cancer cells and primary fibroblasts promotes structural abnormalities of telomeres, telomere deprotection, DNA damage response, chromosomal instability and senescence. Furthermore, PRL-3 dissociates RAP1 and TRF2 from telomeric DNA in vitro and in cells. PRL-3-promoted telomere deprotection, DNA damage response and senescence are counteracted by disruption of PRL-3–RAP1 complex or expression of ectopic TRF2. Examination of clinical samples showed that PRL-3 status positively correlates with telomere deprotection and senescence. PRL-3 transgenic mice exhibit hallmarks of telomere deprotection and senescence and are susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon malignancy. Our results uncover a novel role of PRL-3 in tumor development through its adverse impact on telomere homeostasis. PMID:28482095

  15. Telomere length elongation after weight loss intervention in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carulli, L; Anzivino, C; Baldelli, E; Zenobii, M F; Rocchi, M B L; Bertolotti, M

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres may be considered markers of biological aging, shorter telomere length is associated with some age-related diseases; in several studies short telomere length has also been associated to obesity in adults and adolescents. However the relationship between telomere complex functions and obesity is still not clear. Aim of the study was to assess telomere length (TL) in adults' obese subjects before and after weight loss obtained by placement of bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB) for 6months. We enrolled 42 obese subjects before and after BIB placement as weight loss intervention. Blood samples were collected in order to obtain DNA from leukocyte to measure TL by quantitative PCR. Data were analyzed only in 37 subjects with complete data; all presented important body weight loss (124.06±26.7 vs 105.40±23.14, pweight loss (r=0.44, p=0.007) as well as an inverse correlation between TL at baseline and TL elongation (r=-0.35, p=0.03).The predictors of TL elongation were once again weight loss and short TL at baseline (respectively p=0.007 and p=0.003). Our study shows that weight loss is associated to telomere lengthening in a positive correlation: the greater weight loss the greater telomere lengthening; moreover telomere lengthening is more significant in those subjects with shortest telomeres at baseline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Telomeres, replicative senescence and human ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipling, D

    2001-02-28

    Ageing concerns the extracellular environment and cells that are either post-mitotic or capable of division during life. Primary human cells have a finite division capacity in culture before they enter a state of viable cell cycle arrest termed senescence. Cell division occurs during life in many tissues, either as part of normal tissue function or in response to tissue damage. The accumulation of cells at the end of their replicative lifespan in the elderly might contribute to aged tissue either because of a reduced ability to undergo proliferation or because of the known altered gene-expression patterns of senescent cells. This has been illustrated experimentally using a transgenic telomerase-negative mouse, which shows some premature ageing phenotypes. The mechanism whereby cells count divisions uses the gradual erosion of the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) with cell division caused by the repression of the telomere-maintenance enzyme telomerase in most human cells. Telomere erosion ultimately triggers replicative senescence in many cell types; this can be prevented experimentally by forcibly expressing telomerase. This extends the lifespan of normal human cells and those from progeroid syndromes such as Werner's. Telomere-driven senescence did not evolve to cause ageing, but is instead a by-product of a system devised to provide a tumour-suppression function, a concept that fits well with evolutionary arguments regarding trade-offs between somatic maintenance and reproduction. Work in the future will focus on the development of new animal models to critically address the quantitative significance of this ageing mechanism.

  17. Offspring's leukocyte telomere length, paternal age, and telomere elongation in sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Kimura

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a complex genetic trait. It shortens with age and is associated with a host of aging-related disorders. Recent studies have observed that offspring of older fathers have longer LTLs. We explored the relation between paternal age and offspring's LTLs in 4 different cohorts. Moreover, we examined the potential cause of the paternal age on offspring's LTL by delineating telomere parameters in sperm donors. We measured LTL by Southern blots in Caucasian men and women (n=3365, aged 18-94 years, from the Offspring of the Framingham Heart Study (Framingham Offspring, the NHLBI Family Heart Study (NHLBI-Heart, the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (Danish Twins, and the UK Adult Twin Registry (UK Twins. Using Southern blots, Q-FISH, and flow-FISH, we also measured telomere parameters in sperm from 46 young (50 years donors. Paternal age had an independent effect, expressed by a longer LTL in males of the Framingham Offspring and Danish Twins, males and females of the NHLBI-Heart, and females of UK Twins. For every additional year of paternal age, LTL in offspring increased at a magnitude ranging from half to more than twice of the annual attrition in LTL with age. Moreover, sperm telomere length analyses were compatible with the emergence in older men of a subset of sperm with elongated telomeres. Paternal age exerts a considerable effect on the offspring's LTL, a phenomenon which might relate to telomere elongation in sperm from older men. The implications of this effect deserve detailed study.

  18. Oligonucleotide Models of Telomeric DNA and RNA Form a Hybrid G-quadruplex Structure as a Potential Component of Telomeres*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Ishizuka, Takumi; Yang, Jie; Ito, Kenichiro; Katada, Hitoshi; Komiyama, Makoto; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNA, a non-coding RNA molecule, has recently been found in mammalian cells. The detailed structural features and functions of the telomeric RNA at human chromosome ends remain unclear, although this RNA molecule may be a key component of the telomere machinery. In this study, using model human telomeric DNA and RNA sequences, we demonstrated that human telomeric RNA and DNA oligonucleotides form a DNA-RNA G-quadruplex. We next employed chemistry-based oligonucleotide probes to mimic the naturally formed telomeric DNA-RNA G-quadruplexes in living cells, suggesting that the process of DNA-RNA G-quadruplex formation with oligonucleotide models of telomeric DNA and RNA could occur in cells. Furthermore, we investigated the possible roles of this DNA-RNA G-quadruplex. The formation of the DNA-RNA G-quadruplex causes a significant increase in the clonogenic capacity of cells and has an effect on inhibition of cellular senescence. Here, we have used a model system to provide evidence about the formation of G-quadruplex structures involving telomeric DNA and RNA sequences that have the potential to provide a protective capping structure for telomere ends. PMID:23012368

  19. Increased brood size leads to persistent eroded telomeres

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    Sophie eReichert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Costs of reproduction can be divided in mandatory costs coming from physiological, metabolic and anatomical changes required to sustain reproduction itself, and in investment-dependent costs that are likely to become apparent when reproductive efforts are exceeding what organisms were prepared to sustain. Interestingly, recent data showed that entering reproduction enhanced breeders’ telomere loss, but no data explored so far the impact of reproductive investment. Telomeres protect the ends of eukaryote chromosomes. Shortened telomeres were associated with shorter lifespan, telomere erosion being then proposed to powerfully quantify life’s insults. Here, we experimentally manipulated brood size in order to modify reproductive investment of adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata below or beyond their (optimal starting investment and tested the consequences of our treatment on parents’ telomere dynamics. We show that an increased brood size led to a reduction in telomere lengths in both parents compared to control and to parents raising a reduced brood. This greater telomere erosion was detected in parents immediately after the reproductive event and the telomere length difference persisted up to one year later. However, we did not detect any effects of brood size manipulation on annual survival of parents kept under laboratory conditions. In addition, telomere lengths at the end of reproduction were not associated with annual survival. Altogether, although our findings highlight that fast telomere erosion can come as a cost of brood size manipulation, they provide mixed correlative support to the emerging hypothesis that telomere erosion could account for the links between high reproductive investment and longevity.

  20. The telomere lengthening conundrum - it could be biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Nettle, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Longitudinal studies of human leucocyte telomere length often report a percentage of individuals whose telomeres appear to lengthen. However, based on theoretical considerations and empirical data, Steenstrup et al. (Nucleic Acids Research, 2013, vol 41(13): e131) concluded that this lengthening is unlikely to be a real biological phenomenon and is more likely to be an artefact of measurement error. We dispute the logic underlying this claim. We argue that Steenstrup et al.'s analysis is incomplete because it failed to compare predictions derived from assuming a scenario with no true telomere lengthening with alternative scenarios in which true lengthening occurs. To address this deficit, we built a computational model of telomere dynamics that allowed us to compare the predicted percentage of observed telomere length gainers given differing assumptions about measurement error and the true underling dynamics. We modelled a set of scenarios, all assuming measurement error, but both with and without true telomere lengthening. We found a range of scenarios assuming some true telomere lengthening that yielded either similar or better quantitative fits to the empirical data on the percentage of individuals showing apparent telomere lengthening. We conclude that although measurement error contributes to the prevalence of apparent telomere lengthening, Steenstrup et al.'s conclusion was too strong, and current data do not allow us to reject the hypothesis that true telomere lengthening is a real biological phenomenon in epidemiological studies. Our analyses highlight the need for process-level models in the analysis of telomere dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Rapid telomere motions in live human cells analyzed by highly time-resolved microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xueying

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomeres cap chromosome ends and protect the genome. We studied individual telomeres in live human cancer cells. In capturing telomere motions using quantitative imaging to acquire complete high-resolution three-dimensional datasets every second for 200 seconds, telomere dynamics were systematically analyzed. Results The motility of individual telomeres within the same cancer cell nucleus was widely heterogeneous. One class of internal heterochromatic regions of chromosomes analyzed moved more uniformly and showed less motion and heterogeneity than telomeres. The single telomere analyses in cancer cells revealed that shorter telomeres showed more motion, and the more rapid telomere motions were energy dependent. Experimentally increasing bulk telomere length dampened telomere motion. In contrast, telomere uncapping, but not a DNA damaging agent, methyl methanesulfonate, significantly increased telomere motion. Conclusion New methods for seconds-scale, four-dimensional, live cell microscopic imaging and data analysis, allowing systematic tracking of individual telomeres in live cells, have defined a previously undescribed form of telomere behavior in human cells, in which the degree of telomere motion was dependent upon telomere length and functionality.

  2. Evolution of Telomeres in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Its Possible Relationship to the Diversification of Telomere Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepsiova, Regina; Necasova, Ivona; Willcox, Smaranda; Prochazkova, Katarina; Gorilak, Peter; Nosek, Jozef; Hofr, Ctirad; Griffith, Jack D; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres of nuclear chromosomes are usually composed of an array of tandemly repeated sequences that are recognized by specific Myb domain containing DNA-binding proteins (telomere-binding proteins, TBPs). Whereas in many eukaryotes the length and sequence of the telomeric repeat is relatively conserved, telomeric sequences in various yeasts are highly variable. Schizosaccharomyces pombe provides an excellent model for investigation of co-evolution of telomeres and TBPs. First, telomeric repeats of S. pombe differ from the canonical mammalian type TTAGGG sequence. Second, S. pombe telomeres exhibit a high degree of intratelomeric heterogeneity. Third, S. pombe contains all types of known TBPs (Rap1p [a version unable to bind DNA], Tay1p/Teb1p, and Taz1p) that are employed by various yeast species to protect their telomeres. With the aim of reconstructing evolutionary paths leading to a separation of roles between Teb1p and Taz1p, we performed a comparative analysis of the DNA-binding properties of both proteins using combined qualitative and quantitative biochemical approaches. Visualization of DNA-protein complexes by electron microscopy revealed qualitative differences of binding of Teb1p and Taz1p to mammalian type and fission yeast telomeres. Fluorescence anisotropy analysis quantified the binding affinity of Teb1p and Taz1p to three different DNA substrates. Additionally, we carried out electrophoretic mobility shift assays using mammalian type telomeres and native substrates (telomeric repeats, histone-box sequences) as well as their mutated versions. We observed relative DNA sequence binding flexibility of Taz1p and higher binding stringency of Teb1p when both proteins were compared directly to each other. These properties may have driven replacement of Teb1p by Taz1p as the TBP in fission yeast.

  3. Evolution of Telomeres in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Its Possible Relationship to the Diversification of Telomere Binding Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Sepsiova

    Full Text Available Telomeres of nuclear chromosomes are usually composed of an array of tandemly repeated sequences that are recognized by specific Myb domain containing DNA-binding proteins (telomere-binding proteins, TBPs. Whereas in many eukaryotes the length and sequence of the telomeric repeat is relatively conserved, telomeric sequences in various yeasts are highly variable. Schizosaccharomyces pombe provides an excellent model for investigation of co-evolution of telomeres and TBPs. First, telomeric repeats of S. pombe differ from the canonical mammalian type TTAGGG sequence. Second, S. pombe telomeres exhibit a high degree of intratelomeric heterogeneity. Third, S. pombe contains all types of known TBPs (Rap1p [a version unable to bind DNA], Tay1p/Teb1p, and Taz1p that are employed by various yeast species to protect their telomeres. With the aim of reconstructing evolutionary paths leading to a separation of roles between Teb1p and Taz1p, we performed a comparative analysis of the DNA-binding properties of both proteins using combined qualitative and quantitative biochemical approaches. Visualization of DNA-protein complexes by electron microscopy revealed qualitative differences of binding of Teb1p and Taz1p to mammalian type and fission yeast telomeres. Fluorescence anisotropy analysis quantified the binding affinity of Teb1p and Taz1p to three different DNA substrates. Additionally, we carried out electrophoretic mobility shift assays using mammalian type telomeres and native substrates (telomeric repeats, histone-box sequences as well as their mutated versions. We observed relative DNA sequence binding flexibility of Taz1p and higher binding stringency of Teb1p when both proteins were compared directly to each other. These properties may have driven replacement of Teb1p by Taz1p as the TBP in fission yeast.

  4. Acute coronary syndrome: Role of the telomere dynamic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... telomeres showed an inverse correlation with pulse pressure, biologic marker of vascular aging and predictor of increased mortality rate, in men (Benetos, 2001). This relation was inconsistent in females (Benetos, 2001). Effects of telomere length on the future cardiovascular risks have been determined in ...

  5. Common variants near TERC are associated with mean telomere length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codd, Veryan; Mangino, Massimo; van der Harst, Pim; Braund, Peter S.; Kaiser, Michael; Beveridge, Alan J.; Rafelt, Suzanne; Moore, Jasbir; Nelson, Chris; Soranzo, Nicole; Zhai, Guangju; Valdes, Ana M.; Blackburn, Hannah; Mateo Leach, Irene; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Goodall, Alison H.; Ouwehand, Willem; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Navis, Gerjan; Burton, Paul R.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hall, Alistair S.; Thompson, John R.; Spector, Tim; Samani, Nilesh J.

    We conducted genome-wide association analyses of mean leukocyte telomere length in 2,917 individuals, with follow-up replication in 9,492 individuals. We identified an association with telomere length on 3q26 (rs12696304, combined P = 3.72 x 10(-14)) at a locus that includes TERC, which encodes the

  6. Acute coronary syndrome: Role of the telomere dynamic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... Telomeres, or historically named "terminal genes" are first discovered by Muller working on fruit fly in. 1930s. Since then, the great progress was made in understanding the consequences of telomere erosion on the human health and disease states, as age related vascular diseases. The overlapping.

  7. Telomeres and HIV-1 infection: in search of exhaustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K. C.; Miedema, F.

    1998-01-01

    Telomere length analysis could be helpful in determining if exhaustion and replicative senescence are involved in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Evidence that CD8+ T cells have shorter telomeres may point towards an increased turnover of CD8+ T cells and exhaustion of the CD8+ T-cell responses in HIV-1

  8. Telomerase and telomeres : From basic biology to cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, MN; Wisman, GBA; van der Zee, AGJ

    2002-01-01

    The limited capacity to divide is one of the major differences between normal somatic cells and cancerous cells. This finite life span' of somatic cells is closely linked to loss of telomeric DNA at telomeres, the 'chromosome caps' consisting of repeated (TTAGGG) sequences. In more than 85% of

  9. Gender and telomere length : Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, Michael; Bann, David; Wiley, Laura; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Nitsch, Dorothea; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Shiels, Paul; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Barbieri, Michelangela; Bekaert, Sofie; Bischoff, Claus; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Chen, Wei; Cooper, Cyrus; Christensen, Kaare; De Meyer, Tim; Deary, Ian; Der, Geoff; Roux, Ana Diez; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Hajat, Anjum; Halaschek-Wiener, Julius; Harris, Sarah; Hunt, Steven C.; Jagger, Carol; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Kaplan, Robert; Kimura, Masayuki; Lansdorp, Peter; Li, Changyong; Maeda, Toyoki; Mangino, Massimo; Nawrot, Tim S.; Nilsson, Peter; Nordfjall, Katarina; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Ren, Fu; Riabowol, Karl; Robertson, Tony; Roos, Goran; Staessen, Jan A.; Spector, Tim; Tang, Nelson; Unryn, Brad; van der Harst, Pim; Woo, Jean; Xing, Chao; Yadegarfar, Mohammad E.; Park, Jae Yong; Young, Neal; Kuh, Diana; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    Background: It is widely believed that females have longer telomeres than males, although results from studies have been contradictory. Methods: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that in humans, females have longer telomeres than males and that this

  10. CTCF driven TERRA transcription facilitates completion of telomere DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beishline, Kate; Vladimirova, Olga; Tutton, Stephen; Wang, Zhuo; Deng, Zhong; Lieberman, Paul M

    2017-12-13

    Telomere repeat DNA forms a nucleo-protein structure that can obstruct chromosomal DNA replication, especially under conditions of replication stress. Transcription of telomere repeats can initiate at subtelomeric CTCF-binding sites to generate telomere repeat-encoding RNA (TERRA), but the role of transcription, CTCF, and TERRA in telomere replication is not known. Here, we have used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to mutate CTCF-binding sites at the putative start site of TERRA transcripts for a class of subtelomeres. Under replication stress, telomeres lacking CTCF-driven TERRA exhibit sister-telomere loss and upon entry into mitosis, exhibit the formation of ultra-fine anaphase bridges and micronuclei. Importantly, these phenotypes could be rescued by the forced transcription of TERRA independent of CTCF binding. Our findings indicate that subtelomeric CTCF facilitates telomeric DNA replication by promoting TERRA transcription. Our findings also demonstrate that CTCF-driven TERRA transcription acts in cis to facilitate telomere repeat replication and chromosome stability.

  11. Quantitative theory of telomere length regulation and cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Brenes, Ignacio A; Peskin, Charles S

    2010-03-23

    In normal somatic cells, telomere length shortens with each cell replication. This progressive shortening is associated with cellular senescence and apoptosis. Germ cells, stem cells, and the majority of cancer cells express telomerase, an enzyme that extends telomere length and, when expressed at sufficient levels, can immortalize or extend the life span of a cell line. It is believed that telomeres switch between two states: capped and uncapped. The telomere state determines its accessibility to telomerase and also the onset of senescence. One hypothesis is that the t loop, a large lariat-like structure, represents the capped state. In this paper we model a telomere state on the basis of the biophysics of t-loop formation, allowing us to develop a single mathematical model that accounts for two processes: telomere length regulation for telomerase positive cells and cellular senescence in somatic cells. The model predicts the steady-state length distribution for telomerase positive cells, describes the time evolution of telomere length, and computes the life span of a cell line on the basis of the levels of TRF2 and telomerase expression. The model reproduces a wide range of experimental behavior and fits data from immortal cell lines (HeLa S3 and 293T) and somatic cells (human diploid fibroblasts) well. We conclude that the t loop as the capped state is a quantitatively reasonable model of telomere length regulation and cellular senescence.

  12. Telomere Length – a New Biomarker in Medicine

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    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of xenobiotics in the environment and workplace influences on our health and life. Biomarkers are tools for measuring such exposures and their effects in the organism. Nowadays, telomere length, epigenetic changes, mutations and changes in gene expression pattern have become new molecular biomarkers. Telomeres play the role of molecular clock, which influences on expectancy of cell life and thus aging, the formation of damages, development diseases and carcinogenesis. The telomere length depends on mechanisms of replication and the activity of telomerase. Telomere length is currently used as a biomarker of susceptibility and/or exposure. This paper describes the role of telomere length as a biomarker of aging cells, oxidative stress, a marker of many diseases including cancer, and as a marker of environmental and occupational exposure.

  13. Telomere Replication Stress Induced by POT1 Inactivation Accelerates Tumorigenesis

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    Alexandra M. Pinzaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing studies have revealed a number of cancer-associated mutations in the telomere-binding factor POT1. Here, we show that when combined with p53 deficiency, depletion of murine POT1a in common lymphoid progenitor cells fosters genetic instability, accelerates the onset, and increases the severity of T cell lymphomas. In parallel, we examined human and mouse cells carrying POT1 mutations found in cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL patients. Inhibition of POT1 activates ATR-dependent DNA damage signaling and induces telomere fragility, replication fork stalling, and telomere elongation. Our data suggest that these phenotypes are linked to impaired CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1 function at telomeres. Lastly, we show that proliferation of cancer cells lacking POT1 is enabled by the attenuation of the ATR kinase pathway. These results uncover a role for defective telomere replication during tumorigenesis.

  14. HOT1 is a mammalian direct telomere repeat-binding protein contributing to telomerase recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappei, D.; Butter, F.; Benda, C.; Scheibe, M.; Draskovic, Irena; Stevense, M.; Novo, C.L.; Basquin, C.; Araki, M.; Araki, K.; Krastev, D.B.; Kittler, R.; Jessberger, R.; Londono-Vallejo, J.A.; Mann, M.; Buchholz, F.

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres are repetitive DNA structures that, together with the shelterin and the CST complex, protect the ends of chromosomes. Telomere shortening is mitigated in stem and cancer cells through the de novo addition of telomeric repeats by telomerase. Telomere elongation requires the delivery of the

  15. A balance between elongation and trimming regulates telomere stability in stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Teresa; Haggblom, Candy; Cosconati, Sandro; Karlseder, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length maintenance ensures self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), however the mechanisms governing telomere length homeostasis in these cell types are unclear. Here, we report that telomere length is determined by the balance between telomere elongation mediated by telomerase and telomere trimming, controlled by the homologous recombination proteins XRCC3 and Nbs1 that generate single-stranded C-rich telomeric DNA and double-stranded telomeric circular DNA (T-circles), respectively. We found that reprogramming of differentiated cells induces T-circle and single stranded C-rich telomeric DNA accumulation, indicating the activation of telomere trimming pathways that compensate telomerase dependent telomere elongation in hiPSCs. Excessive telomere elongation compromises telomere stability and promotes the formation of partially single-stranded telomeric DNA circles (C-circles) in hESCs, suggesting heightened sensitivity of stem cells to replication stress at overly long telomeres. Thus, tight control of telomere length homeostasis is essential to maintain telomere stability in hESCs. PMID:27918544

  16. Mathematical model of alternative mechanism of telomere length maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollár, Richard; Bod'ová, Katarína; Nosek, Jozef; Tomáška, L'ubomír

    2014-03-01

    Biopolymer length regulation is a complex process that involves a large number of biological, chemical, and physical subprocesses acting simultaneously across multiple spatial and temporal scales. An illustrative example important for genomic stability is the length regulation of telomeres-nucleoprotein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes consisting of tandemly repeated DNA sequences and a specialized set of proteins. Maintenance of telomeres is often facilitated by the enzyme telomerase but, particularly in telomerase-free systems, the maintenance of chromosomal termini depends on alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanisms mediated by recombination. Various linear and circular DNA structures were identified to participate in ALT, however, dynamics of the whole process is still poorly understood. We propose a chemical kinetics model of ALT with kinetic rates systematically derived from the biophysics of DNA diffusion and looping. The reaction system is reduced to a coagulation-fragmentation system by quasi-steady-state approximation. The detailed treatment of kinetic rates yields explicit formulas for expected size distributions of telomeres that demonstrate the key role played by the J factor, a quantitative measure of bending of polymers. The results are in agreement with experimental data and point out interesting phenomena: an appearance of very long telomeric circles if the total telomere density exceeds a critical value (excess mass) and a nonlinear response of the telomere size distributions to the amount of telomeric DNA in the system. The results can be of general importance for understanding dynamics of telomeres in telomerase-independent systems as this mode of telomere maintenance is similar to the situation in tumor cells lacking telomerase activity. Furthermore, due to its universality, the model may also serve as a prototype of an interaction between linear and circular DNA structures in various settings.

  17. Elevated TRF2 in advanced breast cancers with short telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Malissa C; Idowu, Michael O; Kimmelshue, Katherine N; York, Timothy P; Jackson-Cook, Colleen K; Turner, Kristi C; Holt, Shawn E; Elmore, Lynne W

    2011-06-01

    Telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) binds directly to telomeres and preserves the structural integrity of chromosome ends. In vitro models suggest that expression of TRF2 protein increases during mammary cancer progression. However, a recent study has reported that TRF2 mRNA levels tend to be lower in clinical specimens of malignant breast tissue. Here, we conduct the first large-scale investigation to assess the levels and cellular localization of the TRF2 protein in normal, pre-malignant and malignant breast tissues. Breast tissue arrays, containing normal, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive carcinoma specimens, were used to assess the expression and localization of TRF2 protein. Telomere lengths were semi-quantitatively measured using a pantelomeric peptide nucleic acid probe. A mixed effects modeling approach was used to assess the relationship between TRF2 expression and telomeric signal scores across disease states or clinical staging. We demonstrate that TRF2 is exclusively nuclear with a trend toward lower expression with increased malignancy. More case-to-case variability of TRF2 immunostaining intensity was noted amongst the invasive carcinomas than the other disease groups. Invasive carcinomas also displayed variable telomere lengths while telomeres in normal mammary epithelium were generally longer. Statistical analyses revealed that increased TRF2 immunostaining intensity in invasive carcinomas is associated with shorter telomeres and shorter telomeres correlate with a higher TNM stage. All immortalized and cancer cell lines within the array displayed strong, nuclear TRF2 expression. Our data indicate that elevated expression of TRF2 is not a frequent occurrence during the transformation of breast cancer cells in vivo, but higher levels of this telomere-binding protein may be important for protecting advanced cancer cells with critically short telomeres. Our findings also reinforce the concept that serially propagated cancer cells

  18. Sub-fertile sperm cells exemplify telomere dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron-Shental, Tal; Wiser, Amir; Hershko-Klement, Anat; Markovitch, Ofer; Amiel, Aliza; Berkovitch, Arie

    2017-09-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate telomere homeostasis in sub-fertile compared to fertile human sperm. This observational, comparative study included 16 sub-fertile men who required intracytoplasmic sperm injection and 10 fertile men. At least 100 sperm cells from each participant were assessed. Main outcome measures were telomere length and telomere aggregates. Telomerase RNA component (TERC) copy number and telomere capture were assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridization technique and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) using immunohistochemistry. Clinical backgrounds were similar. The percentage of sperm cells with shorter telomeres was higher among the sub-fertile compared to the fertile participants (3.3 ± 3.1 vs. 0.6 ± 1.2%, respectively; P < 0.005). The percentage of cells with telomere aggregates was significantly higher in the sub-fertile group (15.12 ± 3.73 vs. 4.73 ± 3.73%; P < 0.005). TERC gene copy number was similar between groups. The percentage of cells that were positive for hTERT was lower in the sub-fertile group (3.81 ± 1.27 vs. 8.42 ± 1.80%; P < 0.005). Telomere capture rates were higher among the sub-fertile sperm cells (P < 0.005). Sub-fertile sperm cells have short telomeres that are elongated by the alternative pathway of telomere capture. Dysfunctional telomeres may affect sperm fertilizability.

  19. Correlation of chromosomal instability, telomere length and telomere maintenance in microsatellite stable rectal cancer: a molecular subclass of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Lisa A; Johnson, Ruth A; Viker, Kimberly B; Hafner, Kari A; Jenkins, Robert B; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L; Smyrk, Thomas C; Litzelman, Kristin; Seo, Songwon; Gangnon, Ronald E; Engelman, Corinne D; Rider, David N; Vanderboom, Russell J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Petersen, Gloria M; Skinner, Halcyon G

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN) and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS) and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+). However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-). MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition. MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher) or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]). Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH. Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN-) and chromosomally instable (CIN+) by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6) had fewer copy number changes (cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase.

  20. Father Loss and Child Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colter; McLanahan, Sara; Schneper, Lisa; Garfinkel, Irv; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Notterman, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Father loss during childhood has negative health and behavioral consequences, but the biological consequences are unknown. Our goal was to examine how father loss (because of separation and/or divorce, death, or incarceration) is associated with cellular function as estimated by telomere length. Data come from the 9-year follow-up of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of children in 20 large American cities (N = 2420). Principal measures are as follows: salivary telomere length (sTL), mother reports of father loss, and polymorphisms in genes related to serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling. At 9 years of age, children with father loss have significantly shorter telomeres (14% reduction). Paternal death has the largest association (16%), followed by incarceration (10%), and separation and/or divorce (6%). Changes in income partially mediate these associations (95% mediation for separation and/or divorce, 30% for incarceration, and 25% for death). Effects are 40% greater for boys and 90% greater for children with the most reactive alleles of the serotonin transporter genes when compared with those with the least reactive alleles. No differences were found by age at father loss or a child's race/ethnicity. Father loss has a significant association with children's sTL, with the death of a father showing the largest effect. Income loss explains most of the association between child sTL and separation and/or divorce but much less of the association with incarceration or death. This underscores the important role of fathers in the care and development of children and supplements evidence of the strong negative effects of parental incarceration. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Correlation of chromosomal instability, telomere length and telomere maintenance in microsatellite stable rectal cancer: a molecular subclass of rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Boardman

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+. However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-. MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition.MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]. Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH.Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN- and chromosomally instable (CIN+ by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6 had fewer copy number changes (<17% of their clones with DNA copy number changes than CIN+ tumors (65%; n=13 which had high levels of copy number changes in 20% to 49% of clones. Telomere lengths were longer in CIN- compared to CIN+ tumors (p=0.0066 and in those in which telomerase was not activated (p=0.004. Tumors exhibiting activation of telomerase had shorter tumor telomeres (p=0.0040; and tended to be CIN+ (p=0.0949.MSS rectal cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase.

  2. Telomerase efficiently elongates highly transcribing telomeres in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin O Farnung

    Full Text Available RNA polymerase II transcribes the physical ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes into a variety of long non-coding RNA molecules including telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA. Since TERRA discovery, advances have been made in the characterization of TERRA biogenesis and regulation; on the contrary its associated functions remain elusive. Most of the biological roles so far proposed for TERRA are indeed based on in vitro experiments carried out using short TERRA-like RNA oligonucleotides. In particular, it has been suggested that TERRA inhibits telomerase activity. We have exploited two alternative cellular systems to test whether TERRA and/or telomere transcription influence telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in human cancer cells. In cells lacking the two DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3b, TERRA transcription and steady-state levels are greatly increased while telomerase is able to elongate telomeres normally. Similarly, telomerase can efficiently elongate transgenic inducible telomeres whose transcription has been experimentally augmented. Our data challenge the current hypothesis that TERRA functions as a general inhibitor of telomerase and suggest that telomere length homeostasis is maintained independently of TERRA and telomere transcription.

  3. Relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Enokido, Masanori; Shirata, Toshinori; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2017-10-10

    Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes, and telomere length represents a biological marker for cellular aging. Interpersonal sensitivity, excessive sensitivity to the behavior and feelings of others, is one of the vulnerable factors to depression. In the present study, we examined the effect of interpersonal sensitivity on telomere length in healthy subjects. The subjects were 159 unrelated healthy Japanese volunteers. Mean age ± SD (range) of the subjects was 42.3 ± 7.8 (30-61) years. Interpersonal sensitivity was assessed by the Japanese version of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Leukocyte telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method. Higher scores of the total IPSM were significantly (β = -0.163, p = 0.038) related to shorter telomere length. In the sub-scale analysis, higher scores of timidity were significantly (β = -0.220, p = 0.044) associated with shorter telomere length. The present study suggests that subjects with higher interpersonal sensitivity have shorter leukocyte telomere length, implying that interpersonal sensitivity has an impact on cellular aging.

  4. Worldwide genetic structure in 37 genes important in telomere biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, L; Yeager, M; Chowdhury, S; Qi, L; Deng, X; Wang, Z; Hutchinson, A; Savage, S A

    2012-01-01

    Telomeres form the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and are vital in maintaining genetic integrity. Telomere dysfunction is associated with cancer and several chronic diseases. Patterns of genetic variation across individuals can provide keys to further understanding the evolutionary history of genes. We investigated patterns of differentiation and population structure of 37 telomere maintenance genes among 53 worldwide populations. Data from 898 unrelated individuals were obtained from the genome-wide scan of the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) and from 270 unrelated individuals from the International HapMap Project at 716 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. We additionally compared this gene set to HGDP data at 1396 SNPs in 174 innate immunity genes. The majority of the telomere biology genes had low to moderate haplotype diversity (45–85%), high ancestral allele frequencies (>60%) and low differentiation (FST HapMap 3. TERT had higher than expected levels of haplotype diversity, likely attributable to a lack of linkage disequilibrium, and a potential cancer-associated SNP in this gene, rs2736100, varied substantially in genotype frequency across major continental regions. It is possible that the genes under selection could influence telomere biology diseases. As a group, there appears to be less diversity and differentiation in telomere biology genes than in genes with different functions, possibly due to their critical role in telomere maintenance and chromosomal stability. PMID:21731055

  5. Protection of Drosophila chromosome ends through minimal telomere capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Loppin, Benjamin

    2015-05-15

    In Drosophila, telomere-capping proteins have the remarkable capacity to recognize chromosome ends in a sequence-independent manner. This epigenetic protection is essential to prevent catastrophic ligations of chromosome extremities. Interestingly, capping proteins occupy a large telomere chromatin domain of several kilobases; however, the functional relevance of this to end protection is unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the large capping domain by manipulating HOAP (encoded by caravaggio) capping-protein expression in the male germ cells, where telomere protection can be challenged without compromising viability. We show that the exhaustion of HOAP results in a dramatic reduction of other capping proteins at telomeres, including K81 [encoded by ms(3)K81], which is essential for male fertility. Strikingly however, we demonstrate that, although capping complexes are barely detected in HOAP-depleted male germ cells, telomere protection and male fertility are not dramatically affected. Our study thus demonstrates that efficient protection of Drosophila telomeres can be achieved with surprisingly low amounts of capping complexes. We propose that these complexes prevent fusions by acting at the very extremity of chromosomes, reminiscent of the protection conferred by extremely short telomeric arrays in yeast or mammalian systems. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. The relationship between telomere length and beekeeping among Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Nurul Fatihah Mohamad; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Shamsuddin, Shaharum; Azlina, Ahmad; Stangaciu, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The belief that beekeepers live longer than anyone else is present since ages. However, no research has been done to explore the longevity of life in beekeepers. Here, we investigated the telomere length in 30 male beekeepers and 30 male non-beekeepers and associated them with the longevity of life using Southern analysis of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) generated by Hinf I/Rsa I digestion of human genomic DNA using TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay. Interestingly, we found that the telomere length of male beekeepers was significantly longer than those of male non-beekeepers with a p value of less than 0.05, suggesting that beekeepers may have longer life compared to non-beekeepers. We further found that the consumption of bee products for a long period and frequent consumption of bee products per day are associated with telomere length. An increase of year in consuming bee products is associated with a mean increase in telomere length of 0.258 kbp. In addition, an increase in frequency of eating bee products per day was also associated with a mean increase of 2.66 kbp in telomere length. These results suggested that bee products might play some roles in telomere length maintenance.

  7. Telomere Length and the Cancer–Atherosclerosis Trade-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Rivka C.; Horvath, Kent; Kark, Jeremy D.; Susser, Ezra; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Aviv, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans, the longest-living terrestrial mammals, display short telomeres and repressed telomerase activity in somatic tissues compared with most short-living small mammals. The dual trait of short telomeres and repressed telomerase might render humans relatively resistant to cancer compared with short-living small mammals. However, the trade-off for cancer resistance is ostensibly increased age-related degenerative diseases, principally in the form of atherosclerosis. In this communication, we discuss (a) the genetics of human telomere length, a highly heritable complex trait that is influenced by genetic ancestry, sex, and paternal age at conception, (b) how cancer might have played a role in the evolution of telomere biology across mammals, (c) evidence that in modern humans telomere length is a determinant (rather than only a biomarker) of cancer and atherosclerosis, and (d) the potential influence of relatively recent evolutionary forces in fashioning the variation in telomere length across and within populations, and their likely lasting impact on major diseases in humans. Finally, we propose venues for future research on human telomere genetics in the context of its potential role in shaping the modern human lifespan. PMID:27386863

  8. Nickel enhances telomeric silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broday, L; Cai, J; Costa, M

    1999-04-06

    Certain nickel compounds including crystalline nickel sulfide (NiS) and subsulfide (Ni3S2) are potent human and animal carcinogens. In Chinese hamster embryo cells, an X-linked senescence gene was inactivated following nickel-induced DNA methylation. Nickel also induced the inactivation of the gpt reporter gene by chromatin condensation and a DNA methylation process in a transgenic gpt+ Chinese hamster cell line (G12), which is located near a heterochromatic region. To determine if nickel can cause gene silencing independently of DNA methylation, based only on the induction of changes in chromatin structure, we measured its effect on gene silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth of yeast in the presence of nickel chloride repressed a telomeric marker gene (URA3) and resulted in a stable epigenetic switch. This phenomenon was dependent on the number of cell doubling prior to selection and also on the distance of the marker gene from the end of the chromosome. The level of TPE (telomeric position effect) increased linearly with elevations of nickel concentration. Addition of magnesium inhibited this effect, but magnesium did not silence the reporter gene by itself. The level of silencing was also assessed following treatment with other transition metals: cobalt, copper and cadmium. In the sublethal range, cobalt induced similar effects as nickel, while copper and cadmium did not change the basal level of gene expression. Silencing by copper and cadmium were evident only at concentrations of those metals where the viability was very low. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  10. Telomere length and cortisol reactivity in children of depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, I H; LeMoult, J; Colich, N L; Foland-Ross, L C; Hallmayer, J; Joormann, J; Lin, J; Wolkowitz, O M

    2015-05-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) are characterized by shortened telomere length, which has been posited to underlie the association between depression and increased instances of medical illness. The temporal nature of the relation between MDD and shortened telomere length, however, is not clear. Importantly, both MDD and telomere length have been associated independently with high levels of stress, implicating dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and anomalous levels of cortisol secretion in this relation. Despite these associations, no study has assessed telomere length or its relation with HPA-axis activity in individuals at risk for depression, before the onset of disorder. In the present study, we assessed cortisol levels in response to a laboratory stressor and telomere length in 97 healthy young daughters of mothers either with recurrent episodes of depression (i.e., daughters at familial risk for depression) or with no history of psychopathology. We found that daughters of depressed mothers had shorter telomeres than did daughters of never-depressed mothers and, further, that shorter telomeres were associated with greater cortisol reactivity to stress. This study is the first to demonstrate that children at familial risk of developing MDD are characterized by accelerated biological aging, operationalized as shortened telomere length, before they had experienced an onset of depression; this may predispose them to develop not only MDD but also other age-related medical illnesses. It is critical, therefore, that we attempt to identify and distinguish genetic and environmental mechanisms that contribute to telomere shortening.

  11. Modulation of Telomeres in Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Type I Like Human Cells by the Expression of Werner Protein and Telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Siddiqa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT is a recombination-based mechanism of telomere maintenance activated in 5–20% of human cancers. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, survivors that arise after inactivation of telomerase can be classified as type I or type II ALT. In type I, telomeres have a tandem array structure, with each subunit consisting of a subtelomeric Y′ element and short telomere sequence. Telomeres in type II have only long telomere repeats and require Sgs1, the S. cerevisiae RecQ family helicase. We previously described the first human ALT cell line, AG11395, that has a telomere structure similar to type I ALT yeast cells. This cell line lacks the activity of the Werner syndrome protein, a human RecQ helicase. The telomeres in this cell line consist of tandem repeats containing SV40 DNA, including the origin of replication, and telomere sequence. We investigated the role of the SV40 origin of replication and the effects of Werner protein and telomerase on telomere structure and maintenance in AG11395 cells. We report that the expression of Werner protein facilitates the transition in human cells of ALT type I like telomeres to type II like telomeres in some aspects. These findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  12. Heat shock-induced dissociation of TRF2 from telomeres does not initiate a telomere-dependent DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Nadezhda V; Velichko, Artem K; Kantidze, Omar L; Razin, Sergey V

    2014-05-01

    Telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) is a well-studied shelterin complex subunit that plays a major role in the protection of chomosome ends and the prevention of the telomere-associated DNA damage response. We show that heat shock induces the dissociation of TRF2 from telomeres in human primary and cancer cell cultures. TRF2 is not simply degraded in response to heat shock, but redistributed thoughout the nucleoplasm. This TRF2 depletion/redistribution does not initiate the DNA damage response at chomosome termini. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  13. Highly Aggressive Metastatic Melanoma Cells Unable to Maintain Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconte, Nikenza; Dheur, Marie-Sophie; Majerova, Eva; Pierreux, Christophe E; Baurain, Jean-François; van Baren, Nicolas; Decottignies, Anabelle

    2017-06-20

    Unlimited replicative potential is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. In melanoma, hTERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) is frequently overexpressed because of activating mutations in its promoter, suggesting that telomerase is necessary for melanoma development. We observed, however, that a subset of melanoma metastases and derived cell lines had no telomere maintenance mechanism. Early passages of the latter displayed long telomeres that progressively shortened and fused before cell death. We propose that, during melanoma formation, oncogenic mutations occur in precursor melanocytes with long telomeres, providing cells with sufficient replicative potential, thereby bypassing the need to re-activate telomerase. Our data further support the emerging idea that long telomeres promote melanoma formation. These observations are important when considering anticancer therapies targeting telomerase. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly Aggressive Metastatic Melanoma Cells Unable to Maintain Telomere Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikenza Viceconte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Unlimited replicative potential is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. In melanoma, hTERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase is frequently overexpressed because of activating mutations in its promoter, suggesting that telomerase is necessary for melanoma development. We observed, however, that a subset of melanoma metastases and derived cell lines had no telomere maintenance mechanism. Early passages of the latter displayed long telomeres that progressively shortened and fused before cell death. We propose that, during melanoma formation, oncogenic mutations occur in precursor melanocytes with long telomeres, providing cells with sufficient replicative potential, thereby bypassing the need to re-activate telomerase. Our data further support the emerging idea that long telomeres promote melanoma formation. These observations are important when considering anticancer therapies targeting telomerase.

  15. Two pathways recruit telomerase to Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Chan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic subunit of yeast telomerase, Est2p, is a telomere associated throughout most of the cell cycle, while the Est1p subunit binds only in late S/G2 phase, the time of telomerase action. Est2p binding in G1/early S phase requires a specific interaction between telomerase RNA (TLC1 and Ku80p. Here, we show that in four telomerase-deficient strains (cdc13-2, est1A, tlc1-SD, and tlc1-BD, Est2p telomere binding was normal in G1/early S phase but reduced to about 40-50% of wild type levels in late S/G2 phase. Est1p telomere association was low in all four strains. Wild type levels of Est2p telomere binding in late S/G2 phase was Est1p-dependent and required that Est1p be both telomere-bound and associated with a stem-bulge region in TLC1 RNA. In three telomerase-deficient strains in which Est1p is not Est2p-associated (tlc1-SD, tlc1-BD, and est2A, Est1p was present at normal levels but its telomere binding was very low. When the G1/early S phase and the late S/G2 phase telomerase recruitment pathways were both disrupted, neither Est2p nor Est1p was telomere-associated. We conclude that reduced levels of Est2p and low Est1p telomere binding in late S/G2 phase correlated with an est phenotype, while a WT level of Est2p binding in G1 was not sufficient to maintain telomeres. In addition, even though Cdc13p and Est1p interact by two hybrid, biochemical and genetic criteria, this interaction did not occur unless Est1p was Est2p-associated, suggesting that Est1p comes to the telomere only as part of the holoenzyme. Finally, the G1 and late S/G2 phase pathways for telomerase recruitment are distinct and are likely the only ones that bring telomerase to telomeres in wild-type cells.

  16. Telomeres and their possible role in chromosome stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, J.P.; Marder, B.A.; Morgan, W.F. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The evidence to date generally supports the hypothesis that telomere capping makes chromosome fragments refractory to subsequent rejoining events, but this control may be somewhat relaxed after chromosome breakage. Cell survival requires that the fragments rejoin before metaphase. Unprotected ends such as those produced by DNA damage are subject to degradation, presumably by endogenous cellular exo- and endonucleases. Telomere repeat sequences may be added to broken chromosome ends to protect the ends from further degradation. That telomeric DNA does not always prevent rejoining raises interesting questions as to what constitutes capping, and how rapidly it occurs after DNA damage in relation to chromosome break rejoining. The prevention of degradation and control of rejoining may be mediated by telomere-specific binding proteins, especially the telomere terminal binding protein. Some of these proteins may be involved in scavenging telomeric DNA when the cell senses that chromosomal breaks have occurred. Although chromosome break rejoining is an efficient process in eukaryotic cells, some breaks are never rejoined and can result in terminal delections and chromatid and isochromatid deletions at metaphase. It is unclear why these breaks are not rejoined, but it may be due to one or more of the following: (1) chance: broken chromosomes are separated, do not approach sufficiently close to one another, and are consequently physically unable to rejoin; (2) a large number of added telomere repeat sequences indicating to the cell that the chromosome has an authentic telomere; (3) some other DNA modification event that protects DNA ends from degradation, e.g., folding back of DNA ends to form a hairpin, as has been implicated in VDJ recombination.

  17. Childhood adversity, social support, and telomere length among perinatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amanda M; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Christian, Lisa M

    2018-01-01

    Adverse perinatal health outcomes are heightened among women with psychosocial risk factors, including childhood adversity and a lack of social support. Biological aging could be one pathway by which such outcomes occur. However, data examining links between psychosocial factors and indicators of biological aging among perinatal women are limited. The current study examined the associations of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), childhood trauma, and current social support with telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a sample of 81 women assessed in early, mid, and late pregnancy as well as 7-11 weeks postpartum. Childhood SES was defined as perceived childhood social class and parental educational attainment. Measures included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and average telomere length in PBMCs. Per a linear mixed model, telomere length did not change across pregnancy and postpartum visits; thus, subsequent analyses defined telomere length as the average across all available timepoints. ANCOVAs showed group differences by perceived childhood social class, maternal and paternal educational attainment, and current family social support, with lower values corresponding with shorter telomeres, after adjustment for possible confounds. No effects of childhood trauma or social support from significant others or friends on telomere length were observed. Findings demonstrate that while current SES was not related to telomeres, low childhood SES, independent of current SES, and low family social support were distinct risk factors for cellular aging in women. These data have relevance for understanding potential mechanisms by which early life deprivation of socioeconomic and relationship resources affect maternal health. In turn, this has potential significance for intergenerational transmission of telomere length. The predictive value of

  18. Human Rap1 modulates TRF2 attraction to telomeric DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Janoušková Eliška; Nečasová Ivona; Pavloušková Jana; Zimmermann Michal; Hluchý Milan; Marini Palomeque María Victoria; Nováková Monika; Hofr Ctirad

    2015-01-01

    More than two decades of genetic research have identified and assigned main biological functions of shelterin proteins that safeguard telomeres. However, a molecular mechanism of how each protein subunit contributes to the protecting function of the whole shelterin complex remains elusive. Human Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) forms a multifunctional complex with Telomeric Repeat binding Factor 2 (TRF2). Rap1-TRF2 complex is a critical part of shelterin as it suppresses homology-directed...

  19. Molecular adaptation of telomere associated genes in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Claire C; Mc Cartney, Ann M; Donoghue, Mark T A; Loughran, Noeleen B; Spillane, Charles; Teeling, Emma C; O'Connell, Mary J

    2013-11-15

    Placental mammals display a huge range of life history traits, including size, longevity, metabolic rate and germ line generation time. Although a number of general trends have been proposed between these traits, there are exceptions that warrant further investigation. Species such as naked mole rat, human and certain bat species all exhibit extreme longevity with respect to body size. It has long been established that telomeres and telomere maintenance have a clear role in ageing but it has not yet been established whether there is evidence for adaptation in telomere maintenance proteins that could account for increased longevity in these species. Here we carry out a molecular investigation of selective pressure variation, specifically focusing on telomere associated genes across placental mammals. In general we observe a large number of instances of positive selection acting on telomere genes. Although these signatures of selection overall are not significantly correlated with either longevity or body size we do identify positive selection in the microbat species Myotis lucifugus in functionally important regions of the telomere maintenance genes DKC1 and TERT, and in naked mole rat in the DNA repair gene BRCA1. These results demonstrate the multifarious selective pressures acting across the mammal phylogeny driving lineage-specific adaptations of telomere associated genes. Our results show that regardless of the longevity of a species, these proteins have evolved under positive selection thereby removing increased longevity as the single selective force driving this rapid rate of evolution. However, evidence of molecular adaptations specific to naked mole rat and Myotis lucifugus highlight functionally significant regions in genes that may alter the way in which telomeres are regulated and maintained in these longer-lived species.

  20. The heritability of leucocyte telomere length dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL...... variation among adults. A number of studies have estimated the heritability of LTL, but none has assessed the heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition. METHODS: We examined the heritability of LTL dynamics based on a longitudinal evaluation (an average follow-up of 12 years) in 355 monozygotic and 297...... dizygotic same-sex twins (aged 19-64 years at baseline). RESULTS: Heritability of LTL at baseline was estimated at 64% (95% CI 39% to 83%) with 22% (95% CI 6% to 49%) of shared environmental effects. Heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition rate was estimated at 28% (95% CI 16% to 44%). Individually...

