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Sample records for telomerase inhibition activities

  1. Aspirin inhibits human telomerase activation in unstable carotid plaques

    OpenAIRE

    LI, FANGMING; GUO, YI; JIANG, XIN; ZHONG, JIANXIN; LI, GUANDONG; SUN, SHENGGANG

    2013-01-01

    The activation of telomerase in unstable plaques is an important factor in atherosclerosis, and may be predictive of the risk of cerebrovascular diseases. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a subunit of telomerase that is essential for telomerase activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether aspirin inhibits the activation of telomerase and hTERT in unstable carotid plaques. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) derived from carotid plaques were isolated fr...

  2. Inhibition of telomerase activity and cell growth by free and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the telomerase activity of the nanoliposomal punicalagin-treated cells was significantly inhibited in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Punicalagin shows a novel mechanism of anti-telomerase activity, particularly in the nanoliposomal form, and may provide a basis for the future development of ...

  3. Telomerase variant A279T induces telomere dysfunction and inhibits non-canonical telomerase activity in esophageal carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Zhang

    exposure, as well as Li Fraumeni fibroblasts in the absence of pharmacologically-induced DNA damage.A279T induces telomere dysfunction and inhibits non-canonical telomerase activity in esophageal cancer cells. These findings warrant further analysis of A279T expression in esophageal cancers and premalignant esophageal lesions.

  4. Triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit the activation of EBV antigens as telomerase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong-Shu; Chen, Liang-Shu

    2017-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant disease that threatens the health of humans. To find effective agents for the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which is associated with NPC, a phytochemical investigation of Ganoderma lucidum was carried out in the present study. Five triterpenoids were identified, including ganoderic acid A (compound 1), ganoderic acid B (compound 2), ganoderol B (compound 3), ganodermanontriol (compound 4), and ganodermanondiol (compound 5), on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. An inhibition of EBV antigens activation assay was implemented to elucidate the triterpenoids from G. lucidum and potentially prevent NPC. All the triterpenoids showed significant inhibitory effects on both EBV EA and CA activation at 16 nmol. At 3.2 nmol, all the compounds moderately inhibited the activation of the two antigens. The activity of telomerase was inhibited by these triterpenoids at 10 µM. Molecular docking demonstrated that compound 1 was able to inhibit telomerase as a ligand. In addition, the physicochemical properties of these compounds were calculated to elucidate their drug-like properties. These results provided evidence for the application of these triterpenoids and whole G. lucidum in the treatment of NPC.

  5. Telomerase Activation in Hematological Malignancies

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    Joana Ropio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase expression and telomere maintenance are critical for cell proliferation and survival, and they play important roles in development and cancer, including hematological malignancies. Transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gen (hTERT is a complex process, and unveiling the mechanisms behind its reactivation is an important step for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the main mechanisms of telomerase activation and the associated hematologic malignancies.

  6. Inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of apoptosis by Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase in cancer Jurkat cell line and normal human CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Dmitry D; Pokrovsky, Vadim S; Pokrovskaya, Marina V; Alexandrova, Svetlana S; Eldarov, Mikhail A; Grishin, Dmitry V; Basharov, Marsel M; Gladilina, Yulia A; Podobed, Olga V; Sokolov, Nikolai N

    2017-11-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase mutant E149R, V150P, F151T (RrA) down-regulates telomerase activity due to its ability to inhibit the expression of telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT. The aim of this study was to define the effect of short-term and long-term RrA exposure on proliferation of cancer Jurkat cell line and normal human CD4 + T lymphocytes. RrA could inhibit telomerase activity in dose- and time-dependent manner in both Jurkat and normal CD4 + T cells. Continuous RrA exposure of these cells resulted in shortening of telomeres followed by cell cycle inhibition, replicative senescence, and development of apoptosis. Complete death of Jurkat cells was observed at the day 25 of RrA exposure while normal CD4 + T cells died at the day 50 due to the initial longer length of telomeres. Removal of RrA from senescent cells led to a reactivation of hTERT expression, restoration telomerase activity, re-elongation of telomeres after 48 h of cultivation, and survival of cells. These findings demonstrate that proliferation of cancer and normal telomerase-positive cells can be limited by continuous telomerase inhibition with RrA. Longer telomeres of normal CD4 + T lymphocytes make such cells more sustainable to RrA exposure that could give them an advantage during anti-telomerase therapy. These results should facilitate further investigations of RrA as a potent anti-telomerase therapeutic protein. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Telomerase and its extracurricular activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rishi Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Yadava, Pramod Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The classical activity of telomerase is to synthesize telomeric repeats and thus maintain telomere length, which in turn ensures chromosome stability and cellular proliferation. However, there is growing evidence that implicates telomerase in many other functions that are independent of TERC being used as its template. Telomerase has an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) activity in the mitochondria. Other than viral RdRPs, it is the only RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that has been identified in mammals. It also plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathway by acting as a transcriptional modulator. Telomerase acts as a reverse transcriptase independent of its core subunit, TERC. Studies indicate that telomerase is also involved in apoptosis and DNA repair.

  8. [The effect of As2O3 on induction of apoptosis and inhibition of telomerase activity in colon cancer LS-174T cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Shan; Wang, Gui-Yu; Xu, Hai-Tao; Wang, Kuan; Liu, Ming; Fu, Song-Bin; Geng, Jing-Shu; Zhang, Qi-Fan; Dong, Xin-Shu; Zhao, Jia-Hong

    2007-06-01

    To study the impact of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on human colorectal carcinoma LS-174T cells and their activity of telomerase. LS-174T cells and xenograft model of nude mice were treated with As2O3. The inhibitory effect of As2O3 on survival of LS-174T cells was determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined by electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometry. Telomerase activity in LS-174T cells was determined by PCR-ELISA kit. With the increasing concentration of As2O3, the ratio of living cells to dead cells decreased significantly, and the IC50 value was 5.23 micromol/L. Apoptosis curve appeared after 24 h and cells turned to apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. As2O3 inhibited the telomerase activity in cell extraction, obviously in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Inhibitiory effect of As2O3 on xenograft model of nude mice was observed by tumor volume and weight measurement, showing a significant difference between As2O3 and control groups (P colonrectal cancer S-174T cell growth, probably by induction of apoptosis and inhibition of telomerase activity.

  9. Down-regulation of telomerase activity in DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by tocotrienol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2006-01-01

    As high telomerase activity is detected in most cancer cells, inhibition of telomerase by drug or dietary food components is a new strategy for cancer prevention. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin E, with particular emphasis on tocotrienol (unsaturated vitamin E), on human telomerase in cell-culture study. As results, tocotrienol inhibited telomerase activity of DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in time- and dose-dependent manner, interestingly, with δ-tocotrienol exhibiting the highest inhibitory activity. Tocotrienol inhibited protein kinase C activity, resulting in down-regulation of c-myc and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, thereby reducing telomerase activity. In contrast to tocotrienol, tocopherol showed very weak telomerase inhibition. These results provide novel evidence for First time indicating that tocotrienol acts as a potent candidate regulator of telomerase and supporting the anti-proliferative function of tocotrienol

  10. Reactive oxygen species-dependent HSP90 protein cleavage participates in arsenical As+3- and MMA+3-induced apoptosis through inhibition of telomerase activity via JNK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, S.-C.; Yang, L.-Y.; Lin, H.-Y.; Wu, C.-Y.; Su, T.-H.; Chen, Y.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of six arsenic compounds including As +3 , MMA +3 , DMA +3 , As +5 , MMA +5 , and DMA +5 on the viability of NIH3T3 cells were examined. As +3 and MMA +3 , but not the others, exhibited significant cytotoxic effects in NIH3T3 cells through apoptosis induction. The apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and chromosome condensation induced by As +3 and MMA +3 were prevented by the addition of NAC and CAT, and induction of HO-1 gene expression in accordance with cleavage of the HSP90 protein, and suppression of telomerase activity were observed in NIH3T3 cells under As +3 and MMA +3 treatments. An increase in the intracellular peroxide level was examined in As +3 - and MMA +3 -treated NIH3T3 cells, and As +3 - and MMA +3 -induced apoptotic events were blocked by NAC, CAT, and DPI addition. HSP90 inhibitors, GA and RD, significantly attenuated the telomerase activity in NIH3T3 cells with an enhancement of As +3 - and MMA +3 -induced cytotoxicity. Suppression of JNKs significantly inhibited As +3 - and MMA +3 -induced apoptosis by blocking HSP90 protein cleavage and telomerase reduction in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, Hb, SnPP, and dexferosamine showed no effect against As +3 - and MMA +3 -induced apoptosis, and overexpression of HO-1 protein or inhibition of HO-1 protein expression did not affect the apoptosis induced by As +3 or MMA +3 . These data provide the first evidence to indicate that apoptosis induced by As +3 and MMA +3 is mediated by an ROS-dependent degradation of HSP90 protein and reduction of telomerase via JNK activation, and HO-1 induction might not be involved

  11. Reactive oxygen species-dependent HSP90 protein cleavage participates in arsenical As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptosis through inhibition of telomerase activity via JNK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shing-Chuan; Yang, Liang-Yo; Lin, Hui-Yi; Wu, Chin-Yen; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2008-06-01

    The effects of six arsenic compounds including As(+3), MMA(+3), DMA(+3), As(+5), MMA(+5), and DMA(+5) on the viability of NIH3T3 cells were examined. As(+3) and MMA(+3), but not the others, exhibited significant cytotoxic effects in NIH3T3 cells through apoptosis induction. The apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and chromosome condensation induced by As(+3) and MMA(+3) were prevented by the addition of NAC and CAT, and induction of HO-1 gene expression in accordance with cleavage of the HSP90 protein, and suppression of telomerase activity were observed in NIH3T3 cells under As(+3) and MMA(+3) treatments. An increase in the intracellular peroxide level was examined in As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-treated NIH3T3 cells, and As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptotic events were blocked by NAC, CAT, and DPI addition. HSP90 inhibitors, GA and RD, significantly attenuated the telomerase activity in NIH3T3 cells with an enhancement of As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced cytotoxicity. Suppression of JNKs significantly inhibited As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptosis by blocking HSP90 protein cleavage and telomerase reduction in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, Hb, SnPP, and dexferosamine showed no effect against As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptosis, and overexpression of HO-1 protein or inhibition of HO-1 protein expression did not affect the apoptosis induced by As(+3) or MMA(+3). These data provide the first evidence to indicate that apoptosis induced by As(+3) and MMA(+3) is mediated by an ROS-dependent degradation of HSP90 protein and reduction of telomerase via JNK activation, and HO-1 induction might not be involved.

  12. Improved Inhibition of Telomerase by Short Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acids under Molecular Crowding Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Tani; Pradhan, Devranjan; Géci, Imrich

    2012-01-01

    Human telomeric DNA has the ability to fold into a 4-stranded G-quadruplex structure. Several G-quadruplex ligands are known to stabilize the structure and thereby inhibit telomerase activity. Such ligands have demonstrated efficient telomerase inhibition in dilute conditions, but under molecular...

  13. Inhibition of telomerase activity preferentially targets aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cancer stem-like cells in lung cancer

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    Iniesta Pilar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality rates for advanced lung cancer have not declined for decades, even with the implementation of novel chemotherapeutic regimens or the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs are thought to be responsible for resistance to chemo/radiotherapy. Therefore, targeting CSCs with novel compounds may be an effective approach to reduce lung tumor growth and metastasis. We have isolated and characterized CSCs from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines and measured their telomerase activity, telomere length, and sensitivity to the novel telomerase inhibitor MST312. Results The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH positive lung cancer cell fraction is enriched in markers of stemness and endowed with stem cell properties. ALDH+ CSCs display longer telomeres than the non-CSC population. Interestingly, MST312 has a strong antiproliferative effect on lung CSCs and induces p21, p27 and apoptosis in the whole tumor population. MST312 acts through activation of the ATM/pH2AX DNA damage pathway (short-term effect and through decrease in telomere length (long-term effect. Administration of this telomerase inhibitor (40 mg/kg in the H460 xenograft model results in significant tumor shrinkage (70% reduction, compared to controls. Combination therapy consisting of irradiation (10Gy plus administration of MST312 did not improve the therapeutic efficacy of the telomerase inhibitor alone. Treatment with MST312 reduces significantly the number of ALDH+ CSCs and their telomeric length in vivo. Conclusions We conclude that antitelomeric therapy using MST312 mainly targets lung CSCs and may represent a novel approach for effective treatment of lung cancer.

  14. Association of telomerase activity with radio- and chemosensitivity of neuroblastomas

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    Willich Normann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomerase activity compensates shortening of telomeres during cell division and enables cancer cells to escape senescent processes. It is also supposed, that telomerase is associated with radio- and chemoresistance. In the here described study we systematically investigated the influence of telomerase activity (TA and telomere length on the outcome of radio- and chemotherapy in neuroblastoma. Methods We studied the effects on dominant negative (DN mutant, wild type (WT of the telomerase catalytic unit (hTERT using neuroblastoma cell lines. The cells were irradiated with 60Co and treated with doxorubicin, etoposide, cisplatin and ifosfamide, respectively. Viability was determined by MTS/MTT-test and the GI50 was calculated. Telomere length was measured by southernblot analysis and TA by Trap-Assay. Results Compared to the hTERT expressing cells the dominant negative cells showed increased radiosensitivity with decreased telomere length. Independent of telomere length, telomerase negative cells are significantly more sensitive to irradiation. The effect of TA knock-down or overexpression on chemosensitivity were dependent on TA, the anticancer drug, and the chemosensitivity of the maternal cell line. Conclusions Our results supported the concept of telomerase inhibition as an antiproliferative treatment approach in neuroblastomas. Telomerase inhibition increases the outcome of radiotherapy while in combination with chemotherapy the outcome depends on drug- and cell line and can be additive/synergistic or antagonistic. High telomerase activity is one distinct cancer stem cell feature and the here described cellular constructs in combination with stem cell markers like CD133, Aldehyddehydrogenase-1 (ALDH-1 or Side population (SP may help to investigate the impact of telomerase activity on cancer stem cell survival under therapy.

  15. Activation of Telomerase by Ionizing Radiation: Differential Response to the Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Abrogation of Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, by LY294002, or by Wortmannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhof, Dirk; Zwicker, Felix; Kuepper, Jan-Heiner; Debus, Juergen; Weber, Klaus-Josef

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Telomerase activity represents a radiation-inducible function, which may be targeted by a double-strand break (DSB)-activated signal transduction pathway. Therefore, the effects of DNA-PK inhibitors (Wortmannin and LY294002) on telomerase upregulation after irradiation were studied. In addition, the role of trans-dominant inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which strongly reduces DSB rejoining, was assessed in comparison with 3-aminobenzamide. Methods and Materials: COM3 rodent cells carry a construct for the dexamethasone-inducible overexpression of the DNA-binding domain of PARP1 and exhibit greatly impaired DSB rejoining after irradiation. Telomerase activity was measured using polymerase chain reaction ELISA 1 h after irradiation with doses up to 10 Gy. Phosphorylation status of PKB/Akt and of PKCα/β II was assessed by western blotting. Results: No telomerase upregulation was detectable for irradiated cells with undisturbed DSB rejoining. In contrast, incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone yielded pronounced radiation induction of telomerase activity that could be suppressed by Wortmannin. 3-Aminobenzamide not only was unable to induce telomerase activity but also suppressed telomerase upregulation upon incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone. Phospho-PKB was detectable independent of irradiation or dexamethasone pretreatment, but was undetectable upon incubations with LY294002 or Wortmannin, whereas phospho-PKC rested detectable. Conclusions: Telomerase activation postirradiation was triggered by different treatments that interfere with DNA DSB processing. This telomerase upregulation, however, was not reflected by the phosporylation status of the putative mediators of TERT activation, PKB and PKC. Although an involvement of PKB in TERT activation is not supported by the present findings, a respective role of PKC isoforms other than α/β II cannot be ruled out

  16. The β-carboline alkaloid harmine inhibits telomerase activity of MCF-7 cells by down-regulating hTERT mRNA expression accompanied by an accelerated senescent phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The end replication problem, which occurs in normal somatic cells inducing replicative senescence, is solved in most cancer cells by activating telomerase. The activity of telomerase is highly associated with carcinogenesis which makes the enzyme an attractive biomarker in cancer diagnosis and treatment. The indole alkaloid harmine has multiple pharmacological properties including DNA intercalation which can lead to frame shift mutations. In this study, harmine was applied to human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Its activity towards telomerase was analyzed by utilizing the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP. Our data indicate that harmine exhibits a pronounced cytotoxicity and induces an anti-proliferation state in MCF-7 cells which is accompanied by a significant inhibition of telomerase activity and an induction of an accelerated senescence phenotype by over-expressing elements of the p53/p21 pathway.

  17. Telomerase activity in human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, J.

    2000-10-01

    The overall goal of this collaborative project was to investigate the role in malignant cells of both chromosome telomeres, and telomerase, the enzyme that replicates telomeres. Telomeres are highly conserved nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of eucaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length in somatic cells is reduced by 40--50 nucleotide pairs with every cell division due to incomplete replication of terminal DNA sequences and the absence of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein that adds telomere DNA to chromosome ends. Although telomerase is active in cells with extended proliferative capacities, including more than 85% of tumors, work performed under this contract demonstrated that the telomeres of human cancer cells are shorter than those of paired normal cells, and that the length of the telomeres is characteristic of particular types of cancers. The extent of telomere shortening ostensibly is related to the number of cell divisions the tumor has undergone. It is believed that ongoing cell proliferation leads to the accumulation and fixation of new mutations in tumor cell lineages.Therefore, it is not unreasonable to assume that the degree of phenotypic variability is related to the proliferative history of the tumor, and therefore to telomere length, implying a correlation with prognosis. In some human tumors, short telomeres are also correlated with genomic instabilities, including interstitial chromosome translocation, loss of heterozygosity, and aneuoploidy. Moreover, unprotected chromosome ends are highly recombinogenic and telomere shortening in cultured human cells correlates with the formation of dicentric chromosomes, suggesting that critically short telomeres not only identify, but also predispose, cells to genomic instability, again implying a correlation with prognosis. Therefore, telomere length or content could be an important predictor of metastatic potential or responsiveness to various therapeutic modalities.

  18. Prevalence of Telomerase Activity in Human Cancer

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    Chi-Hau Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase activity has been measured in a wide variety of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue types, and the vast majority of clinical studies have shown a direct correlation between it and the presence of cancerous cells. Telomerase plays a key role in cellular immortality and tumorigenesis. Telomerase is activated in 80–90% of human carcinomas, but not in normal somatic cells, therefore, its detection holds promise as a diagnostic marker for cancer. Measurable levels of telomerase have been detected in malignant cells from various samples: tissue from gestational trophoblastic neoplasms; squamous carcinoma cells from oral rinses; lung carcinoma cells from bronchial washings; colorectal carcinoma cells from colonic luminal washings; bladder carcinoma cells from urine or bladder washings; and breast carcinoma or thyroid cancer cells from fine needle aspirations. Such clinical tests for telomerase can be useful as non-invasive and cost-effective methods for early detection and monitoring of cancer. In addition, telomerase activity has been shown to correlate with poor clinical outcome in late-stage diseases such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and soft tissue sarcomas. In such cases, testing for telomerase activity can be used to identify patients with a poor prognosis and to select those who might benefit from adjuvant treatment. Our review of the latest medical advances in this field reveals that telomerase holds great promise as a biomarker for early cancer detection and monitoring, and has considerable potential as the basis for developing new anticancer therapies.

  19. Telomerase Activity in Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, Christopher M.; Hirte, Hal W.; Bacchetti, Silvia; Harley, Calvin B.

    1994-04-01

    Telomeres fulfill the dual function of protecting eukaryotic chromosomes from illegitimate recombination and degradation and may aid in chromosome attachment to the nuclear membrane. We have previously shown that telomerase, the enzyme which synthesizes telomeric DNA, is not detected in normal somatic cells and that telomeres shorten with replicative age. In cells immortalized in vitro, activation of telomerase apparently stabilizes telomere length, preventing a critical destabilization of chromosomes, and cell proliferation continues even when telomeres are short. In vivo, telomeres of most tumors are shorter than telomeres of control tissues, suggesting an analogous role for the enzyme. To assess the relevance of telomerase and telomere stability in the development and progression of tumors, we have measured enzyme activity and telomere length in metastatic cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We report that extremely short telomeres are maintained in these cells and that tumor cells, but not isogenic nonmalignant cells, express telomerase. Our findings suggest that progression of malignancy is ultimately dependent upon activation of telomerase and that telomerase inhibitors may be effective antitumor drugs.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 effects on proliferation and telomerase activity in sheep growth plate chondrocytes

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    Smith Logan B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 inhibits growth-plate chondrocyte proliferation and limits bone elongation. Gain-of-function FGFR3 mutations cause dwarfism, reduced telomerase activity and shorter telomeres in growth plate chondroyctes suggesting that FGFR3 reduces proliferative capacity, inhibits telomerase, and enhances senescence. Thyroid hormone (T3 plays a role in cellular maturation of growth plate chondrocytes and a known target of T3 is FGFR3. The present study addressed whether reduced FGFR3 expression enhanced telomerase activity, mRNA expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT and RNA component of telomerase (TR, and chondrocyte proliferation, and whether the stimulation of FGFR3 by T3 evoked the opposite response. Results Sheep growth-plate proliferative zone chondrocytes were cultured and transfected with siRNA to reduce FGFR3 expression; FGFR3 siRNA reduced chondrocyte FGFR3 mRNA and protein resulting in greater proliferation and increased TERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity (p 3 significantly enhanced FGFR3 mRNA and protein expression and reduced telomerase activity (p 3 at the growth plate may be partially mediated through the FGFR3 pathway. Conclusions The results suggest that FGFR3 inhibits chondrocyte proliferation by down-regulating TERT expression and reducing telomerase activity indicating an important role for telomerase in sustaining chondrocyte proliferative capacity during bone elongation.

  1. Telomerase: The Devil Inside

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    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High telomerase activity is detected in nearly all human cancers but most human cells are devoid of telomerase activity. There is well-documented evidence that reactivation of telomerase occurs during cellular transformation. In humans, tumors can rely in reactivation of telomerase or originate in a telomerase positive stem/progenitor cell, or rely in alternative lengthening of telomeres, a telomerase-independent telomere-length maintenance mechanism. In this review, we will focus on the telomerase positive tumors. In this context, the recent findings that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT promoter mutations represent the most common non-coding mutations in human cancer have flared up the long-standing discussion whether cancer originates from telomerase positive stem cells or telomerase reactivation is a final step in cellular transformation. Here, we will discuss the pros and cons of both concepts in the context of telomere length-dependent and telomere length-independent functions of telomerase. Together, these observations may provoke a re-evaluation of telomere and telomerase based therapies, both in telomerase inhibition for cancer therapy and telomerase activation for tissue regeneration and anti-ageing strategies.

  2. Clonal cell populations unresponsive to radiosensitization induced by telomerase inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yeun-Jin; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Park, Jeong-Eun; Juhn, Kyoung-Mi; Woo, Seon Rang; Kim, Hee-Young; Han, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Hong, Sung-Hee; Kang, Chang-Mo [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young-Do [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won-Bong [Division of Natural Science, Seoul Women' s University, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing [Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gil Hong, E-mail: ghpark@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Ho, E-mail: khlee@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} In our present manuscript, we have clearly showed an interesting but problematic obstacle of a radiosensitization strategy based on telomerase inhibition by showing that: Clonal population unresponsive to this radiosensitization occasionally arise. {yields} The telomere length of unsensitized clones was reduced, as was that of most sensitized clones. {yields} The unsensitized clones did not show chromosome end fusion which was noted in all sensitized clones. {yields} P53 status is not associated with the occurrence of unsensitized clone. {yields} Telomere end capping in unsensitized clone is operative even under telomerase deficiency. -- Abstract: A combination of a radiotherapeutic regimen with telomerase inhibition is valuable when tumor cells are to be sensitized to radiation. Here, we describe cell clones unresponsive to radiosensitization after telomere shortening. After extensive division of individual transformed clones of mTERC{sup -/-} cells, about 22% of clones were unresponsive to radiosensitization even though telomerase action was inhibited. The telomere lengths of unsensitized mTERC{sup -/-} clones were reduced, as were those of most sensitized clones. However, the unsensitized clones did not exhibit chromosomal end-to-end fusion to the extent noted in all sensitized clones. Thus, a defense mechanism preventing telomere erosion is operative even when telomeres become shorter under conditions of telomerase deficiency, and results in unresponsiveness to the radiosensitization generally mediated by telomere shortening.

  3. Clonal cell populations unresponsive to radiosensitization induced by telomerase inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yeun-Jin; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Park, Jeong-Eun; Juhn, Kyoung-Mi; Woo, Seon Rang; Kim, Hee-Young; Han, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Hong, Sung-Hee; Kang, Chang-Mo; Yoo, Young-Do; Park, Won-Bong; Cho, Myung-Haing; Park, Gil Hong; Lee, Kee-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → In our present manuscript, we have clearly showed an interesting but problematic obstacle of a radiosensitization strategy based on telomerase inhibition by showing that: Clonal population unresponsive to this radiosensitization occasionally arise. → The telomere length of unsensitized clones was reduced, as was that of most sensitized clones. → The unsensitized clones did not show chromosome end fusion which was noted in all sensitized clones. → P53 status is not associated with the occurrence of unsensitized clone. → Telomere end capping in unsensitized clone is operative even under telomerase deficiency. -- Abstract: A combination of a radiotherapeutic regimen with telomerase inhibition is valuable when tumor cells are to be sensitized to radiation. Here, we describe cell clones unresponsive to radiosensitization after telomere shortening. After extensive division of individual transformed clones of mTERC -/- cells, about 22% of clones were unresponsive to radiosensitization even though telomerase action was inhibited. The telomere lengths of unsensitized mTERC -/- clones were reduced, as were those of most sensitized clones. However, the unsensitized clones did not exhibit chromosomal end-to-end fusion to the extent noted in all sensitized clones. Thus, a defense mechanism preventing telomere erosion is operative even when telomeres become shorter under conditions of telomerase deficiency, and results in unresponsiveness to the radiosensitization generally mediated by telomere shortening.

  4. [Telomere length, telomerase activity, stress and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, I M; Mikhelson, V M; Spivak, D L

    The review is dedicated to analysis of data available at present time concerning possible influence of stress upon telomere lengths and telomerase activity, as well as various ways of counteracting it. Present-day telomerase theory of aging gains a new impetus, shedding light upon the influence of psychological state of humans and their ability to counteract stress, upon the process of aging. It also tends to regard telomere shortening and the decrease in the activity of telomerase as a marker of level of the ability to adapt to both inner and outer influences. Both aging and age-dependent diseases are proved to be substantially retarded not only by the administration of drugs, but also by psychological means, which forms a good way towards healthy longevity. With complete understanding of the impossibility to prevent or even to slow down natural senescence itself, these methods allow to remove causes, which accelerate senescence, and to increase the average human longevity.

  5. Detection of telomerase activity using microchip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Koji; Arakawa, Hidetoshi

    2015-07-01

    Telomerase participates in malignant transformation or immortalization of cells and thus has attracted attention as an anticancer drug target and diagnostic tumor marker. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and improved TRAP methods (TRAP-fluorescence, TRAP-hybridization, etc.) are widely used forms of this telomerase assay. However, these approaches generally employ acrylamide gel electrophoresis after amplification of telomeric repeats by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), making these TRAP methods time consuming and technically demanding. In this study we developed a novel telomerase assay using microchip electrophoresis for rapid and highly sensitive detection of telomerase activity in cancer cells. The mixed gel of 0.8% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and 0.3% polyethylene oxide (PEO) with SYBR Gold (fluorescent reagent) was used for microchip electrophoresis. As a result, the product amplified by a telomerase-positive cell could be measured in one cell per assay and detected with high reproducibility (CV=0.67%) in the short time of 100s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Telomerase activity in head and neck cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunická, Zuzana; Mucha, I.; Fajkus, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2008), s. 3125-3130 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : telomerase activity * real-time TRAP * prognosis Subject RIV: AQ - Safety, Health Protection, Human - Machine Impact factor: 1.390, year: 2008

  7. Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α Increased Telomerase Activity through NF-κB/STAT1/STAT3 Activation, and Withaferin A Inhibited the Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells

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    Seyung S. Chung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing evidences of proinflammatory cytokine involvement in cancer development. Here, we found that two cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, activated colorectal cancer cells to be more invasive and stem-like. Combined treatment of IL-6 and TNF-α phosphorylated transcription factors STAT3 in a synergistic manner. STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB physically interacted upon the cytokine stimulation. STAT3 was bound to the promoter region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT. IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation further enhanced STAT3 binding affinity. Stem cell marker Oct-4 was upregulated in colorectal cancer cells upon IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation. Withaferin A, an anti-inflammatory steroidal lactone, inhibited the IL-6- and TNF-α-induced cancer cell invasion and decreased colonosphere formation. Notably, withaferin A inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and abolished the STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB interactions. Oct-4 expression was also downregulated by withaferin A inhibition. The binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter region and telomerase activity showed reduction with withaferin A treatments. Proinflammatory cytokine-induced cancer cell invasiveness is mediated by a STAT3-regulated mechanism in colorectal cancer cells. Our data suggest that withaferin A could be a promising anticancer agent that effectively inhibits the progression of colorectal cancer.

  8. Telomere maintenance in laser capture microdissection-purified Barrett's adenocarcinoma cells and effect of telomerase inhibition in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, Masood A; Qazi, Aamer; Batchu, Ramesh B; Bertheau, Robert C; Wong, Jason YY; Rao, Manjula Y; Prasad, Madhu; Chanda, Diptiman; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Anderson, Kenneth C; Steffes, Christopher P; Munshi, Nikhil C; De Vivo, Immaculata; Beer, David G.; Gryaznov, Sergei; Weaver, Donald W; Goyal, Raj K

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate telomere function in normal and Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEAC) cells purified by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and to evaluate the impact of telomerase inhibition in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Design: Epithelial cells were purified from surgically resected esophagi. Telomerase activity was measured by modified “Telomeric Repeat Amplification Protocol” and telomere length determined by Real-Time PCR assay. To evaluate the impact of telomerase inhibition, adenocarcinoma cell lines were continuously treated with a specific telomerase inhibitor (GRN163L) and live cell number determined weekly. Apoptosis was evaluated by annexin labeling and senescence by beta-galactosidase staining. For in vivo studies, SCID-mice were subcutaneously inoculated with adenocarcinoma cells and following appearance of palpable tumors, injected intraperitoneally with saline or GRN163L. Results: Telomerase activity was significantly elevated whereas telomeres were shorter in BEAC cells relative to normal esophageal epithelial cells. The treatment of adenocarcinoma cells with telomerase inhibitor, GRN163L, led to loss of telomerase activity, reduction in telomere length, and growth arrest through induction of both the senescence and apoptosis. GRN163L induced cell death could also be expedited by addition of chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and ritonavir. Finally, the treatment with GRN163L led to a significant reduction in tumor volume in a subcutaneous tumor model. Conclusions: We show that telomerase activity is significantly elevated whereas telomeres are shorter in BEAC and suppression of telomerase inhibits proliferation of adenocarcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18676772

  9. Critical telomerase activity for uncontrolled cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesch, Neil L.; Burlock, Laura J.; Gooding, Robert J.

    2016-08-01

    The lengths of the telomere regions of chromosomes in a population of cells are modelled using a chemical master equation formalism, from which the evolution of the average number of cells of each telomere length is extracted. In particular, the role of the telomere-elongating enzyme telomerase on these dynamics is investigated. We show that for biologically relevant rates of cell birth and death, one finds a critical rate, R crit, of telomerase activity such that the total number of cells diverges. Further, R crit is similar in magnitude to the rates of mitosis and cell death. The possible relationship of this result to replicative immortality and its associated hallmark of cancer is discussed.

  10. Activation of p53, inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of estrogen receptor beta are associated with the anti-growth effects of combination of ovarian hormones and retinoids in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells

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    Smith-Schneider Sallie

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A full-term pregnancy has been associated with reduced risk for developing breast cancer. In rodent models, the protective effect of pregnancy can be mimicked with a defined regimen of estrogen and progesterone combination (E/P. However, the effects of pregnancy levels of E/P in humans and their underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this report, we investigated the growth inhibitory effects of pregnancy levels of E/P and both natural and synthetic retinoids in an immortalized human mammary epithelial cell line, 76N TERT cell line. Results We observed that cell growth was modestly inhibited by E/P, 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA or all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, and strongly inhibited by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide (HPR. The growth inhibitory effects of retinoids were further increased in the presence of E/P, suggesting their effects are additive. In addition, our results showed that both E/P and retinoid treatments resulted in increased RARE and p53 gene activity. We further demonstrated that p53 and p21 protein expression were induced following the E/P and retinoid treatments. Furthermore, we demonstrated that while the telomerase activity was moderately inhibited by E/P, 9-cis RA and ATRA, it was almost completely abolished by HPR treatment. These inhibitions on telomerase activity by retinoids were potentiated by co-treatment with E/P, and correlated well with their observed growth inhibitory effects. Finally, this study provides the first evidence that estrogen receptor beta is up-regulated in response to E/P and retinoid treatments. Conclusion Taken together, our studies show that part of the anti-growth effects of E/P and retinoids is p53 dependent, and involve activation of p53 and subsequent induction of p21 expression. Inhibition of telomerase activity and up-regulation of estrogen receptor beta are also associated with the E/P- and retinoid-mediated growth inhibition. Our studies also demonstrate that

  11. Differences in telomerase activity between colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiomamitis, Georgios D; Notas, George; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Zizi-Sermpetzoglou, Adamantia; Georgiadou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Ourania; Kouroumallis, Elias

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes. The disease progresses as a multistep process and is associated with genetic alterations. One of the characteristic features of cancer is telomerase activation. We sought to evaluate the differences in telomerase activity between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissue and to correlate the differences in telomerase activity between different locations with clinicopathological factors and survival. Matched colon tumour samples and adjacent normal mucosa samples 10 cm away from the tumour were collected during colectomy. We assessed telomerase activity using real time polymerase chain reaction. Several pathological characteristics of tumours, including p53, Ki-67, p21, bcl2 and MLH1 expression were also studied. We collected samples from 49 patients. There was a significantly higher telomerase activity in colon cancer tissue than normal tissue. Adenocarcinomas of the right colon express significantly higher telomerase than left-side cancers. Colon cancers and their adjacent normal tissue had significantly more telomerase and were more positive to MLH1 than rectal cancers. The expression of p53 negatively correlated to telomerase activity and was linked to better patient survival. Colon and rectal cancers seem to have different telomerase and MLH1 profiles, and this could be another factor for their different biologic and clinical behaviour and progression. These results support the idea that the large bowel cannot be considered a uniform organ, at least in the biology of cancer.

  12. Dynamic telomerase gene suppression via network effects of GSK3 inhibition.

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    Alan E Bilsland

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase controls telomere homeostasis and cell immortality and is a promising anti-cancer target, but few small molecule telomerase inhibitors have been developed. Reactivated transcription of the catalytic subunit hTERT in cancer cells controls telomerase expression. Better understanding of upstream pathways is critical for effective anti-telomerase therapeutics and may reveal new targets to inhibit hTERT expression.In a focused promoter screen, several GSK3 inhibitors suppressed hTERT reporter activity. GSK3 inhibition using 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime suppressed hTERT expression, telomerase activity and telomere length in several cancer cell lines and growth and hTERT expression in ovarian cancer xenografts. Microarray analysis, network modelling and oligonucleotide binding assays suggested that multiple transcription factors were affected. Extensive remodelling involving Sp1, STAT3, c-Myc, NFkappaB, and p53 occurred at the endogenous hTERT promoter. RNAi screening of the hTERT promoter revealed multiple kinase genes which affect the hTERT promoter, potentially acting through these factors. Prolonged inhibitor treatments caused dynamic expression both of hTERT and of c-Jun, p53, STAT3, AR and c-Myc.Our results indicate that GSK3 activates hTERT expression in cancer cells and contributes to telomere length homeostasis. GSK3 inhibition is a clinical strategy for several chronic diseases. These results imply that it may also be useful in cancer therapy. However, the complex network effects we show here have implications for either setting.

  13. Telomerase Activity in Chicken EmbryoFibroblast Cell Cultures Infected withMarek's Disease Virus

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    Gregory A. Tannock

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein, which adds telomeric repeats onto the 3’end of existing telomers at the end of chromosomes ineukaryotes. One hypothesis states that telomere length may function as a mitoticclock, therefore expression of telomerase activity in cancer cells may be a necessary and essential step for tumor development and progression.Methods:The detectability of telomerase activity in chicken embryofibroblast (CEF cells infected with different passages of Marek's disease virus(MDV was tested with the TRAPEZE® telomerase detection kit at passages14 (P14, P80/1 and P120 for the Woodland strain, and passage 9 (P9 for theMPF57 strain. Results:The results showed increased telomerase activity in MDV Woodlands strain at P14 and MPF57 strain at P9. Conclusion:Our results suggest that MDV-transformed cells at low passage are a suitable system for the study of telomerases in tumor developmentand for testing telomerase-inhibiting drugs.

  14. Intensive meditation training, immune cell telomerase activity, and psychological mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Tonya L; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Bridwell, David A; Zanesco, Anthony P; Aichele, Stephen R; Sahdra, Baljinder K; MacLean, Katherine A; King, Brandon G; Shaver, Phillip R; Rosenberg, Erika L; Ferrer, Emilio; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2011-06-01

    Telomerase activity is a predictor of long-term cellular viability, which decreases with chronic psychological distress (Epel et al., 2004). Buddhist traditions claim that meditation decreases psychological distress and promotes well-being (e.g., Dalai Lama and Cutler, 2009). Therefore, we investigated the effects of a 3-month meditation retreat on telomerase activity and two major contributors to the experience of stress: Perceived Control (associated with decreased stress) and Neuroticism (associated with increased subjective distress). We used mediation models to test whether changes in Perceived Control and Neuroticism explained meditation retreat effects on telomerase activity. In addition, we investigated whether two qualities developed by meditative practice, increased Mindfulness and Purpose in Life, accounted for retreat-related changes in the two stress-related variables and in telomerase activity. Retreat participants (n=30) meditated for ∼6 h daily for 3 months and were compared with a wait-list control group (n=30) matched for age, sex, body mass index, and prior meditation experience. Retreat participants received instruction in concentrative meditation techniques and complementary practices used to cultivate benevolent states of mind (Wallace, 2006). Psychological measures were assessed pre- and post-retreat. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples were collected post-retreat for telomerase activity. Because there were clear, a priori hypotheses, 1-tailed significance criteria were used throughout. Telomerase activity was significantly greater in retreat participants than in controls at the end of the retreat (pmeditation and positive psychological change with telomerase activity. Although we did not measure baseline telomerase activity, the data suggest that increases in perceived control and decreases in negative affectivity contributed to an increase in telomerase activity, with implications for telomere length and immune cell longevity

  15. Telomerase inhibition by siRNA causes senescence and apoptosis in Barrett's adenocarcinoma cells: mechanism and therapeutic potential

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    Batchu Ramesh B

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cancer cells, telomerase induction helps maintain telomere length and thereby bypasses senescence and provides enhanced replicative potential. Chemical inhibitors of telomerase have been shown to reactivate telomere shortening and cause replicative senescence and apoptotic cell death of tumor cells while having little or no effect on normal diploid cells. Results We designed siRNAs against two different regions of telomerase gene and evaluated their effect on telomere length, proliferative potential, and gene expression in Barrett's adenocarcinoma SEG-1 cells. The mixture of siRNAs in nanomolar concentrations caused a loss of telomerase activity that appeared as early as day 1 and was essentially complete at day 3. Inhibition of telomerase activity was associated with marked reduction in median telomere length and complete loss of detectable telomeres in more than 50% of the treated cells. Telomere loss caused senescence in 40% and apoptosis in 86% of the treated cells. These responses appeared to be associated with activation of DNA sensor HR23B and subsequent activation of p53 homolog p73 and p63 and E2F1. Changes in these gene regulators were probably the source of observed up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, p16 and GADD45. Elevated transcript levels of FasL, Fas and caspase 8 that activate death receptors and CARD 9 that interacts with Bcl10 and NFKB to enhance mitochondrial translocation and activation of caspase 9 were also observed. Conclusion These studies show that telomerase siRNAs can cause effective suppression of telomerase and telomere shortening leading to both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via mechanisms that include up-regulation of several genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Telomerase siRNAs may therefore be strong candidates for highly selective therapy for chemoprevention and treatment of Barrett's adenocarcinoma.

  16. The effect of β-ionone on telomerase activity in the human leukemia cell line K562

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    Zohreh Faezizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Telomerase is highly activated in most human cancer cells, therefore, its inhibition has been proposed as a novel and promising strategy for cancer therapy. Many plant-derived anticancer agents act through inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of apoptosis. β-ionone, a carotenoid compound isolated from Roseaceae, has been reported to possess anticancer properties. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism of β-ionone-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cell line K562 with special emphasis on its role in telomerase inhibition. Method: In this study the anti-proliferation effect of β-ionone on K562 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis rate was detected by Hoechst staining and flow cytometry analysis. Telomerase activity was measured by (TRAP ELISA assay. Results: Exposure of K562 cells to β-ionone caused a dose-dependent decrease in proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis and Hoechst staining showed that percentage of apoptotic cells markedly increased with an increase in β-ionone concentration. Compared to control cells, treatment of K562 cells with β-ionone resulted in a significant decrease of telomerase activity. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between telomerase inhibition and apoptosis induction in the treated K562 cells. Conclusion: Based on these results, β-ionone is an appropriate candidate for inhibiting telomerase activity in K562 cells. Therefore, it may be utilized as a novel drug against some leukemia cell lines.

  17. Survivin enhances telomerase activity via up-regulation of specificity protein 1- and c-Myc-mediated human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Teruo; Tsuji, Naoki; Asanuma, Koichi; Yagihashi, Atsuhito; Watanabe, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Suppression of apoptosis is thought to contribute to carcinogenesis. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis family, blocks apoptotic signaling activated by various cellular stresses. Since elevated expression of survivin observed in human cancers of varied origin was associated with poor patient survival, survivin has attracted growing attention as a potential target for cancer treatment. Immortalization of cells also is required for carcinogenesis; telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for cancer cells to proliferate indefinitely. Yet how cancer cells activate telomerase remains unclear. We therefore examined possible interrelationships between survivin expression and telomerase activity. Correlation between survivin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression was observed in colon cancer tissues, and overexpression of survivin enhanced telomerase activity by up-regulation of hTERT expression in LS180 human colon cancer cells. DNA-binding activities of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and c-Myc to the hTERT core promoter were increased in survivin gene transfectant cells. Phosphorylation of Sp1 and c-Myc at serine and threonine residues was enhanced by survivin, while total amounts of these proteins were unchanged. Further, 'knockdown' of survivin by a small inhibitory RNA decreased Sp1 and c-Myc phosphorylation. Thus survivin participates not only in inhibition of apoptosis, but also in prolonging cellular lifespan

  18. Effects of Curcuma longa Extract on Telomerase Activity in Lung and Breast Cancer Cells

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    Nosratollah Zarghami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Curcuma longa extract on the telomerase gene expression in QU-DB lung cancer and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The present study is an experimental research. Using 3 different phases n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol, total extract of Curcuma longa in a serial dilution was prepared and three phases was analyzed for determining which phase has more curcuminoids. Then the extract cytotoxicity effect was tested on breast cancer cell line (T47D, and lung cancer cell line (QU-DB by 24, 48 and 72 h MTT (Dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium assay. Then, the cells were treated with serial concentrations of the extract. Finally, total protein was extracted from the control and test groups, its quantity was determined and telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay was performed for measurement of possible inhibition of the telomerase activity. Results: Cell viability and MTT-based cytotoxicity assay show that the total extract of Curcuma longa has cytotoxic effect with different IC50s in breast and lung cancer cell lines. Analysis of TRAP assay also shows a significant reduction in telomerase activity on both cancer cells with different levels. Conclusion: Curcuma longa extract has anti-proliferation and telomerase inhibitory effects on QU-DB lung cancer and T47D breast cancer cells with differences in levels of telomerase inhibition.

  19. β-Cyclodextrin-curcumin complex inhibit telomerase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of telomerase gene in cells effectively was reduced as the concentration of β-cyclodextrin –curcumin complex was increased. The results show that β-cyclodextrin -curcumin complex have cytotoxic effect on T47D cell line through down regulation of telomerase expression and induction apoptosis by enhancing ...

  20. Curcumin and silibinin inhibit telomerase expression in T47D human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Marzieh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Koshki, Kazem Nejati; Mollazadeh, Mahdieh; Moghaddam, Mohammad Pourhassan; Yamchi, Mohammad Rahmati; Esfahlan, Rana Jahanban; Barkhordari, Amin; Alibakhshi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Telomerase has been considered as an attractive molecular target for breast cancer therapy. The main objective of this work is to assess the inhibitory effects of silibinin and curcumin, two herbal substances, on telomerase gene expression in breast cancer cells. For determination of cell viability tetrazolium-based assays were conducted after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene was measured with real-time PCR. Each compound exerted cytotoxic effects on T47D cells and inhibited telomerase gene expression, both in a time-and dose-dependent manner. The mixture of curcumin and silibinin showed relatively more inhibitory effect on growth of T47D cells and hTERT gene expression as compared with either agent alone. These findings suggest that cell viability along with hTERT gene expression in breast cancer cells could be reduced by curcumin and silibinin.

  1. A Highly Sensitive Telomerase Activity Assay that Eliminates False-Negative Results Caused by PCR Inhibitors

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    Hidenobu Yaku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR on magnetic beads (MBs and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGGn-3' of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity.

  2. Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes active complexes with or without dyskerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardano, Laura; Holland, Linda; Oulton, Rena; Le Bihan, Thierry; Harrington, Lea

    2012-03-01

    Telomeres, the ends of linear chromosomes, safeguard against genome instability. The enzyme responsible for extension of the telomere 3' terminus is the ribonucleoprotein telomerase. Whereas telomerase activity can be reconstituted in vitro with only the telomerase RNA (hTR) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), additional components are required in vivo for enzyme assembly, stability and telomere extension activity. One such associated protein, dyskerin, promotes hTR stability in vivo and is the only component to co-purify with active, endogenous human telomerase. We used oligonucleotide-based affinity purification of hTR followed by native gel electrophoresis and in-gel telomerase activity detection to query the composition of telomerase at different purification stringencies. At low salt concentrations (0.1 M NaCl), affinity-purified telomerase was 'supershifted' with an anti-dyskerin antibody, however the association with dyskerin was lost after purification at 0.6 M NaCl, despite the retention of telomerase activity and a comparable yield of hTR. The interaction of purified hTR and dyskerin in vitro displayed a similar salt-sensitive interaction. These results demonstrate that endogenous human telomerase, once assembled and active, does not require dyskerin for catalytic activity. Native gel electrophoresis may prove useful in the characterization of telomerase complexes under various physiological conditions.

  3. Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes active complexes with or without dyskerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardano, Laura; Holland, Linda; Oulton, Rena; Le Bihan, Thierry; Harrington, Lea

    2012-01-01

    Telomeres, the ends of linear chromosomes, safeguard against genome instability. The enzyme responsible for extension of the telomere 3′ terminus is the ribonucleoprotein telomerase. Whereas telomerase activity can be reconstituted in vitro with only the telomerase RNA (hTR) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), additional components are required in vivo for enzyme assembly, stability and telomere extension activity. One such associated protein, dyskerin, promotes hTR stability in vivo and is the only component to co-purify with active, endogenous human telomerase. We used oligonucleotide-based affinity purification of hTR followed by native gel electrophoresis and in-gel telomerase activity detection to query the composition of telomerase at different purification stringencies. At low salt concentrations (0.1 M NaCl), affinity-purified telomerase was ‘supershifted’ with an anti-dyskerin antibody, however the association with dyskerin was lost after purification at 0.6 M NaCl, despite the retention of telomerase activity and a comparable yield of hTR. The interaction of purified hTR and dyskerin in vitro displayed a similar salt-sensitive interaction. These results demonstrate that endogenous human telomerase, once assembled and active, does not require dyskerin for catalytic activity. Native gel electrophoresis may prove useful in the characterization of telomerase complexes under various physiological conditions. PMID:22187156

  4. β-Cyclodextrin-curcumin complex inhibit telomerase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... have various applications in cancer therapy. But, its low water solubility and bioavailability is possible for poor drug delivery of curcumin. In this study, we prepared β-cyclodextrin-curcumin complex to determine the inhibitory effect of this drug on telomerase gene expression. Curcumin was encapsulated.

  5. Antioxidant therapy attenuates myocardial telomerase activity reduction in superoxide dismutase-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Naoki; Maeda, Toyoki; Oyama, Jun-ichi; Sasaki, Makoto; Higuchi, Yoshihiro; Mimori, Koji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2011-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pathological role in the development of heart failure. This study examined telomere biology in heart/muscle-specific manganese superoxide dismutase-deficient mice (H/M-SOD2(-/-)), which develop progressive congestive heart failure and exhibit pathology typical of dilated cardiomyopathy. EUK-8 (25mg/kg/day), a superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic, was administered to H/M-SOD2(-/-) mice for four weeks beginning at 8 weeks of age. Telomere length, telomerase activity, telomere-associated proteins, and cell death signals were assessed in hearts from control wild-type mice (H/M-Sod2 (lox/ lox)) and H/M-SOD2(-/-) mice either treated or untreated with EUK-8. While cardiac function was unchanged in these experimental mice, the end-diastolic dimension in H/M-SOD2(-/-) mice was notably dilated and could be significantly reduced by EUK-8 treatment. At the end of the study, no shortening of telomere length was observed in heart tissues from all mice tested, but telomerase activity was decreased in heart tissue from H/M-SOD2(-/-) mice compared to control mice. Protein expression for telomerase reverse transcriptase and telomere repeat binding factor 2 was also downregulated in H/M-SOD2(-/-) heart tissue as was expression of phospho-Akt, insulin-like growth factor, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Expression levels of Sirt1, a lifespan modulator, were enhanced while FoxO3a was depressed in H/M-SOD2(-/-) hearts. All of the changes seen in H/M-SOD2(-/-) heart tissue could be inhibited by EUK-8 treatment. Taken together, the results suggest that oxidant stress might affect myocardial telomerase activity and telomere-associated proteins. Telomerase may therefore play a pivotal role in antioxidant defense mechanisms, and may be useful as a novel therapeutic tool for treating human heart failure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Telomere Lengths and Telomerase Activity in Dog Tissues: A Potential Model System to Study Human Telomere and Telomerase Biology

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    Lubna Nasir

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on telomere and telomerase biology are fundamental to the understanding of aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. However, human studies have been hindered by differences in telomere biology between humans and the classical murine animal model system. In this paper, we describe basic studies of telomere length and telomerase activity in canine normal and neoplastic tissues and propose the dog as an alternative model system. Briefly, telomere lengths were measured in normal canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, a range of normal canine tissues, and in a panel of naturally occurring soft tissue tumours by terminal restriction fragment (TRF analysis. Further, telomerase activity was measured in canine cell lines and multiple canine tissues using a combined polymerase chain reaction/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. TRF analysis in canine PBMCs and tissues demonstrated mean TRF lengths to range between 12 and 23 kbp with heterogeneity in telomere lengths being observed in a range of normal somatic tissues. In soft tissue sarcomas, two subgroups were identified with mean TRFs of 22.2 and 18.2 kbp. Telomerase activity in canine tissue was present in tumour tissue and testis with little or no activity in normal somatic tissues. These results suggest that the dog telomere biology is similar to that in humans and may represent an alternative model system for studying telomere biology and telomerase-targeted anticancer therapies.

  7. Leptin upregulates telomerase activity and transcription of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, He; Zhao, Tiansuo; Wang, Xiuchao; Gao, Chuntao; Wang, Jian; Yu, Ming; Hao, Jihui

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to analyze the mechanism of leptin-induced activity of telomerase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We found that leptin activated telomerase in a dose-dependent manner; leptin upregulated the expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) at mRNA and protein levels; blockade of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation significantly counteracted leptin-induced hTERT transcription and protein expression; chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that leptin enhanced the binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter. This study uncovers a new mechanism of the proliferative effect of leptin on breast cancer cells and provides a new explanation of obesity-related breast cancer.

  8. Leptin upregulates telomerase activity and transcription of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, He, E-mail: herenrh@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Tianjin (China); Zhao, Tiansuo; Wang, Xiuchao; Gao, Chuntao; Wang, Jian; Yu, Ming [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Tianjin (China); Hao, Jihui, E-mail: jihuihao@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2010-03-26

    The aim was to analyze the mechanism of leptin-induced activity of telomerase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We found that leptin activated telomerase in a dose-dependent manner; leptin upregulated the expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) at mRNA and protein levels; blockade of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation significantly counteracted leptin-induced hTERT transcription and protein expression; chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that leptin enhanced the binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter. This study uncovers a new mechanism of the proliferative effect of leptin on breast cancer cells and provides a new explanation of obesity-related breast cancer.

  9. [Telomerase activity in esophageal carcinoma and lesions unstained with Lugol's solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, K; Aoyama, N; Koizumi, H; Tamai, S

    1998-05-01

    Telomerase is a specific enzyme required for the replication of telomeres. Its activity is detected in almost human cancers. We examined in esophageal carcinoma and lesions unstained with Lugol's solution telomerase activity by using telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Telomerase activity was detected in all 22 esophageal carcinomas, regardless of histopathological findings. In unstained lesions, telomerase activity was detected in 15 of 22; 10 squamous cell carcinomas, four dysplasia, one regenerative epithelium, no telomerase activity was found in seven; four normal esophageal epithelia, two Barrett's esophagi, one regenerative epithelium. These results suggest that telomerase activity may be a useful molecular marker for the diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma and of the early esophageal carcinoma in area unstained with Lugol's solution.

  10. Airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reduce telomerase activity and shorten telomere length in immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.K.; Klingelhutz, A.J.; Jacobus, J.A.; Lehmler, H.; Robertson, L.W.; Ludewig, G.

    2011-01-01

    PCBs, a group of 209 individual congeners, are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and classified as probable human carcinogens. One major route of exposure is by inhalation of these industrial compounds, possibly daily from inner city air and/or indoor air in contaminated buildings. Hallmarks of aging and carcinogenesis are changes in telomere length and telomerase activity. We hypothesize that semi-volatile PCBs, like those found in inner city air, are capable of disrupting telomerase activity and altering telomere length. To explore this possibility, we exposed human skin keratinocytes to a synthetic Chicago Airborne Mixture (CAM) of PCBs, or the prominent airborne PCB congeners, PCB28 or PCB52 for up to 48 days and determined telomerase activity, telomere length, cell proliferation, and cell cycle distribution. PCBs 28, 52 and CAM significantly reduced telomerase activity from days 18–48. Telomere length was shortened by PCB52 from day 18 and PCB28 and CAM from days 30 on. All PCBs decreased cell proliferation from day 18; only PCB52 produced a small increase of cells in G0/G1 of the cell cycle. This significant inhibition of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB congeners suggest a potential mechanism by which these compounds could lead to accelerated aging and cancer. PMID:21530622

  11. Telomerase activity in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and lesions unstained with Lugol's solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Katsuya; Yasumoto, Shigeru; Aoyama, Norio; Koizumi, Hiroyoshi; Imada, Toshio; Takanashi, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that protects erosion of telomeres at the ends of chromosomes and its activity has been detected in immortalized cells and most human cancers. We analyzed telomerase activity in primary esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) without any preoperative treatment and lesions unstained with Lugol's solution, using a telomeric repeat amplification protocol (a TRAP) assay. Strong telomerase activities were detected in all resected specimens of esophageal SCCs, and in 33 of 40 endoscopic biopsy specimens of lesions unstained with Lugol's solution. Among lesions unstained with Lugol's solution, 19 of 19 esophageal SCCs, and 13 of 13 dysplasias, which are considered as clinically precancerous lesions had strong telomerase activities. These results indicate that reactivation of telomerase may occur at an early stage in the carcinogenesis of esophageal SCCs, and telomerase activity may be a practically useful molecular biological marker for supporting the diagnosis of early esophageal SCCs.

  12. Polyamidoamine starburst dendrimer-activated chromatography paper-based assay for sensitive detection of telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Lei, Zhen; Tian, Rongrong; Wang, Zhenxin

    2018-02-01

    Telomerase is extensively expressed in various cancer cells and recognized as a target for cancer drug discovery. In the present study, a simple and amplification-free fluorescence assay based on polyamidoamine starburst dendrimer (PAMAM dendrimer)-activated paper device is proposed for sensitive detection of telomerase activity through hybridization of Cy5 modified single strand DNA probes with telomerase extension products. The paper substrate is fabricated by hand drawing according to a template, which is low cost, instrument free and easy operation. PAMAM is rich in amino groups on its surface and employed to immobilize the telomerase substrate (TS) primer. Highly sensitive detection of telomerase activity in HeLa cell lysate of 10 cells is achieved since the PAMAM dendrimer-activated paper surface can provide high density of binding sites for immobilization of TS primer. The experimental results also demonstrate that the assay can be employed to evaluate telomerase activity levels of various cell lines and screen telomerase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between telomerase activity and matrix metalloproteinases 2 expression in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Wenling; Zhou, Jianjiang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between telomerase activity (TA) and matrix metallo proteinases 2 (MMP-2) on malignant behavior and prognosis predictable value in gastric cancer. Telomerase activity and MMP-2 protein expressions were tested in 40 gastric surgical resected cancer samples and the clinicopathological data of enrolled patients were obtained to get correlation analysis results. The expression of telomerase was up-regulated with infiltrating depth, lymph node metastasis and stage (P correlated with infiltrating depth (P < 0.05). Combined detections of telomerase activity and MMP2 protein could identify patients at high risk in disease recurrence and prognosis more efficiently.

  14. Detection of telomerase activity in gastric lavage fluid: a novel method to detect gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen Ching-ho; Yu, Hanry; So, Jimmy B Y

    2006-04-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein polymerase that is essential for cell immortality. Recent studies have demonstrated that a high percentage of gastric cancer tissue expressed telomerase. This study describes the presence of telomerase activity in gastric lavage fluid in patients with gastric cancer. Gastric lavage fluid was collected during esophageogastroduodenoscopy in 70 patients: 25 with gastric cancer, 25 with peptic ulcer disease, and 20 with normal stomach. The fluid and biopsy samples were analyzed for telomerase activity by a polymerase chain reaction-based telomerase repeat amplification protocol. The findings were related to the histological results. Telomerase activity was present in 24 of the 25 (96%) gastric cancer tissue and in 7 of the 25 tissue specimens from peptic ulcer or gastritis. In the gastric lavage fluid, telomerase was detected in 20 patients (80%) with gastric cancer, 7 patients (28%) with peptic ulcer, and none in normal subjects (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of gastric fluid telomerase expression in gastric cancer patients was 80%, 84%, 74%, and 88%, respectively. The presence of telomerase activity is present in gastric lavage fluid of patients with gastric cancer as compared to those without, may represent a novel method for diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  15. Rapid blockade of telomerase activity and tumor cell growth by the DPL lipofection of ribbon antisense to hTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Arun K; Park, Jeong-Hoh; Moon, Ik-Jae; Kang, Hyungu; Lee, Yun-Han; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Suh, Seong-Il; Chang, Byeong-Churl; Park, Jong-Gu

    2005-09-29

    Ribbon antisense (RiAS) to the hTR RNA, a component of the telomerase complex, was employed to inhibit telomerase activity and cancer cell growth. The antisense molecule, hTR-RiAS, combined with enhanced cellular uptake was shown to effectively inhibit telomerase activity and cause rapid cell death in various cancer cell lines. When cancer cells were treated with hTR-RiAS, the level of hTR RNA was reduced by more than 90% accompanied with reduction in telomerase activity. When checked for cancer cell viability, cancer cell lines treated with hTR-RiAS using DNA+Peptide+Lipid complex showed 70-80% growth inhibition in 3 days. The reduced cell viability was due to apoptosis as the percentage of cells exhibiting the sub-G0 arrest and DNA fragmentation increased after antisense treatment. Further, when subcutaneous tumors of a colon cancer cell line (SW480) were treated intratumorally with hTR-RiAS, tumor growth was markedly suppressed with almost total ablation of hTR RNA in the tumor tissue. Cells in the tumor tissue were also found to undergo apoptosis after hTR-RiAS treatment. These results suggest that hTR-RiAS is an effective anticancer reagent, with a potential for broad efficacy to diverse malignant tumors.

  16. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulates MMP expression independently of telomerase activity via NF-κB-dependent transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Deqiang; Xi, Peng; Zhou, Junzhi; Wang, Miao; Cong, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Telomerase plays a pivotal role in the pathology of aging and cancer by controlling telomere length and integrity. However, accumulating evidence indicates that telomerase reverse transcriptase may have fundamental biological functions independent of its enzymatic activity in telomere maintenance. In this study, the ectopic expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and its catalytic mutant hTERT K626A induced cancer cell invasion accompanied by the up-regulation of the metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP1, -3, -9, and -10. Both hTERT and hTERT K626A induced MMP9 mRNA expression and promoter activity in an NF-κB-dependent manner. hTERT and hTERT K626A also regulated the expression of several NF-κB target genes in cancer cell lines. Furthermore, both hTERT and hTERT K626A interacted with NF-κB p65 and increased NF-κB p65 nuclear accumulation and DNA binding. A mammalian 1-hybrid assay showed a functional interplay between hTERT and NF-κB p65 that may mediate NF-κB-dependent transcription activation in cells. Together, these data reveal a telomere-independent role for telomerase as a transcriptional modulator of the NF-κB signaling pathway and a possible contributor to cancer development and progression.

  17. A meta-analytic review of the effects of mindfulness meditation on telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S; Malouff, John M

    2014-04-01

    The enzyme telomerase, through its influence on telomere length, is associated with health and mortality. Four pioneering randomized control trials, including a total of 190 participants, provided information on the effect of mindfulness meditation on telomerase. A meta-analytic effect size of d=0.46 indicated that mindfulness meditation leads to increased telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results suggest the need for further large-scale trials investigating optimal implementation of mindfulness meditation to facilitate telomerase functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Telomere shortening and telomerase activity in ischaemic cardiomyopathy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawhney, V; Campbell, N G; Brouilette, S W

    2016-01-01

    associated with incidence of ICD therapy (p=0.02, p=0.02). ROC analyses demonstrated that the sensitivity and specificity of these telomere dynamics in predicting potentially-fatal VA was higher than the current gold-standard - left ventricular ejection fraction (AUC 0.82 versus 0.47). CONCLUSION: The load......-of-short telomeres and telomerase activity had a significant association with ICD therapy (for VA) in ischaemic cardiomyopathy patients. These biomarkers should be tested in prospective studies to assess their clinical utility in predicting VA after myocardial infarction and guiding primary prevention ICD...

  19. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L.; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Glöckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R.; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C.; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H.; Herrmann, Carl; O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K.; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system1. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive2–4. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type1,2,5. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours. PMID:26466568

  20. Estrogen induction of telomerase activity through regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK dependent pathway in human endometrial cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhou

    Full Text Available Given that prolonged exposure to estrogen and increased telomerase activity are associated with endometrial carcinogenesis, our objective was to evaluate the interaction between the MAPK pathway and estrogen induction of telomerase activity in endometrial cancer cells. Estradiol (E2 induced telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA expression in the estrogen receptor (ER-α positive, Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. UO126, a highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/MEK2, inhibited telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA expression induced by E2. Similar results were also found after transfection with ERK 1/2-specific siRNA. Treatment with E2 resulted in rapid phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK and increased MAPK activity which was abolished by UO126. The hTERT promoter contains two estrogen response elements (EREs, and luciferase assays demonstrate that these EREs are activated by E2. Exposure to UO126 or ERK 1/2-specific siRNA in combination with E2 counteracted the stimulatory effect of E2 on luciferase activity from these EREs. These findings suggest that E2-induction of telomerase activity is mediated via the MAPK pathway in human endometrial cancer cells.

  1. Radiation-induced changes of telomerase activity in a human Ewing xenograft tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, A.; Koenemann, S.; Schleifer, T.; Horn, K.; Hesselmann, S.; Willich, N.; Poremba, C.; Wai, D.; Braun, Y.; Frodermann, B.; Schaefer, K.L.; Diallo, R.I.; Lanvers, C.; Ruebe, C.E.; Ruebe, C.; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The effect of ionizing irradiation on telomerase activity and further associated biological factors was evaluated in a human Ewing tumor xenograft model on nude mice. Material and Methods: The human Ewing tumor cell line STA-ET-1 was established in a nude mouse model. Initially, the dose-response relationship for the tumor model was established. For the radiation experiments two dose levels were chosen: 5 Gy and 30 Gy. After 5 Gy, there was no significant growth delay whereas after 30 Gy there was a marked growth delay without the induction of a complete remission. Tumors were examined 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post irradiation. After irradiation with 30 Gy further time points were 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. For each dose and time group, three tumors were evaluated. Results: There was a reduction of telomerase activity after 5 Gy to 50% (not statistically significant) after 3 days; however, after 30 Gy there was a reduction of telomerase activity to 23% of the initial value after 6 days (p=0.001). Telomerase activity correlated with the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), but not with the expression of telomerase-associated protein (TP1) and human telomerase RNA (hTR). The maximal amounts of necrosis or apoptosis after 30 Gy were 19% and 6,9%, respectively. Conclusions: Ionizing radiation reduces telomerase activity and the expression of hTERT which cannot be explained by the induction of necrosis or apoptosis alone. The reduction of telomerase activity may contribute to delayed cell death after radiotherapy. The combined use of radiation and specific telomerase inhibitors may be a potentially synergistic treatment strategy. (orig.) [de

  2. Telomerase and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutomi, Kenkichi; Hahn, William C

    2003-05-15

    The unique biology of telomeres and telomerase plays important roles in many aspects of mammalian cell physiology. Over the past decade, several lines of evidence have confirmed that the maintenance of telomeres and telomerase participate actively in the pathogenesis of human cancer. Specifically, activation of telomerase is strongly associated with cancer, and recent observations confirm that telomeres and telomerase perform important roles in both suppressing and facilitating malignant transformation by regulating genomic stability and cell lifespan. In addition, recent evidence suggests that telomerase activation contributes to tumorigenesis independently of its role in maintaining telomere length. Here we review recent developments in our understanding of the relationships among telomeres, telomerase, and cancer.

  3. TIP60 represses telomerase expression by inhibiting Sp1 binding to the TERT promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Rajagopalan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV1-TAT interactive protein (TIP60 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. However, the potential mechanisms endowing its tumor suppressor ability remain incompletely understood. It plays a vital role in virus-induced cancers where TIP60 down-regulates the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV oncoprotein E6 which in turn destabilizes TIP60. This intrigued us to identify the role of TIP60, in the context of a viral infection, where it is targeted by oncoproteins. Through an array of molecular biology techniques such as Chromatin immunoprecipitation, expression analysis and mass spectrometry, we establish the hitherto unknown role of TIP60 in repressing the expression of the catalytic subunit of the human telomerase complex, TERT, a key driver for immortalization. TIP60 acetylates Sp1 at K639, thus inhibiting Sp1 binding to the TERT promoter. We identified that TIP60-mediated growth suppression of HPV-induced cervical cancer is mediated in part due to TERT repression through Sp1 acetylation. In summary, our study has identified a novel substrate for TIP60 catalytic activity and a unique repressive mechanism acting at the TERT promoter in virus-induced malignancies.

  4. A novel telomerase activator suppresses lung damage in a murine model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Jourdan Le Saux

    Full Text Available The emergence of diseases associated with telomere dysfunction, including AIDS, aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis, has bolstered interest in telomerase activators. We report identification of a new small molecule activator, GRN510, with activity ex vivo and in vivo. Using a novel mouse model, we tested the potential of GRN510 to limit fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mTERT heterozygous mice. Treatment with GRN510 at 10 mg/kg/day activated telomerase 2-4 fold both in hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo and in bone marrow and lung tissue in vivo, respectively. Telomerase activation was countered by co-treatment with Imetelstat (GRN163L, a potent telomerase inhibitor. In this model of bleomycin-induced fibrosis, treatment with GRN510 suppressed the development of fibrosis and accumulation of senescent cells in the lung via a mechanism dependent upon telomerase activation. Treatment of small airway epithelial cells (SAEC or lung fibroblasts ex vivo with GRN510 revealed telomerase activating and replicative lifespan promoting effects only in the SAEC, suggesting that the mechanism accounting for the protective effects of GRN510 against induced lung fibrosis involves specific types of lung cells. Together, these results support the use of small molecule activators of telomerase in therapies to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Telomerase Activity Detected by Quantitative Assay in Bladder Carcinoma and Exfoliated Cells in Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fedriga

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis is one of the most determining factors for patient survival. The detection of telomerase activity is a potentially promising tool in the diagnosis of bladder and other types of cancer due to the high expression of this enzyme in tumor cells. We carried out a quantitative evaluation of telomerase activity in urine samples in an attempt to determine a cut-off capable of identifying cancer patients. Telomerase activity was quantified by fluorescence TRAP assay in urine from 50 healthy volunteers and in urine and bioptic tumor samples from 56 previously untreated bladder cancer patients and expressed in arbitrary enzymatic units (AEU. Telomerase activity in urine ranged from 0 to 106 AEU (median 0 in healthy donors and from 0 to 282 AEU (median 87 in patients with cancer. A telomerase expression higher than the cut off value determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was observed in 78% of cases, regardless of tumor grade and in 71% (15/21 of cases of nonassessable or negative cytology. The quantitative analysis of telomerase activity in urine enabled us to define cut-off values characterized by different sensitivity and specificity. Cytologic and telomerase determination, used sequentially, enabled us to detect about 90% of tumors.

  6. Protein composition of catalytically active human telomerase from immortal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Scott B; Graham, Mark E; Lovrecz, George O

    2007-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex that adds 5'-TTAGGG-3' repeats onto the ends of human chromosomes, providing a telomere maintenance mechanism for approximately 90% of human cancers. We have purified human telomerase approximately 10(8)-fold, with the final elution dependent on th...

  7. Active Yeast Telomerase Shares Subunits with Ribonucleoproteins RNase P and RNase MRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Bruno; Laterreur, Nancy; Perederina, Anna; Noël, Jean-François; Dubois, Marie-Line; Krasilnikov, Andrey S; Wellinger, Raymund J

    2016-05-19

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that replenishes telomeric DNA and maintains genome integrity. Minimally, telomerase activity requires a templating RNA and a catalytic protein. Additional proteins are required for activity on telomeres in vivo. Here, we report that the Pop1, Pop6, and Pop7 proteins, known components of RNase P and RNase MRP, bind to yeast telomerase RNA and are essential constituents of the telomerase holoenzyme. Pop1/Pop6/Pop7 binding is specific and involves an RNA domain highly similar to a protein-binding domain in the RNAs of RNase P/MRP. The results also show that Pop1/Pop6/Pop7 function to maintain the essential components Est1 and Est2 on the RNA in vivo. Consistently, addition of Pop1 allows for telomerase activity reconstitution with wild-type telomerase RNA in vitro. Thus, the same chaperoning module has allowed the evolution of functionally and, remarkably, structurally distinct RNPs, telomerase, and RNases P/MRP from unrelated progenitor RNAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of estrogen receptor β-mediated human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene transcription via the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling plays an important role in 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Kei; Tsuji, Naoki; Asanuma, Koichi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ plays a role in cancer development in addition to its role in glucose metabolism. The natural ligand of PPAR-γ, namely, 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -prostaglandin J 2 (15d-PGJ 2 ), has been shown to possess antineoplastic activity in cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its antineoplastic activity remains to be elucidated. Inhibition of the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a major determinant of telomerase activity, reportedly induces rapid apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of 15d-PGJ 2 on hTERT expression. We found that 15d-PGJ 2 induced apoptosis in the MIAPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells and dose-dependently decreased hTERT mRNA and protein expression. Down-regulation of hTERT expression by hTERT-specific small inhibitory RNA also induced apoptosis. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ 2 attenuated the DNA binding of estrogen receptor (ER). MIAPaCa-2 expressed only ERβ, and although its expression did not decrease due to 15d-PGJ 2 , its phosphorylation was suppressed. Additionally, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitor decreased ERβ phosphorylation, and 15d-PGJ 2 attenuated MAPK activity. We conclude that hTERT down-regulation by 15d-PGJ 2 plays an important role in the proapoptotic property of the latter. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ 2 inhibits ERβ-mediated hTERT gene transcription by suppressing ERβ phosphorylation via the inhibition of MAP kinase signaling

  9. Telomerase activity and its association with psychological stress, mental disorders, lifestyle factors and interventions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W; Cheung, S T; Tsao, S W; Wang, X M; Tiwari, A F Y

    2016-02-01

    To summarise and discuss the association between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. A systematic review was carried out to identify prospective or retrospective studies and interventions published up to June 2015 that reported associations between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. Electronic data bases of PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL and Google Scholar were searched. Twenty six studies on humans measured telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or leukocytes and examined its association with psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors. Of those studies, three reported significantly decreased telomerase activity in individuals under chronic psychological stress. Interestingly, one of the three studies found that acute laboratory psychological stress significantly increased telomerase activity. Nine studies reported mixed results on association between mental disorders and telomerase activity. Of the nine studies, five reported that major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with significantly increased telomerase activity. In thirteen out of fourteen studies on lifestyle factors, it was reported that physical exercise, diet micronutrient supplementation, mindfulness meditation, Qigong practice or yoga mediation resulted in increase in telomerase activity. In addition, two studies on animal models showed that depression-like behaviour was associated with decreased hippocampus telomerase activity. Five animal studies showed that physical exercise increased telomerase activity by cell-type-specific and genotype-specific manners. Although multi-facet results were reported on the association between telomerase activity and psychological stress, mental disorders and lifestyle factors, there were some consistent findings in humans such as (1) decreased telomerase activity in individuals under chronic stress, (2) increased

  10. Telomerase activity is not enough for tumor initiation in human cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Telomerase activity is not enough for tumor initiation in human cells. Hai-Tao Liu1, Fei Li1, Rong-Hua Luan1, Jin-Liang Xing3, Rui-An Wang2, Wen-Yi Guo1 and Hai- ... expression of the human telomerase catalytic component, hTERT, in normal human somatic cells can ..... Biology of ovarian cancer. Curr.

  11. The Status of Telomerase Enzyme Activity in Benign and Malignant Gynaecologic Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhami Gül

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Telomeres are essential for the function and stability of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomerase consists of three subunits: human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT, human telomerase RNA (hTR, and telomerase protein 1 (TP1. The hTERT subunit determines the activity of telomerase as an enzyme and is detected in most human tumors and regenerative cells. Telomerase activity is a useful cancer-cell detecting marker in some types of cancers. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess of telomerase hTERT mRNA in gynaecological tumors for diagnosis of malignancy. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 55 gynaecologic tumor samples (35 ovarian, 13 endometrial, 6 cervical and 1 placental site trophoblastic tumor tissue were obtained at the time of surgery. Quantification of hTERT mRNA was performed in a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using the LightCycler TeloTAGGG hTERT Quantification Kit. Results: It was histopathologically detected that 18 of the tissue samples were malignant and 37 of the samples were benign. 16 of the malignant tissue samples (88.9% and 3 (8.1% (endometrial tissue in proliferative phase, mucinous cyst adenoma and endometriosis of the benign tissue samples were found to be hTERT positive. With the presence of these data, sensitivity and specificity of hTERT for the diagnosis of malignancy were calculated to be 88.9% and 91.9%, respectively. Conclusion: It was suggested that the measurement of telomerase activity in gynaecologic tumors, except for endometrial tissue in the reproductive phase, is a valuable method for pathological investigation.

  12. Detection of telomerase activity in saliva from oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L-P; Chen, G-F; Xu, Z-F; Zhang, X; Ping, F-Y; Zhao, S-F

    2005-07-01

    Tumor markers have been detected in saliva from patients with oral cancers. In order to investigate the expression of telomerase in saliva and its clinical significance. Sixty-two saliva specimens were collected from 32 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and 30 normal persons, the telomerase activity was assayed by telomerase PCR-ELISA method. It was detected positively in 75.0% (24/32) of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, while it was positive in 6.67% (2/30) of normal persons, the statistical difference was significant with P 0.05, the same to that between the patients with and without lymph nodes metastasis with P > 0.05. The results suggest that the telomerase in saliva could be used as an assistant marker for oral squamous cell carcinoma, however, a larger study is encouraged to confirm the value of judgement on clinical stage and lymph nodes metastasis.

  13. Irradiation-induced telomerase activity and gastric cancer risk: a case-control analysis in a Chinese Han population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xianli; Qiao, Qing; Ge, Naijian; Nan, Jing; Shen, Shuqun; Wang, Zizhong; Yang, Yefa; Bao, Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase expression is one of the characteristics of gastric cancer (GC) cells and telomerase activity is frequently up-regulated by a variety of mechanisms during GC development. Therefore, we hypothesized that elevated levels of activated telomerase might enhance GC risk due to increased propagation of cells with DNA damage, such as induced by γ-radiation. To explore this hypothesis, 246 GC cases and 246 matched controls were recruited in our case-control study. TRAP-ELISA was used to assess the levels of telomerase activity at baseline and after γ-radiation and the γ-radiation-induced telomerase activity (defined as after γ-irradiation/baseline) in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Our data showed that there was no significant difference for the baseline telomerase activity between GC cases and controls (10.17 ± 7.21 vs. 11.02 ± 8.03, p = 0.168). However, after γ-radiation treatment, γ-radiation-induced telomerase activity was significantly higher in the cases than in the controls (1.51 ± 0.93 vs. 1.22 ± 0.66, p < 0.001). Using the median value of γ-radiation-induced telomerase activity in the controls as a cutoff point, we observed that high γ-radiation-induced telomerase activity was associated with a significantly increased GC risk (adjusted odds ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.83-3.18). Moreover, a dose response association was noted between γ-radiation-induced telomerase activity and GC risk. Age, but not sex, smoking and drinking status seem to have a modulating effect on the γ-radiation-induced telomerase activities in both cases and controls. Overall, our findings for the first time suggest that the increased γ-radiation-induced telomerase activity in PBLs might be associated with elevated GC risk. Further confirmation of this association using a prospective study design is warranted

  14. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  15. The inhibitory effect of Curcuma longa extract on telomerase activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Telomerase is reactivated in lung cancer cells, the most prevalent cancer worldwide, but not normal cells. Therefore, targeting it, preferably with natural compounds derive from medicinal plant such as curcumin, could have important effect on treatment of lung cancer. Curcumin, derived from Curcuma longa rhizome, has ...

  16. The inhibitory effect of Curcuma longa extract on telomerase activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... which maintains telomeric ends of eukaryotic chromo- somes during DNA replication. It has been .... a new 0.5 ml microtube. Then, microtubes were transferred to Eppendorf PCR thermal cycler and a ..... telomerase reverse transcriptase expression by RNA interference sensitizes cancer cells to ionizing ...

  17. Oxoisoaporphine as Potent Telomerase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Zhuang Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two compounds previously isolated from traditional Chinese medicine, Menispermum dauricum (DC, 6-hydroxyl-oxoisoaporphine (H-La, and 4,6-di(2-pyridinylbenzo[h]isoindolo[4,5,6-de]quinolin-8(5H-one (H-Lb, were known to have in vitro antitumor activity and to selectively bind human telomeric, c-myc, and bcl-2 G-quadruplexes (G4s. In this study, the binding properties of these two compounds to telomerase were investigated through molecular docking and telomeric repeat amplication protocol and silver staining assay (TRAP-silver staining assay. The binding energies bound to human telomerase RNA were calculated by molecular docking to be −6.43 and −9.76 kcal/mol for H-La and H-Lb, respectively. Compared with H-La, the ligand H-Lb more strongly inhibited telomerase activity in the SK-OV-3 cells model.

  18. Reconstitution of active telomerase in primary human foreskin fibroblasts : effects on proliferative characteristics and response to ionizing radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, H.H.; Waarde-Verhagen, M.A.W.H. van; Assen-Bolt, A.J. van; Rodemann, H.P.; Prowse, K.R.; Linskens, M.H.K.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Telomere shortening has been proposed to trigger senescence, and since most primary cells do not express active telomerase, reactivation of telomerase activity was proposed as a safe and non-transforming way of immortalizing cells. However, to study radiation responses, it is as yet unclear

  19. Inhibition of HIV-1 reactivation by a telomerase-derived peptide in a HSP90-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2016-07-01

    A peptide vaccine designed to induce T-cell immunity to telomerase, GV1001, has been shown to modulate cellular signaling pathways and confer a direct anti-cancer effect through the interaction with heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and 70. Here, we have found that GV1001 can modulate transactivation protein-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transactivation in an HSP90-dependent manner. GV1001 treatment resulted in significant suppression of HIV-1 replication and rescue of infected cells from death by HIV-1. Transactivation of HIV-long terminal repeat (LTR) was inhibited by GV1001, indicating that GV1001 suppressed the transcription from proviral HIV DNA. The anti-HIV-1 activity of GV1001 was completely abrogated by an HSP90-neutralizing antibody, indicating that the antiviral activity depends on HSP90. Further mechanistic studies revealed that GV1001 suppresses basal NF-κB activation, which is required for HIV-1 LTR transactivation in an HSP90-dependent manner. Inhibition of LTR transactivation by GV1001 suggests its potential to suppress HIV-1 reactivation from latency. Indeed, PMA-mediated reactivation of HIV-1 from latent infected cells was suppressed by GV1001. The results suggest the potential therapeutic use of GV1001, a peptide proven to be safe for human use, as an anti-HIV-1 agent to suppress the reactivation from latently infected cells.

  20. Antiproliferative Effect of the Isoquinoline Alkaloid Papaverine in Hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 Cells — Inhibition of Telomerase and Induction of Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Kazemi Noureini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells are often immortal through up-regulation of the hTERT gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of a special reverse transcriptase to overcome end-replication problem of chromosomes. This study demonstrates that papaverine, an isoquinoline alkaloid from the Papaveraceae, can overcome telomerase dependent immortality of HepG-2 cells that was used as a model of hepatocarcinoma. Although this alkaloid does not directly interact with telomeric sequences, papaverine inhibits telomerase through down-regulation of hTERT, which was analysed using thermal FRET and qRT-PCR, respectively. The IC50 values for the reduction of both telomerase activity and hTERT expression was 60 µM, while IC50 for cytotoxicity was 120 µM. Repeated treatments of the cells with very low non-toxic concentrations of papaverine resulted in growth arrest and strong reduction of population doublings after 40 days. This treatment induced senescent morphology in HepG-2 cells, which was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. Altogether, papaverine can be regarded as a promising model compound for drug design targeting cancer development.

  1. Telomerase activated thymidine analogue pro-drug is a new molecule targeting hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarocchi, Mirko; Polvani, Simone; Peired, Anna Julie; Marroncini, Giada; Calamante, Massimo; Ceni, Elisabetta; Rhodes, Daniela; Mello, Tommaso; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Quattrone, Alessandro; Luchinat, Claudio; Galli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although hepatectomy and transplantation have significantly improved survival, there is no effective chemotherapeutic treatment for HCC and its prognosis remains poor. Sustained activation of telomerase is essential for the growth and progression of HCC, suggesting that telomerase is a rational target for HCC therapy. Therefore, we developed a thymidine analogue pro-drug, acycloguanosyl-5′-thymidyltriphosphate (ACV-TP-T), which is specifically activated by telomerase in HCC cells and investigated its anti-tumour efficacy. Methods First, we verified in vitro whether ACV-TP-T was a telomerase substrate. Second, we evaluated proliferation and apoptosis in murine (Hepa1-6) and human (Hep3B, HuH7, HepG2) hepatic cancer cells treated with ACV-TP-T. Next, we tested the in vivo treatment efficacy in HBV transgenic mice that spontaneously develop hepatic tumours, and in a syngeneic orthotopic murine model where HCC cells were implanted directly in the liver. Results In vitro characterization provided direct evidence that the pro-drug was actively metabolized in liver cancer cells by telomerase to release the active form of acyclovir. Alterations in cell cycle and apoptosis were observed following in vitro treatment with ACV-TP-T. In the transgenic and orthotopic mouse models, treatment with ACV-TP-T reduced tumour growth, increased apoptosis, and reduced the proliferation of tumour cells. Conclusions ACV-TP-T is activated by telomerase in HCC cells and releases active acyclovir that reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis in human and murine liver cancer cells. This pro-drug holds a great promise for the treatment of HCC. PMID:24862448

  2. Telomerase Activity Impacts on Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of AGS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Jürgen; Haas, Florian; Schumacher, Andrina; Middeldorp, Jaap M.; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Speck, Roberto F.