  1. The telomere lengthening conundrum - artifact or biology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Troels; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Kark, Jeremy D

    2013-01-01

    Recent longitudinal studies of age-dependent leukocyte telomere length (LTL) attrition have reported that variable proportions of individuals experience LTL lengthening. Often, LTL lengthening has been taken at face value, and authors have speculated about the biological causation of this finding......-dependent LTL attrition in longitudinal studies. We find that LTL lengthening is far less frequent in studies with long follow-up periods and those that used a high-precision Southern blot method (as compared with quantitative polymerase chain reaction determination, which is associated with larger laboratory...... error). We conclude that the LTL lengthening observed in longitudinal studies is predominantly, if not entirely, an artifact of measurement error, which is exacerbated by short follow-up periods. We offer specific suggestions for design of longitudinal studies of LTL attrition to diminish this artifact....

  2. The heritability of telomere length among the elderly and oldest-old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Claus; Graakjaer, Jesper; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    replication problem, explains why the telomere erodes at each cellular turnover. Telomere length is regulated by a number of associated proteins through a number of different signaling pathways. The determinants of telomere length were studied using whole blood samples from 287 twin pairs aged 73 to 95 years......A tight link exists between telomere length and both population doublings of a cell culture and age of a given organism. The more population doublings of the cell culture or the higher the age of the organism, the shorter the telomeres. The proposed model for telomere shortening, called the end...

  3. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres in vivo? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Sophie; Stier, Antoine

    2017-12-01

    The length of telomeres, the protective caps of chromosomes, is increasingly used as a biomarker of individual health state because it has been shown to predict chances of survival in a range of endothermic species including humans. Oxidative stress is presumed to be a major cause of telomere shortening, but most evidence to date comes from in vitro cultured cells. The importance of oxidative stress as a determinant of telomere shortening in vivo remains less clear and has recently been questioned. We, therefore, reviewed correlative and experimental studies investigating the links between oxidative stress and telomere shortening in vivo While correlative studies provide equivocal support for a connection between oxidative stress and telomere attrition (10 of 18 studies), most experimental studies published so far (seven of eight studies) partially or fully support this hypothesis. Yet, this link seems to be tissue-dependent in some cases, or restricted to particular categories of individual (e.g. sex-dependent) in other cases. More experimental studies, especially those decreasing antioxidant protection or increasing pro-oxidant generation, are required to further our understanding of the importance of oxidative stress in determining telomere length in vivo Studies comparing growing versus adult individuals, or proliferative versus non-proliferative tissues would provide particularly important insights. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Television Watching and Telomere Length Among Adults in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong-Mei; Liu, Qian-Qian; Tian, Guo; Quan, Li-Ming; Zhao, Yong; Cheng, Guo

    2017-09-01

    To explore the independent associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with telomere length among Chinese adults. Data on total time of sedentary behavior, screen-based sedentary behavior (including television watching and computer or phone use), moderate to vigorous physical activity, and dietary intake of 518 adults in Chengdu, Guizhou, and Xiamen in China (54.25% women) aged 20 to 70 years were obtained between 2013 and 2015 through questionnaires. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index and percentage of body fat. Telomere length was measured through Southern blot technique. Television watching was inversely related to adjusted telomere length (-71.75 base pair; SE = 34.40; P  = .04). Furthermore, a similar trend between telomere length and television watching was found in the group aged 20 to 40 years after adjusting for all covariates. Adults aged 20 to 40 years in the highest tertile of daily time spent on watching television had 4.0% shorter telomere length than adults in the lowest tertile (P = .03). Although the association is modest, television watching is inversely related to telomere length among Chinese adults, warranting further investigation in large prospective studies.

  5. Human Rap1 modulates TRF2 attraction to telomeric DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušková, Eliška; Nečasová, Ivona; Pavloušková, Jana; Zimmermann, Michal; Hluchý, Milan; Marini, Victoria; Nováková, Monika; Hofr, Ctirad

    2015-03-11

    More than two decades of genetic research have identified and assigned main biological functions of shelterin proteins that safeguard telomeres. However, a molecular mechanism of how each protein subunit contributes to the protecting function of the whole shelterin complex remains elusive. Human Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) forms a multifunctional complex with Telomeric Repeat binding Factor 2 (TRF2). Rap1-TRF2 complex is a critical part of shelterin as it suppresses homology-directed repair in Ku 70/80 heterodimer absence. To understand how Rap1 affects key functions of TRF2, we investigated full-length Rap1 binding to TRF2 and Rap1-TRF2 complex interactions with double-stranded DNA by quantitative biochemical approaches. We observed that Rap1 reduces the overall DNA duplex binding affinity of TRF2 but increases the selectivity of TRF2 to telomeric DNA. Additionally, we observed that Rap1 induces a partial release of TRF2 from DNA duplex. The improved TRF2 selectivity to telomeric DNA is caused by less pronounced electrostatic attractions between TRF2 and DNA in Rap1 presence. Thus, Rap1 prompts more accurate and selective TRF2 recognition of telomeric DNA and TRF2 localization on single/double-strand DNA junctions. These quantitative functional studies contribute to the understanding of the selective recognition of telomeric DNA by the whole shelterin complex. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Structure and function of the telomeric CST complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Rice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres comprise the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and are essential for cell proliferation and genome maintenance. Telomeres are replicated by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein (RNP reverse transcriptase, and are maintained primarily by nucleoprotein complexes such as shelterin (TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, RAP1, POT1, TPP1 and CST (Cdc13/Ctc1, Stn1, Ten1. The focus of this review is on the CST complex and its role in telomere maintenance. Although initially thought to be unique to yeast, it is now evident that the CST complex is present in a diverse range of organisms where it contributes to genome maintenance. The CST accomplishes these tasks via telomere capping and by regulating telomerase and DNA polymerase alpha-primase (polα-primase access to telomeres, a process closely coordinated with the shelterin complex in most organisms. The goal of this review is to provide a brief but comprehensive account of the diverse, and in some cases organism-dependent, functions of the CST complex and how it contributes to telomere maintenance and cell proliferation.

  7. Curcusone C induces telomeric DNA-damage response in cancer cells through inhibition of telomeric repeat factor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxue; Cao, Jiaojiao; Zhu, Jian-Yong; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Shu, Bing; Ou, Tian-Miao; Tan, Jia-Heng; Gu, Lian-Quan; Huang, Zhi-Shu; Yin, Sheng; Li, Ding

    2017-11-01

    Telomeric repeat factor 2 (known as TRF2 or TERF2) is a key component of telomere protection protein complex named as Shelterin. TRF2 helps the folding of telomere to form T-loop structure and the suppression of ATM-dependent DNA damage response activation. TRF2 has been recognized as a potentially new therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In our routine screening of small molecule libraries, we found that Curcusone C had significant effect in disrupting the binding between TRF2 and telomeric DNA, with potent antitumor activity against cancer cells. Our result showed that Curcusone C could bind with TRF2 without binding interaction with TRF1 (telomeric repeat factor 1) although these two proteins share high sequence homology, indicating that their binding conformations and biological functions in telomere could be different. Our mechanistic studies showed that Curcusone C bound with TRF2 possibly through its DNA binding site causing blockage of its interaction with telomeric DNA. Further in cellular studies indicated that the interaction of TRF2 with Curcusone C could activate DNA-damage response, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and cause cell cycle arrest, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. Our studies showed that Curcusone C could become a promising lead compound for further development for cancer treatment. Here, TRF2 was firstly identified as a target of Curcusone C. It is likely that the anti-cancer activity of some other terpenes and terpenoids are related with their possible effect for telomere protection proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cockayne Syndrome group B protein interacts with TRF2 and regulates telomere length and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Nicole L; Mitchell, Taylor R H; Leach, Derrik M; Rainbow, Andrew J; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2012-10-01

    The majority of Cockayne syndrome (CS) patients carry a mutation in Cockayne Syndrome group B (CSB), a large nuclear protein implicated in DNA repair, transcription and chromatin remodeling. However, whether CSB may play a role in telomere metabolism has not yet been characterized. Here, we report that CSB physically interacts with TRF2, a duplex telomeric DNA binding protein essential for telomere protection. We find that CSB localizes at a small subset of human telomeres and that it is required for preventing the formation of telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIF) in CS cells. We find that CS cells or CSB knockdown cells accumulate telomere doublets, the suppression of which requires CSB. We find that overexpression of CSB in CS cells promotes telomerase-dependent telomere lengthening, a phenotype that is associated with a decrease in the amount of telomere-bound TRF1, a negative mediator of telomere length maintenance. Furthermore, we show that CS cells or CSB knockdown cells exhibit misregulation of TERRA, a large non-coding telomere repeat-containing RNA important for telomere maintenance. Taken together, these results suggest that CSB is required for maintaining the homeostatic level of TERRA, telomere length and integrity. These results further imply that CS patients carrying CSB mutations may be defective in telomere maintenance.

  9. The human CTC1/STN1/TEN1 complex regulates telomere maintenance in ALT cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chenhui; Jia, Pingping; Chastain, Megan; Shiva, Olga; Chai, Weihang, E-mail: wchai@wsu.edu

    2017-06-15

    Maintaining functional telomeres is important for long-term proliferation of cells. About 15% of cancer cells are telomerase-negative and activate the alternative-lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to maintain their telomeres. Recent studies have shown that the human CTC1/STN1/TEN1 complex (CST) plays a multi-faceted role in telomere maintenance in telomerase-expressing cancer cells. However, the role of CST in telomere maintenance in ALT cells is unclear. Here, we report that human CST forms a functional complex localizing in the ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs) in ALT cells throughout the cell cycle. Suppression of CST induces telomere instabilities including telomere fragility and elevates telomeric DNA recombination, leading to telomere dysfunction. In addition, CST deficiency significantly diminishes the abundance of extrachromosomal circular telomere DNA known as C-circles and t-circles. Suppression of CST also results in multinucleation in ALT cells and impairs cell proliferation. Our findings imply that the CST complex plays an important role in regulating telomere maintenance in ALT cells. - Highlights: • CST localizes at telomeres and ALT-associated PML bodies in ALT cells throughout the cell cycle. • CST is important for promoting telomeric DNA replication in ALT cells. • CST deficiency decreases ECTR formation and increases T-SCE. • CST deficiency impairs ALT cell proliferation and results in multinucleation.

  10. The Effect of Physical Activity agains the Telomere Length in the Leukocytes Cells of KONI Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are strands of non coding DNA at the ends of chromosomes that have the primary function to protect DNA from damage and maintain chromosomal stability. Physical exercise will increase the antioxidant activity can increase telomere proteins, lengthen telomeres and or protein networks associated with telomere so that the telomere remains long, or stopping telomere shortening. Telomere length was also associated with age. The purpose of the research was to determine telomere length of leukocyte cells in the KONI (Indonesian National Sports Committee athletes in Jakarta. The research method is descriptive, by measuring telomere length using quantitative PCR on leukocyte cells. Samples are KONI athletes from several sports, including men and women athletes, with ages between 15-20 years. Used a control group (not athletes is students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of YARSI. The results showed that there was no significant difference (p> 0.05 between telomere length group of athletes with the control group in both sexes. Similarly, telomere length between athlete male with female athletes also showed no significant difference (p> 0.05. It was concluded that physical exercise in athletes KONI at the age of 15- 20 years had no effect on telomere length in leukocytes. The results of this study provide information about the telomere length in Indonesian athletes at an early age.

  11. Mouse CCDC79 (TERB1) is a meiosis-specific telomere associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Katrin; Tränkner, Daniel; Wojtasz, Lukasz; Shibuya, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Alsheimer, Manfred; Tóth, Attila

    2014-05-22

    Telomeres have crucial meiosis-specific roles in the orderly reduction of chromosome numbers and in ensuring the integrity of the genome during meiosis. One such role is the attachment of telomeres to trans-nuclear envelope protein complexes that connect telomeres to motor proteins in the cytoplasm. These trans-nuclear envelope connections between telomeres and cytoplasmic motor proteins permit the active movement of telomeres and chromosomes during the first meiotic prophase. Movements of chromosomes/telomeres facilitate the meiotic recombination process, and allow high fidelity pairing of homologous chromosomes. Pairing of homologous chromosomes is a prerequisite for their correct segregation during the first meiotic division. Although inner-nuclear envelope proteins, such as SUN1 and potentially SUN2, are known to bind and recruit meiotic telomeres, these proteins are not meiosis-specific, therefore cannot solely account for telomere-nuclear envelope attachment and/or for other meiosis-specific characteristics of telomeres in mammals. We identify CCDC79, alternatively named TERB1, as a meiosis-specific protein that localizes to telomeres from leptotene to diplotene stages of the first meiotic prophase. CCDC79 and SUN1 associate with telomeres almost concurrently at the onset of prophase, indicating a possible role for CCDC79 in telomere-nuclear envelope interactions and/or telomere movements. Consistent with this scenario, CCDC79 is missing from most telomeres that fail to connect to SUN1 protein in spermatocytes lacking the meiosis-specific cohesin SMC1B. SMC1B-deficient spermatocytes display both reduced efficiency in telomere-nuclear envelope attachment and reduced stability of telomeres specifically during meiotic prophase. Importantly, CCDC79 associates with telomeres in SUN1-deficient spermatocytes, which strongly indicates that localization of CCDC79 to telomeres does not require telomere-nuclear envelope attachment. CCDC79 is a meiosis-specific telomere

  12. The Presence of Telomere Fusion in Sporadic Colon Cancer Independently of Disease Stage, TP53/KRAS Mutation Status, Mean Telomere Length, and Telomerase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Tanaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Defects in telomere maintenance can result in telomere fusions that likely play a causative role in carcinogenesis by promoting genomic instability. However, this proposition remains to be fully understood in human colon carcinogenesis. In the present study, the temporal sequence of telomere dysfunction dynamics was delineated by analyzing telomere fusion, telomere length, telomerase activity, hotspot mutations in KRAS or BRAF, and TP53 of tissue samples obtained from 18 colon cancer patients. Our results revealed that both the deficiency of p53 and the shortening of mean telomere length were not necessary for producing telomere fusions in colon tissue. In five cases, telomere fusion was observed even in tissue adjacent to cancerous lesions, suggesting that genomic instability is initiated in pathologically non-cancerous lesions. The extent of mean telomere attrition increased with lymph node invasiveness of tumors, implying that mean telomere shortening correlates with colon cancer progression. Telomerase activity was relatively higher in most cancer tissues containing mutation(s in KRAS or BRAF and/or TP53 compared to those without these hotspot mutations, suggesting that telomerase could become fully active at the late stage of colon cancer development. Interestingly, the majority of telomere fusion junctions in colon cancer appeared to be a chromatid-type containing chromosome 7q or 12q. In sum, this meticulous correlative study not only highlights the concept that telomere fusion is present in the early stages of cancer regardless of TP53/KRAS mutation status, mean telomere length, and telomerase activity, but also provides additional insights targeting key telomere fusion junctions which may have significant implications for colon cancer diagnoses.

  13. Social isolation shortens telomeres in African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Aydinonat

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the caps of eukaryotic chromosomes, control chromosome stability and cellular senescence, but aging and exposure to chronic stress are suspected to cause attrition of telomere length. We investigated the effect of social isolation on telomere length in the highly social and intelligent African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus. Our study population consisted of single-housed (n = 26 and pair-housed (n = 19 captive individuals between 0.75 to 45 years of age. Relative telomere length of erythrocyte DNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. We found that telomere length declined with age (p<0.001, and socially isolated parrots had significantly shorter telomeres compared to pair-housed birds (p<0.001 - even among birds of similar ages. Our findings provide the first evidence that social isolation affects telomere length, which supports the hypothesis that telomeres provide a biomarker indicating exposure to chronic stress.

  14. Social isolation shortens telomeres in African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinonat, Denise; Penn, Dustin J; Smith, Steve; Moodley, Yoshan; Hoelzl, Franz; Knauer, Felix; Schwarzenberger, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres, the caps of eukaryotic chromosomes, control chromosome stability and cellular senescence, but aging and exposure to chronic stress are suspected to cause attrition of telomere length. We investigated the effect of social isolation on telomere length in the highly social and intelligent African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Our study population consisted of single-housed (n = 26) and pair-housed (n = 19) captive individuals between 0.75 to 45 years of age. Relative telomere length of erythrocyte DNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. We found that telomere length declined with age (pparrots had significantly shorter telomeres compared to pair-housed birds (p<0.001) - even among birds of similar ages. Our findings provide the first evidence that social isolation affects telomere length, which supports the hypothesis that telomeres provide a biomarker indicating exposure to chronic stress.

  15. Acacetin and Chrysin, Two Polyphenolic Compounds, Alleviate Telomeric Position Effect in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Boussouar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We took advantage of the ability of human telomeres to silence neighboring genes (telomere position effect or TPE to design a high-throughput screening assay for drugs altering telomeres. We identified, for the first time, that two dietary flavones, acacetin and chrysin, are able to specifically alleviate TPE in human cells. We further investigated their influence on telomere integrity and showed that both drugs drastically deprotect telomeres against DNA damage response. However, telomere deprotection triggered by shelterin dysfunction does not affect TPE, indicating that acacetin and chrysin target several functions of telomeres. These results show that TPE-based screening assays represent valuable methods to discover new compounds targeting telomeres.

  16. Ageing and reproduction: antioxidant supplementation alleviates telomere loss in wild birds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Badás, E. P; Martínez, J; Rivero de Aguilar Cachafeiro, J; Miranda, F; Figuerola, J; Merino, S

    2015-01-01

    .... However, the effects of nutritional status and infection on ageing remain unknown. Telomeres function as protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and changes in telomere length is a commonly used proxy for ageing...

  17. Migration and stress during reproduction govern telomere dynamics in a seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultner, Jannik; Moe, Børge; Chastel, Olivier; Bech, Claus; Kitaysky, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in telomere length are believed to reflect changes in physiological state and life expectancy in animals. However, much remains unknown about the determinants of telomere dynamics in wild populations, and specifically the influence of conditions during highly mobile life-history stages, for example migration. We tested whether telomere dynamics were associated with migratory behaviour and/or with stress during reproduction in free-living seabirds. We induced short-term stress during reproduction in chick-rearing, black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), tracked winter migration with geolocators and measured telomere length before and after winter migration. We found that time spent at wintering grounds correlated with reduced telomere loss, while stress during reproduction accelerated telomere shortening. Our results suggest that different life-history stages interact to influence telomere length, and that migratory patterns may be important determinants of variation in an individual's telomere dynamics. PMID:24429681

  18. Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue

    2015-12-04

    Telomeres are the protective end-complexes at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere attrition can lead to potentially maladaptive cellular changes, block cell division, and interfere with tissue replenishment. Recent advances in the understanding of human disease processes have clarified the roles of telomere biology, especially in diseases of human aging and in some aging-related processes. Greater overall telomere attrition predicts mortality and aging-related diseases in inherited telomere syndrome patients, and also in general human cohorts. However, genetically caused variations in telomere maintenance either raise or lower risks and progression of cancers, in a highly cancer type-specific fashion. Telomere maintenance is determined by genetic factors and is also cumulatively shaped by nongenetic influences throughout human life; both can interact. These and other recent findings highlight both causal and potentiating roles for telomere attrition in human diseases. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. TERRA Promotes Telomere Shortening through Exonuclease 1–Mediated Resection of Chromosome Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Lingner, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The long noncoding telomeric repeat containing RNA (TERRA) is expressed at chromosome ends. TERRA upregulation upon experimental manipulation or in ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) patients correlates with short telomeres. To study the mechanism of telomere length control by TERRA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mapped the transcriptional start site of TERRA at telomere 1L and inserted a doxycycline regulatable promoter upstream. Induction of TERRA transcription led to telomere shortening of 1L but not of other chromosome ends. TERRA interacts with the Exo1-inhibiting Ku70/80 complex, and deletion of EXO1 but not MRE11 fully suppressed the TERRA–mediated short telomere phenotype in presence and absence of telomerase. Thus TERRA transcription facilitates the 5′-3′ nuclease activity of Exo1 at chromosome ends, providing a means to regulate the telomere shortening rate. Thereby, telomere transcription can regulate cellular lifespan through modulation of chromosome end processing activities. PMID:22719262

  20. TERRA promotes telomere shortening through exonuclease 1-mediated resection of chromosome ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Lingner, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The long noncoding telomeric repeat containing RNA (TERRA) is expressed at chromosome ends. TERRA upregulation upon experimental manipulation or in ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) patients correlates with short telomeres. To study the mechanism of telomere length control by TERRA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mapped the transcriptional start site of TERRA at telomere 1L and inserted a doxycycline regulatable promoter upstream. Induction of TERRA transcription led to telomere shortening of 1L but not of other chromosome ends. TERRA interacts with the Exo1-inhibiting Ku70/80 complex, and deletion of EXO1 but not MRE11 fully suppressed the TERRA-mediated short telomere phenotype in presence and absence of telomerase. Thus TERRA transcription facilitates the 5'-3' nuclease activity of Exo1 at chromosome ends, providing a means to regulate the telomere shortening rate. Thereby, telomere transcription can regulate cellular lifespan through modulation of chromosome end processing activities.

  1. Examining the Role of Msh2 and Mre11 in Telomere Rescue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Damon

    2007-01-01

    .... Continuously dividing human somatic cells and S. cerevisiae cells lacking functional telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex required for telomere replication, experience progressive telomere degradation that culminates in replicative senescence 5,6...

  2. Telomere length reflects phenotypic quality and costs of reproduction in a long-lived seabird

    OpenAIRE

    Bauch, Christina; Peter H. Becker; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Telomere length is associated with cellular senescence, lifestyle and ageing. Short telomeres indicate poor health in humans and reduced life expectancy in several bird species, but little is known about telomeres in relation to phenotypic quality in wild animals. We investigated telomere lengths in erythrocytes of known-age common terns (Sterna hirundo), a migratory seabird, in relation to arrival date and reproductive performance. Cross-sectional data revealed that, independent of age, indi...

  3. Telomeres are elongated in older individuals in a hibernating rodent, the edible dormouse (Glis glis)

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Hoelzl; Steve Smith; Cornils, Jessica S.; Denise Aydinonat; Claudia Bieber; Thomas Ruf

    2016-01-01

    Telomere shortening is thought to be an important biomarker for life history traits such as lifespan and aging, and can be indicative of genome integrity, survival probability and the risk of cancer development. In humans and other animals, telomeres almost always shorten with age, with more rapid telomere attrition in short-lived species. Here, we show that in the edible dormouse (Glis glis) telomere length significantly increases from an age of 6 to an age of 9 years. While this finding cou...

  4. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and newborn telomere length

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Dries S.; Plusquin, Michelle; Gyselaers, Wilfried; De Vivo, Immaculata; Nawrot, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Newborn telomere length sets telomere length for later life. At birth, telomere length is highly variable among newborns and the environmental factors during in utero life for this observation remain largely unidentified. Obesity during pregnancy might reflect an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes, but the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with newborn telomere length, as a mechanism of maternal obesity, on the next gene...

  5. CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated Telomere Removal Leads to Mitochondrial Stress and Protein Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyojung; Ham, Sangwoo; Jo, Minkyung; Lee, Gum Hwa; Lee, Yun-Song; Shin, Joo-Ho; Lee, Yunjong

    2017-01-01

    Aging is considered the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Telomere shortening is associated with cellular senescence. In this regard, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of telomerase activity has been used to model cellular aging. Here, we employed CRISPR-Cas9 technology to instantly remove the telomere to induce aging in a neuroblastoma cell line. Expression of both Cas9 and guide RNA targeting telomere repeats ablated the telomere, leadi...

  6. Telomerecat: A ploidy-agnostic method for estimating telomere length from whole genome sequencing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farmery, James H. R.; Smith, Mike L.; Lynch, Andy G.; Huissoon, Aarnoud; Furnell, Abigail; Mead, Adam; Levine, Adam P.; Manzur, Adnan; Thrasher, Adrian; Greenhalgh, Alan; Parker, Alasdair; Sanchis-Juan, Alba; Richter, Alex; Gardham, Alice; Lawrie, Allan; Sohal, Aman; Creaser-Myers, Amanda; Frary, Amy; Greinacher, Andreas; Themistocleous, Andreas; Peacock, Andrew J.; Marshall, Andrew; Mumford, Andrew; Rice, Andrew; Webster, Andrew; Brady, Angie; Koziell, Ania; Manson, Ania; Chandra, Anita; Hensiek, Anke; Veld, Anna Huis In't; Maw, Anna; Kelly, Anne M.; Moore, Anthony; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Attwood, Antony; Herwadkar, Archana; Ghofrani, Ardi; Houweling, Arjan C.; Girerd, Barbara; Furie, Bruce; Treacy, Carmen M.; Millar, Carolyn M.; Sewell, Carrock; Roughley, Catherine; Titterton, Catherine; Williamson, Catherine; Hadinnapola, Charaka; Deshpande, Charu; Toh, Cheng-Hock; Bacchelli, Chiara; Patch, Chris; Geet, Chris Van; Babbs, Christian; Bryson, Christine; Penkett, Christopher J.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Watt, Christopher; Bethune, Claire; Booth, Claire; Lentaigne, Claire; McJannet, Coleen; Church, Colin; French, Courtney; Samarghitean, Crina; Halmagyi, Csaba; Gale, Daniel; Greene, Daniel; Hart, Daniel; Allsup, David; Bennett, David; Edgar, David; Kiely, David G.; Gosal, David; Perry, David J.; Keeling, David; Montani, David; Shipley, Debbie; Whitehorn, Deborah; Fletcher, Debra; Krishnakumar, Deepa; Grozeva, Detelina; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Thompson, Dorothy; Josifova, Dragana; Maher, Eamonn; Wong, Edwin K. S.; Murphy, Elaine; Dewhurst, Eleanor; Louka, Eleni; Rosser, Elisabeth; Chalmers, Elizabeth; Colby, Elizabeth; Drewe, Elizabeth; McDermott, Elizabeth; Thomas, Ellen; Staples, Emily; Clement, Emma; Matthews, Emma; Wakeling, Emma; Oksenhendler, Eric; Turro, Ernest; Reid, Evan; Wassmer, Evangeline; Raymond, F. Lucy; Hu, Fengyuan; Kennedy, Fiona; Soubrier, Florent; Flinter, Frances; Kovacs, Gabor; Polwarth, Gary; Ambegaonkar, Gautum; Arno, Gavin; Hudson, Gavin; Woods, Geoff; Coghlan, Gerry; Hayman, Grant; Arumugakani, Gururaj; Schotte, Gwen; Cook, H. Terry; Alachkar, Hana; Lango Allen, Hana; Lango-Allen, Hana; Stark, Hannah; Stauss, Hans; Schulze, Harald; Boggard, Harm J.; Baxendale, Helen; Dolling, Helen; Firth, Helen; Gall, Henning; Watson, Henry; Longhurst, Hilary; Markus, Hugh S.; Watkins, Hugh; Simeoni, Ilenia; Emmerson, Ingrid; Roberts, Irene; Quinti, Isabella; Wanjiku, Ivy; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Thaventhiran, James; Whitworth, James; Hurst, Jane; Collins, Janine; Suntharalingam, Jay; Payne, Jeanette; Thachil, Jecko; Martin, Jennifer M.; Martin, Jennifer; Carmichael, Jenny; Maimaris, Jesmeen; Paterson, Joan; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Gebhart, Johanna; Davis, John; Pasi, John; Bradley, John R.; Wharton, John; Stephens, Jonathan; Rankin, Julia; Anderson, Julie; Vogt, Julie; von Ziegenweldt, Julie; Rehnstrom, Karola; Megy, Karyn; Talks, Kate; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Yates, Katherine; Freson, Kathleen; Stirrups, Kathleen; Gomez, Keith; Smith, Kenneth G. C.; Carss, Keren; Rue-Albrecht, Kevin; Gilmour, Kimberley; Masati, Larahmie; Scelsi, Laura; Southgate, Laura; Ranganathan, Lavanya; Ginsberg, Lionel; Devlin, Lisa; Willcocks, Lisa; Ormondroyd, Liz; Lorenzo, Lorena; Harper, Lorraine; Allen, Louise; Daugherty, Louise; Chitre, Manali; Kurian, Manju; Humbert, Marc; Tischkowitz, Marc; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Erwood, Marie; Scully, Marie; Veltman, Marijke; Caulfield, Mark; Layton, Mark; McCarthy, Mark; Ponsford, Mark; Toshner, Mark; Bleda, Marta; Wilkins, Martin; Mathias, Mary; Reilly, Mary; Afzal, Maryam; Brown, Matthew; Rondina, Matthew; Stubbs, Matthew; Haimel, Matthias; Lees, Melissa; Laffan, Michael A.; Browning, Michael; Gattens, Michael; Richards, Michael; Michaelides, Michel; Lambert, Michele P.; Makris, Mike; de Vries, Minka; Mahdi-Rogers, Mohamed; Saleem, Moin; Thomas, Moira; Holder, Muriel; Eyries, Mélanie; Clements-Brod, Naomi; Canham, Natalie; Dormand, Natalie; Zuydam, Natalie Van; Kingston, Nathalie; Ghali, Neeti; Cooper, Nichola; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Yeatman, Nigel; Roy, Noémi; Shamardina, Olga; Alavijeh, Omid S.; Gresele, Paolo; Nurden, Paquita; Chinnery, Patrick; Deegan, Patrick; Yong, Patrick; Man, Patrick Yu Wai; Corris, Paul A.; Calleja, Paul; Gissen, Paul; Bolton-Maggs, Paula; Rayner-Matthews, Paula; Ghataorhe, Pavandeep K.; Gordins, Pavel; Stein, Penelope; Collins, Peter; Dixon, Peter; Kelleher, Peter; Ancliff, Phil; Yu, Ping; Tait, R. Campbell; Linger, Rachel; Doffinger, Rainer; Machado, Rajiv; Kazmi, Rashid; Sargur, Ravishankar; Favier, Remi; Tan, Rhea; Liesner, Ri; Antrobus, Richard; Sandford, Richard; Scott, Richard; Trembath, Richard; Horvath, Rita; Hadden, Rob; MackenzieRoss, Rob V.; Henderson, Robert; MacLaren, Robert; James, Roger; Ghurye, Rohit; DaCosta, Rosa; Hague, Rosie; Mapeta, Rutendo; Armstrong, Ruth; Noorani, Sadia; Murng, Sai; Santra, Saikat; Tuna, Salih; Johnson, Sally; Chong, Sam; Lear, Sara; Walker, Sara; Goddard, Sarah; Mangles, Sarah; Westbury, Sarah; Mehta, Sarju; Hackett, Scott; Nejentsev, Sergey; Moledina, Shahin; Bibi, Shahnaz; Meehan, Sharon; Othman, Shokri; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Holden, Simon; McGowan, Simon; Staines, Simon; Savic, Sinisa; Burns, Siobhan; Grigoriadou, Sofia; Papadia, Sofia; Ashford, Sofie; Schulman, Sol; Ali, Sonia; Park, Soo-Mi; Davies, Sophie; Stock, Sophie; Ali, Souad; Deevi, Sri V. V.; Gräf, Stefan; Ghio, Stefano; Wort, Stephen J.; Jolles, Stephen; Austin, Steve; Welch, Steve; Meacham, Stuart; Rankin, Stuart; Walker, Suellen; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Holder, Susan; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Richardson, Sylvia; Kuijpers, Taco; Bariana, Tadbir K.; Bakchoul, Tamam; Everington, Tamara; Renton, Tara; Young, Tim; Aitman, Timothy; Warner, Timothy Q.; Vale, Tom; Hammerton, Tracey; Pollock, Val; Matser, Vera; Cookson, Victoria; Clowes, Virginia; Qasim, Waseem; Wei, Wei; Erber, Wendy N.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Astle, William; Egner, William; Turek, Wojciech; Henskens, Yvonne; Tan, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Telomere length is a risk factor in disease and the dynamics of telomere length are crucial to our understanding of cell replication and vitality. The proliferation of whole genome sequencing represents an unprecedented opportunity to glean new insights into telomere biology on a previously

  7. Chromatin features of plant telomeric sequences at terminal versus internal positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eMajerová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in regulation of crucial cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Data on the epigenetic features of plant telomeres and their epigenetic regulation were published mostly for Arabidopsis thaliana, in which the presence of interstitial telomeric repeats (ITRs may interfere with genuine telomeres in most analyses. Here, we studied the epigenetic landscape and transcription of telomeres and ITRs in Nicotiana tabacum with long telomeres and no detectable ITRs, and in Ballantinia antipoda with large blocks of pericentromeric ITRs and relatively short telomeres. Chromatin of genuine telomeres displayed heterochromatic as well as euchromatic marks, while ITRs were just heterochromatic. Methylated cytosines were present at telomeres and ITRs, but showed a bias with more methylation towards distal telomere positions and different blocks of B. antipoda ITRs methylated to different levels. Telomeric transcripts TERRA (G-rich and ARRET (C-rich were identified in both plants and their levels varied among tissues with a maximum in blossoms. Plants with substantially different proportions of internally and terminally located telomeric repeats are instrumental in clarifying the chromatin status of telomeric repeats at distinct chromosome locations.

  8. Dynamic Length Changes of Telomeres and Their Nuclear Organization in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samassekou, Oumar [Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology, Cancer Care Manitoba, Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada)

    2013-08-22

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by the t(9;22) translocation. As in most cancers, short telomeres are one of the features of CML cells, and telomere shortening accentuates as the disease progresses from the chronic phase to the blastic phase. Although most individual telomeres are short, some of them are lengthened, and long individual telomeres occur non-randomly and might be associated with clonal selection. Telomerase is the main mechanism used to maintain telomere lengths, and its activity increases when CML evolves toward advanced stages. ALT might be another mechanism employed by CML cells to sustain the homeostasis of their telomere lengths and this mechanism seems predominant at the early stage of leukemogenesis. Also, telomerase and ALT might jointly act to maintain telomere lengths at the chronic phase, and as CML progresses, telomerase becomes the major mechanism. Finally, CML cells display an altered nuclear organization of their telomeres which is characterized by the presence of high number of telomeric aggregates, a feature of genomic instability, and differential positioning of telomeres. CML represents a good model to study mechanisms responsible for dynamic changes of individual telomere lengths and the remodeling of telomeric nuclear organization throughout cancer progression.

  9. A different approach to telomere analysis with ddPRINS in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palanduz, Sukru; Serakinci, Nedime; Cefle, Kivanc

    2006-01-01

    in patients with B-cell CLL in a comparison with the control group by using ddPRINS technique. Twenty patients with CLL and four healthy donors as a control group were included. We found short telomeres and no detectable telomeric repeats at the sites of chromosome fusion. We hypothesise that the telomeric...

  10. Platination of telomeric DNA by cisplatin disrupts recognition by TRF2 and TRF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourliac-Garnier, Isabelle; Poulet, Anaïs; Charif, Razan; Amiard, Simon; Magdinier, Frédérique; Rezaï, Keyvan; Gilson, Eric; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Bombard, Sophie

    2010-06-01

    Telomeres, the nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of chromosomes, are involved in chromosome protection and genome stability. Telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) and telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) are the two telomeric proteins that bind to duplex telomeric DNA through interactions between their C-terminal domain and several guanines of the telomeric tract. Since the antitumour drug cisplatin binds preferentially to two adjacent guanines, we have investigated whether cisplatin adducts could affect the binding of TRF1 and TRF2 to telomeric DNA and the property of TRF2 to stimulate telomeric invasion, a process that is thought to participate in the formation of the t-loop. We show that the binding of TRF1 and TRF2 to telomeric sequences selectively modified by one GG chelate of cisplatin is markedly affected by cisplatin but that the effect is more drastic for TRF2 than for TRF1 (3-5-fold more sensitivity for TRF2 than for TRF1). We also report that platinum adducts cause a decrease in TRF2-dependent stimulation of telomeric invasion in vitro. Finally, in accordance with in vitro data, analysis of telomeric composition after cisplatin treatment reveals that 60% of TRF2 dissociate from telomeres.

  11. Human XPF controls TRF2 and telomere length maintenance through distinctive mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yili; Mitchell, Taylor R H; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2008-10-01

    XPF-ERCC1, a structure-specific endonuclease, is involved in nucleotide excision repair, crosslink repair and homologous recombination. XPF-ERCC1 is also found to interact with TRF2, a duplex telomeric DNA binding protein. We have previously shown that XPF-ERCC1 is required for TRF2-promoted telomere shortening. However, whether XPF-ERCC1 by itself has a role in telomere length maintenance has not been determined. Here we report that overexpression of XPF induces telomere shortening in XPF-proficient cells whereas XPF complementation suppresses telomere lengthening in XPF-deficient cells. These results suggest that XPF-ERCC1 can function as a negative mediator of telomere length maintenance. In addition, we find that introduction of wild type XPF into XPF-deficient cells leads to over 40% reduction in TRF2 association with telomeric DNA, indicating that XPF-ERCC1 negatively regulates TRF2 binding to telomeric DNA. Furthermore, we show that XPF carrying mutations in the conserved nuclease domain fails to control TRF2 association with telomeric DNA but it is competent for modulating telomere length maintenance. These results imply that XPF-ERCC1 controls TRF2 and telomere length maintenance through two distinctive mechanisms, with the former requiring its nuclease activity. Our results further imply that TRF2 association with telomeres may be deregulated in cells derived from XPF patients.

  12. Dietary restraint and telomere length in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Amy; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Epel, Elissa

    2008-10-01

    Leukocyte telomere shortening can serve as a biomarker of aging, as telomere length (TL) can decline with age and shortening is positively associated with morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important to identify psychological and behavioral factors linked to accelerated telomere shortening. Stress and poorer metabolic health (greater adiposity, insulin resistance, and cortisol) correlate with shorter telomeres. Self-reported dietary restraint (DR), defined as chronic preoccupation with weight and attempts at restricting food intake, is linked to greater perceived stress, cortisol, and weight gain, when assessed in community studies (versus in weight loss programs). To test for an association between DR and TL in healthy women across a range of ages. We examined whether DR is linked to TL in two samples, one of premenopausal women (aged 20-50 years;N = 36) and one of postmenopausal women (aged 53-69 years; N = 20). In both samples, higher levels of DR were associated with shorter leukocyte TL, independent of body mass index, smoking, and age. Chronic DR, as assessed by self-report (i.e. not caloric restriction), may be a risk factor for premature telomere shortening. Potential mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Unprotected Drosophila melanogaster telomeres activate the spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musarò, Mariarosaria; Ciapponi, Laura; Fasulo, Barbara; Gatti, Maurizio; Cenci, Giovanni

    2008-03-01

    In both yeast and mammals, uncapped telomeres activate the DNA damage response (DDR) and undergo end-to-end fusion. Previous work has shown that the Drosophila HOAP protein, encoded by the caravaggio (cav) gene, is required to prevent telomeric fusions. Here we show that HOAP-depleted telomeres activate both the DDR and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). The cell cycle arrest elicited by the DDR was alleviated by mutations in mei-41 (encoding ATR), mus304 (ATRIP), grp (Chk1) and rad50 but not by mutations in tefu (ATM). The SAC was partially overridden by mutations in zw10 (also known as mit(1)15) and bubR1, and also by mutations in mei-41, mus304, rad50, grp and tefu. As expected from SAC activation, the SAC proteins Zw10, Zwilch, BubR1 and Cenp-meta (Cenp-E) accumulated at the kinetochores of cav mutant cells. Notably, BubR1 also accumulated at cav mutant telomeres in a mei-41-, mus304-, rad50-, grp- and tefu-dependent manner. Our results collectively suggest that recruitment of BubR1 by dysfunctional telomeres inhibits Cdc20-APC function, preventing the metaphase-to-anaphase transition.

  14. The telomere binding protein TRF2 induces chromatin compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Asmaa M; Fu, Qiang; Hayward, William; Victoria, Samuel; Pedroso, Ilene M; Lindsay, Stuart M; Fletcher, Terace M

    2011-04-19

    Mammalian telomeres are specialized chromatin structures that require the telomere binding protein, TRF2, for maintaining chromosome stability. In addition to its ability to modulate DNA repair activities, TRF2 also has direct effects on DNA structure and topology. Given that mammalian telomeric chromatin includes nucleosomes, we investigated the effect of this protein on chromatin structure. TRF2 bound to reconstituted telomeric nucleosomal fibers through both its basic N-terminus and its C-terminal DNA binding domain. Analytical agarose gel electrophoresis (AAGE) studies showed that TRF2 promoted the folding of nucleosomal arrays into more compact structures by neutralizing negative surface charge. A construct containing the N-terminal and TRFH domains together altered the charge and radius of nucleosomal arrays similarly to full-length TRF2 suggesting that TRF2-driven changes in global chromatin structure were largely due to these regions. However, the most compact chromatin structures were induced by the isolated basic N-terminal region, as judged by both AAGE and atomic force microscopy. Although the N-terminal region condensed nucleosomal array fibers, the TRFH domain, known to alter DNA topology, was required for stimulation of a strand invasion-like reaction with nucleosomal arrays. Optimal strand invasion also required the C-terminal DNA binding domain. Furthermore, the reaction was not stimulated on linear histone-free DNA. Our data suggest that nucleosomal chromatin has the ability to facilitate this activity of TRF2 which is thought to be involved in stabilizing looped telomere structures.

  15. Therapeutic opportunities: Telomere maintenance in inducible pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourronc, Francoise A. [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa (United States); Klingelhutz, Aloysius J., E-mail: al-klingelhutz@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa (United States)

    2012-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that exogenous expression of a combination of transcription factors can reprogram differentiated cells such as fibroblasts and keratinocytes into what have been termed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These iPS cells are capable of differentiating into all the tissue lineages when placed in the right environment and, in the case of mouse cells, can generate chimeric mice and be transmitted through the germline. Safer and more efficient methods of reprogramming are rapidly being developed. Clearly, iPS cells present a number of exciting possibilities, including disease modeling and therapy. A major question is whether the nuclei of iPS cells are truly rejuvenated or whether they might retain some of the marks of aging from the cells from which they were derived. One measure of cellular aging is the telomere. In this regard, recent studies have demonstrated that telomeres in iPS cells may be rejuvenated. They are not only elongated by reactivated telomerase but they are also epigenetically modified to be similar but not identical to embryonic stem cells. Upon differentiation, the derivative cells turn down telomerase, the telomeres begin to shorten again, and the telomeres and the genome are returned to an epigenetic state that is similar to normal differentiated somatic cells. While these preliminary telomere findings are promising, the overall genomic integrity of reprogrammed cells may still be problematic and further studies are needed to examine the safety and feasibility of using iPS cells in regenerative medicine applications.

  16. Test anxiety and telomere length: Academic stress in adolescents may not cause rapid telomere erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaru; Leong, Waiian; Yao, Mingling; Hu, Xuefei; Lu, Sixiao; Zhu, Xiaowei; Chen, Lianxiang; Tong, Jianjing; Shi, Jingyi; Gilson, Eric; Ye, Jing; Lu, Yiming

    2017-02-14

    Academic stress (AS) is one of the most important health problems experienced by students, but no biomarker of the potential psychological or physical problems associated with AS has yet been identified. As several cross-sectional studies have shown that psychiatric conditions accelerate aging and shorten telomere length (TL), we explored whether AS affected TL.Between June 2014 and July 2014, we recruited 200 junior high school students with imminent final examinations for participation in this study. The students were divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate, and severe anxiety) using the Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (TAS). Saliva samples were collected for TL measurement via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Students from both a specialized and a general school suffered from anxiety (p > 0.05). A total 35% had severe anxiety (score: 26.09±3.87), 33% had moderate anxiety (16.98±2.64), and 32% had mild anxiety (7.89±1.92). The TAS values differed significantly (p 0.05): 1.14±0.46 for those with severe anxiety, 1.02±0.40 for those with moderate anxiety, and 1.12±0.45 for those with mild anxiety.Previous reports have found that AS is very common in Asian adolescents. We found no immediate telomere shortening in adolescents with AS. Longitudinal observations are required to determine if TL is affected by AS.

  17. Tired telomeres: Poor global sleep quality, perceived stress, and telomere length in immune cell subsets in obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Gurfein, Blake; Moran, Patricia; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Hecht, Frederick M; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-07-01

    Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied immune cell types, as the sole measure of telomere length. To better clarify these associations, we investigated the relationships of global sleep quality, measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and diary-reported sleep duration with telomere length in different immune cell subsets, including granulocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes in a sample of 87 obese men and women (BMI mean=35.4, SD=3.6; 81.6% women; 62.8% Caucasian). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, gender, race, education, BMI, sleep apnea risk, and perceived stress. Poorer PSQI global sleep quality was associated with statistically significantly shorter telomere length in lymphocytes but not granulocytes and in particular CD8+ T cells (b=-56.8 base pairs per one point increase in PSQI, SE=20.4, p=0.007) and CD4+ T cells (b=-37.2, SE=15.9, p=0.022). Among separate aspects of global sleep quality, low perceived sleep quality and decrements in daytime function were most related to shorter telomeres. In addition, perceived stress moderated the sleep-CD8+ telomere association. Poorer global sleep quality predicted shorter telomere length in CD8+ T cells among those with high perceived stress but not in low stress participants. These findings provide preliminary evidence that poorer global sleep quality is related to telomere length in several immune cell types, which may serve as a pathway linking sleep and

  18. Sde2: A novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugioka-Sugiyama, Rie [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Initiative for the Promotion of Young Scientists' Independent Research, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Sugiyama, Tomoyasu, E-mail: sugiyamt@biol.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Initiative for the Promotion of Young Scientists' Independent Research, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Sde2 is essential for telomere silencing. {yields} Sde2 is involved in the maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} Sde2 promotes the recruitment of SHREC, a histone deacetylase complex, to telomeres. -- Abstract: Telomeres, specialized domains assembled at the ends of linear chromosomes, are essential for genomic stability in eukaryotes. The formation and maintenance of telomeres are governed by numerous factors such as telomeric repeats, telomere-binding proteins, heterochromatin proteins, and telomerase. Here, we report Sde2, a novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A deficiency in sde2 results in the derepression of the ura4{sup +} gene inserted near telomeric repeats, and the noncoding transcripts from telomeric regions accumulate in sde2{Delta} cells. The loss of Sde2 function compromises transcriptional silencing at telomeres, and this silencing defect is accompanied by increased levels of acetylated histone H3K14 and RNA polymerase II occupancy at telomeres as well as reduced recruitment of the SNF2 ATPase/histone deacetylase-containing complex SHREC to telomeres. Deletion of sde2 also leads to a higher frequency of mitotic minichromosome loss, and sde2{Delta} cells often form asci that contain spores in abnormal numbers, shapes, or both. In addition, sde2{Delta} cells are highly sensitive to several stresses, including high/low temperatures, bleomycin, which induces DNA damage, and thiabendazole, a microtubule-destabilizing agent. Furthermore, Sde2 genetically interacts with the telomere regulators Taz1, Pof3, and Ccq1. These findings demonstrate that Sde2 cooperates with other telomere regulators to maintain functional telomeres, thereby preventing genomic instability.

  19. TRF2 controls telomeric nucleosome organization in a cell cycle phase-dependent manner.

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    Alessandra Galati

    Full Text Available Mammalian telomeres stabilize chromosome ends as a result of their assembly into a peculiar form of chromatin comprising a complex of non-histone proteins named shelterin. TRF2, one of the shelterin components, binds to the duplex part of telomeric DNA and is essential to fold the telomeric chromatin into a protective cap. Although most of the human telomeric DNA is organized into tightly spaced nucleosomes, their role in telomere protection and how they interplay with telomere-specific factors in telomere organization is still unclear. In this study we investigated whether TRF2 can regulate nucleosome assembly at telomeres.By means of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and Micrococcal Nuclease (MNase mapping assay, we found that the density of telomeric nucleosomes in human cells was inversely proportional to the dosage of TRF2 at telomeres. This effect was not observed in the G1 phase of the cell cycle but appeared coincident of late or post-replicative events. Moreover, we showed that TRF2 overexpression altered nucleosome spacing at telomeres increasing internucleosomal distance. By means of an in vitro nucleosome assembly system containing purified histones and remodeling factors, we reproduced the short nucleosome spacing found in telomeric chromatin. Importantly, when in vitro assembly was performed in the presence of purified TRF2, nucleosome spacing on a telomeric DNA template increased, in agreement with in vivo MNase mapping.Our results demonstrate that TRF2 negatively regulates the number of nucleosomes at human telomeres by a cell cycle-dependent mechanism that alters internucleosomal distance. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that telomere protection is mediated, at least in part, by the TRF2-dependent regulation of nucleosome organization.