    2015-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted from host-to-host via saliva and is associated with epithelial malignancies including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and some forms of gastric carcinoma (GC). Nevertheless, EBV does not transform epithelial cells in vitro where it is rapidly lost from infected primary epithelial cells or epithelial tumor cells. Long-term infection by EBV, however, can be established in hTERT-immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Here, we hypothesized that increased telomerase activity in epithelial cells enhances their susceptibility to infection by EBV. Using HONE-1, AGS and HEK293 cells we generated epithelial model cell lines with increased or suppressed telomerase activity by stable ectopic expression of hTERT or of a catalytically inactive, dominant negative hTERT mutant. Infection experiments with recombinant prototypic EBV (rB95.8), recombinant NPC EBV (rM81) with increased epithelial cell tropism compared to B95.8, or recombinant B95.8 EBV with BZLF1-knockout that is not able to undergo lytic replication, revealed that infection frequencies positively correlate with telomerase activity in AGS cells but also partly depend on the cellular background. AGS cells with increased telomerase activity showed increased expression mainly of latent EBV genes, suggesting that increased telomerase activity directly acts on the EBV infection of epithelial cells by facilitating latent EBV gene expression early upon virus inoculation. Thus, our results indicate that infection of epithelial cells by EBV is a very selective process involving, among others, telomerase activity and cellular background to allow for optimized host-to-host transmission via saliva. PMID:25856387

  3. Activity of telomerase and telomeric length in Aphis mellifera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korandová, Michala; Čapková Frydrychová, Radmila

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 3 (2016), s. 405-411 ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 052/2013/P; European Union Seventh Framework(CZ) 316304 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : telomere * telomerase * Apis mellifera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.414, year: 2016

  4. Radiation-induced progressive decreasing in the expression of reverse transcriptase gene of hEST2 and telomerase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hanneng; Chen Wenying; Xiong Sidong

    2000-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that adds heximeric repeats called telomeres to the growing ends of chromosomal DNA. Telomerase activity is present in a vast majority of tumors but is repressed in most normal tissues. Human telomerase catalytic subunit gene (hEST2) reverse transcriptase (RT) segment was cloned by PCR according to the sequence published in GeneBank. PCR was used to investigate the expression of the hEST2 RT segment in diverse tumors as well as in various normal tissues. Results indicated that hEST2 RT segment was detectable in tumor cells lines but not in normal cells and tissues. In order to identify the relationship between telomerase and the biological effect of radiation injury, HeLa cells, KB cells and A431 cells were employed to measure the change in telomerase activity after 60 Co-ray irradiation at RNA level and protein level. Quantitative PCR determined that expression of hEST2 RT segment that encodes seven motifs of the human telomeras decreased with increasing dosage of radiation. In addition, a PCR-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol was used to assay telomerase activity after exposure to radiation. The results strongly support the experiments we had made: Telomerase activity decreases with increasing dosage of radiation. We conclude that detection of the hEST2 RT segment by Northern blotting is a new method for detecting telomerase activity. Furthermore, radiation can cause a dose-dependent decrease in telomerase activity. The effect of radiation on telomerase is one possible reason for the death of cancer cells after irradiation. (author)

  5. Telomerase activity in needle biopsies from prostate cancer and benign prostates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, LFA; Wisman, GBA; Ruiters, MHJ; Mensink, HJA; Veenstra, R.

    Background Telomerase activation is thought to be essential for the immortality of cancer cells. It may be a prognostic factor in small volume well differentiated prostate cancers and hence a guide for the aggressiveness of the approach. The length of the chromosome tips (telomeres) are maintained

  6. Telomerase Activity in Breast Tumor Tissues and its Possible use for Detection of Circulating Carcinoma Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimíčková, M.; Nekulová, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Vagundová, M.; Maláska, J.; Obermannová, R.; Lauerová, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2002), s. 98 ISSN 1211-8869. [Central European Conference on Human Tumor Markers /4./. 13.02.2003-16.02.2003, Karlovy Vary] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : telomerase activity * early detection of distant metastases * cancer reccurence Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  7. Distribution of TTAGG-specific telomerase activity in insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korandová, M.; Krůček, Tomáš; Vrbová, K.; Čapková Frydrychová, Radmila

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2014), s. 495-503 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S EU Projects: European Commission(CZ) FP7/2007-2013 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 05/2013/P Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insects * telomere * telomerase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.478, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10577-014-9436-6

  8. Does telomerase activity have an effect on infertility in patients with endometriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiyeva, Nigar; Ekizoglu, Seda; Gezer, Altay; Yilmaz, Handan; Kolomuc Gayretli, Tugba; Buyru, Nur; Oral, Engin

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of telomerase activity in the development of endometriosis-related infertility by evaluation of the serum telomerase in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissue. Eutopic endometrium, cystic wall/ovarian cortex, and venous blood were assessed in forty-seven patients. The following groups of patients were identified: females with endometriosis requiring surgical intervention and healthy control females. Patients with histopathologically confirmed endometriosis were further subdivided in the infertile (n=14) and fertile (n=17) groups. Patients who underwent hysterectomy and oophorectomy for benign gynecological conditions were enrolled in the healthy control group (n=16). Telomerase activity was evaluated with three-group, endometriosis-based and fertility-based designs. Analyses were performed regardless the menstrual cycle phase (Phase G), in proliferative (Phase P) (n=22) and secretory phases (Phase S) (n=25). Telomeric Repeat Amplification Protocol PCR was applied for telomerase activity assessment. All statistical analyses were performed with STATA 14.2, GraphPad Prisma 7.01. In analyses of the eutopic endometrium, with three-group design, a significant difference was not found in Phase G and P (p=0.58 and p=0.33, respectively). However, a statistical difference was shown in Phase S (p=0.008). A significant difference was not established in Phase G, P and S of endometriosis-based design (p=0.35, p=1.0, p=0.13, respectively). No difference was detected in Phase G and P of fertility-based design (p=0.66 and p=0.14, respectively), whereas in secretory phase difference was approved (p=0,049). Telomerase activity was not established in ectopic endometrium and in serum assessment. Telomerase activity is useless as a biomarker in peripheric blood analysis. The absence of activity in cystic wall approves the high differentiation of endometriosis tissue, what is the possible reason of low malignancy risk. The high rate of telomerase

  9. Telomere attrition and restoration in the normal teleost Oryzias latipes are linked to growth rate and telomerase activity at each life stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Hitoshi; Yamazaki, Hiromi; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Aida, Junko; Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Takubo, Kaiyo; Ishikawa, Naoshi

    2016-01-01

    Telomere shortening occurs when cells divide, both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, telomerase is able to maintain telomere length in cells by adding TTAGGG repeats to the ends of telomeres. However, the interrelationships existing among telomere length, telomerase activity and growth in vertebrates remain to be clarified. In the present study we measured telomere length (terminal restriction fragment length), telomerase activity and body growth of Oryzias latipes from the embryo stage until senescence. During the rapid growth stage (age 0-7 months), telomeres shortened in parallel with decreasing telomerase activity. Then, during adolescence (age 7 months - 1 year), telomeres lengthened quickly as growth slowed and telomerase activity increased. In the adult stage (age 1-4 years) characterized by little growth, telomerase activity decreased gradually and telomeres shortened. Our data indicate that telomere attrition and restoration are linked to growth and telomerase activity, and suggest that critical loss of telomere homeostasis is associated with mortality in this animal.

  10. Telomerase reverse transcriptase genetically modified adipose tissue derived stem cells improves erectile dysfunction by inhibiting oxidative stress and enhancing proliferation in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Jun; Shen, Wen-Hao; He, Peng; Zhou, Xiao-Zhou; Zhi, Yi; Dai, Qiang; Chen, Zhi-Wen; Zhou, Zhan-Song

    2017-08-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is considered to be incapable of obtaining or/and keeping a sufficient erection function to receive the satisfactory during the sexual intercourse. This study aims to investigate the effects of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) modified adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) autologously injected into cavernosa of the ED rats on erectile function. The ADSCs were isolated form the rat subcutaneous adipose tissue sample, and identified by examining the CD29 and CD44 molecule. The ED model was established by using 100μg/kg apomorphine (APO). The adenovirus expressing rat hTERT (Ade-hTERT vector) was established, and transfected into ADSCs and injected into ED rat model, respectively. Telomerase activity, cell growth, cell apoptosis were analyzed by using TRAP ELISA assay, CCK8 assay and flow cytometry assay, respectively. The trophic growth factors were examined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA and proteins were detected by using semi-quantitative PCR and western blot assay, respectively. Ade-hTERT vector was highly expressed in both ADSCs and ED rat mode. The hTERT expression enhanced the telomerase activity, inhibits cell apoptosis and enhances proliferation of ADSCs (P<0.05). hTERT expression triggers the secretory function of ADSCs and induces differentiative potential of ADSCs. hTERT expression inhibits apoptosis and increases eNOS and nNOS levels in older ED rats compared to the Ade-vector injected ED rats (P<0.05). In conclusion, the hTERT modification could enhance the ADSCs proliferation, and hTERT modified ADSCs could increase the anti-oxidative stress capacity in the ED rat model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Curcumin Regulates Low-Linear Energy Transfer γ-Radiation-Induced NFκB-Dependent Telomerase Activity in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravindan, Natarajan; Veeraraghavan, Jamunarani; Madhusoodhanan, Rakhesh; Herman, Terence S.; Natarajan, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We recently reported that curcumin attenuates ionizing radiation (IR)-induced survival signaling and proliferation in human neuroblastoma cells. Also, in the endothelial system, we have demonstrated that NFκB regulates IR-induced telomerase activity (TA). Accordingly, we investigated the effect of curcumin in inhibiting IR-induced NFκB-dependent hTERT transcription, TA, and cell survival in neuroblastoma cells. Methods and Materials: SK-N-MC or SH-SY5Y cells exposed to IR and treated with curcumin (10-100 nM) with or without IR were harvested after 1 h through 24 h. NFκB-dependent regulation was investigated either by luciferase reporter assays using pNFκB-, pGL3-354-, pGL3-347-, or pUSE-IκBα-Luc, p50/p65, or RelA siRNA-transfected cells. NFκB activity was analyzed using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and hTERT expression using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. TA was determined using the telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay and cell survival using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltertrazolium bromide and clonogenic assay. Results: Curcumin profoundly inhibited IR-induced NFκB. Consequently, curcumin significantly inhibited IR-induced TA and hTERT mRNA at all points investigated. Furthermore, IR-induced TA is regulated at the transcriptional level by triggering telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter activation. Moreover, NFκB becomes functionally activated after IR and mediates TA upregulation by binding to the κB-binding region in the promoter region of the TERT gene. Consistently, elimination of the NFκB-recognition site on the telomerase promoter or inhibition of NFκB by the IκBα mutant compromises IR-induced telomerase promoter activation. Significantly, curcumin inhibited IR-induced TERT transcription. Consequently, curcumin inhibited hTERT mRNA and TA in NFκB overexpressed cells. Furthermore, curcumin enhanced the IR-induced inhibition of cell survival. Conclusions: These results

  12. Low LET radiation-induced telomerase catalytic subunit promoter activation is mediated by nuclear factor Kappa B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, M.; Hong, F.A.; Mohan, S.; Herman, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this study is to understand whether low doses of low LET radiation induces survival advantage in normal cells. As an increase in telomerase activity is associated with longevity and cell proliferation, we examined the telomerase response following gamma-irradiation in normal aortic endothelial cells. Telomeric Repeat Amplification Protocol assay following low LET radiation showed an increase in telomerase enzyme activity as early as 8 h post irradiation and reaches its maximum at 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed that the increased telomerse enzyme activity is due to increased synthesis resulting from an increased transcription. Examination of transcriptional activation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter regulation showed an enhanced transcription of the telomerse gene following gamma-irradiation. In our previous reports we documented an increase in NF-kB DNA-binding property following low LET radiation (3). Therefore, to determine whether the activation of NF-kB-signaling is responsible for induced TERT promoter activation, cells transiently transfected with minimal promoter region of TERT containing wild type or mutant NF-kB binding site were examined following low LET radiation. TERT promoter activation was induced in wild type transfected cells whereas, in mutant kB binding site, the activation remained at the basal level similar to that of un-irradiated cells. More significantly, the gamma-ray mediated promoter activation of telomerase gene as well as induce telomerase enzyme activity was abrogated by ectopically expressing the IkBa mutant (IkBa (S32A/S36A)), which blocks NF-kB activation. The results thus suggest that exposure to low LET radiation could induce telomerase activity and the activation is at least, in part, mediated by the transcription factor NF-kB. Sustained activation of telomerase in these cells after low LET radiation may impart extended life span

  13. Premature aging in telomerase-deficient zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Anchelin

    2013-09-01

    The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases. We found that telomerase-deficient zebrafish show p53-dependent premature aging and reduced lifespan in the first generation, as occurs in humans but not in mice, probably reflecting the similar telomere length in fish and humans. Among these aging symptoms, spinal curvature, liver and retina degeneration, and infertility were the most remarkable. Although the second-generation embryos died in early developmental stages, restoration of telomerase activity rescued telomere length and survival, indicating that telomerase dosage is crucial. Importantly, this model also reproduces the disease anticipation observed in humans with dyskeratosis congenita (DC. Thus, telomerase haploinsufficiency leads to anticipation phenomenon in longevity, which is related to telomere shortening and, specifically, with the proportion of short telomeres. Furthermore, p53 was induced by telomere attrition, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, genetic inhibition of p53 rescued the adverse effects of telomere loss, indicating that the molecular mechanisms induced by telomere shortening are conserved from fish to mammals. The partial rescue of telomere length and longevity by restoration of telomerase activity, together with the feasibility of the zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screening, both point to the usefulness of this model for the discovery of new drugs able to reactivate telomerase in individuals with DC.

  14. In situ detection of TGF betas, TGF beta receptor II mRNA and telomerase activity in rat cholangiocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Ping; Mao, Jian-Qun; Li, Ming-Sheng; Lu, Shi-Lun; Hu, Xi-Qi; Zhu, Shi-Neng; Nomura, Shintaro

    2003-03-01

    Initial report on the in situ examination of the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor betas (TGFbetas), TGFbeta type II receptor (TbetaRII) and telomerase activity in the experimental rat liver tissue during cholangiocarcinogenesis. Rat liver cholangiocarcinogenesis was induced by 3'-methyl 4-dimethylazobenzene (3'Me-DAB). In situ hybridization was used to examine the TGFbetas) and TGFbeta type II receptor (TbetaRII) mRNA, in situ TRAP was used to check the telomerase activity in the tissue samples. There was no TGFbetas, TbetaRII mRNA expression or telomerase activity in the control rat cholangiocytes. The expression of TGFbeta1, TbetaRII was increased in regenerative, hyperplastic, dysplastic cholangiocytes and cholangiocarcinoma (CC) cells. The expression of TGFbeta2 mRNA was observed in only a part of hyperplastic, dysplastic cholangiocytes. TGFbeta3 expression was very weak, only in hyperplastic lesion. There was positive telomerase activity in the regenerative, hyperplastic, dysplastic cholangiocytes, and CC cells. Stroma fibroblasts of these lesions also showed positive TGFbetas, TbetaRII mRNA expression and telomerase activity. There were TGFbetas, TbetaRII expression and telomerase activity in hyperplastic, dysplastic cholangiocytes, cholangiocarcinoma cells as well as in stroma fibroblasts during cholangiocarcinogenesis. Their expression or activity is important in cholangiocarcinogenesis andstroma formation.

  15. Coupled down-regulation of mTOR and telomerase activity during fluorouracil-induced apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Xinxin; Jia, Fengqi; Wang, Weifeng; Guo, Xianling; Wu, Mengchao; Wei, Lixin

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most invasive and frequently diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in many regions of Asia. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway is involved in multiple cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. Up-regulation of telomerase activity is thought to be a critical step leading to cell transformation. This study investigated changes in mTOR pathway and telomerase activity in hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 treated with chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu). We detected apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells by TUNEL assay. Telomerase activity, hTERT transcription level and p- p70 S6k was demonstrated by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol and silver staining assay, Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay and Western blot analysis respectively. Treating SMMC-7721 cells with 5-Fu leads to apoptosis of the cells, and reduction in telomerase activity, as well as a dramatic reduction in the activated form of p70 S6 kinase, a mTOR substrate. The 5-Fu treatment nearly abolishes transcription of hTERT (the major component of telomerase) mRNA. Treating SMMC-7721 cells with Rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, significantly reduce hTERT protein level but did not affect hTERT transcription. 5-Fu and rapamycin were synergistic in regards to down-regulation of telomerase activity in hepatocarcinoma cells. These results suggest that chemotherapeutic agent 5-Fu may down-regulate telomerase activity at both transcriptional level and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway-dependent post-transcriptional level to facilitate hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis

  16. Coupled down-regulation of mTOR and telomerase activity during fluorouracil-induced apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Mengchao

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most invasive and frequently diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in many regions of Asia. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway is involved in multiple cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. Up-regulation of telomerase activity is thought to be a critical step leading to cell transformation. Methods This study investigated changes in mTOR pathway and telomerase activity in hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 treated with chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu. We detected apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells by TUNEL assay. Telomerase activity, hTERT transcription level and p- p70 S6k was demonstrated by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol and silver staining assay, Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay and Western blot analysis respectively. Results Treating SMMC-7721 cells with 5-Fu leads to apoptosis of the cells, and reduction in telomerase activity, as well as a dramatic reduction in the activated form of p70 S6 kinase, a mTOR substrate. The 5-Fu treatment nearly abolishes transcription of hTERT (the major component of telomerase mRNA. Treating SMMC-7721 cells with Rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, significantly reduce hTERT protein level but did not affect hTERT transcription. 5-Fu and rapamycin were synergistic in regards to down-regulation of telomerase activity in hepatocarcinoma cells. Conclusion These results suggest that chemotherapeutic agent 5-Fu may down-regulate telomerase activity at both transcriptional level and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway-dependent post-transcriptional level to facilitate hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis.

  17. Acycloguanosyl 5'-thymidyltriphosphate, a thymidine analogue prodrug activated by telomerase, reduces pancreatic tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvani, Simone; Calamante, Massimo; Foresta, Valeria; Ceni, Elisabetta; Mordini, Alessandro; Quattrone, Alessandro; D'Amico, Massimo; Luchinat, Claudio; Bertini, Ivano; Galli, Andrea

    2011-02-01

    Gemcitabine is the standard of care for metastatic and nonresectable pancreatic tumors. Phase II and III trials have not demonstrated efficacy of recently developed reagents, compared with gemcitabine alone; new chemotherapic agents are needed. Ninety percent of pancreatic tumors have telomerase activity, and expression correlates with tumor stage. We developed a thymidine analogue prodrug, acycloguanosyl 5'-thymidyltriphosphate (ACV-TP-T), that is metabolized by telomerase and releases the active form of acyclovir. We investigated the antitumor efficacy of ACV-TP-T in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated proliferation and apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1, MiaPaca2, BxPc3, PL45, and Su.86.86) incubated with ACV-TP-T. The presence of ACV-TP-T and its metabolite inside the cells were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In vivo efficacy was evaluated in nude mice carrying PANC-1 or MiaPaca2 pancreatic xenograft tumors. The prodrug of ACV-TP-T was actively metabolized inside pancreatic cancer cells into the activated form of acyclovir; proliferation was reduced, apoptosis was increased, and the cell cycle was altered in pancreatic cancer incubated with ACV-TP-T, compared with controls. Administration of ACV-TP-T to mice reduced growth, increased apoptosis, and reduced proliferation and vascularization of pancreatic xenograft tumors. ACV-TP-T, a thymidine analogue that is metabolized by telomerase and releases the active form of acyclovir, reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro and pancreatic xenograft tumors in mice. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Telomerase activity as a biomarker for (pre)neoplastic cervical disease in scrapings and frozen sections from patients with abnormal cervical smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, GBA; Hollema, H; de Jong, S; ter Schegget, J; Tjong-A-Hung, SP; Ruiters, MHJ; Krans, M; de Vries, EGE; van der Zee, AGJ

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of semiquantitative telomerase activity assessment in cervical scrapings together with human papillomavirus (HPV) typing for detection of (pre)neoplastic cervical lesions and to compare telomerase activity in cervical scrapings and frozen specimens from the

  19. The relationship between cell survival rate and telomerase activity of the human hepatocellular cells and carcinoma cells irradiated by X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinting; Dang Bingrong; Li Wenjian; Jing Xigang; Wei Wei; Wang Zhuanzi; Ding Nan; Gao Qingxiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between cell survival fraction and telomerase activity was investigated with the human hepatocellular cells HL-7702 and carcinoma cells SMMC-7721 irradiated by X-rays. The colony formation assay and TRAP (Telomeric repeat amplification protocol) method were used to determine the cell survival fraction and telomerase activity respectively. To both of HL-7702 and SMMC-7721, the telomerase activity was increased in dose-dependent. However, at 1-3 Gy, the telomerase activity was lower than that of control in SMMC-7721, and it was a little higher than that of control when irradiated at 4 Gy. At 1-4 Gy, the variation trend of cell survive and that of telomerase activity were identical. (authors)

  20. Comparison of telomere length and telomerase activation between breast fibroadenoma and infiltrating ductal carcinoma in Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Lai-Meng; Cheah, Phaik-Leng; Ng, Min-Hwei; Yip, Cheng-Har; Mun, Kein-Seong; Rahman, Nazarina Abdul

    2010-01-01

    A study was initiated to explore possible differences in handling telomere attrition in the most common lignant and benign tumours of the breast in Malaysian women. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) and fibroadenoma (FA) represented the malignant and benign prototypes respectively. 29 IDC, 28 FA and 22 benign non-lesional control (BNL) breast tissue samples were analysed for telomerase activation using a Telomerase PCR ELISA kit (Boehringer Mannheim). In addition, 23 IDC, 12 FA and 14 BNL were subjected to telomere length determination with a TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay Kit (Roche Diagnostic GmbH, Germany), following digestion of genomic DNA by frequently cutting restriction enzymes RsaI and HinfI. Mean telomerase activity in IDC (A450nm=0.3338), but not FA (A450nm=0.0003) was significantly raised (pbreast and may be important for targeted therapy.

  1. The effects of erythropoietin signaling on telomerase regulation in non-erythroid malignant and non-malignant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uziel, Orit, E-mail: Oritu@clalit.org.il [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Kanfer, Gil [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Dep. of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Beery, Einat [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Yelin, Dana; Shepshelovich, Daniel [Medicine A, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Bakhanashvili, Mary [Unit of Infectious Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Nordenberg, Jardena [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Dep. of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Endocrinology Laboratory, Beilinson Medical Center, Petah-Tikva (Israel); Lahav, Meir [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Medicine A, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We assumed that some of erythropoietin adverse effects may be mediated by telomerase activity. • EPO administration increased telomerase activity, cells proliferation and migration. • The inhibition of telomerase modestly repressed the proliferative effect of erythropoietin. • Telomere shortening caused by long term inhibition of the enzyme totally abolished that effect. • This effect was mediated via the Lyn–AKT axis and not by the canonical JAK2–STAT pathway. - Abstract: Treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) in several cancers is associated with decreased survival due to cancer progression. Due to the major importance of telomerase in cancer biology we hypothesized that some of these effects may be mediated through EPO effect on telomerase. For this aim we explored the possible effects of EPO on telomerase regulation, cell migration and chemosensitivity in non-erythroid malignant and non-malignant cells. Cell proliferation, telomerase activity (TA) and cell migration increased in response to EPO. EPO had no effect on cancer cells sensitivity to cisplatinum and on the cell cycle status. The inhibition of telomerase modestly repressed the proliferative effect of EPO. Telomere shortening caused by long term inhibition of the enzyme abolished the effect of EPO, suggesting that EPO effects on cancer cells are related to telomere dynamics. TA was correlated with the levels of Epo-R. The increase in TA was mediated post-translationally through the Lyn-Src and not the canonical JAK2 pathway.

  2. The effects of erythropoietin signaling on telomerase regulation in non-erythroid malignant and non-malignant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, Orit; Kanfer, Gil; Beery, Einat; Yelin, Dana; Shepshelovich, Daniel; Bakhanashvili, Mary; Nordenberg, Jardena; Lahav, Meir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assumed that some of erythropoietin adverse effects may be mediated by telomerase activity. • EPO administration increased telomerase activity, cells proliferation and migration. • The inhibition of telomerase modestly repressed the proliferative effect of erythropoietin. • Telomere shortening caused by long term inhibition of the enzyme totally abolished that effect. • This effect was mediated via the Lyn–AKT axis and not by the canonical JAK2–STAT pathway. - Abstract: Treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) in several cancers is associated with decreased survival due to cancer progression. Due to the major importance of telomerase in cancer biology we hypothesized that some of these effects may be mediated through EPO effect on telomerase. For this aim we explored the possible effects of EPO on telomerase regulation, cell migration and chemosensitivity in non-erythroid malignant and non-malignant cells. Cell proliferation, telomerase activity (TA) and cell migration increased in response to EPO. EPO had no effect on cancer cells sensitivity to cisplatinum and on the cell cycle status. The inhibition of telomerase modestly repressed the proliferative effect of EPO. Telomere shortening caused by long term inhibition of the enzyme abolished the effect of EPO, suggesting that EPO effects on cancer cells are related to telomere dynamics. TA was correlated with the levels of Epo-R. The increase in TA was mediated post-translationally through the Lyn-Src and not the canonical JAK2 pathway

  3. AZT as a telomerase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Daniel E.; Armando, Romina G.; Alonso, Daniel F.

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase is a highly specialized reverse transcriptase (RT) and the maintenance of telomeric length is determined by this specific enzyme. The human holoenzyme telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein composed by a catalytic subunit, hTERT, an RNA component, hTR, and a group of associated proteins. Telomerase is normally expressed in embryonic cells and is repressed during adulthood. The enzyme is reexpressed in around 85% of solid tumors. This observation makes it a potential target for developing drugs that could be developed for therapeutic purposes. The identification of the hTERT as a functional catalytic RT prompted studies of inhibiting telomerase with the HIV RT inhibitor azidothymidine (AZT). Previously, we have demonstrated that AZT binds preferentially to telomeres, inhibits telomerase and enhances tumor cell senescence, and apoptosis after AZT treatment in breast mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Since then, several studies have considered AZT for telomerase inhibition and have led to potential clinical strategies for anticancer therapy. This review covers present thinking of the inhibition of telomerase by AZT and future treatment protocols using the drug.

  4. Evaluation of an oral telomerase activator for early age-related macular degeneration - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Coad Thomas; Harley, Calvin B

    2016-01-01

    Telomere attrition and corresponding cellular senescence of the retinal pigment epithelium contribute to the changes of age-related macular degeneration. Activation of the enzyme telomerase can add telomeric DNA to retinal pigment epithelium chromosomal ends and has been proposed as a treatment for age-related macular degeneration. We report the use of a small molecule, oral telomerase activator (TA)-65 in early macular degeneration. This study, focusing on early macular degeneration, provides a model for the use of TAs in age-related disease. Thirty-eight (38) patients were randomly assigned to a 1-year, double-blinded, placebo-controlled interventional study with arms for oral TA-65 or placebo. Macular functions via micro-perimetry were the primary measured outcomes. The macular function in the arm receiving the TA-65 showed significant improvement relative to the placebo control. The improvement was manifest at 6 months and was maintained at 1 year: macular threshold sensitivity (measured as average dB [logarithmic decibel scale of light attenuation]) improved 0.97 dB compared to placebo (P-value 0.02) and percent reduced thresholds lessened 8.2% compared to the placebo arm (P-value 0.04). The oral TA significantly improved the macular function of treatment subjects compared to controls. Although this study was a pilot and a larger study is being planned, it is noteworthy in that it is, to our knowledge, the first randomized placebo-controlled study of a TA supplement.

  5. Telomerase activity in patients with stage 2–5D chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Kidir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular mechanisms of increased cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD associated with biological age are not well understood. Recent studies support the hypothesis that common factors responsible for this phenomenon are cellular aging and telomere dysfunction. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between telomerase activity and CKD stages. Methods: The study included 120 patients who were followed-up for CKD stage 2–5D, composed of 30 patients of each stage and 30 healthy volunteers without any known disease who were admitted to our hospital for routine check-ups. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was measured using the TRAP assay. Results: A significant difference was observed for telomerase activity in PBMC between groups. The detected levels were lowest in the healthy control group (0.15 ± 0.02, and highest in CKD stage 5D patients (0.23 ± 0.04. In CKD patients, telomerase activity in PBMC was positively correlated with the CKD stage, serum creatinine, potassium and parathormone levels, and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, body mass index (BMI, platelet count and serum calcium levels. According to the linear regression analysis, independent predictors for high telomerase activity in CKD patients were eGFR and BMI. Conclusion: Telomerase activity in PBMC increases with advancing CKD stage in CKD patients. Increased telomerase activity in PBMC is associated with eGFR and BMI. Resumen: Antecedentes: Los mecanismos moleculares responsables del aumento de la mortalidad cardiovascular en la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC asociada a la edad biológica no se conocen bien. Los estudios recientes apoyan la hipótesis de que los factores comunes responsables de este fenómeno son el envejecimiento celular y la disfunción telomérica. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar

  6. Analysis of the age of Panax ginseng based on telomere length and telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiabei; Jiang, Chao; Peng, Huasheng; Shi, Qinghua; Guo, Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-23

    Ginseng, which is the root of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), has been used in Oriental medicine as a stimulant and dietary supplement for more than 7,000 years. Older ginseng plants are substantially more medically potent, but ginseng age can be simulated using unscrupulous cultivation practices. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division until they reach a critical length, at which point cells enter replicative senescence. However, in some cells, telomerase maintains telomere length. In this study, to determine whether telomere length reflects ginseng age and which tissue is best for such an analysis, we examined telomerase activity in the main roots, leaves, stems, secondary roots and seeds of ginseng plants of known age. Telomere length in the main root (approximately 1 cm below the rhizome) was found to be the best indicator of age. Telomeric terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths, which are indicators of telomere length, were determined for the main roots of plants of different ages through Southern hybridization analysis. Telomere length was shown to be positively correlated with plant age, and a simple mathematical model was formulated to describe the relationship between telomere length and age for P. ginseng.

  7. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Shi, Guang; Zhang, Laichen; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yuanling; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Wenbin; Zhao, Yong; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-08-31

    Activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is necessary for tumours to escape from dysfunctional telomere-mediated senescence. Anti-telomerase drugs might be effective in suppressing tumour growth in approximately 85-90% of telomerase-positive cancer cells. However, there are still chances for these cells to bypass drug treatment after switching to the ALT mechanism to maintain their telomere integrity. But the mechanism underlying this switch is unknown. In this study, we used telomerase-positive cancer cells (HTC75) to discover the mechanism of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX). Surprisingly, two important ALT hallmarks in the ALT-like HTC75 cells were observed after treatments: ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) and extrachromosomal circular DNA of telomeric repeats. Moreover, knocking out hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 technique led to telomere elongation in a telomerase-independent manner in ALT-like HTC75 cells. In summary, this is the first report to show that inducing telomeric DNA damage, disrupting the ATRX/DAXX complex and inhibiting telomerase activity in telomerase-positive cancer cells lead to the ALT switch.

  8. Changes in stress, eating, and metabolic factors are related to changes in telomerase activity in a randomized mindfulness intervention pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Hecht, Frederick M; Kristeller, Jean; Maninger, Nicole; Kuwata, Margaret; Bacchetti, Peter; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa

    2012-07-01

    Psychological distress and metabolic dysregulation are associated with markers of accelerated cellular aging, including reduced telomerase activity and shortened telomere length. We examined whether participation in a mindfulness-based intervention, and, secondarily, improvements in psychological distress, eating behavior, and metabolic factors are associated with increases in telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We enrolled 47 overweight/obese women in a randomized waitlist-controlled pilot trial (n=47) of a mindfulness-based intervention for stress eating and examined changes in telomerase activity from pre- to post-intervention. In secondary analyses, changes in telomerase activity across the sample were examined in relation to pre- to post-intervention changes in psychological distress, eating behavior, and metabolic factors (weight, serum cortisol, fasting glucose and insulin, and insulin resistance). Both groups increased in mean telomerase activity over 4 months in intent-to-treat and treatment efficacy analyses (peating behavior, and metabolic health and increases in telomerase activity. These findings suggest that telomerase activity may be in part regulated by levels of both psychological and metabolic stress. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Relationship between the telomerase activity and the growth kinetics of the human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hosseinzadeh Anvar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Telomerase as an enzyme with reverse transcriptase activity has an essential role in telomere maintenance by adding a telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of chromosome and is important for regulating of many processes in embryonic development including cell proliferation and differentiation. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs with a self-renewal capacity are cells that can differentiate into various germ layer derivatives including neural cells and cardiomyocytes, and undergo biological changes during long-term cultivation. Hence, the passage number in which the cells expanded seems to be very important for proliferating and differentiating. This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between the telomerase activity and the growth rate of (hUC-MSCs at different passages. Methods: This experimental study was performed in Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from March 2014 to December 2014. The umbilical cord samples were obtained from full-term neonate hospitalized in Alavi’s Hospital in Ardabil under sterile conditions. The umbilical vessels were clear off and the small pieces of the umbilical cord were cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium (DMEM supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Then, the hUC-MSCs were harvested from passage one to three to calculate the population doubling time (PDT and extract proteins by using CHAPS lysis buffer. Finally, the telomerase activity of the cells at different passages was measured by telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP and qRT-TRAP assays. Results: The hUC-MSCs population doubling time at passage from 1 to 3 were calculated as the average of 54.68±1.92, 55.03±1.71 and 69.41±2.54 hours, respectively, suggesting the higher cell passage number, the more extended PDT. The threshold cycles (CTs for the telomerase activity also showed 30.58±0.51, 27.24±0.74 and 32.13±0.75 for the cell passage from one to three

  10. Inhibition of telomerase activity and cell growth by free and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found in some plants such as Punica granatum,. Terminalia catappa and Combretum molle [10]. It has inhibitory effect on different kinds of cancer cells including prostate and colon cancer cells. [11,12]. However, the in vivo instability of punicalagin has restricted its use in biomedical research [13]. Previous studies showed ...

  11. [The role of telomerase activity in non-invasive diagnostics of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Alyaev, J G; Potoldykova, N V; Polyakovsky, K A; Vinarov, A Z; Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the potentials of determining the telomerase activity (TA) in the cellular material of the urine for noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Evaluation of TA was performed in the urine of 48 patients with bladder cancer (study group) before and after transurethral resection of the bladder wall (n=38), an open resection of the bladder (n=4), and cystectomy (n=6). TA was also evaluated in 48 tumor tissue samples obtained from these patients during removal of the bladder tumor. Each sample of the tumor tissue was separated into two parts, one of which was subjected to histological examination, and the latter was used to determine the telomerase activity. In all cases, the diagnosis of bladder cancer was confirmed morphologically. Determination of TA in the samples was performed by the modified TRAP-method (telomerase repeat amplification protocol), RT-PCR, PCR, and electrophoresis. As a control, cell material of the urine and tissue in 12 patients with chronic cystitis was investigated. TA before surgery was found in 45 (93.75%) of 48 samples of cellular material of the urine from patients with suspected bladder cancer. BC was histologically verified in all patients in this group. In the postoperative period, TA was not observed in the 48 samples of cellular material of the urine from patients with BC. In the control group of patients with histologically verified cystitis, weak TA was determined only in one sample of cellular material of the urine. The analysis indicates statistically significant predominance of patients with bladder cancer in case of TA in the urine (P=0.001). TA was detected in all samples of tumor tissue. We also analyzed the dependence of TA levels in urine and tissue on the degree of BC differentiation. In patients with highly differentiated BC, mean AT in the cellular materials of the urine was 0,61% (n=15), in patients with moderately differentiated BC - 0.95% (n=23), in patients with low-grade bladder cancer - 1.33% (n=10

  12. Telomerase activity and cellular aging might be positively modified by a yoga-based lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiv Basant; Yadav, Rashmi; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Tolahunase, Madhuri; Dada, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies showed that a brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention was efficacious in reducing levels of oxidative stress and cellular aging in obese men. The objective of this case report was to assess the efficacy of this intervention in reducing the levels of biochemical markers of cellular ageing, oxidative stress, and inflammation at baseline (day 0), at the end of active intervention (day 10), and follow-up at day 90. Single case report from a prospective ongoing study with pre-post design assessing the level of various markers of cellular aging. Integral Health Clinic, an outpatient facility conducting meditation and yoga-based lifestyle intervention programs for management of chronic diseases. A 31-year-old man with class I obesity (body-mass index, 29.5 kg/m(2)) who presented to the medicine outpatient department at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, with a history of fatigue, difficulty losing weight, and lack of motivation. He noted a marked decrease in his energy level, particularly in the afternoon. A pretested intervention program included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), stress management, group discussions, lectures, and individualized advice. From baseline (day 0) to day 90, the activity of telomerase and levels of β-endorphins, plasma cortisol, and interleukin-6 increased, and a sustained reduction in oxidative stress markers, such as reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine levels. Adopting yoga/meditation-based lifestyle modification causes reversal of markers of aging, mainly oxidative stress, telomerase activity, and oxidative DNA damage. This may not only delay aging and prolong a youthful healthy life but also delay or prevent onset of several lifestyle-related diseases, of which oxidative stress and inflammation are the chief cause. This report suggests this simple lifestyle intervention may be therapeutic for oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress.

  13. Label-free electrochemiluminescence biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of telomerase activity in HeLa cells based on extension reaction and intercalation of Ru(phen)3 (2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yue; Yang, Linlin; Yue, Guiyin; Chen, Lifen; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-10-01

    Telomerase is one of the most common markers of human malignant tumors, such as uterine, stomach, esophageal, breast, colorectal, laryngeal squamous cell, thyroid, bladder, and so on. It is necessary to develop some sensitive but convenient detection methods for telomerase activity determination. In this study, a label-free and ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor has been fabricated to detect the activity of telomerase extracted from HeLa cells. Thiolated telomerase substrate (TS) primer was immobilized on the gold electrode surface through gold-sulfur (Au-S) interaction and then elongated by telomerase specifically. Then, it was hybridized with complementary DNA to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments on the electrode surface, and Ru(phen)3 (2+) has been intercalated into the dsDNA grooves to act as the ECL probe. The enhanced ECL intensity has a linear relationship with the number of HeLa cells in the range of 5∼5000 and with a detection limit of 2 HeLa cells. The proposed ECL biosensor has high specificity to telomerase in the presence of common interferents. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were HeLa cells. The proposed method provides a convenient approach for telomerase-related cancer screening or diagnosis.

  14. The effect of Bortezomib and Rapamycin on Telomerase Activity in Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Uziel

    2014-12-01

    In the light of the crucial role of telomerase in cancer cells, it was important to characterize the possible relations between telomerase and bortezomib and to distinguish the biochemical mechanisms of its regulation and its interactions with other signal transduction inhibitors such as rapamycin. The results of this work encourage the in vivo examination of the therapeutic potential of the combination of bortezomib and rapamycin in Mantle Cell Lymphoma patients.

  15. Nonradioactive telomerase activity assay by microchip electrophoresis: privileges to the classical gel electrophoresis assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelev, Zhivko; Bakalova, Rumiana; Ewis, Ashraf; Ohba, Hideki; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2005-08-01

    The present study accents on the privileges of microchip-based electrophoresis to the conventional gel electrophoresis in separation of telomerase repeat amplification protocol/polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ladder products obtained in telomerase-catalyzed reaction in cancer cells. We try to clarify the interpretation of the results obtained by both electrophoretic procedures and to avoid misinterpretation as a result of PCR-dependent artefacts.

  16. Telomerase activity is increased and telomere length shortened in T cells from blood of patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Higashi, H; Hansen, E R

    2000-01-01

    subsets from both atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients compared with normal individuals. Furthermore, the telomere length was found to be significantly shorter in CD4(+) memory T cells compared with the CD4(+) naive T cells, and both of the cell subsets from diseases were shown to be of significantly...... shorter telomere length than the same cell subsets from normal controls. No significant difference was observed between CD8(+)CD28(-) and CD8(+)CD28(+) T cell populations in both diseases. However, the telomere length of CD8(+)CD28(+) T cells from both diseases was significantly shorter than CD8(+)CD28......We studied telomerase activity and telomere length in PBMC and purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from blood obtained from a total of 32 patients with atopic dermatitis, 16 patients with psoriasis, and 30 normal controls. The telomerase activity was significantly increased in PBMC from the patients...

  17. Visual detection of telomerase activity with a tunable dynamic range by using a gold nanoparticle probe-based hybridization protection strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiasi; Wu, Li; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel telomere complementary (TC) oligonucleotide modified AuNP probe (TC-AuNPs) for colorimetric analysis of telomerase activity. The mechanism of this method is that the telomerase reaction products (TRP), which can hybridize with the TC-AuNPs, are able to protect the AuNPs from the aggregation induced by salt. It is demonstrated that the colorimetric method enabled the analysis of the telomerase activity in 1000 HeLa cells with the naked eye, and down to 100 HeLa cells with the aid of UV-Vis spectroscopy. This strategy is not only convenient and sensitive, but also has a tunable dynamic range. The platform is also applicable for the initial screening of a telomerase inhibitor to discover new anticancer drugs.We developed a novel telomere complementary (TC) oligonucleotide modified AuNP probe (TC-AuNPs) for colorimetric analysis of telomerase activity. The mechanism of this method is that the telomerase reaction products (TRP), which can hybridize with the TC-AuNPs, are able to protect the AuNPs from the aggregation induced by salt. It is demonstrated that the colorimetric method enabled the analysis of the telomerase activity in 1000 HeLa cells with the naked eye, and down to 100 HeLa cells with the aid of UV-Vis spectroscopy. This strategy is not only convenient and sensitive, but also has a tunable dynamic range. The platform is also applicable for the initial screening of a telomerase inhibitor to discover new anticancer drugs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05185d

  18. Telomerase – future drug target enzyme?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Langerholc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucaryotic chromosome endings (telomeres replication problem was solved in the 1980’s by discovery of the telomerase enzyme. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 2009 for the discovery of telomerase. Altered telomerase expression in cancer, and human dream of eternal youth have accelerated the development of pharmacological telomerase inhibitors and activators. However, after 15 years of development they are still not available on the market. In the present article we reviewed pharmacological agents that target telomerase activity, which have entered clinical trials. Current drugs in development are mostly not intended to be used alone, as telomerase inhibitors under clinical trials are used in combination with the existing chemotherapeutics and anti-telomerase vaccines in combination with immuno-stimulants. Apart from cancer and aging, there are other diseases linked to deregulated activity of telomerase/telomeres and we also discuss technical and legal problems that researchers encounter in developing anti-telomerase therapy. Given the pace of development, first anti-telomerase drugs might appear on the market in the next 5 years.

  19. Inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma growth by adenovirus-mediated expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase COOH-27 terminal polypeptide in mice

    OpenAIRE

    HE, LEI; GONG, HAN-XIAN; LI, XIANG-PEN; WANG, YI-DONG; LI, YI; HUANG, JUN-JIAN; XIE, DAN; KUNG, HSIANG-FU; PENG, YING

    2013-01-01

    A 27-kDa C-terminal fragment of human telomerase reverse transcriptase, hTERTC27, has previously been reported to inhibit the growth and tumorigenicity of HeLa human cervical cancer cells and U87-MG human glioblastoma multiforme cells. However, the antitumor effects of hTERTC27 in hepatoma and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, the therapeutic effect of hTERTC27, mediated by recombinant adenovirus, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was explored in vitro and in vivo t...

  20. Telomerase Induction in HPV Infection and Oncogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Katzenellenbogen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase extends the repetitive DNA at the ends of linear chromosomes, and it is normally active in stem cells. When expressed in somatic diploid cells, it can lead to cellular immortalization. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are associated with and high-risk for cancer activate telomerase through the catalytic subunit of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT. The expression of hTERT is affected by both high-risk HPVs, E6 and E7. Seminal studies over the last two decades have identified the transcriptional, epigenetic, and post-transcriptional roles high-risk E6 and E7 have in telomerase induction. This review will summarize these findings during infection and highlight the importance of telomerase activation as an oncogenic pathway in HPV-associated cancer development and progression.

  1. Zinc sulfate contributes to promote telomere length extension via increasing telomerase gene expression, telomerase activity and change in the TERT gene promoter CpG island methylation status of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Farahzadi

    Full Text Available The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs for cell therapy and regenerative medicine has received widespread attention over the past few years, but their application can be complicated by factors such as reduction in proliferation potential, the senescent tendency of the MSCs upon expansion and their age-dependent decline in number and function. It was shown that all the mentioned features were accompanied by a reduction in telomerase activity and telomere shortening. Furthermore, the role of epigenetic changes in aging, especially changes in promoter methylation, was reported. In this study, MSCs were isolated from the adipose tissue with enzymatic digestion. In addition, immunocytochemistry staining and flow cytometric analysis were performed to investigate the cell-surface markers. In addition, alizarin red-S, sudan III, toluidine blue, and cresyl violet staining were performed to evaluate the multi-lineage differentiation of hADSCs. In order to improve the effective application of MSCs, these cells were treated with 1.5 × 10-8 and 2.99 × 10-10 M of ZnSO4 for 48 hours. The length of the absolute telomere, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene expression, telomerase activity, the investigation of methylation status of the hTERT gene promoter and the percentage of senescent cells were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR, PCR-ELISA TRAP assay, methylation specific PCR (MSP, and beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal staining, respectively. The results showed that the telomere length, the hTERT gene expression, and the telomerase activity had significantly increased. In addition, the percentage of senescent cells had significantly decreased and changes in the methylation status of the CpG islands in the hTERT promoter region under treatment with ZnSO4 were seen. In conclusion, it seems that ZnSO4 as a proper antioxidant could improve the aging-related features due to lengthening of the telomeres, increasing the telomerase gene expression

  2. miR-380-5p-mediated repression of TEP1 and TSPYL5 interferes with telomerase activity and favours the emergence of an “ALT-like” phenotype in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cells

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    Graziella Cimino-Reale

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the molecular/cellular underpinnings of diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM, a fatal malignancy with limited therapeutic options, is of utmost importance for the fruitful management of the disease. In this context, we previously found that telomerase activity (TA, which accounts for the limitless proliferative potential of cancer cells, is prognostic for disease relapse and cancer-related death in DMPM patients. Consequently, the identification of factors involved in telomerase activation/regulation may pave the way towards the development of novel therapeutic interventions for the disease. Here, the capability of miR-380-5p, a microRNA negligibly expressed in telomerase-positive DMPM clinical specimens, to interfere with telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance and, hence, with cancer cell growth was assessed on preclinical models of DMPM. Methods DMPM cells were transfected with a miR-380-5p synthetic precursor, and the effects of miRNA replacement were evaluated in terms of growing capability, induction of apoptosis and interference with TA. Reiterated weekly transfections were also performed in order to analyse the phenotype arising upon prolonged miR-380-5p reconstitution in DMPM cells. Results The ectopic expression of miR-380-5p elicited a remarkable inhibition of TA and resulted in DMPM cell growth impairment and apoptosis induction. In particular, we demonstrated for the first time that these effects were the result of a molecular circuitry converging on telomerase associated protein 1 (TEP1, where the miRNA was able to target the gene both directly in unconventional targeting modality and indirectly via p53 accumulation consequent to miRNA-mediated downregulation of testis-specific protein, Y-encoded-like 5 gene. Moreover, miR-380-5p did not cause telomere attrition and cell growth arrest in long-term DMPM transfectants, which in turn showed slightly elongated telomeres and molecular

  3. Telomerase activity as a diagnostic and prognostic factor in head and neck cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunická, Zuzana; Mucha, I.; Fajkus, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 28, 5C (2008), s. 370 ISSN 0250-7005. [Eighth International Conference of Anticancer Research. 17.10.2008-22.10.2008, Kos] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : cancer * telomerase * tumour differentiation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  4. Telomerase lost?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, J. M.; Randall, T. A.; Čapková Frydrychová, Radmila

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 1 (2016), s. 65-73 ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 052/2013/P; GA JU(CZ) 038/2014/P; European Union Seventh Framework Programme(CZ) 316304 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : telomerase * DNA sequences * Bombyx mori Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.414, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00412-015-0528-7

  5. In Situ Synthesized Silver Nanoclusters for Tracking the Role of Telomerase Activity in the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fangyuan; Feng, Enduo; Zheng, Tingting; Tian, Yang

    2018-01-17

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have potential use in cell replacement therapy for central nervous system disorders. However, the factors that impacted the differentiation process are unclear at the present stage because the powerful analytical method is the bottleneck. Herein, a novel strategy was developed for self-imaging and biosensing of telomerase activity in stem cells, using in situ biosynthesized silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) full of C bases. The present AgNCs possess synthetic convenience, long-time stability, and cytocompatibility. The weak fluorescence of these AgNCs is quickly turned on when approaching telomerase because of the strong interaction between C bases on AgNCs and G bases in telomerase, resulting in telomerase-dependent fluorescent signals. The developed method demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity and broad dynamic linear range with a low detection limit. Using this powerful tool, it was first discovered that telomerase activity plays important roles in the proliferation of hMSCs and neural stem cells (NSCs) as well as during the differentiation processes from hMSCs to NSCs.

  6. HMGB1 gene knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts results in reduced telomerase activity and telomere dysfunction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muselíková Polanská, Eva; Dobšáková, Zuzana; Dvořáčková, Martina; Fajkus, Jiří; Štros, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 4 (2012), s. 419-431 ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/0590; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/2475; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500040801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : HMGB1 protein * telomerase * mouse embryonic fibroblasts Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.340, year: 2012

  7. MicroRNA Regulation of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT: Micro Machines Pull Strings of Papier-Mâché Puppets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammad Ahmad Farooqi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantial fraction of high-quality information is continuously being added into the existing pool of knowledge related to the biology of telomeres. Based on the insights gleaned from decades of research, it is clear that chromosomal stability needs a highly controlled and dynamic balance of DNA gain and loss in each terminal tract of telomeric repeats. Telomeres are formed by tandem repeats of TTAGGG sequences, which are gradually lost with each round of division of the cells. Targeted inhibition of telomerase to effectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells has attracted tremendous attention and overwhelmingly increasingly list of telomerase inhibitors truthfully advocates pharmacological significance of telomerase. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT is a multi-talented and catalytically active component of the telomerase-associated protein machinery. Different proteins of telomerase-associated machinery work in a synchronized and orchestrated manner to ensure proper maintenance of telomeric length of chromosomes. Rapidly emerging scientific findings about regulation of TERT by microRNAs has revolutionized our understanding related to the biology of telomeres and telomerase. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed how different miRNAs regulate TERT in different cancers. Use of miRNA-based therapeutics against TERT in different cancers needs detailed research in preclinical models for effective translation of laboratory findings to clinically effective therapeutics.

  8. Telomerase activity, cytokeratin 20 and cytokeratin 19 in urine cells of bladder cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsi, Mohamed I; Youssef, Amany I; Hassouna, Mohamed E E; El-Sedafi, Amal S; Ghazal, Abeer A; Zaher, Ebtessam R

    2006-03-01

    This work aims to search for markers suitable for the screening of bladder cancer, which should be specific, sensitive, reproducible, non-invasive and at acceptable cost. The study included 50 patients diagnosed as bladder cancer (35 TCC, 15 SCC) of different stages and grades, 30 patients with various urothelial diseases, besides 20 apparently healthy subjects of matched age and sex to the malignant group. A random midstream urine sample was collected in a sterile container for the determination of telomerase by RT-PCR, keratin 19 by ELSA CYFRA 21-1 IRMA kit, keratin 20 by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, and urine cytology. For all parameters (telomerase, K19, K20 and cytology) the malignant group was significantly different from both the benign and the control groups. None of the four studied parameters was correlated to the stage of the disease, and when it comes to grade, only K19 showed a significant positive correlation with grade both in TCC and SCC. When ROC curves for all parameters were compared, K19 had the largest area under the curve, and then comes K20. K 19 may be used as a biological marker for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. K19 could not be used for differential diagnosis of different types of bladder cancer, meanwhile it could be a marker for differentiation that decreases in less differentiated tumors. As a tumor marker, K20 reflects inability to differentiate tumor type or grade in TCC, while in SCC of the bladder it is correlated with the grade. As a method, RT-PCR is superior to immunostaining for the detection of bladder cancer, meanwhile K20 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results were much better than urine cytology as a bladder cancer screening test. Haematuria and inflammation reduced the specificity of telomerase assay, which reduced its validity as a tumor marker of bladder cancer. K19 and K20 are the best candidates as screening tests for the diagnosis of bladder cancer, representing the highest sensitivity and specificity

  9. Telomerase Activity, Cytokeratin 20 and Cytokeratin 19 in Urine Cells of Bladder Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsi, M.I.; Youssef, A.I.; El-Sedafi, A.S.; Ghazal, A.A.; Zaher, E.R.; Hassouna, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the Study: This work aims to search for markers suitable for the screening of bladder cancer, which should be specific, sensitive, reproducible, non-invasive and at acceptable cost. Patients and Methods: The study included 50 patients diagnosed as bladder cancer (35 TCC, 15 SCC) of different stages and grades, 30 patients with various urothelial diseases, besides 20 apparently healthy subjects of matched age and sex to the malignant group. A random midstream urine sample was collected in a sterile container for the determination of telomerase by RT-PCR, keratin 19 by ELSA CYFRA 21-1 IRMA kit, keratin 20 by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, and urine cytology. Results: For all parameters (telomerase, K19, K20 and cytology) the malignant group was significantly different from both the benign and the control groups. None of the four studied parameters was correlated to the stage of the disease, and when it comes to grade, only KI9 showed a significant positive correlation with grade both in TCC and SCe. When ROC curves for all parameters were compared, K 19 had the largest area under the curve, and then comes K20 . o Conclusion: K 19 may be used as a biological marker for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. K 19 could not be used for differential diagnosis of different types of bladder cancer, meanwhile it could be a marker for differentiation that decreases in less differentiated tumors. As a tumor marker, K20 reflects inability to differentiate tumor type or grade in TCC, while in SCC of the bladder it is correlated with the grade. As a method, RT-PCR is superior to immunostaining for the detection of bladder cancer, meanwhile K20 immunohistochemistry ([HC) results were much better than urine cytology as a bladder cancer screening test. haematuria and inflammation reduced the specificity of telomerase assay, which reduced its validity as a tumor marker of bladder cancer. K 19 and K20 are the best candidates as screening tests for the diagnosis of bladder

  10. Telomerase in cancer diagnosis and therapy: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, A M

    1999-12-01

    Curing cancers is one of the most challenging tasks of modern medicine. The major problem is the heterogeneity of human tumours and thus finding a 'universal' target for cancer treatment. The discovery that the expression of the enzyme telomerase is a hallmark of immortality and cancer, and that it is found in the majority (>85%) of human tumours but is repressed in most normal cells, has therefore caused considerable excitement. These observations led to the design of potential telomerase inhibitors and ideas about targeting telomerase in the clinic. To date, several classes of telomerase inhibitory agents have been identified and are in preclinical development. However, the approach has not yet been tested clinically. Because of the proposed function of telomerase, and the understanding that replicative cell senescence or cell death result from progressive telomere shortening during successive cell divisions, even complete enzyme inhibition will not produce immediate cell death. Designing clinical trials for promising telomerase inhibitors requires consideration of the novel mechanism of action of these drugs. A lag period between initiation of treatment and occurrence of effects is likely, and thus anti-telomerase therapy might best be given in adjuvant treatment protocols after initial tumour debulking therapy and in combination with other cytostatic agents. The available knowledge of telomerase biology and its association with human tumours suggests that telomerase inhibition might prove a valuable addition to current cancer treatment regimens.

  11. Ethanolic periwinkle leaf extract reduces telomerase expression in T47D cancer cells

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    Endang Purwaningsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer cells have a relatively high telomerase activity and a lower p53 protein expression than normal cells, so that cancer cells have the ability to continue to proliferate and do not undergo apoptosis. One of the cancer treatments is chemotherapy using bioactive ingredients from synthesis or isolation of natural materials. One of the plants that have potential as anticancer agent is periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L. The research objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic periwinkle leaf extract against p53 protein and telomerase expression in T47D cancer cells. METHODS An experimental study with controls was conducted involving T47D breast cancer cells. They were divided into 3 groups (control, ½ dose of IC50/26.849 µg/mL, and one dose of IC50/53.699 µg/mL at a cell density of 1 x 104 cells/well. Expression of p53 and telomerase was measured by the immunohistochemistry method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by a multiple comparison test. RESULTS Periwinkle leaf extract significantly increased p53 protein expression (p<0.05 at both treatment doses, ½ IC50 and IC50, compared to the control group and it highly significantly reduced telomerase expression (p<0.01, in comparison with the control group at both treatment doses. CONCLUSION Periwinkle leaf extract has potential as an anti-breast cancer agent by increasing p53 protein expression and inhibiting telomerase expression.

  12. The Presence of Telomere Fusion in Sporadic Colon Cancer Independently of Disease Stage, TP53/KRAS Mutation Status, Mean Telomere Length, and Telomerase Activity

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    Hiromi Tanaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Defects in telomere maintenance can result in telomere fusions that likely play a causative role in carcinogenesis by promoting genomic instability. However, this proposition remains to be fully understood in human colon carcinogenesis. In the present study, the temporal sequence of telomere dysfunction dynamics was delineated by analyzing telomere fusion, telomere length, telomerase activity, hotspot mutations in KRAS or BRAF, and TP53 of tissue samples obtained from 18 colon cancer patients. Our results revealed that both the deficiency of p53 and the shortening of mean telomere length were not necessary for producing telomere fusions in colon tissue. In five cases, telomere fusion was observed even in tissue adjacent to cancerous lesions, suggesting that genomic instability is initiated in pathologically non-cancerous lesions. The extent of mean telomere attrition increased with lymph node invasiveness of tumors, implying that mean telomere shortening correlates with colon cancer progression. Telomerase activity was relatively higher in most cancer tissues containing mutation(s in KRAS or BRAF and/or TP53 compared to those without these hotspot mutations, suggesting that telomerase could become fully active at the late stage of colon cancer development. Interestingly, the majority of telomere fusion junctions in colon cancer appeared to be a chromatid-type containing chromosome 7q or 12q. In sum, this meticulous correlative study not only highlights the concept that telomere fusion is present in the early stages of cancer regardless of TP53/KRAS mutation status, mean telomere length, and telomerase activity, but also provides additional insights targeting key telomere fusion junctions which may have significant implications for colon cancer diagnoses.

  13. Sensitive electrochemical detection of telomerase activity using spherical nucleic acids gold nanoparticles triggered mimic-hybridization chain reaction enzyme-free dual signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Jing-Jing; Rui, Kai; Gai, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-03-03

    We report an electrochemical sensor for telomerase activity detection based on spherical nucleic acids gold nanoparticles (SNAs AuNPs) triggered mimic-hybridization chain reaction (mimic-HCR) enzyme-free dual signal amplification. In the detection strategy, SNAs AuNPs and two hairpin probes were employed. SNAs AuNPs as the primary amplification element, not only hybridized with the telomeric repeats on the electrode to amplify signal but also initiated the subsequent secondary amplification, mimic-hybridization chain reaction of two hairpin probes. If the cells' extracts were positive for telomerase activity, SNAs AuNPs could be captured on the electrode. The carried initiators could trigger an alternative hybridization reaction of two hairpin probes that yielded nicked double helices. The signal was further amplified enzyme-free by numerous hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride ([Ru(NH3)6](3+), RuHex) inserting into double-helix DNA long chain by electrostatic interaction, each of which could generate an electrochemical signal at appropriate potential. With this method, a detection limit of down to 2 HeLa cells and a dynamic range of 10-10,000 cells were achieved. Telomerase activities of different cell lines were also successfully evaluated.

  14. Structure and function of echinoderm telomerase RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlevsky, Joshua D; Li, Yang; Chen, Julian J-L

    2016-02-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzyme that requires an integral telomerase RNA (TR) subunit, in addition to the catalytic telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), for enzymatic function. The secondary structures of TRs from the three major groups of species, ciliates, fungi, and vertebrates, have been studied extensively and demonstrate dramatic diversity. Herein, we report the first comprehensive secondary structure of TR from echinoderms-marine invertebrates closely related to vertebrates-determined by phylogenetic comparative analysis of 16 TR sequences from three separate echinoderm classes. Similar to vertebrate TR, echinoderm TR contains the highly conserved template/pseudoknot and H/ACA domains. However, echinoderm TR lacks the ancestral CR4/5 structural domain found throughout vertebrate and fungal TRs. Instead, echinoderm TR contains a distinct simple helical region, termed eCR4/5, that is functionally equivalent to the CR4/5 domain. The urchin and brittle star eCR4/5 domains bind specifically to their respective TERT proteins and stimulate telomerase activity. Distinct from vertebrate telomerase, the echinoderm TR template/pseudoknot domain with the TERT protein is sufficient to reconstitute significant telomerase activity. This gain-of-function of the echinoderm template/pseudoknot domain for conferring telomerase activity presumably facilitated the rapid structural evolution of the eCR4/5 domain throughout the echinoderm lineage. Additionally, echinoderm TR utilizes the template-adjacent P1.1 helix as a physical template boundary element to prevent nontelomeric DNA synthesis, a mechanism used by ciliate and fungal TRs. Thus, the chimeric and eccentric structural features of echinoderm TR provide unparalleled insights into the rapid evolution of telomerase RNP structure and function. © 2016 Podlevsky et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  15. Telomerases: chemistry, biology, and clinical applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lue, Neal F; Autexier, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    .... Other topics include telomerase biogenesis, transcriptional and post-translational regulation, off-telomere functions of telomerase and the role of telomerase in cellular senescence, aging and cancer...

  16. Shortened telomere length is demonstrated in T-cell subsets together with a pronounced increased telomerase activity in CD4 positive T cells from blood of patients with mycosis fungoides and parapsoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K D; Hansen, E R

    2001-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that telomerase activity is increased and telomere length shortened in lymphocytes from peripheral blood of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In order to determine which cell type has increased telomerase activity and shortened telomere length, CD4+, CD8+, CLA+ CD3+ and CLA- CD3+ T cells were isolated from peripheral blood of 25 patients, including 15 patients with mycosis fungoides and 10 patients with parapsoriasis. Eleven healthy individuals were used as controls; CD19+ B cells were separated from each individual as an internal control. The results showed that the increased telomerase activity was significantly predominating in the CD4+ T-cell subset. Significantly shortened telomere length was found in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets from the patients compared with the same cell subsets obtained from healthy individuals. However, no difference was observed between the subsets; CD19+ B cells collected from patients and healthy control individuals had similar telomerase activity and telomere length which was significantly different from the values found in T cells. The telomere length was significantly shorter in CLA+ CD3+ subset than in CLA- CD3+ subset. Interestingly, increased telomerase activity and shortened telomere length was also detected in CD4+ T cells from patients with parapsoriasis indicating that alteration of telomerase activity and telomere length in CD4+ T cells is an early event in the pathogenesis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Thus, the results indicate that a significant high level of telomerase activity and shortened telomere length frequently occur in T cells of patients with CTCL and may reflect tumorigenesis.

  17. p53 null mutations are associated with a telomerase negative phenotype in ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anil K; Coffin, Jeremy; Jabbari, Sarvenaz; Buller, Richard E; Hendrix, Mary J C; Klingelhutz, Al

    2002-01-01

    Telomerase activation and p53 dysfunction are important events in the development and progression of most cancers including ovarian cancer. However, many cancer cell lines and human tumors have been shown to lack telomerase, and maintain telomerase through the ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres). It is not known whether specific types of p53 mutations are correlated with telomerase activity in human tumors. Invasive ovarian cancers (109) were analyzed for telomerase by ELISA and its subunits human telomerase RNA (hTR), and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) by RT-PCR. p53 protein was analyzed in the same samples using immunohistochemistry, and p53 exons 2-11 were analyzed using SSCP and sequence analysis. Telomerase activity was detected in 80 (74%) of 109 tumors. The subunit hTR was consistently present in all ovarian cancer samples, and hTERT was expressed in 96 (88%) tumors. Thirteen (16%) tumors were negative for hTERT and none of these expressed telomerase. Fifty-seven (52%) tumors stained positive for p53, and there was no correlation with telomerase activity based on p53 staining (p = 0.08). Eighty-two (75%) tumors were found to have a p53 mutation, and 40 (36%) tumors contained a null mutation. Only 14% of the tumors with wild type or missense p53 were negative for telomerase activity. In contrast, 19 (48%) of 40 tumors with a p53 null mutation were negative for telomerase activity (p p53 mutations. Seventy-five percent of the tumors with a p53 mutation in the central region were telomerase positive. In contrast, only 47% of the tumors with a mutation in either the amino- or carboxy-terminus were telomerase positive (p = 0.03). Ovarian cancers with a p53 null mutation are more likely to lack telomerase activity. This may have implications for therapeutic approaches based on telomerase.

  18. Antiproliferative Effects of Cucurbitacin B in Breast Cancer Cells: Down-Regulation of the c-Myc/hTERT/Telomerase Pathway and Obstruction of the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwit Duangmano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring cucurbitacins have been shown to have anticancer, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we determined the effects of cucurbitacin B extracted from the Thai herb Trichosanthes cucumerina L. on telomerase regulation in three human breast cancer cell lines (T47D, SKBR-3, and MCF-7 and a mammary epithelium cell line (HBL-100. Cell viability after treatment with cucurbitacin B, which is an active ingredient of this herb, was assessed. Telomeric Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP assays and RT-PCR (qualitative and realtime were performed to investigate activity of telomerase as well as expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT and c-Myc. The c-Myc protein level was also determined in SKBR-3 and HBL-100 cells. Our results show that the cucurbitacin B inhibits growth and telomerase activity in the three breast cancer cell lines and exerts an obvious inhibitory effect in the estrogen receptor (ER-negative breast cancer SKBR-3 cells. The expression of hTERT and c-Myc were also inhibited by cucurbitacin B, In addition, a clear reduction of c-Myc protein was observed after treatment in SKBR-3 cells even with a concentration of cucurbitacin B that was ten-times lower compared to the concentration used for HBL-100. Our findings imply that cucurbitacin B exerts an anticancer effect by inhibiting telomerase via down regulating both the hTERT and c-Myc expression in breast cancer cells.

  19. Telomeres and telomerase: a modern fountain of youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Toussaint, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Since ageing is a universal human feature, it is not surprising that, from the Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh to Ponce de Leon seeking the "Fountain of Youth," countless people have dreamed of finding a way to avoid ageing, to no avail. Yet the search continues. In this review, we present one of the latest candidates: the enzyme telomerase, capable of elongating the tips of chromosomes, the telomeres. Research into the causes of cellular ageing established the telomeres as the molecular clock that counts the number of times cells divide and triggers cellular senescence. Herein, we review arguments both in favor and against the use of telomerase as an anti-ageing therapy. The importance of the telomeres in cellular ageing, the low or non-existent levels of telomerase activity in human tissues, and the ability of telomerase to immortalize human cells suggest that telomerase can be used as an anti-ageing therapy. On the other hand, recent experiments in mice have raised doubts whether telomerase affects organismal ageing. Results from human cells expressing telomerase have also suggested telomerase may promote tumorigenesis. We conclude that, though telomerase may be used in regenerative medicine and to treat specific diseases, it is unlikely to become a source of anti-ageing therapies.

  20. MicroRNA-532 and microRNA-3064 inhibit cell proliferation and invasion by acting as direct regulators of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Bai

    Full Text Available Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT plays a crucial role in ovarian cancer (OC progression. However, the mechanisms underlying hTERT upregulation in OC, and the specific microRNAs (miRNAs involved in the regulation of hTERT in OC cells, remains unclear. We performed a bioinformatics search to identify potential miRNAs that bind to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR region of the hTERT mRNA. We examined the expression levels of miR-532/miR-3064 in OC tissues and normal ovarian tissues, and analyzed the correlation between miRNA expression and OC patient outcomes. The impacts of miR-532/miR-3064 on hTERT expression were evaluated by western blot analysis and hTERT 3'-UTR reporter assays. We investigated the effects of miR-532/miR-3064 on proliferation and invasion in OC cells. We found that miR-532 and miR-3064 are down-regulated in OC specimens. We observed a significant association between reduced miR-532/miR-3064 expression and poorer survival of patients with OC. We confirmed that in OC cells, these two miRNAs downregulate hTERT levels by directly targeting its 3'-UTR region, and inhibited proliferation, EMT and invasion of OC cells. In addition, the overexpression of the hTERT cDNA lacking the 3'-UTR partially restored miR-532/miR-3064-inhibited OC cell proliferation and invasion. The silencing of hTERT by siRNA oligonucleotides abolished these malignant features, and phenocopied the effects of miR-532/miR-3064 overexpression. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-532/miR-3064 inhibits the growth of OC cells in vivo. Our findings demonstrate a miR-532/miR-3064-mediated mechanism responsible for hTERT upregulation in OC cells, and reveal a possibility of targeting miR-532/miR-3064 for future treatment of OC.

  1. Characterization and developmental patterns of telomerase expression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Matthew S.; McKnight, Thomas D.; Shippen, Dorothy E.

    1996-01-01

    Telomerase activity is developmentally regulated in mammals. Here we examine telomerase activity in plants, whose development differs in fundamental ways from that of animals. Using a modified version of the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay, we detected an activity in extracts from carrots, cauliflower, soybean, Arabidopsis, and rice with all the characteristics expected for a telomerase synthesizing the plant telomere repeat sequence TTTAGGG. The activity was dependent on RNA and protein components, required dGTP, dATP, and dTTP, but not dCTP, and generated products with a seven nucleotide periodicity. Telomerase activity was abundant in cauliflower meristematic tissue and undifferentiated cells from Arabidopsis, soybean, and carrot suspension cultures, but was low or not detectable in a sampling of differentiated tissues from mature plants. Telomerase from cauliflower meristematic tissues exhibited relaxed DNA sequence requirements, which might reflect the capacity to form telomeres on broken chromosomes in vivo. The dramatic differences in telomerase expression and their correlation with cellular proliferation capacity mirror changes in human telomerase levels during differentiation and immortalization. Hence, telomerase activation appears to be a conserved mechanism involved in conferring long-term proliferation capacity. PMID:8962067

  2. Telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is induced by telomere shortening to nucleate telomerase molecules at short telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusanelli, Emilio; Romero, Carmina Angelica Perez; Chartrand, Pascal

    2013-09-26

    Elongation of a short telomere depends on the action of multiple telomerase molecules, which are visible as telomerase RNA foci or clusters associated with telomeres in yeast and mammalian cells. How several telomerase molecules act on a single short telomere is unknown. Herein, we report that the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is involved in the nucleation of telomerase molecules into clusters prior to their recruitment at a short telomere. We find that telomere shortening induces TERRA expression, leading to the accumulation of TERRA molecules into a nuclear focus. Simultaneous time-lapse imaging of telomerase RNA and TERRA reveals spontaneous events of telomerase nucleation on TERRA foci in early S phase, generating TERRA-telomerase clusters. This cluster is subsequently recruited to the short telomere from which TERRA transcripts originate during S phase. We propose that telomere shortening induces noncoding RNA expression to coordinate the recruitment and activity of telomerase molecules at short telomeres. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The hTERT and hTERC Telomerase Gene Promoters Are Activated by the Second Exon of the Adenoviral Protein, E1 A, Identifying the Transcriptional Corepressor CtBP as a Potential Rearessor of Both Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind M. Glasspool

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase plays a role in the unlimited replicative capacity of the majority of cancer cells and provides a potential anticancer target. The regulation of telomerase is complex but transcriptional control of its two essential components, hTERC (RNA component and hTERT (reverse transcriptase component, is of major importance. To investigate this further, we have used the adenoviral protein, E1A, as a tool to probe potential pathways involved in the control of telomerase transcription. The second exon of the adenoviral protein E1A activates both telomerase gene promoters in transient transfections. The corepressor, C terminal binding protein, is one of only two proteins known to bind to this region, and we propose that E1A activates both promoters by sequestering CtBP, thereby relieving repression. Activation by exon 2 of E1A involves the SP1 sites in both promoters, and consistent with this, SP1 and CtBP interact in coimmunoprecipitation studies. Modulation of the chromatin environment has been implicated in the regulation of hTERT transcription and appears to involve the SP1 sites. CtBP can be found within a histone-modifying complex and it is possible that a CtBP complex, associating with the SP1 sites, represses transcription from the telomerase promoters by modifying chromatin structure.

  4. Reptin is required for the transcription of telomerase reverse transcriptase and over-expressed in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tiantian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomerase is activated in oncogenesis, which confers an immortal phenotype to cancer cells. The AAA + ATPase Reptin is required for telomerase biogenesis by maintaining telomerase RNA (hTER stability and is aberrantly expressed in certain cancers. Given its role in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation, we determined the effect of Reptin on the transcription of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene, a key component of the telomerase complex and its expression in gastric cancer. Results Knocking down Reptin or its partner Pontin using small interfering RNA in gastric and cervical cancer cells led to significant decreases in hTERT mRNA, but hTERT promoter activity was inhibited in only Reptin-depleted cells. Reptin interacted with the c-MYC oncoprotein and its stimulatory effect on the hTERTpromoter was significantly dependent on functional E-boxes in the promoter. Moreover, Reptin bound to the hTERT proximal promoter and the loss of the Reptin occupancy led to dissociation of c-MYC from the hTERT promoter in Reptin-depleted cells. Reptin inhibition dramatically impaired clonogenic potential of gastric cancer cells by inducing cell growtharrest and over-expression of Reptin was observed in primary gastric cancer specimens. Conclusions The hTERT gene is a direct target of Reptin, and hTERT transcription requires constitutive expression of Reptin and its cooperation with c-MYC. Thus, Reptin regulates telomerase at two different levels. This finding, together with the requirementof Reptin for the clonogenic potential of cancer cells and its over-expression in gastriccancer and other solid tumors, suggests that Reptin may be a putative therapeutic target.

  5. Effect of a qigong intervention program on telomerase activity and psychological stress in abused Chinese women: a randomized, wait-list controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Agnes; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung; Tsao, George Sai Wah; Deng, Wen; Hong, Athena Wai Lin; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Fung, Helina Yin King Yuk; Pang, Emily Pei Shin; Cheung, Denise Shuk Ting; Ma, Joyce Lai Chong

    2014-08-15

    Abused women, who suffer from chronic psychological stress, have been shown to have shorter telomeres than never abused women. Telomere shortening is associated with increased risk of cell death, and it is believed that adopting health-promoting behaviors can help to increase the activity of telomerase, an enzyme that counters telomere shortening. Qigong is an ancient Chinese mind-body integration, health-oriented practice designed to enhance the function of qi, an energy that sustains well-being. Therefore, an assessor-blind, randomized, wait-list controlled trial was developed to evaluate the effect of a qigong intervention on telomerase activity (primary objective) and proinflammatory cytokines, perceived stress, perceived coping, and depressive symptoms (secondary objectives) in abused Chinese women. A total of 240 Chinese women, aged ≥ 18 years, who have been abused by an intimate partner within the past three years will be recruited from a community setting in Hong Kong and randomized to receive either a qigong intervention or wait-list control condition as follows: the qigong intervention will comprise (i) a 2-hour group qigong training session twice a week for 6 weeks, (ii) a 1-hour follow-up group qigong exercise session once a week for 4 months, and (iii) a 30-minute self-practice qigong exercise session once a day for 5.5 months. The wait-list control group will receive qigong training after the intervention group completes the program. Upon completion of the qigong intervention program, it is expected that abused Chinese women in the intervention group will have higher levels of telomerase activity and perceived coping and lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms than will abused Chinese women in the wait-list control group. This study will provide information about the effect of qigong exercise on telomerase activity and chronic psychological stress in abused Chinese women. The findings will inform the

  6. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. Changes in telomerase activity, expression and splicing in response to differentiation of normal and carcinoma colon cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajkus, Jiří; Borský, M.; Kunická, Z.; Kovaříková, Martina; Dvořáková, D.; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Kozubík, Alois

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 23, 2B (2003), s. 1605-1612 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128; GA ČR GA525/01/0419; GA AV ČR IBS5004010; GA MPO FD-K/033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920; CEZ:MSM 143100008 Keywords : telomerase regulation * human colon cells * butyrate Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.347, year: 2003

  8. Current Perspectives of Telomerase Structure and Function in Eukaryotes with Emerging Views on Telomerase in Human Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Abhishek; Chakrabarti, Kausik

    2018-01-24

    Replicative capacity of a cell is strongly correlated with telomere length regulation. Aberrant lengthening or reduction in the length of telomeres can lead to health anomalies, such as cancer or premature aging. Telomerase is a master regulator for maintaining replicative potential in most eukaryotic cells. It does so by controlling telomere length at chromosome ends. Akin to cancer cells, most single-cell eukaryotic pathogens are highly proliferative and require persistent telomerase activity to maintain constant length of telomere and propagation within their host. Although telomerase is key to unlimited cellular proliferation in both cases, not much was known about the role of telomerase in human parasites (malaria, Trypanosoma , etc.) until recently. Since telomerase regulation is mediated via its own structural components, interactions with catalytic reverse transcriptase and several factors that can recruit and assemble telomerase to telomeres in a cell cycle-dependent manner, we compare and discuss here recent findings in telomerase biology in cancer, aging and parasitic diseases to give a broader perspective of telomerase function in human diseases.

  9. Fluorescence detection of DNA, adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), and telomerase activity by zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX/G-quadruplex labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanxia; Sharon, Etery; Freeman, Ronit; Liu, Xiaoqing; Willner, Itamar

    2012-06-05

    The zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) fluorophore binds to G-quadruplexes, and this results in the enhanced fluorescence of the fluorophore. This property enabled the development of DNA sensors, aptasensors, and a sensor following telomerase activity. The DNA sensor is based on the design of a hairpin structure that includes a "caged" inactive G-quadruplex sequence. Upon opening the hairpin by the analyte DNA, the resulting fluorescence of the ZnPPIX/G-quadruplex provides the readout signal for the sensing event (detection limit 5 nM). Addition of Exonuclease III to the system allows the recycling of the analyte and its amplified analysis (detection limit, 200 pM). The association of the ZnPPIX to G-quadruplex aptamer-substrate complexes allowed the detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP, detection limit 10 μM). Finally, the association of ZnPPIX to the G-quadruplex repeat units of telomers allowed the detection of telomerase activity originating from 380 ± 20 cancer 293T cell extract.

  10. Tissue formation and tissue engineering through host cell recruitment or a potential injectable cell-based biocomposite with replicative potential: Molecular mechanisms controlling cellular senescence and the involvement of controlled transient telomerase activation therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2015-12-01

    . Nuclear export is initiated by ROS-induced phosphorylation of tyrosine 707 within hTERT by the Src kinase family. It might be presumed that protection of mitochondria against oxidative stress is an important telomere length-independent function for telomerase in cell survival. Biotechnology companies are focused on development of therapeutic telomerase vaccines, telomerase inhibitors, and telomerase promoter-driven cell killing in oncology, have a telomerase antagonist in late preclinical studies. Anti-aging medicine-oriented groups have intervened on the market with products working on telomerase activation for a broad range of degenerative diseases in which replicative senescence or telomere dysfunction may play an important role. Since oxidative damage has been shown to shorten telomeres in tissue culture models, the adequate topical, transdermal, or systemic administration of antioxidants (such as, patented ocular administration of 1% N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops in the treatment of cataracts) may be beneficial at preserving telomere lengths and delaying the onset or in treatment of disease in susceptible individuals. Therapeutic strategies toward controlled transient activation of telomerase are targeted to cells and replicative potential in cell-based therapies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Telomerer og telomerase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to EH Blackburn, CW Greider and JW Szostak for their work on "How chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase". Telomeres are specialized DNA structures localized at the end of linear chromosomes. Telomeres are known...... as the biological clock of the cell, since they shorten with each cell division. Telomerase can elongate telomeres. Telomeres protect chromosome ends against being recognized as double stranded DNA breaks, and are thought to be a guard against cancer. It has furthermore been suggested that telomeres may play a role...... in aging and age-related diseases....

  12. PCR-free telomerase assay using chronocoulometry coupled with hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinobu; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2012-02-07

    An electrochemical method based on chronocoulometry coupled with hexaammineruthenium chloride (RuHex) is proposed for simple and rapid assay of telomerase without relying on PCR and gel electrophoresis. Thus, DNA extended by telomerase in extracts of as small as 5-1,000 HeLa cells on the TS primer-immobilized electrodes was quantified successfully. This method is suitable for quick screening of drug candidates which inhibit telomerase. When 10 compounds were tested, the multiplicity of extension (x in (TTAGGG)(x)) varied from 11 to 0, suggesting that there is more than one mechanism of inhibition. IC(50) values of telomerase inhibitors TMPyP4 and PIPER were determined as 5.5 and 15 μM, respectively, though their mechanisms of inhibition are different. This method is capable of discriminating two possible mechanisms of telomerase inhibition: direct binding of inhibitors to telomerase and indirect inhibition through their binding to the quadruplex generated by telomerase. As this method is easy and quick to run, it will be useful for high-throughput screening of drug candidates which inhibit telomerase. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Use of Telemorace Inhibition in Combination with Anti-Cancer Drugs to Induce Cell Death in Tumor Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cerone, Maria A

    2006-01-01

    .... Therefore targeting telomerase may represent a promising approach for cancer therapy. Inhibition of telomerase would result in telomere shortening and cell death due to dysfunctional telomeres...

  14. Live Cell Imaging Reveals the Dynamics of Telomerase Recruitment to Telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jens C; Zaug, Arthur J; Cech, Thomas R

    2016-08-25

    Telomerase maintains genome integrity by adding repetitive DNA sequences to the chromosome ends in actively dividing cells, including 90% of all cancer cells. Recruitment of human telomerase to telomeres occurs during S-phase of the cell cycle, but the molecular mechanism of the process is only partially understood. Here, we use CRISPR genome editing and single-molecule imaging to track telomerase trafficking in nuclei of living human cells. We demonstrate that telomerase uses three-dimensional diffusion to search for telomeres, probing each telomere thousands of times each S-phase but only rarely forming a stable association. Both the transient and stable association events depend on the direct interaction of the telomerase protein TERT with the telomeric protein TPP1. Our results reveal that telomerase recruitment to telomeres is driven by dynamic interactions between the rapidly diffusing telomerase and the chromosome end. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Telomeres, telomerase and premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Košir Pogačnik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of chromosomes, consisting of six repeated nucleotides in TTAGGG sequence. Genome stability is partly maintained by the architecture of telomeres and is gradually lost as telomeres progressively shorten with each cell replication. Critically shortened telomeres are recognized by DNA repair mechanisms as DNA damage and the cell replication cycle stops. The cell eventually dies or undergoes cell apoptosis. Telomere represents a cellular marker of biological age and are therefore also called cell mitotic clock. The enzyme that counteracts telomere shortening by adding nucleotides to the 3’ end of DNA strand is called telomerase. It is composed of the RNA subunit (TR, which is special type of messenger RNA (mRNA, the catalytic protein subunit (TERT, which works as a reverse transcriptase and numerous additional proteins. Telomerase is active in some germline, epithelial and haemopoietic cells, but in most somatic cells the activity is undetectable. In literature, the length of telomeres is closely connected with premature ovarian failure (POF. POF is generally defined as the onset of menopause before the age of 40. The causes of disease are genetical, autoimmune, iatrogenic or if we cannot establish the cause – idiopathic. A lot of studies examined correlation between idiopathic POF, length of telomeres and telomerase activity. The studies mostly show that women with POF have shortened telomeres and decreased activity of telomerase as compared to healthy women.