  20. TRF2 controls telomeric nucleosome organization in a cell cycle phase-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Alessandra; Magdinier, Frédérique; Colasanti, Valentina; Bauwens, Serge; Pinte, Sébastien; Ricordy, Ruggero; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Pusch, Miriam Caroline; Savino, Maria; Cacchione, Stefano; Gilson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian telomeres stabilize chromosome ends as a result of their assembly into a peculiar form of chromatin comprising a complex of non-histone proteins named shelterin. TRF2, one of the shelterin components, binds to the duplex part of telomeric DNA and is essential to fold the telomeric chromatin into a protective cap. Although most of the human telomeric DNA is organized into tightly spaced nucleosomes, their role in telomere protection and how they interplay with telomere-specific factors in telomere organization is still unclear. In this study we investigated whether TRF2 can regulate nucleosome assembly at telomeres.By means of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and Micrococcal Nuclease (MNase) mapping assay, we found that the density of telomeric nucleosomes in human cells was inversely proportional to the dosage of TRF2 at telomeres. This effect was not observed in the G1 phase of the cell cycle but appeared coincident of late or post-replicative events. Moreover, we showed that TRF2 overexpression altered nucleosome spacing at telomeres increasing internucleosomal distance. By means of an in vitro nucleosome assembly system containing purified histones and remodeling factors, we reproduced the short nucleosome spacing found in telomeric chromatin. Importantly, when in vitro assembly was performed in the presence of purified TRF2, nucleosome spacing on a telomeric DNA template increased, in agreement with in vivo MNase mapping.Our results demonstrate that TRF2 negatively regulates the number of nucleosomes at human telomeres by a cell cycle-dependent mechanism that alters internucleosomal distance. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that telomere protection is mediated, at least in part, by the TRF2-dependent regulation of nucleosome organization.

  1. Telomere length as a potential biomarker of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Bhattacharyya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is a multifactorial disease whose prevalence remains unabated especially in developing countries. Both lifestyle factors and genetic predisposition contribute to this disorder. Though notable achievements have been made in the medical, interventional and surgical management of CAD, the need for its prevention is more important. Among other modalities, this calls for defining evidence-based new biomarkers, which on their own or in combination with other known biomarkers may predict the risk of CAD to enable institution of appropriate preventive strategies. In the present communication, we have discussed the usefulness of shortening of telomeres as a potential biomarker of CAD. Clinical research evidence in favour of telomere shortening in CAD is well documented in different ethnic populations of the world. Establishing a well-standardized and accurate method of evaluating telomere length is essential before its routine use in preventive cardiology.

  2. Mathematical model of alternative mechanism of telomere length maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, Richard; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymer length regulation is a complex process that involves a large number of subprocesses acting simultaneously across multiple spatial and temporal scales. An illustrative example important for genomic stability is the length regulation of telomeres---nucleo-protein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes. Maintenance of telomeres is often facilitated by the enzyme telomerase but, particularly in telomerase-free systems, the maintenance of chromosomal termini depends on alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanisms mediated by recombination. Various linear and circular DNA structures were identified to participate in ALT, however, dynamics of the whole process is still poorly understood. We propose a chemical kinetics model of ALT with kinetic rates systematically derived from the biophysics of DNA diffusion and looping. The reaction system is reduced to a coagulation-fragmentation system by quasi-steady state approximation. The detailed treatment of kinetic rates yields explicit formulae f...

  3. Telomere Transcripts Target Telomerase in Human Cancer Cells

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    Theresa Kreilmeier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding transcripts from telomeres, called telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA, were identified as blocking telomerase activity (TA, a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM, in tumors. We expressed recombinant TERRA transcripts in tumor cell lines with TA and with alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT to study effects on TMM and cell growth. Adeno- and lentivirus constructs (AV and LV were established for transient and stable expression of approximately 130 units of telomere hexanucleotide repeats under control of cytomegalovirus (CMV and human RNase P RNA H1 (hH1 promoters with and without polyadenylation, respectively. Six human tumor cell lines either using telomerase or ALT were infected and analyzed for TA levels. Pre-infection cells using telomerase had 1%–3% of the TERRA expression levels of ALT cells. AV and LV expression of recombinant TERRA in telomerase positive cells showed a 1.3–2.6 fold increase in TERRA levels, and a decrease in TA of 25%–58%. Dominant-negative or small hairpin RNA (shRNA viral expression against human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT results in senescence, not induced by TERRA expression. Population doubling time, cell viability and TL (telomere length were not impacted by ectopic TERRA expression. Clonal growth was reduced by TERRA expression in TA but not ALT cell lines. ALT cells were not affected by treatments applied. Established cell models and tools may be used to better understand the role of TERRA in the cell, especially for targeting telomerase.

  4. Estimating telomere length from whole genome sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhihao; Mangino, Massimo; Aviv, Abraham; Spector, Tim; Durbin, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Telomeres play a key role in replicative ageing and undergo age-dependent attrition in vivo. Here, we report a novel method, TelSeq, to measure average telomere length from whole genome or exome shotgun sequence data. In 260 leukocyte samples, we show that TelSeq results correlate with Southern blot measurements of the mean length of terminal restriction fragments (mTRFs) and display age-dependent attrition comparably well as mTRFs. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of insert name of society].

  5. Telomere lengths, pulmonary fibrosis and telomerase (TERT mutations.

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    Alberto Diaz de Leon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of nucleotides on the ends of chromosomes. Rare loss of function mutations in the gene that encodes the protein component of telomerase (TERT have been described in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Here we examine the telomere lengths and pulmonary fibrosis phenotype seen in multiple kindreds with heterozygous TERT mutations.We have identified 134 individuals with heterozygous TERT mutations from 21 unrelated families. Available medical records, surgical lung biopsies and radiographs were evaluated retrospectively. Genomic DNA isolated from circulating leukocytes has been used to measure telomere lengths with a quantitative PCR assay. We find that telomere lengths of TERT mutation carriers decrease in an age-dependent manner and show progressive shortening with successive generations of mutation inheritance. Family members without TERT mutations have a shorter mean telomere length than normal, demonstrating epigenetic inheritance of shortened telomere lengths in the absence of an inherited TERT mutation. Pulmonary fibrosis is an age-dependent phenotype not seen in mutation carriers less than 40 years of age but found in 60% of men 60 years or older; its development is associated with environmental exposures including cigarette smoking. A radiographic CT pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, which is consistent with a diagnosis of IPF, is seen in 74% of cases and a pathologic pattern of UIP is seen in 86% of surgical lung biopsies. Pulmonary fibrosis associated with TERT mutations is progressive and lethal with a mean survival of 3 years after diagnosis. Overall, TERT mutation carriers demonstrate reduced life expectancy, with a mean age of death of 58 and 67 years for males and females, respectively.A subset of pulmonary fibrosis, like dyskeratosis congenita, bone marrow failure, and liver disease, represents a "telomeropathy" caused by germline mutations in telomerase

  6. Association of Telomere Length with Breast Cancer Prognostic Factors.

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    Kaoutar Ennour-Idrissi

    Full Text Available Telomere length, a marker of cell aging, seems to be affected by the same factors thought to be associated with breast cancer prognosis.To examine associations of peripheral blood cell-measured telomere length with traditional and potential prognostic factors in breast cancer patients.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected before surgery from 162 breast cancer patients recruited consecutively between 01/2011 and 05/2012, at a breast cancer reference center. Data on the main lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity were collected using standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric factors were measured. Tumor biological characteristics were extracted from pathology reports. Telomere length was measured using a highly reproducible quantitative PCR method in peripheral white blood cells. Spearman partial rank-order correlations and multivariate general linear models were used to evaluate relationships between telomere length and prognostic factors.Telomere length was positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.17, P = 0.033; Ptrend = 0.069, occupational physical activity (rs = 0.15, P = 0.054; Ptrend = 0.054 and transportation-related physical activity (rs = 0.19, P = 0.019; P = 0.005. Among post-menopausal women, telomere length remained positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.27, P = 0.016; Ptrend = 0.054 and occupational physical activity (rs = 0.26, P = 0.021; Ptrend = 0.056 and was only associated with transportation-related physical activity among pre-menopausal women (rs = 0.27, P = 0.015; P = 0.004. No association was observed between telomere length and recreational or household activities, other lifestyle factors or traditional prognostic factors.Telomeres are longer in more active breast cancer patients. Since white blood cells are involved in anticancer immune responses, these findings suggest that even regular low-intensity physical activity, such as that

  7. Characterization of telomeres and telomerase from the single-celled eukaryote Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzlíková, Magdalena; Fulnečková, Jana; Weisz, Filip; Sýkorová, Eva; Nohýnková, Eva; Tůmová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    The ends of linear chromosomes, telomeres, are most commonly maintained by the enzyme telomerase. Our study presents the characteristics of telomeres and telomerase from the single-celled parasitic eukaryote Giardia intestinalis. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we localized telomeres during all stages of the trophozoite cell cycle and demonstrated differences in the observed number of telomeric foci, indicating telomere clustering. The length of Giardia telomeres was determined in different cell lines derived from WB clinical isolate using terminal restriction fragment analysis and ranged from 0.5 to 2.5kb; moreover, a BAL-31 digestion experiment did not reveal any long interstitial telomeric sequences in the genome. Despite the absence of the specific T motif in the telomerase catalytic subunit, the presence of an active telomerase enzyme synthesising telomeric repeats in Giardia was proved by a Telomere repeat amplification protocol assay, and its localization in nuclei was determined by the expression of recombinant GiTERT. Except for the Giardia-type TAGGG telomeric repeat, Giardia telomerase was proved to synthesize in vitro also other repeat variants, TAAGG and TAAGGG. In summary, despite its unusual characteristics, including a structurally divergent but active telomerase, unique terminal sequences and relatively short telomeres, the present data support the view that the chromosomal termini in Giardia are maintained in a conservative manner that is common to other eukaryotes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Genetic Basis of Natural Variation in Caenorhabditis elegans Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel E; Zdraljevic, Stefan; Tanny, Robyn E; Seo, Beomseok; Riccardi, David D; Noble, Luke M; Rockman, Matthew V; Alkema, Mark J; Braendle, Christian; Kammenga, Jan E; Wang, John; Kruglyak, Leonid; Félix, Marie-Anne; Lee, Junho; Andersen, Erik C

    2016-09-01

    Telomeres are involved in the maintenance of chromosomes and the prevention of genome instability. Despite this central importance, significant variation in telomere length has been observed in a variety of organisms. The genetic determinants of telomere-length variation and their effects on organismal fitness are largely unexplored. Here, we describe natural variation in telomere length across the Caenorhabditis elegans species. We identify a large-effect variant that contributes to differences in telomere length. The variant alters the conserved oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding fold of protection of telomeres 2 (POT-2), a homolog of a human telomere-capping shelterin complex subunit. Mutations within this domain likely reduce the ability of POT-2 to bind telomeric DNA, thereby increasing telomere length. We find that telomere-length variation does not correlate with offspring production or longevity in C. elegans wild isolates, suggesting that naturally long telomeres play a limited role in modifying fitness phenotypes in C. elegans. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Fission Yeast Exo1 and Rqh1-Dna2 Redundantly Contribute to Resection of Uncapped Telomeres.

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    Tomoko Nanbu

    Full Text Available The uncapping of telomeres induces a DNA damage response. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, deletion of pot1+ causes telomere uncapping and rapid telomere resection, resulting in chromosome fusion. Using the nmt-pot1-aid strain, we previously reported that Pot1 shut-off causes telomere loss and chromosome fusion in S. pombe. However, the factors responsible for the resection of uncapped telomeres remain unknown. In this study, we investigated these factors and found that concomitant deletion of rqh1+ and exo1+ alleviated the loss of telomeres following Pot1 shut-off, suggesting that Rqh1 and Exo1 are redundantly involved in the resection of uncapped telomeres. We also investigated the role of Rqh1 helicase activity and found it to be essential for the resection of uncapped telomeres. Moreover, we found that Dna2 and Exo1 function redundantly in the resection of uncapped telomeres. Taken together, these results suggest that Exo1 and Rqh1-Dna2 redundantly contribute to the resection of uncapped telomeres. Therefore, our results demonstrate that nmt-pot1-aid is an important model strain to study the role of helicases and nucleases in the resection of uncapped telomeres and to improve our understanding of DNA double-strand break repair.

  10. Selaginella moellendoffii telomeres: conserved and unique features in an ancient land plant lineage

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    Eugene V Shakirov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the essential terminal regions of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, consist of G-rich DNA repeats bound by a plethora of associated proteins. While the general pathways of telomere maintenance are evolutionarily conserved, individual telomere complex components show remarkable variation between eukaryotic lineages and even within closely related species. The recent genome sequencing of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendoffii and the availability of an ever-increasing number of flowering plant genomes provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the molecular and functional evolution of telomere components from the early evolving non-seed plants to the more developmentally advanced angiosperms. Here we analyzed telomere sequence in S. moellendorffii and found it to consist of TTTAGGG repeats, typical of most plants. Telomere tracts in S. moellendorffii range from 1-5.5 kb, closely resembling Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified several S. moellendorffii genes encoding sequence homologues of proteins involved in telomere maintenance in other organisms, including CST complex components and the telomere-binding proteins POT1 and TRFL. Notable sequence similarities and differences were uncovered among the telomere-related genes in some of the plant lineages. Taken together, the data indicate that comparative analysis of the telomere complex in early diverging land plants such as S. moellendorffii and green algae will yield important insights into the evolution of telomeres and their protein constituents.

  11. Computel: computation of mean telomere length from whole-genome next-generation sequencing data.

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    Lilit Nersisyan

    Full Text Available Telomeres are the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, consisting of consecutive short repeats that protect chromosome ends from degradation. Telomeres shorten with each cell division, leading to replicative cell senescence. Deregulation of telomere length homeostasis is associated with the development of various age-related diseases and cancers. A number of experimental techniques exist for telomere length measurement; however, until recently, the absence of tools for extracting telomere lengths from high-throughput sequencing data has significantly obscured the association of telomere length with molecular processes in normal and diseased conditions. We have developed Computel, a program in R for computing mean telomere length from whole-genome next-generation sequencing data. Computel is open source, and is freely available at https://github.com/lilit-nersisyan/computel. It utilizes a short-read alignment-based approach and integrates various popular tools for sequencing data analysis. We validated it with synthetic and experimental data, and compared its performance with the previously available software. The results have shown that Computel outperforms existing software in accuracy, independence of results from sequencing conditions, stability against inherent sequencing errors, and better ability to distinguish pure telomeric sequences from interstitial telomeric repeats. By providing a highly reliable methodology for determining telomere lengths from whole-genome sequencing data, Computel should help to elucidate the role of telomeres in cellular health and disease.

  12. Factors that influence telomeric oxidative base damage and repair by DNA glycosylase OGG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, David B; Ghosh, Avik; Lu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and are essential in preventing chromosome termini from being recognized as broken DNA ends. Telomere shortening has been linked to cellular senescence and human aging, with oxidative stress as a major...... contributing factor. 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxogaunine (8-oxodG) is one of the most abundant oxidative guanine lesions, and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is involved in its removal. In this study, we examined if telomeric DNA is particularly susceptible to oxidative base damage and if telomere-specific factors...... affect the incision of oxidized guanines by OGG1. We demonstrated that telomeric TTAGGG repeats were more prone to oxidative base damage and repaired less efficiently than non-telomeric TG repeats in vivo. We also showed that the 8-oxodG-incision activity of OGG1 is similar in telomeric and non...

  13. Regulated expression of the lncRNA TERRA and its impact on telomere biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Rico, Diego; Herrera, Luis A

    2017-10-01

    The telomere protects against genomic instability by minimizing the accelerated end resection of the genetic material, a phenomenon that results in severe chromosome instability that could favor the transformation of a cell by enabling the emergence of tumor-promoting mutations. Some mechanisms that avoid this fate, such as capping and loop formation, have been very well characterized; however, telomeric non-coding transcripts, such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), should also be considered in this context because they play roles in the organization of telomere dynamics, involving processes such as replication, degradation, extension, and heterochromatin stabilization. Although the mechanism through which the expression of telomeric transcripts regulates telomere dynamics is not yet clear, a non-coding RNA component opens the research options in telomere biology and the impact that it can have on telomere-associated diseases such as cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Brh2 and Rad51 promote telomere maintenance in Ustilago maydis, a new model system of DNA repair proteins at telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Young; Kojic, Milorad; Holloman, William K; Lue, Neal F

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies implicate a number of DNA repair proteins in mammalian telomere maintenance. However, because several key repair proteins in mammals are missing from the well-studied budding and fission yeast, their roles at telomeres cannot be modeled in standard fungi. In this report, we explored the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis as an alternative model for telomere research. This fungus, which belongs to the phylum Basidiomycota, has a telomere repeat unit that is identical to the mammalian repeat, as well as a constellation of DNA repair proteins that more closely mimic the mammalian collection. We showed that the two core components of homology-directed repair (HDR) in U. maydis, namely Brh2 and Rad51, both promote telomere maintenance in telomerase positive cells, just like in mammals. In addition, we found that Brh2 is localized to telomeres in vivo, suggesting that it acts directly at chromosome ends. We surveyed a series of mutants with DNA repair defects, and found many of them to have short telomeres. Our results indicate that factors involved in DNA repair are probably also needed for optimal telomere maintenance in U. maydis, and that this fungus is a useful alternative model system for telomere research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of the functional domains of the telomere protein Rap1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikumi Fujita

    Full Text Available The telomere at the end of a linear chromosome plays crucial roles in genome stability. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Rap1 protein, one of the central players at the telomeres, associates with multiple proteins to regulate various telomere functions, such as the maintenance of telomere DNA length, telomere end protection, maintenance of telomere heterochromatin, and telomere clustering in meiosis. The molecular bases of the interactions between Rap1 and its partners, however, remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the identification of the interaction domains of Rap1 with its partners. The Bqt1/Bqt2 complex, which is required for normal meiotic progression, Poz1, which is required for telomere length control, and Taz1, which is required for the recruitment of Rap1 to telomeres, bind to distinct domains in the C-terminal half of Rap1. Intriguingly, analyses of a series of deletion mutants for rap1(+ have revealed that the long N-terminal region (1-456 a.a. [amino acids] of Rap1 (full length: 693 a.a. is not required for telomere DNA length control, telomere end protection, and telomere gene silencing, whereas the C-terminal region (457-693 a.a. containing Poz1- and Taz1-binding domains plays important roles in those functions. Furthermore, the Bqt1/Bqt2- and Taz1-binding domains are essential for normal spore formation after meiosis. Our results suggest that the C-terminal half of Rap1 is critical for the primary telomere functions, whereas the N-terminal region containing the BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminus and Myb domains, which are evolutionally conserved among the Rap1 family proteins, does not play a major role at the telomeres.

  16. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  17. AKTIP/Ft1, a New Shelterin-Interacting Factor Required for Telomere Maintenance.

    KAUST Repository

    Burla, Romina

    2015-06-25

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that protect the ends of linear chromosomes from incomplete replication, degradation and detection as DNA breaks. Mammalian telomeres are protected by shelterin, a multiprotein complex that binds the TTAGGG telomeric repeats and recruits a series of additional factors that are essential for telomere function. Although many shelterin-associated proteins have been so far identified, the inventory of shelterin-interacting factors required for telomere maintenance is still largely incomplete. Here, we characterize AKTIP/Ft1 (human AKTIP and mouse Ft1 are orthologous), a novel mammalian shelterin-bound factor identified on the basis of its homology with the Drosophila telomere protein Pendolino. AKTIP/Ft1 shares homology with the E2 variant ubiquitin-conjugating (UEV) enzymes and has been previously implicated in the control of apoptosis and in vesicle trafficking. RNAi-mediated depletion of AKTIP results in formation of telomere dysfunction foci (TIFs). Consistent with these results, AKTIP interacts with telomeric DNA and binds the shelterin components TRF1 and TRF2 both in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of AKTIP- depleted human primary fibroblasts showed that they are defective in PCNA recruiting and arrest in the S phase due to the activation of the intra S checkpoint. Accordingly, AKTIP physically interacts with PCNA and the RPA70 DNA replication factor. Ft1-depleted p53-/- MEFs did not arrest in the S phase but displayed significant increases in multiple telomeric signals (MTS) and sister telomere associations (STAs), two hallmarks of defective telomere replication. In addition, we found an epistatic relation for MST formation between Ft1 and TRF1, which has been previously shown to be required for replication fork progression through telomeric DNA. Ch-IP experiments further suggested that in AKTIP-depleted cells undergoing the S phase, TRF1 is less tightly bound to telomeric DNA than in controls. Thus, our results collectively

  18. Leukocyte telomere length and late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaakxs, R.; Verhoeven, J.E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Comijs, H.C.; Penninx, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depressive disorders have been associated with increased risk for aging-related diseases, possibly as a consequence of accelerated cellular aging. Cellular aging, indexed by telomere length (TL) shortening, has been linked to depression in adults younger than 60 years; however, it remains

  19. Telomere shortening and telomerase activity in ischaemic cardiomyopathy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawhney, V; Campbell, N G; Brouilette, S W

    2016-01-01

    with primary prevention ICDs were recruited. 35 had received appropriate therapy from the ICD for potentially-fatal VA while the remaining 55 patients had not. No significant differences in baseline demographic data relevant to telomere biology were seen between the two groups. There was no significant...

  20. T cell renewal rates, telomerase, and telomere length shortening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Noest, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements on the average telomere lengths of normal human naive and memory T cells suggested that 1) naive and memory human T cells have similar division rates, and 2) that the difference between naive and memory cells reflects the degree of clonal expansion during normal immune reactions. Here

  1. Telomeric DNA mediates de novo PML body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Anneke K; Schimmel, Joost; Wiegant, Joop C A G; Vertegaal, Alfred C O; Tanke, Hans J; Dirks, Roeland W

    2009-11-01

    The cell nucleus harbors a variety of different bodies that vary in number, composition, and size. Although these bodies coordinate important nuclear processes, little is known about how they are formed. Among the most intensively studied bodies in recent years is the PML body. These bodies have been implicated in gene regulation and other cellular processes and are disrupted in cells from patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia. Using live cell imaging microscopy and immunofluorescence, we show in several cell types that PML bodies are formed at telomeric DNA during interphase. Recent studies revealed that both SUMO modification sites and SUMO interaction motifs in the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein are required for PML body formation. We show that SMC5, a component of the SUMO ligase MMS21-containing SMC5/6 complex, localizes temporarily at telomeric DNA during PML body formation, suggesting a possible role for SUMO in the formation of PML bodies at telomeric DNA. Our data identify a novel role of telomeric DNA during PML body formation.

  2. Cellular Consequences of Telomere Shortening in Histologically Normal Breast Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    mechanism. Cytogenet Genome Res 2008, 122:281–291 12. Cesare AJ, Reddel RR: Alternative lengthening of telomeres: models, mechanisms and implications......astrocytomas. Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 217 (2005). Medline 21. M. A. Cerone, C. Autexier, J. A. Londoño- Vallejo , S. Bacchetti, A human cell line that maintains

  3. TRF2 promotes, remodels and protects telomeric Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, Anaïs; Buisson, Rémi; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Koelblen, Mélanie; Amiard, Simon; Montel, Fabien; Cuesta-Lopez, Santiago; Bornet, Olivier; Guerlesquin, Françoise; Godet, Thomas; Moukhtar, Julien; Argoul, Françoise; Déclais, Anne-Cécile; Lilley, David M J; Ip, Stephen C Y; West, Stephen C; Gilson, Eric; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe

    2009-03-18

    The ability of the telomeric DNA-binding protein, TRF2, to stimulate t-loop formation while preventing t-loop deletion is believed to be crucial to maintain telomere integrity in mammals. However, little is known on the molecular mechanisms behind these properties of TRF2. In this report, we show that TRF2 greatly increases the rate of Holliday junction (HJ) formation and blocks the cleavage by various types of HJ resolving activities, including the newly identified human GEN1 protein. By using potassium permanganate probing and differential scanning calorimetry, we reveal that the basic domain of TRF2 induces structural changes to the junction. We propose that TRF2 contributes to t-loop stabilisation by stimulating HJ formation and by preventing resolvase cleavage. These findings provide novel insights into the interplay between telomere protection and homologous recombination and suggest a general model in which TRF2 maintains telomere integrity by controlling the turnover of HJ at t-loops and at regressed replication forks.

  4. Longitudinal Changes in Leukocyte Telomere Length and Mortality in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Thinggaard, Mikael; Fenger, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) ostensibly shortens with age and has been moderately associated with mortality. In humans, these findings have come almost solely from cross-sectional studies. Only recently has LTL shortening within individuals been analyzed in longitudinal studies. Such studies...

  5. Traffic noise exposure affects telomere length in nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Ribout, Cécile; Angelier, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    In a consistently urbanizing world, anthropogenic noise has become almost omnipresent, and there are increasing evidence that high noise levels can have major impacts on wildlife. While the effects of anthropogenic noise exposure on adult animals have been widely studied, surprisingly, there has been little consideration of the effects of noise pollution on developing organisms. Yet, environmental conditions experienced in early life can have dramatic lifelong consequences for fitness. Here, we experimentally manipulated the acoustic environment of free-living house sparrows (Passer domesticus) breeding in nest boxes. We focused on the impact of such disturbance on nestlings' telomere length and fledging success, as telomeres (the protective ends of chromosomes) appear to be a promising predictor of longevity. We showed that despite the absence of any obvious immediate consequences (growth and fledging success), nestlings reared under traffic noise exposure exhibited reduced telomere lengths compared with their unexposed neighbours. Although the mechanisms responsible for this effect remain to be determined, our results provide the first experimental evidence that noise alone can affect a wild vertebrate's early-life telomere length. This suggests that noise exposure may entail important costs for developing organisms. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. The association of telomere length with family violence and disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H; Esteves, Kyle; Jones, Edward; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Theall, Katherine P

    2014-07-01

    To enhance the understanding of biological mechanisms connecting early adversity and negative health, we examine the association between family interpersonal violence and disruption and telomere length in youth. These specific exposures were selected because of their established links with negative health consequences across the life-course. Children, age 5 to 15, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area, and exposure to family disruption and violence was assessed through caregiver report. Telomere length, from buccal cell DNA (buccal telomere length [bTL]), was determined by using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between bTL and adversity exposure was tested (n = 80). Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (β = -0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= -2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls. bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. The role of ATM in the deficiency in nonhomologous end-joining near telomeres in a human cancer cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Muraki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres distinguish chromosome ends from double-strand breaks (DSBs and prevent chromosome fusion. However, telomeres can also interfere with DNA repair, as shown by a deficiency in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ and an increase in large deletions at telomeric DSBs. The sensitivity of telomeric regions to DSBs is important in the cellular response to ionizing radiation and oncogene-induced replication stress, either by preventing cell division in normal cells, or by promoting chromosome instability in cancer cells. We have previously proposed that the telomeric protein TRF2 causes the sensitivity of telomeric regions to DSBs, either through its inhibition of ATM, or by promoting the processing of DSBs as though they are telomeres, which is independent of ATM. Our current study addresses the mechanism responsible for the deficiency in repair of DSBs near telomeres by combining assays for large deletions, NHEJ, small deletions, and gross chromosome rearrangements (GCRs to compare the types of events resulting from DSBs at interstitial and telomeric DSBs. Our results confirm the sensitivity of telomeric regions to DSBs by demonstrating that the frequency of GCRs is greatly increased at DSBs near telomeres and that the role of ATM in DSB repair is very different at interstitial and telomeric DSBs. Unlike at interstitial DSBs, a deficiency in ATM decreases NHEJ and small deletions at telomeric DSBs, while it increases large deletions. These results strongly suggest that ATM is functional near telomeres and is involved in end protection at telomeric DSBs, but is not required for the extensive resection at telomeric DSBs. The results support our model in which the deficiency in DSB repair near telomeres is a result of ATM-independent processing of DSBs as though they are telomeres, leading to extensive resection, telomere loss, and GCRs involving alternative NHEJ.

  8. Cells with dysfunctional telomeres are susceptible to reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide via generation of multichromosomal fusions and chromosomal fragments bearing telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seon Rang [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Eun; Juhn, Kyoung-Mi; Ju, Yeun-Jin; Jeong, Jaemin [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang-Mo; Yun, Hyun Jin [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Mi Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun-Ran; Park, In-Chul; Hong, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haekwon [Department of Biotechnology, Seoul Woman' s University, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing [Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hoon [Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gil Hong [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Ho, E-mail: khlee@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under conditions of telomere erosion, cells become extremely sensitive to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chromosomal regions adjacent to telomeres are cleaved by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under such conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} thus causes multichromosomal fusions and generation of small chromosomal fragments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-acetylcysteine prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced chromosomal aberrations. -- Abstract: During genotoxic stress, reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) is a prime mediator of the DNA damage response. Telomeres function both to assist in DNA damage repair and to inhibit chromosomal end-to-end fusion. Here, we show that telomere dysfunction renders cells susceptible to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, via generation of multichromosomal fusion and chromosomal fragments. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} caused formation of multichromosomal end-to-end fusions involving more than three chromosomes, preferentially when telomeres were erosive. Interestingly, extensive chromosomal fragmentation (yielding small-sized fragments) occurred only in cells exhibiting such multichromosomal fusions. Telomeres were absent from fusion points, being rather present in the small fragments, indicating that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} cleaves chromosomal regions adjacent to telomeres. Restoration of telomere function or addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented development of chromosomal aberrations and rescued the observed hypersensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Thus, chromosomal regions adjacent to telomeres become sensitive to reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide when telomeres are dysfunctional, and are cleaved to produce multichromosomal fusions and small chromosomal fragments bearing the telomeres.

  9. The telomere binding protein TRF2 induces chromatin compaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa M Baker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian telomeres are specialized chromatin structures that require the telomere binding protein, TRF2, for maintaining chromosome stability. In addition to its ability to modulate DNA repair activities, TRF2 also has direct effects on DNA structure and topology. Given that mammalian telomeric chromatin includes nucleosomes, we investigated the effect of this protein on chromatin structure. TRF2 bound to reconstituted telomeric nucleosomal fibers through both its basic N-terminus and its C-terminal DNA binding domain. Analytical agarose gel electrophoresis (AAGE studies showed that TRF2 promoted the folding of nucleosomal arrays into more compact structures by neutralizing negative surface charge. A construct containing the N-terminal and TRFH domains together altered the charge and radius of nucleosomal arrays similarly to full-length TRF2 suggesting that TRF2-driven changes in global chromatin structure were largely due to these regions. However, the most compact chromatin structures were induced by the isolated basic N-terminal region, as judged by both AAGE and atomic force microscopy. Although the N-terminal region condensed nucleosomal array fibers, the TRFH domain, known to alter DNA topology, was required for stimulation of a strand invasion-like reaction with nucleosomal arrays. Optimal strand invasion also required the C-terminal DNA binding domain. Furthermore, the reaction was not stimulated on linear histone-free DNA. Our data suggest that nucleosomal chromatin has the ability to facilitate this activity of TRF2 which is thought to be involved in stabilizing looped telomere structures.

  10. Genomic Organization of the Drosophila Telomere RetrotransposableElements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J.A.; DeBaryshe, P.G.; Traverse, K.L.; Celniker, S. E.; Pardue, M-L.

    2006-10-16

    The emerging sequence of the heterochromatic portion of the Drosophila melanogaster genome, with the most recent update of euchromatic sequence, gives the first genome-wide view of the chromosomal distribution of the telomeric retrotransposons, HeT-A, TART, and Tahre. As expected, these elements are entirely excluded from euchromatin, although sequence fragments of HeT-A and TART 3 untranslated regions are found in nontelomeric heterochromatin on the Y chromosome. The proximal ends of HeT-A/TART arrays appear to be a transition zone because only here do other transposable elements mix in the array. The sharp distinction between the distribution of telomeric elements and that of other transposable elements suggests that chromatin structure is important in telomere element localization. Measurements reported here show (1) D. melanogaster telomeres are very long, in the size range reported for inbred mouse strains (averaging 46 kb per chromosome end in Drosophila stock 2057). As in organisms with telomerase, their length varies depending on genotype. There is also slight under-replication in polytene nuclei. (2) Surprisingly, the relationship between the number of HeT-A and TART elements is not stochastic but is strongly correlated across stocks, supporting the idea that the two elements are interdependent. Although currently assembled portions of the HeT-A/TART arrays are from the most-proximal part of long arrays, {approx}61% of the total HeT-A sequence in these regions consists of intact, potentially active elements with little evidence of sequence decay, making it likely that the content of the telomere arrays turns over more extensively than has been thought.

  11. Modified Terminal Restriction Fragment Analysis for Quantifying Telomere Length Using In-gel Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Frank J; Kerr, Charles M; Fouquerel, Elise; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Opresko, Patricia L

    2017-07-10

    There are several different techniques for measuring telomere length, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. The traditional approach, Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis, utilizes a DNA hybridization technique whereby genomic DNA samples are digested with restriction enzymes, leaving behind telomere DNA repeats and some sub-telomeric DNA. These are separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, transferred to a filter membrane and hybridized to oligonucleotide probes tagged with either chemiluminescence or radioactivity to visualize telomere restriction fragments. This approach, while requiring a larger quantity of DNA than other techniques such as PCR, can measure the telomere length distribution of a population of cells and allows measurement expressed in absolute kilobases. This manuscript demonstrates a modified DNA hybridization procedure for determining telomere length. Genomic DNA is first digested with restriction enzymes (that do not cut telomeres) and separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The gel is then dried and the DNA is denatured and hybridized in situ to a radiolabeled oligonucleotide probe. This in situ hybridization avoids loss of telomere DNA and improves signal intensity. Following hybridization, the gels are imaged utilizing phosphor screens and the telomere length is quantified using a graphing program. This procedure was developed by the laboratories of Drs. Woodring Wright and Jerry Shay at the University of Texas Southwestern 1 , 2 . Here, we present a detailed description of this procedure, with some modifications.

  12. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-telomere association correlates with redox status in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pariona-Llanos

    Full Text Available Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH is a classical metabolic enzyme involved in energy production and plays a role in additional nuclear functions, including transcriptional control, recognition of misincorporated nucleotides in DNA and maintenance of telomere structure. Here, we show that the recombinant protein T. cruzi GAPDH (rTcGAPDH binds single-stranded telomeric DNA. We demonstrate that the binding of GAPDH to telomeric DNA correlates with the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD+/NADH. We observed that GAPDH-telomere association and NAD+/NADH balance changed throughout the T. cruzi life cycle. For example, in replicative epimastigote forms of T. cruzi, which show similar intracellular concentrations of NAD+ and NADH, GAPDH binds to telomeric DNA in vivo and this binding activity is inhibited by exogenous NAD+. In contrast, in the T. cruzi non-proliferative trypomastigote forms, which show higher NAD+ concentration, GAPDH was absent from telomeres. In addition, NAD+ abolishes physical interaction between recombinant GAPDH and synthetic telomere oligonucleotide in a cell free system, mimicking exogenous NAD+ that reduces GAPDH-telomere interaction in vivo. We propose that the balance in the NAD+/NADH ratio during T. cruzi life cycle homeostatically regulates GAPDH telomere association, suggesting that in trypanosomes redox status locally modulates GAPDH association with telomeric DNA.

  13. Significantly lengthened telomere in granulosa cells from women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Duo; Xie, Juanke; Yin, Baoli; Hao, Haoying; Song, Xiaobing; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Cuilian; Sun, Yingpu

    2017-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy among women at reproductive age. However, its etiology remains poorly understood. Recent studies indicated that telomere length was related to PCOS. However, the association between telomere length and PCOS has only been shown in leucocytes and remained controversial across different studies. To clarify the association between telomere length and PCOS, the current study interrogated telomere length not only in leucocytes, but also in follicular granulosa cells, which is essential for folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Seventy-five patients with PCOS and 81 controls with mechanical infertility undergoing their first in vitro fertilization cycle were enrolled. Their peripheral blood and granulosa cells were collected on the oocyte retrieval day. Telomere length of both leucocytes in the blood and granulosa cells was assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. No significant difference was found in the leucocyte telomere length between controls and PCOS patients (0.99 ± 0.44 vs. 1.00 ± 0.38, p = 0.93). Interestingly, when comparing telomere length in granulosa cells between controls and PCOS subjects, significantly lengthened telomere length was found in PCOS subjects (1.00 ± 0.37 vs. 1.57±0.67, p PCOS. Given the importance of telomere length in cellular proliferation, our findings provided novel insights into the pathophysiology of PCOS that abnormalities in telomere length possibly disturb folliculogenesis and subsequently result in PCOS.

  14. Paclitaxel stimulates chromosomal fusion and instability in cells with dysfunctional telomeres: Implication in multinucleation and chemosensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Eun [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Seon Rang [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang-Mo [Laboratory of Cytogenetics and Tissue Regeneration, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Juhn, Kyoung-Mi; Ju, Yeun-Jin; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun Ran; Park, In-chul; Hong, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Kee [Department of Life Science and Genetic Engineering, Paichai University, Daejeon 302-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Kwon [Department of Biotechnology, Seoul Woman' s University, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing [Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-74-2 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gil Hong [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Ho, E-mail: khlee@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Paclitaxel serves as a stimulator of chromosomal fusion in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional. {yields} Typical fusions involve p-arms, but paclitaxel-induced fusions occur between both q- and p-arms. {yields} Paclitaxel-stimulated fusions in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional evoke prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest and delay multinucleation. {yields} Upon telomere erosion, paclitaxel promotes chromosomal instability and subsequent apoptosis. {yields} Chromosomal fusion enhances paclitaxel chemosensitivity under telomere dysfunction. -- Abstract: The anticancer effect of paclitaxel is attributable principally to irreversible promotion of microtubule stabilization and is hampered upon development of chemoresistance by tumor cells. Telomere shortening, and eventual telomere erosion, evoke chromosomal instability, resulting in particular cellular responses. Using telomerase-deficient cells derived from mTREC-/-p53-/- mice, here we show that, upon telomere erosion, paclitaxel propagates chromosomal instability by stimulating chromosomal end-to-end fusions and delaying the development of multinucleation. The end-to-end fusions involve both the p- and q-arms in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional. Paclitaxel-induced chromosomal fusions were accompanied by prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest, delayed multinucleation, and apoptosis. Telomere dysfunctional cells with mutlinucleation eventually underwent apoptosis. Thus, as telomere erosion proceeds, paclitaxel stimulates chromosomal fusion and instability, and both apoptosis and chemosensitization eventually develop.

  15. Comparative analysis of whole genome sequencing-based telomere length measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael; Napier, Christine E; Yang, Sile F; Arthur, Jonathan W; Reddel, Roger R; Pickett, Hilda A

    2017-02-01

    Telomeres are regions of repetitive DNA at the ends of human chromosomes that function to maintain the integrity of the genome. Telomere attrition is associated with cellular ageing, whilst telomere maintenance is a prerequisite for malignant transformation. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) captures sequence information from the entire genome, including the telomeres, and is increasingly being applied in research and in the clinic. Several bioinformatics tools have been designed to determine telomere content and length from WGS data, and include Motif_counter, TelSeq, Computel, qMotif, and Telomerecat. These tools utilise different approaches to identify, quantify and normalise telomeric reads; however, it is not known how they compare to one another. Here we describe the details and utility of each tool, and directly compare WGS telomere length output with laboratory-based telomere length measurements. In addition, we evaluate the accessibility, practicality, speed, and additional features of each tool. Each tool was tested using a range of telomere read extraction criteria, to determine the optimal parameters for the specific WGS read length. The aim of this article is to improve the accessibility of WGS telomere length measurement tools, which have the potential to be applied to WGS cohorts for clinical as well as research benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Telomere-Centromere-Driven Genomic Instability Contributes to Karyotype Evolution in a Mouse Model of Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gonçalves dos Santos Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN are hallmarks of most solid tumors. These alterations may result from inaccurate chromosomal segregation during mitosis, which can occur through several mechanisms including defective telomere metabolism, centrosome amplification, dysfunctional centromeres, and/or defective spindle checkpoint control. In this work, we used an in vitro murine melanoma model that uses a cellular adhesion blockade as a transforming factor to characterize telomeric and centromeric alterations that accompany melanocyte transformation. To study the timing of the occurrence of telomere shortening in this transformation model, we analyzed the profile of telomere length by quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization and found that telomere length significantly decreased as additional rounds of cell adhesion blockages were performed. Together with it, an increase in telomere-free ends and complex karyotypic aberrations were also found, which include Robertsonian fusions in 100% of metaphases of the metastatic melanoma cells. These findings are in agreement with the idea that telomere length abnormalities seem to be one of the earliest genetic alterations acquired in the multistep process of malignant transformation and that telomere abnormalities result in telomere aggregation, breakage-bridge-fusion cycles, and CIN. Another remarkable feature of this model is the abundance of centromeric instability manifested as centromere fragments and centromeric fusions. Taken together, our results illustrate for this melanoma model CIN with a structural signature of centromere breakage and telomeric loss.

  17. Skin phenotypes can offer some insight about the association between telomere length and cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribero, S; Mangino, M; Bataille, V

    2016-12-01

    The role of telomere biology in cancer has been studied for a wide variety of different cancers but the association with telomere length has been controversial. This is because some cancers have been found to be associated with longer telomeres in circulating white cells whilst other cancer types are more common in individuals with shorter telomeres. Hence, there has been some skepticism as to whether telomere length may be helpful in estimating cancer risk. For melanoma, however, results have been fairly consistent showing that longer telomeres are associated with an increased risk. This link was first discovered because of a link between longer telomeres and a high number of naevi. In contrast, for cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, the relationship is reversed with higher risk in individuals with shorter telomeres. Differences in skin phenotypes with the presence of high number of naevi versus photoageing with solar elastosis and solar keratoses have already been valuable for dermatologists as the former phenotype is associated with melanoma whilst the latter is more common in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The hypothesis is that the differences in cutaneous phenotypes already observed by dermatologists for skin cancers may, in fact, be useful as well for cancer prediction in general as it may reflect underlying telomere biology. This manuscript will address the evidence for links between telomere biology, skin phenotypes and cancer risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of the telomere-telomerase system on diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi Nan, Wu; Ling, Zhang; Bing, Chen

    2015-06-01

    The telomere-telomerase system plays an important role in the pathogenesis and disease progression of diabetes mellitus as well as in its vascular complications. Recent studies suggest that telomere shortening and abnormal telomerase activity occur in patients with diabetes mellitus, and targeting the telomere-telomerase system has become a prospective treatment for diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. This review highlights the significance of the telomere-telomerase system and supports its role as a possible therapeutic target for patients with diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications Areas covered: This review covers the advances in understanding the telomere-telomerase system over the last 30 years and its significance in diabetes mellitus. In addition, it provides knowledge regarding the significance of the telomere-telomerase system in diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications as well as its role and mechanisms in oxidative stress, cell therapy and antioxidant activity Expert opinion: The telomere-telomerase system may be a potential therapeutic target that can protect against DNA damage and apoptosis in patients with diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. DNA damage and apoptosis are associated with oxidative stress and are involved in the dysfunction of pancreatic β cells, insulin resistance, and its vascular complications. Abnormalities in the telomere-telomerase system may be associated with diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. Therapies targeting telomere-telomerase system, telomerase reverse transcriptase transfection and alterative telomere lengthening must be identified before gene therapy can commence.

  19. TERRA-Reinforced Association of LSD1 with MRE11 Promotes Processing of Uncapped Telomeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Porro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being recognized as sites of DNA damage. Upon telomere shortening or telomere uncapping induced by loss of telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2, telomeres elicit a DNA-damage response leading to cellular senescence. Here, we show that following TRF2 depletion, the levels of the long noncoding RNA TERRA increase and LSD1, which binds TERRA, is recruited to telomeres. At uncapped telomeres, LSD1 associates with MRE11, one of the nucleases implicated in the processing of 3′ telomeric G overhangs, and we show that LSD1 is required for efficient removal of these structures. The LSD1-MRE11 interaction is reinforced in vivo following TERRA upregulation in TRF2-deficient cells and in vitro by TERRA-mimicking RNA oligonucleotides. Furthermore, LSD1 enhances the nuclease activity of MRE11 in vitro. Our data indicate that recruitment of LSD1 to deprotected telomeres requires MRE11 and is promoted by TERRA. LSD1 stimulates MRE11 catalytic activity and nucleolytic processing of uncapped telomeres.

  20. Involvement of human ORC and TRF2 in pre-replication complex assembly at telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Yasutoshi; Ezura, Kai; Yoshida, Kazumasa; Yugawa, Takashi; Narisawa-Saito, Mako; Kiyono, Tohru; Ohta, Satoshi; Obuse, Chikashi; Fujita, Masatoshi

    2008-10-01

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) binds to replication origins to regulate the cell cycle-dependent assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs). We have found a novel link between pre-RC assembly regulation and telomere homeostasis in human cells. Biochemical analyses showed that human ORC binds to TRF2, a telomere sequence-binding protein that protects telomeres and functions in telomere length homeostasis, via the ORC1 subunit. Immunostaining further revealed that ORC and TRF2 partially co-localize in nuclei, whereas chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses confirmed that pre-RCs are assembled at telomeres in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Over-expression of TRF2 stimulated ORC and MCM binding to chromatin and RNAi-directed TRF2 silencing resulted in reduced ORC binding and pre-RC assembly at telomeres. As expected from previous reports, TRF2 silencing induced telomere elongation. Interestingly, ORC1 silencing by RNAi weakened the TRF2 binding as well as the pre-RC assembly at telomeres, suggesting that ORC and TRF2 interact with each other to achieve stable binding. Furthermore, ORC1 silencing also resulted in modest telomere elongation. These data suggest that ORC might be involved in telomere homeostasis in human cells.

  1. Post-translational modifications of TRF1 and TRF2 and their roles in telomere maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John R; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2012-06-01

    Telomeres, heterochromatic structures, found at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, function to protect natural chromosome ends from nucleolytic attack. Human telomeric DNA is bound by a telomere-specific six-subunit protein complex, termed shelterin/telosome. The shelterin subunits TRF1 and TRF2 bind in a sequence-specific manner to double-stranded telomeric DNA, providing a vital platform for recruitment of additional shelterin proteins as well as non-shelterin factors crucial for the maintenance of telomere length and structure. Both TRF1 and TRF2 are engaged in multiple roles at telomeres including telomere protection, telomere replication, sister telomere resolution and telomere length maintenance. Regulation of TRF1 and TRF2 in these various processes is controlled by post-translational modifications, at times in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, affecting key functions such as DNA binding, dimerization, localization, degradation and interactions with other proteins. Here we review the post-translational modifications of TRF1 and TRF2 and discuss the mechanisms by which these modifications contribute to the function of these two proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TERRA-reinforced association of LSD1 with MRE11 promotes processing of uncapped telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Antonio; Feuerhahn, Sascha; Lingner, Joachim

    2014-02-27

    Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being recognized as sites of DNA damage. Upon telomere shortening or telomere uncapping induced by loss of telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2), telomeres elicit a DNA-damage response leading to cellular senescence. Here, we show that following TRF2 depletion, the levels of the long noncoding RNA TERRA increase and LSD1, which binds TERRA, is recruited to telomeres. At uncapped telomeres, LSD1 associates with MRE11, one of the nucleases implicated in the processing of 3' telomeric G overhangs, and we show that LSD1 is required for efficient removal of these structures. The LSD1-MRE11 interaction is reinforced in vivo following TERRA upregulation in TRF2-deficient cells and in vitro by TERRA-mimicking RNA oligonucleotides. Furthermore, LSD1 enhances the nuclease activity of MRE11 in vitro. Our data indicate that recruitment of LSD1 to deprotected telomeres requires MRE11 and is promoted by TERRA. LSD1 stimulates MRE11 catalytic activity and nucleolytic processing of uncapped telomeres. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of telomere length in older men with mortality and midlife body mass index and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Timo E; Saijonmaa, Outi; Tilvis, Reijo S; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Strandberg, Arto Y; Miettinen, Tatu A; Fyhrquist, Frej

    2011-07-01

    Leukocyte telomere length has been taken as a measure of biological age but several inconsistencies exist. We investigated associations between leukocyte telomere length in old age, midlife risk factors, and mortality. The Helsinki Businessmen Study (a cohort of mainly business executives, born 1919-1934) had baseline assessments of cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index between 1964 and 1973 at a mean age of 40. Leukocyte telomere length and proportion of short telomeres were measured from DNA samples collected in 2002-2003 (n = 622, mean age 78 years). Body mass index and smoking in old age were assessed from questionnaires. Total mortality was verified from registers through January 2010. Main outcome measures were relationships between telomeres, body mass index, smoking, and mortality. Leukocyte telomere length and notably proportion of short telomeres (associated with midlife overweight and smoking. The associations were independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors including postload glucose. Associations with body mass index and smoking were nonsignificant in old age, and telomere length did not predict 7-year total mortality. We conclude that smoking and overweight in midlife, irrespective of glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure, are related to shorter leukocyte telomeres in old men. Telomere length in old age did not predict total mortality possibly due to competing causes.

  4. Organization and evolution of Drosophila terminin: similarities and differences between Drosophila and human telomeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Daniela Raffa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila lacks telomerase and fly telomeres are elongated by occasional transposition of three specialized retroelements. Drosophila telomeres do not terminate with GC-rich repeats and are assembled independently of the sequence of chromosome ends. Recent work has shown that Drosophila telomeres are capped by the terminin complex, which includes the fast-evolving proteins HOAP, HipHop, Moi and Ver. These proteins are not conserves outside Drosophilidae and localize and function exclusively at telomeres, protecting them from fusion events. Other proteins required to prevent end-to-end fusion in flies include HP1, Eff/UbcD1, ATM, the components of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs (MRN complex, and the Woc transcription factor. These proteins do not share the terminin properties; they are evolutionarily conserved non-fast-evolving proteins that do not accumulate only telomeres and do not serve telomere-specific functions. We propose that following telomerase loss, Drosophila rapidly evolved terminin to bind chromosome ends in a sequence-independent manner. This hypothesis suggests that terminin is the functional analog of the shelterin complex that protects human telomeres. The non-terminin proteins are instead likely to correspond to ancestral telomere-associated proteins that did not evolve as rapidly as terminin because of the functional constraints imposed by their involvement in diverse cellular processes. Thus, it appears that the main difference between Drosophila and human telomeres is in the protective complexes that specifically associate with the DNA termini. We believe that Drosophila telomeres offer excellent opportunities for investigations on human telomere biology. The identification of additional Drosophila genes encoding non-terminin proteins involved in telomere protection might lead to the discovery of novel components of human telomeres.

  5. High Mobility Group A2 protects cancer cells against telomere dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Suchitra; Begum, Farhana; Gim, Jeonga; Wark, Landon; Henderson, Dana; Davie, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The non-histone chromatin binding protein High Mobility Group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) plays important roles in the repair and protection of genomic DNA in embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. Here we show that HMGA2 localizes to mammalian telomeres and enhances telomere stability in cancer cells. We present a novel interaction of HMGA2 with the key shelterin protein TRF2. We found that the linker (L1) region of HMGA2 contributes to this interaction but the ATI-L1-ATII molecular region of HMGA2 is required for strong interaction with TRF2. This interaction was independent of HMGA2 DNA-binding and did not require the TRF2 interacting partner RAP1 but involved the homodimerization and hinge regions of TRF2. HMGA2 retained TRF2 at telomeres and reduced telomere-dysfunction despite induced telomere stress. Silencing of HMGA2 resulted in (i) reduced binding of TRF2 to telomere DNA as observed by ChIP, (ii) increased telomere instability and (iii) the formation of telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIF). This resulted in increased telomere aggregation, anaphase bridges and micronuclei. HMGA2 prevented ATM-dependent pTRF2T188 phosphorylation and attenuated signaling via the telomere specific ATM-CHK2-CDC25C DNA damage signaling axis. In summary, our data demonstrate a unique and novel role of HMGA2 in telomere protection and promoting telomere stability in cancer cells. This identifies HMGA2 as a new therapeutic target for the destabilization of telomeres in HMGA2+ cancer cells. PMID:26799419

  6. TERRA, hnRNP A1, and DNA-PKcs Interactions at Human Telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong N; Maranon, David G; Altina, Noelia H; Battaglia, Christine L R; Bailey, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of telomeres, repetitive elements at eukaryotic chromosomal termini, and the end-capping structure and function they provide, are imperative for preserving genome integrity and stability. The discovery that telomeres are transcribed into telomere repeat containing RNA (TERRA) has revolutionized our view of this repetitive, rather unappreciated region of the genome. We have previously shown that the non-homologous end-joining, shelterin associated DNA dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) participates in mammalian telomeric end-capping, exclusively at telomeres created by leading-strand synthesis. Here, we explore potential roles of DNA-PKcs and its phosphorylation target heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) in the localization of TERRA at human telomeres. Evaluation of co-localized foci utilizing RNA-FISH and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction strategies provided evidence that both inhibition of DNA-PKcs kinase activity and siRNA depletion of hnRNP A1 result in accumulation of TERRA at individual telomeres; depletion of hnRNP A1 also resulted in increased frequencies of fragile telomeres. These observations are consistent with previous demonstrations that decreased levels of the nonsense RNA-mediated decay factors SMG1 and UPF1 increase TERRA at telomeres and interfere with replication of leading-strand telomeres. We propose that hTR mediated stimulation of DNA-PKcs and subsequent phosphorylation of hnRNP A1 influences the cell cycle dependent distribution of TERRA at telomeres by contributing to the removal of TERRA from telomeres, an action important for progression of S-phase, and thereby facilitating efficient telomere replication and end-capping.

  7. Suppression of telomere-binding protein TPP1 resulted in telomere dysfunction and enhanced radiation sensitivity in telomerase-negative osteosarcoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Weiguang [Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Oncology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou (China); Wu, Qinqin [Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Changzhou Tumor Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou (China); Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua [Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wu, Changping, E-mail: wcpzlk@163.com [Department of Oncology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou (China); Zhou, Yunfeng, E-mail: yfzhouwhu@163.com [Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Down-regulation of TPP1 shortened telomere length in telomerase-negative cells. • Down-regulation of TPP1 induced cell apoptosis in telomerase-negative cells. • Down-regulation of TPP1 increased radiosensitivity in telomerase-negative cells. - Abstract: Mammalian telomeres are protected by the shelterin complex that contains the six core proteins POT1, TPP1, TIN2, TRF1, TRF2 and RAP1. TPP1, formerly known as TINT1, PTOP, and PIP1, is a key factor that regulates telomerase recruitment and activity. In addition to this, TPP1 is required to mediate the shelterin assembly and stabilize telomere. Previous work has found that TPP1 expression was elevated in radioresistant cells and that overexpression of TPP1 led to radioresistance and telomere lengthening in telomerase-positive cells. However, the exact effects and mechanism of TPP1 on radiosensitivity are yet to be precisely defined in the ALT cells. Here we report on the phenotypes of the conditional deletion of TPP1 from the human osteosarcoma U2OS cells using ALT pathway to extend the telomeres.TPP1 deletion resulted in telomere shortening, increased apoptosis and radiation sensitivity enhancement. Together, our findings show that TPP1 plays a vital role in telomere maintenance and protection and establish an intimate relationship between TPP1, telomere and cellular response to ionizing radiation, but likely has the specific mechanism yet to be defined.

  8. Creation of a novel telomere-cutting endonuclease based on the EN domain of telomere-specific non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon, TRAS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitake Kazutoshi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ends of chromosomes, termed telomeres consist of repetitive DNA. The telomeric sequences shorten with cell division and, when telomeres are critically abbreviated, cells stop proliferating. However, in cancer cells, by the expression of telomerase which elongates telomeres, the cells can continue proliferating. Many approaches for telomere shortening have been pursued in the past, but to our knowledge, cutting telomeres in vivo has not so far been demonstrated. In addition, there is lack of information on the cellular effects of telomere shortening in human cells. Results Here, we created novel chimeric endonucleases to cut telomeres by fusing the endonuclease domain (TRAS1EN of the silkworm's telomere specific non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon TRAS1 to the human telomere-binding protein, TRF1. An in vitro assay demonstrated that the TRAS1EN-TRF1 chimeric endonucleases (T-EN and EN-T cut the human (TTAGGGn repeats specifically. The concentration of TRAS1EN-TRF1 chimeric endonucleases necessary for the cleavage of (TTAGGGn repeats was about 40-fold lower than that of TRAS1EN alone. When TRAS1EN-TRF1 endonucleases were introduced into human U2OS cancer cells using adenovirus vectors, the enzymes localized at telomeres of nuclei, cleaved and shortened the telomeric DNA by double-strand breaks. When human U2OS and HFL-1 fibroblast cells were infected with EN-T recombinant adenovirus, their cellular proliferation was suppressed for about 2 weeks after infection. In contrast, the TRAS1EN mutant (H258A chimeric endonuclease fused with TRF1 (ENmut-T did not show the suppression effect. The EN-T recombinant adenovirus induced telomere shortening in U2OS cells, activated the p53-dependent pathway and caused the senescence associated cellular responses, while the ENmut-T construct did not show such effects. Conclusions A novel TRAS1EN-TRF1 chimeric endonuclease (EN-T cuts the human telomeric repeats (TTAGGGn specifically in

  9. Processive and Distributive Extension of Human Telomeres by Telomerase Under Homeostatic and Non-equilibrium Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Abreu, Eladio; Kim, Jinyong; Stadler, Guido; Eskiocak, Ugur; Terns, Michael P.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Shay, Jerry W.; Wright, Woodring E.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Specific information about how telomerase acts in vivo is necessary for understanding telomere dynamics in human tumor cells. Our results imply that under homeostatic telomere length-maintenance conditions only one molecule of telomerase acts at each telomere during every cell division and processively adds ~60 nt to each end. In contrast, multiple molecules of telomerase act at each telomere when telomeres are elongating (non-equilibrium conditions). Telomerase extension is less processive during the first few weeks following the reversal of long-term treatment with the telomerase inhibitor GRN163L, a time when Cajal bodies fail to deliver telomerase RNA to telomeres. This result implies that processing of telomerase by Cajal bodies may affect its processivity. Overexpressed telomerase is also less processive than the endogenously expressed telomerase. These findings reveal two major distinct extension modes adopted by telomerase in vivo. PMID:21549308

  10. Effects of donor cells' sex on nuclear transfer efficiency and telomere lengths of cloned goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H-J; Peng, H; Hu, C-C; Li, X-Y; Zhang, J-L; Zheng, Z; Zhang, W-C

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of donor cells' sex on nuclear transfer efficiency and telomere length of cloned goats from adult skin fibroblast cells. The telomere length of somatic cell cloned goats and their offspring was determined by measuring their mean terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length. The result showed that (i) reconstructed embryos with fibroblast cells from males Boer goats obtained significantly higher kids rate and rate of live kids than those of female embryos and (ii) the telomere lengths of four female cloned goats were shorter compared to their donor cells, but five male cloned goats had the same telomere length with their donor cells, mainly due to great variation existed among them. The offspring from female cloned goats had the same telomere length with their age-matched counterparts. In conclusion, the donor cells' sex had significant effects on nuclear transfer efficiency and telomere lengths of cloned goats. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Longer leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica's Nicoyan Peninsula: A population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2013-01-01

    Studies in humans suggest that leukocyte telomere length may act as a marker of biological aging. We investigated whether individuals in the Nicoya region of Costa Rica, known for exceptional longevity, had longer telomere length than those in other parts of the country. After controlling for age, age squared, rurality, rainy season and gender, mean leukocyte telomere length in Nicoya was substantially longer (81 base pairs, pCosta Rica, providing evidence of a biological pathway to which this notable longevity may be related. This relationship remains unchanged (79 base pairs, p<0.05) after statistically controlling for nineteen potential biological, dietary and social and demographic mediators. Thus the difference in mean leukocyte telomere length that characterizes this unique region does not appear to be explainable by traditional behavioral and biological risk factors. More detailed examination of mean leukocyte telomere length by age shows that the regional telomere length difference declines at older ages. PMID:23988653

  12. Age-dependence of relative telomere length profiles during spermatogenesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pernille Bach; Fedder, Jens; Koelvraa, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres, the protective structures at the outmost ends of chromosomes, shorten in all somatic cells with each cell-division and by cumulative oxidative damage. To counteract that these shortened telomeres are passed on to offspring, the telomeres are elongated by the enzyme, telomerase, during...... human spermatogenesis. A few groups have tried to elucidate this process by measuring telomerase activity in the various cell-types during spermatogenesis, but until now, no one has ever measured telomere length (TL) during these different stages in humans. Some groups have measured TL in spermatozoa...... by telomere QFISH. Our data revealed no difference in the TL profile during spermatogenesis between younger and older men. All men had a similar profile which strongly resembled the telomerase expression profile found by others. This indicates that the longer telomeres in older men are not caused by a wider...

  13. Replication stress as a source of telomere recombination during replicative senescence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marie-Noëlle; Churikov, Dmitri; Géli, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Replicative senescence is triggered by short unprotected telomeres that arise in the absence of telomerase. In addition, telomeres are known as difficult regions to replicate due to their repetitive G-rich sequence prone to secondary structures and tightly bound non-histone proteins. Here we review accumulating evidence that telomerase inactivation in yeast immediately unmasks the problems associated with replication stress at telomeres. Early after telomerase inactivation, yeast cells undergo successive rounds of stochastic DNA damages and become dependent on recombination for viability long before the bulk of telomeres are getting critically short. The switch from telomerase to recombination to repair replication stress-induced damage at telomeres creates telomere instability, which may drive further genomic alterations and prepare the ground for telomerase-independent immortalization observed in yeast survivors and in 15% of human cancer. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Paternal age and telomere length in twins: the germ stem cell selection paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Halekoh, Ulrich; Möller, Sören; Kimura, Masayuki; Horvath, Kent; Kark, Jeremy D; Christensen, Kaare; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Aviv, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an ‘epigenetic’ mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans. Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers, which is not seen in monozygotic twins. This phenomenon might result from a paternal age-dependent germ stem cell selection process, whereby the selected stem cells have longer telomeres, are more homogenous with respect to telomere length, and share resistance to aging. PMID:25865872

  15. Long telomeres are associated with clonality in wild populations of the fissiparous starfish Coscinasterias tenuispina

    OpenAIRE

    García-Cisneros, Álex; Pérez-Portela, R.; Almroth, B. C.; Degerman, S; Palacín, Carlos; Sköld, H Nilsson

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres usually shorten during an organism’s lifespan and have thus been used as an aging and health marker. When telomeres become sufficiently short, senescence is induced. The most common method of restoring telomere length is via telomerase reverse transcriptase activity, highly expressed during embryogenesis. However, although asexual reproduction from adult tissues has an important role in the life cycles of certain species, its effect on the aging and fitness of wild populati...

  16. Human telomeres are hypersensitive to UV-induced DNA Damage and refractory to repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Rochette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Telomeric repeats preserve genome integrity by stabilizing chromosomes, a function that appears to be important for both cancer and aging. In view of this critical role in genomic integrity, the telomere's own integrity should be of paramount importance to the cell. Ultraviolet light (UV, the preeminent risk factor in skin cancer development, induces mainly cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD which are both mutagenic and lethal. The human telomeric repeat unit (5'TTAGGG/CCCTAA3' is nearly optimal for acquiring UV-induced CPD, which form at dipyrimidine sites. We developed a ChIP-based technique, immunoprecipitation of DNA damage (IPoD, to simultaneously study DNA damage and repair in the telomere and in the coding regions of p53, 28S rDNA, and mitochondrial DNA. We find that human telomeres in vivo are 7-fold hypersensitive to UV-induced DNA damage. In double-stranded oligonucleotides, this hypersensitivity is a property of both telomeric and non-telomeric repeats; in a series of telomeric repeat oligonucleotides, a phase change conferring UV-sensitivity occurs above 4 repeats. Furthermore, CPD removal in the telomere is almost absent, matching the rate in mitochondria known to lack nucleotide excision repair. Cells containing persistent high levels of telomeric CPDs nevertheless proliferate, and chronic UV irradiation of cells does not accelerate telomere shortening. Telomeres are therefore unique in at least three respects: their biophysical UV sensitivity, their prevention of excision repair, and their tolerance of unrepaired lesions. Utilizing a lesion-tolerance strategy rather than repair would prevent double-strand breaks at closely-opposed excision repair sites on opposite strands of a damage-hypersensitive repeat.

  17. The Analysis of Pendolino (peo Mutants Reveals Differences in the Fusigenic Potential among Drosophila Telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cenci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila telomeres are sequence-independent structures that are maintained by transposition to chromosome ends of three specialized retroelements (HeT-A, TART and TAHRE; collectively designated as HTT rather than telomerase activity. Fly telomeres are protected by the terminin complex (HOAP-HipHop-Moi-Ver that localizes and functions exclusively at telomeres and by non-terminin proteins that do not serve telomere-specific functions. Although all Drosophila telomeres terminate with HTT arrays and are capped by terminin, they differ in the type of subtelomeric chromatin; the Y, XR, and 4L HTT are juxtaposed to constitutive heterochromatin, while the XL, 2L, 2R, 3L and 3R HTT are linked to the TAS repetitive sequences; the 4R HTT is associated with a chromatin that has features common to both euchromatin and heterochromatin. Here we show that mutations in pendolino (peo cause telomeric fusions (TFs. The analysis of several peo mutant combinations showed that these TFs preferentially involve the Y, XR and 4th chromosome telomeres, a TF pattern never observed in the other 10 telomere-capping mutants so far characterized. peo encodes a non-terminin protein homologous to the E2 variant ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. The Peo protein directly interacts with the terminin components, but peo mutations do not affect telomeric localization of HOAP, Moi, Ver and HP1a, suggesting that the peo-dependent telomere fusion phenotype is not due to loss of terminin from chromosome ends. peo mutants are also defective in DNA replication and PCNA recruitment. However, our results suggest that general defects in DNA replication are unable to induce TFs in Drosophila cells. We thus hypothesize that DNA replication in Peo-depleted cells results in specific fusigenic lesions concentrated in heterochromatin-associated telomeres. Alternatively, it is possible that Peo plays a dual function being independently required for DNA replication and telomere capping.

  18. The Analysis of Pendolino (peo) Mutants Reveals Differences in the Fusigenic Potential among Drosophila Telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Giovanni; Ciapponi, Laura; Marzullo, Marta; Raffa, Grazia D; Morciano, Patrizia; Raimondo, Domenico; Burla, Romina; Saggio, Isabella; Gatti, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila telomeres are sequence-independent structures that are maintained by transposition to chromosome ends of three specialized retroelements (HeT-A, TART and TAHRE; collectively designated as HTT) rather than telomerase activity. Fly telomeres are protected by the terminin complex (HOAP-HipHop-Moi-Ver) that localizes and functions exclusively at telomeres and by non-terminin proteins that do not serve telomere-specific functions. Although all Drosophila telomeres terminate with HTT arrays and are capped by terminin, they differ in the type of subtelomeric chromatin; the Y, XR, and 4L HTT are juxtaposed to constitutive heterochromatin, while the XL, 2L, 2R, 3L and 3R HTT are linked to the TAS repetitive sequences; the 4R HTT is associated with a chromatin that has features common to both euchromatin and heterochromatin. Here we show that mutations in pendolino (peo) cause telomeric fusions (TFs). The analysis of several peo mutant combinations showed that these TFs preferentially involve the Y, XR and 4th chromosome telomeres, a TF pattern never observed in the other 10 telomere-capping mutants so far characterized. peo encodes a non-terminin protein homologous to the E2 variant ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. The Peo protein directly interacts with the terminin components, but peo mutations do not affect telomeric localization of HOAP, Moi, Ver and HP1a, suggesting that the peo-dependent telomere fusion phenotype is not due to loss of terminin from chromosome ends. peo mutants are also defective in DNA replication and PCNA recruitment. However, our results suggest that general defects in DNA replication are unable to induce TFs in Drosophila cells. We thus hypothesize that DNA replication in Peo-depleted cells results in specific fusigenic lesions concentrated in heterochromatin-associated telomeres. Alternatively, it is possible that Peo plays a dual function being independently required for DNA replication and telomere capping.

  19. The effects of oxidative stress on telomeres and cell life span

    OpenAIRE

    Pańczyszyn, Anna; Boniewska-Bernacka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROSOS) in the body. The sources of ROSOS constitute the respiratory chain, immune system cells and external factors, e.g. smoking. ROSOS may cause damage and faster shortening of nucleoprotein structures called telomeres, which protect chromosome ends. The consequence of faster shortening of telomeres is aging and death of cells. The aim of this paper was to present the impact of ROSOS on the rate of telomere sh...

  20. Leukocyte telomere length in major depression: correlations with chronicity, inflammation and oxidative stress--preliminary findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen M Wolkowitz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with an unusually high rate of aging-related illnesses and early mortality. One aspect of "accelerated aging" in depression may be shortened leukocyte telomeres. When telomeres critically shorten, as often occurs with repeated mitoses or in response to oxidation and inflammation, cells may die. Indeed, leukocyte telomere shortening predicts early mortality and medical illnesses in non-depressed populations. We sought to determine if leukocyte telomeres are shortened in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, whether this is a function of lifetime depression exposure and whether this is related to putative mediators, oxidation and inflammation.Leukocyte telomere length was compared between 18 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 controls and was correlated with lifetime depression chronicity and peripheral markers of oxidation (F2-isoprostane/Vitamin C ratio and inflammation (IL-6. Analyses were controlled for age and sex.The depressed group, as a whole, did not differ from the controls in telomere length. However, telomere length was significantly inversely correlated with lifetime depression exposure, even after controlling for age (p<0.05. Average telomere length in the depressed subjects who were above the median of lifetime depression exposure (≥9.2 years' cumulative duration was 281 base pairs shorter than that in controls (p<0.05, corresponding to approximately seven years of "accelerated cell aging." Telomere length was inversely correlated with oxidative stress in the depressed subjects (p<0.01 and in the controls (p<0.05 and with inflammation in the depressed subjects (p<0.05.These preliminary data indicate that accelerated aging at the level of leukocyte telomeres is proportional to lifetime exposure to MDD. This might be related to cumulative exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation in MDD. This suggest that telomere shortening does not antedate depression and is not an intrinsic feature. Rather, telomere shortening

  1. Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Saccharomyces cerevisiae Telomeres: Beginning to End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakian, Virginia A.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms that maintain the stability of chromosome ends have broad impact on genome integrity in all eukaryotes. Budding yeast is a premier organism for telomere studies. Many fundamental concepts of telomere and telomerase function were first established in yeast and then extended to other organisms. We present a comprehensive review of yeast telomere biology that covers capping, replication, recombination, and transcription. We think of it as yeast telomeres—soup to nuts. PMID:22879408

  2. No Association between Mean Telomere Length and Life Stress Observed in a 30 Year Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Jodczyk; Fergusson, David M; John Horwood, L.; Pearson, John F; Martin A Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are specialised structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. They shorten with each cell division and have been proposed as a marker of cellular aging. Previous studies suggest that early life stressors increase the rate of telomere shortening with potential impact on disease states and mortality later in life. This study examined the associations between telomere length and exposure to a number of stressors that arise during development from the antenatal/perinatal period through t...

  3. Telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird, the barnacle goose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliny Angela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories of ageing predict a trade-off between metabolism, reproduction, and maintenance. Species with low investment in early reproduction are thus expected to be able to evolve more efficient maintenance and repair mechanisms, allowing for a longer potential life span (intrinsic longevity. The erosion of telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of linear chromosomes, plays an important role in cellular and organismal senescence, signalling the onset of age-related disease due to accumulation of unrepaired somatic damage. Using extensive longitudinal data from a long-term study of a natural population of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis, we investigated individual rates of telomere length changes over two years in 34 birds between 0 and 22 years of age, covering almost 80% of the species’ lifespan. Results We show that telomeres in this long-lived bird are very well maintained, as theoretically expected, with an average loss rate of only 5 base pairs per year among adults. We thus found no significant relationship between change in telomere length and age. However, telomeres tended to shorten at a faster pace in juveniles compared to adults. For the first time, we demonstrate a faster telomere attrition rate in females compared to males. We found no correlation between telomere loss rate and adult survival or change in body mass. Conclusions Our results add further support for a link between longevity and telomere maintenance, and highlight the complexities of telomere dynamics in natural populations.

  4. Telomeres are elongated in older individuals in a hibernating rodent, the edible dormouse (Glis glis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzl, Franz; Smith, Steve; Cornils, Jessica S; Aydinonat, Denise; Bieber, Claudia; Ruf, Thomas

    2016-11-24

    Telomere shortening is thought to be an important biomarker for life history traits such as lifespan and aging, and can be indicative of genome integrity, survival probability and the risk of cancer development. In humans and other animals, telomeres almost always shorten with age, with more rapid telomere attrition in short-lived species. Here, we show that in the edible dormouse (Glis glis) telomere length significantly increases from an age of 6 to an age of 9 years. While this finding could be due to higher survival of individuals with longer telomeres, we also found, using longitudinal measurements, a positive effect of age on the rate of telomere elongation within older individuals. To our knowledge, no previous study has reported such an effect of age on telomere lengthening. We attribute this exceptional pattern to the peculiar life-history of this species, which skips reproduction in years with low food availability. Further, we show that this "sit tight" strategy in the timing of reproduction is associated with an increasing likelihood for an individual to reproduce as it ages. As reproduction could facilitate telomere attrition, this life-history strategy may have led to the evolution of increased somatic maintenance and telomere elongation with increasing age.

  5. Neighborhood characteristics and leukocyte telomere length: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Belinda L; Carroll, Judith E; Diez Roux, Ana V; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Moore, Kari; Seeman, Teresa E

    2014-07-01

    Telomeres are the protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres get shorter each time a cell divides, and critically shortened telomeres trigger cellular senescence. Thus, telomere length is hypothesized to be a biological marker of aging. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood characteristics and leukocyte telomere length. Using data from a subsample (n=978) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based study of women and men aged 45-84, we found that neighborhood social environment (but not neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage) was associated with telomere length. Respondents who lived in neighborhoods characterized by lower aesthetic quality, safety, and social cohesion had shorter telomeres than those who lived in neighborhoods with a more salutary social environment, even after adjusting for individual-level socioeconomic status and biomedical and lifestyle factors related to telomere length. Telomere length may be one biological mechanism by which neighborhood characteristics influence an individual׳s risk of disease and death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Telomere dysfunction in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laish, Ido; Katz, Hila; Stein, Assaf; Liberman, Meytal; Naftali, Timna; Kitay-Cohen, Yona; Biron-Shental, Tal; Konikoff, Fred M; Amiel, Aliza

    2015-09-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease are two associated, chronic inflammatory, pre-malignant conditions. We hypothesized that patients with these disorders may harbour telomere dysfunction as a marker of chromosomal instability. The aim of our study was to compare parameters of the telomere-telomerase system in these cohorts. In this prospective study, peripheral blood was withdrawn from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (N=20), inflammatory bowel disease (N=20) and healthy controls (N=20), and lymphocytes were isolated. Telomere length was quantified as a function of the signal intensity and telomere number. Random aneuploidy and telomere capture were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique with specific probes. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease had higher measures of intestinal disease activity than patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Despite this, shorter telomere length and telomere aggregates, especially the fusion of 2-5 telomeres, were observed at significantly higher rate in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis relative to inflammatory bowel disease or healthy controls. Rates of aneuploidy and telomere capture were higher in the two probes in both diseases compared to controls (pprimary sclerosing cholangitis patients more than inflammatory bowel disease and healthy controls patients, which attests to genetic instability and immunosenescence. NCT02247622. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MERISTEM DISORGANIZATION1 encodes TEN1, an essential telomere protein that modulates telomerase processivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehy, Katherine A; Lee, Jung Ro; Song, Xiangyu; Renfrew, Kyle B; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2013-04-01

    Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage, and they facilitate the complete replication of linear chromosomes. CST [for CTC1(Cdc13)/STN1/TEN1] is a trimeric chromosome end binding complex implicated in both aspects of telomere function. Here, we characterize TEN1 in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We report that TEN1 (for telomeric pathways in association with Stn1, which stands for suppressor of cdc thirteen) is encoded by a previously characterized gene, MERISTEM DISORGANIZATION1 (MDO1). A point mutation in MDO1, mdo1-1/ten1-3 (G77E), triggers stem cell differentiation and death as well as a constitutive DNA damage response. We provide biochemical and genetic evidence that ten1-3 is likely to be a null mutation. As with ctc1 and stn1 null mutants, telomere tracts in ten1-3 are shorter and more heterogeneous than the wild type. Mutants also exhibit frequent telomere fusions, increased single-strand telomeric DNA, and telomeric circles. However, unlike stn1 or ctc1 mutants, telomerase enzyme activity is elevated in ten1-3 mutants due to an increase in repeat addition processivity. In addition, TEN1 is detected at a significantly smaller fraction of telomeres than CTC1. These data indicate that TEN1 is critical for telomere stability and also plays an unexpected role in modulating telomerase enzyme activity.

  8. Diet quality and telomere length in older Australian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milte, Catherine M; Russell, Aaron P; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-10-26

    Telomere length is a biomarker of cellular ageing, with longer telomeres associated with longevity and reduced risk of chronic disease in older age. Consumption of a healthy diet may contribute to longevity via its impact on cellular ageing, but studies on diet and telomere length to date have been limited and their findings equivocal. The aim of this study was to examine associations between three indices of diet quality and telomere length in older men and women. Adults aged 57-68 years participating in the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study in Victoria, Australia (n = 679), completed a postal survey including an 111-item food frequency questionnaire in 2012. Diet quality was assessed via three indices: the Dietary Guideline Index, the Recommended Food Score, and the Mediterranean Diet Score. Relative telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations between diet quality and telomere length were assessed using linear regression adjusted for covariates. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI), there were no significant associations between diet quality and relative telomere length. In a sample of older adults residing in Victoria, Australia, men and women aged 57-68 years with better-quality diets did not have longer telomeres. Further investigation in longitudinal studies will determine whether diet can influence telomere length over time in an ageing population.

  9. Frequency of Chromosome Healing and Interstitial Telomeres in 40 Cases of Constitutional Abnormalities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fortin, F; Beaulieu Bergeron, M; Fetni, R; Lemieux, N

    2009-01-01

    .... In order to determine the frequency at which interstitial telomeres or chromosome healing events are observed in target chromosome abnormalities, we conducted a retrospective FISH study using pan...

  10. Telomeres shorten and then lengthen before fledging in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiara, Jack A; Risques, Rosa Ana; Prunkard, Donna; Smith, Jeffrey R; Kane, Olivia J; Boersma, P Dee

    2017-02-08

    For all species, finite metabolic resources must be allocated toward three competing systems: maintenance, reproduction, and growth. Telomeres, the nucleoprotein tips of chromosomes, which shorten with age in most species, are correlated with increased survival. Chick growth is energetically costly and is associated with telomere shortening in most species. To assess the change in telomeres in penguin chicks, we quantified change in telomere length of wild known-age Magellanic penguin ( Spheniscus magellanicus ) chicks every 15 days during the species' growth period, from hatching to 60 days-of-age. Magellanic penguins continue to grow after fledging so we also sampled a set of 1-year-old juvenile penguins, and adults aged 5 years. Telomeres were significantly shorter on day 15 than on hatch day but returned to their initial length by 30 days old and remained at that length through 60 days of age. The length of telomeres of newly hatched chicks, chicks aged 30, 45 and 60 days, juveniles, and adults aged 5 years were similar. Chicks that fledged and those that died had similar telomere lengths. We show that while telomeres shorten during growth, Magellanic penguins elongate telomeres to their length at hatch, which may increase adult life span and reproductive opportunities.

  11. Short telomere length, cancer survival, and cancer risk in 47102 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Cawthon, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses have suggested that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer. We therefore tested the hypotheses that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer.......Recent meta-analyses have suggested that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer. We therefore tested the hypotheses that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer....

  12. PARP1 is a TRF2-associated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and protects eroded telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Marla V [ORNL; Wu, Jun [ORNL; Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1) is well characterized for its role in base excision repair (BER), where it is activated by and binds to DNA breaks and catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of several substrates involved in DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that PARP1 associates with telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and is capable of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of TRF2, which affects binding of TRF2 to telomeric DNA. Immunostaining of interphase cells or metaphase spreads shows that PARP1 is detected sporadically at normal telomeres, but it appears preferentially at eroded telomeres caused by telomerase deficiency or damaged telomeres induced by DNA-damaging reagents. Although PARP1 is dispensable in the capping of normal telomeres, Parp1 deficiency leads to an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA in primary murine cells after induction of DNA damage. Our results suggest that upon DNA damage, PARP1 is recruited to damaged telomeres, where it can help protect telomeres against chromosome end-to-end fusions and genomic instability.

  13. TRF1 and TRF2 binding to telomeres is modulated by nucleosomal organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Alessandra; Micheli, Emanuela; Alicata, Claudia; Ingegnere, Tiziano; Cicconi, Alessandro; Pusch, Miriam Caroline; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Gilson, Eric; Cacchione, Stefano

    2015-07-13

    The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes need to be protected from the activation of a DNA damage response that leads the cell to replicative senescence or apoptosis. In mammals, protection is accomplished by a six-factor complex named shelterin, which organizes the terminal TTAGGG repeats in a still ill-defined structure, the telomere. The stable interaction of shelterin with telomeres mainly depends on the binding of two of its components, TRF1 and TRF2, to double-stranded telomeric repeats. Tethering of TRF proteins to telomeres occurs in a chromatin environment characterized by a very compact nucleosomal organization. In this work we show that binding of TRF1 and TRF2 to telomeric sequences is modulated by the histone octamer. By means of in vitro models, we found that TRF2 binding is strongly hampered by the presence of telomeric nucleosomes, whereas TRF1 binds efficiently to telomeric DNA in a nucleosomal context and is able to remodel telomeric nucleosomal arrays. Our results indicate that the different behavior of TRF proteins partly depends on the interaction with histone tails of their divergent N-terminal domains. We propose that the interplay between the histone octamer and TRF proteins plays a role in the steps leading to telomere deprotection. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. p300-mediated acetylation of TRF2 is required for maintaining functional telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Yoon Ra; Chung, In Kwon

    2013-02-01

    The human telomeric protein TRF2 is required to protect chromosome ends by facilitating their organization into the protective capping structure. Post-translational modifications of TRF2 such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, methylation and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation have been shown to play important roles in telomere function. Here we show that TRF2 specifically interacts with the histone acetyltransferase p300, and that p300 acetylates the lysine residue at position 293 of TRF2. We also report that p300-mediated acetylation stabilizes the TRF2 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and is required for efficient telomere binding of TRF2. Furthermore, overexpression of the acetylation-deficient mutant, K293R, induces DNA-damage response foci at telomeres, thereby leading to induction of impaired cell growth, cellular senescence and altered cell cycle distribution. A small but significant number of metaphase chromosomes show no telomeric signals at chromatid ends, suggesting an aberrant telomere structure. These findings demonstrate that acetylation of TRF2 by p300 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of functional telomeres as well as in the regulation of the telomere-associated DNA-damage response, thus providing a new route for modulating telomere protection function.

  15. PARP1 Is a TRF2-associated Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase and Protects Eroded Telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yie [ORNL; Wu, Jun [ORNL; Schreiber, Valerie [Universite Louis Pasteur, France; Dunlap, John [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dantzer, Francoise [Universite Louis Pasteur, France; Wang, Yisong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1) is well characterized for its role in base excision repair (BER), where it is activated by and binds to DNA breaks and catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of several substrates involved in DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that PARP1 associates with telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and is capable of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of TRF2, which affects binding of TRF2 to telomeric DNA. Immunostaining of interphase cells or metaphase spreads shows that PARP1 is detected sporadically at normal telomeres, but it appears preferentially at eroded telomeres caused by telomerase deficiency or damaged telomeres induced by DNA-damaging reagents. Although PARP1 is dispensable in the capping of normal telomeres, Parp1 deficiency leads to an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA in primary murine cells after induction of DNA damage. Our results suggest that upon DNA damage, PARP1 is recruited to damaged telomeres, where it can help protect telomeres against chromosome end-to-end fusions and genomic instability.

  16. E-type cyclins modulate telomere integrity in mammalian male meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterola, Marcia; Sicinski, Piotr; Wolgemuth, Debra J

    2016-06-01

    We have shown that E-type cyclins are key regulators of mammalian male meiosis. Depletion of cyclin E2 reduced fertility in male mice due to meiotic defects, involving abnormal pairing and synapsis, unrepaired DNA, and loss of telomere structure. These defects were exacerbated by additional loss of cyclin E1, and complete absence of both E-type cyclins produces a meiotic catastrophe. Here, we investigated the involvement of E-type cyclins in maintaining telomere integrity in male meiosis. Spermatocytes lacking cyclin E2 and one E1 allele (E1+/-E2-/-) displayed a high rate of telomere abnormalities but can progress to pachytene and diplotene stages. We show that their telomeres exhibited an aberrant DNA damage repair response during pachynema and that the shelterin complex proteins TRF2 and RAP2 were significantly decreased in the proximal telomeres. Moreover, the insufficient level of these proteins correlated with an increase of γ-H2AX foci in the affected telomeres and resulted in telomere associations involving TRF1 and telomere detachment in later prophase-I stages. These results suggest that E-type cyclins are key modulators of telomere integrity during meiosis by, at least in part, maintaining the balance of shelterin complex proteins, and uncover a novel role of E-type cyclins in regulating chromosome structure during male meiosis.

  17. The fission yeast heterochromatin protein Rik1 is required for telomere clustering during meiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuzon, Creighton T; Borgstrøm, Britta; Weilguny, Dietmar

    2004-01-01

    Telomeres share the ability to silence nearby transcription with heterochromatin, but the requirement of heterochromatin proteins for most telomere functions is unknown. The fission yeast Rik1 protein is required for heterochromatin formation at centromeres and the mating-type locus, as it recrui...... meiosis. However, Rik1 is dispensable for the protective roles of telomeres in preventing chromosome end-fusion. Thus, a Swi6-independent heterochromatin function distinct from that at centromeres and the mating-type locus operates at telomeres during sexual differentiation....

  18. Telomere Length Determines TERRA and R-Loop Regulation through the Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Marco; Bonetti, Diego; Lockhart, Arianna; Serhal, Kamar; Kellner, Vanessa; Maicher, André; Jolivet, Pascale; Teixeira, Maria Teresa; Luke, Brian

    2017-06-29

    Maintenance of a minimal telomere length is essential to prevent cellular senescence. When critically short telomeres arise in the absence of telomerase, they can be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) to prevent premature senescence onset. It is unclear why specifically the shortest telomeres are targeted for HDR. We demonstrate that the non-coding RNA TERRA accumulates as HDR-promoting RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) preferentially at very short telomeres. The increased level of TERRA and R-loops, exclusively at short telomeres, is due to a local defect in RNA degradation by the Rat1 and RNase H2 nucleases, respectively. Consequently, the coordination of TERRA degradation with telomere replication is altered at shortened telomeres. R-loop persistence at short telomeres contributes to activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and promotes recruitment of the Rad51 recombinase. Thus, the telomere length-dependent regulation of TERRA and TERRA R-loops is a critical determinant of the rate of replicative senescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird, the barnacle goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliny, Angela; Larsson, Kjell; Blomqvist, Donald

    2012-12-31

    Theories of ageing predict a trade-off between metabolism, reproduction, and maintenance. Species with low investment in early reproduction are thus expected to be able to evolve more efficient maintenance and repair mechanisms, allowing for a longer potential life span (intrinsic longevity). The erosion of telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of linear chromosomes, plays an important role in cellular and organismal senescence, signalling the onset of age-related disease due to accumulation of unrepaired somatic damage. Using extensive longitudinal data from a long-term study of a natural population of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis, we investigated individual rates of telomere length changes over two years in 34 birds between 0 and 22 years of age, covering almost 80% of the species' lifespan. We show that telomeres in this long-lived bird are very well maintained, as theoretically expected, with an average loss rate of only 5 base pairs per year among adults. We thus found no significant relationship between change in telomere length and age. However, telomeres tended to shorten at a faster pace in juveniles compared to adults. For the first time, we demonstrate a faster telomere attrition rate in females compared to males. We found no correlation between telomere loss rate and adult survival or change in body mass. Our results add further support for a link between longevity and telomere maintenance, and highlight the complexities of telomere dynamics in natural populations.

  20. Differential Telomere Shortening in Blood versus Arteries in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Tajbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic vascular disease, due to increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. This can lead to endothelial cell senescence and clinical complications such as stroke. Cells can become senescent by shortened telomeres and oxidative stress is known to accelerate telomere attrition. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 has been linked to vascular health by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, suppressing oxidative stress, and attenuating telomere shortening. Accelerated leukocyte telomere attrition appears to be a feature of clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D and therefore the telomere system may be a potential therapeutic target in preventing vascular complications of T2D. However the effect of T2D on vascular telomere length is currently unknown. We hypothesized that T2D gives rise to shortened leukocyte and vascular telomeres alongside reduced vascular SIRT1 expression and increased oxidative stress. Accelerated telomere attrition was observed in circulating leukocytes, but not arteries, in T2D compared to control rats. T2D rats had blunted arterial SIRT1 and eNOS protein expression levels which were associated with reduced antioxidant defense capacity. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia and a deficit in vascular SIRT1 per se are not sufficient to prematurely shorten vascular telomeres.

  1. TRF2-RAP1 is required to protect telomeres from engaging in homologous recombination-mediated deletions and fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rekha; Chen, Yong; Lei, Ming; Chang, Sandy

    2016-03-04

    Repressor/activator protein 1 (RAP1) is a highly conserved telomere-interacting protein. Yeast Rap1 protects telomeres from non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), plays important roles in telomere length control and is involved in transcriptional gene regulation. However, a role for mammalian RAP1 in telomere end protection remains controversial. Here we present evidence that mammalian RAP1 is essential to protect telomere from homology directed repair (HDR) of telomeres. RAP1 cooperates with the basic domain of TRF2 (TRF2(B)) to repress PARP1 and SLX4 localization to telomeres. Without RAP1 and TRF2(B), PARP1 and SLX4 HR factors promote rapid telomere resection, resulting in catastrophic telomere loss and the generation of telomere-free chromosome fusions in both mouse and human cells. The RAP1 Myb domain is required to repress both telomere loss and formation of telomere-free fusions. Our results highlight the importance of the RAP1-TRF2 heterodimer in protecting telomeres from inappropriate processing by the HDR pathway.

  2. Telomere sister chromatid exchange and the process of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoev, Krastan B; Goodwin, Edwin H; Bailey, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    Telomeres are a hotspot for sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE). Any biological consequence of this form of instability remained obscure until quantitative modeling revealed a link between elevated T-SCE rates and accelerated cellular replicative senescence. This work strongly suggests that progressive telomere erosion is not the only determinant of replicative capacity; instead, T-SCE need to be considered as an independent factor controlling colony growth and senescence. Additionally high T-SCE rates have been observed in cells with deficiencies in WRN and BLM, the genes that are defective in Werner's and Bloom's syndromes, implying a connection to premature aging. In this Research Perspective we will explore some of the implications this recent work has for human health.

  3. Telomere length of anterior crucial ligament after rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponsot, Elodie; Langberg, Henning; Krogsgaard, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    of human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) obtained during ACL reconstruction: the macroscopically injured proximal part and macroscopically noninjured mid- and distal portions in eight subjects (age 28 ± 8 years). The mean telomere length in ACL was within normal range of values usually reported for other......The regeneration of ligaments following injury is a slow process compared to the healing of many other tissues and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the proliferative potential of ligaments by assessing telomere length within three distinct parts...... tissues indicating that the endogenous machinery responsible for the proliferative potential of ligament is not implicated in its poor healing capacity. The three ACL parts showed similar mean TRF lengths (distal part: 11.5 ± 0.8 kbp, mid-portion: 11.8 ± 1.2 kbp, proximal part: 11.9 ± 1.6 kbp...

  4. Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Adler, Nancy E; Morrow, Jason D; Cawthon, Richard M

    2004-12-07

    Numerous studies demonstrate links between chronic stress and indices of poor health, including risk factors for cardiovascular disease and poorer immune function. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of how stress gets "under the skin" remain elusive. We investigated the hypothesis that stress impacts health by modulating the rate of cellular aging. Here we provide evidence that psychological stress--both perceived stress and chronicity of stress--is significantly associated with higher oxidative stress, lower telomerase activity, and shorter telomere length, which are known determinants of cell senescence and longevity, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy premenopausal women. Women with the highest levels of perceived stress have telomeres shorter on average by the equivalent of at least one decade of additional aging compared to low stress women. These findings have implications for understanding how, at the cellular level, stress may promote earlier onset of age-related diseases.

  5. Telomere length is longer in women with late maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Erin; Sun, Fangui; Bae, Harold

    2017-01-01

    years or less. METHODS:: A nested case control study was conducted using data from the Long Life Family Study. Three hundred eighty-seven women who gave birth to at least one child and lived to the top fifth percentile of their birth cohort, or died before the top fifth percentile of their birth cohort......OBJECTIVE:: Maternal age at birth of last child has been associated with maternal longevity. The aim of this study was to determine whether older women with a history of late maternal age at last childbirth had a longer leukocyte telomere length than those with maternal age at last childbirth of 29...... died, but were at least 70 years old, were studied. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association between tertiles of telomere length and maternal age at last childbirth, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS:: Age at birth of the last child...

  6. Seasonal variation in telomere length of a hibernating rodent

    OpenAIRE

    Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas; Smith, Steve; Bieber, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Small hibernating rodents have greater maximum lifespans and hence appear to age more slowly than similar-sized non-hibernators. We tested for a direct effect of hibernation on somatic maintenance and ageing by measuring seasonal changes in relative telomere length (RTL) in the edible dormouse Glis glis. Average RTL in our population did not change significantly over the hibernation season, and a regression model explaining individual variation in post-hibernation RTL suggested a significant ...

  7. Relationship between physical activity level, telomere length, and telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Andrew T; Zimmerman, Jo B; Witkowski, Sarah; Hearn, Joe W; Hatfield, Bradley D; Roth, Stephen M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of exercise energy expenditure (EEE) with both telomere length and telomerase activity in addition to accounting for hTERT C-1327T promoter genotype. Sixty-nine (n = 34 males; n = 35 females) participants 50-70 yr were assessed for weekly EEE level using the Yale Physical Activity Survey. Lifetime consistency of EEE was also determined. Subjects were recruited across a large range of EEE levels and separated into quartiles: 0-990, 991-2340, 2341-3540, and >3541 kcal x wk(-1). Relative telomere length and telomerase activity were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The second EEE quartile exhibited significantly longer telomere lengths [1.12 +/- 0.03 relative units (RU)] than both the first and fourth EEE quartiles (0.94 +/- 0.03 and 0.96 +/- 0.03 RU, respectively; P EEE quartiles. An association was observed between telomerase enzyme activity and hTERT genotype with the TT genotype (1.0 x 10(-2) +/- 4.0 x 10(-3) attomoles (amol) per 10,000 cells; n = 19) having significantly greater telomerase enzyme activity than both the CT (1.3 x 10(-3) +/- 3.2 x 10(-3); n = 30) and CC groups (5.0 x 10(-4) +/- 3.9 x 10(-3); n = 20; P = 0.01). These results indicate that moderate physical activity levels may provide a protective effect on PBMC telomere length compared with both low and high EEE levels.

  8. Seasonal variation in telomere length of a hibernating rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas; Smith, Steve; Bieber, Claudia

    2013-04-23

    Small hibernating rodents have greater maximum lifespans and hence appear to age more slowly than similar-sized non-hibernators. We tested for a direct effect of hibernation on somatic maintenance and ageing by measuring seasonal changes in relative telomere length (RTL) in the edible dormouse Glis glis. Average RTL in our population did not change significantly over the hibernation season, and a regression model explaining individual variation in post-hibernation RTL suggested a significant negative effect of the reduction in body mass over the inactive hibernation period (an index of time spent euthermic), supporting the idea that torpor slows ageing. Over the active season, RTL on average decreased in sub-adults but increased in adults, supporting previous findings of greater telomere shortening at younger ages. Telomere length increase might also have been associated with reproduction, which occurred only in adults. Our study reveals how seasonal changes in physiological state influence the progress of life-history traits, such as somatic maintenance and ageing, in a small hibernating rodent.

  9. Telomeric Repeat Containing RNA (TERRA): Aging and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sonam; Shukla, Samriddhi; Khan, Sajid; Farhan, Mohammad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Meeran, Syed Musthapa

    2015-01-01

    Telomeric repeat containing RNAs (TERRA) are small RNA molecules synthesized from telomeric regions which were previously considered as silent genomic domains. In normal cells, these RNAs are transcribed in a direction from subtelomeric region towards the chromosome ends, but in case of cancer cells, their expression remains limited or absent. Telomerase is a rate limiting enzyme for cellular senescence, cancer and aging. Most of the studies deal with the manipulation of telomerase enzyme in cancer and aging either by synthetic oligonucleotide or by natural phytochemicals. Here, we collected evidences and discussed intensely about the bio-molecular structure of TERRA, naturally occurring ligands of telomerase, and their genetic and epigenetic regulations in aging associated diseases. Due to their capability to act as naturally occurring ligands of telomerase, these RNAs can overcome the limitations possessed by synthetic oligonucleotides, which are aimed against telomerase. Drugs specifically targeting TERRA molecules could modulate telomerase-mediated telomere lengthening. Thus, targeting TERRA-mediated regulation of telomerase would be a promising therapeutic strategy against cancer and age-associated diseases.

  10. The telomeric sync model of speciation: species-wide telomere erosion triggers cycles of transposon-mediated genomic rearrangements, which underlie the saltatory appearance of nonadaptive characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stindl, Reinhard

    2014-03-01

    Charles Darwin knew that the fossil record is not overwhelmingly supportive of genetic and phenotypic gradualism; therefore, he developed the core of his theory on the basis of breeding experiments. Here, I present evidence for the existence of a cell biological mechanism that strongly points to the almost forgotten European concept of saltatory evolution of nonadaptive characters, which is in perfect agreement with the gaps in the fossil record. The standard model of chromosomal evolution has always been handicapped by a paradox, namely, how speciation can occur by spontaneous chromosomal rearrangements that are known to decrease the fertility of heterozygotes in a population. However, the hallmark of almost all closely related species is a differing chromosome complement and therefore chromosomal rearrangements seem to be crucial for speciation. Telomeres, the caps of eukaryotic chromosomes, erode in somatic tissues during life, but have been thought to remain stable in the germline of a species. Recently, a large human study spanning three healthy generations clearly found a cumulative telomere effect, which is indicative of transgenerational telomere erosion in the human species. The telomeric sync model of speciation presented here is based on telomere erosion between generations, which leads to identical fusions of chromosomes and triggers a transposon-mediated genomic repatterning in the germline of many individuals of a species. The phenotypic outcome of the telomere-triggered transposon activity is the saltatory appearance of nonadaptive characters simultaneously in many individuals. Transgenerational telomere erosion is therefore the material basis of aging at the species level.