  16. Telomerase RNA is more than a DNA template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christopher J; Zakian, Virginia A

    2016-08-02

    The addition of telomeric DNA to chromosome ends is an essential cellular activity that compensates for the loss of genomic DNA that is due to the inability of the conventional DNA replication apparatus to duplicate the entire chromosome. The telomerase reverse transcriptase and its associated RNA bind to the very end of the telomere via a sequence in the RNA and specific protein-protein interactions. Telomerase RNA also provides the template for addition of new telomeric repeats by the reverse-transcriptase protein subunit. In addition to the template, there are 3 other conserved regions in telomerase RNA that are essential for normal telomerase activity. Here we briefly review the conserved core regions of telomerase RNA and then focus on a recent study in fission yeast that determined the function of another conserved region in telomerase RNA called the Stem Terminus Element (STE). (1) The STE is distant from the templating core of telomerase in both the linear and RNA secondary structure, but, nonetheless, affects the fidelity of telomere sequence addition and, in turn, the ability of telomere binding proteins to bind and protect chromosome ends. We will discuss possible mechanisms of STE action and the suitability of the STE as an anti-cancer target.

  17. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allory, Yves; Beukers, Willemien; Sagrera, Ana

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hotspot mutations in the promoter of the gene coding for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) have been described and proposed to activate gene expression. OBJECTIVES: To investigate TERT mutation frequency, spectrum, association with expression and clinical outcome, and potential ...

  18. Telomere stability and development of ctc1 mutants are rescued by inhibition of EJ recombination pathways in a telomerase-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiard, Simon; Olivier, Margaux; Allain, Elisabeth; Choi, Kyuha; Smith-Unna, Richard; Henderson, Ian R.; White, Charles I.; Gallego, Maria Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The telomeres of linear eukaryotic chromosomes are protected by caps consisting of evolutionarily conserved nucleoprotein complexes. Telomere dysfunction leads to recombination of chromosome ends and this can result in fusions which initiate chromosomal breakage–fusion–bridge cycles, causing genomic instability and potentially cell death or cancer. We hypothesize that in the absence of the recombination pathways implicated in these fusions, deprotected chromosome ends will instead be eroded by nucleases, also leading to the loss of genes and cell death. In this work, we set out to specifically test this hypothesis in the plant, Arabidopsis. Telomere protection in Arabidopsis implicates KU and CST and their absence leads to chromosome fusions, severe genomic instability and dramatic developmental defects. We have analysed the involvement of end-joining recombination pathways in telomere fusions and the consequences of this on genomic instability and growth. Strikingly, the absence of the multiple end-joining pathways eliminates chromosome fusion and restores normal growth and development to cst ku80 mutant plants. It is thus the chromosomal fusions, per se, which are the underlying cause of the severe developmental defects. This rescue is mediated by telomerase-dependent telomere extension, revealing a competition between telomerase and end-joining recombination proteins for access to deprotected telomeres. PMID:25274733

  19. C. elegans survivors without telomerase

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, Daniel H.; Karlseder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In most eukaryotic organisms with a linear genome, the telomerase complex is essential for telomere maintenance and, thus, for genomic integrity. Proper telomerase function in stem and germ cell populations counteracts replication-dependent telomere shortening. On the other hand, repression of telomerase expression in most somatic tissues limits the proliferative potential of these cells through the induction of a permanent cell cycle arrest termed senescence upon critical telomere erosion. T...

  20. Properties of a Telomerase-Specific Cre/Lox Switch for Transcriptionally Targeted Cancer Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E. Bilsland

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase expression represents a good target for cancer gene therapy. The promoters of the core telomerase catalytic [human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT] and RNA [human telomerase RNA (hTR] subunits show selective activity in cancer cells but not in normal cells. This property can be harnessed to express therapeutic transgenes in a wide range of cancer cells. Unfortunately, weak hTR and hTERT promoter activities in some cancer cells could limit the target cell range. Therefore, strategies to enhance telomerasespecific gene therapy are of interest. We constructed a Cre/Lox reporter switch coupling telomerase promoter specificity with Cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter activity, which is generally considered to be constitutively high. In this approach, a telomerase-specific vector expressing Cre recombinase directs excisive recombination on a second vector, removing a transcriptional blockade to CMV-dependent luciferase expression. We tested switch activation in cell lines over a wide range of telomerase promoter activities. However, Cre/Lox-dependent luciferase expression was not enhanced relative to expression using hTR or hTERT promoters directly. Cell-specific differences between telomerase and CMV promoter activities and incomplete sigmoid switch activation were limiting factors. Notably, CMV activity was not always significantly stronger than telomerase promoter activity. Our conclusions provide a general basis for a more rational design of novel recombinase switches in gene therapy.

  1. Telomerase is required for zebrafish lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina M Henriques

    Full Text Available Telomerase activity is restricted in humans. Consequentially, telomeres shorten in most cells throughout our lives. Telomere dysfunction in vertebrates has been primarily studied in inbred mice strains with very long telomeres that fail to deplete telomeric repeats during their lifetime. It is, therefore, unclear how telomere shortening regulates tissue homeostasis in vertebrates with naturally short telomeres. Zebrafish have restricted telomerase expression and human-like telomere length. Here we show that first-generation tert(-/- zebrafish die prematurely with shorter telomeres. tert(-/- fish develop degenerative phenotypes, including premature infertility, gastrointestinal atrophy, and sarcopaenia. tert(-/- mutants have impaired cell proliferation, accumulation of DNA damage markers, and a p53 response leading to early apoptosis, followed by accumulation of senescent cells. Apoptosis is primarily observed in the proliferative niche and germ cells. Cell proliferation, but not apoptosis, is rescued in tp53(-/-tert(-/- mutants, underscoring p53 as mediator of telomerase deficiency and consequent telomere instability. Thus, telomerase is limiting for zebrafish lifespan, enabling the study of telomere shortening in naturally ageing individuals.

  2. Human adipose tissue possesses a unique population of pluripotent stem cells with nontumorigenic and low telomerase activities: potential implications in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Fumitaka; Wakao, Shohei; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Bagheri, Mozhdeh; Heneidi, Saleh; Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Aiba, Setsuya; Dezawa, Mari

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that a small population of pluripotent stem cells, termed adipose multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (adipose-Muse) cells, exist in adult human adipose tissue and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adipose-MSCs). They can be identified as cells positive for both MSC markers (CD105 and CD90) and human pluripotent stem cell marker SSEA-3. They intrinsically retain lineage plasticity and the ability to self-renew. They spontaneously generate cells representative of all three germ layers from a single cell and successfully differentiate into targeted cells by cytokine induction. Cells other than adipose-Muse cells exist in adipose-MSCs, however, do not exhibit these properties and are unable to cross the boundaries from mesodermal to ectodermal or endodermal lineages even under cytokine inductions. Importantly, adipose-Muse cells demonstrate low telomerase activity and transplants do not promote teratogenesis in vivo. When compared with bone marrow (BM)- and dermal-Muse cells, adipose-Muse cells have the tendency to exhibit higher expression in mesodermal lineage markers, while BM- and dermal-Muse cells were generally higher in those of ectodermal and endodermal lineages. Adipose-Muse cells distinguish themselves as both easily obtainable and versatile in their capacity for differentiation, while low telomerase activity and lack of teratoma formation make these cells a practical cell source for potential stem cell therapies. Further, they will promote the effectiveness of currently performed adipose-MSC transplantation, particularly for ectodermal and endodermal tissues where transplanted cells need to differentiate across the lineage from mesodermal to ectodermal or endodermal in order to replenish lost cells for tissue repair.

  3. The non-coding RNA TERRA is a natural ligand and direct inhibitor of human telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon, Sophie; Reichenbach, Patrick; Lingner, Joachim

    2010-09-01

    Telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotes chromosomes are transcribed into telomeric repeat containing RNA (TERRA), a large non-coding RNA of unknown function, which forms an integral part of telomeric heterochromatin. TERRA molecules resemble in sequence the telomeric DNA substrate as they contain 5'-UUAGGG-3' repeats near their 3'-end which are complementary to the template sequence of telomerase RNA. Here we demonstrate that endogenous TERRA is bound to human telomerase in cell extracts. Using in vitro reconstituted telomerase and synthetic TERRA molecules we demonstrate that the 5'-UUAGGG-3' repeats of TERRA base pair with the RNA template of the telomerase RNA moiety (TR). In addition TERRA contacts the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein subunit independently of hTR. In vitro studies further demonstrate that TERRA is not used as a telomerase substrate. Instead, TERRA acts as a potent competitive inhibitor for telomeric DNA in addition to exerting an uncompetitive mode of inhibition. Our data identify TERRA as a telomerase ligand and natural direct inhibitor of human telomerase. Telomerase regulation by the telomere substrate may be mediated via its transcription.

  4. Expression of Telomeres in Astrocytoma WHO Grade 2 to 4: TERRA Level Correlates with Telomere Length, Telomerase Activity, and Advanced Clinical Grade12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampl, Sandra; Pramhas, Sibylle; Stern, Christian; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine; Holzmann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells bypass replicative senescence, the major barrier to tumor progression, by using telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Correlation between ALT and patient survival was demonstrated for high-grade astrocytomas. Transcription from subtelomeres produces telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a natural inhibitor of telomerase activity (TA). This led us to evaluate correlations of TERRA and TMM with tumor grade and outcome in astrocytoma patients. SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitation of total and chromosome 2p and 18p specific TERRA levels were developed. Tumor samples from 46 patients with astrocytoma grade 2 to 4, tissue controls, and cell lines were assessed. TMMs were evaluated by measuring TA and by detecting long telomeres due to ALT. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade 4, total TERRA levels were similar to cell lines but 14-, 31-, and 313-fold lower compared with grade 3, grade 2, and nonmalignant tissue, respectively. Total TERRA levels differed from chromosomal levels. Low 2p TERRA levels correlated with dense promoter methylation of subtelomeric CpG islands, indicating that TERRA expression in gliomas may be chromosome specific and epigenetically regulated. Total TERRA levels correlated with diagnosis, with low or absent TA and the presence of ALT, and were tentatively associated with favorable patient prognosis in our cohort (P = .06). TA and short telomeres identified a subset of GBM with a median survival of only 14.8 months. TERRA and TA may be prognostic in astrocytic tumors. PMID:22348177

  5. Expression of telomeres in astrocytoma WHO grade 2 to 4: TERRA level correlates with telomere length, telomerase activity, and advanced clinical grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampl, Sandra; Pramhas, Sibylle; Stern, Christian; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine; Holzmann, Klaus

    2012-02-01

    Cancer cells bypass replicative senescence, the major barrier to tumor progression, by using telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Correlation between ALT and patient survival was demonstrated for high-grade astrocytomas. Transcription from subtelomeres produces telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a natural inhibitor of telomerase activity (TA). This led us to evaluate correlations of TERRA and TMM with tumor grade and outcome in astrocytoma patients. SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitation of total and chromosome 2p and 18p specific TERRA levels were developed. Tumor samples from 46 patients with astrocytoma grade 2 to 4, tissue controls, and cell lines were assessed. TMMs were evaluated by measuring TA and by detecting long telomeres due to ALT. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade 4, total TERRA levels were similar to cell lines but 14-, 31-, and 313-fold lower compared with grade 3, grade 2, and nonmalignant tissue, respectively. Total TERRA levels differed from chromosomal levels. Low 2p TERRA levels correlated with dense promoter methylation of subtelomeric CpG islands, indicating that TERRA expression in gliomas may be chromosome specific and epigenetically regulated. Total TERRA levels correlated with diagnosis, with low or absent TA and the presence of ALT, and were tentatively associated with favorable patient prognosis in our cohort (P = .06). TA and short telomeres identified a subset of GBM with a median survival of only 14.8 months. TERRA and TA may be prognostic in astrocytic tumors.

  6. Tetrahymena telomerase protein p65 induces conformational changes throughout telomerase RNA (TER) and rescues telomerase reverse transcriptase and TER assembly mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Andrea J; Gooding, Anne R; Cech, Thomas R

    2010-10-01

    The biogenesis of the Tetrahymena telomerase ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) is enhanced by p65, a La family protein. Single-molecule and biochemical studies have uncovered a hierarchical assembly of the RNP, wherein the binding of p65 to stems I and IV of telomerase RNA (TER) causes a conformational change that facilitates the subsequent binding of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) to TER. We used purified p65 and variants of TERT and TER to investigate the conformational rearrangements that occur during RNP assembly. Nuclease protection assays and mutational analysis revealed that p65 interacts with and stimulates conformational changes in regions of TER beyond stem IV. Several TER mutants exhibited telomerase activity only in the presence of p65, revealing the importance of p65 in promoting the correct RNP assembly pathway. In addition, p65 rescued TERT assembly mutants but not TERT activity mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that p65 stimulates telomerase assembly and activity in two ways. First, by sequestering stems I and IV, p65 limits the ensemble of structural conformations of TER, thereby presenting TERT with the active conformation of TER. Second, p65 acts as a molecular buttress within the assembled RNP, mutually stabilizing TER and TERT in catalytically active conformations.

  7. Is telomerase reactivation associated with the down-regulation of TGF β receptor-II expression in human breast cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Valene

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that synthesizes telomeres and plays an important role in chromosomal stability and cellular immortalisation. Telomerase activity is detectable in most human cancers but not in normal somatic cells. TGF beta (transforming growth factor beta is a member of a family of cytokines that are essential for cell survival and seems to be down-regulated in human cancer. Recent in vitro work using human breast cancer cell lines has suggested that TGF beta down-regulates the expression of hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase : the catalytic subunit of telomerase. We have therefore hypothesised that telomerase reactivation is associated with reduced immunohisto-chemical expression of TGF beta type II receptor (RII in human breast cancer. Methods TGF beta RII immunohistochemical expression was determined in 24 infiltrating breast carcinomas with known telomerase activity (17 telomerase-positive and 7 telomerase-negative. Immunohistochemical expression of TGF beta RII was determined by a breast pathologist who was blinded to telomerase data. Results TGF beta RII was detected in all lesions. The percentage of stained cells ranged from 1–100%. The difference in TGF beta RII expression between telomerase positive and negative tumours was not statistically significant (p = 1.0. Conclusion The results of this pilot study suggest that there is no significant association between telomerase reactivation and TGF-beta RII down-regulation in human breast cancer.

  8. Telomerase activity and telomere length in the colorectal polyp-carcinoma sequence Actividad de la telomerasa y longitud del telómero en la secuencia pólipo-carcinoma colorrectal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Valls Bautista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the role of telomerase activity and telomere length in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colon carcinogenesis has not been well established. The objective of this study was to determine telomerase activity and telomere length patterns in patients with adenomatous polyps either associated or not with colorectal cancer, as well as the role of telomeric instability in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Patients and methods: we included in the study 14 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer and/or polyps. In 6 of these patients fresh samples of tumor tissue, polyps, and normal mucosa were obtained; in the 8 remaining cases, we collected only polyps and normal mucosa. We used the fluorescent-telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay (TRAP-F to determine telomerase activity and telomere length using Southern-blot testing. Results: telomerase activity was detected in 86% of polyps and 50% of associated normal mucosa. Mean telomerase activity in polyp tissue was 5.85; in the normal mucosa it was 0.58 TPG. Mean telomere length was 6.78 Kbp and 7.78, respectively. Polyps in patients without synchronous cancer had a telomerase activity that was significantly higher (9.4 than in those with cancer (1.1. Conclusions: telomerase activity increases in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, concurrently with a decrease in telomere length. The presence of synchronous cancer modifies telomerase activity in polyps.Objetivo: el papel de la actividad de la telomerasa y la longitud del telómero en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma de la carcinogénesis colónica no ha sido bien establecido. El objetivo fue determinar el comportamiento de la actividad de la telomerasa y la longitud del telómero en pacientes con pólipos adenomatosos asociados o no a cáncer colorrectal y conocer el papel de la inestabilidad telomérica en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma. Pacientes y métodos: se estudiaron 14 pacientes intervenidos de cáncer colorrectal y

  9. A three-state model for the regulation of telomerase by TERRA and hnRNPA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon, Sophie; Zemp, Ivo; Lingner, Joachim

    2013-10-01

    Telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a large non-coding RNA, which forms an integral part of telomeric heterochromatin. In vitro, naked TERRA molecules are efficient inhibitors of human telomerase, base-pairing via their 5'-UUAGGG-3' repeats with the template sequence of telomerase RNA, in addition to contacting the telomerase reverse transcriptase protein subunit. In vivo, however, TERRA-mediated inhibition of telomerase can be prevented by unknown mechanisms. Also, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) has been implicated in telomere length control. In vivo, TERRA is partially associated with hnRNPA1, and hnRNPA1 is also detected at telomeres. We demonstrate that on binding of TERRA, hnRNPA1 can alleviate the TERRA-mediated inhibition of telomerase. However, when in excess over TERRA, hnRNPA1 becomes itself an inhibitor of telomere extension, on binding of the telomeric DNA substrate. Yet, hnRNPA1 has no notable direct effects on the telomerase catalysis. Our in vitro results suggest that TERRA-mediated telomerase inhibition may be prevented by hnRNPA1 in vivo. Telomere extension by telomerase may require balanced levels of TERRA and hnRNPA1 at telomeres. Thus, TERRA and hnRNPA1 can function as a bimolecular regulator to turn telomerase and the telomere on and off.

  10. Change in number and size of circulating tumor cells with high telomerase activity during treatment of patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Onimaru, Manabu; Kimura, Satoshi; Ohmori, Tohru; Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Sato, Jun; Ito, Shun; Inoue, Haruhiro

    2016-12-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is useful for estimating the prognosis of patients with cancer. We previously reported the detection of CTCs by OBP-401, a telomerase-specific, replication-selective, oncolytic adenoviral agent carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. We demonstrated that the number of large (L)-GFP+ cells (≥7.735 µm in diameter) in peripheral blood samples correlated significantly with the prognosis of treatment-naïve gastric cancer patients, whereas the number of small (S)-GFP+ cells (number of GFP+ cells during treatment, and analyzed the association between the number of GFP+ cells in blood samples and the outcome of patients. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 37 gastric patients prior and subsequent to surgery (three samples per time point). Upon infection of blood cells with OBP-401, GFP+ cells of different sizes were counted and measured. The association between the number of GFP+ cells and surgical outcome was determined by statistical analysis. The median follow-up period after surgery was 39 months. Although the difference was not significant, patients with ≥6 L-GFP+ cells in preoperative blood samples had a lower relapse-free survival rate than patients with 0-5 L-GFP+ cells. There was no significant correlation between the number of L-GFP+ cells in postoperative blood samples and the prognosis of patients receiving adjuvant therapy. Although the difference was not significant, the number of S-GFP+ cells in samples from patients who had received postoperative chemotherapy was higher than in those who had not. The number of L-GFP+ cells was not significantly correlated with the relapse-free survival rate in gastric cancer patients who underwent surgery. The number of S-GFP+ cells was relatively high in samples from patients who had received postoperative chemotherapy.

  11. Prognostic impact of the number of viable circulating cells with high telomerase activity in gastric cancer patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Inoue, Haruhiro; Kimura, Satoshi; Ohmori, Tohru; Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Gohda, Keigo; Sato, Jun

    2014-07-01

    The identification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is a useful approach to estimate prognosis, monitor disease progression and measure treatment effects in several types of malignancies. We have previously used OBP-401, a telomerase-specific, replication-selective, oncolytic adenoviral agent carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. GFP-positive cells (GFP+ cells) were counted under a fluorescence microscope. Our results showed that the number of at least 7.735 µm in diameter GFP+ cells (L-GFP+ cells) in the peripheral blood was a significant marker of prognosis in gastric cancer patients. However, tumor cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been reported to be smaller in size than cells without EMT features; thus, CTCs undergoing EMT may escape detection with this technique. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the relationship between patient outcome and the number of GFP+ cells of any size. We obtained peripheral blood samples from 65 patients with gastric cancer. After infection of OBP-401, GFP+ cells were counted and measured. The relationship between the number of GFP+ cells and surgical outcome was analyzed. The median follow-up period of the surviving patients was 36 months. A significant difference in overall survival was found between patients with 0-5 and patients with ≥6 L-GFP+ cells. No clear relationship was established between the number of small-sized GFP+ cells and patient prognosis. The number of L-GFP+ cells was significantly related to overall survival in patients with gastric cancer. The detection of L-GFP+ cells using OBP-401 may be a useful prognostic marker in gastric cancer.

  12. Herpesvirus telomerase RNA (vTR with a mutated template sequence abrogates herpesvirus-induced lymphomagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt B Kaufer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT and telomerase RNA (TR represent the enzymatically active components of telomerase. In the complex, TR provides the template for the addition of telomeric repeats to telomeres, a protective structure at the end of linear chromosomes. Human TR with a mutation in the template region has been previously shown to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. In this report, we examined the effects of a mutation in the template of a virus encoded TR (vTR on herpesvirus-induced tumorigenesis in vivo. For this purpose, we used the oncogenic avian herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV as a natural virus-host model for lymphomagenesis. We generated recombinant MDV in which the vTR template sequence was mutated from AATCCCAATC to ATATATATAT (vAU5 by two-step Red-mediated mutagenesis. Recombinant viruses harboring the template mutation replicated with kinetics comparable to parental and revertant viruses in vitro. However, mutation of the vTR template sequence completely abrogated virus-induced tumor formation in vivo, although the virus was able to undergo low-level lytic replication. To confirm that the absence of tumors was dependent on the presence of mutant vTR in the telomerase complex, a second mutation was introduced in vAU5 that targeted the P6.1 stem loop, a conserved region essential for vTR-TERT interaction. Absence of vTR-AU5 from the telomerase complex restored virus-induced lymphoma formation. To test if the attenuated vAU5 could be used as an effective vaccine against MDV, we performed vaccination-challenge studies and determined that vaccination with vAU5 completely protected chickens from lethal challenge with highly virulent MDV. Taken together, our results demonstrate 1 that mutation of the vTR template sequence can completely abrogate virus-induced tumorigenesis, likely by the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, and 2 that this strategy could be used to generate novel vaccine candidates

  13. Telomere length is short in PCOS and oral contraceptive does not affect the telomerase activity in granulosa cells of patients with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Deng, Bingbing; Ouyang, Nengyong; Yuan, Ping; Zheng, Lingyan; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-07-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the association of telomerase activity (TA) and telomere length (TL) in granulosa cells (GCs) with IVF outcomes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, and the effects of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment on these two parameters. One hundred sixty-three infertile women were enrolled and divided into a PCOS group (n = 65) and a non-PCOS group (n = 98). The PCOS group was further divided into an OCP pretreatment group (n = 35) and a non-OCP pretreatment group (n = 30), a TA PCOS group and 1.118 in non-PCOS group (P = 0.005). The patients with TL ≥1 accounted for 36.9% in PCOS group and 54.1% in non-PCOS group (P = 0.032). The average duration of infertility for PCOS patients was 5 years in TA PCOS patients. Shorter TL was found in PCOS patients. The TA levels did not change significantly in PCOS patients. PCOS patients with a lower TA level and shorter telomeres had an earlier onset of infertility symptoms. No predictive value was found for TA and TL in terms of embryo quality or IVF outcomes in PCOS patients, and no effect OCP pretreatment was observed on either TA and TL.

  14. Abrogation of radiation-inducible telomerase upregulation in HPV16 E6 transfectants of human lymphoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhof, D.; Auberger, F.; Ruess, A.; Weber, K.J. [Radiobiology Research Lab., Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Wenz, F. [Section for Radiation Oncology, Univ. Clinic Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Background: telomerase activity in a human lymphoblastoid cell line with wild-type p53 status (TK6) was previously shown to be rapidly induced by ionizing radiation doses as low as 10 cgy. Since this low-dose response was absent in a closely related cell line overexpressing a mutant form of p53 (WTK1), the putative involvement of p53 was further investigated using stable human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 transfectants of these cell lines. The E6 product mediates rapid degradation of wild-type p53, but has also been found to upregulate telomerase. Material and methods: telomerase activity in HPV16 E6 transfectants of the human lymphoblastoid cell lines TK6 and WTK1 was measured by PCR/ELISA and was quantified using internal standards (titration by cell number) run within each separate assay. Mean telomere length was determined by southern hybridization of terminal restriction fragments with a biotin-labeled telomeric DNA probe. Results: the TK6E6 and the WTK1E6 cells exhibited higher baseline telomerase activities than the parental cells. This was also accompanied by increased telomere lengths. Radiation exposure (up to 10 gy) was unable to significantly further enhance telomerase activities, although the dynamic range of the assay would have allowed to record higher signals. Conclusion: the lacking radiation induction of telomerase activities in the E6 transfectants could reflect saturation, if E6 and radiation would share a common pathway of telomerase upregulation. Present evidence from the literature, however, suggests that E6 mediates telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) subunit transcriptional activation, whereas radiation signals to posttranscriptional/posttranslational control of telomerase activity. Therefore, the present data enforce the previous hypothesis of a p53 dependence of telomerase upregulation by low doses of radiation and its abrogation, likely due to p53 degradation, in E6-expressing cells. (orig.)

  15. Recent advances in the development of telomerase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry; Jenkins

    1999-12-01

    Telomerase is an holoenzyme responsible for the maintenance of telomeres, the protein-nucleic acid structures which exist at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that serve to protect chromosomal stability and integrity. Telomerase activity is essential for the sustained proliferation of most immortal cells, including cancer cells. Since the discovery that telomerase activity is expressed in 85 - 90% of all human tumours and tumour-derived cell lines but not in most normal somatic cells, telomerase has become the focus of much attention as a novel and potentially highly-specific target for the development of new anticancer chemotherapeutics. Herein we review recent advances in the development of telomerase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. To date, these have included antisense strategies, reverse transcriptase inhibitors and compounds capable of interacting with high-order telomeric DNA tetraplex ('G-quadruplex') structures to prevent enzyme access to the necessary linear telomere substrate. In addition, a number of telomerase-inhibitory therapies have been shown to synergistically enhance the effects of clinically-established anticancer drugs. Critical appraisal of each individual approach is provided, together with highlighted areas of likely future development. We also review recent developments in telomere and telomerase biology, of which a more detailed understanding would be essential in order to further develop the present classes of telomerase inhibitors into viable, clinically applicable therapies.

  16. A second essential function of the Est1-binding arm of yeast telomerase RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebo, Kevin J; Niederer, Rachel O; Zappulla, David C

    2015-05-01

    The enzymatic ribonucleoprotein telomerase maintains telomeres in many eukaryotes, including humans, and plays a central role in aging and cancer. Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA, TLC1, is a flexible scaffold that tethers telomerase holoenzyme protein subunits to the complex. Here we test the hypothesis that a lengthy conserved region of the Est1-binding TLC1 arm contributes more than simply Est1-binding function. We separated Est1 binding from potential other functions by tethering TLC1 to Est1 via a heterologous RNA-protein binding module. We find that Est1-tethering rescues in vivo function of telomerase RNA alleles missing nucleotides specifically required for Est1 binding, but not those missing the entire conserved region. Notably, however, telomerase function is restored for this condition by expressing the arm of TLC1 in trans. Mutational analysis shows that the Second Essential Est1-arm Domain (SEED) maps to an internal loop of the arm, which SHAPE chemical mapping and 3D modeling suggest could be regulated by conformational change. Finally, we find that the SEED has an essential, Est1-independent role in telomerase function after telomerase recruitment to the telomere. The SEED may be required for establishing telomere extendibility or promoting telomerase RNP holoenzyme activity. © 2015 Lebo et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. RNA/DNA hybrid binding affinity determines telomerase template-translocation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaodong; Xie, Mingyi; Brown, Andrew F; Bley, Christopher J; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Chen, Julian J-L

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome termini from an intrinsic RNA template. The processive synthesis of DNA repeats relies on a unique, yet poorly understood, mechanism whereby the telomerase RNA template translocates and realigns with the DNA primer after synthesizing each repeat. Here, we provide evidence that binding of the realigned RNA/DNA hybrid by the active site is an essential step for template translocation. Employing a template-free human telomerase system, we demonstrate that the telomerase active site directly binds to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates for DNA polymerization. In telomerase processivity mutants, the template-translocation efficiency correlates with the affinity for the RNA/DNA hybrid substrate. Furthermore, the active site is unoccupied during template translocation as a 5 bp extrinsic RNA/DNA hybrid effectively reduces the processivity of the template-containing telomerase. This suggests that strand separation and template realignment occur outside the active site, preceding the binding of realigned hybrid to the active site. Our results provide new insights into the ancient RNA/DNA hybrid binding ability of telomerase and its role in template translocation. PMID:21989387

  18. TERRA mimicking ssRNAs prevail over the DNA substrate for telomerase in vitro due to interactions with the alternative binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhibek, Dulat; Skvortsov, Dmitry; Andreeva, Anna; Zatsepin, Timofei; Arutyunyan, Alexandr; Zvereva, Maria; Dontsova, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase is a key component of the telomere length maintenance system in the majority of eukaryotes. Telomerase displays maximal activity in stem and cancer cells with high proliferative potential. In humans, telomerase activity is regulated by various mechanisms, including the interaction with telomere ssDNA overhangs that contain a repetitive G-rich sequence, and with noncoding RNA, Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), that contains the same sequence. So these nucleic acids can compete for telomerase RNA templates in the cell. In this study, we have investigated the ability of different model substrates mimicking telomere DNA overhangs and TERRA RNA to compete for telomerase in vitro through a previously developed telomerase inhibitor assay. We have shown in this study that RNA oligonucleotides are better competitors for telomerase that DNA ones as RNA also use an alternative binding site on telomerase, and the presence of 2'-OH groups is significant in these interactions. In contrast to DNA, the possibility of forming intramolecular G-quadruplex structures has a minor effect for RNA binding to telomerase. Taking together our data, we propose that TERRA RNA binds better to telomerase compared with its native substrate - the 3'-end of telomere DNA overhang. As a result, some specific factor may exist that participates in switching telomerase from TERRA to the 3'-end of DNA for telomere elongation at the distinct period of a cell cycle in vivo. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Telomerase in relation to expression of p53, c-Myc and estrogen receptor in ovarian tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, GBA; Hollema, H; Helder, MN; Knol, AJ; Van Der Meer, GT; Krans, M; De Jong, S; De Vries, EGE; Van Der Zee, AGJ

    2003-01-01

    Telomerase activity and its subunits (hTERC, hTERT mRNA) were evaluated in ovarian tumours in relation to the expression of p53, c-Myc and estrogen receptor (ER). Furthermore, relations between telomerase activity, hTERC and hTERT with known clinicopathologic prognostic factors and survival in

  20. Telomerase suppresses formation of ALT-associated single-stranded telomeric C-circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Matthew J; Pascarelli, Kara M; Merkel, Anna S; Lazar, Alexander J; von Mehren, Margaret; Lev, Dina; Broccoli, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    Telomere maintenance is an essential characteristic of cancer cells, most commonly achieved by activation of telomerase. Telomeres can also be maintained by a recombination-based mechanism, alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Cells using ALT are characterized by the presence of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies (APB), long, heterogeneously sized telomeres, extrachromosomal telomeric circular DNA, and elevated telomeric recombination. Consistent with other reports, we found that liposarcomas containing APBs, but lacking telomerase expression, always contained C-rich circles (C-circles), and these C-circles were never present in the absence of APBs, indicating a tight link between these features in ALT cells. However, a rare subgroup of tumors showing evidence of telomere maintenance by both telomerase and ALT did not contain C-circles. To test the hypothesis that telomerase expression disrupts the tight link between APBs and C-circles, we used ALT cell lines that were engineered to express telomerase. Introduction of telomerase activity in these ALT cells resulted in, on average, shorter telomeres with retention of APBs. However, at high passage, the level of C-circles was significantly reduced, which was paralleled by a switch from C-strand overhangs to G-strand overhangs. We propose that by extending critically short telomeres in these cells, telomerase is disrupting a key step in the ALT pathway necessary for production and/or maintenance of C-circles. ©2013 AACR.

  1. Enzyme inhibition activities of Andrachne cardifolia Muell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Shah, S M Hassan; Bashir, Shumaila; Shah, Jehandar

    2007-04-01

    The crude methanolic extract and various fractions of Andrachne cardifolia Muell, including chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were subjected to in vitro enzyme inhibition activity against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase and urease enzymes. A significant enzyme inhibition activity (40-89%) was shown by the crude methanolic extract and its fractions against lipoxygenase, while low to significant activity (40-71%) against butyrylcholinesterase. The crude methanolic extract and its various fractions demonstrated poor to significant activity (25-73%) against acetylcholinesterase and no activity against urease.

  2. Evolution of Arabidopsis protection of telomeres 1 alters nucleic acid recognition and telomerase regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Amit; Beilstein, Mark A.; Shippen, Dorothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Protection of telomeres (POT1) binds chromosome ends, recognizing single-strand telomeric DNA via two oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding folds (OB-folds). The Arabidopsis thaliana POT1a and POT1b paralogs are atypical: they do not exhibit telomeric DNA binding, and they have opposing roles in regulating telomerase activity. AtPOT1a stimulates repeat addition processivity of the canonical telomerase enzyme, while AtPOT1b interacts with a regulatory lncRNA that represses telomerase activit...

  3. [Effects of differentially expressed proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma cell treated by different telomerase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Min; Wang, Xia; Zheng, Weiwei

    2010-03-01

    To detect differentially expressed proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 treated separately by eight telomerase inhibitors including antisense oligodeoxynuclectide of human telomerase RNA (hTR-ASODN), sense oligodeoxynuclectide of hTR (hTR-SODN), ASODN of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-ASODN), SODN of hTERT (hTERT-SODN), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and adriamycin (ADM) using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrom (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology. SELDI-TOF-MS technology and weak cation exchanger (WCX-2) protein chip were used to detect differentially expressed secretory and cytoplasmic proteins of SMMC-7721 cell treated separately by eight telomerase inhibitors. The control group was hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell without any disposal. The results of WCX-2 protein chip showed that the secretory and cytoplasmic proteins were differentially expressed in SMMC-7721 cell treated separately by eight telomerase inhibitors. But some proteins were down-regulated or up-regulated together in all experimental groups. The molecular weight of these differential proteins were all less than 10,000 Da. Differentially expressed and common changes of proteins in SMMC-7721 cell treated separately by eight telomerase inhibitors would associate with telomerase activity.

  4. GSE4, a Small Dyskerin- and GSE24.2-Related Peptide, Induces Telomerase Activity, Cell Proliferation and Reduces DNA Damage, Oxidative Stress and Cell Senescence in Dyskerin Mutant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarriccio, Laura; Manguán-García, Cristina; Pintado-Berninches, Laura; Mancheño, José Miguel; Molina, Antonio; Perona, Rosario; Sastre, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita is an inherited disease caused by mutations in genes coding for telomeric components. It was previously reported that expression of a dyskerin-derived peptide, GSE24.2, increases telomerase activity, regulates gene expression and decreases DNA damage and oxidative stress in dyskeratosis congenita patient cells. The biological activity of short peptides derived from GSE24.2 was tested and one of them, GSE4, that probed to be active, was further characterized in this article. Expression of this eleven amino acids long peptide increased telomerase activity and reduced DNA damage, oxidative stress and cell senescence in dyskerin-mutated cells. GSE4 expression also activated c-myc and TERT promoters and increase of c-myc, TERT and TERC expression. The level of biological activity of GSE4 was similar to that obtained by GSE24.2 expression. Incorporation of a dyskerin nuclear localization signal to GSE24.2 did not change its activity on promoter regulation and DNA damage protection. However, incorporation of a signal that increases the rate of nucleolar localization impaired GSE24.2 activity. Incorporation of the dyskerin nuclear localization signal to GSE4 did not alter its biological activity. Mutation of the Aspartic Acid residue that is conserved in the pseudouridine synthase domain present in GSE4 did not impair its activity, except for the repression of c-myc promoter activity and the decrease of c-myc, TERT and TERC gene expression in dyskerin-mutated cells. These results indicated that GSE4 could be of great therapeutic interest for treatment of dyskeratosis congenita patients.

  5. Structure and function of echinoderm telomerase RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Podlevsky, Joshua D.; Li, Yang; Chen, Julian J.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzyme that requires an integral telomerase RNA (TR) subunit, in addition to the catalytic telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), for enzymatic function. The secondary structures of TRs from the three major groups of species, ciliates, fungi, and vertebrates, have been studied extensively and demonstrate dramatic diversity. Herein, we report the first comprehensive secondary structure of TR from echinoderms—marine invertebrates closely related to vert...

  6. The C-terminal domain of Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase holoenzyme protein p65 induces multiple structural changes in telomerase RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Benjamin M.; Loper, John; Najarro, Kevin; Stone, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The unique cellular activity of the telomerase reverse transcriptase ribonucleoprotein (RNP) requires proper assembly of protein and RNA components into a functional complex. In the ciliate model organism Tetrahymena thermophila, the La-domain protein p65 is required for in vivo assembly of telomerase. Single-molecule and biochemical studies have shown that p65 promotes efficient RNA assembly with the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein, in part by inducing a bend in the conserved stem IV region of telomerase RNA (TER). The domain architecture of p65 consists of an N-terminal domain, a La-RRM motif, and a C-terminal domain (CTD). Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET), we demonstrate the p65CTD is necessary for the RNA remodeling activity of the protein and is sufficient to induce a substantial conformational change in stem IV of TER. Moreover, nuclease protection assays directly map the site of p65CTD interaction to stem IV and reveal that, in addition to bending stem IV, p65 binding reorganizes nucleotides that comprise the low-affinity TERT binding site within stem–loop IV. PMID:22315458

  7. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1 Is required for the transcriptional repression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjun Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, catalysing demethylation of mono- and di-methylated histone H3-K4 or K9, exhibits diverse transcriptional activities by mediating chromatin reconfiguration. The telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene, encoding an essential component for telomerase activity that is involved in cellular immortalization and transformation, is silent in most normal human cells while activated in up to 90% of human cancers. It remains to be defined how exactly the transcriptional activation of the hTERT gene occurs during the oncogenic process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we determined the effect of LSD1 on hTERT transcription. In normal human fibroblasts with a tight hTERT repression, a pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 led to a weak hTERT expression, and a robust induction of hTERT mRNA was observed when LSD1 and histone deacetylases (HDACs were both inhibited. Small interference RNA-mediated depletion of both LSD1 and CoREST, a co-repressor in HDAC-containing complexes, synergistically activated hTERT transcription. In cancer cells, inhibition of LSD1 activity or knocking-down of its expression led to significant increases in levels of hTERT mRNA and telomerase activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that LSD1 occupied the hTERT proximal promoter, and its depletion resulted in elevated di-methylation of histone H3-K4 accompanied by increased H3 acetylation locally in cancer cells. Moreover, during the differentiation of leukemic HL60 cells, the decreased hTERT expression was accompanied by the LSD1 recruitment to the hTERT promoter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LSD1 represses hTERT transcription via demethylating H3-K4 in normal and cancerous cells, and together with HDACs, participates in the establishment of a stable repression state of the hTERT gene in normal or differentiated malignant cells. The findings contribute to better understandings of hTERT/telomerase

  8. Novel plasma telomerase detection method to improve cancer diagnostic assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hilal

    Full Text Available The activity levels of telomerase and its mRNA have been found to be more diagnostically sensitive than cytological results in many cancerous tissues and correlate well with the clinical disease stage. Currently, there are several methods of detecting telomerase in tissues and in blood. The most commonly used method is a conventional quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR which is time and labor exhausting.We have developed a simple and innovative blood test method that allows us to diagnose cancer and relapsed cancer in a cost- and time -effective manner. We had evaluated our novel method in two populations: 1 in vivo in three mice with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC versus one control mouse and 2 clinically in 30 cancer patients versus 10 individuals without cancer. We compared our novel method with the old conventional method. At least one sample was obtained from each patient included in the study.The novel method substantially increased the sensitivity (from 37% to 77%, p<0.001 and negative predictive value (from 32% to 56%, p = 0.005 of the telomerase test for all cancer patients (those who were substantially treated and those who were not. There was no significant difference in telomerase activity between cancer patients and healthy volunteers using the conventional method (p = 0.13, whereas there was a significant difference using the novel method (p = 0.001.Conventional method shows no significant difference in telomerase activity between cancer patients and healthy volunteers (p = 0.13, whereas there was a significant difference using the novel method (p = 0.001.