  11. The Roles of Chromosome Breaks and Telomere Dynamics in the Genomic Instability Associated with Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, John

    2000-01-01

    ... of telomeres from chromosome ends. Loss of telomeres allows chromosomes to fuse end-to-end, triggering chromosome fusion-bridge-breakage cycles that lead to genome rearrangements, loss of heterozygosity, and gene amplification...

  12. Longitudinal telomere shortening and early Alzheimer's disease progression in adults with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edmund C; Marchi, Elaine J; Velinov, Milen T; Ye, Lingling; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J; Zigman, Warren B; Schupf, Nicole; Silverman, Wayne P

    2017-08-30

    Telomere shortening was shown to parallel Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated dementia. By using a dual PNA Probe system we have developed a practical method for comparing telomere length in T-lymphocyte interphases from individuals with Down syndrome (DS) with and without "mild cognitive impairment" (MCI-DS) and demonstrated that telomere length can serve as a valid biomarker for the onset of MCI-DS in this high-risk population. To verify progressive cognitive decline we have now examined sequential changes in telomere length in 10 adults with DS (N = 4 Female, N = 6 Male) developing MCI-DS. Cases were selected blind to telomere length from a sample of adults with DS previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study at 18-month intervals with clinical and telomere assessments: (1) MCI-DS group data were collected approximately three years prior to development of MCI-DS; (2) 18 months later; (3) when MCI-DS was first observed. These telomere measures were compared to those from another 10 adults with DS matched by sex and approximate age but without indications of MCI-DS (Controls). PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes for telomeres together with a chromosome two centromere probe were used. Findings indicated telomere shortening over time for both Cases and Controls. Group differences emerged by 18-months prior to recognition of MCI-DS onset and completely non-overlapping distributions of telomere measures were observed by the time of MCI-DS onset. This study adds to accumulating evidence of the value of telomere length, as an early biomarker of AD progression in adults with Down syndrome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and newborn telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Dries S; Plusquin, Michelle; Gyselaers, Wilfried; De Vivo, Immaculata; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-10-18

    Newborn telomere length sets telomere length for later life. At birth, telomere length is highly variable among newborns and the environmental factors during in utero life for this observation remain largely unidentified. Obesity during pregnancy might reflect an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes, but the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with newborn telomere length, as a mechanism of maternal obesity, on the next generation has not been addressed. Average relative telomere lengths were measured in cord blood (n = 743) and placental tissue (n = 702) samples using a quantitative real-time PCR method from newborns from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort in Belgium. By using univariate and multivariable adjusted linear regression models we addressed the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and cord blood and placental telomere lengths. Maternal age was 29.1 years (range, 17-44) and mean (SD) pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.1 (4.1) kg/m(2). Decline in newborn telomere length occurred in parallel with higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Independent of maternal and paternal age at birth, maternal education, gestational age, newborn gender, ethnicity, birthweight, maternal smoking status, parity, cesarean section, and pregnancy complications, each kg/m(2) increase in pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with a -0.50 % (95 % CI, -0.83 to -0.17 %; P = 0.003) shorter cord blood telomere length and a -0.66 % (95 % CI, -1.06 to -0.25 %; P = 0.002) shorter placental telomere length. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with shorter newborn telomere lengths as reflected by cord blood and placental telomeres. These findings support the benefits of a pre-pregnancy healthy weight for promoting molecular longevity from early life onwards.

  14. Solution structure of telomere binding domain of AtTRB2 derived from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji-Hye [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Kyung [Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heeyoun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunhee; Cheong, Chaejoon [Magnetic Resonance Team, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myeon Haeng [Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weontae, E-mail: wlee@spin.yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • We have determined solution structure of Myb domain of AtTRB2. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 is located in the N-terminal region. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 binds to plant telomeric DNA without fourth helix. • Helix 2 and 3 of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 are involved in DNA recognition. • AtTRB2 is a novel protein distinguished from other known plant TBP. - Abstract: Telomere homeostasis is regulated by telomere-associated proteins, and the Myb domain is well conserved for telomere binding. AtTRB2 is a member of the SMH (Single-Myb-Histone)-like family in Arabidopsis thaliana, having an N-terminal Myb domain, which is responsible for DNA binding. The Myb domain of AtTRB2 contains three α-helices and loops for DNA binding, which is unusual given that other plant telomere-binding proteins have an additional fourth helix that is essential for DNA binding. To understand the structural role for telomeric DNA binding of AtTRB2, we determined the solution structure of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 (AtTRB2{sub 1–64}) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the inter-molecular interaction between AtTRB2{sub 1–64} and telomeric DNA has been characterized by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and NMR titration analyses for both plant (TTTAGGG)n and human (TTAGGG)n telomere sequences. Data revealed that Trp28, Arg29, and Val47 residues located in Helix 2 and Helix 3 are crucial for DNA binding, which are well conserved among other plant telomere binding proteins. We concluded that although AtTRB2 is devoid of the additional fourth helix in the Myb-extension domain, it is able to bind to plant telomeric repeat sequences as well as human telomeric repeat sequences.

  15. The load of short telomeres, estimated by a new method, Universal STELA, correlates with number of senescent cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Horn, Peer Bendix; Jensen, Uffe Birk

    2010-01-01

    Short telomeres are thought to trigger senescence, most likely through a single - or a group of few - critically shortened telomeres. Such short telomeres are thought to result from a combination of gradual linear shortening resulting from the end replication problem, reflecting the division hist...

  16. The relationship between ultra-short telomeres, aging of articular cartilage and the development of human hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, M; Delaisse, J M; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short telomeres caused by stress-induced telomere shortening are suggested to induce chondrocyte senescence in human osteoarthritic knees. Here we have further investigated the role of ultra-short telomeres in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and in aging of articular cartilage in human...

  17. Telomere attrition and growth : A life-history framework and case study in common terns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, O.; Verhulst, S.; Bauch, C.; Bouwhuis, S.

    The relationship between growth and age-specific telomere length, as a proxy of somatic state, is increasingly investigated, but observed patterns vary and a predictive framework is lacking. We outline expectations based on the assumption that telomere maintenance is costly and argue that individual

  18. Can meditation slow rate of cellular aging? Cognitive stress, mindfulness, and telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Elissa; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Folkman, Susan; Blackburn, Elizabeth

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the malleable determinants of cellular aging is critical to understanding human longevity. Telomeres may provide a pathway for exploring this question. Telomeres are the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes. The length of telomeres offers insight into mitotic cell and possibly organismal longevity. Telomere length has now been linked to chronic stress exposure and depression. This raises the question of mechanism: How might cellular aging be modulated by psychological functioning? We consider two psychological processes or states that are in opposition to one another-threat cognition and mindfulness-and their effects on cellular aging. Psychological stress cognitions, particularly appraisals of threat and ruminative thoughts, can lead to prolonged states of reactivity. In contrast, mindfulness meditation techniques appear to shift cognitive appraisals from threat to challenge, decrease ruminative thought, and reduce stress arousal. Mindfulness may also directly increase positive arousal states. We review data linking telomere length to cognitive stress and stress arousal and present new data linking cognitive appraisal to telomere length. Given the pattern of associations revealed so far, we propose that some forms of meditation may have salutary effects on telomere length by reducing cognitive stress and stress arousal and increasing positive states of mind and hormonal factors that may promote telomere maintenance. Aspects of this model are currently being tested in ongoing trials of mindfulness meditation.

  19. A sharp Pif1-dependent threshold separates DNA double-strand breaks from critically short telomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strecker, Jonathan; Stinus, Sonia; Caballero, Mariana Pliego; Szilard, Rachel K.; Chang, Michael; Durocher, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and short telomeres are structurally similar, yet have diametrically opposed fates. Cells must repair DSBs while blocking the action of telomerase on these ends. Short telomeres must avoid recognition by the DNA damage response while promoting telomerase recruitment.

  20. Telomere length reflects phenotypic quality and costs of reproduction in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Christina; Becker, Peter H; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-02-07

    Telomere length is associated with cellular senescence, lifestyle and ageing. Short telomeres indicate poor health in humans and reduced life expectancy in several bird species, but little is known about telomeres in relation to phenotypic quality in wild animals. We investigated telomere lengths in erythrocytes of known-age common terns (Sterna hirundo), a migratory seabird, in relation to arrival date and reproductive performance. Cross-sectional data revealed that, independent of age, individuals with short telomeres performed better: they arrived and reproduced earlier in the season and had more chicks in the nest. The latter effect was stronger the older the brood and stronger in males, which do most of the chick provisioning. Longitudinal data confirmed this pattern: compared with birds that lost their brood, birds that raised chicks beyond the 10th nestling day experienced higher telomere attrition from one year to the next. However, more detailed analysis revealed that the least and most successful individuals lost the fewest base pairs compared with birds with intermediate success. Our results suggest that reproductive success is achieved at the expense of telomeres, but that individual heterogeneity in susceptibility to such detrimental effects is important, as indicated by low telomere loss in the most successful birds.

  1. Telomere length reflects reproductive effort indicated by corticosterone levels in a long-lived seabird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauch, Christina; Riechert, Juliane; Verhulst, Simon; Becker, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is a candidate biomarker of ageing and phenotypic quality, but little is known of the (physiological) causes of TL variation. We previously showed that individual common terns Sterna hirundo with high reproductive success had short telomeres independent of age, and this pattern

  2. TeloPCR-seq: a high-throughput sequencing approach for telomeres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Henrietta W.; Liu, Na; Hu, Yan; King, Megan C.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a high-throughput sequencing approach that enables us to determine terminal telomere sequences from tens of thousands of individual Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomeres. This method provides unprecedented coverage of telomeric sequence complexity in fission yeast. S. pombe telomeres are composed of modular degenerate repeats that can be explained by variation in usage of the TER1 RNA template during reverse transcription. Taking advantage of this deep sequencing approach, we find that “like” repeat modules are highly correlated within individual telomeres. Moreover, repeat module preference varies with telomere length, suggesting that existing repeats promote the incorporation of like repeats and/or that specific conformations of the telomerase holoenzyme efficiently and/or processively add repeats of like nature. After the loss of telomerase activity, this sequencing and analysis pipeline defines a population of telomeres with altered sequence content. This approach will be adaptable to study telomeric repeats in other organisms and also to interrogate repetitive sequences throughout the genome that are inaccessible to other sequencing methods. PMID:27714790

  3. Growing old, yet staying young: The role of telomeres in bats' exceptional longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nicole M; Hughes, Graham M; Huang, Zixia; Clarke, Michael; Jebb, David; Whelan, Conor V; Petit, Eric J; Touzalin, Frédéric; Farcy, Olivier; Jones, Gareth; Ransome, Roger D; Kacprzyk, Joanna; O'Connell, Mary J; Kerth, Gerald; Rebelo, Hugo; Rodrigues, Luísa; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Teeling, Emma C

    2018-02-01

    Understanding aging is a grand challenge in biology. Exceptionally long-lived animals have mechanisms that underpin extreme longevity. Telomeres are protective nucleotide repeats on chromosome tips that shorten with cell division, potentially limiting life span. Bats are the longest-lived mammals for their size, but it is unknown whether their telomeres shorten. Using >60 years of cumulative mark-recapture field data, we show that telomeres shorten with age in Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Miniopterus schreibersii , but not in the bat genus with greatest longevity, Myotis . As in humans, telomerase is not expressed in Myotis myotis blood or fibroblasts. Selection tests on telomere maintenance genes show that ATM and SETX , which repair and prevent DNA damage, potentially mediate telomere dynamics in Myotis bats. Twenty-one telomere maintenance genes are differentially expressed in Myotis , of which 14 are enriched for DNA repair, and 5 for alternative telomere-lengthening mechanisms. We demonstrate how telomeres, telomerase, and DNA repair genes have contributed to the evolution of exceptional longevity in Myotis bats, advancing our understanding of healthy aging.

  4. Leukocyte telomere length and personality : Associations with the big five and type d personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormans, D.; Verhoeven, J.E.; Denollet, J.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2018-01-01

    Accelerated cellular ageing, which can be examined by telomere length (TL), may be an overarching mechanism underlying the association between personality and adverse health outcomes. This 6-year longitudinal study examined the relation between personality and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) across

  5. Influence of Amalaki Rasayana on telomerase activity and telomere length in human blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanive P. Guruprasad

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The data indicate that the maintenance of telomere length is facilitated by an increase in telomerase activity upon rasayana administration in aged individuals and Amalaki Rasayana may prevent the erosion of telomeres over a period of time in aged individuals to promote healthy ageing.

  6. Collapse of Telomere Homeostasis in Hematopoietic Cells Caused by Heterozygous Mutations in Telomerase Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aubert, Geraldine; Baerlocher, Gabriela M.; Vulto, Irma; Poon, Steven S.; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase activity is readily detectable in extracts from human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, but appears unable to maintain telomere length with proliferation in vitro and with age in vivo. We performed a detailed study of the telomere length by flow FISH analysis in leukocytes from 835

  7. Short telomere length, lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 46 396 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren

    2013-01-01

    A previous case-control study of 100 individuals found that short telomere length was associated with a 28-fold increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......A previous case-control study of 100 individuals found that short telomere length was associated with a 28-fold increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  8. Chromosome Arm-Specific Long Telomeres: A New Clonal Event in Primary Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Samassekou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that critically shortened telomere lengths correlate with the chromosome instability in carcinogenesis. However, little has been noticed regarding the correlation of long telomeres at specific chromosomes with malignant disorders. We studied relative telomere lengths (RTLs for individual chromosomes using the quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization technique in a cohort of 32 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML and 32 normal samples. We found that telomeres at some specific chromosome arms remain well maintained or even lengthened in a high frequency (27/32 of leukemia cases. In particular, 10 chromosome arms, 4q, 5p, 7q, 11p, 13p, 13q, 14p, 15p, 18p, and Xp, with long telomeres were consistently identified in different samples, and six of them (4q, 5p, 13p, 13q, 14p, and Xp with relatively long telomeres were also observed in normal samples, but they appeared in lower occurrence rate and shorter RTL than in CML samples. Our results strongly indicate the presence of a special leukemia cell population, or a clone, originated from a common progenitor that is characterized with chromosome arm-specific long telomeres. We suggest that relatively long telomeres located at key chromosomes could be preferentially maintained or further elongated during the early stage of malignant transformation.

  9. Toward closing rice telomere gaps: mapping and sequence characterization of rice subtelomere regions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, T.J.; Yu, Y.; Chang, S.B.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Oh, C.S.; Ahn, S.N.; Fang, E.; Wing, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the collective efforts of the international community to sequence the complete rice genome, telomeric regions of most chromosome arms remain uncharacterized. In this report we present sequence data from subtelomere regions obtained by analyzing telomeric clones from two 8.8 × genome

  10. Recombination-Mediated Telomere Maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Not Dependent on the Shu Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van Paula M.; de Jong, Jannie; Agpalo, Danielle; Claussin, Clemence; Rothstein, Rodney; Chang, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In cells lacking telomerase, telomeres shorten progressively during each cell division due to incomplete end-replication. When the telomeres become very short, cells enter a state that blocks cell division, termed senescence. A subset of these cells can overcome senescence and maintain their

  11. Telomere- and Telomerase-Associated Proteins and Their Functions in the Plant Cell

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schrumpfová, P.; Schorová, Š.; Fajkus, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 851 (2016) ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06943S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : telomere * telomerase * telomeric proteins Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  12. Does neuroticism make you old? Prospective associations between neuroticism and leukocyte telomere length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ockenburg, S. L.; de Jonge, P.; van der Harst, P.; Ormel, J.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    Background Telomere attrition, causing accelerated aging, might be one of the mechanisms through which neuroticism leads to somatic disease and increased all-cause mortality. In the current study we investigated whether neuroticism is prospectively associated with shorter telomere length (TL), a

  13. A two-step model for senescence triggered by a single critically short telomere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Pauline; Luciano, Pierre; Runge, Kurt W

    2009-01-01

    Telomeres protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. In the absence of a specific telomere elongation mechanism, their DNA shortens progressively with every round of replication, leading to replicative senescence. Here, we show that telomerase-deficient cells bearing a single, very shor...

  14. Stressful life events and leukocyte telomere attrition in adulthood : a prospective population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ockenburg, S. L.; Bos, E. H.; de Jonge, P.; van der Harst, P.; Gans, R. O. B.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Telomere attrition might be one of the mechanisms through which psychosocial stress leads to somatic disease. To date it is unknown if exposure to adverse life events in adulthood is associated with telomere shortening prospectively. In the current study we investigated whether life

  15. Relative Telomere Repeat Mass in Buccal and Leukocyte-Derived DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finnicum, Casey T; Dolan, Conor V; Willemsen, Gonneke; Weber, Zachary M; Petersen, Jason L; Beck, Jeffrey J.; Codd, Veryan; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davies, Gareth E; Ehli, Erik A

    2017-01-01

    Telomere length has garnered interest due to the potential role it may play as a biomarker for the cellular aging process. Telomere measurements obtained from blood-derived DNA are often used in epidemiological studies. However, the invasive nature of blood draws severely limits sample collection,

  16. TRF2 functions as a protein hub and regulates telomere maintenance by recognizing specific peptide motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeung; Lee, Ok-Hee; Xin, Huawei; Chen, Liuh-Yow; Qin, Jun; Chae, Heekyung Kate; Lin, Shiaw-Yih; Safari, Amin; Liu, Dan; Songyang, Zhou

    2009-04-01

    In mammalian cells, the telomeric repeat binding factor (TRF) homology (TRFH) domain-containing telomeric proteins TRF1 and TRF2 associate with a collection of molecules necessary for telomere maintenance and cell-cycle progression. However, the specificity and the mechanisms by which TRF2 communicates with different signaling pathways remain largely unknown. Using oriented peptide libraries, we demonstrate that the TRFH domain of human TRF2 recognizes [Y/F]XL peptides with the consensus motif YYHKYRLSPL. Disrupting the interactions between the TRF2 TRFH domain and its targets resulted in telomeric DNA-damage responses. Furthermore, our genome-wide target analysis revealed phosphatase nuclear targeting subunit (PNUTS) and microcephalin 1 (MCPH1) as previously unreported telomere-associated proteins that directly interact with TRF2 via the [Y/F]XL motif. PNUTS and MCPH1 can regulate telomere length and the telomeric DNA-damage response, respectively. Our findings indicate that an array of TRF2 molecules functions as a protein hub and regulates telomeres by recruiting different signaling molecules via a linear sequence code.

  17. Controlled light exposure microscopy reveals dynamic telomere microterritories throughout the cell cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, W.H.; Hoebe, R.A.; Joss, G.H.; Haffmans, W.; Baatout, S.; van Oostveldt, P.; Manders, E.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Telomeres are complex end structures that confer functional integrity and positional stability to human chromosomes. Despite their critical importance, there is no clear view on telomere organization in cycling human cells and their dynamic behavior throughout the cell cycle. We investigated

  18. TRF2 recruits RTEL1 to telomeres in S phase to promote t-loop unwinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarek, Grzegorz; Vannier, Jean-Baptiste; Panier, Stephanie; Petrini, John H J; Boulton, Simon J

    2015-02-19

    The helicase RTEL1 promotes t-loop unwinding and suppresses telomere fragility to maintain the integrity of vertebrate telomeres. An interaction between RTEL1 and PCNA is important to prevent telomere fragility, but how RTEL1 engages with the telomere to promote t-loop unwinding is unclear. Here, we establish that the shelterin protein TRF2 recruits RTEL1 to telomeres in S phase, which is required to prevent catastrophic t-loop processing by structure-specific nucleases. We show that the TRF2-RTEL1 interaction is mediated by a metal-coordinating C4C4 motif in RTEL1, which is compromised by the Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS) mutation, RTEL1(R1264H). Conversely, we define a TRF2(I124D) substitution mutation within the TRFH domain of TRF2, which eliminates RTEL1 binding and phenocopies the RTEL1(R1264H) mutation, giving rise to aberrant t-loop excision, telomere length heterogeneity, and loss of the telomere as a circle. These results implicate TRF2 in the recruitment of RTEL1 to facilitate t-loop disassembly at telomeres in S phase. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. NEIL3 Repairs Telomere Damage during S Phase to Secure Chromosome Segregation at Mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage to telomere DNA compromises telomere integrity. We recently reported that the DNA glycosylase NEIL3 preferentially repairs oxidative lesions in telomere sequences in vitro. Here, we show that loss of NEIL3 causes anaphase DNA bridging because of telomere dysfunction. NEIL3 expression increases during S phase and reaches maximal levels in late S/G2. NEIL3 co-localizes with TRF2 and associates with telomeres during S phase, and this association increases upon oxidative stress. Mechanistic studies reveal that NEIL3 binds to single-stranded DNA via its intrinsically disordered C terminus in a telomere-sequence-independent manner. Moreover, NEIL3 is recruited to telomeres through its interaction with TRF1, and this interaction enhances the enzymatic activity of purified NEIL3. Finally, we show that NEIL3 interacts with AP Endonuclease 1 (APE1 and the long-patch base excision repair proteins PCNA and FEN1. Taken together, we propose that NEIL3 protects genome stability through targeted repair of oxidative damage in telomeres during S/G2 phase.

  20. Getting in (and out of the loop: regulating higher order telomere structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eLuke-Glaser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The DNA at the ends of linear chromosomes (the telomere folds back onto itself and forms an intramolecular lariat-like structure. Although the telomere loop has been implicated in the protection of chromosome ends from nuclease-mediated resection and unscheduled DNA repair activities, it potentially poses an obstacle to the DNA replication machinery during S phase. Therefore, the coordinated regulation of telomere loop formation, maintenance and resolution is required in order to establish a balance between protecting the chromosome ends and promoting their duplication prior to cell division. Until recently, the only factor know to influence telomere looping in human cells was TRF2, a component of the shelterin complex. Recent work in yeast and mouse cells has uncovered additional regulatory factors that affect the loop structure at telomeres. In the following perspective we will outline what is known about telomere looping and highlight the latest results regarding the regulation of this chromosome end structure. We will speculate about how the manipulation of the telomere loop may have therapeutic implications in terms of diseases associated with telomere dysfunction and uncontrolled proliferation.

  1. Zebrafish as a model system to study the physiological function of telomeric protein TPP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiying Xie

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialized chromatin structures at the end of chromosomes. Telomere dysfunction can lead to chromosomal abnormalities, DNA damage responses, and even cancer. In mammalian cells, a six-protein complex (telosome/shelterin is assembled on the telomeres through the interactions between various domain structures of the six telomere proteins (POT1, TPP1, TIN2, TRF1, TRF2 and RAP1, and functions in telomere maintenance and protection. Within the telosome, TPP1 interacts directly with POT1 and TIN2 and help to mediate telosome assembly. Mechanisms of telomere regulation have been extensively studied in a variety of model organisms. For example, the physiological roles of telomere-targeted proteins have been assessed in mice through homozygous inactivation. In these cases, early embryonic lethality has prevented further studies of these proteins in embryogenesis and development. As a model system, zebrafish offers unique advantages such as genetic similarities with human, rapid developmental cycles, and ease of manipulation of its embryos. In this report, we detailed the identification of zebrafish homologues of TPP1, POT1, and TIN2, and showed that the domain structures and interactions of these telosome components appeared intact in zebrafish. Importantly, knocking down TPP1 led to multiple abnormalities in zebrafish embryogenesis, including neural death, heart malformation, and caudal defect. And these embryos displayed extensive apoptosis. These results underline the importance of TPP1 in zebrafish embryogenesis, and highlight the feasibility and advantages of investigating the signaling pathways and physiological function of telomere proteins in zebrafish.

  2. Dissecting the telomere-inner nuclear membrane interface formed in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendlebury, Devon F; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tesmer, Valerie M; Smith, Eric M; Shibuya, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Nandakumar, Jayakrishnan

    2017-12-01

    Tethering telomeres to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) allows homologous chromosome pairing during meiosis. The meiosis-specific protein TERB1 binds the telomeric protein TRF1 to establish telomere-INM connectivity and is essential for mouse fertility. Here we solve the structure of the human TRF1-TERB1 interface to reveal the structural basis for telomere-INM linkage. Disruption of this interface abrogates binding and compromises telomere-INM attachment in mice. An embedded CDK-phosphorylation site within the TRF1-binding region of TERB1 provides a mechanism for cap exchange, a late-pachytene phenomenon involving the dissociation of the TRF1-TERB1 complex. Indeed, further strengthening this interaction interferes with cap exchange. Finally, our biochemical analysis implicates distinct complexes for telomere-INM tethering and chromosome-end protection during meiosis. Our studies unravel the structure, stoichiometry, and physiological implications underlying telomere-INM tethering, thereby providing unprecedented insights into the unique function of telomeres in meiosis.

  3. Mechanochemical properties of individual human telomeric RNA (TERRA) G-quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangyuoru, Philip M; Zhang, Amy Y Q; Shi, Zhe; Koirala, Deepak; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Mao, Hanbin

    2013-10-11

    Potential functions: By following the unfolding and refolding of individual human RNA telomeric (TERRA) G-quadruplexes (GQs) in laser tweezers, the mechanical stability and transition kinetics of RNA GQs are obtained. Comparison between TERRA and DNA GQs suggests their different regulatory capacities for processes associated with human telomeres. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis Induced by Telomere Cleavage and TRF2 Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha S. Multani

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities involving telomeric associations (TAs often precede replicative senescence and abnormal chromosome configurations. We report here that telomere cleavage following exposure to proapoptotic agents is an early event in apoptosis. Exposure of human and murine cancer cells to a variety of pro-apoptotic stimuli (staurosporine, thapsigargin, anti-Fas antibody, cancer chemotherapeutic agents resulted in telomere cleavage and aggregation, finally their extrusion from the nuclei. Telomere loss was associated with arrest of cells in G2/M phase and preceded DNA fragmentation. Telomere erosion and subsequent large-scale chromatin cleavage were inhibited by overexpression of the anti -apoptotic protein, bcl-2, two peptide caspase inhibitors (BACMK and zVADfmk, indicating that both events are regulated by caspase activation. The results demonstrate that telomere cleavage is an early chromatin alteration detected in various cancer cell lines leading to drug-induced apoptosis, suggest that this event contributes to mitotic catastrophe and induction of cell death. Results also suggest that the decrease of telomeric-repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2 may be the earliest event in the ara-C-induced telomere shortening, induction of endoreduplication and chromosomal fragmentation leading to cell death.

  5. The effect of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadi, F.; Ponsot, Elodie; Piehl-Aulin, Karin

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The length of DNA telomeres is an important parameter of the proliferative potential of tissues. A recent study has reported abnormally short telomeres in skeletal muscle of athletes with exercise-associated fatigue. This important report raises the question of whether long-term practice...

  6. Telomere length is an independent prognostic marker in MDS but not in de novo AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jenna; Heppel, Nicole H; Britt-Compton, Bethan; Grimstead, Julia W; Jones, Rhiannon E; Tauro, Sudhir; Bowen, David T; Knapper, Steven; Groves, Michael; Hills, Robert K; Pepper, Chris; Baird, Duncan M; Fegan, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Telomere dysfunction is implicated in the generation of large-scale genomic rearrangements that drive progression to malignancy. In this study we used high-resolution single telomere length analysis (STELA) to examine the potential role of telomere dysfunction in 80 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 95 de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. Despite the MDS cohort being older, they had significantly longer telomeres than the AML cohort (P AML patients (age AML patients (P = 0·03). Using a previously determined telomere length threshold for telomere dysfunction (3·81 kb) did not provide prognostic resolution in AML [Hazard ratio (HR) = 0·68, P = 0·2]. In contrast, the same length threshold was highly prognostic for overall survival in the MDS cohort (HR = 5·0, P < 0·0001). Furthermore, this telomere length threshold was an independent parameter in multivariate analysis when adjusted for age, gender, cytogenetic risk group, number of cytopenias and International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score (HR = 2·27, P < 0·0001). Therefore, telomere length should be assessed in a larger prospective study to confirm its prognostic role in MDS with a view to integrating this variable into a revised IPSS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Short Telomere Length, Myocardial Infarction, Ischemic Heart Disease, and Early Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Cawthon, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that short telomere length is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and early death. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured leukocyte telomere length in 2 prospective studies of 19 838 Danish general population participants ...

  8. AKTIP/Ft1, a New Shelterin-Interacting Factor Required for Telomere Maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Burla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that protect the ends of linear chromosomes from incomplete replication, degradation and detection as DNA breaks. Mammalian telomeres are protected by shelterin, a multiprotein complex that binds the TTAGGG telomeric repeats and recruits a series of additional factors that are essential for telomere function. Although many shelterin-associated proteins have been so far identified, the inventory of shelterin-interacting factors required for telomere maintenance is still largely incomplete. Here, we characterize AKTIP/Ft1 (human AKTIP and mouse Ft1 are orthologous, a novel mammalian shelterin-bound factor identified on the basis of its homology with the Drosophila telomere protein Pendolino. AKTIP/Ft1 shares homology with the E2 variant ubiquitin-conjugating (UEV enzymes and has been previously implicated in the control of apoptosis and in vesicle trafficking. RNAi-mediated depletion of AKTIP results in formation of telomere dysfunction foci (TIFs. Consistent with these results, AKTIP interacts with telomeric DNA and binds the shelterin components TRF1 and TRF2 both in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of AKTIP- depleted human primary fibroblasts showed that they are defective in PCNA recruiting and arrest in the S phase due to the activation of the intra S checkpoint. Accordingly, AKTIP physically interacts with PCNA and the RPA70 DNA replication factor. Ft1-depleted p53-/- MEFs did not arrest in the S phase but displayed significant increases in multiple telomeric signals (MTS and sister telomere associations (STAs, two hallmarks of defective telomere replication. In addition, we found an epistatic relation for MST formation between Ft1 and TRF1, which has been previously shown to be required for replication fork progression through telomeric DNA. Ch-IP experiments further suggested that in AKTIP-depleted cells undergoing the S phase, TRF1 is less tightly bound to telomeric DNA than in controls. Thus, our results

  9. The Role of Telomeric Repeat Binding Factor 1 (TRF1) in Telomere Maintenance and as a Potential Prognostic Indicator in Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bulter, Kimberly S; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2007-01-01

    .... Through examining the role of TRFI in telomere length control and in breast cancer prngrnssion this project also fosters the education of the candidate through the interaction with several experts...

  10. Processing of semen by density gradient centrifugation selects spermatozoa with longer telomeres for assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingling; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Feifei; Zhao, Wanli; Dai, Shanjun; Liu, Jinhao; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Xin, Hang; Niu, Wenbing; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-07-01

    The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes contain specialized chromatin structures called telomeres, the length of which plays a key role in early human embryonic development. Although the effect of sperm preparation techniques on major sperm characteristics, such as concentration, motility and morphology have been previously documented, the possible status of telomere length and its relation with sperm preparation techniques is not well-known for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of density gradient centrifugation in the selection of spermatozoa with longer telomeres for use in assisted reproduction techniques in 105 samples before and after sperm processing. After density gradient centrifugation, the average telomere length of the sperm was significantly longer (6.51 ± 2.54 versus 5.16 ± 2.29, P technique for selection of sperm with longer telomeres. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Updates on the biology and management of dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballew, Bari J; Savage, Sharon A

    2013-06-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a cancer-prone inherited bone marrow failure syndrome caused by aberrant telomere biology. The mucocutaneous triad of nail dysplasia, abnormal skin pigmentation and oral leukoplakia is diagnostic, but is not always present; DC can also be diagnosed by the presence of very short leukocyte telomeres. Patients with DC are at high risk of bone marrow failure, pulmonary fibrosis, liver disease, cancer and other medical problems. Germline mutations in one of nine genes associated with telomere maintenance are present in approximately 60% of patients. DC is one among the group of clinically and biologically related telomere biology disorders, including Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome, Revesz syndrome, Coats plus (also known as cranioretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts) and subsets of aplastic anemia, pulmonary fibrosis, nonalcoholic and noninfectious liver disease and leukemia. The authors review the pathobiology that connects DC and the related telomere biology disorders, methods of diagnosis and management modalities.

  12. Telomere dynamics in human mesenchymal stem cells after exposure to acute oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, M.; Koelvraa, S.; Serakinci, N.

    2012-01-01

    mesenchymal stem cells, either primary or hTERT immortalized, were exposed to sub-lethal doses of hydrogen peroxide, and the short term effect on telomere dynamics was monitored by Universal STELA and TRF measurements. Both telomere measures were then correlated with the percentage of senescent cells...... estimated by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining. The exposure to acute oxidative stress resulted in an increased number of ultra-short telomeres, which correlated strongly with the percentage of senescent cells, whereas a correlation between mean telomere length and the percentage...... of senescent cells was absent. Based on the findings in the present study, it seems reasonable to conclude that Universal STELA is superior to TRF in detecting telomere damage caused by exposure to oxidative stress. The choice of method should therefore be considered carefully in studies examining stress...

  13. Shorter leukocyte telomere length is associated with higher risk of infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby, Jens; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in the recipients. These findings suggest that leukocyte telomere length could possibly be a marker of immune competence. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that shorter leukocyte telomere length is associated with higher risk of infectious disease hospitalization and infection related death. Relative peripheral...... in 1508 individuals. Shorter telomere length was associated with higher risk of any infection (hazard ratio 1.05 per standard deviation shorter leukocyte telomere length; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.07) and pneumonia (1.07;1.03-1.10) after adjustment for conventional infectious disease risk factors....... Corresponding hazard ratios for infection related death were 1.10 (1.04-1.16) for any infection and 1.11 (1.04-1.19) for pneumonia. Telomere length was not associated with risk of skin infection, urinary tract infection, sepsis, diarrhoeal disease, endocarditis, meningitis or other infections. In conclusion...

  14. Lack of correlation between telomere length and telomerase activity and expression in leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Danuta; Wysoki, Jacek; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Pernak, Monika; Nowicka, Karina; Rembowska, Jolanta; Nowak, Jerzy

    2003-12-01

    The expression of three components of telomerase complex (hTR, hTERT, TP1) along with telomerase activity and telomere length in leukemic cells was investigated. Cells were isolated from peripheral blood and/or bone marrow of children with acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and non-lymphoblastic (ANLL) leukemia. Expression of three components of telomerase as well as telomerase activity was found in all leukemic cells. Chemiluminescent detection of terminal restriction fragments (TRF) from DNA isolated from ALL cells showed variable patterns expressing considerable heterogeneity of telomere length. The ALL cells appeared to have both long and short telomere lengths, in contrast to normal peripheral lymphocytes, which produced limited pattern of TRF. The ANLL cells produced predominantly short telomere pattern despite high telomerase activity and expression. It can be concluded that high telomerase activity and expression in leukemic cells is not always correlated with long telomeres (TRF pattern).

  15. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9...... and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator...... of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11...

  16. Tel1ATM dictates the replication timing of short yeast telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Carol; Davé, Anoushka; Garg, Mansi; Bianchi, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Telomerase action is temporally linked to DNA replication. Although yeast telomeres are normally late replicating, telomere shortening leads to early firing of subtelomeric DNA replication origins. We show that double-strand breaks flanked by short telomeric arrays cause origin firing early in S phase at late-replicating loci and that this effect on origin firing time is dependent on the Tel1(ATM) checkpoint kinase. The effect of Tel1(ATM) on telomere replication timing extends to endogenous telomeres and is stronger than that elicited by Rif1 loss. These results establish that Tel1(ATM) specifies not only the extent but also the timing of telomerase recruitment. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. The DNA damage response at eroded telomeres and tethering to the nuclear pore complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadaroo, Basheer; Teixeira, M Teresa; Luciano, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    to induce the recruitment of checkpoint and recombination proteins. Notably, a DNA damage response at eroded telomeres starts many generations before senescence and is characterized by the recruitment of Cdc13 (cell division cycle 13), replication protein A, DNA damage checkpoint proteins and the DNA repair......The ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes are protected by telomeres, which serve to ensure proper chromosome replication and to prevent spurious recombination at chromosome ends. In this study, we show by single cell analysis that in the absence of telomerase, a single short telomere is sufficient...... protein Rad52 into a single focus. Moreover, we show that eroded telomeres, although remaining at the nuclear periphery, move to the nuclear pore complex. Our results link the DNA damage response at eroded telomeres to changes in subnuclear localization and suggest the existence of collapsed replication...

  18. Age, sex, and telomere dynamics in a long-lived seabird with male-biased parental care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Young

    Full Text Available The examination of telomere dynamics is a recent technique in ecology for assessing physiological state and age-related traits from individuals of unknown age. Telomeres shorten with age in most species and are expected to reflect physiological state, reproductive investment, and chronological age. Loss of telomere length is used as an indicator of biological aging, as this detrimental deterioration is associated with lowered survival. Lifespan dimorphism and more rapid senescence in the larger, shorter-lived sex are predicted in species with sexual size dimorphism, however, little is known about the effects of behavioral dimorphism on senescence and life history traits in species with sexual monomorphism. Here we compare telomere dynamics of thick-billed murres (Urialomvia, a species with male-biased parental care, in two ways: 1 cross-sectionally in birds of known-age (0-28 years from one colony and 2 longitudinally in birds from four colonies. Telomere dynamics are compared using three measures: the telomere restriction fragment (TRF, a lower window of TRF (TOE, and qPCR. All showed age-related shortening of telomeres, but the TRF measure also indicated that adult female murres have shorter telomere length than adult males, consistent with sex-specific patterns of ageing. Adult males had longer telomeres than adult females on all colonies examined, but chick telomere length did not differ by sex. Additionally, inter-annual telomere changes may be related to environmental conditions; birds from a potentially low quality colony lost telomeres, while those at more hospitable colonies maintained telomere length. We conclude that sex-specific patterns of telomere loss exist in the sexually monomorphic thick-billed murre but are likely to occur between fledging and recruitment. Longer telomeres in males may be related to their homogamous sex chromosomes (ZZ or to selection for longer life in the care-giving sex. Environmental conditions appeared to

  19. Telomere length reflects phenotypic quality and costs of reproduction in a long-lived seabird : An evolutionary view on biological rhythms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauch, Christina; Becker, Peter H.; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Telomere length is associated with cellular senescence, lifestyle and ageing. Short telomeres indicate poor health in humans and reduced life expectancy in several bird species, but little is known about telomeres in relation to phenotypic quality in wild animals. We investigated telomere lengths in

  20. Longitudinal Change in Telomere Length and the Chronic Stress Response in a Randomized Pilot Biobehavioral Clinical Study: Implications for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Biegler, K. A; Anderson, A. K. L; Wenzel, L. B; Osann, K; Nelson, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    Shortened telomere length is associated with increased cancer incidence and mortality. Populations experiencing chronic stress have accelerated telomere shortening. In this exploratory study, we examined associations between longitudinal changes in patient reported outcomes (PRO) of psychologic distress and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) telomere length to test the hypothesis that modulation of the chronic stress response would also modulate telomere dynamics. Archived PBMC specimen...

  1. The telomeric protein TRF2 is critical for the protection of A549 cells from both telomere erosion and DNA double-strand breaks driven by salvicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Miao, Ze-Hong; Ding, Jian

    2008-03-01

    Telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) has been increasingly recognized to be involved in DNA damage response and telomere maintenance. Our previous report found that salvicine (SAL), a novel topoisomerase II poison, elicited DNA double-strand breaks and telomere erosion in separate experimental systems. However, it remains to be clarified whether they share a common response to these two events and in particular whether TRF2 is involved in this process. In this study, we found that SAL concurrently induced DNA double-strand breaks, telomeric DNA damage, and telomere erosion in lung carcinoma A549 cells. It was unexpected to find that SAL led to disruption of TRF2, independently of either its transcription or proteasome-mediated degradation. By overexpressing the full-length trf2 gene and transfecting TRF2 small interfering RNAs, we showed that TRF2 protein protected both telomeric and genomic DNA from the SAL-elicited events. It is noteworthy that although both the Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and the ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) kinases responded to the SAL-induced DNA damages, only ATR was essential for the telomere erosion. The study also showed that the activated ATR augmented the SAL-triggered TRF2 disruption, whereas TRF2 reduction in turn enhanced ATR function. All of these findings suggest the emerging significance of TRF2 protecting both telomeric DNA and genomic DNA on the one hand and reveal the mutual modulation between ATR and TRF2 in sensing DNA damage signaling during cancer development on the other hand.

  2. Coffee Consumption Is Positively Associated with Longer Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason J; Crous-Bou, Marta; Giovannucci, Edward; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2016-07-01

    Coffee is an important source of antioxidants, and consumption of this beverage is associated with many health conditions and a lower mortality risk. However, no study, to our knowledge, has examined whether varying coffee or caffeine consumption levels are associated with telomere length, a biomarker of aging whose shortening can be accelerated by oxidative stress. We performed a large comprehensive study on how coffee consumption is associated with telomere length. We used data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), a prospective cohort study of female nurses that began in 1976. We examined the cross-sectional association between coffee consumption and telomere length in 4780 women from the NHS. Coffee consumption information was obtained from validated food-frequency questionnaires, and relative telomere length was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Unconditional logistic regression was used to obtain ORs when the telomere length outcome was dichotomized at the median. Linear regression was used for tests of trend with coffee consumption and telomere length as continuous variables. Higher total coffee consumption was significantly associated with longer telomeres after potential confounding adjustment. Compared with non-coffee drinkers, multivariable ORs for those drinking 2 to coffee/d were, respectively, 1.29 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.68) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.78) (P-trend = 0.02). We found a significant linear association between caffeine consumption from all dietary sources and telomere length (P-trend = 0.02) after adjusting for potential confounders, but not after additionally adjusting for total coffee consumption (P-trend = 0.37). We found that higher coffee consumption is associated with longer telomeres among female nurses. Future studies are needed to better understand the influence of coffee consumption on telomeres, which may uncover new knowledge of how coffee consumption affects health and

  3. Abnormal telomere shortening of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and granulocytes in patients with chronic idiopathic neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlaki, Konstantia I.; Kastrinaki, Maria-Christina; Klontzas, Michail; Velegraki, Maria; Mavroudi, Irene; Papadaki, Helen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic idiopathic neutropenia is characterized by immune-mediated suppression of neutrophil production. Because patients with immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndromes display age-inappropriate telomere shortening in leukocytes, we investigated telomere lengths in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and granulocytes of patients with chronic idiopathic neutropenia. Design and Methods We studied 37 patients with chronic idiopathic neutropenia and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Relative telomere length and telomerase reverse transcriptase expression were assessed by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Telomerase activity was determined by a polymerase chain reaction-based immunoassay. Results The mean relative telomere values of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and granulocytes were significantly lower in patients compared to controls, and significantly lower than expected on the basis of the age-adjusted healthy control distribution. The difference in the relative telomere lengths between patients and controls in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and granulocytes was prominent in those under the age of 50 years. Contrary to the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, in which an inverse correlation was observed between relative telomere values and age, no significant correlation was noted between granulocyte telomere values and patient age. A significant correlation was observed between individual relative telomere values and absolute neutrophil counts. There was no difference in expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase in peripheral blood mononuclear cells between patients and controls but telomerase activity was identified at a significantly higher frequency in controls than in patients. No correlation was found between telomerase activity or telomerase reverse transcriptase expression and relative telomere lengths of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions Patients with chronic idiopathic neutropenia

  4. Cigarette smoking and telomere length: A systematic review of 84 studies and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Yuliana; Wardhana, Ardyan; Watkins, Johnathan; Wulaningsih, Wahyu

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for ageing-related disease, but its association with biological ageing, indicated by telomere length, is unclear. We systematically reviewed evidence evaluating association between smoking status and telomere length. Searches were performed in MEDLINE (Ovid) and EMBASE (Ovid) databases, combining variation of keywords "smoking" and "telomere". Data was extracted for study characteristics and estimates for association between smoking and telomere length. Quality of studies was assessed with a risk of bias score, and publication bias was assessed with a funnel plot. I2 test was used to observe heterogeneity. Meta-analysis was carried out to compare mean difference in telomere length by smoking status, and a dose-response approach was carried out for pack-years of smoking and telomere length. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to examine sources of heterogeneity. A total of 84 studies were included in the review, and 30 among them were included in our meta-analysis. Potential bias was addressed in half of included studies, and there was little evidence of small study bias. Telomere length was shorter among ever smokers compared to never smokers (summary standard mean difference [SMD]: -0.11 (95% CI -0.16 to -0.07)). Similarly, shorter telomere length was found among smokers compared to non-smokers, and among current smokers compared to never or former smokers. Dose-response meta-analysis suggested an inverse trend between pack-years of smoking and telomere length. However, heterogeneity among some analyses was observed. Shorter telomeres among ever smokers compared to those who never smoked may imply mechanisms linking tobacco smoke exposure to ageing-related disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Telomere longitudinal shortening as a biomarker for dementia status of adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edmund C; Ye, Lingling; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J; Zigman, Warren B; Schupf, Nicole; Silverman, Wayne P

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes an accelerated shortening of telomeres, the ends of chromosomes consisting of highly conserved TTAGGG repeats that, because of unidirectional 5'-3' DNA synthesis, lose end point material with each cell division. Our own previous work suggested that telomere length of T-lymphocytes might be a remarkably accurate biomarker for "mild cognitive impairment" in adults with Down syndrome (MCI-DS), a population at dramatically high risk for AD. To verify that the progression of cognitive and functional losses due to AD produced this observed telomere shortening, we have now examined sequential changes in telomere length in five individuals with Down syndrome (3F, 2M) as they transitioned from preclinical AD to MCI-DS (N = 4) or dementia (N = 1). As in our previous studies, we used PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes for telomeres and the chromosome 2 centromere (as an "internal standard" expected to be unaffected by aging or dementia status), with samples from the same individuals now collected prior to and following development of MCI-DS or dementia. Consistent shortening of telomere length was observed over time. Further comparisons with our previous cross-sectional findings indicated that telomere lengths prior to clinical decline were similar to those of other adults with Down syndrome (DS) who have not experienced clinical decline while telomere lengths following transition to MCI-DS or dementia in the current study were comparable to those of other adults with DS who have developed MCI-DS or dementia. Taken together, findings indicate that telomere length has significant promise as a biomarker of clinical progression of AD for adults with DS, and further longitudinal studies of a larger sample of individuals with DS are clearly warranted to validate these findings and determine if and how factors affecting AD risk also influence these measures of telomere length. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Telomere length and risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhensheng; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Aizhen; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2017-12-07

    Extreme telomere length has been previously reported to be associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. However, evidence from prospective studies on a relative large sample size with long-term follow-up to further corroborate previous study findings is meager. The association between peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma was prospectively examined in a cohort of 26,540 middle-aged or older Chinese nested in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Telomere length was determined using a validated qPCR-based method. The Cox proportional regression method was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of gastric adenocarcinoma associated with telomere length after adjustment for potential confounders. Restricted cubic spline analysis was applied to assess the nonlinear relationship between telomere length and gastric cancer risk. A U-shaped association was found between telomere length and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma (P nonlinearity = 0.020). Compared with the second quintile of telomere length, a statistically significant higher risk of gastric adenocarcinoma was associated with either the lowest quintile (HR = 1.63, 95% CI, 1.07-2.47) or the highest quintile (HR = 1.55, 95% CI, 0.97-2.47) of telomere length. This U-shaped relationship was more apparent in men and younger individuals. This is the first prospective study demonstrating a higher risk of gastric cancer to be associated with either extremely short or extremely long telomere length. Short and long telomere length may function differently in the early and late stages of gastric carcinogenesis.

  7. Mitosis, double strand break repair, and telomeres: a view from the end: how telomeres and the DNA damage response cooperate during mitosis to maintain genome stability.

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    Cesare, Anthony J

    2014-11-01

    Double strand break (DSB) repair is suppressed during mitosis because RNF8 and downstream DNA damage response (DDR) factors, including 53BP1, do not localize to mitotic chromatin. Discovery of the mitotic kinase-dependent mechanism that inhibits DSB repair during cell division was recently reported. It was shown that restoring mitotic DSB repair was detrimental, resulting in repair dependent genome instability and covalent telomere fusions. The telomere DDR that occurs naturally during cellular aging and in cancer is known to be refractory to G2/M checkpoint activation. Such DDR-positive telomeres, and those that occur as part of the telomere-dependent prolonged mitotic arrest checkpoint, normally pass through mitosis without covalent ligation, but result in cell growth arrest in G1 phase. The discovery that suppressing DSB repair during mitosis may function primarily to protect DDR-positive telomeres from fusing during cell division reinforces the unique cooperation between telomeres and the DDR to mediate tumor suppression. © 2014 The Author. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Crystal structure of four-stranded Oxytricha telomeric DNA

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    Kang, C.; Zhang, X.; Ratliff, R.; Moyzis, R.; Rich, A.

    1992-01-01

    The sequence d(GGGGTTTTGGGG) from the 3' overhang of the Oxytricha telomere has been crystallized and its three-dimensional structure solved to 2.5 A resolution. The oligonucleotide forms hairpins, two of which join to make a four-stranded helical structure with the loops containing four thymine residues at either end. The guanine residues are held together by cyclic hydrogen bonding and an ion is located in the centre. The four guanine residues in each segment have a glycosyl conformation that alternates between anti and syn. There are two four-stranded molecules in the asymmetric unit showing that the structure has some intrinsic flexibility.

  9. Observation and Quantification of Telomere and Repetitive Sequences Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) with PNA Probes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Beomseok; Lee, Junho

    2016-08-04

    Telomere is a ribonucleoprotein structure that protects chromosomal ends from aberrant fusion and degradation. Telomere length is maintained by telomerase or an alternative pathway, known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT)(1). Recently, C. elegans has emerged as a multicellular model organism for the study of telomere and ALT(2). Visualization of repetitive sequences in the genome is critical in understanding the biology of telomeres. While telomere length can be measured by telomere restriction fragment assay or quantitative PCR, these methods only provide the averaged telomere length. On the contrary, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can provide the information of the individual telomeres in cells. Here, we provide protocols and representative results of the method to determine telomere length of C. elegans by fluorescent in situ hybridization. This method provides a simple, but powerful, in situ procedure that does not cause noticeable damage to morphology. By using fluorescently labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and digoxigenin-dUTP-labeled probe, we were able to visualize two different repetitive sequences: telomere repeats and template of ALT (TALT) in C. elegans embryos and gonads.

  10. Strand exchange of telomeric DNA catalyzed by the Werner syndrome protein (WRN) is specifically stimulated by TRF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Deanna N; Orren, David K; Machwe, Amrita

    2014-07-01

    Werner syndrome (WS), caused by loss of function of the RecQ helicase WRN, is a hereditary disease characterized by premature aging and elevated cancer incidence. WRN has DNA binding, exonuclease, ATPase, helicase and strand annealing activities, suggesting possible roles in recombination-related processes. Evidence indicates that WRN deficiency causes telomeric abnormalities that likely underlie early onset of aging phenotypes in WS. Furthermore, TRF2, a protein essential for telomere protection, interacts with WRN and influences its basic helicase and exonuclease activities. However, these studies provided little insight into WRN's specific function at telomeres. Here, we explored the possibility that WRN and TRF2 cooperate during telomeric recombination processes. Our results indicate that TRF2, through its interactions with both WRN and telomeric DNA, stimulates WRN-mediated strand exchange specifically between telomeric substrates; TRF2's basic domain is particularly important for this stimulation. Although TRF1 binds telomeric DNA with similar affinity, it has minimal effects on WRN-mediated strand exchange of telomeric DNA. Moreover, TRF2 is displaced from telomeric DNA by WRN, independent of its ATPase and helicase activities. Together, these results suggest that TRF2 and WRN act coordinately during telomeric recombination processes, consistent with certain telomeric abnormalities associated with alteration of WRN function. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Telomeres and Telomerase in the Radiation Response: Implications for Instability, Reprograming, and Carcinogenesis.

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    Sishc, Brock J; Nelson, Christopher B; McKenna, Miles J; Battaglia, Christine L R; Herndon, Andrea; Idate, Rupa; Liber, Howard L; Bailey, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes comprised of tandem arrays of repetitive DNA sequence that serve to protect chromosomal termini from inappropriate degradation, as well as to prevent these natural DNA ends from being recognized as broken DNA (double-strand breaks) and triggering of inappropriate DNA damage responses. Preservation of telomere length requires telomerase, the specialized reverse transcriptase capable of maintaining telomere length via template-mediated addition of telomeric repeats onto the ends of newly synthesized chromosomes. Loss of either end-capping function or telomere length maintenance has been associated with genomic instability or senescence in a variety of settings; therefore, telomeres and telomerase have well-established connections to cancer and aging. It has long been recognized that oxidative stress promotes shortening of telomeres, and that telomerase activity is a radiation-inducible function. However, the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) exposure on telomeres per se are much less well understood and appreciated. To gain a deeper understanding of the roles, telomeres and telomerase play in the response of human cells to IRs of different qualities, we tracked changes in telomeric end-capping function, telomere length, and telomerase activity in panels of mammary epithelial and hematopoietic cell lines exposed to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma(γ)-rays or high LET, high charge, high energy (HZE) particles, delivered either acutely or at low dose rates. In addition to demonstrating that dysfunctional telomeres contribute to IR-induced mutation frequencies and genome instability, we reveal non-canonical roles for telomerase, in that telomerase activity was required for IR-induced enrichment of mammary epithelial putative stem/progenitor cell populations, a finding also suggestive of cellular reprograming. Taken together, the results reported here establish the critical importance of telomeres and telomerase in the

  12. Telomeres and Telomerase in the Radiation Response: implications for instability, reprogramming, and carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock James Sishc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes comprised of tandem arrays of repetitive DNA sequence that serve to protect chromosomal termini from inappropriate degradation, as well as to prevent these natural DNA ends from being recognized as broken DNA (double-strand breaks; DSBs and triggering of inappropriate DNA damage responses. Preservation of telomere length requires telomerase, the specialized reverse transcriptase capable of maintaining telomere length via template-mediated addition of telomeric repeats onto the ends of newly synthesized chromosomes. Loss of either end-capping function or telomere length maintenance has been associated with genomic instability or senescence in a variety of settings; therefore telomeres and telomerase have well-established connections to cancer and aging. It has long been recognized that oxidative stress promotes shortening of telomeres, and that telomerase activity is a radiation-inducible function. However, the effects of ionizing radiation (IR exposure on telomeres per se are much less well understood and appreciated. To gain a deeper understanding of the roles telomeres and telomerase play in the response of human cells to ionizing radiations of different qualities, we tracked changes in telomeric end-capping function, telomere length, and telomerase activity in panels of mammary epithelial and hematopoietic cell lines exposed to low linear energy transfer (LET gamma(γ-rays or high LET high charge, high energy (HZE particles, delivered either acutely or at low dose rates (LDR. In addition to demonstrating that dysfunctional telomeres contribute to IR-induced mutation frequencies and genome instability, we reveal non-canonical roles for telomerase, in that telomerase activity was required for IR-induced enrichment of mammary epithelial putative stem/progenitor cell populations, a finding also suggestive of cellular reprogramming. Taken together, the results reported here establish the critical importance of

  13. TRF1 and TRF2 differentially modulate Rad51-mediated telomeric and nontelomeric displacement loop formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Brian D; Griffith, Jack D

    2014-09-02

    A growing body of literature suggests that the homologous recombination/repair (HR) pathway cooperates with components of the shelterin complex to promote both telomere maintenance and nontelomeric HR. This may be due to the ability of both HR and shelterin proteins to promote strand invasion, wherein a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) substrate base pairs with a homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) template displacing a loop of ssDNA (D-loop). Rad51 recombinase catalyzes D-loop formation during HR, and telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) catalyzes the formation of a telomeric D-loop that stabilizes a looped structure in telomeric DNA (t-loop) that may facilitate telomere protection. We have characterized this functional interaction in vitro using a fluorescent D-loop assay measuring the incorporation of Cy3-labeled 90-nucleotide telomeric and nontelomeric substrates into telomeric and nontelomeric plasmid templates. We report that preincubation of a telomeric template with TRF2 inhibits the ability of Rad51 to promote telomeric D-loop formation upon preincubation with a telomeric substrate. This suggests Rad51 does not facilitate t-loop formation and suggests a mechanism whereby TRF2 can inhibit HR at telomeres. We also report a TRF2 mutant lacking the dsDNA binding domain promotes Rad51-mediated nontelomeric D-loop formation, possibly explaining how TRF2 promotes nontelomeric HR. Finally, we report telomere repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) promotes Rad51-mediated telomeric D-loop formation, which may facilitate HR-mediated replication fork restart and explain why TRF1 is required for efficient telomere replication.

  14. TERRA and hnRNPA1 orchestrate an RPA-to-POT1 switch on telomeric single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Rachel Litman; Centore, Richard C; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Rai, Rekha; Tse, Alice; Songyang, Zhou; Chang, Sandy; Karlseder, Jan; Zou, Lee

    2011-03-24

    Maintenance of telomeres requires both DNA replication and telomere 'capping' by shelterin. These two processes use two single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins, replication protein A (RPA) and protection of telomeres 1 (POT1). Although RPA and POT1 each have a critical role at telomeres, how they function in concert is not clear. POT1 ablation leads to activation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint kinase at telomeres, suggesting that POT1 antagonizes RPA binding to telomeric ssDNA. Unexpectedly, we found that purified POT1 and its functional partner TPP1 are unable to prevent RPA binding to telomeric ssDNA efficiently. In cell extracts, we identified a novel activity that specifically displaces RPA, but not POT1, from telomeric ssDNA. Using purified protein, here we show that the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) recapitulates the RPA displacing activity. The RPA displacing activity is inhibited by the telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) in early S phase, but is then unleashed in late S phase when TERRA levels decline at telomeres. Interestingly, TERRA also promotes POT1 binding to telomeric ssDNA by removing hnRNPA1, suggesting that the re-accumulation of TERRA after S phase helps to complete the RPA-to-POT1 switch on telomeric ssDNA. Together, our data suggest that hnRNPA1, TERRA and POT1 act in concert to displace RPA from telomeric ssDNA after DNA replication, and promote telomere capping to preserve genomic integrity.

  15. Telomere length and fetal programming: A review of recent scientific advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Valerie E; Goswami, Anjali; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2017-05-01

    We sought to synthesize a comprehensive literature review comprising recent research linking fetal programming to fetal telomere length. We also explored the potential effects fetal telomere length shortening has on fetal phenotypes. Utilizing the PubMed database as our primary search engine, we retrieved and reviewed 165 articles of published research. The inclusion criteria limited the articles to those that appeared within the last ten years, were pertinent to humans, and without restriction to language of publication. Our results showed that socio-demographic factors like age, sex, genetic inheritance, and acquired disease impact telomere length. Further, we found several maternal characteristics to be associated with fetal telomere length shortening, and these include maternal chemical exposure (eg, tobacco smoke), maternal stress during pregnancy, maternal nutritional and sleeping disorders during pregnancy as well as maternal disease status. Due to paucity of data, our review could not synthesize evidence directly linking fetal phenotypes to telomere length shortening. Although the research summarized in this review shows some association between determinants of intrauterine programming and fetal telomere length, there is still significant work that needs to be done to delineate the direct relationship of telomere attrition with specific fetal phenotypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Analysis of poly(ADP-Ribose polymerases in Arabidopsis telomere biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara A Boltz

    Full Text Available Maintaining the length of the telomere tract at chromosome ends is a complex process vital to normal cell division. Telomere length is controlled through the action of telomerase as well as a cadre of telomere-associated proteins that facilitate replication of the chromosome end and protect it from eliciting a DNA damage response. In vertebrates, multiple poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs have been implicated in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and chromosome end protection. Here we investigate the role of PARPs in plant telomere biology. We analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana mutants null for PARP1 and PARP2 as well as plants treated with the PARP competitive inhibitor 3-AB. Plants deficient in PARP were hypersensitive to genotoxic stress, and expression of PARP1 and PARP2 mRNA was elevated in response to MMS or zeocin treatment or by the loss of telomerase. Additionally, PARP1 mRNA was induced in parp2 mutants, and conversely, PARP2 mRNA was induced in parp1 mutants. PARP3 mRNA, by contrast, was elevated in both parp1 and parp2 mutants, but not in seedlings treated with 3-AB or zeocin. PARP mutants and 3-AB treated plants displayed robust telomerase activity, no significant changes in telomere length, and no end-to-end chromosome fusions. Although there remains a possibility that PARPs play a role in Arabidopsis telomere biology, these findings argue that the contribution is a minor one.

  17. Shorter telomeres with high telomerase activity are associated with raised allostatic load and impoverished psychosocial resources.

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    Zalli, Argita; Carvalho, Livia A; Lin, Jue; Hamer, Mark; Erusalimsky, Jorge D; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-03-25

    Recent work has linked psychological stress with premature cellular aging as indexed by reduced leukocyte telomere length. The combination of shorter telomeres with high telomerase activity (TA) may be indicative of active cell stress. We hypothesized that older individuals characterized by shorter telomeres with high TA in unstimulated leukocytes would show signs of high allostatic load and low levels of protective psychosocial resources. We studied 333 healthy men and women aged 54-76 y who underwent laboratory testing in which we measured cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and inflammatory responses to standardized mental stress tasks. The tasks elicited prompt increases in blood pressure (BP), heart rate, cortisol, and mediators of inflammation and reductions in heart rate variability, returning toward baseline levels following stress. However, men having shorter telomeres with high TA showed blunted poststress recovery in systolic BP, heart rate variability, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, together with reduced responsivity in diastolic BP, heart rate, and cortisol, in comparison to men with longer telomeres or men with shorter telomeres and low TA. Shorter telomeres with high TA were also associated with reduced social support, lower optimism, higher hostility, and greater early life adversity. These effects were independent of age, socioeconomic status, and body mass index. We did not observe differences among older women. Our findings suggest that active cell stress is associated with impaired physiological stress responses and impoverished psychosocial resources, reflecting an integration of cellular, systemic, and psychological stress processes potentially relevant to health in older men.

  18. Csm4-dependent telomere movement on nuclear envelope promotes meiotic recombination.

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    Hiromichi Kosaka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase, chromosomes display rapid movement, and their telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope and cluster to form a "chromosomal bouquet." Little is known about the roles of the chromosome movement and telomere clustering in this phase. In budding yeast, telomere clustering is promoted by a meiosis-specific, telomere-binding protein, Ndj1. Here, we show that a meiosis-specific protein, Csm4, which forms a complex with Ndj1, facilitates bouquet formation. In the absence of Csm4, Ndj1-bound telomeres tether to nuclear envelopes but do not cluster, suggesting that telomere clustering in the meiotic prophase consists of at least two distinct steps: Ndj1-dependent tethering to the nuclear envelope and Csm4-dependent clustering/movement. Similar to Ndj1, Csm4 is required for several distinct steps during meiotic recombination. Our results suggest that Csm4 promotes efficient second-end capture of a double-strand break following a homology search, as well as resolution of the double-Holliday junction during crossover formation. We propose that chromosome movement and associated telomere dynamics at the nuclear envelope promotes the completion of key biochemical steps during meiotic recombination.

  19. Body weight status and telomere length in U.S. middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Yan, Hai

    Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of biological aging. This study examined the relationship between body weight status and telomere length in U.S. middle-aged and older adults. Nationally representative data (N=2749) came from the Health and Retirement Study. Linear regressions were performed to examine the relationship between baseline body weight status reported in 1992 and telomere length measured in 2008 in the overall sample and by sex and racial/ethnic groups, adjusted for individual characteristics. Baseline overweight (25kg/m2≤body mass index [BMI]body weight status and telomere length found in this study was opposite to what existing biological model predicts, and could partially relate to the nonlinear relationship between body weight status and telomere length across age cohorts, and/or the lack of reliability of BMI as an indicator for adiposity in the older population. Large-scale longitudinal studies with baseline telomere length measures are warranted to replicate this study finding and explore the potential heterogeneous relationship between body weight status and telomere length. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to oxychlordane is associated with shorter telomeres in arctic breeding kittiwakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blévin, Pierre; Angelier, Frédéric; Tartu, Sabrina; Ruault, Stéphanie; Bustamante, Paco; Herzke, Dorte; Moe, Børge; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes located at the end of chromosomes, which play an important role in maintaining the genomic integrity. Telomeres shorten at each cell division and previous studies have shown that telomere length is related to health and lifespan and can be affected by a wide range of environmental factors. Among them, some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have the potential to damage DNA. However, the effect of POPs on telomeres is poorly known for wildlife. Here, we investigated the relationships between some legacy POPs (organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls) and telomere length in breeding adult black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), an arctic seabird species. Our results show that among legacy POPs, only blood concentration of oxychlordane, the major metabolite of chlordane mixture, is associated with shorter telomere length in females but not in males. This suggests that female kittiwakes could be more sensitive to oxychlordane, potentially explaining the previously reported lower survival rate in most oxychlordane-contaminated kittiwakes from the same population. This study is the first to report a significant and negative relationship between POPs and telomere length in a free-living bird and highlights sex-related susceptibility to banned pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimentally increased reproductive effort alters telomere length in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudyka, J; Arct, A; Drobniak, S; Dubiec, A; Gustafsson, L; Cichoń, M

    2014-10-01

    Telomeres have recently been suggested to play important role in ageing and are considered to be a reliable ageing biomarkers. The life history theory predicts that costs of reproduction should be expressed in terms of accelerated senescence, and some empirical studies do confirm such presumption. Thus, a link between reproductive effort and telomere dynamics should be anticipated. Recent studies have indeed demonstrated that reproduction may trigger telomere loss, but actual impact of reproductive effort has not received adequate attention in experimental studies. Here, we experimentally manipulated reproductive effort by increasing the brood size in the wild blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We show that parents attending enlarged broods experienced larger yearly telomere decay in comparison to control birds attending unaltered broods. In addition, we demonstrate that the change in telomere length differs between sexes, but this effect was independent from our treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental study in the wild revealing that telomere dynamics may be linked to reproductive effort. Thus, telomere shortening may constitute one of the potential proximate mechanisms mediating the costs of reproduction. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Extensive Proliferation of Human Cancer Cells with Ever-Shorter Telomeres

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    Rebecca A. Dagg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of replicative immortality is currently regarded as essential for malignant transformation. This is achieved by activating a telomere lengthening mechanism (TLM, either telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres, to counter normal telomere attrition. However, a substantial proportion of some cancer types, including glioblastomas, liposarcomas, retinoblastomas, and osteosarcomas, are reportedly TLM-negative. As serial samples of human tumors cannot usually be obtained to monitor telomere length changes, it has previously been impossible to determine whether tumors are truly TLM-deficient, there is a previously unrecognized TLM, or the assay results are false-negative. Here, we show that a subset of high-risk neuroblastomas (with ∼50% 5-year mortality lacked significant TLM activity. Cancer cells derived from these highly aggressive tumors initially had long telomeres and proliferated for >200 population doublings with ever-shorter telomeres. This indicates that prevention of telomere shortening is not always required for oncogenesis, which has implications for inhibiting TLMs for cancer therapy.

  3. Proteomic and microRNA data clarifying the effects of telomere shortening on cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Uziel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we have shown that shortening of telomeres by telomerase inhibition sensitized cancer cells to cisplatinum, slower their migration, increased DNA damage and impaired DNA repair [1]. In the following study, we present a network model combining microRNA and proteomic profiling attempting to decipher the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of shortened telomeres on the obtained phenotype of cancer cells [2]. The microRNA and proteomic data were used for a network model construction, which provided us with several nodal candidates that may potentially mediate the shortened-telomeres dependent features. These protein expressions were experimentally validated, supporting their potential central role in this system [2]. In this article, we delineate the full proteomic data and a microarray analyses performed on cells with shortened telomeres compared to their cognate parental intact telomere cells. The data is attached as excel files. In principle, clarifying the mechanism behind telomere shortened phenotype may facilitate novel therapeutics development and may also obviate the time consuming process of telomere shortening achieved by telomerase inhibition.

  4. POT1-independent single-strand telomeric DNA binding activities in Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirov, Eugene V; McKnight, Thomas D; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2009-06-01

    Telomeres define the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes and are required for genome maintenance and continued cell proliferation. The extreme ends of telomeres terminate in a single-strand protrusion, termed the G-overhang, which, in vertebrates and fission yeast, is bound by evolutionarily conserved members of the POT1 (protection of telomeres) protein family. Unlike most other model organisms, the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana encodes two divergent POT1-like proteins. Here we show that the single-strand telomeric DNA binding activity present in A. thaliana nuclear extracts is not dependent on POT1a or POT1b proteins. Furthermore, in contrast to POT1 proteins from yeast and vertebrates, recombinant POT1a and POT1b proteins from A. thaliana, and from two additional Brassicaceae species, Arabidopsis lyrata and Brassica oleracea (cauliflower), fail to bind single-strand telomeric DNA in vitro under the conditions tested. Finally, although we detected four single-strand telomeric DNA binding activities in nuclear extracts from B. oleracea, partial purification and DNA cross-linking analysis of these complexes identified proteins that are smaller than the predicted sizes of BoPOT1a or BoPOT1b. Taken together, these data suggest that POT1 proteins are not the major single-strand telomeric DNA binding activities in A. thaliana and its close relatives, underscoring the remarkable functional divergence of POT1 proteins from plants and other eukaryotes.

  5. Peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, E; Han, L K M; Connolly, C G; Ho, T C; Lin, J; LeWinn, K Z; Simmons, A N; Sacchet, M D; Mobayed, N; Luna, M E; Paulus, M; Epel, E S; Blackburn, E H; Wolkowitz, O M; Yang, T T

    2015-11-10

    Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume, and whether these measures relate to one another. In 54 unmedicated adolescents (13-18 years) with major depressive disorder and 63 well-matched healthy controls, telomere length was assessed from saliva using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, and bilateral hippocampal volumes were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. After adjusting for age and sex (and total brain volume in the hippocampal analysis), adolescents with major depressive disorder exhibited significantly shorter telomere length and significantly smaller right, but not left hippocampal volume. When corrected for age, sex, diagnostic group and total brain volume, telomere length was not significantly associated with left or right hippocampal volume, suggesting that these cellular and neural processes may be mechanistically distinct during adolescence. Our findings suggest that shortening of telomere length and reduction of hippocampal volume are already present in early-onset major depressive disorder and thus unlikely to be only a result of accumulated years of exposure to major depressive disorder.

  6. The Relationship Between Spontaneous Telomere Loss and Chromosome Instability in a Human Tumor Cell Line

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    Bijan Fouladi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome instability plays an important role in cancer by promoting the alterations in the genome required for tumor cell progression. The loss of telomeres that protect the ends of chromosomes and prevent chromosome fusion has been proposed as one mechanism for chromosome instability in cancer cells, however, there is little direct evidence to support this hypothesis. To investigate the relationship between spontaneous telomere loss and chromosome instability in human cancer cells, clones of the EJ-30 tumor cell line were isolated in which a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk gene was integrated immediately adjacent to a telomere. Selection for HSV-tkdeficient cells with ganciclovir demonstrated a high rate of loss of the end these "marked" chromosomes (10-4 events/cell per generation. DNA sequence and cytogenetic analysis suggests that the loss of function of the HSV-tk gene most often involves telomere loss, sister chromatid fusion, and prolonged periods of chromosome instability. In some HSV-tk-deficient cells, telomeric repeat sequences were added on to the end of the truncated HSV-tk gene at a new location, whereas in others, no telomere was detected on the end of the marked chromosome. These results suggest that spontaneous telomere loss is a mechanism for chromosome instability in human cancer cells.

  7. Telomere length and type 2 diabetes in males, a premature aging syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Ortiz, Blanca; Albarrán-Tamayo, Froylán; Arenas-Aranda, Diego; Benítez-Bribiesca, Luis; Malacara-Hernández, J M; Martínez-Garza, Sandra; Hernández-González, Martha; Solorio, Sergio; Garay-Sevilla, M E; Mora-Villalpando, Carmen

    2012-03-01

    Increased telomere shortening has been demonstrated in several diseases including type 2 diabetes. However, it is not known whether telomere length changes during the course of type 2 diabetes. To determine telomere length at different stages of type 2 diabetes, including early and late stages. A total of 93 males with type 2 diabetes and 10 years or more since original diagnosis; 96 males with less than one year of diagnosis; 98 age matched healthy males. Telomere length was estimated by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained for measurement of lipid peroxidation and inflammation markers. We found a greater telomere shortening in group (A) with type 2 diabetes of 10 years or more since original diagnosis, compared with the control group (C) of healthy males (5.4 vs 9.6 Kb) (p = 0.04) and with group B (5.4 vs 8.7 kb) (p = 0.05). With regard to inflammatory markers TNF-α, malondialdehyde peroxidation and adiponectin we found significant differences. Telomere shortening increases with the duration of diabetes. The time of exhibition suggests in parallel that the progressive increase of inflammation and/or oxidative stress plays a direct role in telomere shortening.

  8. Long telomeres in blood leukocytes are associated with a high risk of ascending aortic aneurysm.

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    Tuija J Huusko

    Full Text Available Ascending aortic aneurysm is a connective tissue disorder. Even though multiple novel gene mutations have been identified, risk profiling and diagnosis before rupture still represent a challenge. There are studies demonstrating shorter telomere lengths in the blood leukocytes of abdominal aortic aneurysm patients. The aim of this study was to measure whether relative telomere lengths are changed in the blood leukocytes of ascending aortic aneurysm patients. We also studied the expression of telomerase in aortic tissue samples of ascending aortic aneurysms. Relative lengths of leukocyte telomeres were determined from blood samples of patients with ascending aortic aneurysms and compared with healthy controls. Telomerase expression, both at the level of mRNA and protein, was quantified from the aortic tissue samples. Mean relative telomere length was significantly longer in ascending aortic aneurysm blood samples compared with controls (T/S ratio 0.87 vs. 0.61, p<0.001. Expressions of telomerase mRNA and protein were elevated in the aortic aneurysm samples (p<0.05 and p<0.01. Our study reveals a significant difference in the mean length of blood leukocyte telomeres in ascending aortic aneurysm and controls. Furthermore, expression of telomerase, the main compensating factor for telomere loss, is elevated at both the mRNA and protein level in the samples of aneurysmal aorta. Further studies will be needed to confirm if this change in telomere length can serve as a tool for assessing the risk of ascending aortic aneurysm.

  9. Paired assessment of liver telomere lengths in hepatocellular cancer is a reliable predictor of disease persistence.

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    Feng, Wendu; Yu, Decai; Li, Binghua; Luo, Ou-Yang; Xu, Tiancheng; Cao, Yajuan; Ding, Yitao

    2017-04-30

    In the present study, we used a small series of highly defined patients, where we had matched timed peripheral blood samples (PBS), as well as paired liver biopsies obtained during collection of blood samples from patients with diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and compared the correlation between the changes of telomere lengths in these defined samples. Patients included had either HCC alone or in conjunction with either pre-existing hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. PCR-based assay incorporating primers to the telomeric hexamer repeats to polymerize and detect telomeric DNA was used. The average telomere length for each independent assessment was measured by seeing the differences in the intensity of the sample's telomere signal (T) to the signal from a single-copy gene (S-, β-globin) to estimate the standard ratio. Our results provide the first convincing evidence that PBS may be utilized to assay telomere shortening as a predictor for disease persistence in HCC resulting after HBV or HCV infection, but not in non-infectious cause-stimulated HCC. These findings provide incipient opportunity to develop telomere length assessment as a biomarker tool for prediction of HCC in patients with HBV or HCV infection, as well as to gauge responses to chemotherapy and other treatment modalities. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Localization-Dependent and -Independent Roles of SLX4 in Regulating Telomeres

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    Jamie S.J. Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SLX4, a scaffold for structure-specific DNA repair nucleases, is important for several types of DNA repair. Many repair proteins bind to sites of DNA damage, resulting in subnuclear “foci,” but SLX4 forms foci in human cells even without DNA damage. Using several approaches, we show that most, but not all, SLX4 foci localize to telomeres in a range of human cell lines irrespective of the mechanisms used to maintain telomere length. The SLX1 Holliday-junction-processing enzyme is recruited to telomeres by SLX4, and SLX4, in turn, is recruited by a motif that binds to the shelterin subunit TRF2 directly. We also show that TRF2-dependent recruitment of SLX4 prevents telomere damage. Furthermore, SLX4 prevents telomere lengthening and fragility in a manner that appears to be independent of telomere association. These findings reveal that SLX4 plays multiple roles in regulating telomere homeostasis.

  11. TRF2 and apollo cooperate with topoisomerase 2alpha to protect human telomeres from replicative damage.

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    Ye, Jing; Lenain, Christelle; Bauwens, Serge; Rizzo, Angela; Saint-Léger, Adelaïde; Poulet, Anaïs; Benarroch, Delphine; Magdinier, Frédérique; Morere, Julia; Amiard, Simon; Verhoeyen, Els; Britton, Sébastien; Calsou, Patrick; Salles, Bernard; Bizard, Anna; Nadal, Marc; Salvati, Erica; Sabatier, Laure; Wu, Yunlin; Biroccio, Annamaria; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Gilson, Eric

    2010-07-23

    Human telomeres are protected from DNA damage by a nucleoprotein complex that includes the repeat-binding factor TRF2. Here, we report that TRF2 regulates the 5' exonuclease activity of its binding partner, Apollo, a member of the metallo-beta-lactamase family that is required for telomere integrity during S phase. TRF2 and Apollo also suppress damage to engineered interstitial telomere repeat tracts that were inserted far away from chromosome ends. Genetic data indicate that DNA topoisomerase 2alpha acts in the same pathway of telomere protection as TRF2 and Apollo. Moreover, TRF2, which binds preferentially to positively supercoiled DNA substrates, together with Apollo, negatively regulates the amount of TOP1, TOP2alpha, and TOP2beta at telomeres. Our data are consistent with a model in which TRF2 and Apollo relieve topological stress during telomere replication. Our work also suggests that cellular senescence may be caused by topological problems that occur during the replication of the inner portion of telomeres. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor ICRF-193 preferentially targets telomeres that are capped by TRF2.

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    Chen, Lianxiang; Zhu, Xiaowei; Zou, Yaru; Xing, Jun; Gilson, Eric; Lu, Yiming; Ye, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The increased level of chromosome instability in cancer cells is not only a driving force for oncogenesis but also can be the Achille's heel of the disease since many chemotherapies kill cells by inducing a nontolerable rate of DNA damage. A wealth of published evidence showed that telomere stability can be more affected than the bulk of the genome by several conventional antineoplastic drugs. In the present study, HT1080 cell lines compromised for either telomere repeats binding factor 2 (TRF2) or POT1 were treated with ICRF-193 (3 μM, 24 h) or bleomycin (1 μM, 24 h). DNA damage was assayed by combining telomeric DNA staining of a (CCCTAA)n PNA probe with immunofluorescence of 53BP1 to score the rate of telomere colocalization with 53BP1 foci. We found that ICRF-193, but not bleomycin, leads to DNA damage preferentially at telomeres, which can be rescued by TRF2 inhibition. POT1 inhibition exacerbates telomere dysfunction induced by ICRF-193. Thus, ICRF-193 induces damage at telomeres properly capped by TRF2 but not by POT1. These findings are expected to broaden our view on the mechanism by which conventional therapeutic molecules act to eliminate cancer cells and how to use TRF2 and POT1 levels as surrogate markers for anti-topoisomerase II sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Quantitative interaction screen of telomeric repeat-containing RNA reveals novel TERRA regulators.

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    Scheibe, Marion; Arnoult, Nausica; Kappei, Dennis; Buchholz, Frank; Decottignies, Anabelle; Butter, Falk; Mann, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Telomeres are actively transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), which has been implicated in the regulation of telomere length and heterochromatin formation. Here, we applied quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to obtain a high-confidence interactome of TERRA. Using SILAC-labeled nuclear cell lysates in an RNA pull-down experiment and two different salt conditions, we distinguished 115 proteins binding specifically to TERRA out of a large set of background binders. While TERRA binders identified in two previous studies showed little overlap, using quantitative mass spectrometry we obtained many candidates reported in these two studies. To test whether novel candidates found here are involved in TERRA regulation, we performed an esiRNA-based interference analysis for 15 of them. Knockdown of 10 genes encoding candidate proteins significantly affected total cellular levels of TERRA, and RNAi of five candidates perturbed TERRA recruitment to telomeres. Notably, depletion of SRRT/ARS2, involved in miRNA processing, up-regulated both total and telomere-bound TERRA. Conversely, knockdown of MORF4L2, a component of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex, reduced TERRA levels both globally and for telomere-bound TERRA. We thus identified new proteins involved in the homeostasis and telomeric abundance of TERRA, extending our knowledge of TERRA regulation.

  14. Association between childhood trauma and accelerated telomere erosion in adulthood: A meta-analytic study.

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    Li, Zongchang; He, Ying; Wang, Dong; Tang, Jingsong; Chen, Xiaogang

    2017-10-01

    Childhood trauma has long-term sequelae on health status and contributes to numbers of somatic and mental disorders in later life. Findings from experimental studies in animals suggest that telomere erosion may be a mediator of this relationship. However, results from human studies are heterogeneous. To address these inconsistencies, we performed a meta-analysis regarding the association between childhood trauma and telomere length in adulthood. Articles were identified by systematically searching the Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science databases. Twenty four studies, which include twenty six sample sets and 30,919 participants, met the inclusion criteria for meta-analyses. This meta-analyses revealed that individuals experienced childhood trauma have accelerated telomere erosion in adulthood, with a small effect size (r = -0.05, 95% CI = -0.08-0.03, p childhood trauma revealed a trend in difference between groups (Q = 5.24, p = 0.07). Analyses for individual trauma types revealed a significant association between childhood separation and telomere erosion (r = -0.09, p childhood trauma and accelerated telomere erosion in adulthood, and further revealed that different trauma types have various impacts on telomere. Additional research on the mechanism that links the individual types of childhood trauma with telomere is needed in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased p53 activity does not accelerate telomere-driven ageing

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    García-Cao, Isabel; García-Cao, Marta; Tomás-Loba, Antonia; Martin-Caballero, Juan; Flores, Juana M; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A; Serrano, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    There is a great interest in determining the impact of p53 on ageing and, for this, it is important to discriminate among the known causes of ageing. Telomere loss is a well-established source of age-associated damage, which by itself can recapitulate ageing in mouse models. Here, we have used a genetic approach to interrogate whether p53 contributes to the elimination of telomere-damaged cells and its impact on telomere-driven ageing. We have generated compound mice carrying three functional copies of the p53 gene (super-p53) in a telomerase-deficient background and we have measured the presence of chromosomal abnormalities and DNA damage in several tissues. We have found that the in vivo load of telomere-derived chromosomal damage is significantly decreased in super-p53/telomerase-null mice compared with normal-p53/telomerase-null mice. Interestingly, the presence of extra p53 activity neither accelerates nor delays telomere-driven ageing. From these observations, we conclude that p53 has an active role in eliminating telomere-damaged cells, and we exclude the possibility of an age-promoting effect of p53 on telomere-driven ageing. PMID:16582880

  16. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

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    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and an aged phenotype. Several reports have recently associated telomeres and telomere-related proteins to diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Interestingly several reports have also shown that longer telomeres are associated with higher physical activity levels, indicating a potential mechanistic link between physical activity, reduced age-related disease risk, and longevity. The primary purpose of this review is to discuss the potential importance of physical activity in telomere biology in the context of inactivity- and age-related diseases. A secondary purpose is to explore potential mechanisms and important avenues for future research in the field of telomeres and diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging.

  17. Human CST Has Independent Functions during Telomere Duplex Replication and C-Strand Fill-In

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    Feng Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1 is an RPA-like complex that is needed for efficient replication through the telomere duplex and genome-wide replication restart after fork stalling. Here, we show that STN1/CST has a second function in telomere replication during G-overhang maturation. Analysis of overhang structure after STN1 depletion revealed normal kinetics for telomerase-mediated extension in S phase but a delay in subsequent overhang shortening. This delay resulted from a defect in C-strand fill-in. Short telomeres exhibited the fill-in defect but normal telomere duplex replication, indicating that STN1/CST functions independently in these processes. Our work also indicates that the requirement for STN1/CST in telomere duplex replication correlates with increasing telomere length and replication stress. Our results provide direct evidence that STN1/CST participates in C-strand fill-in. They also demonstrate that STN1/CST participates in two mechanistically separate steps during telomere replication and identify CST as a replication factor that solves diverse replication-associated problems.

  18. ATM and ATR Signaling Regulate the Recruitment of Human Telomerase to Telomeres

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    Adrian S. Tong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The yeast homologs of the ATM and ATR DNA damage response kinases play key roles in telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance, but the role of ATM/ATR in the mammalian telomerase pathway has been less clear. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for ATM and ATR in the localization of telomerase to telomeres and telomere elongation in immortal human cells. Stalled replication forks increased telomerase recruitment in an ATR-dependent manner. Furthermore, increased telomerase recruitment was observed upon phosphorylation of the shelterin component TRF1 at an ATM/ATR target site (S367. This phosphorylation leads to loss of TRF1 from telomeres and may therefore increase replication fork stalling. ATM and ATR depletion reduced assembly of the telomerase complex, and ATM was required for telomere elongation in cells expressing POT1ΔOB, an allele of POT1 that disrupts telomere-length homeostasis. These data establish that human telomerase recruitment and telomere elongation are modulated by DNA-damage-transducing kinases.

  19. CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated Telomere Removal Leads to Mitochondrial Stress and Protein Aggregation

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    Hyojung Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is considered the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD. Telomere shortening is associated with cellular senescence. In this regard, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of telomerase activity has been used to model cellular aging. Here, we employed CRISPR-Cas9 technology to instantly remove the telomere to induce aging in a neuroblastoma cell line. Expression of both Cas9 and guide RNA targeting telomere repeats ablated the telomere, leading to retardation of cell proliferation. Instant deletion of telomere in SH-SY5Y cells impaired mitochondrial function with diminished mitochondrial respiration and cell viability. Supporting the pathological relevance of cell aging by CRISPR-Cas9 mediated telomere removal, alterations were observed in the levels of PD-associated proteins including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α, nuclear respiratory factor 1, parkin, and aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex interacting multifunctional protein 2. Significantly, α-synuclein expression in the background of telomere removal led to the enhancement of protein aggregation, suggesting positive feed-forward interaction between aging and PD pathogenesis. Collectively, our results demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas9 can be used to efficiently model cellular aging and PD.

  20. CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated Telomere Removal Leads to Mitochondrial Stress and Protein Aggregation.

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    Kim, Hyojung; Ham, Sangwoo; Jo, Minkyung; Lee, Gum Hwa; Lee, Yun-Song; Shin, Joo-Ho; Lee, Yunjong

    2017-10-03

    Aging is considered the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Telomere shortening is associated with cellular senescence. In this regard, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of telomerase activity has been used to model cellular aging. Here, we employed CRISPR-Cas9 technology to instantly remove the telomere to induce aging in a neuroblastoma cell line. Expression of both Cas9 and guide RNA targeting telomere repeats ablated the telomere, leading to retardation of cell proliferation. Instant deletion of telomere in SH-SY5Y cells impaired mitochondrial function with diminished mitochondrial respiration and cell viability. Supporting the pathological relevance of cell aging by CRISPR-Cas9 mediated telomere removal, alterations were observed in the levels of PD-associated proteins including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α, nuclear respiratory factor 1, parkin, and aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex interacting multifunctional protein 2. Significantly, α-synuclein expression in the background of telomere removal led to the enhancement of protein aggregation, suggesting positive feed-forward interaction between aging and PD pathogenesis. Collectively, our results demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas9 can be used to efficiently model cellular aging and PD.

  1. Holokinetic centromeres and efficient telomere healing enable rapid karyotype evolution.

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    Jankowska, Maja; Fuchs, Jörg; Klocke, Evelyn; Fojtová, Miloslava; Polanská, Pavla; Fajkus, Jiří; Schubert, Veit; Houben, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Species with holocentric chromosomes are often characterized by a rapid karyotype evolution. In contrast to species with monocentric chromosomes where acentric fragments are lost during cell division, breakage of holocentric chromosomes creates fragments with normal centromere activity. To decipher the mechanism that allows holocentric species an accelerated karyotype evolution via chromosome breakage, we analyzed the chromosome complements of irradiated Luzula elegans plants. The resulting chromosomal fragments and rearranged chromosomes revealed holocentromere-typical CENH3 and histone H2AThr120ph signals as well as the same mitotic mobility like unfragmented chromosomes. Newly synthesized telomeres at break points become detectable 3 weeks after irradiation. The presence of active telomerase suggests a telomerase-based mechanism of chromosome healing. A successful transmission of holocentric chromosome fragments across different generations was found for most offspring of irradiated plants. Hence, a combination of holokinetic centromere activity and the fast formation of new telomeres at break points enables holocentric species a rapid karyotype evolution involving chromosome fissions and rearrangements.

  2. Telomeric expression sites are highly conserved in Trypanosoma brucei.

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    Christiane Hertz-Fowler

    Full Text Available Subtelomeric regions are often under-represented in genome sequences of eukaryotes. One of the best known examples of the use of telomere proximity for adaptive purposes are the bloodstream expression sites (BESs of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei. To enhance our understanding of BES structure and function in host adaptation and immune evasion, the BES repertoire from the Lister 427 strain of T. brucei were independently tagged and sequenced. BESs are polymorphic in size and structure but reveal a surprisingly conserved architecture in the context of extensive recombination. Very small BESs do exist and many functioning BESs do not contain the full complement of expression site associated genes (ESAGs. The consequences of duplicated or missing ESAGs, including ESAG9, a newly named ESAG12, and additional variant surface glycoprotein genes (VSGs were evaluated by functional assays after BESs were tagged with a drug-resistance gene. Phylogenetic analysis of constituent ESAG families suggests that BESs are sequence mosaics and that extensive recombination has shaped the evolution of the BES repertoire. This work opens important perspectives in understanding the molecular mechanisms of antigenic variation, a widely used strategy for immune evasion in pathogens, and telomere biology.

  3. Molecular architecture of classical cytological landmarks: Centromeres and telomeres

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    Meyne, J.

    1994-11-01

    Both the human telomere repeat and the pericentromeric repeat sequence (GGAAT)n were isolated based on evolutionary conservation. Their isolation was based on the premise that chromosomal features as structurally and functionally important as telomeres and centromeres should be highly conserved. Both sequences were isolated by high stringency screening of a human repetitive DNA library with rodent repetitive DNA. The pHuR library (plasmid Human Repeat) used for this project was enriched for repetitive DNA by using a modification of the standard DNA library preparation method. Usually DNA for a library is cut with restriction enzymes, packaged, infected, and the library is screened. A problem with this approach is that many tandem repeats don`t have any (or many) common restriction sites. Therefore, many of the repeat sequences will not be represented in the library because they are not restricted to a viable length for the vector used. To prepare the pHuR library, human DNA was mechanically sheared to a small size. These relatively short DNA fragments were denatured and then renatured to C{sub o}t 50. Theoretically only repetitive DNA sequences should renature under C{sub o}t 50 conditions. The single-stranded regions were digested using S1 nuclease, leaving the double-stranded, renatured repeat sequences.

  4. Telomere shortening as genetic risk factor of liver cirrhosis.

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    Carulli, Lucia

    2015-01-14

    Cirrhosis is the main complication of chronic liver disease, leads to progressive liver function impairment and is the main risk factor for the development of liver cancer. Liver failure at endstage cirrhosis is associated with increased mortality with liver transplantation as the only possible treatment at this stage. The pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis is not completely elucidated. Although the common factors leading to liver injury, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol consume or fatty liver disease can be identified in the majority of patients a small percentage of patients have no apparent risk factors. Moreover given the same risk factors, some patients progress to cirrhosis whereas others have a benign course, the reason remains unclear. In order to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools, it is s essential to understand the pathogenesis of cirrhosis. The identification of genetic risk factors associated with cirrhosis is one of the possible approach to achieve these goal. In the past years several studies have supported the role of telomere shortening and cirrhosis. In the recent year several studies on the relation between several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and cirrhosis have been published; it has been proposed also a cirrhosis risk score based on seven SNPs. Also epidemiological studies on identical twins and in different ethnic groups have been supporting the importance of the role of genetic risk factors. Finally in the very recent years it has been suggested that telomere shortening may represent a genetic risk factor for the development of cirrhosis.

  5. TRF2 binds branched DNA to safeguard telomere integrity.

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    Schmutz, Isabelle; Timashev, Leonid; Xie, Wei; Patel, Dinshaw J; de Lange, Titia

    2017-09-01

    Although t-loops protect telomeres, they are at risk of cleavage by Holliday junction (HJ) resolvases if branch migration converts the three-way t-loop junction into four-way HJs. T-loop cleavage is repressed by the TRF2 basic domain, which binds three- and four-way junctions and protects HJs in vitro. By replacing the basic domain with bacterial-protein domains binding three- and four-way junctions, we demonstrated the in vivo relevance of branched-DNA binding. Branched-DNA binding also repressed PARP1, presumably by masking the PARP1 site in the t-loop junction. Although PARP1 recruits HJ resolvases and promotes t-loop cleavage, PARP1 activation alone did not result in t-loop cleavage, thus suggesting that the basic domain also prevents formation of HJs. Concordantly, removal of HJs by BLM helicase mitigated t-loop cleavage in response to loss of the basic domain. We propose that TRF2 masks and stabilizes the t-loop three-way junction, thereby protecting telomeres from detrimental deletions and PARP1 activation.

  6. Food Security and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Adult Americans.

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    Mazidi, Mohsen; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of biologic age. Whether food security status modulates LTL is still unknown. We investigated the association between food security and LTL in participants of the 1999-2002 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the association between food security categories and LTL controlling for sex, race, and education and accounting for the survey design and sample weights. We included 10,888 participants with 5228 (48.0%) being men. They were aged on average 44.1 years. In all, 2362 (21.7%) had less than high school, 2787 (25.6%) had achieved high school, while 5705 (52.5%) had done more than high school. In sex-, race-, and education-adjusted ANCOVA, average LTL (T/S ratio) for participants with high food security versus those with marginal, low, or very low food security was 1.32 versus 1.20 for the age group 25-35 years and 1.26 versus 1.11 for the 35-45 years, ( p food insecurity and LTL shortening in young adults suggest that some of the future effects of food insecurity on chronic disease risk in this population could be mediated by telomere shortening.

  7. Signalling of double strand breaks and deprotected telomeres in Arabidopsis.

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    Simon eAmiard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Failure to repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB can lead to chromosomal rearrangements and eventually to cancer or cell death. Radiation and environmental pollutants induce DSB and this is of particular relevance to plants due to their sessile life style. DSB also occur naturally in cells during DNA replication and programmed induction of DSB initiates the meiotic recombination essential for gametogenesis in most eukaryotes. The linear nature of most eukaryotic chromosomes means that each chromosome has two "broken" ends. Chromosome ends, or telomeres, are protected by nucleoprotein caps which avoid their recognition as DSB by the cellular DNA repair machinery. Deprotected telomeres are recognized as DSB and become substrates for recombination leading to chromosome fusions, the "bridge-breakage-fusion" cycle, genome rearrangements and cell death. The importance of repair of DSB and the severity of the consequences of their misrepair have led to the presence of multiple, robust mechanisms for their detection and repair. After a brief overview of DSB repair pathways to set the context, we present here an update of current understanding of the detection and signalling of DSB in the plant, Arabidopsis thaliana.

  8. On the interplay of telomeres, nevi and the risk of melanoma.

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    Clara Bodelon

    Full Text Available The relationship between telomeres, nevi and melanoma is complex. Shorter telomeres have been found to be associated with many cancers and with number of nevi, a known risk factor for melanoma. However, shorter telomeres have also been found to decrease melanoma risk. We performed a systematic analysis of telomere-related genes and tagSNPs within these genes, in relation to the risk of melanoma, dysplastic nevi, and nevus count combining data from four studies conducted in Italy. In addition, we examined whether telomere length measured in peripheral blood leukocytes is related to the risk of melanoma, dysplastic nevi, number of nevi, or telomere-related SNPs. A total of 796 cases and 770 controls were genotyped for 517 SNPs in 39 telomere-related genes genotyped with a custom-made array. Replication of the top SNPs was conducted in two American populations consisting of 488 subjects from 53 melanoma-prone families and 1,086 cases and 1,024 controls from a case-control study. We estimated odds ratios for associations with SNPs and combined SNP P-values to compute gene region-specific, functional group-specific, and overall P-value using an adaptive rank-truncated product algorithm. In the Mediterranean population, we found suggestive evidence that RECQL4, a gene involved in genome stability, RTEL1, a gene regulating telomere elongation, and TERF2, a gene implicated in the protection of telomeres, were associated with melanoma, the presence of dysplastic nevi and number of nevi, respectively. However, these associations were not found in the American samples, suggesting variable melanoma susceptibility for these genes across populations or chance findings in our discovery sample. Larger studies across different populations are necessary to clarify these associations.