  9. Targeting telomerase and DNA repair in human cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash Hande, M.

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase reactivation is essential for telomere maintenance in human cancer cells ensuring indefinite proliferation. Targeting telomere homeostasis has become one of the promising strategies in the therapeutic management of tumours. One major potential drawback, however, is the time lag between telomerase inhibition and critically shortened telomeres triggering cell death, allowing cancer cells to acquire drug resistance. Numerous studies over the last decade have highlighted the role of DNA repair proteins such as Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) in the maintenance of telomere homoeostasis. Dysfunctional telomeres, resulting from the loss of telomeric DNA repeats or the loss of function of telomere-associated proteins trigger DNA damage responses similar to that observed for double strand breaks. We have been working on unravelling such synthetic lethality in cancer cells and this talk would be on one such recently concluded study that demonstrates that inhibition of DNA repair pathways, i.e., NHEJ pathway and that of telomerase could be an alternative strategy to enhance anti-tumour effects and circumvent the possibility of drug resistance. (author)

  10. Effect of comprehensive lifestyle changes on telomerase activity and telomere length in men with biopsy-proven low-risk prostate cancer: 5-year follow-up of a descriptive pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornish, Dean; Lin, Jue; Chan, June M; Epel, Elissa; Kemp, Colleen; Weidner, Gerdi; Marlin, Ruth; Frenda, Steven J; Magbanua, Mark Jesus M; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Estay, Ivette; Hills, Nancy K; Chainani-Wu, Nita; Carroll, Peter R; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2013-10-01

    Telomere shortness in human beings is a prognostic marker of ageing, disease, and premature morbidity. We previously found an association between 3 months of comprehensive lifestyle changes and increased telomerase activity in human immune-system cells. We followed up participants to investigate long-term effects. This follow-up study compared ten men and 25 external controls who had biopsy-proven low-risk prostate cancer and had chosen to undergo active surveillance. Eligible participants were enrolled between 2003 and 2007 from previous studies and selected according to the same criteria. Men in the intervention group followed a programme of comprehensive lifestyle changes (diet, activity, stress management, and social support), and the men in the control group underwent active surveillance alone. We took blood samples at 5 years and compared relative telomere length and telomerase enzymatic activity per viable cell with those at baseline, and assessed their relation to the degree of lifestyle changes. Relative telomere length increased from baseline by a median of 0·06 telomere to single-copy gene ratio (T/S)units (IQR-0·05 to 0·11) in the lifestyle intervention group, but decreased in the control group (-0·03 T/S units, -0·05 to 0·03, difference p=0·03). When data from the two groups were combined, adherence to lifestyle changes was significantly associated with relative telomere length after adjustment for age and the length of follow-up (for each percentage point increase in lifestyle adherence score, T/S units increased by 0·07, 95% CI 0·02-0·12, p=0·005). At 5 years, telomerase activity had decreased from baseline by 0·25 (-2·25 to 2·23) units in the lifestyle intervention group, and by 1·08 (-3·25 to 1·86) units in the control group (p=0·64), and was not associated with adherence to lifestyle changes (relative risk 0·93, 95% CI 0·72-1·20, p=0·57). Our comprehensive lifestyle intervention was associated with increases in relative

  11. Juglans mandshurica Maxim extracts exhibit antitumor activity on HeLa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Hasan, Murtaza; Li, Wei; Li, Yan

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the potential application of Juglans mandshurica Maxim extracts (HT) for cancer therapy by assessing their anti‑proliferative activity, reduction of telomerase activity, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in S phase in HeLa cells. From the perspective of using HT as a herbal medicine, photomicroscopy and florescent microscopy techniques were utilized to characterize the effect of the extracts on telomerase activity and cell morphology. Flow cytometry was employed to study apoptosis and cell cycle of HeLa cells, and DNA laddering was performed. The results showed that HT inhibited cell proliferation and telomerase activity, induced apoptosis and caused S phase arrest of HeLa cells in vitro. HT inhibited HeLa cell proliferation significantly, and the highest inhibition rate was 83.7%. A trap‑silver staining assay showed that HT was capable of markedly decreasing telomerase activity of HeLa cells and this inhibition was enhanced in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner. Results of a Hoechst 33258 staining assay showed that HeLa cells treated by HT induced cell death. Through DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA ladders of HeLa cells treated with HT were observed, indicating apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that HT exhibited anti‑tumor effects comprising the inhibition of growth and telomerase activity as well as apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells.

  12. Involvement of transcription repressor Snail in the regulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) by transforming growth factor-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young-Sun; Park, Seoyoung; Gwak, Jungsug; Ju, Bong Gun; Oh, Sangtaek

    2015-09-11

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a catalytic subunit of telomerase, is the primary determinant for telomerase enzyme activity, which has been associated with cellular immortality. Expression of the hTERT gene is regulated by various extracellular (external) stimuli and is aberrantly up-regulated in more than 90% of cancers. Here we show that hTERT gene expression was repressed in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) by a mechanism dependent on transcription factors Snail and c-Myc. TGF-β activated Snail and down-regulated c-Myc gene expression. In addition, ectopic expression of Snail strongly inhibited hTERT promoter activity, although co-expression of c-Myc abrogated this effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed that TGF-β decreased c-Myc occupancy and dramatically increased recruitment of Snail to the E-box motifs of the hTERT promoter, thereby repressing hTERT expression. Our findings suggest a dynamic alteration in hTERT promoter occupancy by Snail and c-Myc is the mechanistic basis for TGF-β-mediated regulation of hTERT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Behaviour of telomere and telomerase during aging and regeneration in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Anchelin

    Full Text Available Telomere length and telomerase activity are important factors in the pathobiology of human diseases. Age-related diseases and premature aging syndromes are characterized by short telomeres, which can compromise cell viability, whereas tumour cells can prevent telomere loss by aberrantly upregulating telomerase. The zebrafish (Danio rerio offers multiple experimental manipulation advantages over other vertebrate models and, therefore, it has been recently considered as a potential model for aging, cancer, and regeneration studies. However, it has only partially been exploited to shed light on these fundamental biological processes. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate telomere length and telomerase expression and activity in different strains of zebrafish obtained from different stock centres to determine whether they undergo any changes during aging and regeneration. We found that although both telomerase expression and telomere length increased from embryo to adulthood stages, they drastically declined in aged fish despite telomerase activity was detected in different tissues of old fish. In addition, we observed a weaker upregulation of telomerase expression in regenerating fins of old fish, which well correlates with their impaired regeneration capacity. Strikingly, telomeres were elongated or maintained during the fin regeneration process at all ages and after repeated amputations, likely to support high cell proliferation rates. We conclude that the expression of telomerase and telomere length are closely related during the entire life cycle of the fish and that these two parameters can be used as biomarkers of aging in zebrafish. Our results also reveal a direct relationship between the expression of telomerase, telomere length and the efficiency of tissue regeneration.

  14. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT Q169 is essential for telomerase function in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley D M Wyatt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase that maintains the telomeres of linear chromosomes and preserves genomic integrity. The core components are a catalytic protein subunit, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT, and an RNA subunit, the telomerase RNA (TR. Telomerase is unique in its ability to catalyze processive DNA synthesis, which is facilitated by telomere-specific DNA-binding domains in TERT called anchor sites. A conserved glutamine residue in the TERT N-terminus is important for anchor site interactions in lower eukaryotes. The significance of this residue in higher eukaryotes, however, has not been investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the significance of this residue in higher eukaryotes, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on human TERT (hTERT Q169 to create neutral (Q169A, conservative (Q169N, and non-conservative (Q169D mutant proteins. We show that these mutations severely compromise telomerase activity in vitro and in vivo. The functional defects are not due to abrogated interactions with hTR or telomeric ssDNA. However, substitution of hTERT Q169 dramatically impaired the ability of telomerase to incorporate nucleotides at the second position of the template. Furthermore, Q169 mutagenesis altered the relative strength of hTERT-telomeric ssDNA interactions, which identifies Q169 as a novel residue in hTERT required for optimal primer binding. Proteolysis experiments indicate that Q169 substitution alters the protease-sensitivity of the hTERT N-terminus, indicating that a conformational change in this region of hTERT is likely critical for catalytic function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first detailed evidence regarding the biochemical and cellular roles of an evolutionarily-conserved Gln residue in higher eukaryotes. Collectively, our results indicate that Q169 is needed to maintain the hTERT N-terminus in a conformation that is necessary for optimal enzyme

  15. Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Protein SBDS Maintains Human Telomeres by Regulating Telomerase Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS is a rare pediatric disease characterized by various systemic disorders, including hematopoietic dysfunction. The mutation of Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS gene has been proposed to be a major causative reason for SDS. Although SBDS patients were reported to have shorter telomere length in granulocytes, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here we provide data to elucidate the role of SBDS in telomere protection. We demonstrate that SBDS deficiency leads to telomere shortening. We found that overexpression of disease-associated SBDS mutants or knockdown of SBDS hampered the recruitment of telomerase onto telomeres, while the overall reverse transcriptase activity of telomerase remained unaffected. Moreover, we show that SBDS could specifically bind to TPP1 during the S phase of cell cycle, likely functioning as a stabilizer for TPP1-telomerase interaction. Our findings suggest that SBDS is a telomere-protecting protein that participates in regulating telomerase recruitment.

  16. MDM2 negatively regulates the human telomerase RNA gene promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W Nicol

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that NF-Y and Sp1 interact with the human telomerase RNA (hTR promoter and play a central role in its regulation. We have also shown that pRB activates the hTR promoter, but the mechanism of pRb directed activation is unknown. It has recently been reported that pRB induces Sp1 activity by relieving inhibition mediated by mdm2. The aim was to investigate possible roles for mdm2 in hTR promoter regulation. Methods Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to determine binding of mdm2 to the hTR promoter. Transfection and luciferase assays were used to investigate mdm2 repression of the promoter activity and interaction with known transcriptional modulators. Results Here we show using chromatin immunoprecipitation that mdm2 specifically binds the hTR promoter in vivo. Transient co-transfection experiments using an hTR promoter luciferase reporter construct show that hTR promoter activity is inhibited by over-expression of mdm2 in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells (p53 and pRB negative, low mdm2. Titration of mdm2 was able to antagonise activation of hTR promoter activity mediated by pRB or Sp1 over-expression, although in the presence of pRB, mdm2 could not repress promoter activity below basal levels. Using an Sp1 binding site mutation construct we showed that mdm2 repression did not absolutely require Sp1 binding sites in the hTR promoter, suggesting the possibility of pRB/Sp1 independent mechanisms of repression. Finally, we show that NF-Y mediated transactivation of the hTR promoter was also suppressed by mdm2 in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions These studies suggest that mdm2 may inhibit the hTR promoter by multiple mechanisms. Mdm2 may directly repress activation by both pRB and Sp1, or activation by NF-Y. Furthermore, the ability of mdm2 to interact and interfere with components of the general transcription machinery might partly explain the general repressive effect seen here. Elucidation of

  17. Transcription Regulation of the Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlee, Muhammad Khairul; Wang, Jing; Toh, Wei Xun; Li, Shang

    2016-08-18

    Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to maintain their telomere length via expression of an enzymatic complex called telomerase. Similarly, more than 85%-90% of cancer cells are found to upregulate the expression of telomerase, conferring them with the potential to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase holoenzyme, is the rate-limiting factor in reconstituting telomerase activity in vivo. To date, the expression and function of the human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) gene are known to be regulated at various molecular levels (including genetic, mRNA, protein and subcellular localization) by a number of diverse factors. Among these means of regulation, transcription modulation is the most important, as evident in its tight regulation in cancer cell survival as well as pluripotent stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Here, we discuss how hTERT gene transcription is regulated, mainly focusing on the contribution of trans-acting factors such as transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers, as well as genetic alterations in hTERT proximal promoter.

  18. Thiomers: Inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of different thiolated polymers (thiomers) on the catalytic activity of CYP450s on one hand and to explore new inhibitors for CYP activity on the other hand. Several thiolated polymers including poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-cysteine), chitosan-thioglycolic acid (chitosan-TGA), and thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer along with brij 35, myrj 52 and the well-established CYPP450 inhibitor verapamil were screened for their CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 inhibitory activity, and their IC(50) values were determined. Both enzyme inhibition assays were performed in 96-well microtiter plates. 7-Benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin (BFC) and 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) were used as fluorescent substrates in order to determine CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 catalytic activity, respectively. All investigated compounds inhibited CYP3A4 as well as CYP2A6 activity. All tested (thiolated) polymers were found to be more potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 than of CYP2A6 catalytic activity. Apart from verapamil that is a known CYP3A4 inhibitor, brij 35 and myrj 52 were explored as potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 catalytic activity. Among the tested polymers, the rank order for CYP3A4 inhibition was PAA-cysteine (100 kDa)>brij 35>thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer (16 kDa)>myrj 52>PAA (100 kDa)>PAA-cysteine (450 kDa)>verapamil>PAA (450 kDa)>chitosan-TGA (150 kDa)>chitosan (150 kDa). On the other hand, the rank order of CYP2A6 inhibition was brij 35>PAA-cysteine (100kDa)>chitosan-TGA (150 kDa)>PAA (100 kDa)>thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer (16 kDa)>PAA-cysteine (450 kDa)>chitosan (150 kDa)>verapamil>PAA (450 kDa)>myrj 52. Thus, this study suggests that (thiolated) polymers display a promising potential to inhibit cytochrome P450s activity and might turn out to be potentially valuable tools for improving the oral bioavailability of actively secreted compounds by avoiding intestinal metabolism. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Inhibition of intestinal disaccharidase activity by pentoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halschou-Jensen, Kia

    The current health problems regarding the obesity epidemic, development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease are a major challenge for healthcare systems worldwide.No simple or unique cure has been documented to prevent or treat this major health problem regarding T2D...... on carbohydrate- ingesting enzymes activity in vitro and possible effects on human postprandial blood response. In paper 1 the effects of sugar beet polyphenols from molasses and the potential inhibition of sucrase activity in vitro, was investigated. Two different polyphenol-rich fractions from chromatographic...... separation of molasses from sugar beets and pure ferulic acid were tested. We found no effects of the two fractions of molasses. The pure ferulic acid indicated an inhibition of sucrase in vitr. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated the effects of L-arabinose and D-xylose on carbohydrate...

  20. Limited TTP supply affects telomere length regulation in a telomerase-independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Martin; Dionne, Isabelle; Wellinger, Raymund J

    2005-01-01

    An adequate supply of nucleotides is essential for DNA replication and DNA repair. Moreover, inhibition of TTP synthesis can cause cell death by a poorly characterized mechanism called thymine-less death. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the genes encoding thymidylate synthetase (CDC21) and thymidylate kinase (CDC8) are both essential for de novo TTP synthesis. The effects of temperature-sensitive mutations in these genes have been characterized and, curiously, the phenotypes displayed by cells harboring them include shortened telomeric repeat tracts. This finding raised the possibility that the enzyme telomerase is very sensitive to TTP-pools. We tested this possibility in vivo by assessing telomerase-dependent extension in situations of lowered TTP supply. The results show that the above-mentioned short telomere phenotype is not a consequence of an inability of telomerase to elongate telomeres when TTP synthesis is impaired. Moreover, this telomere shortening was abolished in cells harboring a mutation in DNA polymerase alpha. Previously, this same mutation was shown to affect the coordination between conventional replication and telomerase-mediated extension. These results thus re-emphasize the importance of the interplay between conventional replication and telomerase-mediated addition of telomeric repeats in telomere replication.

  1. Na+/K+-ATPase: Activity and inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čolović, M.; Krstić, D.; Krinulović, K.; Momić, T.; Savić, J.; Vujačić, A.; Vasić, V.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to give an overview of the mechanism of inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase activity induced by some specific and non specific inhibitors. For this purpose, the effects of some ouabain like compounds (digoxin, gitoxin), noble metals complexes ([PtCl2DMSO2], [AuCl4]-, [PdCl4]2-, [PdCl(dien)]+, [PdCl(Me4dien)]+), transition metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Co2+), and heavy metal ions (Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+) on the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase from rat synaptic plasma membranes (SPM), porcine cerebral cortex and human erythrocytes were discussed.

  2. Theobromine inhibits sensory nerve activation and cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Omar S; Belvisi, Maria G; Patel, Hema J; Crispino, Natascia; Birrell, Mark A; Korbonits, Márta; Korbonits, Dezso; Barnes, Peter J

    2005-02-01

    Cough is a common and protective reflex, but persistent coughing is debilitating and impairs quality of life. Antitussive treatment using opioids is limited by unacceptable side effects, and there is a great need for more effective remedies. The present study demonstrates that theobromine, a methylxanthine derivative present in cocoa, effectively inhibits citric acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs in vivo. Furthermore, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in man, theobromine suppresses capsaicin-induced cough with no adverse effects. We also demonstrate that theobromine directly inhibits capsaicin-induced sensory nerve depolarization of guinea-pig and human vagus nerve suggestive of an inhibitory effect on afferent nerve activation. These data indicate the actions of theobromine appear to be peripherally mediated. We conclude theobromine is a novel and promising treatment, which may form the basis for a new class of antitussive drugs.

  3. The telomerase essential N-terminal domain promotes DNA synthesis by stabilizing short RNA–DNA hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Benjamin M.; Parks, Joseph W.; Stone, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repetitive DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes and consists of two main subunits: the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein and an associated telomerase RNA (TER). The telomerase essential N-terminal (TEN) domain is a conserved region of TERT proposed to mediate DNA substrate interactions. Here, we have employed single molecule telomerase binding assays to investigate the function of the TEN domain. Our results reveal telomeric DNA substrates bound to telomerase exhibit a dynamic equilibrium between two states: a docked conformation and an alternative conformation. The relative stabilities of the docked and alternative states correlate with the number of basepairs that can be formed between the DNA substrate and the RNA template, with more basepairing favoring the docked state. The docked state is further buttressed by the TEN domain and mutations within the TEN domain substantially alter the DNA substrate structural equilibrium. We propose a model in which the TEN domain stabilizes short RNA–DNA duplexes in the active site of the enzyme, promoting the docked state to augment telomerase processivity. PMID:25940626

  4. Telomere Maintenance in the Absence of Telomerase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundblad, Vicki

    2000-01-01

    .... In the budding yeasts S. cerevisiae and K. lactis, telomerase- independent survival is mediated via RAD52-dependent recombination which results in amplification of telomeric and subtelomeric repeat sequences...

  5. Kaempferol inhibits thrombosis and platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Seung

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate whether kaempferol affects pro-coagulant proteinase activity, fibrin clot formation, blood clot and thrombin (or collagen/epinephrine)-stimulated platelet activation, thrombosis, and coagulation in ICR (Imprinting Control Region) mice and SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats. Kaempferol significantly inhibited the enzymatic activities of thrombin and FXa by 68 ± 1.6% and 52 ± 2.4%, respectively. Kaempferol also inhibited fibrin polymer formation in turbidity. Microscopic analysis was performed using a fluorescent conjugate. Kaempferol completely attenuated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/PKB (AKT) in thrombin-stimulated platelets and delayed aggregation time (clotting) by 34.6% in an assay of collagen/epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation. Moreover, kaempferol protected against thrombosis development in 3 animal models, including collagen/epinephrine- and thrombin-induced acute thromboembolism models and an FeCl3-induced carotid arterial thrombus model. The ex vivo anticoagulant effect of kaempferol was further confirmed in ICR mice. This study demonstrated that kaempferol may be clinically useful due to its ability to reduce or prevent thrombotic challenge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  6. Maintenance of differentiation potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells immortalized by human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene despite [corrected] extensive proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Burns, Jorge S

    2005-01-01

    that overexpression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in hMSC reconstitutes telomerase activity and extends life span of the cells [Nat. Biotechnol. 20 (2002) 592]. In the present study, we have performed extensive characterization of three independent cell lines derived from the parental h...

  7. Potent anti-tumor activity of telomerase-dependent and HSV-TK armed oncolytic adenovirus for non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng-Kang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the leading cause of cancer related mortality, any improvements in therapeutic strategies are urgently required. In this study we generated a novel 'suicide gene' armed oncolytic adenoviral vector and investigated its antitumor effect both in vitro and in vivo. Methods Since the up-regulated expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT is a hallmark of alltypes of NSCLC, we chose hTERT promoter to transcriptionally control E1A gene expression to obtain adenoviral replication in NSCLC. In order to further enhance anti-tumor effect of this oncolytic adenoviral vector, we inserted a 'suicide gene' i.e. Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase (HSV-TK into oncolytic adenoviral vector to engineer a novel armed oncolytic adenoviral vector 'Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK'. Results Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK efficiently killed different types of tumor cells including two types of NSCLC cells in vitro, causing no damage to normal primary fibroblasts. Furthermore, Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK infection combined with administration of prodrug gancyclovir (GCV resulted in more potent cytotoxicity on NSCLC cells, and synergistically suppressed human NSCLC tumor growth in nude mice. Conclusion The results from this study showed that Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK/GCV could be a potent but safe anti-tumor strategy for NSCLC biotherapy.

  8. Linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Recently, high-quality data were published on the algal growth inhibition caused by 50 non-polar narcotic compounds, of which 39 were liquid compounds with defined water solubility. In the present study, the toxicity data for these liquids were applied to challenge the chemical activity range...... for baseline toxicity. First, the reported effective concentrations (EC50) were divided by the respective water solubilities (Swater), since the obtained EC50/Swater ratio essentially equals the effective chemical activity (Ea50). The majority of EC50/Swater ratios were within the expected chemical activity...... solubility in the applied dataset. On an environmental risk assessment level, predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for baseline toxicity could even be set as a percentage of saturation, which can easily be extended to mixtures. However, EC50 values well below 1% of liquid saturation can still occur...

  9. Linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp

    Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity to chemi......Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity...... to chemical activity, as opposed to e.g. the total concentration. Baseline toxicity (narcosis) for neutral hydrophobic organic compounds has been shown to initiate in the narrow chemical activity range of 0.01 to 0.1. This presentation focuses on linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity...... with the aims to (1) further challenge the current chemical activity range for baseline toxicity, and (2) extend the utilisation of the chemical activity concept across compounds and species. The first part of the presentation focuses on results from a recently published study, in which toxicity data for 39 non...

  10. Inhibition of Mushroom Tyrosinase Activity by Orsellinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thiago Inácio Barros; Coelho, Roberta Gomes; Honda, Neli Kika

    2018-01-01

    Several applications have been proposed for tyrosinase inhibitors in the pharmaceutical, food bioprocessing, and environmental industries. However, only a few compounds are known to serve as effective tyrosinase inhibitors. This study evaluated the tyrosinase-related activity of resorcinol (1), orcinol (2) lecanoric acid (3), and derivatives of this acid (4-15). Subjected to alcoholysis, lecanoric acid (3), a depside isolated from the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum, produces orsellinic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoic acid) (4) and orsellinates (2,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl benzoates) (5-15). At 0.50 mM, methyl (5), ethyl (6), n-propyl (7), tert-butyl (11), and n-cetyl orsellinates (15) acted as tyrosinase activators, whereas n-butyl (8), iso-propyl (9), sec-butyl (10), n-pentyl (12), n-hexyl (13), and n-octyl orsellinates (14) behaved as inhibitors. Tyrosinase inhibition rose with chain elongation-n-butyl (8)tyrosinase, with an inhibition constant of 0.99 mM.

  11. Evolution of Arabidopsis protection of telomeres 1 alters nucleic acid recognition and telomerase regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Beilstein, Mark A; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2016-11-16

    Protection of telomeres (POT1) binds chromosome ends, recognizing single-strand telomeric DNA via two oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding folds (OB-folds). The Arabidopsis thaliana POT1a and POT1b paralogs are atypical: they do not exhibit telomeric DNA binding, and they have opposing roles in regulating telomerase activity. AtPOT1a stimulates repeat addition processivity of the canonical telomerase enzyme, while AtPOT1b interacts with a regulatory lncRNA that represses telomerase activity. Here, we show that OB1 of POT1a, but not POT1b, has an intrinsic affinity for telomeric DNA. DNA binding was dependent upon a highly conserved Phe residue (F65) that in human POT1 directly contacts telomeric DNA. F65A mutation of POT1a OB1 abolished DNA binding and diminished telomerase repeat addition processivity. Conversely, AtPOT1b and other POT1b homologs from Brassicaceae and its sister family, Cleomaceae, naturally bear a non-aromatic amino acid at this position. By swapping Val (V63) with Phe, AtPOT1b OB1 gained the capacity to bind telomeric DNA and to stimulate telomerase repeat addition processivity. We conclude that, in the context of DNA binding, variation at a single amino acid position promotes divergence of the AtPOT1b paralog from the ancestral POT1 protein. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. EFEK EKSTRAK SAMBILOTO (ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES PADA EKSPRESI TELOMERASE DARI KANKER PAYUDARA TIKUS YANG DIINDUKSI DENGAN DMBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurika Sastyarina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   It has been well documented that chemical carcinogen, 7.12 dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA,  plays a role in the incidence and growth of mammary cancer. Present study was designed to investigate the influence of Andrographis paniculata extract on telomerase activities on DMBA induced breast cancer in the female rat Sprague Dawley strain. DMBA-induced mammary cancer is a useful model to investigate the changes of epithelial cells that occur during mammary cancer progression. Mammary cancer model was induced 10 times twice a week by oral DMBA 20 mg/kg body weight. Mammary cancer occurred in 75 % animals nine weeks after oral administration of DMBA, it was represented with nodule on the mammary gland and the increasing of mammary gland volume compare with normal control F(1.8 = 731.711; p < 0.001. This study was also designed to investigate the effect of Andrographis paniculata extract mammary carcinoma induced by DMBA. Administration of three different dose of Andrographis paniculata (100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg had statistically different with mammary gland volume of DMBA treated rat F (4.17 = 92.777; p<0.05. So, Andrographis paniculata has significant effect on the treatment of DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma. The Epithelial cells were harvested on day 90 and stained with routine histology staining, hematoxylineosin, for morphological qualitative analysis, immunohistochemical examination. The lesions observed from the removed samples ranged widely from benign to malignant. The results showed that DMBA induce cell proliferation, nuclear irregularities, and numerous mitoses and induced cell necrosis. The effect of Andrographis paniculata inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. On immunohistochemical examination, it shows that Andrographis paniculata can stimulate of telomerase enzyme.   Key word: Andrographis paniculata, DMBA, mammary cancer, cell proliferation     ABSTRAK   Telah dilakukan

  13. Mechanisms of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) regulation: clinical impacts in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Ricardo; Apolónio, Joana Dias; Lee, Donghyun; Figueiredo, Arnaldo; Tabori, Uri; Castelo-Branco, Pedro

    2018-03-12

    Limitless self-renewal is one of the hallmarks of cancer and is attained by telomere maintenance, essentially through telomerase (hTERT) activation. Transcriptional regulation of hTERT is believed to play a major role in telomerase activation in human cancers. The dominant interest in telomerase results from its role in cancer. The role of telomeres and telomere maintenance mechanisms is well established as a major driving force in generating chromosomal and genomic instability. Cancer cells have acquired the ability to overcome their fate of senescence via telomere length maintenance mechanisms, mainly by telomerase activation. hTERT expression is up-regulated in tumors via multiple genetic and epigenetic mechanisms including hTERT amplifications, hTERT structural variants, hTERT promoter mutations and epigenetic modifications through hTERT promoter methylation. Genetic (hTERT promoter mutations) and epigenetic (hTERT promoter methylation and miRNAs) events were shown to have clinical implications in cancers that depend on hTERT activation. Knowing that telomeres are crucial for cellular self-renewal, the mechanisms responsible for telomere maintenance have a crucial role in cancer diseases and might be important oncological biomarkers. Thus, rather than quantifying TERT expression and its correlation with telomerase activation, the discovery and the assessment of the mechanisms responsible for TERT upregulation offers important information that may be used for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring in oncology. Furthermore, a better understanding of these mechanisms may promote their translation into effective targeted cancer therapies. Herein, we reviewed the underlying mechanisms of hTERT regulation, their role in oncogenesis, and the potential clinical applications in telomerase-dependent cancers.

  14. NEK6-mediated phosphorylation of human TPP1 regulates telomere length through telomerase recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Yugo; Tamura, Miki; Otani, Junji; Ishikawa, Fuyuki

    2016-08-01

    Shelterin component TPP1 plays critical roles in chromosome end protection and telomere length regulation. Specifically, TPP1 contains an OB-fold domain that provides an interface to recruit telomerase. However, it remains largely unknown how telomerase recruitment is regulated by cell cycle regulators. We show that TPP1 interacts with the cell cycle regulator kinase NEK6 in human cells. We found that NEK6-mediated phosphorylation of TPP1 Ser255 in G2/M phase regulates the association between telomerase activity and TPP1. Furthermore, we found evidence that POT1 negatively regulates TPP1 phosphorylation because the level of Ser255 phosphorylation was elevated when telomeres were elongated by a POT1 mutant lacking its OB-fold domains. Ser255 is located in the intervening region between the telomerase-recruiting OB-fold and the POT1 recruitment domains. Ser255 and the surrounding amino acids are conserved among vertebrates. These observations suggest that a region adjacent to the OB-fold domain of TPP1 is involved in telomere length regulation via telomerase recruitment. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL.

  16. Life and cancer without telomerase: ALT and other strategies for making sure ends (don't) meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Manasi S; Cooper, Julia Promisel

    2017-02-01

    While most cancer cells rely on telomerase expression/re-activation for linear chromosome maintenance and sustained proliferation, a significant population of cancers (10-15%) employs telomerase-independent strategies, collectively dubbed Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT). Most ALT cells relax the usual role of telomeres as inhibitors of local homologous recombination while maintaining the ability of telomeres to prohibit local non-homologous end joining reactions. Here we review current concepts surrounding how ALT telomeres achieve this new balance via alterations in chromatin landscape, DNA damage repair processes and handling of telomeric transcription. We also discuss telomerase independent end maintenance strategies utilized by other organisms, including fruitflies and yeasts, to draw parallels and contrasts and highlight additional modes, beyond ALT, that may be available to telomerase-minus cancers. We conclude by commenting on promises and challenges in the development of effective anti-ALT cancer therapies.

  17. Preclinical evaluation of telomerase-specific oncolytic virotherapy for human bone and soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Hasei, Jo; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Aki; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Yano, Shuya; Yoshida, Ryosuke; Uno, Futoshi; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Morimoto, Yuki; Urata, Yasuo; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2011-04-01

    Tumor-specific replication-selective oncolytic virotherapy is a promising antitumor therapy for induction of cell death in tumor cells but not of normal cells. We previously developed an oncolytic adenovirus, OBP-301, that kills human epithelial malignant cells in a telomerase-dependent manner. Recent evidence suggests that nonepithelial malignant cells, which have low telomerase activity, maintain telomere length through alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). However, it remains unclear whether OBP-301 is cytopathic for nonepithelial malignant cells. Here, we evaluated the antitumor effect of OBP-301 on human bone and soft tissue sarcoma cells. The cytopathic activity of OBP-301, coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression, and telomerase activity were examined in 10 bone (OST, U2OS, HOS, HuO9, MNNG/HOS, SaOS-2, NOS-2, NOS-10, NDCS-1, and OUMS-27) and in 4 soft tissue (CCS, NMS-2, SYO-1, and NMFH-1) sarcoma cell lines. OBP-301 antitumor effects were assessed using orthotopic tumor xenograft models. The fiber-modified OBP-301 (termed OBP-405) was used to confirm an antitumor effect on OBP-301-resistant sarcomas. OBP-301 was cytopathic for 12 sarcoma cell lines but not for the non-CAR-expressing OUMS-27 and NMFH-1 cells. Sensitivity to OBP-301 was dependent on CAR expression and not on telomerase activity. ALT-type sarcomas were also sensitive to OBP-301 because of upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA following virus infection. Intratumoral injection of OBP-301 significantly suppressed the growth of OST and SYO-1 tumors. Furthermore, fiber-modified OBP-405 showed antitumor effects on OBP-301-resistant OUMS-27 and NMFH-1 cells. A telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus is a promising antitumor reagent for the treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas.

  18. Krüppel-like factor 2 represses transcription of the telomerase catalytic subunit human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toshifumi; Mizuguchi, Mariko; Fujii, Masahiro; Nakamura, Masataka

    2015-04-03

    In normal human T cells, telomerase activity is strictly regulated. T cells are thought to express telomerase to avoid replicative senescence, unlike most normal somatic cells with definite replicative lifespan. T cells in blood and tissues are usually in a state of quiescence without expression of the limiting catalytic subunit of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). In contrast to activation, repression of hTERT transcription has not been studied well. Our previous studies have found an hTERT promoter element with repressive function. Here we identified KLF2, which represses hTERT transcription by binding to the putative promoter element. KLF2 and hTERT exhibited reciprocal mRNA expression patterns in primary human T cells. In activated T cells, KLF2 binding to the hTERT promoter was eliminated, relieving the repression of hTERT transcription found in resting T cells. Our results suggest that KLF2 is involved in strict repression of hTERT expression through binding to the promoter in primary human T cells. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. A non-canonical function of zebrafish telomerase reverse transcriptase is required for developmental hematopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Imamura

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that telomerase expression is crucial for the maintenance of telomere homeostasis, there is increasing evidence that the TERT protein can have physiological roles that are independent of this central function. To further examine the role of telomerase during vertebrate development, the zebrafish telomerase reverse transcriptase (zTERT was functionally characterized. Upon zTERT knockdown, zebrafish embryos show reduced telomerase activity and are viable, but develop pancytopenia resulting from aberrant hematopoiesis. The blood cell counts in TERT-depleted zebrafish embryos are markedly decreased and hematopoietic cell differentiation is impaired, whereas other somatic lineages remain morphologically unaffected. Although both primitive and definitive hematopoiesis is disrupted by zTERT knockdown, the telomere lengths are not significantly altered throughout early development. Induced p53 deficiency, as well as overexpression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and E1B-19K, significantly relieves the decreased blood cells numbers caused by zTERT knockdown, but not the impaired blood cell differentiation. Surprisingly, only the reverse transcriptase motifs of zTERT are crucial, but the telomerase RNA-binding domain of zTERT is not required, for rescuing complete hematopoiesis. This is therefore the first demonstration of a non-canonical catalytic activity of TERT, which is different from "authentic" telomerase activity, is required for during vertebrate hematopoiesis. On the other hand, zTERT deficiency induced a defect in hematopoiesis through a potent and specific effect on the gene expression of key regulators in the absence of telomere dysfunction. These results suggest that TERT non-canonically functions in hematopoietic cell differentiation and survival in vertebrates, independently of its role in telomere homeostasis. The data also provide insights into a non-canonical pathway by which TERT functions to modulate

  20. Telomere Length Maintenance in Cancer: At the Crossroad between Telomerase and Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vitis, Marco; Berardinelli, Francesco; Sgura, Antonella

    2018-02-18

    Eukaryotic cells undergo continuous telomere shortening as a consequence of multiple rounds of replications. During tumorigenesis, cells have to acquire telomere DNA maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) in order to counteract telomere shortening, to preserve telomeres from DNA damage repair systems and to avoid telomere-mediated senescence and/or apoptosis. For this reason, telomere maintenance is an essential step in cancer progression. Most human tumors maintain their telomeres expressing telomerase, whereas a lower but significant proportion activates the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. However, evidence about the coexistence of ALT and telomerase has been found both in vivo in the same cancer populations and in vitro in engineered cellular models, making the distinction between telomerase- and ALT-positive tumors elusive. Indeed, after the development of drugs able to target telomerase, the capability for some cancer cells to escape death, switching from telomerase to ALT, was highlighted. Unfortunately, to date, the mechanism underlying the possible switching or the coexistence of telomerase and ALT within the same cell or populations is not completely understood and different factors could be involved. In recent years, different studies have tried to shed light on the complex regulation network that controls the transition between the two TMMs, suggesting a role for embryonic cancer origin, epigenetic modifications, and specific genes activation-both in vivo and in vitro. In this review, we examine recent findings about the cancer-associated differential activation of the two known TMMs and the possible factors implicated in this process. Furthermore, some studies on cancers are also described that did not display any TMM.

  1. The telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit from the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Bautista-España

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the reverse transcriptase subunit of telomerase in the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis. This protein (Trt1 contains 1371 amino acids and all of the characteristic TERT motifs. Mutants created by disrupting trt1 had senescent traits, such as delayed growth, low replicative potential, and reduced survival, that were reminiscent of the traits observed in est2 budding yeast mutants. Telomerase activity was observed in wild-type fungus sporidia but not those of the disruption mutant. The introduction of a self-replicating plasmid expressing Trt1 into the mutant strain restored growth proficiency and replicative potential. Analyses of trt1 crosses in planta suggested that Trt1 is necessary for teliospore formation in homozygous disrupted diploids and that telomerase is haploinsufficient in heterozygous diploids. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment analysis in the progeny hinted at alternative survival mechanisms similar to those of budding yeast.

  2. Telomeres and Telomerase in the Radiation Response: implications for instability, reprogramming, and carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock James Sishc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes comprised of tandem arrays of repetitive DNA sequence that serve to protect chromosomal termini from inappropriate degradation, as well as to prevent these natural DNA ends from being recognized as broken DNA (double-strand breaks; DSBs and triggering of inappropriate DNA damage responses. Preservation of telomere length requires telomerase, the specialized reverse transcriptase capable of maintaining telomere length via template-mediated addition of telomeric repeats onto the ends of newly synthesized chromosomes. Loss of either end-capping function or telomere length maintenance has been associated with genomic instability or senescence in a variety of settings; therefore telomeres and telomerase have well-established connections to cancer and aging. It has long been recognized that oxidative stress promotes shortening of telomeres, and that telomerase activity is a radiation-inducible function. However, the effects of ionizing radiation (IR exposure on telomeres per se are much less well understood and appreciated. To gain a deeper understanding of the roles telomeres and telomerase play in the response of human cells to ionizing radiations of different qualities, we tracked changes in telomeric end-capping function, telomere length, and telomerase activity in panels of mammary epithelial and hematopoietic cell lines exposed to low linear energy transfer (LET gamma(γ-rays or high LET high charge, high energy (HZE particles, delivered either acutely or at low dose rates (LDR. In addition to demonstrating that dysfunctional telomeres contribute to IR-induced mutation frequencies and genome instability, we reveal non-canonical roles for telomerase, in that telomerase activity was required for IR-induced enrichment of mammary epithelial putative stem/progenitor cell populations, a finding also suggestive of cellular reprogramming. Taken together, the results reported here establish the critical importance of

  3. Effects of single-stranded DNA binding proteins on primer extension by telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shlomit; Jacob, Eyal; Manor, Haim

    2004-08-12

    We present a biochemical analysis of the effects of three single-stranded DNA binding proteins on extension of oligonucleotide primers by the Tetrahymena telomerase. One of them, a human protein designated translin, which was shown to specifically bind the G-rich Tetrahymena and human telomeric repeats, slightly stimulated the primer extension reactions at molar ratios of translin/primer of primers, rather than by a direct interaction of this protein with telomerase. A second protein, the general human single-stranded DNA binding protein Replication Protein A (RPA), similarly affected the primer extension by telomerase, even though its mode of binding to DNA differs from that of translin. A third protein, the E. coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB), whose binding to DNA is highly cooperative, caused more substantial stimulation and inhibition at the lower and the higher molar ratios of SSB/primer, respectively. Both telomere-specific and general single-stranded DNA binding proteins are found in living cells in telomeric complexes. Based on our data, we propose that these proteins may exert either stimulatory or inhibitory effects on intracellular telomerases, depending on their local concentrations. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Expression of telomerase and telomere length are unaffected by either age or limb regeneration in Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy C Lund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zebrafish is an increasingly popular model for studying many aspects of biology. Recently, ztert, the zebrafish homolog of the mammalian telomerase gene has been cloned and sequenced. In contrast to humans, it has been shown that the zebrafish maintains telomerase activity for much of its adult life and has remarkable regenerative capacity. To date, there has been no longitudinal study to assess whether this retention of telomerase activity equates to the retention of chromosome telomere length through adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have systematically analyzed individual organs of zebrafish with regard to both telomere length and telomerase activity at various time points in its adult life. Heart, gills, kidney, spleen, liver, and intestine were evaluated at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 2 years of age by Southern blot analysis. We found that telomeres do not appreciably shorten throughout the lifespan of the zebrafish in any organ. In addition, there was little difference in telomere lengths between organs. Even when cells were under the highest pressure to divide after fin-clipping experiments, telomere length was unaffected. All aged (2 year old tissues examined also expressed active amounts of telomerase activity as assessed by TRAP assay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to several other species including humans, the retention of lifelong telomerase and telomeres, as we have reported here, would be necessary in the zebrafish to maintain its tremendous regenerative capacity. The ongoing study of the zebrafish's ability to maintain telomerase activity may be helpful in unraveling the complexity involved in the maintenance (or lack thereof of telomeres in other species such the mouse or human.

  5. Telomere-independent functions of telomerase in nuclei, cytoplasm, and mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Mondello, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase canonical activity at telomeres prevents telomere shortening, allowing chromosome stability and cellular proliferation. To perform this task, the catalytic subunit (telomerase reverse transcriptase, TERT) of the enzyme works as a reverse transcriptase together with the telomerase RNA component (TERC), adding telomeric repeats to DNA molecule ends. Growing evidence indicates that, besides the telomeric-DNA synthesis activity, TERT has additional functions in tumor development and is involved in many different biological processes, among which cellular proliferation, gene expression regulation, and mitochondrial functionality. TERT has been shown to act independently of TERC in the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway, regulating the expression of Wnt target genes, which play a role in development and tumorigenesis. Moreover, TERT RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity has been found, leading to the genesis of double-stranded RNAs that act as precursor of silencing RNAs. In mitochondria, a TERT TERC-independent reverse transcriptase activity has been described that could play a role in the protection of mitochondrial integrity. In this review, we will discuss some of the extra-telomeric functions of telomerase.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Detection of human telomerase reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Although it is tumour specific, yet it has a poor sensitivity, especially for low grade tumours. Detection of Telomerase enzyme in exfoliated urinary cells is a potentially good molecular diagnostic marker in bladder cancer, since the catalytic subunit of this enzyme (hTERT) proved to be essential for cellular immortality and ...

  7. Telomeres and Telomerase in The Aging Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aging per se is a risk factor for reduced cardiac function and heart diseases, even when adjusted for aging-associated cardiovascular risk factors. Accordingly, aging-related biochemical and cell-biological changes lead to pathophysiological conditions, especially reduced heart function and heart disease. CONTENT: Telomere dysfunction induces a profound p53-dependent repression of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1a and PGC-1b in the heart, which leads to bioenergetic compromise due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation and ATP generation. This telomere-p53-PGC mitochondrial/metabolic axis integrates many factors linked to heart aging including increased DNA damage, p53 activation, mitochondrial, and metabolic dysfunction and provides a molecular basis of how dysfunctional telomeres can compromise cardiomyocytes and stem cell compartments in the heart to precipitate cardiac aging. SUMMARY: The aging myocardium with telomere shortening and accumulation of senescent cells restricts the tissue regenerative ability, which contributes to systolic or diastolic heart failure. Moreover, patients with ion-channel defects might have genetic imbalance caused by oxidative stress-related accelerated telomere shortening, which may subsequently cause sudden cardiac death. Telomere length can serve as a marker for the biological status of previous cell divisions and DNA damage with inflammation and oxidative stress. It can be integrated into current risk prediction and stratification models for cardiovascular diseases and can be used in precise personalized treatments. KEYWORDS: aging, telomere, telomerase, aging heart, mitochondria, cardiac stem cell

  8. Hyperoxia Inhibits T Cell Activation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Meissler, J.; Aguayo, E. T.; Globus, R.; Aguado, J.; Candelario, T.

    2013-02-01

    , spleens were removed and the splenocytes were isolated and kept as individual biological samples. We have also examined transcription factors (JASPAR) and pathways of the immune system to help us understand the mechanism of regulation. Results: Our recent mouse immunology experiment aboard STS-131 suggests that the early T cell immune response was inhibited in animals that have been exposed to spaceflight, even 24 hours after return to earth. Moreover, recent experiments in hyperoxic mice show that many of the same genes involved in early T cell activation were altered. Specifically, expression of IL-2Rα, Cxcl2, TNFα, FGF2, LTA and BCL2 genes are dysregulated in mice exposed to hyperoxia. Conclusions: If these hyperoxia-induced changes of gene expression in early T cell activation are additive to the changes seen in the microgravity of spaceflight, there could be an increased infection risk to EVA astronauts, which should be addressed prior to conducting a Mars or other long-term mission.

  9. [Development of noninvasive bladder cancer diagnosis on basis of telomerase and it's subunits hTERT and hTR detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, A I; Grigorieva, Y E; Gordeev, S A; Vinarov, A Z; Potoldykova, N V

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase activity (TA) and expression of genes coding it's subunits (hTERT and hTR) have been examined in tumor tissue and urine sediment samples taken from patients with bladder cancer (BC) using the modified TRAP assay (in the case of telomerase detection) and RT-PCR (in the case of hTERT and hTR expression). Results obtained in this study demonstrate possibility of noninvasive diagnosis of BC with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% in the case of telomerase detection and with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100% in the case of hTERT detection in urine sediment samples.

  10. The Roles of Telomerase in the Generation of Polyploidy during Neoplastic Cell Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agni Christodoulidou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy contributes to extensive intratumor genomic heterogeneity that characterizes advanced malignancies and is thought to limit the efficiency of current cancer therapies. It has been shown that telomere deprotection in p53-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts leads to high rates of polyploidization. We now show that tumor genome evolution through whole-genome duplication occurs in ∼15% of the karyotyped human neoplasms and correlates with disease progression. In a panel of human cancer and transformed cell lines representing the two known types of genomic instability (chromosomal and microsatellite, as well as the two known pathways of telomere maintenance in cancer (telomerase activity and alternative lengthening of telomeres, telomere dysfunction-driven polyploidization occurred independently of the mutational status of p53. Depending on the preexisting context of telomere maintenance, telomerase activity and its major components, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT and human telomerase RNA component (hTERC, exert both reverse transcriptase-related (canonical and noncanonical functions to affect tumor genome evolution through suppression or induction of polyploidization. These new findings provide a more complete mechanistic understanding of cancer progression that may, in the future, lead to novel therapeutic interventions.

  11. Celecoxib inhibits osteoblast differentiation independent of cyclooxygenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Atsushi; Higashi, Sen; Tanizaki, Saori; Morotomi, Takahiko; Washio, Ayako; Ohsumi, Tomoko; Kitamura, Chiaki; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their effects primarily by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), thus suppressing prostaglandin synthesis. Some NSAIDs are known to perform functions other than pain control, such as suppressing tumour cell growth, independent of their COX-inhibiting activity. To identify NSAIDs with COX-independent activity, we examined various NSAIDs for their ability to inhibit osteoblastic differentiation using the mouse pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Only celecoxib and valdecoxib strongly inhibited osteoblastic differentiation, and this effect was not correlated with COX-inhibiting activity. Moreover, 2,5-dimethyl (DM)-celecoxib, a celecoxib analogue that does not inhibit COX activity, also inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. Celecoxib and DM-celecoxib inhibited osteoblastic differentiation induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line. Although celecoxib suppresses the growth of some tumour cells, the viability and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells were not affected by celecoxib or DM-celecoxib. Instead, celecoxib and DM-celecoxib suppressed BMP-2-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5, a major downstream target of BMP receptor. Although it is well known that COX plays important roles in osteoblastic differentiation, these results suggest that some NSAIDs, such as celecoxib, have targets other than COX and regulate phospho-dependent intracellular signalling, thereby modifying bone remodelling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Overexpression of Telomerase Protects Human and Murine Lung Epithelial Cells from Fas- and Bleomycin-Induced Apoptosis via FLIP Upregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissim Arish

    Full Text Available High doses of bleomycin administered to patients with lymphomas and other tumors lead to significant lung toxicity in general, and to apoptosis of epithelial cells, in particular. Apoptosis of alveolar epithelium is an important step in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The Fas-FasL pathway is one of the main apoptotic pathways involved. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein RNA-dependent DNA polymerase complex consisting of an RNA template and a catalytic protein, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT. Telomerase also possess extra-telomeric roles, including modulation of transcription of anti-apoptotic genes, differentiation signals, and more. We hypothesized that telomerase overexpression affects Fas-induced epithelial cell apoptosis by an extra-telomeric role such as regulation of anti-apoptotic genes, specifically FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP. Telomerase in mouse (MLE and human (A549 lung epithelial cell lines was upregulated by transient transfection using cDNA hTERT expression vector. Telomerase activity was detected using a real-time PCR-based system. Bleomycin, and bleomycin-induced Fas-mediated apoptosis following treatment with anti-Fas activating mAb or control IgG, were assessed by Annexin V staining, FACS analysis, and confocal microscopy; caspase cleavage by Western blot; FLIP or Fas molecule detection by Western blot and flow cytometry. hTERT transfection of lung epithelial cells resulted in a 100% increase in their telomerase activity. Fas-induced lung epithelial cell apoptosis was significantly reduced in hTERT-transfected cells compared to controls in all experiments. Lung epithelial cells with increased telomerase activity had higher levels of FLIP expression but membrane Fas expression was unchanged. Upregulation of hTERT+ in human lung epithelial cells and subsequent downregulation of FLIP by shFLIP-RNA annulled hTERT-mediated resistance to apoptosis. Telomerase-mediated FLIP overexpression may

  13. Telomeres and Telomerase: Role in Marek’s Disease Virus Pathogenesis, Integration and Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kheimar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the ends of vertebrate chromosomes from deterioration and consist of tandem nucleotide repeats (TTAGGGn that are associated with a number of proteins. Shortening of the telomeres occurs during genome replication, thereby limiting the replication potential of somatic cells. To counteract this shortening, vertebrates encode the telomerase complex that maintains telomere length in certain cell types via de novo addition of telomeric repeats. Several herpesviruses, including the highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus Marek’s disease virus (MDV, harbor telomeric repeats (TMR identical to the host telomere sequences at the ends of their linear genomes. These TMR facilitate the integration of the MDV genome into host telomeres during latency, allowing the virus to persist in the host for life. Integration into host telomeres is critical for disease and tumor induction by MDV, but also enables efficient reactivation of the integrated virus genome. In addition to the TMR, MDV also encodes a telomerase RNA subunit (vTR that shares 88% sequence identity with the telomerase RNA in chicken (chTR. vTR is highly expressed during all stages of the virus lifecycle, enhances telomerase activity and plays an important role in MDV-induced tumor formation. This review will focus on the recent advances in understanding the role of viral TMR and vTR in MDV pathogenesis, integration and tumorigenesis.

  14. Modeling of Plasmodium falciparum Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Ternary Complex: Repurposing of Nucleoside Analog Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pallavi; Gupta, Akanksha; Bhatnagar, Sonika

    2015-12-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum telomerase reverse transcriptase (PfTERT) is a ribonucleoprotein that assists the maintenance of the telomeric ends of chromosomes by reverse transcription of its own RNA subunit. It represents an attractive therapeutic target for eradication of the plasmodial parasite at the asexual liver stage. Automated modeling using MUSTER and knowledge-based techniques were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the active site of reverse transcriptase domain of PfTERT, which is responsible for catalyzing the addition of incoming dNTPs to the growing DNA strand in presence of divalent magnesium ions. Further, the ternary complex of the active site of PfTERT bound to a DNA-RNA duplex was also modeled using Haddock server and represents the functional form of the enzyme. Initially, established nucleoside analog inhibitors of PfTERT, AZTTP, and ddGTP were docked in the modeled binding site of the PfTERT ternary complex using AutoDock v4.2. Subsequently, docking studies were carried out with 14 approved nucleoside analog inhibitors. Docking studies predicted that floxuridine, gemcitabine, stavudine, and vidarabine have high affinity for the PfTERT ternary complex. Further analysis on the basis of known side effects led us to propose repositioning of vidarabine as a suitable drug candidate for inhibition of PfTERT.

  15. Integration of intracellular telomerase monitoring by electrochemiluminescence technology and targeted cancer therapy by reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huairong; Li, Binxiao; Sun, Zhaomei; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-12-01

    Cancer therapies based on reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as promising clinical treatments. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology has also attracted considerable attention in the field of clinical diagnosis. However, studies about the integration of ECL diagnosis and ROS cancer therapy are very rare. Here we introduce a novel strategy that employs ECL technology and ROS to fill the above vacancy. Briefly, an ITO electrode was electrodeposited with polyluminol-Pt NPs composite films and modified with aptamer DNA to capture HL-60 cancer cells with high specificity. After that, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) filled with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were closed by the telomerase primer DNA (T-primer DNA) and aptamer. After aptamer on MSN@PMA recognized and combined with the HL-60 cancer cells with high specificity, T-primer DNA on MSN@PMA could be moved away from the MSN@PMA surface after extension by telomerase in the HL-60 cancer cells and PMA was released to induce the production of ROS by the HL-60 cancer cells. After that, the polyluminol-Pt NPs composite films could react with hydrogen peroxide (a major ROS) and generate an ECL signal. Thus the intracellular telomerase activity of the HL-60 cancer cells could be detected in situ . Besides, ROS could induce apoptosis in the HL-60 cancer cells with high efficacy by causing oxidative damage to the lipids, protein, and DNA. Above all, the designed platform could not only detect intracellular telomerase activity instead of that of extracted telomerase, but could also kill targeted tumors by ECL technology and ROS.

  16. Complement Activation and Inhibition in Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Jukema, Gerrolt N.; Nibbering, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Complement activation is needed to restore tissue injury; however, inappropriate activation of complement, as seen in chronic wounds can cause cell death and enhance inflammation, thus contributing to further injury and impaired wound healing. Therefore, attenuation of complement activation by specific inhibitors is considered as an innovative wound care strategy. Currently, the effects of several complement inhibitors, for example, the C3 inhibitor compstatin and several C1 and C5 inhibitors...

  17. Complement Activation and Inhibition in Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Jukema, Gerrolt N.; Nibbering, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Complement activation is needed to restore tissue injury; however, inappropriate activation of complement, as seen in chronic wounds can cause cell death and enhance inflammation, thus contributing to further injury and impaired wound healing. Therefore, attenuation of complement activation by specific inhibitors is considered as an innovative wound care strategy. Currently, the effects of several complement inhibitors, for example, the C3 inhibitor compstatin and several C1 and C5 inhibitors, are under investigation in patients with complement-mediated diseases. Although (pre)clinical research into the effects of these complement inhibitors on wound healing is limited, available data indicate that reduction of complement activation can improve wound healing. Moreover, medicine may take advantage of safe and effective agents that are produced by various microorganisms, symbionts, for example, medicinal maggots, and plants to attenuate complement activation. To conclude, for the development of new wound care strategies, (pre)clinical studies into the roles of complement and the effects of application of complement inhibitors in wound healing are required. PMID:23346185

  18. Inhibition of intestinal disaccharidase activity by pentoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halschou-Jensen, Kia

    activity and change of diet, which corresponds to the treatment of insulin resistance, IGT and obesity. Secondly, a variety of medicine is used. Within nutrition, one of the research areas is preventive or therapeutic aims against development of T2D. A better glycaemic control is one preventive target...... and furthermore it seems to be able to delay the incidence of T2D.Prandial regulation of glucose is a complex process and there are several methods to assess glycaemic control and thereby affect the blood glucose concentration. The prandial glucose regulation depends on factors including physical activity......) in the study and the method for measuring gastric emptying. Furthermore, the fluid maltose drink could not validate the in vitro studies on maltase activity.The overall concluding perspective must be that L-arabinose has the greatest potential to effect glucose and insulin secretion when added to a sucrose...

  19. Disruption of Survivin in K562 cells elevates telomerase activity and protects cells against apoptosis induced by the Bcr-abl kinase inhibitor STI571

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhanxiang; Pelus, Louis M.

    2008-01-01

    The Bcr-abl kinase inhibitor STI571 produces clinical responses in most patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML); however, development of resistance limits utility. One strategy to overcome STI571 resistance is to decrease the level/activity of Bcr-abl. We reported that disruption of the anti-apoptotic protein Survivin promoted STI571-induced apoptosis in Bcr-abl+ K562 cells, through caspase-dependent Bcr-abl degradation. To investigate the utility of Survivin disruption in drug-resistant...

  20. Telomerase expression extends the proliferative life-span and maintains the osteogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Janne Lytoft; Rosada, Cecilia; Serakinci, Nedime

    2002-01-01

    . The transduced cells have now undergone more than 260 population doublings (PD) and continue to proliferate, whereas control cells underwent senescence-associated proliferation arrest after 26 PD. The cells maintained production of osteoblastic markers and differentiation potential during continuous subculturing......, did not form tumors, and had a normal karyotype. When implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice, the transduced cells formed more bone than did normal cells. These results suggest that ectopic expression of telomerase in hMSCs prevents senescence-associated impairment of osteoblast functions.......Human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) were stably transduced by a retroviral vector containing the gene for the catalytic subunit of human telomerase (hTERT). Transduced cells (hMSC-TERTs) had telomerase activity, and the mean telomere length was increased as compared with that of control cells...

  1. Complement activation and inhibition: a delicate balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöberg, A P; Trouw, L A; Blom, A M

    2009-01-01

    activation. Disturbances to the complement regulation on endogenous ligands can lead to diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, neurological and rheumatic disorders. A thorough understanding of these processes might be crucial to developing new therapeutic strategies....... proteins, pentraxins, amyloid deposits, prions and DNA, all bind the complement activator C1q, but also interact with complement inhibitors C4b-binding protein and factor H. This contrasts to the interaction between C1q and immune complexes, in which case no inhibitors bind, resulting in full complement...

  2. Metformin and Its Sulfenamide Prodrugs Inhibit Human Cholinesterase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of epidemiological and pathophysiological studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may predispose to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The two conditions present similar glucose levels, insulin resistance, and biochemical etiologies such as inflammation and oxidative stress. The diabetic state also contributes to increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, which is one of the factors leading to neurodegeneration in AD. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the effects of metformin, phenformin, and metformin sulfenamide prodrugs on the activity of human AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE and establish the type of inhibition. Metformin inhibited 50% of the AChE activity at micromolar concentrations (2.35 μmol/mL, mixed type of inhibition and seemed to be selective towards AChE since it presented low anti-BuChE activity. The tested metformin prodrugs inhibited cholinesterases (ChE at nanomolar range and thus were more active than metformin or phenformin. The cyclohexyl sulfenamide prodrug demonstrated the highest activity towards both AChE (IC50 = 890 nmol/mL, noncompetitive inhibition and BuChE (IC50 = 28 nmol/mL, mixed type inhibition, while the octyl sulfenamide prodrug did not present anti-AChE activity, but exhibited mixed inhibition towards BuChE (IC50 = 184 nmol/mL. Therefore, these two bulkier prodrugs were concluded to be the most selective compounds for BuChE over AChE. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that biguanides present a novel class of inhibitors for AChE and BuChE and encourages further studies of these compounds for developing both selective and nonselective inhibitors of ChEs in the future.

  3. Telomerase Protects Werner Syndrome Lineage-Specific Stem Cells from Premature Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi-Hung Cheung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS patients exhibit premature aging predominantly in mesenchyme-derived tissues, but not in neural lineages, a consequence of telomere dysfunction and accelerated senescence. The cause of this lineage-specific aging remains unknown. Here, we document that reprogramming of WS fibroblasts to pluripotency elongated telomere length and prevented telomere dysfunction. To obtain mechanistic insight into the origin of tissue-specific aging, we differentiated iPSCs to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs. We observed recurrence of premature senescence associated with accelerated telomere attrition and defective synthesis of the lagging strand telomeres in MSCs, but not in NPCs. We postulate this “aging” discrepancy is regulated by telomerase. Expression of hTERT or p53 knockdown ameliorated the accelerated aging phenotypein MSC, whereas inhibition of telomerase sensitized NPCs to DNA damage. Our findings unveil a role for telomerase in the protection of accelerated aging in a specific lineage of stem cells.

  4. Antifreeze Protein Mimetic Metallohelices with Potent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel E; Clarkson, Guy; Fox, David J; Vipond, Rebecca A; Scott, Peter; Gibson, Matthew I

    2017-07-26

    Antifreeze proteins are produced by extremophile species to control ice formation and growth, and they have potential applications in many fields. There are few examples of synthetic materials which can reproduce their potent ice recrystallization inhibition property. We report that self-assembled enantiomerically pure, amphipathic metallohelicies inhibited ice growth at just 20 μM. Structure-property relationships and calculations support the hypothesis that amphipathicity is the key motif for activity. This opens up a new field of metallo-organic antifreeze protein mimetics and provides insight into the origins of ice-growth inhibition.

  5. [Activity of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein of banana fruit tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulantseva, E A; Thang, Nguen; Buza, N L; Krinitsyna, A A; Protsenko, M A

    2005-01-01

    The activity of polygalacturonase and the protein inhibiting this enzyme, which affected polygalacturonases of phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Gloesporium musarium, were detected in banana (Musa acumthata L.) fruit of cultivars Cavendish and Korolevskii. The polygalacturonase from banana fruit was inhibited by the preparations of the protein inhibitor not only from bananas but also from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit.

  6. Cooperative inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activities by hexachlorophene in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, H; Matsuoka, M; Igisu, H; Ikeda, M

    1997-01-01

    Hexachlorophene (HCP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) all hemolyzed washed human erythrocytes and inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activities in erythrocyte membrane. HCP was much more potent in either effect than any other compound examined. The inhibition of AchE activities by HCP was reversed on adding albumin. The dose-response curves by HCP and PCP were sigmoidal, indicating cooperative inhibition, while those by 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-TCP were not. Furthermore, the cooperativity of the inhibition by HCP was greater than by PCP. Differing from that by PCP, the cooperativity of inhibition increased depending on the temperature (13, 25, 37 degrees C) and decreased when the membrane was treated with Triton X-100. The cooperativity was also decreased in the presence of albumin. On a Scatchard plot analysis, erythrocyte membranes appeared to have multiple binding sites of different affinities for HCP; binding of HCP to the low affinity site [dissociation constant (Kd) 4.7 x 10(-5) M] seemed to be responsible for the observed cooperative inhibition of AchE activities. Neither neostigmine nor fenitrothion altered the cooperativity. HCP seems to be the most potent cooperative inhibitor of AchE in human erythrocyte membranes known to date. HCP may be useful to examine AchE and milieu in human erythrocyte membranes.

  7. The Inhibition of Lipase and Glucosidase Activities by Acacia Polyphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Ikarashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyphenol (AP extracted from the bark of the black wattle tree (Acacia mearnsii is rich in unique catechin-like flavan-3-ols, such as robinetinidol and fisetinidol. In an in vitro study, we measured the inhibitory activity of AP on lipase and glucosidase. In addition, we evaluated the effects of AP on absorption of orally administered olive oil, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch solution in mice. We found that AP concentration-dependently inhibited the activity of lipase, maltase and sucrase with an IC50 of 0.95, 0.22 and 0.60 mg ml−1, respectively. In ICR mice, olive oil was administered orally immediately after oral administration of AP solution, and plasma triglyceride concentration was measured. We found that AP significantly inhibited the rise in plasma triglyceride concentration after olive oil loading. AP also significantly inhibited the rise in plasma glucose concentration after maltose and sucrose loading, and this effect was more potent against maltose. AP also inhibited the rise in plasma glucose concentration after glucose loading and slightly inhibited it after starch loading. Our results suggest that AP inhibits lipase and glucosidase activities, which leads to a reduction in the intestinal absorption of lipids and carbohydrates.

  8. Thyroid peroxidase activity is inhibited by amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Carvalho

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity was completely inhibited by a hydrolyzed TPO preparation (0.15 mg/ml or hydrolyzed bovine serum albumin (BSA, 0.2 mg/ml. A pancreatic hydrolysate of casein (trypticase peptone, 0.1 mg/ml and some amino acids (cysteine, tryptophan and methionine, 50 µM each also inhibited the TPO iodide oxidation reaction completely, whereas casamino acids (0.1 mg/ml, and tyrosine, phenylalanine and histidine (50 µM each inhibited the TPO reaction by 54% or less. A pancreatic digest of gelatin (0.1 mg/ml or any other amino acid (50 µM tested did not significantly decrease TPO activity. The amino acids that impair iodide oxidation also inhibit the TPO albumin iodination activity. The inhibitory amino acids contain side chains with either sulfur atoms (cysteine and methionine or aromatic rings (tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine and phenylalanine. Among the amino acids tested, only cysteine affected the TPO guaiacol oxidation reaction, producing a transient inhibition at 25 or 50 µM. The iodide oxidation inhibitory activity of cysteine, methionine and tryptophan was reversed by increasing iodide concentrations from 12 to 18 mM, while no such effect was observed when the cofactor (H2O2 concentration was increased. The inhibitory substances might interfere with the enzyme activity by competing with its normal substrates for their binding sites, binding to the free substrates or reducing their oxidized form.

  9. Evaluation of Energy Balance on Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Alternative Splicing by Semi-quantitative RT-PCR in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Hashemi, Mohammad; Kazemi, Mohammad; Salehi, Mansoor; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2017-01-01

    Decreased high-energy phosphate level is involved in endothelial cell injury and dysfunction. Reduced telomerase activity in endothelial cells in parallel with reduced energy levels might be due to altered direction of alternative splicing machine as a complication of depleted energy during the process of atherosclerosis. Isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated for 24 hours by oligomycine (OM) and 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG). After 24 hours, the effect of energy depletion on telomerase splicing pattern was evaluated using RT-PCR. Indeed, in both treated and untargeted cells, nitric oxide (NO) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured. ATP was depleted in treated cells by 43.9% compared with control group. We observed a slight decrease in NO levels ( P = 0.09) and vWF ( P = 0.395) in the setting of 49.36% ATP depletion. In both groups, no telomerase gene expression was seen. Telomerase and housekeeping gene expression were found in positive control group (colon cancer tissue) and sample tissue. The absence of telomerase gene expression in HUVECs might be due to the mortality of these cells or the low level of telomerase gene expression in these cells under normal circumstances.

  10. Telomerase: a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and a curcumin derivative in Aβ1-42 insult in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zijian; Zhang, Aiwu; Lin, Jianwen; Zheng, Zhenyang; Shi, Xiaolei; Di, Wei; Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Yingting; Zhou, Guijuan; Fang, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether telomerase was involved in the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and Cur1. Alzheimer's disease is a consequence of an imbalance between the generation and clearance of amyloid-beta peptide in the brain. In this study, we used Aβ1-42 (10 µg/ml) to establish a damaged cell model, and curcumin and Cur1 were used in treatment groups. We measured cell survival and cell growth, intracellular oxidative stress and hTERT expression. After RNA interference, the effects of curcumin and Cur1 on cells were verified. Exposure to Aβ1-42 resulted in significant oxidative stress and cell toxicity, and the expression of hTERT was significantly decreased. Curcumin and Cur1 both protected SK-N-SH cells from Aβ1-42 and up-regulated the expression of hTERT. Furthermore, Cur1 demonstrated stronger protective effects than curcumin. However, when telomerase was inhibited by TERT siRNA, the neuroprotection by curcumin and Cur1 were ceased. Our study indicated that the neuroprotective effects of curcumin and Cur1 depend on telomerase, and thus telomerase may be a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and Cur1.

  11. Telomerase: a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and a curcumin derivative in Aβ1-42 insult in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijian Xiao

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether telomerase was involved in the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and Cur1. Alzheimer's disease is a consequence of an imbalance between the generation and clearance of amyloid-beta peptide in the brain. In this study, we used Aβ1-42 (10 µg/ml to establish a damaged cell model, and curcumin and Cur1 were used in treatment groups. We measured cell survival and cell growth, intracellular oxidative stress and hTERT expression. After RNA interference, the effects of curcumin and Cur1 on cells were verified. Exposure to Aβ1-42 resulted in significant oxidative stress and cell toxicity, and the expression of hTERT was significantly decreased. Curcumin and Cur1 both protected SK-N-SH cells from Aβ1-42 and up-regulated the expression of hTERT. Furthermore, Cur1 demonstrated stronger protective effects than curcumin. However, when telomerase was inhibited by TERT siRNA, the neuroprotection by curcumin and Cur1 were ceased. Our study indicated that the neuroprotective effects of curcumin and Cur1 depend on telomerase, and thus telomerase may be a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and Cur1.

  12. Ammonium inhibition of nitrogenase activity in Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, H.; Burris, R.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1989-06-01

    The effect of oxygen, ammonium ion, and amino acids on nitrogenase activity in the root-associated N{sub 2}-fixing bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae was investigated in comparison with Azospirillum spp. and Rhodospirillum rubrum. H. seropedicae is microaerophilic, and its optimal dissolved oxygen level is from 0.04 to 0.2 kPa for dinitrogen fixation but higher when it is supplied with fixed nitrogen. No nitrogenase activity was detected when the dissolved O{sub 2} level corresponded to 4.0 kPa. Ammonium, a product of the nitrogenase reaction, reversible inhibited nitrogenase activity when added to derepressed cell cultures. However, the inhibition of nitrogenase activity was only partial even with concentrations of ammonium chloride as high as 20 mM. Amides such as glutamine and asparagine partially inhibited nitrogenase activity, but glutamate did not. Nitrogenase in crude extracts prepared from ammonium-inhibited cells showed activity as high as in extracts from N{sub 2}-fixing cells. The pattern of the dinitrogenase and the dinitrogenase reductase revealed by the immunoblotting technique did not change upon ammonium chloride treatment of cells in vivo. No homologous sequences were detected with the draT-draG probe from Azospirillum lipoferum. There is no clear evidence that ADP-ribosylation of the dinitrogenase reductase is involved in the ammonium inhibition of H. seropedicae. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone decreased the intracellular ATP concentration and inhibited the nitrogenase activity of whole cells. The ATP pool was significantly disturbed when cultures were treated with ammonium in vivo.

  13. Cysteine-independent activation/inhibition of heme oxygenase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragic Vukomanovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive thiols of cysteine (cys residues in proteins play a key role in transforming chemical reactivity into a biological response. The heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2 isozyme contains two cys residues that have been implicated in binding of heme and also the regulation of its activity. In this paper, we address the question of a role for cys residues for the HO-2 inhibitors or activators designed in our laboratory. We tested the activity of full length recombinant human heme oxygenase-2 (FL-hHO-2 and its analog in which cys265 and cys282 were both replaced by alanine to determine the effect on activation by menadione (MD and inhibition by QC-2350. Similar inhibition by QC-2350 and almost identical activation by MD was observed for both recombinant FL-hHO-2s. Our findings are interpreted to mean that thiols of FL-hHO-2s are not involved in HO-2 activation or inhibition by the compounds that have been designed and identified by us. Activation or inhibition of HO-2 by our compounds should be attributed to a mechanism other than altering binding affinity of HO-2 for heme through cys265 and cys282.

  14. Telomerase Expression in Medaka ( Oryzias melastigma) Pharyngeal Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W H; Witten, P E; Winkler, C; Au, D W T; Huysseune, A

    2017-06-01

    Nonmammalian vertebrates have the capacity of lifelong tooth replacement. In all vertebrates, tooth formation requires contact and interaction between the oral or pharyngeal epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme. To secure lifelong replacement, the presence of odontogenic stem cells has been postulated, particularly in the epithelial compartment. This study uses an advanced teleost fish species, the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma, a close relative to Oryzias latipes, to examine the expression and distribution of telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert), the catalytic unit of telomerase, in developing pharyngeal teeth and to relate these data to the proliferative activity of the cells. The data are complemented by expression analysis of the pluripotency marker oct4 and bona fide stem cell marker lgr5. Tert distribution and tert expression in developing tooth germs show a dynamic spatiotemporal pattern. Tert is present first in the mesenchyme but is downregulated as the odontoblasts differentiate. In contrast, in the epithelial enamel organ, Tert is absent during early stages of tooth formation and upregulated first in ameloblasts. Later, Tert is expressed and immunolocalized throughout the entire inner enamel epithelium. The pattern of Tert distribution is largely mutually exclusive with that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity: highly proliferative cells, as revealed by PCNA staining, are negative for Tert; conversely, PCNA-negative cells are Tert-positive. Only the early condensed mesenchyme is both Tert- and PCNA-positive. The absence of tert-positive cells in the epithelial compartment of early tooth germs is underscored by the absence of oct4- and lgr5-positive cells, suggesting ways other than stem cell involvement to secure continuous renewal.

  15. Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Attenuates Neuroinflammation through the Inhibition of Microglia Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yan-Ying; Yang, Jun; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is closely implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. The hallmark of neuroinflammation is the microglia activation. Upon activation, microglia are capable of producing various proinflammatory factors and the accumulation of these factors contribute to the neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation might hold potential therapy for neurological disorders. 2,3,5,4?-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O- ? -D-glucoside (TSG), an active compo...

  16. Non-telomeric activities of telomerase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majerská, J.; Sýkorová, Eva; Fajkus, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2011), s. 1013-1023 ISSN 1742-206X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/08/1530 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR * CENTRAL - NERVOUS - SYSTEM * COMPLEX-I DEFICIENCY Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2011

  17. Recruitment of Perisomatic Inhibition during Spontaneous Hippocampal Activity In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beyeler

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that perisomatic GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs originating from basket and chandelier cells can be recorded as population IPSPs from the hippocampal pyramidal layer using extracellular electrodes (eIPSPs. Taking advantage of this approach, we have investigated the recruitment of perisomatic inhibition during spontaneous hippocampal activity in vitro. Combining intracellular and extracellular recordings from pyramidal cells and interneurons, we confirm that inhibitory signals generated by basket cells can be recorded extracellularly, but our results suggest that, during spontaneous activity, eIPSPs are mostly confined to the CA3 rather than CA1 region. CA3 eIPSPs produced the powerful time-locked inhibition of multi-unit activity expected from perisomatic inhibition. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of spike discharges relative to eIPSPs suggests significant but moderate recruitment of excitatory and inhibitory neurons within the CA3 network on a 10 ms time scale, within which neurons recruit each other through recurrent collaterals and trigger powerful feedback inhibition. Such quantified parameters of neuronal interactions in the hippocampal network may serve as a basis for future characterisation of pathological conditions potentially affecting the interactions between excitation and inhibition in this circuit.

  18. Study on the mechanism for radiation/chemical substance-induced cellular damages and development of its risk assessment. Changes in telomere and telomerase in genetically modified animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tohru; Ono, Atsushi; Hirabayashi, Yoko; Kitajima, Satoshi [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    In the previous study, a highly sensitive system for determination of telomere length and telomerase assay was established. In this study, changes in the telomerase activity and the length of telomere following{gamma}-ray exposure were investigated and their correlation with deletion of p53 gene was examined using p53 knockout mice, of which carcinogenic sensitivity was very high. Early damages caused by radiation exposure generally appeared in the hematopoietic cells, the peripheral lymphocytes and bone marrow cells. The telomerase activity of peripheral lymphocytes was dose-dependently decreased in either of p53 +/+ or p53 -/-mouse, but the activities of exposed group and not-exposed reached almost the same level after 19 days in either of p53 +/+ and p53 -/- mouse. Whereas the length of the telomere was not affected by {gamma}-ray exposure at 500 cGy. The number of colony for p53 wild type cell culture was decreased to several percent, l 5 days after the exposure and it recovered on day 20. Whereas there was no apparent changes in the colony number of p53 -/-. The telomerase activity was lower in the order of p53 +/+, p53 +/-, p53 -/- mouse, indicating that the activity level was dependent on the presence of p53 gene. Therefore, it is likely that the activity of telomerase is controlled by p53 gene. (M.N.)

  19. Inhibition of chrysin on xanthine oxidase activity and its inhibition mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Suyun; Zhang, Guowen; Liao, Yijing; Pan, Junhui

    2015-11-01

    Chrysin, a bioactive flavonoid, was investigated for its potential to inhibit the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme catalyzing xanthine to uric acid and finally causing gout. The kinetic analysis showed that chrysin possessed a strong inhibition on XO ability in a reversible competitive manner with IC50 value of (1.26±0.04)×10(-6)molL(-1). The results of fluorescence titrations indicated that chrysin bound to XO with high affinity, and the interaction was predominately driven by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. Analysis of circular dichroism demonstrated that chrysin induced the conformational change of XO with increases in α-helix and β-sheet and reductions in β-turn and random coil structures. Molecular simulation revealed that chrysin interacted with the amino acid residues Leu648, Phe649, Glu802, Leu873, Ser876, Glu879, Arg880, Phe1009, Thr1010, Val1011 and Phe1013 located within the active cavity of XO. The mechanism of chrysin on XO activity may be the insertion of chrysin into the active site occupying the catalytic center of XO to avoid the entrance of xanthine and causing conformational changes in XO. Furthermore, the interaction assays indicated that chrysin and its structural analog apigenin exhibited an additive effect on inhibition of XO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimetastatic Effects of a Novel Telomerase Inhibitor, GRN163L, on Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    A.M. Olovnikov, A theory of marginotomy — the incomplete copying of template margin in enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides and biological...dietary polyphenols is a major mechanism for limiting the C an ce r C el l B io lo gy 330 Telomerase inhibition and tumor-initiating cells Int. J. Cancer...I (Qiagen). A total of 1 mg RNA was subjected to a cDNA synthesis kit (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). One-tenth of the cDNA was subjected to a 25-ml PCR

  1. DNA damage protection and 5-lipoxygenase inhibiting activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA damage caused by free radical is associated with mutation-based health impairment. The protective effect on DNA damage mediated by hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite radical, and the inhibiting activity on 5-lipoxygenase of areca inflorescence extracts were studied in vitro. The results show that the boiling water ...

  2. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by valproic acid blocks adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace, Diane C; Nachtigal, Mark W

    2004-04-30

    Adipogenesis is dependent on the sequential activation of transcription factors including the CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), and steroid regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). We show that the mood stabilizing drug valproic acid (VPA; 0.5-2 mm) inhibits mouse 3T3 L1 and human preadipocyte differentiation, likely through its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory properties. The HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) also inhibited adipogenesis, whereas the VPA analog valpromide, which does not possess HDAC inhibitory effects, did not prevent adipogenesis. Acute or chronic VPA treatment inhibited differentiation yet did not affect mitotic clonal expansion. VPA (1 mm) inhibited PPARgamma induced differentiation but does not activate a PPARgamma reporter gene, suggesting that it is not a PPARgamma ligand. VPA or TSA treatment reduced mRNA and protein levels of PPARgamma and SREBP1a. TSA reduced C/EBPalpha mRNA and protein levels, whereas VPA only produced a decrease in C/EBPalpha protein expression. Overall our results highlight a role for HDAC activity in adipogenesis that can be blocked by treatment with VPA.

  3. Inhibition of tyrosinase activity and melanine pigmentation by 2-hydroxytyrosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Uchida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 2-Hydroxytyrosol (2-HT, originally reported as a synthetic compound, was isolated for the first time as a fungal metabolite. 2-HT was found to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 13.0 µmol/L. Furthermore, 2-HT dose-dependently inhibited tyrosinase activity (IC50, 32.5 µmol/L in the cell-free extract of B16 melanoma cells and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH-stimulated melanin formation in intact B16 melanoma cells.

  4. Linalool inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianqun; Xu, Hai; Wu, Jun; Qu, Changfa; Sun, Fenglin; Xu, Shidong

    2015-12-01

    Linalool, a natural compound that exists in the essential oils of several aromatic plants species, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of linalool on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced acute lung inflammation have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of linalool on CS-induced acute lung inflammation in mice. Linalool was given i.p. to mice 2h before CS exposure daily for five consecutive days. The numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. The production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1 were detected by ELISA. The expression of NF-κB was detected by Western blotting. Our results showed that treatment of linalool significantly attenuated CS-induced lung inflammation, coupled with inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1 production. Meanwhile, treatment of linalool inhibited CS-induced lung MPO activity and pathological changes. Furthermore, linalool suppressed CS-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that linalool protected against CS-induced lung inflammation through inhibiting CS-induced NF-κB activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of telomere recombination by inactivation of KEOPS subunit Cgi121 promotes cell longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Peng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA double strand break (DSB is one of the major damages that cause genome instability and cellular aging. The homologous recombination (HR-mediated repair of DSBs plays an essential role in assurance of genome stability and cell longevity. Telomeres resemble DSBs and are competent for HR. Here we show that in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomere recombination elicits genome instability and accelerates cellular aging. Inactivation of KEOPS subunit Cgi121 specifically inhibits telomere recombination, and significantly extends cell longevity in both telomerase-positive and pre-senescing telomerase-negative cells. Deletion of CGI121 in the short-lived yku80(tel mutant restores lifespan to cgi121Δ level, supporting the function of Cgi121 in telomeric single-stranded DNA generation and thus in promotion of telomere recombination. Strikingly, inhibition of telomere recombination is able to further slow down the aging process in long-lived fob1Δ cells, in which rDNA recombination is restrained. Our study indicates that HR activity at telomeres interferes with telomerase to pose a negative impact on cellular longevity.

  6. Xanthine Oxidase: Isolation, Assays of Activity, and Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela A. Kostić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidase (XO is an important enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid which is excreted by kidneys. Excessive production and/or inadequate excretion of uric acid results in hyperuricemia. This paper presents a detailed review of methods of isolation, determination of xanthine oxidase activity, and the effect of plant extracts and their constituents on it. Determining the content and activities of XO can be used for diagnostic purposes. Testing inhibition of XO is important for detection of potentially effective compounds or extracts that can be used to treat diseases that are caused by increased activity of XO. In vitro bioassays are used to examine test material for XO inhibition, as inhibitors of XO may be potentially useful for the treatment of gout or other XO induced diseases. Several authors reported on the XO inhibitory potential of traditionally used medicinal plants.

  7. Doxycycline indirectly inhibits proteolytic activation of tryptic kallikrein-related peptidases and activation of cathelicidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, Kimberly N; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Gallo, Richard L

    2012-05-01

    The increased abundance and activity of cathelicidin and kallikrein 5 (KLK5), a predominant trypsin-like serine protease (TLSP) in the stratum corneum, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rosacea, a disorder treated by the use of low-dose doxycycline. Here we hypothesized that doxycycline can inhibit activation of tryptic KLKs through an indirect mechanism by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in keratinocytes. The capacity of doxycycline to directly inhibit enzyme activity was measured in surface collections of human facial skin and extracts of cultured keratinocytes by fluorescence polarization assay against fluorogenic substrates specific for MMPs or TLSPs. Doxycycline did inhibit MMP activity but did not directly inhibit serine protease activity against a fluorogenic substrate specific for TLSPs. However, when doxycycline or other MMP inhibitors were added to live keratinocytes during the production of tryptic KLKs, this treatment indirectly resulted in decreased TLSP activity. Furthermore, doxycycline under these conditions inhibited the generation of the cathelicidin peptide LL-37 from its precursor protein hCAP18, a process dependent on KLK activity. These results demonstrate that doxycycline can prevent cathelicidin activation, and suggest a previously unknown mechanism of action for doxycycline through inhibiting generation of active cathelicidin peptides.

  8. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori haemagglutination activity by human salivary mucins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, A; Tzouvelekis, L; Spiliadis, C; Blackwell, C C; Weir, D M

    1990-10-01

    Thirty isolates of Helicobacter pylori from gastric biopsies agglutinated human erythrocyte suspensions. Crude mucin preparations derived from saliva of 20 different donors were examined for their ability to inhibit haemagglutination. All mucin preparations exhibited strong inhibitory activity. Removal of sialic residues from mucin preparations by treatment with neuraminidase resulted in a substantial reduction of their inhibitory activity. The mucin preparations had no bactericidal or aggregation activity for H. pylori. These results are discussed in the context of the role of mucins in colonization of the gastric mucosa by H. pylori.

  9. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Naka, Tetsuji; Ogata, Atsushi; Shima, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1

  10. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  11. Altered brain activation during response inhibition in obstructive sleep apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Ayalon, Liat; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Drummond, Sean PA

    2009-01-01

    This study examined response inhibition during a Go-NoGo task in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Fourteen OSA patients and 14 controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Compared to Controls, the OSA group showed more false positives (error of commission) during the NoGo trials with decreased brain activation in the left postcentral gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and inferior parietal lobe, as well as right insula and putamen. This is consistent with prev...

  12. Artemisinin inhibits chloroplast electron transport activity: mode of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyasha Bharati

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo, behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

  13. Positive feedback-loop of telomerase reverse transcriptase and 15-lipoxygenase-2 promotes pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Shen

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is characterized with pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling mediated by 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO/15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE according to our previous studies. Meanwhile, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT activity is highly correlated with vascular injury and remodeling, suggesting that TERT may be an essential determinant in the development of PH. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution and molecular mechanisms of TERT in the pathogenesis of PH.We measured the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP and ventricular weight, analyzed morphometric change of the pulmonary vessels in the hypoxia or monocrotaline treated rats. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, transwell assay and flow cytometry in pulmonary smooth muscle cells were performed to investigate the roles and relationship of TERT and 15-LO/15-HETE in PH. We revealed that the expression of TERT was increased in pulmonary vasculature of patients with PH and in the monocrotaline or hypoxia rat model of PH. The up-regulation of TERT was associated with experimental elevated RVSP and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments identified TERT as a novel interacting partner of 15-LO-2. TERT and 15-LO-2 augmented protein expression of each other. In addition, the proliferation, migration and cell-cycle transition from G0/G1 phase to S phase induced by hypoxia were inhibited by TERT knockdown, which were rescued by 15-HETE addition.These results demonstrate that TERT regulates pulmonary vascular remodeling. TERT and 15-LO-2 form a positive feedback loop and together promote proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, creating a self-amplifying circuit which propels pulmonary hypertension.