  9. Rad59-facilitated acquisition of Y' elements by short telomeres delays the onset of senescence.

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    Dmitri Churikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase-negative yeasts survive via one of the two Rad52-dependent recombination pathways, which have distinct genetic requirements. Although the telomere pattern of type I and type II survivors is well characterized, the mechanistic details of short telomere rearrangement into highly evolved pattern observed in survivors are still missing. Here, we analyze immediate events taking place at the abruptly shortened VII-L and native telomeres. We show that short telomeres engage in pairing with internal Rap1-bound TG1-3-like tracts present between subtelomeric X and Y' elements, which is followed by BIR-mediated non-reciprocal translocation of Y' element and terminal TG1-3 repeats from the donor end onto the shortened telomere. We found that choice of the Y' donor was not random, since both engineered telomere VII-L and native VI-R acquired Y' elements from partially overlapping sets of specific chromosome ends. Although short telomere repair was associated with transient delay in cell divisions, Y' translocation on native telomeres did not require Mec1-dependent checkpoint. Furthermore, the homeologous pairing between the terminal TG1-3 repeats at VII-L and internal repeats on other chromosome ends was largely independent of Rad51, but instead it was facilitated by Rad59 that stimulates Rad52 strand annealing activity. Therefore, Y' translocation events taking place during presenescence are genetically separable from Rad51-dependent Y' amplification process that occurs later during type I survivor formation. We show that Rad59-facilitated Y' translocations on X-only telomeres delay the onset of senescence while preparing ground for type I survivor formation.

  10. Long telomeres are associated with clonality in wild populations of the fissiparous starfish Coscinasterias tenuispina.

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    Garcia-Cisneros, A; Pérez-Portela, R; Almroth, B C; Degerman, S; Palacín, C; Sköld, H Nilsson

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres usually shorten during an organism's lifespan and have thus been used as an aging and health marker. When telomeres become sufficiently short, senescence is induced. The most common method of restoring telomere length is via telomerase reverse transcriptase activity, highly expressed during embryogenesis. However, although asexual reproduction from adult tissues has an important role in the life cycles of certain species, its effect on the aging and fitness of wild populations, as well as its implications for the long-term survival of populations with limited genetic variation, is largely unknown. Here we compare relative telomere length of 58 individuals from four populations of the asexually reproducing starfish Coscinasterias tenuispina. Additionally, 12 individuals were used to compare telomere lengths in regenerating and non-regenerating arms, in two different tissues (tube feet and pyloric cecum). The level of clonality was assessed by genotyping the populations based on 12 specific microsatellite loci and relative telomere length was measured via quantitative PCR. The results revealed significantly longer telomeres in Mediterranean populations than Atlantic ones as demonstrated by the Kruskal-Wallis test (K=24.17, significant value: P-value<0.001), with the former also characterized by higher levels of clonality derived from asexual reproduction. Telomeres were furthermore significantly longer in regenerating arms than in non-regenerating arms within individuals (pyloric cecum tissue: Mann-Whitney test, V=299, P-value<10(-6); and tube feet tissue Student's t=2.28, P-value=0.029). Our study suggests that one of the mechanisms responsible for the long-term somatic maintenance and persistence of clonal populations is telomere elongation.

  11. Telomere length in alcohol dependence: A role for impulsive choice and childhood maltreatment.

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    Kang, Jee In; Hwang, Syung Shick; Choi, Jong Rak; Lee, Seung-Tae; Kim, Jieun; Hwang, In Sik; Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Kim, Se Joo

    2017-09-01

    Telomere shortening, a marker of cellular aging, has been considered to be linked with psychosocial stress as well as with chronic alcohol consumption, possibly mediated by oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Recent findings suggested that early life adversity on telomere dynamics may be related to impulsive choice. To further our understanding of the association of impulsive choice and childhood trauma on telomere length, we examined whether delayed discounting and childhood trauma or their interaction is related to leukocyte telomere length, while controlling for multiple potential confounding variables, in patients with alcohol dependence who are considered to have higher impulsive choice and shorter telomere length. We recruited 253 male patients with chronic alcohol dependence. All participants performed the delay discounting task, and the area under curve was used as a measure of delay discounting. Steeper delay discounting represents more impulsive choices. The modified Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale was used to measure childhood maltreatment. In addition, confounding factors, including socio-demographic characteristics, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Resilience Quotient, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, were also assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses showed a significant main effect of delay discounting (β=0.161, t=2.640, p=0.009), and an interaction effect between delay discounting and childhood maltreatment on leukocyte telomere length (β=0.173, t=2.138, p=0.034). In subsequent analyses stratified by childhood maltreatment, patients with alcohol dependence and high childhood trauma showed a significant relationship between delay discounting and leukocyte telomere length (β=0.279, t=3.183, p=0.002), while those with low trauma showed no association between them. Our findings suggest that higher impulsive choice is associated with shorter telomere

  12. Human TEN1 maintains telomere integrity and functions in genome-wide replication restart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbek, Christopher; Wang, Feng; Price, Carolyn M

    2013-10-18

    TEN1 is a component of the mammalian CTC1-STN1-TEN1 complex. CTC1 and/or STN1 functions in telomere duplex replication, C-strand fill-in, and genome-wide restart of replication following fork stalling. Here we examine the role of human TEN1 and ask whether it also functions as a specialized replication factor. TEN1 depletion causes an increase in multitelomere fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals similar to that observed after CTC1 or STN1 depletion. However, TEN1 depletion also results in increased telomere loss. This loss is not accompanied by increased telomere deprotection, recombination, or T-circle release. Thus, it appears that both the multiple telomere signals and telomere loss stem from problems in telomere duplex replication. TEN1 depletion can also affect telomere length, but whether telomeres lengthen or shorten is cell line-dependent. Like CTC1 and STN1, TEN1 is needed for G-overhang processing. Depletion of TEN1 does not effect overhang elongation in mid-S phase, but it delays overhang shortening in late S/G2. These results indicate a role for TEN1 in C-strand fill-in but do not support a direct role in telomerase regulation. Finally, TEN1 depletion causes a decrease in genome-wide replication restart following fork stalling similar to that observed after STN1 depletion. However, anaphase bridge formation is more severe than with CTC1 or STN1 depletion. Our findings indicate that TEN1 likely functions in conjunction with CTC1 and STN1 at the telomere and elsewhere in the genome. They also raise the possibility that TEN1 has additional roles and indicate that TEN1/CTC1-STN1-TEN1 helps solve a wide range of challenges to the replication machinery.

  13. Telomere length, cardiovascular risk and arteriosclerosis in human kidneys: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vusser, Katrien; Pieters, Nicky; Janssen, Bram; Lerut, Evelyne; Kuypers, Dirk; Jochmans, Ina; Monbaliu, Diethard; Pirenne, Jacques; Nawrot, Tim; Naesens, Maarten

    2015-10-01

    Replicative senescence, associated with telomere shortening, plays an important role in aging and cardiovascular disease. The relation between telomere length, cardiovascular risk, and renal disease is unknown. Our study consisted of a cohort of 257 kidney donors for transplantation, divided into a test and a validation cohort. We used quantitative RT-PCR to measure relative telomere length (log T/S ratio) in peripheral blood leucocytes, and in kidney biopsies performed prior to implantation. The association between leucocyte and intrarenal telomere length, cardiovascular risk factors, and renal histology, was studied using multiple regression models, adjusted for calendar age, gender and other donor demographics. Subjects with intrarenal arteriosclerosis had significantly shorter leucocyte telomere length compared with patients without arteriosclerosis (log T/S ratio -0.3±0.4 vs. 0.1±0.2 with vs. without arteriosclerosis; p=0.0008). Intrarenal arteriosclerosis was associated with shorter telomere length, independent of gender, calendar age, history of hypertension and history of cardiovascular events. For each increase of one standard deviation of the log T/S ratio, the odds for intrarenal arteriosclerosis decreased with 64% (Odds ratio 0.36; 95% CI 0.17-0.77; p=0.02). In accordance with leucocyte telomere length, shorter intrarenal telomere length associated significantly with the presence of renal arteriosclerosis (log T/S ratio -0.04±0.06 vs. 0.08±0.01 with vs. without arteriosclerosis, p=0.007), and not with other histological lesions. We demonstrate that arteriosclerosis in smaller intrarenal arteries is associated with shorter telomere length. Our study suggests a central role of replicative senescence in the progression of renovascular disease, independent of calendar age.

  14. Augmented telomerase activity, reduced telomere length and the presence of alternative lengthening of telomere in renal cell carcinoma: plausible predictive and diagnostic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deeksha; Sharma, Ujjawal; Khajuria, Ragini; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Kakkar, Nandita; Prasad, Rajendra

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we analyzed 100 cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for telomerase activity, telomere length and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) using the TRAP assay, TeloTTAGGG assay kit and immunohistochemical analysis of ALT associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies respectively. A significantly higher (P=0.000) telomerase activity was observed in 81 cases of RCC which was correlated with clinicopathological features of tumor for instance, stage (P=0.008) and grades (P=0.000) but not with the subtypes of RCC (P = 0.355). Notwithstanding, no correlation was found between telomerase activity and subtypes of RCC. Strikingly, the telomere length was found to be significantly shorter in RCC (P=0.000) to that of corresponding normal renal tissues and it is well correlated with grades (P=0.016) but not with stages (P=0.202) and subtypes (P=0.669) of RCC. In this study, telomere length was also negatively correlated with the age of patients (r(2)=0.528; P=0.000) which supports the notion that it could be used as a marker for biological aging. ALT associated PML bodies containing PML protein was found in telomerase negative cases of RCC. It suggests the presence of an ALT pathway mechanism to maintain the telomere length in telomerase negative RCC tissues which was associated with high stages of RCC, suggesting a prevalent mechanism for telomere maintenance in high stages. In conclusion, the telomerase activity and telomere length can be used as a diagnostic as well as a predictive marker in RCC. The prevalence of ALT mechanism in high stages of RCC is warranted for the development of anti-ALT inhibitors along with telomerase inhibitor against RCC as a therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolution of Arabidopsis protection of telomeres 1 alters nucleic acid recognition and telomerase regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Amit; Beilstein, Mark A.; Shippen, Dorothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Protection of telomeres (POT1) binds chromosome ends, recognizing single-strand telomeric DNA via two oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding folds (OB-folds). The Arabidopsis thaliana POT1a and POT1b paralogs are atypical: they do not exhibit telomeric DNA binding, and they have opposing roles in regulating telomerase activity. AtPOT1a stimulates repeat addition processivity of the canonical telomerase enzyme, while AtPOT1b interacts with a regulatory lncRNA that represses telomerase activit...

  16. TP53-dependent chromosome instability is associated with transient reductions in telomere length in immortal telomerase-positive cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J. L.; Jordan, R.; Liber, H.; Murnane, J. P.; Evans, H. H.

    2001-01-01

    Telomere shortening in telomerase-negative somatic cells leads to the activation of the TP53 protein and the elimination of potentially unstable cells. We examined the effect of TP53 gene expression on both telomere metabolism and chromosome stability in immortal, telomerase-positive cell lines. Telomere length, telomerase activity, and chromosome instability were measured in multiple clones isolated from three related human B-lymphoblast cell lines that vary in TP53 expression; TK6 cells express wild-type TP53, WTK1 cells overexpress a mutant form of TP53, and NH32 cells express no TP53 protein. Clonal variations in both telomere length and chromosome stability were observed, and shorter telomeres were associated with higher levels of chromosome instability. The shortest telomeres were found in WTK1- and NH32-derived cells, and these cells had 5- to 10-fold higher levels of chromosome instability. The primary marker of instability was the presence of dicentric chromosomes. Aneuploidy and other stable chromosome alterations were also found in clones showing high levels of dicentrics. Polyploidy was found only in WTK1-derived cells. Both telomere length and chromosome instability fluctuated in the different cell populations with time in culture, presumably as unstable cells and cells with short telomeres were eliminated from the growing population. Our results suggest that transient reductions in telomere lengths may be common in immortal cell lines and that these alterations in telomere metabolism can have a profound effect on chromosome stability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Using centromere mediated genome elimination to elucidate the functional redundancy of candidate telomere binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel eRiha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins that bind to telomeric DNA form the key structural and functional constituents of telomeres. While telomere binding proteins have been described in the majority of organisms, their identity in plants remains unknown. Several protein families containing a telomere binding motif known as the telobox have been previously described in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nonetheless, functional evidence for their involvement at telomeres has not been obtained, likely due to functional redundancy. Here we performed genetic analysis on the TRF-like family consisting of six proteins (TRB1, TRP1, TRFL1, TRFL2, TRFL4 and TRF9 which have previously shown to bind telomeric DNA in vitro. We used haploid genetics to create multiple knock-out plants deficient for all six proteins of this gene family. These plants did not exhibit changes in telomere length, or phenotypes associated with telomere dysfunction. This data demonstrates that this telobox protein family is not involved in telomere maintenance in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis in major plant lineages revealed early diversification of telobox proteins families indicating that telomere function may be associated with other telobox proteins.

  18. DNA-PKcs-interacting protein KIP binding to TRF2 is required for the maintenance of functional telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Prabhat; Lee, Ji Hoon; Baek, Seung Han; Oh, Sue Young; Chung, In Kwon

    2014-10-01

    Human telomeres associate with shelterin, a six-protein complex that protects chromosome ends from being recognized as sites of DNA damage. The shelterin subunit TRF2 (telomeric repeat-binding factor 2) protects telomeres by facilitating their organization into the protective capping structure. We have reported previously that the DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit)-interacting protein KIP associates with telomerase through an interaction with hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase). In the present study, we identify KIP as a novel interacting partner of TRF2. KIP is able to interact with both TRF2 and DNA-PKcs at telomeres. Because KIP is required for the association between TRF2 and DNA-PKcs, the interplay of these three proteins may provide a mechanism for the recruitment of DNA-PKcs to telomeres. We also show that KIP binding to TRF2 enhances the telomere-binding activity of TRF2, suggesting that KIP acts as a positive regulator of TRF2 function. Furthermore, depletion of KIP induces DNA-damage response foci at telomeres, thereby leading to induction of growth arrest, cellular senescence and altered cell cycle distribution. Collectively, our findings suggest that KIP, in addition to its association with catalytically active telomerase, plays important roles in the maintenance of functional telomeres and the regulation of telomere-associated DNA-damage response. Thus KIP represents a new pathway for modulating telomerase and telomere function in cancer.

  19. Platinum(II) phenanthroimidazole G-quadruplex ligand induces selective telomere shortening in A549 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Johanna; Rousseau, Philippe; Castor, Katherine J; Sleiman, Hanadi F; Autexier, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    Telomere maintenance, achieved by the binding of protective shelterin capping proteins to telomeres and by either telomerase or a recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanism, is critical for cell proliferation and survival. Extensive telomere shortening or loss of telomere integrity activates DNA damage checkpoints, leading to cell senescence or death. Although telomerase upregulation is an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy, the lag associated with telomere shortening and the potential activation of ALT pose a challenge. An alternative approach is to modify telomere interactions with binding proteins (telomere uncapping). G-quadruplex ligands stabilize structures generated from single-stranded G-rich 3'-telomere end (G-quadruplex) folding, which in principle, cannot be elongated by telomerase, thus leading to telomere shortening. Ligands can also mediate rapid anti-proliferative effects by telomere uncapping. We previously reported that the G-quadruplex ligand, phenylphenanthroimidazole ethylenediamine platinum(II) (PIP), inhibits telomerase activity in vitro[47]. In the current study, a long-term seeding assay showed that PIP significantly inhibited the seeding capacity of A549 lung cancer cells and to a lesser extent primary MRC5 fibroblast cells. Importantly, treatment with PIP caused a significant dose- and time-dependent decrease in average telomere length of A549 but not MRC5 cells. Moreover, cell cycle analysis revealed a significant increase in G1 arrest upon treatment of A549 cells, but not MRC5 cells. Both apoptosis and cellular senescence may contribute to the anti-proliferative effects of PIP. Our studies validate the development of novel and specific therapeutic ligands targeting telomeric G-quadruplex structures in cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  20. TRF1 and TRF2 use different mechanisms to find telomeric DNA but share a novel mechanism to search for protein partners at telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiangguo; Countryman, Preston; Buncher, Noah; Kaur, Parminder; E, Longjiang; Zhang, Yiyun; Gibson, Greg; You, Changjiang; Watkins, Simon C; Piehler, Jacob; Opresko, Patricia L; Kad, Neil M; Wang, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Human telomeres are maintained by the shelterin protein complex in which TRF1 and TRF2 bind directly to duplex telomeric DNA. How these proteins find telomeric sequences among a genome of billions of base pairs and how they find protein partners to form the shelterin complex remains uncertain. Using single-molecule fluorescence imaging of quantum dot-labeled TRF1 and TRF2, we study how these proteins locate TTAGGG repeats on DNA tightropes. By virtue of its basic domain TRF2 performs an extensive 1D search on nontelomeric DNA, whereas TRF1's 1D search is limited. Unlike the stable and static associations observed for other proteins at specific binding sites, TRF proteins possess reduced binding stability marked by transient binding (∼ 9-17 s) and slow 1D diffusion on specific telomeric regions. These slow diffusion constants yield activation energy barriers to sliding ∼ 2.8-3.6 κ(B)T greater than those for nontelomeric DNA. We propose that the TRF proteins use 1D sliding to find protein partners and assemble the shelterin complex, which in turn stabilizes the interaction with specific telomeric DNA. This 'tag-team proofreading' represents a more general mechanism to ensure a specific set of proteins interact with each other on long repetitive specific DNA sequences without requiring external energy sources.

  1. Cognitive Change during the Life Course and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Late Middle-Aged Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, L.; Bendix, Laila; Harbo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    difference beta = -0.09, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.01, p = 0.02) but was non-significant after adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time activity, BMI, cholesterol, current cognitive function, depression and education (adjusted difference beta = -0.07, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.01, p = 0.08). Conclusion......, it is unclear whether there is an association between cognitive decline and leukocyte telomere length. Objective: To examine the association between changes in cognitive function during adult life and leukocyte telomere length after adjusting for confounding factors such as education, mental health and life...... telomere length at age similar to 58 was measured using qPCR. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between cognitive function and leukocyte telomere length. Results: Men with negative change in cognitive performance during adult life had significantly shorter mean leukocyte...

  2. Formation of radiation induced chromosome aberrations: involvement of telomeric sequences and telomerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirzio, L.

    2004-07-15

    As telomeres are crucial for chromosome integrity; we investigated the role played by telomeric sequences in the formation and in the transmission of radio-induced chromosome rearrangements in human cells. Starting from interstitial telomeric sequences (ITS) as putative region of breakage, we showed that the radiation sensitivity is not equally distributed along chromosomes and. is not affected by ITS. On the contrary, plasmid integration sites are prone to radio-induced breaks, suggesting a possible integration at sites already characterized by fragility. However plasmids do not preferentially insert at radio-induced breaks in human cells immortalized by telomerase. These cells showed remarkable karyotype stability even after irradiation, suggesting a role of telomerase in the genome maintenance despite functional telomeres. Finally, we showed that the presence of more breaks in a cell favors the repair, leading to an increase of transmissible rearrangements. (author)

  3. The power of exercise: buffering the effect of chronic stress on telomere length

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puterman, Eli; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; O'Donovan, Aoife; Adler, Nancy; Epel, Elissa

    2010-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with detrimental effects on physical health, and may operate in part through accelerated cell aging, as indexed by shorter telomeres at the ends of chromosomes...

  4. Interstitial Telomeric Motifs in Squamate Reptiles: When the Exceptions Outnumber the Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Altmanová, Marie; Johnson Pokorná, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes protecting the physical ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes and therefore helping to ensure their stability and integrity. Additionally, telomeric sequences can be localized in non-terminal regions of chromosomes, forming so-called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). ITSs are traditionally considered to be relics of chromosomal rearrangements and thus very informative in the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of karyotype formation. We examined the distribution of the telomeric motifs (TTAGGG)n using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 30 species, representing 17 families of squamate reptiles, and compared them with the collected data from another 38 species from literature. Out of the 68 squamate species analyzed, 35 possess ITSs in pericentromeric regions, centromeric regions and/or within chromosome arms. We conclude that the occurrence of ITSs is rather common in squamates, despite their generally conserved karyotypes, suggesting frequent and independent cryptic chromosomal rearrangements in this vertebrate group.

  5. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross......-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary...... disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake...

  6. Identification of New Genes that Regulate Telomerase and Telomere Length in Budding Yeast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pennock, Erin

    2001-01-01

    ... of telomerase to the chromosome end. The exact molecular mechanism by which Cdc13 protects the telomere has not been elucidated, although Stn1, a protein previously shown to interact with Cdc13, may contribute to end protection...

  7. Mutations in TERT promoter and FGFR3 and telomere length in bladder cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosen, Ismail; Rachakonda, P. Sivaramakrishna; Heidenreich, Barbara; de Verdier, Petra J; Ryk, Charlotta; Steineck, Gunnar; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study, we screened DNA from 327 urothelial bladder carcinomas from well‐documented patients, with different stages and grades and known TERT promoter mutational status, for FGFR3 alterations and measured relative telomere length (RTL...

  8. Role of HMGB Proteins in Chromatin Dynamics and Telomere Maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schrumpfová, P.; Fojtová, Miloslava; Mokroš, P.; Grasser, K.D.; Fajkus, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2011), s. 105-111 ISSN 1389-2037 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : HMGB * telomere shortening/elongation * plants Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.886, year: 2011

  9. Cooperation of DNA-PKcs and WRN helicase in the maintenance of telomeric D-loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumoto-Matsuo, Rika; Opresko, Patricia L; Ramsden, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Werner syndrome is an inherited human progeriod syndrome caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Werner Syndrome protein, WRN. It has both 3'-5' DNA helicase and exonuclease activities, and is suggested to have roles in many aspects of DNA metabolism, including DNA repair and telomere...... maintenance. The DNA-PK complex also functions in both DNA double strand break repair and telomere maintenance. Interaction between WRN and the DNA-PK complex has been reported in DNA double strand break repair, but their possible cooperation at telomeres has not been reported. This study analyzes thein vitro...... D-loop model substrate. In addition, the length of telomeric G-tails decreases in DNA-PKcs knockdown cells, and this phenotype is reversed by overexpression of WRN helicase. These results suggest that WRN and DNA-PKcs may cooperatively prevent G-tail shortening in vivo....

  10. Identification of New Genes that Regulate Telomerase and Telomere Length in Budding Yeast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Otero, Joel

    2003-01-01

    In budding yeast, Cdc13 has both an essential function in chromosome end protection as well as a non-essential role in telomere replication, by mediating recruitment of telomerase to the chromosome end...

  11. The basic N-terminal domain of TRF2 limits recombination endonuclease action at human telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Léger, Adélaïde; Koelblen, Melanie; Civitelli, Livia; Bah, Amadou; Djerbi, Nadir; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Gilson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The stability of mammalian telomeres depends upon TRF2, which prevents inappropriate repair and checkpoint activation. By using a plasmid integration assay in yeasts carrying humanized telomeres, we demonstrated that TRF2 possesses the intrinsic property to both stimulate initial homologous recombination events and to prevent their resolution via its basic N-terminal domain. In human cells, we further showed that this TRF2 domain prevents telomere shortening mediated by the resolvase-associated protein SLX4 as well as GEN1 and MUS81, 2 different types of endonucleases with resolvase activities. We propose that various types of resolvase activities are kept in check by the basic N-terminal domain of TRF2 in order to favor an accurate repair of the stalled forks that occur during telomere replication.

  12. Increased chemosensitivity of paclitaxel by telomeric fusion-induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seon Rang; Juhn, Kyoung Mi; Park, Jeong Eun; Ju, Yeun Jin; Yun, Mi Yong; Lee, Kee Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gil Hong; Kim, Joon [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A telomere is a region of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes. They protect a cell's chromosomes from fusing with each other or rearranging and so cells are normally destroyed when their telomeres are consumed. Most normal somatic cells lose telomeric repeats after each cell division. Telomeric shortening in humans can induce replicative senescence which blocks cell division. This mechanism appears to prevent genomic instability by limiting the number of cell divisions. Telomerase is an attractive molecular target, since its activity has been found in more than 85% of human cancers. Combination therapy with chemotherapeutic agent is superior to single in overall response rate and progression free survival. In this study, we showed that telomerase null cells are more hypersensitive by paclitaxel treatment than at wild type cells.

  13. WRN loss induces switching of telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere elongation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Renee Sandy Gocha

    Full Text Available Telomere maintenance can occur in the presence of telomerase or in its absence, termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT. ALT adds telomere repeats using recombination-based processes and DNA repair proteins that function in homologous recombination. Our previous work reported that the RecQ-like BLM helicase is required for ALT and that it unwinds telomeric substrates in vitro. WRN is also a RecQ-like helicase that shares many biochemical functions with BLM. WRN interacts with BLM, unwinds telomeric substrates, and co-localizes to ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs, suggesting that it may also be required for ALT processes. Using long-term siRNA knockdown of WRN in three ALT cell lines, we show that some, but not all, cell lines require WRN for telomere maintenance. VA-13 cells require WRN to prevent telomere loss and for the formation of APBs; Saos-2 cells do not. A third ALT cell line, U-2 OS, requires WRN for APB formation, however WRN loss results in p53-mediated apoptosis. In the absence of WRN and p53, U-2 OS cells undergo telomere loss for an intermediate number of population doublings (50-70, at which point they maintain telomere length even with the continued loss of WRN. WRN and the tumor suppressor BRCA1 co-localize to APBs in VA-13 and U-2 OS, but not in Saos-2 cells. WRN loss in U-2 OS is associated with a loss of BRCA1 from APBs. While the loss of WRN significantly increases telomere sister chromatid exchanges (T-SCE in these three ALT cell lines, loss of both BRCA1 and WRN does not significantly alter T-SCE. This work demonstrates that ALT cell lines use different telomerase-independent maintenance mechanisms that variably require the WRN helicase and that some cells can switch from one mechanism to another that permits telomere elongation in the absence of WRN. Our data suggest that BRCA1 localization may define these mechanisms.

  14. Stabilization of Telomere G-Quadruplexes Interferes with Human Herpesvirus 6A Chromosomal Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Girard, Shella; Gravel, Annie; Artusi, Sara; Richter, Sara N; Wallaschek, Nina; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Flamand, Louis

    2017-07-15

    Human herpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A/B) can integrate their genomes into the telomeres of human chromosomes using a mechanism that remains poorly understood. To achieve a better understanding of the HHV-6A/B integration mechanism, we made use of BRACO-19, a compound that stabilizes G-quadruplex secondary structures and prevents telomere elongation by the telomerase complex. First, we analyzed the folding of telomeric sequences into G-quadruplex structures and their binding to BRACO-19 using G-quadruplex-specific antibodies and surface plasmon resonance. Circular dichroism studies indicate that BRACO-19 modifies the conformation and greatly stabilizes the G-quadruplexes formed in G-rich telomeric DNA. Subsequently we assessed the effects of BRACO-19 on the HHV-6A initial phase of infection. Our results indicate that BRACO-19 does not affect entry of HHV-6A DNA into cells. We next investigated if stabilization of G-quadruplexes by BRACO-19 affected HHV-6A's ability to integrate its genome into host chromosomes. Incubation of telomerase-expressing cells with BRACO-19, such as HeLa and MCF-7, caused a significant reduction in the HHV-6A integration frequency ( P integration frequency in U2OS cells that lack telomerase activity and elongate their telomeres through alternative lengthening mechanisms. Our data suggest that the fluidity of telomeres is important for efficient chromosomal integration of HHV-6A and that interference with telomerase activity negatively affects the generation of cellular clones containing integrated HHV-6A. IMPORTANCE HHV-6A/B can integrate their genomes into the telomeres of infected cells. Telomeres consist of repeated hexanucleotides (TTAGGG) of various lengths (up to several kilobases) and end with a single-stranded 3' extension. To avoid recognition and induce a DNA damage response, the single-stranded overhang folds back on itself and forms a telomeric loop (T-loop) or adopts a tertiary structure, referred to as a G-quadruplex. In the

  15. Sex differences in telomeres and lifespan in Soay sheep: From the beginning to the end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Ben; Garratt, Michael

    2017-06-01

    There is tremendous diversity in ageing rates and lifespan not only among taxa but within species, and particularly between the sexes. Women often live longer than men, and considerable research on this topic has revealed some of the potential biological, psychological and cultural causes of sex differences in human ageing and lifespan. However, sex differences in lifespan are widespread in nonhuman animals suggesting biology plays a prominent role in variation in ageing and lifespan. Recently, evolutionary biologists have borrowed techniques from biomedicine to identify whether similar mechanisms causing or contributing to variation in ageing and lifespan in humans and laboratory animals also operate in wild animals. Telomeres are repetitive noncoding DNA sequences capping the ends of chromosomes that are important for chromosomal stability but that can shorten during normal cell division and exposure to stress. Telomere shortening is hypothesized to directly contribute to the ageing process as once telomeres shorten to some length, the cells stop dividing and die. Men tend to have shorter telomeres and faster rates of telomere attrition with age than women, suggesting one possible biological cause of sex differences in lifespan. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Watson et al. () show that telomere lengths in wild Soay sheep are similar between females and males near the beginning of life but quickly diverge with age because males but not females showed reduced telomere lengths at older ages. The authors further show that some of the observed sex difference in telomere lengths in old age may be due to male investment in horn growth earlier in life, suggesting that sexually dimorphic allocation to traits involved in sexual selection might underlie sex differences in telomere attrition. This study provides a rare example of how biological mechanisms potentially contributing to sex differences in lifespan in humans may also operate in free-living animals. However

  16. Behaviour of telomere and telomerase during aging and regeneration in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Anchelin

    Full Text Available Telomere length and telomerase activity are important factors in the pathobiology of human diseases. Age-related diseases and premature aging syndromes are characterized by short telomeres, which can compromise cell viability, whereas tumour cells can prevent telomere loss by aberrantly upregulating telomerase. The zebrafish (Danio rerio offers multiple experimental manipulation advantages over other vertebrate models and, therefore, it has been recently considered as a potential model for aging, cancer, and regeneration studies. However, it has only partially been exploited to shed light on these fundamental biological processes. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate telomere length and telomerase expression and activity in different strains of zebrafish obtained from different stock centres to determine whether they undergo any changes during aging and regeneration. We found that although both telomerase expression and telomere length increased from embryo to adulthood stages, they drastically declined in aged fish despite telomerase activity was detected in different tissues of old fish. In addition, we observed a weaker upregulation of telomerase expression in regenerating fins of old fish, which well correlates with their impaired regeneration capacity. Strikingly, telomeres were elongated or maintained during the fin regeneration process at all ages and after repeated amputations, likely to support high cell proliferation rates. We conclude that the expression of telomerase and telomere length are closely related during the entire life cycle of the fish and that these two parameters can be used as biomarkers of aging in zebrafish. Our results also reveal a direct relationship between the expression of telomerase, telomere length and the efficiency of tissue regeneration.

  17. Behaviour of Telomere and Telomerase during Aging and Regeneration in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Pérez, Francisca; García-Navarro, Esther M.; Cayuela, María L.

    2011-01-01

    Telomere length and telomerase activity are important factors in the pathobiology of human diseases. Age-related diseases and premature aging syndromes are characterized by short telomeres, which can compromise cell viability, whereas tumour cells can prevent telomere loss by aberrantly upregulating telomerase. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) offers multiple experimental manipulation advantages over other vertebrate models and, therefore, it has been recently considered as a potential model for aging, cancer, and regeneration studies. However, it has only partially been exploited to shed light on these fundamental biological processes. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate telomere length and telomerase expression and activity in different strains of zebrafish obtained from different stock centres to determine whether they undergo any changes during aging and regeneration. We found that although both telomerase expression and telomere length increased from embryo to adulthood stages, they drastically declined in aged fish despite telomerase activity was detected in different tissues of old fish. In addition, we observed a weaker upregulation of telomerase expression in regenerating fins of old fish, which well correlates with their impaired regeneration capacity. Strikingly, telomeres were elongated or maintained during the fin regeneration process at all ages and after repeated amputations, likely to support high cell proliferation rates. We conclude that the expression of telomerase and telomere length are closely related during the entire life cycle of the fish and that these two parameters can be used as biomarkers of aging in zebrafish. Our results also reveal a direct relationship between the expression of telomerase, telomere length and the efficiency of tissue regeneration. PMID:21347393

  18. Characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana myb-like proteins showing affinity to telomeric DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpfová, Petra; Kuchar, Milan; Miková, Gabriela; Skrísovská, Lenka; Kubicárová, Tatiana; Fajkus, Jirí

    2004-04-01

    Telomere-binding proteins participate in forming a functional nucleoprotein structure at chromosome ends. Using a genomic approach, two Arabidopsis thaliana genes coding for candidate Myb-like telomere binding proteins were cloned and expressed in E. coli. Both proteins, termed AtTBP2 (accession Nos. T46051 (protein database) and GI:638639 (nucleotide database); 295 amino acids, 32 kDa, pI 9.53) and AtTBP3 (BAB08466, GI:9757879; 299 amino acids, 33 kDa, pI 9.88), contain a single Myb-like DNA-binding domain at the N-terminus, and a histone H1/H5-like DNA-binding domain in the middle of the protein sequence. Both proteins are expressed in various A. thaliana tissues. Using the two-hybrid system interaction between the proteins AtTBP2 and AtTBP3 and self interactions of each of the proteins were detected. Gel-retardation assays revealed that each of the two proteins is able to bind the G-rich strand and double-stranded DNA of plant telomeric sequence with an affinity proportional to a number of telomeric repeats. Substrates bearing a non-telomeric DNA sequence positioned between two telomeric repeats were bound with an efficiency depending on the length of interrupting sequence. The ability to bind variant telomere sequences decreased with sequence divergence from the A. thaliana telomeric DNA. None of the proteins alone or their mixture affects telomerase activity in vitro. Correspondingly, no interaction was observed between any of two proteins and the Arabidopsis telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit TERT (accession No. AF172097) using two-hybrid assay.

  19. Effect of heartfulness meditation on burnout, emotional wellness, and telomere length in health care professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Thimmapuram, Jayaram; Pargament, Robert; Sibliss, Kedesha; Grim, Rodney; Risques, Rosana; Toorens, Erik

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Burnout poses significant challenges during training years in residency and later in the career. Meditation is a tool to treat stress-related conditions and promote wellness. Telomere length may be affected by burnout and stress. However, the benefits of meditation have not been fully demonstrated in health care professionals. Objective: We assessed the effects of a 12-week ?Heartfulness Meditation? program on burnout, emotional wellness, and telomere length in residents,...

  20. Influence of Amalaki Rasayana on telomerase activity and telomere length in human blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, Kanive P; Dash, Sweta; Shivakumar, Marigowda B; Shetty, Pavithra R; Raghu, Kothanahalli S; Shamprasad, Bhanuvalli R; Udupi, Vishwanatha; Acharya, Raviraj V; Vidya, Prasanna B; Nayak, Jayakrishna; Mana, Anandan E; Moni, Rajesh; Sankaran, Muraleedharan T; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    Indian traditional medicine practices use defined rasayana preparations to improve the quality of life in aged individuals. Amalaki Rasayana is one such rasayana prepared from the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica and is popularly used to prevent or treat various age related health conditions. Telomerase activity in the cells maintains telomere length and is implicated in ageing and various diseases wherein the shortening of telomere during ageing is controlled chiefly by the telomerase activity. In the present study, we investigated telomerase activity and telomere length in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of aged individuals administered with Amalaki Rasayana. Amalaki Rasayana was administered to healthy, aged (45-60 years) volunteers for 45 days after koshta shuddhi procedure. The telomerase activity and telomere length were analyzed on 0, 45th and 90th days of Amalaki Rasayana administration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these individuals and compared with age-matched placebo group and young volunteers (22-30 years). The data were compared between the groups. The results indicated an increase in telomerase activity with no discernible change in telomere length in the Amalaki administered participants. The comparison between young and aged participants revealed higher telomerase activity in young participants with no significant differences in telomere length. The data indicate that the maintenance of telomere length is facilitated by an increase in telomerase activity upon rasayana administration in aged individuals and Amalaki Rasayana may prevent the erosion of telomeres over a period of time in aged individuals to promote healthy ageing. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Amalaki Rasayana on telomerase activity and telomere length in human blood mononuclear cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guruprasad, Kanive P.; Sweta Dash; Shivakumar, Marigowda B.; Pavithra R. Shetty; Kothanahalli S. Raghu; Shamprasad, Bhanuvalli R.; Vishwanatha Udupi; Acharya, Raviraj V.; Vidya, Prasanna B.; Jayakrishna Nayak; Anandan E. Mana; Rajesh Moni; Sankaran, Muraleedharan T.; Kapaettu Satyamoorthy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Indian traditional medicine practices use defined rasayana preparations to improve the quality of life in aged individuals. Amalaki Rasayana is one such rasayana prepared from the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica and is popularly used to prevent or treat various age related health conditions. Telomerase activity in the cells maintains telomere length and is implicated in ageing and various diseases wherein the shortening of telomere during ageing is controlled chiefly by the telomera...

  2. An intricate dance: Life experience, multisystem resiliency, and rate of telomere decline throughout the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of life stressors predicts accelerated development and progression of diseases of aging. Telomere length, the DNA-based biomarker indicating cellular aging, is a mechanism of disease development, and is shortened in a dose response fashion by duration and severity of life stressor exposures. Telomere length captures the interplay between genetics, life experiences and psychosocial and behavioral factors. Over the past several years, psychological stress resilience, healthy lifest...

  3. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2014-11-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45-54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  4. Peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Elizabeth; Wolkowitz, Owen; Epel, Elissa; Yang, Tony; Blom, EH; Han, LKM; Connolly, CG; Ho, TC; Lin, J.; LeWinn, KZ; Simmons, AN; Sacchet, MD; Mobayed, N; Luna, ME

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered periphera...

  5. Extended interferon-alpha therapy accelerates telomere length loss in human peripheral blood T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M O'Bryan

    Full Text Available Type I interferons have pleiotropic effects on host cells, including inhibiting telomerase in lymphocytes and antiviral activity. We tested the hypothesis that long-term interferon treatment would result in significant reduction in average telomere length in peripheral blood T lymphocytes.Using a flow cytometry-based telomere length assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from the Hepatitis-C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C study, we measured T cell telomere lengths at screening and at months 21 and 45 in 29 Hepatitis-C virus infected subjects. These subjects had failed to achieve a sustained virologic response following 24 weeks of pegylated-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin treatment and were subsequently randomized to either a no additional therapy group or a maintenance dose pegylated-IFNα group for an additional 3.5 years. Significant telomere loss in naïve T cells occurred in the first 21 months in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere losses were similar in both groups during the final two years. Expansion of CD8(+CD45RA(+CD57(+ memory T cells and an inverse correlation of alanine aminotransferase levels with naïve CD8(+ T cell telomere loss were observed in the control group but not in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere length at screening inversely correlated with Hepatitis-C viral load and body mass index.Sustained interferon-alpha treatment increased telomere loss in naïve T cells, and inhibited the accumulation of T cell memory expansions. The durability of this effect and consequences for immune senescence need to be defined.

  6. TRF2-tethered TIN2 can mediate telomere protection by TPP1/POT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frescas, David; de Lange, Titia

    2014-04-01

    The shelterin protein TIN2 is required for the telomeric accumulation of TPP1/POT1 heterodimers and for the protection of telomeres by the POT1 proteins (POT1a and POT1b in the mouse). TIN2 also binds to TRF1 and TRF2, improving the telomeric localization of TRF2 and its function. Here, we ask whether TIN2 needs to interact with both TRF1 and TRF2 to mediate the telomere protection afforded by TRF2 and POT1a/b. Using a TIN2 allele deficient in TRF1 binding (TIN2-L247E), we demonstrate that TRF1 is required for optimal recruitment of TIN2 to telomeres and document phenotypes associated with the TIN2-L247E allele that are explained by insufficient TIN2 loading onto telomeres. To bypass the requirement for TRF1-dependent recruitment, we fused TIN2-L247E to the TRF2-interacting (RCT) domain of Rap1. The RCT-TIN2-L247E fusion showed improved telomeric localization and was fully functional in terms of chromosome end protection by TRF2, TPP1/POT1a, and TPP1/POT1b. These data indicate that when sufficient TIN2 is loaded onto telomeres, its interaction with TRF1 is not required to mediate the function of TRF2 and the TPP1/POT1 heterodimers. We therefore conclude that shelterin can protect chromosome ends as a TRF2-tethered TIN2/TPP1/POT1 complex that lacks a physical connection to TRF1.

  7. Nucleolar organization, ribosomal DNA array stability, and acrocentric chromosome integrity are linked to telomere function.

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    Kaitlin M Stimpson

    Full Text Available The short arms of the ten acrocentric human chromosomes share several repetitive DNAs, including ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA. The rDNA arrays correspond to nucleolar organizing regions that coalesce each cell cycle to form the nucleolus. Telomere disruption by expressing a mutant version of telomere binding protein TRF2 (dnTRF2 causes non-random acrocentric fusions, as well as large-scale nucleolar defects. The mechanisms responsible for acrocentric chromosome sensitivity to dysfunctional telomeres are unclear. In this study, we show that TRF2 normally associates with the nucleolus and rDNA. However, when telomeres are crippled by dnTRF2 or RNAi knockdown of TRF2, gross nucleolar and chromosomal changes occur. We used the controllable dnTRF2 system to precisely dissect the timing and progression of nucleolar and chromosomal instability induced by telomere dysfunction, demonstrating that nucleolar changes precede the DNA damage and morphological changes that occur at acrocentric short arms. The rDNA repeat arrays on the short arms decondense, and are coated by RNA polymerase I transcription binding factor UBF, physically linking acrocentrics to one another as they become fusogenic. These results highlight the importance of telomere function in nucleolar stability and structural integrity of acrocentric chromosomes, particularly the rDNA arrays. Telomeric stress is widely accepted to cause DNA damage at chromosome ends, but our findings suggest that it also disrupts chromosome structure beyond the telomere region, specifically within the rDNA arrays located on acrocentric chromosomes. These results have relevance for Robertsonian translocation formation in humans and mechanisms by which acrocentric-acrocentric fusions are promoted by DNA damage and repair.

  8. Yeast hnRNP-related proteins contribute to the maintenance of telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee-Soety, Julia Y., E-mail: jlee04@sju.edu [Department of Biology, Saint Joseph' s University, PA 19131 (United States); Jones, Jennifer; MacGibeny, Margaret A.; Remaly, Erin C.; Daniels, Lynsey; Ito, Andrea; Jean, Jessica; Radecki, Hannah; Spencer, Shannon [Department of Biology, Saint Joseph' s University, PA 19131 (United States)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast hnRNP-related proteins are able to prevent faster senescence in telomerase-null cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conserved RRMs in Npl3 are important for telomere maintenance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human hnRNP A1 is unable to complement the lack of NPL3 in yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Npl3 and Cbc2 may work as telomere capping proteins. -- Abstract: Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes, which if eroded to a critical length can become uncapped and lead to replicative senescence. Telomerase maintains telomere length in some cells, but inappropriate expression facilitates the immortality of cancer cells. Recently, proteins involved in RNA processing and ribosome assembly, such as hnRNP (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein) A1, have been found to participate in telomere maintenance in mammals. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Npl3 shares significant amino acid sequence similarities with hnRNP A1. We found that deleting NPL3 accelerated the senescence of telomerase null cells. The highly conserved RNA recognition motifs (RRM) in Npl3 appear to be important for preventing faster senescence. Npl3 preferentially binds telomere sequences in vitro, suggesting that Npl3 may affect telomeres directly. Despite similarities between the two proteins, human hnRNP A1 is unable to complement the lack of Npl3 to rescue accelerated senescence in tlc1 npl3 cells. Deletion of CBC2, which encodes another hnRNP-related protein that associates with Npl3, also accelerates senescence. Potential mechanisms by which hnRNP-related proteins maintain telomeres are discussed.

  9. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

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    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  10. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse History and Leukocyte Telomere Length among Women in Middle Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Susan M.; Jennifer Prescott; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Immaculata DeVivo; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte te...

  11. Dynamics of Chromatin Silencing at Telomeres: Deterministic and Stochastic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apratim, Manjul; Dayarian, Adel; Sontag, Eduardo; Sengupta, Anirvan

    2012-02-01

    Epigenetic silencing modifications of are often associated with well-defined domains. We study potential mechanisms of formation of boundary of silenced regions. We specially focus on the possibility that some telomeric silencing boundaries are formed in a self-organized manner, as opposed to being defined by specific boundary elements. In particular, we examine systems where a titration-induced feedback can stabilize the boundary of the silenced region. A consequence of having multiple such boundaries is large stochastic cell-to-cell variation of boundary locations. We proceed to make an argument about the nature of the fall-off of the average silencing protein occupancy, coming from such variability, and test the predictions against HA-Sir3 ChIP-seq data from experiments performed on yeast.

  12. Telomeres and telomerase as therapeutic targets to prevent and treat age-related diseases [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bär

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the protective ends of linear chromosomes, shorten throughout an individual’s lifetime. Telomere shortening is a hallmark of molecular aging and is associated with premature appearance of diseases associated with aging. Here, we discuss the role of telomere shortening as a direct cause for aging and age-related diseases. In particular, we draw attention to the fact that telomere length influences longevity. Furthermore, we discuss intrinsic and environmental factors that can impact on human telomere erosion. Finally, we highlight recent advances in telomerase-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of diseases associated with extremely short telomeres owing to mutations in telomerase, as well as age-related diseases, and ultimately aging itself.

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction accounts for the stochastic heterogeneity in telomere-dependent senescence.

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    João F Passos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is an inherently stochastic process, and its hallmark is heterogeneity between organisms, cell types, and clonal populations, even in identical environments. The replicative lifespan of primary human cells is telomere dependent; however, its heterogeneity is not understood. We show that mitochondrial superoxide production increases with replicative age in human fibroblasts despite an adaptive UCP-2-dependent mitochondrial uncoupling. This mitochondrial dysfunction is accompanied by compromised [Ca(2+]i homeostasis and other indicators of a retrograde response in senescent cells. Replicative senescence of human fibroblasts is delayed by mild mitochondrial uncoupling. Uncoupling reduces mitochondrial superoxide generation, slows down telomere shortening, and delays formation of telomeric gamma-H2A.X foci. This indicates mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS as one of the causes of replicative senescence. By sorting early senescent (SES cells from young proliferating fibroblast cultures, we show that SES cells have higher ROS levels, dysfunctional mitochondria, shorter telomeres, and telomeric gamma-H2A.X foci. We propose that mitochondrial ROS is a major determinant of telomere-dependent senescence at the single-cell level that is responsible for cell-to-cell variation in replicative lifespan.

  14. Telomere length reflects reproductive effort indicated by corticosterone levels in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Christina; Riechert, Juliane; Verhulst, Simon; Becker, Peter H

    2016-11-01

    Telomere length (TL) is a candidate biomarker of ageing and phenotypic quality, but little is known of the (physiological) causes of TL variation. We previously showed that individual common terns Sterna hirundo with high reproductive success had short telomeres independent of age, and this pattern was particularly strong in the longer telomeres of the within-individual TL distribution. To test whether this relation can be attributed to effects of reproductive effort, we investigated baseline corticosterone in relation to reproductive success (number of fledglings) and TL. In this context, we assume that variation in baseline corticosterone can be interpreted as index of energy expenditure and allostatic load. Males with higher corticosterone levels during incubation, compared between and within individuals, achieved higher reproductive success and had shorter telomeres. The effect on telomeres was more pronounced in corticosterone measured later in incubation and in the longer telomeres of the within-individual TL distribution. Female corticosterone level during incubation was neither related to reproductive success nor to TL. That we observed these effects only in males mirrors different parental roles during reproduction in the common tern, where males do most of the chick provisioning. The negative association between reproductive success and TL suggests individual differences in reproductive effort as reflected in, or mediated by, baseline corticosterone. We see this result as a promising step towards unravelling the physiological causes of variation in TL and the costs of reproduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ageing and reproduction: antioxidant supplementation alleviates telomere loss in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badás, E P; Martínez, J; Rivero de Aguilar Cachafeiro, J; Miranda, F; Figuerola, J; Merino, S

    2015-04-01

    Reproduction is inherently costly. Environmental stressors, such as infection and limited food resources, can compromise investment at each breeding attempt. For example, recent data on captive birds showed that increased reproductive effort accelerates ageing. However, the effects of nutritional status and infection on ageing remain unknown. Telomeres function as protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and changes in telomere length is a commonly used proxy for ageing. To partially address the mechanisms of ageing following reproduction, we supplemented, medicated or administered a combined treatment to wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) breeding in central Spain during 2012. The nutritional supplement consisted of two different antioxidants, whereas the medication was an antimalarial treatment against blood parasites. We evaluated the effect of these manipulations on reproductive success and parasite loads in the first breeding season, and on changes in telomere length between two consecutive breeding seasons. Supplemented birds showed no reduction in blood parasite infections in 2012, although they exhibited higher body mass and fledging success. The antimalarial drugs reduced infections by several parasite species, but this had no effect on fitness parameters. In the following season, telomeres from supplemented birds had shortened less. Altogether, we found that supplementation with antioxidants provided fitness benefits in the short term and reduced telomere loss a year following treatment. Our results provide indirect empirical support for accelerated telomere loss as a cost of reproduction. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Telomere and ribosomal DNA repeats are chromosomal targets of the bloom syndrome DNA helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawalder, James; Paric, Enesa; Neff, Norma F

    2003-10-27

    Bloom syndrome is one of the most cancer-predisposing disorders and is characterized by genomic instability and a high frequency of sister chromatid exchange. The disorder is caused by loss of function of a 3' to 5' RecQ DNA helicase, BLM. The exact role of BLM in maintaining genomic integrity is not known but the helicase has been found to associate with several DNA repair complexes and some DNA replication foci. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of BLM complexes recovered telomere and ribosomal DNA repeats. The N-terminus of BLM, required for NB localization, is the same as the telomere association domain of BLM. The C-terminus is required for ribosomal DNA localization. BLM localizes primarily to the non-transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA repeat where replication forks initiate. Bloom syndrome cells expressing the deletion alleles lacking the ribosomal DNA and telomere association domains have altered cell cycle populations with increased S or G2/M cells relative to normal. These results identify telomere and ribosomal DNA repeated sequence elements as chromosomal targets for the BLM DNA helicase during the S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. BLM is localized in nuclear bodies when it associates with telomeric repeats in both telomerase positive and negative cells. The BLM DNA helicase participates in genomic stability at ribosomal DNA repeats and telomeres.

  17. Telomere and ribosomal DNA repeats are chromosomal targets of the bloom syndrome DNA helicase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paric Enesa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is one of the most cancer-predisposing disorders and is characterized by genomic instability and a high frequency of sister chromatid exchange. The disorder is caused by loss of function of a 3' to 5' RecQ DNA helicase, BLM. The exact role of BLM in maintaining genomic integrity is not known but the helicase has been found to associate with several DNA repair complexes and some DNA replication foci. Results Chromatin immunoprecipitation of BLM complexes recovered telomere and ribosomal DNA repeats. The N-terminus of BLM, required for NB localization, is the same as the telomere association domain of BLM. The C-terminus is required for ribosomal DNA localization. BLM localizes primarily to the non-transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA repeat where replication forks initiate. Bloom syndrome cells expressing the deletion alleles lacking the ribosomal DNA and telomere association domains have altered cell cycle populations with increased S or G2/M cells relative to normal. Conclusion These results identify telomere and ribosomal DNA repeated sequence elements as chromosomal targets for the BLM DNA helicase during the S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. BLM is localized in nuclear bodies when it associates with telomeric repeats in both telomerase positive and negative cells. The BLM DNA helicase participates in genomic stability at ribosomal DNA repeats and telomeres.

  18. Regeneration of the exocrine pancreas is delayed in telomere-dysfunctional mice.

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    Guido von Figura

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Telomere shortening is a cell-intrinsic mechanism that limits cell proliferation by induction of DNA damage responses resulting either in apoptosis or cellular senescence. Shortening of telomeres has been shown to occur during human aging and in chronic diseases that accelerate cell turnover, such as chronic hepatitis. Telomere shortening can limit organ homeostasis and regeneration in response to injury. Whether the same holds true for pancreas regeneration in response to injury is not known. METHODS: In the present study, pancreatic regeneration after acute cerulein-induced pancreatitis was studied in late generation telomerase knockout mice with short telomeres compared to telomerase wild-type mice with long telomeres. RESULTS: Late generation telomerase knockout mice exhibited impaired exocrine pancreatic regeneration after acute pancreatitis as seen by persistence of metaplastic acinar cells and markedly reduced proliferation. The expression levels of p53 and p21 were not significantly increased in regenerating pancreas of late generation telomerase knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that pancreatic regeneration is limited in the context of telomere dysfunction without evidence for p53 checkpoint activation.

  19. TOR regulates cell death induced by telomere dysfunction in budding yeast.

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    Haiyan Qi

    Full Text Available Telomere dysfunction is known to induce growth arrest (senescence and cell death. However, the regulation of the senescence-death process is poorly understood. Here using a yeast dysfunctional telomere model cdc13-1, which carries a temperature sensitive-mutant telomere binding protein Cdc13p, we demonstrate that inhibition of TOR (Target of Rapamycin, a central regulator of nutrient pathways for cell growth, prevents cell death, but not growth arrest, induced by inactivation of Cdc13-1p. This function of TOR is novel and separable from its G1 inhibition function, and not associated with alterations in the telomere length, the amount of G-tails, and the telomere position effect (TPE in cdc13-1 cells. Furthermore, antioxidants were also shown to prevent cell death initiated by inactivation of cdc13-1. Moreover, inhibition of TOR was also shown to prevent cell death induced by inactivation of telomerase in an est1 mutant. Interestingly, rapamycin did not prevent cell death induced by DNA damaging agents such as etoposide and UV. In the aggregate, our results suggest that the TOR signaling pathway is specifically involved in the regulation of cell death initiated by telomere dysfunction.

  20. Accelerated telomere shortening: Tracking the lasting impact of early institutional care at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Drury, Stacy S

    2016-12-30

    Studies examining the association between early adversity and longitudinal changes in telomere length within the same individual are rare, yet are likely to provide novel insight into the subsequent lasting effects of negative early experiences. We sought to examine the association between institutional care history and telomere shortening longitudinally across middle childhood and into adolescence. Buccal DNA was collected 2-4 times, between the ages of 6 and 15 years, in 79 children enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal study exploring the impact of early institutional rearing on child health and development. Children with a history of early institutional care (n=50) demonstrated significantly greater telomere shortening across middle childhood and adolescence compared to never institutionalized children (n=29). Among children with a history of institutional care, randomization to high quality foster care was not associated with differential telomere attrition across development. Cross-sectional analysis of children randomized to the care as usual group indicated shorter telomere length was associated with greater percent of the child's life spent in institutional care up to age 8. These results suggest that early adverse care from severe psychosocial deprivation may be embedded at the molecular genetic level through accelerated telomere shortening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolution of Arabidopsis protection of telomeres 1 alters nucleic acid recognition and telomerase regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Beilstein, Mark A; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2016-11-16

    Protection of telomeres (POT1) binds chromosome ends, recognizing single-strand telomeric DNA via two oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding folds (OB-folds). The Arabidopsis thaliana POT1a and POT1b paralogs are atypical: they do not exhibit telomeric DNA binding, and they have opposing roles in regulating telomerase activity. AtPOT1a stimulates repeat addition processivity of the canonical telomerase enzyme, while AtPOT1b interacts with a regulatory lncRNA that represses telomerase activity. Here, we show that OB1 of POT1a, but not POT1b, has an intrinsic affinity for telomeric DNA. DNA binding was dependent upon a highly conserved Phe residue (F65) that in human POT1 directly contacts telomeric DNA. F65A mutation of POT1a OB1 abolished DNA binding and diminished telomerase repeat addition processivity. Conversely, AtPOT1b and other POT1b homologs from Brassicaceae and its sister family, Cleomaceae, naturally bear a non-aromatic amino acid at this position. By swapping Val (V63) with Phe, AtPOT1b OB1 gained the capacity to bind telomeric DNA and to stimulate telomerase repeat addition processivity. We conclude that, in the context of DNA binding, variation at a single amino acid position promotes divergence of the AtPOT1b paralog from the ancestral POT1 protein. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Developmental telomere attrition predicts impulsive decision-making in adult starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Brilot, Ben O; Gillespie, Robert; Monaghan, Pat; Nettle, Daniel

    2015-01-22

    Animals in a poor biological state face reduced life expectancy, and as a consequence should make decisions that prioritize immediate survival and reproduction over long-term benefits. We tested the prediction that if, as has been suggested, developmental telomere attrition is a biomarker of state and future life expectancy, then individuals who have undergone greater developmental telomere attrition should display greater choice impulsivity as adults. We measured impulsive decision-making in a cohort of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in which we had previously manipulated developmental telomere attrition by cross-fostering sibling chicks into broods of different sizes. We show that as predicted by state-dependent optimality models, individuals who had sustained greater developmental telomere attrition and who had shorter current telomeres made more impulsive foraging decisions as adults, valuing smaller, sooner food rewards more highly than birds with less attrition and longer telomeres. Our findings shed light on the biological embedding of early adversity and support a functional explanation for its consequences that could be applicable to other species, including humans.

  3. Telomere-associated endonuclease-deficient Penelope-like retroelements in diverse eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Eugene A.; Arkhipova, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary origin of telomerases, enzymes that maintain the ends of linear chromosomes in most eukaryotes, is a subject of debate. Penelope-like elements (PLEs) are a recently described class of eukaryotic retroelements characterized by a GIY-YIG endonuclease domain and by a reverse transcriptase domain with similarity to telomerases and group II introns. Here we report that a subset of PLEs found in bdelloid rotifers, basidiomycete fungi, stramenopiles, and plants, representing four different eukaryotic kingdoms, lack the endonuclease domain and are located at telomeres. The 5′ truncated ends of these elements are telomere-oriented and typically capped by species-specific telomeric repeats. Most of them also carry several shorter stretches of telomeric repeats at or near their 3′ ends, which could facilitate utilization of the telomeric G-rich 3′ overhangs to prime reverse transcription. Many of these telomere-associated PLEs occupy a basal phylogenetic position close to the point of divergence from the telomerase-PLE common ancestor and may descend from the missing link between early eukaryotic retroelements and present-day telomerases. PMID:17483479

  4. Telomere Length and Pulse Pressure in Newly Diagnosed, Antipsychotic-Naive Patients With Nonaffective Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Bernardo, Miguel; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Parellada, Eduard; Esmatjes, Enric; Conget, Ignacio; Nguyen, Linh; George, Varghese; Stöppler, Hubert; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Recent studies suggest that in addition to factors such as treatment side effects, suicide, and poor health habits, people with schizophrenia may have an increased risk of diabetes prior to antipsychotic treatment. Diabetes is associated with an increased pulse pressure (PP) and a shortened telomere. We tested the hypothesis that prior to antipsychotic treatment, schizophrenia and related disorders are associated with a shortened telomere, as well as an increased PP. Methods: Telomere content (which is highly correlated with telomere length) and PP were measured in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia and related disorders on first clinical contact and in matched control subjects. Both groups were also administered an oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Compared with control subjects, the patients with psychosis had decreased telomere content and an increased PP. As previously reported, they also had increased glucose concentrations at 2 hours. These differences could not be attributed to differences in age, ethnicity, smoking, gender, body mass index, neighborhood of residence, socioeconomic status, aerobic conditioning, or an increased cortisol concentration in the psychotic subjects. Discussion: These results suggest that prior to antipsychotic use, nonaffective psychosis is associated with reduced telomere content and increased PP, indices that have been linked to an increased risk of diabetes and hypertension. PMID:19279086

  5. Telomere length reveals cumulative individual and transgenerational inbreeding effects in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Kat; Spurgin, Lewis G; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Dugdale, Hannah L; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2016-06-01

    Inbreeding results in more homozygous offspring that should suffer reduced fitness, but it can be difficult to quantify these costs for several reasons. First, inbreeding depression may vary with ecological or physiological stress and only be detectable over long time periods. Second, parental homozygosity may indirectly affect offspring fitness, thus confounding analyses that consider offspring homozygosity alone. Finally, measurement of inbreeding coefficients, survival and reproductive success may often be too crude to detect inbreeding costs in wild populations. Telomere length provides a more precise measure of somatic costs, predicts survival in many species and should reflect differences in somatic condition that result from varying ability to cope with environmental stressors. We studied relative telomere length in a wild population of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) to assess the lifelong relationship between individual homozygosity, which reflects genome-wide inbreeding in this species, and telomere length. In juveniles, individual homozygosity was negatively associated with telomere length in poor seasons. In adults, individual homozygosity was consistently negatively related to telomere length, suggesting the accumulation of inbreeding depression during life. Maternal homozygosity also negatively predicted offspring telomere length. Our results show that somatic inbreeding costs are environmentally dependent at certain life stages but may accumulate throughout life. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Association between telomere length and diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfei; Dong, Xu; Cao, Li; Sun, Yangyang; Qiu, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Ruoqiong; Covasa, Mihai; Zhong, Li

    2016-12-01

    Objective We investigated the relationship between diabetes and telomere length by meta-analysis. Methods We searched five popular databases for articles published between 1990 and 2015 using "diabetes" and "telomere" as search terms. Data were processed with RevMan5, and random- or fixed-effects meta-analysis was applied. The effects of geographical region, diabetes type, body mass index (BMI), age and sex were examined. Funnel plots were applied to evaluate publication bias. Results Seventeen articles were obtained from 571 references. We identified a significant association between telomere length and diabetes mellitus (standardized mean difference [SMD]: -3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.01, -2.80; heterogeneity, I(2 )= 99%) by comparing 5575 patients with diabetes and 6349 healthy individuals. The pooled SMD by geographic region indicated a significant association between shortened telomere length and diabetes mellitus (SMD: -3.41; 95% CI: -4.01, -2.80; heterogeneity, I(2 )= 99%). In addition, telomere length was significantly associated with age (SMD: -3.41; 95% CI: -4.01, -2.80), diabetes type (SMD: -3.41; 95% CI: -4.01, -2.80), BMI (SMD: -1.61; 95% CI: -1.98, -1.23) and sex (SMD: -4.94; 95% CI: -9.47, -0.40). Conclusions The study demonstrated a close relationship between diabetes mellitus and telomere length, which was influenced by region, age, diabetes type, BMI and sex.

  7. HIV Infection Is Associated with Shortened Telomere Length in Ugandans with Suspected Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Elizabeth; Lin, Jue; Chang, Emily; Byanyima, Patrick; Ayakaka, Irene; Musisi, Emmanuel; Worodria, William; Davis, J Lucian; Segal, Mark; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Huang, Laurence

    HIV infection is a risk factor for opportunistic pneumonias such as tuberculosis (TB) and for age-associated health complications. Short telomeres, markers of biological aging, are also associated with an increased risk of age-associated diseases and mortality. Our goals were to use a single cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals hospitalized with pneumonia to assess whether shortened telomere length was associated with HIV infection, TB diagnosis, and 2-month mortality. This was a sub-study of the IHOP Study, a prospective observational study. Participants consisted of 184 adults admitted to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda who underwent evaluation for suspected TB and were followed for 2 months. Standardized questionnaires were administered to collect demographic and clinical data. PBMCs were isolated and analyzed using quantitative PCR to determine telomere length. The association between HIV infection, demographic and clinical characteristics, and telomere length was assessed, as were the associations between telomere length, TB diagnosis and 2-month mortality. Variables with a P≤0.2 in bivariate analysis were included in multivariate models. No significant demographic or clinical differences were observed between the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Older age (Paging and that shorter telomeres may be involved in age-associated health complications seen in this population. The findings indicate a need to further research the impact of HIV on aging.

  8. Ontogeny of Unstable Chromosomes Generated by Telomere Error in Budding Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Beyer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication errors at certain sites in the genome initiate chromosome instability that ultimately leads to stable genomic rearrangements. Where instability begins is often unclear. And, early instability may form unstable chromosome intermediates whose transient nature also hinders mechanistic understanding. We report here a budding yeast model that reveals the genetic ontogeny of genome rearrangements, from initial replication error to unstable chromosome formation to their resolution. Remarkably, the initial error often arises in or near the telomere, and frequently forms unstable chromosomes. Early unstable chromosomes may then resolve to an internal "collection site" where a dicentric forms and resolves to an isochromosome (other outcomes are possible at each step. The initial telomere-proximal unstable chromosome is increased in mutants in telomerase subunits, Tel1, and even Rad9, with no known telomere-specific function. Defects in Tel1 and in Rrm3, a checkpoint protein kinase with a role in telomere maintenance and a DNA helicase, respectively, synergize dramatically to generate unstable chromosomes, further illustrating the consequence of replication error in the telomere. Collectively, our results suggest telomeric replication errors may be a common cause of seemingly unrelated genomic rearrangements located hundreds of kilobases away.

  9. Mir-23a induces telomere dysfunction and cellular senescence by inhibiting TRF2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenhua; Feng, Xuyang; Wang, Haoli; Xu, Weiyi; Zhao, Yong; Ma, Wenbin; Jiang, Songshan; Liu, Dan; Huang, Junjiu; Songyang, Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) is essential for telomere maintenance and has been implicated in DNA damage response and aging. Telomere dysfunction induced by TRF2 inhibition can accelerate cellular senescence in human fibroblasts. While previous work has demonstrated that a variety of factors can regulate TRF2 expression transcriptionally and post-translationally, whether microRNAs (miRNAs) also participate in post-transcriptionally modulating TRF2 levels remains largely unknown. To better understand the regulatory pathways that control TRF2, we carried out a large-scale luciferase reporter screen using a miRNA expression library and identified four miRNAs that could target human TRF2 and significantly reduce the level of endogenous TRF2 proteins. In particular, our data revealed that miR-23a could directly target the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of TRF2. Overexpression of miR-23a not only reduced telomere-bound TRF2 and increased telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIFs), but also accelerated senescence of human fibroblast cells, which could be rescued by ectopically expressed TRF2. Our findings demonstrate that TRF2 is a specific target of miR-23a, and uncover a previously unknown role for miR-23a in telomere regulation and cellular senescence. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. ERK1/2/MAPK pathway-dependent regulation of the telomeric factor TRF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Vincent; Coste, Isabelle; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Renno, Toufic; Gilson, Eric; Pagès, Gilles

    2016-07-19

    Telomere stability is a hallmark of immortalized cells, including cancer cells. While the telomere length is maintained in most cases by the telomerase, the activity of a protein complex called Shelterin is required to protect telomeres against unsuitable activation of the DNA damage response pathway. Within this complex, telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) plays an essential role by blocking the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein (ATM) signaling pathway at telomeres and preventing chromosome end fusion. We showed that TRF2 was phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo on serine 323 by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in both normal and cancer cells. Moreover, TRF2 and activated ERK1/2 unexpectedly interacted in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and human tumor tissues. The expression of non-phosphorylatable forms of TRF2 in melanoma cells induced the DNA damage response, leading to growth arrest and tumor reversion. These findings revealed that the telomere stability is under direct control of one of the major pro-oncogenic signaling pathways (RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK) via TRF2 phosphorylation.

  11. TRF2-Mediated Control of Telomere DNA Topology as a Mechanism for Chromosome-End Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarroch-Popivker, Delphine; Pisano, Sabrina; Mendez-Bermudez, Aaron; Lototska, Liudmyla; Kaur, Parminder; Bauwens, Serge; Djerbi, Nadir; Latrick, Chrysa M; Fraisier, Vincent; Pei, Bei; Gay, Alexandre; Jaune, Emilie; Foucher, Kevin; Cherfils-Vicini, Julien; Aeby, Eric; Miron, Simona; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Ye, Jing; Le Du, Marie-Hélène; Wang, Hong; Gilson, Eric; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe

    2016-01-21

    The shelterin proteins protect telomeres against activation of the DNA damage checkpoints and recombinational repair. We show here that a dimer of the shelterin subunit TRF2 wraps ∼ 90 bp of DNA through several lysine and arginine residues localized around its homodimerization domain. The expression of a wrapping-deficient TRF2 mutant, named Top-less, alters telomeric DNA topology, decreases the number of terminal loops (t-loops), and triggers the ATM checkpoint, while still protecting telomeres against non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). In Top-less cells, the protection against NHEJ is alleviated if the expression of the TRF2-interacting protein RAP1 is reduced. We conclude that a distinctive topological state of telomeric DNA, controlled by the TRF2-dependent DNA wrapping and linked to t-loop formation, inhibits both ATM activation and NHEJ. The presence of RAP1 at telomeres appears as a backup mechanism to prevent NHEJ when topology-mediated telomere protection is impaired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic origin and nuclear localization of TERRA telomeric repeat-containing RNA: from Darkness to Dawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diman, Aurélie; Decottignies, Anabelle

    2017-12-14

    Long noncoding RNAs, produced from distinct regions of the chromosomes, are emerging as new key players in several important biological processes. The long noncoding RNAs add a new layer of complexity to cellular regulatory pathways, from transcription to cellular trafficking or chromatin remodeling. More than 25 years ago, the discovery of a transcriptional activity at telomeres of protozoa ended the long-lasting belief that telomeres were transcriptionally silent. Since then, progressively accumulating evidences established that production of TElomeric Repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) was a general feature of eukaryotic cells. Whether TERRA molecules always originate from the telomeres or whether they can be transcribed from internal telomeric repeats as well is however still a matter of debate. Whether TERRA transcripts always localize to telomeres and play similar roles in all eukaryotic cells is also unclear. We review the studies on TERRA localization in the cell, its composition and some aspects of its transcriptional regulation to summarize the current knowledge and controversies about the genomic origin of TERRA, with a focus on human and mouse TERRA. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. MST-312 Alters Telomere Dynamics, Gene Expression Profiles and Growth in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Resham Lal; Lim, Shi Ni; Low, Grace Kah Mun; Hande, M Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Targeting telomerase is a potential cancer management strategy given that it allows unlimited cellular replication in the majority of cancers. Dysfunctional telomeres are recognized as double-strand breaks. However, the status of DNA repair response pathways following telomerase inhibition is not well understood in human breast cancer cells. Here, we evaluated the effects of MST-312, a chemically modified derivative from tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, on telomere dynamics and DNA damage gene expression in breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were treated with MST-312, and telomere-telomerase homeostasis, induced DNA damage and gene expression profiling were analyzed. MST-312 decreased telomerase activity and induced telomere dysfunction and growth arrest in breast cancer cells with more profound effects in MDA-MB-231 than in MCF-7 cells. Consistent with these data, the telomere-protective protein TRF2 was downregulated in MDA-MB-231 cells. MST-312 induced DNA damage at telomeres accompanied by reduced expression of DNA damage-related genes ATM and RAD50. Co-treatment with MST-312 and the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) inhibitor PJ-34 further enhanced growth reduction as compared to single treatment with MST-312 or PJ-34. Our work demonstrates potential importance for the establishment of antitelomerase cancer therapy using MST-312 along with PARP-1 inhibition in breast cancer therapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Ontogeny of Unstable Chromosomes Generated by Telomere Error in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Ted

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication errors at certain sites in the genome initiate chromosome instability that ultimately leads to stable genomic rearrangements. Where instability begins is often unclear. And, early instability may form unstable chromosome intermediates whose transient nature also hinders mechanistic understanding. We report here a budding yeast model that reveals the genetic ontogeny of genome rearrangements, from initial replication error to unstable chromosome formation to their resolution. Remarkably, the initial error often arises in or near the telomere, and frequently forms unstable chromosomes. Early unstable chromosomes may then resolve to an internal "collection site" where a dicentric forms and resolves to an isochromosome (other outcomes are possible at each step). The initial telomere-proximal unstable chromosome is increased in mutants in telomerase subunits, Tel1, and even Rad9, with no known telomere-specific function. Defects in Tel1 and in Rrm3, a checkpoint protein kinase with a role in telomere maintenance and a DNA helicase, respectively, synergize dramatically to generate unstable chromosomes, further illustrating the consequence of replication error in the telomere. Collectively, our results suggest telomeric replication errors may be a common cause of seemingly unrelated genomic rearrangements located hundreds of kilobases away. PMID:27716774

  15. Patients with gout have short telomeres compared with healthy participants: association of telomere length with flare frequency and cardiovascular disease in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirpanah, N; Kienhorst, L B E; Van Lochem, E; Wichers, C; Rossato, M; Shiels, P G; Dalbeth, N; Stamp, L K; Merriman, T R; Janssen, M; Radstake, T R D J; Broen, J Ca

    2017-07-01

    Chronic inflammation associates with increased senescence, which is a strong predictor for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesised that inflammation accelerates senescence and thereby enhances the risk of cardiovascular disease in gout. We assessed replicative senescence by quantifying telomere length (TL) in a discovery cohort of 145 Dutch patients with gout and 273 healthy individuals and validated our results in 474 patients with gout and 293 healthy participants from New Zealand. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of cardiovascular disease on TL of all participants. Also, we measured TL of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, natural killer cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Additionally, we assessed the potential temporal difference in TL and telomerase activity. TL in PBMCs of healthy donors decreased over time, reflecting normal ageing. Patients with gout demonstrated shorter telomeres (p=0.001, R2=0.01873). In fact, the extent of telomere erosion in patients with gout was higher at any age compared with healthy counterparts at any age (pgout with cardiovascular disease had the shortest telomeres and TL was an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with gout (p=0.001). TL was inversely associated with the number of gouty flares (p=0.005). Patients with gout have shorter telomeres than healthy participants, reflecting increased cellular senescence. Telomere shortening was associated with the number of flares and with cardiovascular disease in people with gout. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Telomere Length and Long-Term Endurance Exercise: Does Exercise Training Affect Biological Age? A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Østhus, Ida Beate Øyen; Sgura, Antonella; Berardinelli, Francesco; Alsnes, Ingvild Vatten; Brønstad, Eivind; Rehn, Tommy Aune; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Hatle, Håvard; Wisløff, Ulrik; Nauman, Javaid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Telomeres are potential markers of mitotic cellular age and are associated with physical ageing process. Long-term endurance training and higher aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max) are associated with improved survival, and dynamic effects of exercise are evident with ageing. However, the association of telomere length with exercise training and VO2max has so far been inconsistent. Our aim was to assess whether muscle telomere length is associated with endurance exercise trainin...

  17. Single Stem Cell Imaging and Analysis Reveals Telomere Length Differences in Diseased Human and Mouse Skeletal Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Tichy, Elisia D.; David K. Sidibe; Tierney, Matthew T.; Michael J. Stec; Sharifi-Sanjani, Maryam; Hosalkar, Harish; Mubarak, Scott; Johnson, F. Brad; Sacco, Alessandra; Mourkioti, Foteini

    2017-01-01

    Summary Muscle stem cells (MuSCs) contribute to muscle regeneration following injury. In many muscle disorders, the repeated cycles of damage and repair lead to stem cell dysfunction. While telomere attrition may contribute to aberrant stem cell functions, methods to accurately measure telomere length in stem cells from skeletal muscles have not been demonstrated. Here, we have optimized and validated such a method, named MuQ-FISH, for analyzing telomere length in MuSCs from either mice or hu...

  18. The Role of Telomeric Repeat Binding Factor 1 (TRF1) in Telomere Maintenance and as a Potential Prognostic Indicator in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    multiple interacting partners, TRF1 Interacting Nuclear Factor 2 (TIN2), Tankyrase, Telomere Repeat Binding Factor 2 ( TRF2 ) and Protection of...with the mRNA levels of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA or the levels of TRF2 mRNA within breast tumors. • The levels of...TIN2, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1 mRNA are all associated with telomere content. • Visualized TRF1 and TRF2 distribution by Immunohistochemistry

  19. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène C F Côté

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging. METHODS: In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV-1-infected (HIV(+ children (n = 94, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART perinatally (n = 177, and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV(- control children (n = 104 aged 0-19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a all subjects, b HIV(+/HEU children only, and c HIV(+ children only. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV(+ group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV(+, HEU and HIV(- children. No associations between children's LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition.

  20. Emotions and family interactions in childhood: Associations with leukocyte telomere length emotions, family interactions, and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F; Carroll, Judith E; Bai, Sunhye; Reynolds, Bridget M; Esquivel, Stephanie; Repetti, Rena L

    2016-01-01

    Conceptualizations of links between stress and cellular aging in childhood suggest that accumulating stress predicts shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). At the same time, several models suggest that emotional reactivity to stressors may play a key role in predicting cellular aging. Using intensive repeated measures, we tested whether exposure or emotional "reactivity" to conflict and warmth in the family were related to LTL. Children (N=39; 30 target children and 9 siblings) between 8 and 13 years of age completed daily diary questionnaires for 56 consecutive days assessing daily warmth and conflict in the marital and the parent-child dyad, and daily positive and negative mood. To assess exposure to conflict and warmth, diary scale scores were averaged over the 56 days. Mood "reactivity" was operationalized by using multilevel modeling to generate estimates of the slope of warmth or conflict scores (marital and parent-child, separately) predicting same-day mood for each individual child. After diary collection, a blood sample was collected to determine LTL. Among children aged 8-13 years, a stronger association between negative mood and marital conflict, suggesting greater negative mood reactivity to marital conflict, was related to shorter LTL (B=-1.51, paffection, suggesting positive mood reactivity, was related to longer LTL (B=1.15, pfamily and marital conflict and warmth, and positive and negative mood over a two-month period. To our knowledge, these findings, although cross-sectional, represent the first evidence showing that link between children's affective responses and daily family interactions may have implications for telomere length. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The DNA methylation inhibitor induces telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of leukemia cells that is attenuated by telomerase over-expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Li, Bingnan; de Jonge, Nick; Björkholm, Magnus; Xu, Dawei

    2015-03-10

    DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTIs) such as 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) have been used for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignancies. Although inhibiting global/gene-specific DNA methylation is widely accepted as a key mechanism behind DNMTI anti-tumor activity, other mechanisms are likely involved in DNMTI's action. Because telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays key roles in cancer through telomere elongation and telomere lengthening-independent activities, and TERT has been shown to confer chemo- or radio-resistance to cancer cells, we determine whether DNMTIs affect telomere function and whether TERT/telomerase interferes with their anti-cancer efficacy. We showed that 5-AZA induced DNA damage and telomere dysfunction in AML cell lines by demonstrating the presence of 53-BP1 foci and the co-localization of 53-BP1 foci with telomere signals, respectively. Telomere dysfunction was coupled with diminished TERT expression, shorter telomere and apoptosis in 5-AZA-treated cells. However, 5-AZA treatment did not lead to changes in the methylation status of subtelomere regions. Down-regulation of TERT expression similarly occurred in primary leukemic cells derived from AML patients exposed to 5-AZA. TERT over-expression significantly attenuated 5-AZA-mediated DNA damage, telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of AML cells. Collectively, 5-AZA mediates the down-regulation of TERT expression, and induces telomere dysfunction, which consequently exerts an anti-tumor activity.

  2. The protein network surrounding the human telomere repeat binding factors TRF1, TRF2, and POT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Shen, Rong-Fong [National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health; Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Liu, Yie [National Institute on Aging, Baltimore

    2010-01-01

    Telomere integrity (including telomere length and capping) is critical in overall genomic stability. Telomere repeat binding factors and their associated proteins play vital roles in telomere length regulation and end protection. In this study, we explore the protein network surrounding telomere repeat binding factors, TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 using dual-tag affinity purification in combination with multidimensional protein identification technology liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (MudPIT LC-MS/MS). After control subtraction and data filtering, we found that TRF2 and POT1 co-purified all six members of the telomere protein complex, while TRF1 identified five of six components at frequencies that lend evidence towards the currently accepted telomere architecture. Many of the known TRF1 or TRF2 interacting proteins were also identified. Moreover, putative associating partners identified for each of the three core components fell into functional categories such as DNA damage repair, ubiquitination, chromosome cohesion, chromatin modification/remodeling, DNA replication, cell cycle and transcription regulation, nucleotide metabolism, RNA processing, and nuclear transport. These putative protein-protein associations may participate in different biological processes at telomeres or, intriguingly, outside telomeres.

  3. The protein network surrounding the human telomere repeat binding factors TRF1, TRF2, and POT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Giannone

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Telomere integrity (including telomere length and capping is critical in overall genomic stability. Telomere repeat binding factors and their associated proteins play vital roles in telomere length regulation and end protection. In this study, we explore the protein network surrounding telomere repeat binding factors, TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 using dual-tag affinity purification in combination with multidimensional protein identification technology liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry (MudPIT LC-MS/MS. After control subtraction and data filtering, we found that TRF2 and POT1 co-purified all six members of the telomere protein complex, while TRF1 identified five of six components at frequencies that lend evidence towards the currently accepted telomere architecture. Many of the known TRF1 or TRF2 interacting proteins were also identified. Moreover, putative associating partners identified for each of the three core components fell into functional categories such as DNA damage repair, ubiquitination, chromosome cohesion, chromatin modification/remodeling, DNA replication, cell cycle and transcription regulation, nucleotide metabolism, RNA processing, and nuclear transport. These putative protein-protein associations may participate in different biological processes at telomeres or, intriguingly, outside telomeres.

  4. Depression, anxiety and telomere length in young adults: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, B L; Mezuk, B; Bareis, N; Lin, J; Blackburn, E H; Epel, E S

    2015-04-01

    Telomere length has been hypothesized to be a marker of cumulative exposure to stress, and stress is an established cause of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between depression, anxiety and telomere length, and to assess whether this relationship is moderated by race/ethnicity, gender and/or antidepressant use. Data were from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Telomere length was assessed using the quantitative PCR method of telomere length relative to standard reference DNA. Past-year major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD), as well as depressed affect and anxious affect, were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory (N=1290). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between depression and anxiety disorders and telomere length. Among women, those with GAD or PD had shorter telomeres than those with no anxious affect (β: -0.07, P0.05). Among respondents currently taking an antidepressant, those with MD had shorter telomeres than those without (β: -0.26, P0.05). Neither depressive nor anxiety disorders were directly associated with telomere length in young adults. There was suggestive evidence that pharmacologically treated MD is associated with shorter telomere length, likely reflecting the more severe nature of MD that has come to clinical attention.

  5. TPP1 Is Required for TERT Recruitment, Telomere Elongation during Nuclear Reprogramming, and Normal Skin Development in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tejera, Agueda M; Stagno d'Alcontres, Martina; Thanasoula, Maria; Marion, Rosa M; Martinez, Paula; Liao, Chunyan; Flores, Juana M; Tarsounas, Madalena; Blasco, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    .... Here we find that Tpp1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) show increased chromosomal instability including sister chromatid fusions and chromosomes with multitelomeric signals related to telomere fragility...

  6. Effects of reverse transcriptase inhibitors on telomere length and telomerase activity in two immortalized human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahl, C; Blackburn, E H

    1996-01-01

    The ribonucleoprotein telomerase, a specialized cellular reverse transcriptase, synthesizes one strand of the telomeric DNA of eukaryotes. We analyzed telomere maintenance in two immortalized human cell lines: the B-cell line JY616 and the T-cell line Jurkat E6-1, and determined whether known inhibitors of retroviral reverse transcriptases could perturb telomere lengths and growth rates of these cells in culture. Dideoxyguanosine (ddG) caused reproducible, progressive telomere shortening over several weeks of passaging, after which the telomeres stabilized and remained short. However, the prolonged passaging in ddG caused no observable effects on cell population doubling rates or morphology. Azidothymidine (AZT) caused progressive telomere shortening in some but not all T- and B-cell cultures. Telomerase activity was present in both cell lines and was inhibited in vitro by ddGTP and AZT triphosphate. Prolonged passaging in arabinofuranyl-guanosine, dideoxyinosine (ddI), dideoxyadenosine (ddA), didehydrothymidine (d4T), or phosphonoformic acid (foscarnet) did not cause reproducible telomere shortening or decreased cell growth rates or viabilities. Combining AZT, foscarnet, and/or arabinofuranyl-guanosine with ddG did not significantly augment the effects of ddG alone. Strikingly, with or without inhibitors, telomere lengths were often highly unstable in both cell lines and varied between parallel cell cultures. We propose that telomere lengths in these T- and B-cell lines are determined by both telomerase and telomerase-independent mechanisms.

  7. Telomere length is associated with ACE I/D polymorphism in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhrquist, Frej; Eriksson, Anders; Saijonmaa, Outi

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Short telomeres are often associated with cardiovascular risk factors and age-related diseases, while the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism (DD, ID, II) has shown such associations less consistently. We hypothesized that telomere length...... and association of telomere length with cardiovascular risk is affected by ACE (I/D) genotype. METHODS: We measured leucocyte telomere length (LTL) by Southern blot and analysed ACE I/D genotypes in 1249 subjects with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined interactions of ACE I...

  8. SA1 binds directly to DNA through its unique AT-hook to promote sister chromatid cohesion at telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Kamlesh K; Daniloski, Zharko; Smith, Susan

    2013-08-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion relies on cohesin, a complex comprising a tri-partite ring and a peripheral subunit Scc3, which is found as two related isoforms SA1 and SA2 in vertebrates. There is a division of labor between the vertebrate cohesin complexes; SA1-cohesin is required at telomeres and SA2-cohesin at centromeres. Depletion of SA1 has dramatic consequences for telomere function and genome integrity, but the mechanism by which SA1-cohesin mediates cohesion at telomeres is not well understood. Here we dissect the individual contribution of SA1 and the ring subunits to telomere cohesion and show that telomeres rely heavily on SA1 and to a lesser extent on the ring for cohesion. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we show that SA1 is highly enriched at telomeres, is decreased at mitosis when cohesion is resolved, and is increased when cohesion persists. Overexpression of SA1 alone was sufficient to induce cohesion at telomeres, independent of the cohesin ring and dependent on its unique (not found in SA2) N-terminal domain, which we show binds to telomeric DNA through an AT-hook motif. We suggest that a specialized cohesion mechanism may be required to accommodate the high level of DNA replication-associated repair at telomeres.

  9. The effect of the TRF2 N-terminal and TRFH regions on telomeric G-quadruplex structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, Ilene M.; Hayward, William; Fletcher, Terace M.

    2009-01-01

    The sequence of human telomeric DNA consists of tandem repeats of 5?-d(TTAGGG)-3?. This guanine-rich DNA can form G-quadruplex secondary structures which may affect telomere maintenance. A current model for telomere protection by the telomere-binding protein, TRF2, involves the formation of a t-loop which is stabilized by a strand invasion-like reaction. This type of reaction may be affected by G-quadruplex structures. We analyzed the influence of the arginine-rich, TRF2 N-terminus (TRF2B), a...

  10. A Taz1- and Microtubule-Dependent Regulatory Relationship between Telomere and Centromere Positions in Bouquet Formation Secures Proper Meiotic Divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Katsumata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase, telomeres cluster, forming the bouquet chromosome arrangement, and facilitate homologous chromosome pairing. In fission yeast, bouquet formation requires switching of telomere and centromere positions. Centromeres are located at the spindle pole body (SPB during mitotic interphase, and upon entering meiosis, telomeres cluster at the SPB, followed by centromere detachment from the SPB. Telomere clustering depends on the formation of the microtubule-organizing center at telomeres by the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex (LINC, while centromere detachment depends on disassembly of kinetochores, which induces meiotic centromere formation. However, how the switching of telomere and centromere positions occurs during bouquet formation is not fully understood. Here, we show that, when impaired telomere interaction with the LINC or microtubule disruption inhibited telomere clustering, kinetochore disassembly-dependent centromere detachment and accompanying meiotic centromere formation were also inhibited. Efficient centromere detachment required telomere clustering-dependent SPB recruitment of a conserved telomere component, Taz1, and microtubules. Furthermore, when artificial SPB recruitment of Taz1 induced centromere detachment in telomere clustering-defective cells, spindle formation was impaired. Thus, detachment of centromeres from the SPB without telomere clustering causes spindle impairment. These findings establish novel regulatory mechanisms, which prevent concurrent detachment of telomeres and centromeres from the SPB during bouquet formation and secure proper meiotic divisions.

  11. HIV Infection Is Associated with Shortened Telomere Length in Ugandans with Suspected Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Auld

    Full Text Available HIV infection is a risk factor for opportunistic pneumonias such as tuberculosis (TB and for age-associated health complications. Short telomeres, markers of biological aging, are also associated with an increased risk of age-associated diseases and mortality. Our goals were to use a single cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals hospitalized with pneumonia to assess whether shortened telomere length was associated with HIV infection, TB diagnosis, and 2-month mortality.This was a sub-study of the IHOP Study, a prospective observational study. Participants consisted of 184 adults admitted to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda who underwent evaluation for suspected TB and were followed for 2 months. Standardized questionnaires were administered to collect demographic and clinical data. PBMCs were isolated and analyzed using quantitative PCR to determine telomere length. The association between HIV infection, demographic and clinical characteristics, and telomere length was assessed, as were the associations between telomere length, TB diagnosis and 2-month mortality. Variables with a P≤0.2 in bivariate analysis were included in multivariate models.No significant demographic or clinical differences were observed between the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Older age (P<0.0001, male gender (P = 0.04, total pack-years smoked (P<0.001, alcohol consumption in the past year (P = 0.12, and asthma (P = 0.08 were all associated (P≤0.2 with shorter telomere length in bivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis adjusting for these five variables, HIV-positive participants had significantly shorter telomeres than HIV-negative participants (β = -0.0621, 95% CI -0.113 to -0.011, P = 0.02. Shortened telomeres were not associated with TB or short-term mortality.The association between HIV infection and shorter telomeres suggests that HIV may play a role in cellular senescence and biological aging and that shorter telomeres may be

  12. Systematic Analysis of the DNA Damage Response Network in Telomere Defective Budding Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Holstein

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional telomeres are critically important to eukaryotic genetic stability. Scores of proteins and pathways are known to affect telomere function. Here, we report a series of related genome-wide genetic interaction screens performed on budding yeast cells with acute or chronic telomere defects. Genetic interactions were examined in cells defective in Cdc13 and Stn1, affecting two components of CST, a single stranded DNA (ssDNA binding complex that binds telomeric DNA. For comparison, genetic interactions were also examined in cells with defects in Rfa3, affecting the major ssDNA binding protein, RPA, which has overlapping functions with CST at telomeres. In more complex experiments, genetic interactions were measured in cells lacking EXO1 or RAD9, affecting different aspects of the DNA damage response, and containing a cdc13-1 induced telomere defect. Comparing fitness profiles across these data sets helps build a picture of the specific responses to different types of dysfunctional telomeres. The experiments show that each context reveals different genetic interactions, consistent with the idea that each genetic defect causes distinct molecular defects. To help others engage with the large volumes of data, the data are made available via two interactive web-based tools: Profilyzer and DIXY. One particularly striking genetic interaction observed was that the chk1∆ mutation improved fitness of cdc13-1 exo1∆ cells more than other checkpoint mutations (ddc1∆, rad9∆, rad17∆, and rad24∆, whereas, in cdc13-1 cells, the effects of all checkpoint mutations were similar. We show that this can be explained by Chk1 stimulating resection—a new function for Chk1 in the eukaryotic DNA damage response network.

  13. Cognitive Change During the Life Course and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Late Middle-aged Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Rask

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractImportance: Cognitive skills are known to decline through the lifespan with large individual differences. The molecular mechanisms for this decline are incompletely understood. Although leukocyte telomere length provides an index of cellular age that predicts the incidence of age-related diseases, it is unclear whether there is an association between cognitive decline and leukocyte telomere length. Objective: To examine the association between changes in cognitive function during adult life and leukocyte telomere length after adjusting for confounding factors such as education, mental health and life style. Design, setting and participants: Two groups of men with negative (n=97 and positive (n=93 change in cognitive performance were selected from a birth cohort of 1985 Danish men born in 1953. Cognitive performance of each individual was assessed at age ~20 and ~56 years. Leukocyte telomere length at age ~58 was measured using qPCR. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between cognitive function and leukocyte telomere length. Results: Men with negative change in cognitive performance during adult life had significantly shorter mean leukocyte telomere length than men with positive change in cognitive performance (unadjusted difference β= - 0.09, 95% CI -0.16 - -0.02, p= 0.02. This association remained significant after adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time activity, body mass index and cholesterol (adjusted difference β= -0.09, 95% CI -0.17 - -0.01, p= 0.02 but was nonsignificant after adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time activity, body mass index cholesterol, current cognitive function, depression and education (adjusted difference β= -0.07, 95% CI -0.16 - -0.01, p= 0.08. Conclusion and relevance: Preclinical cognitive changes may be associated with leukocyte telomere length.

  14. Reduced placental telomere length during pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Toutain

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that telomere length was significantly reduced in placentas collected at delivery from pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction secondary to placental insufficiency. Placental telomere length measurement during ongoing pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction has never been reported. This was the main objective of our study. METHODS: In our center, late chorionic villus samplings were performed between 18 and 37 weeks of amenorrhea in 24 subjects with severe intrauterine growth restriction (cases and in 28 subjects with other indications for prenatal diagnosis (controls. Placental insufficiency was assessed by histo-pathological examination. Relative measurement of telomere length was carried out prospectively by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using fluorescent Peptide Nucleic Acid probes on interphase nuclei obtained from long-term cultured villi and with an automated epifluorescent microscope. A quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction technique was performed to confirm the quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization results. The number of copies of gene loci encoding the RNA template (hTERC and the catalytic subunit (hTERT of the enzyme complex telomerase were also estimated in these placentas by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization. RESULTS: Mean fluorescence intensity of telomere probes estimated by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization was significantly less for cases compared to controls (p<0.001. This result indicated that mean telomere length was significantly reduced in placentas during pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. Reduced telomere length was confirmed by the quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. No copy number variation of the hTERC and hTERT loci was noticed for cases, or for controls. CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrates a reduction of placental telomere length in ongoing pregnancies

  15. High phobic anxiety is related to lower leukocyte telomere length in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okereke, Olivia I; Prescott, Jennifer; Wong, Jason Y Y; Han, Jiali; Rexrode, Kathryn M; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2012-01-01

    Chronic psychological distress has been linked to shorter telomeres, an indication of accelerated aging. Yet, little is known about relations of anxiety to telomeres. We examined whether a typically chronic form of anxiety--phobic anxiety--is related to telomere length. Relative telomere lengths (RTLs) in peripheral blood leukocytes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction among 5,243 women (aged 42-69 years) who: were participants in the Nurses' Health Study; were controls in prior case-control studies of telomeres and disease, or randomly selected healthy participants in a cognitive function sub-study; had completed the Crown-Crisp phobic index proximal to blood collection. Adjusted least-squares mean RTLs (z-scores) were calculated across phobic categories. Higher phobic anxiety was generally associated with lower RTLs (age-adjusted p-trend = 0.09); this association was similar after adjustment for confounders--paternal age-at-birth, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (p-trend = 0.15). Notably, a threshold was identified. Among women with Crown-Crispphobic women (Crown-Crisp ≥ 6), the multivariable-adjusted least-squares mean RTL z-score = -0.09 standard units (mean difference = -0.10 standard units; p = 0.02). The magnitude of this difference was comparable to that for women 6 years apart in age. Finally, effect modification by BMI, smoking and paternal age was observed: associations were stronger among highly phobic women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2), without smoking history, or born to fathers aged ≥ 40 years. In this large, cross-sectional study high phobic anxiety was associated with shorter telomeres. These results point toward prospective investigations relating anxiety to telomere length change.

  16. High phobic anxiety is related to lower leukocyte telomere length in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia I Okereke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic psychological distress has been linked to shorter telomeres, an indication of accelerated aging. Yet, little is known about relations of anxiety to telomeres. We examined whether a typically chronic form of anxiety--phobic anxiety--is related to telomere length. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relative telomere lengths (RTLs in peripheral blood leukocytes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction among 5,243 women (aged 42-69 years who: were participants in the Nurses' Health Study; were controls in prior case-control studies of telomeres and disease, or randomly selected healthy participants in a cognitive function sub-study; had completed the Crown-Crisp phobic index proximal to blood collection. Adjusted least-squares mean RTLs (z-scores were calculated across phobic categories. Higher phobic anxiety was generally associated with lower RTLs (age-adjusted p-trend = 0.09; this association was similar after adjustment for confounders--paternal age-at-birth, smoking, body mass index (BMI and physical activity (p-trend = 0.15. Notably, a threshold was identified. Among women with Crown-Crisp<6 points, the multivariable-adjusted least-squares mean RTL z-score = 0.02 standard units; however, among the most phobic women (Crown-Crisp ≥ 6, the multivariable-adjusted least-squares mean RTL z-score = -0.09 standard units (mean difference = -0.10 standard units; p = 0.02. The magnitude of this difference was comparable to that for women 6 years apart in age. Finally, effect modification by BMI, smoking and paternal age was observed: associations were stronger among highly phobic women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2, without smoking history, or born to fathers aged ≥ 40 years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this large, cross-sectional study high phobic anxiety was associated with shorter telomeres. These results point toward prospective investigations relating anxiety to telomere length change.

  17. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of the telomere repeat sequence in hamster sperm nuclear structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara, J; Wydner, K L; Hyland, K M; Ward, W S

    1993-11-01

    The flat, hooked-shaped architecture of the hamster sperm nucleus makes this an excellent model for in situ hybridization studies of the three dimensional structure of the genome. We have examined the structure of the telomere repeat sequence (TTAGGG)n with respect to the various nuclear structures present in hamster spermatozoa, using fluorescent in situ hybridization. In fully condensed, mature sperm nuclei, the telomere sequences appeared as discrete spots of various sizes interspersed throughout the volume of the nuclei. While the pattern of these signals was non-random, it varied significantly in different nuclei. These discrete telomere foci were seen to gradually lengthen into linear, beaded signals as sperm nuclei were decondensed, in vitro, and were not associated with the nuclear annulus. We also examined the relationship of telomeres to the sperm nuclear matrix, a residual nuclear structure that retains the original size and shape of the nucleus. In these structures the DNA extends beyond the perimeter of the nucleus to form a halo around it, representing the arrangement of the chromosomal DNA into loop domains attached at their bases to the nuclear matrix. Telomere signals in these structures were also linear and equal in length to those of the decondensed nuclei, and each signal represented part of a single DNA loop domain. The telomeres were attached at one end to the nuclear matrix and extended into the halo. Sperm nuclear matrices treated with Eco RI retained the telomere signals. These data support sperm DNA packaging models in which DNA is coiled into discrete foci, rather than spread out linearly along the length of the sperm nucleus.

  18. Synaptonemal complex extension from clustered telomeres mediates full-length chromosome pairing in Schmidtea mediterranea.