  14. Inhibition of Neuroinflammation in LPS-Activated Microglia by Cryptolepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumayokun A. Olajide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptolepine, an indoloquinoline alkaloid in Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, has anti-inflammatory property. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of cryptolepine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS- induced neuroinflammation in rat microglia and its potential mechanisms. Microglial activation was induced by stimulation with LPS, and the effects of cryptolepine pretreatment on microglial activation and production of proinflammatory mediators, PGE2/COX-2, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase and nitric oxide/iNOS were investigated. We further elucidated the role of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB and the mitogen-activated protein kinases in the antiinflammatory actions of cryptolepine in LPS-stimulated microglia. Our results showed that cryptolepine significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β, nitric oxide, and PGE2. Protein and mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS were also attenuated by cryptolepine. Further experiments on intracellular signalling mechanisms show that IκB-independent inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation contributes to the anti-neuroinflammatory actions of cryptolepine. Results also show that cryptolepine inhibited LPS-induced p38 and MAPKAPK2 phosphorylation in the microglia. Cell viability experiments revealed that cryptolepine (2.5 and 5 μM did not produce cytotoxicity in microglia. Taken together, our results suggest that cryptolepine inhibits LPS-induced microglial inflammation by partial targeting of NF-κB signalling and attenuation of p38/MAPKAPK2.

  15. Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside attenuates neuroinflammation through the inhibition of microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yan-Ying; Yang, Jun; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is closely implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. The hallmark of neuroinflammation is the microglia activation. Upon activation, microglia are capable of producing various proinflammatory factors and the accumulation of these factors contribute to the neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation might hold potential therapy for neurological disorders. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), an active component extracted from Polygonum multiflorum, is reported to be beneficial for human health with a great number of pharmacological properties including antioxidant, free radical-scavenging, anti-inflammation, antilipemia, and cardioprotective effects. Recently, TSG-mediated neuroprotective effects have been well demonstrated. However, the neuroprotective actions of TSG on microglia-induced neuroinflammation are not known. In the present study, microglia BV2 cell lines were applied to investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of TSG. Results showed that TSG reduced LPS-induced microglia-derived release of proinflammatory factors such as TNFα, IL-1β, and NO. Moreover, TSG attenuated LPS-induced NADPH oxidase activation and subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Further studies indicated that TSG inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB signaling pathway activation. Together, TSG exerted neuroprotection against microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, suggesting that TSG might present a promising benefit for neurological disorders treatment.

  16. Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Attenuates Neuroinflammation through the Inhibition of Microglia Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation is closely implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. The hallmark of neuroinflammation is the microglia activation. Upon activation, microglia are capable of producing various proinflammatory factors and the accumulation of these factors contribute to the neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation might hold potential therapy for neurological disorders. 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG, an active component extracted from Polygonum multiflorum, is reported to be beneficial for human health with a great number of pharmacological properties including antioxidant, free radical-scavenging, anti-inflammation, antilipemia, and cardioprotective effects. Recently, TSG-mediated neuroprotective effects have been well demonstrated. However, the neuroprotective actions of TSG on microglia-induced neuroinflammation are not known. In the present study, microglia BV2 cell lines were applied to investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of TSG. Results showed that TSG reduced LPS-induced microglia-derived release of proinflammatory factors such as TNFα, IL-1β, and NO. Moreover, TSG attenuated LPS-induced NADPH oxidase activation and subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Further studies indicated that TSG inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB signaling pathway activation. Together, TSG exerted neuroprotection against microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, suggesting that TSG might present a promising benefit for neurological disorders treatment.

  17. Oxidative stress inhibition and oxidant activity by fibrous clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Fibrous clays (sepiolite, palygorskite) are produced at 1.2m tonnes per year and have a wide range of industrial applications needing to replace long-fibre length asbestos. However, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the effect of sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejón El Rubio, Spain) on cell damage via oxidative stress (determined as the progress of lipid peroxidation, LP). The extent of LP was assessed using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances assay. The oxidant activity by fibrous clays was quantified using Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance. Sepiolite and palygorskite inhibited LP, whereby corresponding IC50 values were 6557±1024 and 4250±289μgmL(-1). As evidenced by dose-response experiments LP inhibition by palygorskite was surface-controlled. Fibrous clay surfaces did not stabilize HO species, except for suspensions containing 5000μgmL(-1). A strong oxidant (or weak anti-oxidant) activity favours the inhibition of LP by fibrous clays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MMS 1001 inhibits melanin synthesis via ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-E; Song, Jiho; Kim, Su Yeon; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2013-03-01

    Melanin plays major a role in pigmentation of hair, eyes, and skin in mammals. In this study, the inhibitory effects of MMS 1001 on alpha-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis were investigated in B16F10 melanoma cells. MMS 1001 did not show cytotoxic effects up to 10 microM. Melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity were inhibited by MMS 1001 treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In Western blot analysis, MITF expression was decreased by MMS 1001. In addition, tyrosinase expressions were also reduced after MMS 1001 treatment. Further results showed that the phosphorylation of ERK was induced by MMS 1001. Moreover, a specific MEK inhibitor, PD98059, abrogated the inhibitory effects of MMS 1001 on melanin production and tyrosinase expression. These results indicate that the hypopigmentary effects of MMS 1001 resulted from the inhibition of MITF and tyrosinase expression via phosphorylation of ERK. Thus, MMS 1001 could be developed as a new effective skin-whitening agent.

  19. Metformin inhibits glutaminase activity and protects against hepatic encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ampuero

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the influence of metformin use on liver dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy in a retrospective cohort of diabetic cirrhotic patients. To analyze the impact of metformin on glutaminase activity and ammonia production in vitro. METHODS: Eighty-two cirrhotic patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Forty-one patients were classified as insulin sensitizers experienced (metformin and 41 as controls (cirrhotic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without metformin treatment. Baseline analysis included: insulin, glucose, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, TNFr2, AST, ALT. HOMA-IR was calculated. Baseline HE risk was calculated according to minimal hepatic encephalopathy, oral glutamine challenge and mutations in glutaminase gene. We performed an experimental study in vitro including an enzymatic activity assay where glutaminase inhibition was measured according to different metformin concentrations. In Caco2 cells, glutaminase activity inhibition was evaluated by ammonia production at 24, 48 and 72 hours after metformina treatment. RESULTS: Hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed during follow-up in 23.2% (19/82: 4.9% (2/41 in patients receiving metformin and 41.5% (17/41 in patients without metformin treatment (logRank 9.81; p=0.002. In multivariate analysis, metformin use [H.R.11.4 (95% CI: 1.2-108.8; p=0.034], age at diagnosis [H.R.1.12 (95% CI: 1.04-1.2; p=0.002], female sex [H.R.10.4 (95% CI: 1.5-71.6; p=0.017] and HE risk [H.R.21.3 (95% CI: 2.8-163.4; p=0.003] were found independently associated with hepatic encephalopathy. In the enzymatic assay, glutaminase activity inhibition reached 68% with metformin 100 mM. In Caco2 cells, metformin (20 mM decreased glutaminase activity up to 24% at 72 hours post-treatment (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin was found independently related to overt hepatic encephalopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high risk of hepatic encephalopathy. Metformin inhibits glutaminase

  20. Metformin inhibits glutaminase activity and protects against hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Javier; Ranchal, Isidora; Nuñez, David; Díaz-Herrero, María del Mar; Maraver, Marta; del Campo, José Antonio; Rojas, Ángela; Camacho, Inés; Figueruela, Blanca; Bautista, Juan D; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the influence of metformin use on liver dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy in a retrospective cohort of diabetic cirrhotic patients. To analyze the impact of metformin on glutaminase activity and ammonia production in vitro. Eighty-two cirrhotic patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Forty-one patients were classified as insulin sensitizers experienced (metformin) and 41 as controls (cirrhotic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without metformin treatment). Baseline analysis included: insulin, glucose, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, TNFr2, AST, ALT. HOMA-IR was calculated. Baseline HE risk was calculated according to minimal hepatic encephalopathy, oral glutamine challenge and mutations in glutaminase gene. We performed an experimental study in vitro including an enzymatic activity assay where glutaminase inhibition was measured according to different metformin concentrations. In Caco2 cells, glutaminase activity inhibition was evaluated by ammonia production at 24, 48 and 72 hours after metformina treatment. Hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed during follow-up in 23.2% (19/82): 4.9% (2/41) in patients receiving metformin and 41.5% (17/41) in patients without metformin treatment (logRank 9.81; p=0.002). In multivariate analysis, metformin use [H.R.11.4 (95% CI: 1.2-108.8); p=0.034], age at diagnosis [H.R.1.12 (95% CI: 1.04-1.2); p=0.002], female sex [H.R.10.4 (95% CI: 1.5-71.6); p=0.017] and HE risk [H.R.21.3 (95% CI: 2.8-163.4); p=0.003] were found independently associated with hepatic encephalopathy. In the enzymatic assay, glutaminase activity inhibition reached 68% with metformin 100 mM. In Caco2 cells, metformin (20 mM) decreased glutaminase activity up to 24% at 72 hours post-treatment (p<0.05). Metformin was found independently related to overt hepatic encephalopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high risk of hepatic encephalopathy. Metformin inhibits glutaminase activity in vitro. Therefore, metformin use seems

  1. Immortalization of human CD8+ T cell clones by ectopic expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijberg, E.; Ruizendaal, J. J.; Snijders, P. J.; Kueter, E. W.; Walboomers, J. M.; Spits, H.

    2000-01-01

    Replicative senescence of T cells is correlated with erosion of telomere ends. Telomerase plays a key role in maintaining telomere length. Therefore, it is thought that telomerase regulates the life span of T cells. To test this hypothesis, we have over-expressed human telomerase reverse

  2. DMSO inhibits human platelet activation through cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition. A novel agent for drug eluting stents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, Lars; Tanner, Felix C.; Sudano, Isabella; Luescher, Thomas F.; Camici, Giovanni G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: DMSO is routinely infused together with hematopoietic cells in patients undergoing myeloablative therapy and was recently found to inhibit smooth muscle cells proliferation and arterial thrombus formation in the mouse by preventing tissue factor (TF), a key activator of the coagulation cascade. This study was designed to investigate whether DMSO prevents platelet activation and thus, whether it may represent an interesting agent to be used on drug eluting stents. Methods and results: Human venous blood from healthy volunteers was collected in citrated tubes and platelet activation was studied by cone and platelet analyzer (CPA) and rapid-platelet-function-assay (RPFA). CPA analysis showed that DMSO-treated platelets exhibit a lower adherence in response to shear stress (-15.54 ± 0.9427%, n = 5, P < 0.0001 versus control). Additionally, aggregometry studies revealed that DMSO-treated, arachidonate-stimulated platelets had an increased lag phase (18.0% ± 4.031, n = 9, P = 0.0004 versus control) as well as a decreased maximal aggregation (-6.388 ± 2.212%, n = 6, P = 0.0162 versus control). Inhibitory action of DMSO could be rescued by exogenous thromboxane A2 and was mediated, at least in part, by COX-1 inhibition. Conclusions: Clinically relevant concentrations of DMSO impair platelet activation by a thromboxane A2-dependent, COX-1-mediated effect. This finding may be crucial for the previously reported anti-thrombotic property displayed by DMSO. Our findings support a role for DMSO as a novel drug to prevent not only proliferation, but also thrombotic complications of drug eluting stents.

  3. Global gene expression response to telomerase in bovine adrenocortical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrault, Steven D.; Hornsby, Peter J.; Betts, Dean H.

    2005-01-01

    The infinite proliferative capability of most immortalized cells is dependent upon the presence of the enzyme telomerase and its ability to maintain telomere length and structure. However, telomerase may be involved in a greater system than telomere length regulation, as recent evidence has shown it capable of increasing wound healing in vivo, and improving cellular proliferation rate and survival from apoptosis in vitro. Here, we describe the global gene expression response to ectopic telomerase expression in an in vitro bovine adrenocortical cell model. Telomerase-immortalized cells showed an increased ability for proliferation and survival in minimal essential medium above cells transgenic for GFP. cDNA microarray analyses revealed an altered cell state indicative of increased adrenocortical cell proliferation regulated by the IGF2 pathway and alterations in members of the TGF-B family. As well, we identified alterations in genes associated with development and wound healing that support a model that high telomerase expression induces a highly adaptable, progenitor-like state

  4. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  5. Copper oxide nanoparticles inhibit the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashock, Michael J; Kappell, Anthony D; Hallaj, Nadia; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used increasingly in industrial applications and consumer products and thus may pose risk to human and environmental health. The interaction of CuO NPs with complex media and the impact on cell metabolism when exposed to sublethal concentrations are largely unknown. In the present study, the short-term effects of 2 different sized manufactured CuO NPs on metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The role of released Cu(2+) during dissolution of NPs in the growth media and the CuO nanostructure were considered. Characterization showed that the 28 nm and 64 nm CuO NPs used in the present study have different primary diameter, similar hydrodynamic diameter, and significantly different concentrations of dissolved Cu(2+) ions in the growth media released from the same initial NP mass. Exposures to CuO NPs or the released Cu(2+) fraction, at doses that do not have impact on cell viability, showed significant inhibition on S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. A greater CuO NP effect on the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae growth under respiring conditions was observed. Under the tested conditions the observed metabolic inhibition from the NPs was not explained fully by the released Cu ions from the dissolving NPs. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Activation and inhibition of transglutaminase 2 in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Dafik

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase 2 (TG2 is an allosterically regulated enzyme with transamidating, deamidating and cell signaling activities. It is thought to catalyze sequence-specific deamidation of dietary gluten peptides in the small intestines of celiac disease patients. Because this modification has profound consequences for disease pathogenesis, there is considerable interest in the design of small molecule TG2 inhibitors. Although many classes of TG2 inhibitors have been reported, thus far an animal model for screening them to identify promising celiac drug candidates has remained elusive. Using intraperitoneal administration of the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 ligand, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I∶C, we induced rapid TG2 activation in the mouse small intestine. Dose dependence was observed in the activation of TG2 as well as the associated villous atrophy, gross clinical response, and rise in serum concentration of the IL-15/IL-15R complex. TG2 activity was most pronounced in the upper small intestine. No evidence of TG2 activation was observed in the lung mucosa, nor were TLR7/8 ligands able to elicit an analogous response. Introduction of ERW1041E, a small molecule TG2 inhibitor, in this mouse model resulted in TG2 inhibition in the small intestine. TG2 inhibition had no effect on villous atrophy, suggesting that activation of this enzyme is a consequence, rather than a cause, of poly(I∶C induced enteropathy. Consistent with this finding, administration of poly(I∶C to TG2 knockout mice also induced villous atrophy. Our findings pave the way for pharmacological evaluation of small molecule TG2 inhibitors as drug candidates for celiac disease.

  7. Activation and inhibition of transglutaminase 2 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafik, Laila; Albertelli, Megan; Stamnaes, Jorunn; Sollid, Ludvig M; Khosla, Chaitan

    2012-01-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an allosterically regulated enzyme with transamidating, deamidating and cell signaling activities. It is thought to catalyze sequence-specific deamidation of dietary gluten peptides in the small intestines of celiac disease patients. Because this modification has profound consequences for disease pathogenesis, there is considerable interest in the design of small molecule TG2 inhibitors. Although many classes of TG2 inhibitors have been reported, thus far an animal model for screening them to identify promising celiac drug candidates has remained elusive. Using intraperitoneal administration of the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I∶C)), we induced rapid TG2 activation in the mouse small intestine. Dose dependence was observed in the activation of TG2 as well as the associated villous atrophy, gross clinical response, and rise in serum concentration of the IL-15/IL-15R complex. TG2 activity was most pronounced in the upper small intestine. No evidence of TG2 activation was observed in the lung mucosa, nor were TLR7/8 ligands able to elicit an analogous response. Introduction of ERW1041E, a small molecule TG2 inhibitor, in this mouse model resulted in TG2 inhibition in the small intestine. TG2 inhibition had no effect on villous atrophy, suggesting that activation of this enzyme is a consequence, rather than a cause, of poly(I∶C) induced enteropathy. Consistent with this finding, administration of poly(I∶C) to TG2 knockout mice also induced villous atrophy. Our findings pave the way for pharmacological evaluation of small molecule TG2 inhibitors as drug candidates for celiac disease.

  8. A gene expression signature classifying telomerase and ALT immortalization reveals an hTERT regulatory network and suggests a mesenchymal stem cell origin for ALT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafferty-Whyte, K; Cairney, C J; Will, M B

    2009-01-01

    Telomere length is maintained by two known mechanisms, the activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The molecular mechanisms regulating the ALT phenotype are poorly understood and it is unknown how the decision of which pathway to activate is made at the cellular le...

  9. Telomere stability and telomerase in mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Graakjaer, Jesper; Kølvrå, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Telomeres are repetitive genetic material that cap and thereby protect the ends of chromosomes. Each time a cell divides, telomeres get shorter. Telomere length is mainly maintained by telomerase. This enzyme is present in high concentrations in the embryonic stem cells and in fast growing...... embryonic cells, and declines with age. It is still unclear to what extent there is telomerase in adult stem cells, but since these are the founder cells of cells of all the tissues in the body, understanding the telomere dynamics and expression of telomerase in adult stem cells is very important....... In the present communication we focus on telomere expression and telomere length in stem cells, with a special focus on mesenchymal stem cells. We consider different mechanisms by which stem cells can maintain telomeres and also focus on the dynamics of telomere length in mesenchymal stem cells, both the overall...

  10. Curcumin delays endometriosis development by inhibiting MMP-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sayantan; Rudra, Deep Sankar; Paul, Sumit; Snehasikta, Swarnakar

    2012-10-01

    Endometriosis is a common reproductive disorder believed to be associated with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activities for invasion and remodeling of endometrial tissues. Ectopic endometrium has higher capacity to produce proMMP-2 than eutopic tissues; however, the role of MMP-2 during early phase of endometriosis development is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of MMP-2 in establishment and development of endometriosis in mouse model. The effect of curcumin on regression of endometriosis through protease/antiprotease balance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 was also examined. After endometrial inoculation into peritoneum, we observed a significant elevation of proMMP-2 activity from day 2 onwards. This increased MMP-2 activity was associated with decreased expression of tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-2, while a significant up-regulation of active MMP-2 activity was observed from day 3 onwards. The activation of proMMP-2 to active MMP-2 was associated with increased expression of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1MMP). Curcumin at a dose of 48 mg/kg b.w. repressed the MMP-2 activity via up-regulation of bound TIMP-2 expression, thus delayed endometriosis development. In addition, curcumin inhibited production of active MMP-2 by down-regulating MT1MMP expression. Moreover, endometriotic progression was directly linked with increased MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio which was delayed by curcumin pretreatment. In summary, our study documents the regulation of MMP-2 activity by TIMP-2 during the early phase of endometriosis development and inhibitory action of curcumin thereon.

  11. Fast inhibition of glutamate-activated currents by caffeine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P Vyleta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caffeine stimulates calcium-induced calcium release (CICR in many cell types. In neurons, caffeine stimulates CICR presynaptically and thus modulates neurotransmitter release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique we found that caffeine (20 mM reversibly increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs in neocortical neurons. The increase in mEPSC frequency is consistent with a presynaptic mechanism. Caffeine also reduced exogenously applied glutamate-activated currents, confirming a separate postsynaptic action. This inhibition developed in tens of milliseconds, consistent with block of channel currents. Caffeine (20 mM did not reduce currents activated by exogenous NMDA, indicating that caffeine block is specific to non-NMDA type glutamate receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Caffeine-induced inhibition of mEPSC amplitude occurs through postsynaptic block of non-NMDA type ionotropic glutamate receptors. Caffeine thus has both pre and postsynaptic sites of action at excitatory synapses.

  12. Amiloride inhibits rat mucosal ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich-Baker, M.G.; Wang, P.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Johnson, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    Refeeding fasted rats induces a dramatic trophic response in gastrointestinal mucosa and is associated with elevations in both rate of DNA synthesis and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. The signal for these increases is unknown. Amiloride prevents cell alkalinization by blocking Na + -H + exchange at apical epithelial cell membranes. In study 1, rats were fasted 48 h, treated with amiloride (0.5 to 500 mg/kg), and refed for 4 h. Refeeding increased ODC activities in the jejunal mucosa (X8) and liver (X19) but not in the oxyntic gland mucosa. In the jejunum, but not the liver, the activation of ODC was completely abolished by 100 mg/kg amiloride. In study 2, the rate of DNA synthesis was determine by measuring the rate of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation 16 h after refeeding. Refeeding resulted in significantly increased rates of DNA synthesis over fasted levels, and amiloride at 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevations in the jejenum and liver. In conclusion, amiloride inhibits the postprandial increases in jejunal ODC activity and DNA synthesis in the jejunum and liver. The results indicate that (1) the Na + -H + antiport is essential to the increased ODC activity in the jejunum and liver after a meal and (2) increases in DNA synthesis and their suppression by amiloride are not necessary linked to ODC activity

  13. Amiloride inhibits rat mucosal ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis

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    Ulrich-Baker, M.G.; Wang, P.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Johnson, L.R. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston (USA))

    1988-03-01

    Refeeding fasted rats induces a dramatic trophic response in gastrointestinal mucosa and is associated with elevations in both rate of DNA synthesis and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. The signal for these increases is unknown. Amiloride prevents cell alkalinization by blocking Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchange at apical epithelial cell membranes. In study 1, rats were fasted 48 h, treated with amiloride (0.5 to 500 mg/kg), and refed for 4 h. Refeeding increased ODC activities in the jejunal mucosa (X8) and liver (X19) but not in the oxyntic gland mucosa. In the jejunum, but not the liver, the activation of ODC was completely abolished by 100 mg/kg amiloride. In study 2, the rate of DNA synthesis was determine by measuring the rate of ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation 16 h after refeeding. Refeeding resulted in significantly increased rates of DNA synthesis over fasted levels, and amiloride at 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevations in the jejenum and liver. In conclusion, amiloride inhibits the postprandial increases in jejunal ODC activity and DNA synthesis in the jejunum and liver. The results indicate that (1) the Na{sup +}-H{sup +} antiport is essential to the increased ODC activity in the jejunum and liver after a meal and (2) increases in DNA synthesis and their suppression by amiloride are not necessary linked to ODC activity.

  14. Altered brain activation during response inhibition in obstructive sleep apnea.

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    Ayalon, Liat; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Drummond, Sean Pa

    2009-06-01

    This study examined response inhibition during a Go-NoGo task in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Fourteen OSA patients and 14 controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, the OSA group showed more false positives (error of commission) during the NoGo trials with decreased brain activation in the left postcentral gyrus, cingulate gyrus and inferior parietal lobe, as well as right insula and putamen. This is consistent with previous findings of impaired performance and decreased brain activation in OSA patients during a working memory task, suggesting that compromised brain function in response to cognitive challenges may underlie some of the cognitive deficits seen in patients with OSA.

  15. Toosendanin inhibits adipogenesis by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

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    Chen, Tian-Xing; Cheng, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Yun; Yin, Wu

    2018-03-15

    Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities. However, its anti-adipogenic effect remains unknown. Here, we found that TSN dose-dependently attenuated lipid accumulation in preadipocytes 3T3-L1 as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. TSN also significantly downregulated mRNA and protein levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipocytes. To understand the mechanism, we observed that TSN effectively activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in which TSN increased low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6, disheveled 2, β-catenin, and cyclin D1 expression levels, while it inactivated glycogen synthase kinase 3β by enhancing its phosphorylation. Moreover, TSN reduced weight of gonadal white fat and serum triacylglycerol (TAG) content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Interestingly, the in vivo studies also demonstrated that TSN promoted the expression of β-catenin, but accordingly repressed C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ expression in HFD-induced mice. Overall, TSN is capable of inhibiting the lipogenesis of adipocytes by activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, suggesting potential application of TSN as a natural anti-obesity agent.

  16. Activating and inhibiting connections in biological network dynamics

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    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of biochemical networks have analyzed network topology. Such work has suggested that specific types of network wiring may increase network robustness and therefore confer a selective advantage. However, knowledge of network topology does not allow one to predict network dynamical behavior – for example, whether deleting a protein from a signaling network would maintain the network's dynamical behavior, or induce oscillations or chaos. Results Here we report that the balance between activating and inhibiting connections is important in determining whether network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. We use a simple dynamical model of a network of interacting genes or proteins. Using the model, we study random networks, networks selected for robust dynamics, and examples of biological network topologies. The fraction of activating connections influences whether the network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. Conclusion The activating fraction may predispose a network to oscillate or reach steady state, and neutral evolution or selection of this parameter may affect the behavior of biological networks. This principle may unify the dynamics of a wide range of cellular networks. Reviewers Reviewed by Sergei Maslov, Eugene Koonin, and Yu (Brandon Xia (nominated by Mark Gerstein. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  17. Cinnamon effectively inhibits the activity of leukemia stem cells.

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    Guan, X; Su, M C; Zhao, R B; Ouyang, H M; Dong, X D; Hu, P; Pei, Q; Lu, J; Li, Z F; Zhang, C R; Yang, T-H

    2016-08-19

    Cinnamon is the main component of Sanyangxuedai, which is one of the effective traditional Chinese medicines for treating malignancies. Leukemia is a prevalent malignant disease that Sanyangxuedai has been used to treat. Although successful in several studies, there is a lack of solid evidence as to why Sanyangxuedai has an effect on leukemia, and little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the active ingredients of cinnamon were isolated, purified, and identified. The transwell transport pool formed with the Caco-2 cell model was used to filter the active ingredients of cinnamon by simulating the gastrointestinal barrier in vitro. Moreover, the cell morphology, cell cycle status, apoptosis status, and antigenic variation of the cell surface antigens were observed and measured in K562 cells after treatment with the active ingredients of cinnamon. Our results showed that 50-75 μM was a safe concentration of cinnamon extract for treatment of K562 cells for 72 h. The cinnamon extract caused growth inhibition of K562 cells. Cinnamon extract seemed to arrest the cells at the G1 stage and increased the apoptosis rate significantly. Interestingly, cinnamon extract treatment upregulated the expression of erythroid and myeloid differentiation antigens and downregulated that of the megakaryocytic differentiation antigens in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that cinnamon extract from Sanyangxuedai may be effective for treating leukemia.

  18. Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits Human Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation

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    Fuentes, Eduardo; Caballero, Julio; Alarcón, Marcelo; Rojas, Armando; Palomo, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlorogenic acid is a potent phenolic antioxidant. However, its effect on platelet aggregation, a critical factor in arterial thrombosis, remains unclear. Consequently, chlorogenic acid-action mechanisms in preventing platelet activation and thrombus formation were examined. Methods and Results Chlorogenic acid in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 to 1 mmol/L) inhibited platelet secretion and aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid and TRAP-6, and diminished platelet firm adhesion/aggregation and platelet-leukocyte interactions under flow conditions. At these concentrations chlorogenic acid significantly decreased platelet inflammatory mediators (sP-selectin, sCD40L, CCL5 and IL-1β) and increased intraplatelet cAMP levels/PKA activation. Interestingly, SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor) and ZM241385 (a potent A2A receptor antagonist) attenuated the antiplatelet effect of chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid is compatible to the active site of the adenosine A2A receptor as revealed through molecular modeling. In addition, chlorogenic acid had a significantly lower effect on mouse bleeding time when compared to the same dose of aspirin. Conclusions Antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of chlorogenic acid are associated with the A2A receptor/adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. PMID:24598787

  19. Nicotinamide mononucleotide inhibits JNK activation to reverse Alzheimer disease.

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    Yao, Zhiwen; Yang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhiqiang; Jia, Peng

    2017-04-24

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers have been accepted as major neurotoxic agents in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been shown that the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is related with the decline of Aβ toxicity in AD. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the important precursor of NAD+, is produced during the reaction of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt). This study aimed to figure out the potential therapeutic effects of NMN and its underlying mechanisms in APPswe/PS1dE9 (AD-Tg) mice. We found that NMN gave rise to a substantial improvement in behavioral measures of cognitive impairments compared to control AD-Tg mice. In addition, NMN treatment significantly decreased β-amyloid production, amyloid plaque burden, synaptic loss, and inflammatory responses in transgenic animals. Mechanistically, NMN effectively controlled JNK activation. Furthermore, NMN potently progressed nonamyloidogenic amyloid precursor protein (APP) and suppressed amyloidogenic APP by mediating the expression of APP cleavage secretase in AD-Tg mice. Based on our findings, it was suggested that NMN substantially decreases multiple AD-associated pathological characteristically at least partially by the inhibition of JNK activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Notch inhibits Yorkie activity in Drosophila wing discs.

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    Alexandre Djiane

    Full Text Available During development, tissues and organs must coordinate growth and patterning so they reach the right size and shape. During larval stages, a dramatic increase in size and cell number of Drosophila wing imaginal discs is controlled by the action of several signaling pathways. Complex cross-talk between these pathways also pattern these discs to specify different regions with different fates and growth potentials. We show that the Notch signaling pathway is both required and sufficient to inhibit the activity of Yorkie (Yki, the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH pathway terminal transcription activator, but only in the central regions of the wing disc, where the TEAD factor and Yki partner Scalloped (Sd is expressed. We show that this cross-talk between the Notch and SWH pathways is mediated, at least in part, by the Notch target and Sd partner Vestigial (Vg. We propose that, by altering the ratios between Yki, Sd and Vg, Notch pathway activation restricts the effects of Yki mediated transcription, therefore contributing to define a zone of low proliferation in the central wing discs.

  1. Urine Telomerase for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer

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    Angela Lamarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has increased incidence during last decades. For those patients with nonmuscle involved tumors, noninvasive diagnosis test and surveillance methods must be designed to avoid current cystoscopies that nowadays are done regularly in a lot of patients. Novel urine biomarkers have been developed during last years. Telomerase is important in cancer biology, improving the division capacity of cancer cells. Even urinary telomerase could be a potentially useful urinary tumor marker; its use for diagnosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients or its impact during surveillance is still unknown. Moreover, there will need to be uniformity and standardization in the assays before it can become useful in clinical practice. It does not seem to exist a real difference between the most classical assays for the detection of urine telomerase (TRAP and hTERT. However, the new detection methods with modified TeloTAGGG telomerase or with gold nanoparticles must also be taken into consideration for the correct development of this diagnosis method. Maybe the target population would be the high-risk groups within screening programs. To date there is no enough evidence to use it alone and to eliminate cystoscopies from the diagnosis and surveillance of these patients. The combination with cytology or FISH is still preferred.

  2. Establishment and characterization of a telomerase immortalized porcine luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Huang, Yong; Wang, Zhenyu; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Hongling; Du, Qian; Chang, Lingling; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2017-05-01

    Luteal cells play a crucial role in pregnancy through secreting progesterone to maintain pregnancy and support of fetus. However, low cellular yields and inability to passage primary porcine luteal cells (PLCs) in vitro limit the luteal cell study. Therefore, developing an immortalized porcine luteal cell line is necessary for studying luteal cells activity and function in different diseases. In this study, primary PLCs were obtained from gilts at day 30 to day 50 of gestation and immortalized by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). The porcine corpus luteal cell line (hTERT-PLCs) expressed hTERT gene steady, maintained high hTERT activity and normal karyotype. The phase contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope observation showed primary PLCs and hTERT-PLCs were polygonal and exhibited abundant mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets. 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) and Oil-Red-O staining showed that hTERT-PLCs at passage 30 and 50 were similar to primary PLCs. The hTERT-PLCs expressed steroidogenesis-related proteins, enzymes and receptors, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage, 3βHSD, 20αHSD, luteinizing hormone receptor, progesterone receptor, prolactin receptor, estrogen receptorα/β, as well as primary PLCs. Consequently, hTERT-PLCs could secret progesterone and exhibited similar responses to luteinizing hormone and prostaglandin F2α as primary PLCs. In addition, the hTERT-PLCs did not show neoplastic transformation or anchorage independent growth. In summary, we developed an immortalized porcine luteal cell line which maintained its originally morphological, biological and functional characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vanadate-induced inhibition of renin secretion is unrelated to inhibition Na,K-ATPase activity

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    Churchill, P.C.; Rossi, N.F.; Churchill, M.C.; Ellis, V.R. (Wayne State Univ. School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (USA))

    1990-01-01

    There is evidence that three inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase activity-ouabain, K-free extracellular fluid, and vanadate--inhibit renin secretion by increasing Ca{sup 2+} concentration in juxtaglomerular cells, but in the case of vanadate, it is uncertain whether the increase in Ca{sup 2+} is due to a decrease in Ca{sup 2+} efflux or to an increase in Ca{sup 2+} influx through potential operated Ca channels. In the present experiments, the rat renal cortical slice preparation was used to compare and contrast the effects of ouabain, of K-free fluid, and of vanadate on renin secretion, in the absence and presence of methoxyverapamil, A Ca channel blocker. Basal renin secretory rate averaged 7.7 {plus minus} 0.3 GU/g/60 min, and secretory rate was reduced to nearly zero by 1 mM ouabain, by K-free fluid, by 0.5 mM vanadate, and by K-depolarization. Although 0.5 {mu}M methoxyverapamil completely blocked the inhibitory effect of K-depolarization, it failed to antagonize the inhibitory effects of ouabain, of K-free fluid, and of vanadate.

  4. Inhibition of 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Attenuates Acute Liver Failure by Inhibiting Macrophage Activation

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    Lu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the role of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO in acute liver failure (ALF and changes in macrophage activation by blocking it. ALF was induced in rats by administration of D-galactosamine (D-GalN/lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with AA-861 (a specific 5-LO inhibitor, 24 hr before D-GalN/LPS administration. After D-GalN/LPS injection, the liver tissue was collected for assessment of histology, macrophage microstructure, macrophage counts, 5-LO mRNA formation, protein expression, and concentration of leukotrienes. Serum was collected for detecting alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, total bilirubin (Tbil, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-α. Twenty-four hours after injection, compared with controls, ALF rats were characterized by widespread hepatocyte necrosis and elevated ALT, AST, and Tbil, and 5-LO protein expression reached a peak. Liver leukotriene B4 was also significantly elevated. However, 5-LO mRNA reached a peak 8 hr after D-GalN/LPS injection. Simultaneously, the microstructure of macrophages was changed most significantly and macrophages counts were increased significantly. Moreover, serum TNF-α was also elevated. By contrast, AA-861 pretreatment significantly decreased liver necrosis as well as all of the parameters compared with the rats without pretreatment. Macrophages, via the 5-LO pathway, play a critical role in ALF, and 5-LO inhibitor significantly alleviates ALF, possibly related to macrophage inhibition.

  5. Proteomic identification of proteins differentially expressed following overexpression of hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase in cancer cells.

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    Rishi Kumar Jaiswal

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase activity of telomerase adds telomeric repeat sequences at extreme ends of the newly replicated chromosome in actively dividing cells. Telomerase expression is not detected in terminally differentiated cells but is noticeable in 90% of the cancer cells. hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression seems to promote invasiveness of cancer cells. We here present proteomic profiles of cells overexpressing or knocked down for hTERT. This study also attempts to find out the potential interacting partners of hTERT in cancer cell lines. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE of two different cell lines U2OS (a naturally hTERT negative cell line and HeLa revealed differential expression of proteins in hTERT over-expressing cells. In U2OS cell line 28 spots were picked among which 23 spots represented upregulated and 5 represented down regulated proteins. In HeLa cells 21 were upregulated and 2 were down regulated out of 23 selected spots under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Some heat shock proteins viz. Hsp60 and Hsp70 and GAPDH, which is a housekeeping gene, were found similarly upregulated in both the cell lines. The upregulation of these proteins were further confirmed at RNA and protein level by real-time PCR and western blotting respectively.

  6. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene and haploinsufficiency of telomere maintenance in Cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anju; Zheng, Chengyun; Hou, Mi; Lindvall, Charlotta; Li, Ke-Jun; Erlandsson, Fredrik; Björkholm, Magnus; Gruber, Astrid; Blennow, Elisabeth; Xu, Dawei

    2003-04-01

    Cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) results from loss of the distal portion of chromosome 5p, where the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene is localized (5p15.33). hTERT is the rate-limiting component for telomerase activity that is essential for telomere-length maintenance and sustained cell proliferation. Here, we show that a concomitant deletion of the hTERT allele occurs in all 10 patients with CdCS whom we examined. Induction of hTERT mRNA in proliferating lymphocytes derived from five of seven patients was lower than that in unaffected control individuals (P<.05). The patient lymphocytes exhibited shorter telomeres than age-matched unaffected individuals (P<.0001). A reduction in replicative life span and a high rate of chromosome fusions were observed in cultured patient fibroblasts. Reconstitution of telomerase activity by ectopic expression of hTERT extended the telomere length, increased the population doublings, and prevented the end-to-end fusion of chromosomes. We conclude that hTERT is limiting and haploinsufficient for telomere maintenance in humans in vivo. Accordingly, the hTERT deletion may be one genetic element contributing to the phenotypic changes in CdCS.

  7. Telomerase protects adult rodent olfactory ensheathing glia from early senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamusí, María-Beatriz; Rubio, Mari-Paz; Ramón-Cueto, Almudena

    2011-05-01

    Adult olfactory bulb ensheathing glia (OB-OEG) promote the repair of acute, subacute, and chronic spinal cord injuries and autologous transplantation is a feasible approach. There are interspecies differences between adult rodent and primate OB-OEG related to their longevity in culture. Whereas primate OB-OEG exhibit a relatively long life span, under the same culture conditions rodent OB-OEG divide just three to four times, are sensitive to oxidative stress and become senescent after the third week in vitro. Telomerase is a "physiological key regulator" of the life span of normal somatic cells and also has extratelomeric functions such as increased resistance to oxidative stress. To elucidate whether telomerase has a role in the senescence of rodent OB-OEG, we have introduced the catalytic subunit of telomerase mTERT into cultures of these cells by retroviral infection. Native and modified adult rat OB-OEG behaved as telomerase-competent cells as they divided while expressing mTERT but entered senescence once the gene switched off. After ectopic expression of mTERT, OB-OEG resumed division at a nonsenescent rate, expressed p75 and other OEG markers, and exhibited the morphology of nonsenescent OB-OEG. The nonsenescent period of mTERT-OEG lasted 9weeks and then ectopic mTERT switched off and cells entered senescence again. Our results suggest a role of telomerase in early senescence of adult rodent OB-OEG cultures and a protection from oxidative damage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Understanding olfactory ensheathing glia and their prospect for nervous system repair. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Telomerase: An exploration toward the end of cancer.

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    Popli, Deepika Bablani; Sircar, Keya; Chowdhry, Aman

    2017-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of cancer cells is their ability to proliferate indefinitely, which is in contrast to the restricted cell multiplication potential for somatic cells. A better understanding of this contrasting behavior was provided in the early 1990s with the discovery of a relationship between telomeres, telomerase, aging, and cancer. Telomeres (tandem repeat DNA sequence TTAGGG) are protective caps at the ends of human chromosomes. Normal human cells experience telomere shortening with each successive cell division. However, in tumor cells, an overexpression of telomerase confers limitless replicative potential to tumor cells by continuous elongation of telomeres. The objective of this review was to systematically assess the data available on telomerase expression in oral cancer, with special reference to its role in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. A systematic review of studies that investigated the telomerase expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was registered with PROSPERO. Subsequent to registration, a predetermined search strategy in accordance with PRISMA guidelines was formulated, and a literature search was conducted using online databases along with hand searching. Eighty-nine articles from PubMed, 83 from Scopus, 5 from BioMed Central, 43 from Google Scholar, and 2 from hand search were identified. A total of 21 articles were shortlisted that met strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality assessment. Each study was evaluated for the markers under study, type of sample used, study design/methodology, and statistical analysis. The studies were then grouped into three subheads depending on their implications in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of OSCC. This review explains the basic biology and the clinical implications of telomerase-based diagnosis and prognosis, the prospects for its use in anticancer therapy, in the context of oral cancer.

  9. Telomerase: An exploration toward the end of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Bablani Popli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The distinguishing feature of cancer cells is their ability to proliferate indefinitely, which is in contrast to the restricted cell multiplication potential for somatic cells. A better understanding of this contrasting behavior was provided in the early 1990s with the discovery of a relationship between telomeres, telomerase, aging, and cancer. Telomeres (tandem repeat DNA sequence TTAGGG are protective caps at the ends of human chromosomes. Normal human cells experience telomere shortening with each successive cell division. However, in tumor cells, an overexpression of telomerase confers limitless replicative potential to tumor cells by continuous elongation of telomeres. The objective of this review was to systematically assess the data available on telomerase expression in oral cancer, with special reference to its role in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of studies that investigated the telomerase expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC was registered with PROSPERO. Subsequent to registration, a predetermined search strategy in accordance with PRISMA guidelines was formulated, and a literature search was conducted using online databases along with hand searching. Results: Eighty-nine articles from PubMed, 83 from Scopus, 5 from BioMed Central, 43 from Google Scholar, and 2 from hand search were identified. A total of 21 articles were shortlisted that met strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality assessment. Each study was evaluated for the markers under study, type of sample used, study design/methodology, and statistical analysis. The studies were then grouped into three subheads depending on their implications in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of OSCC. Conclusion: This review explains the basic biology and the clinical implications of telomerase-based diagnosis and prognosis, the prospects for its use in anticancer therapy, in the context of oral

  10. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes

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    E. Kheradpezhouh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca2+ entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2 channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5 µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca2+]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50 nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels.

  11. Punicalagin inhibits neuroinflammation in LPS-activated rat primary microglia.

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    Olajide, Olumayokun A; Kumar, Asit; Velagapudi, Ravikanth; Okorji, Uchechukwu P; Fiebich, Bernd L

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the effects of punicalagin on neuroinflammation in LPS-activated microglia were investigated. The ability of punicalagin to reduce the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and prostaglandin E2 was measured in culture medium using enzyme immunoassay. TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression in mouse hippocampal slices was measured with PCR. cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 protein and mRNA were evaluated with Western blotting and PCR, respectively. Further experiments to investigate effects of punicalagin on protein expressions of inflammatory targets were also determined with Western blotting. Pretreatment of rat primary microglia with punicalagin (5-40 μM) prior to LPS (10 ng/mL) stimulation produced a significant (p microglia. These results suggest that punicalagin inhibits neuroinflammation in LPS-activated microglia through interference with NF-κB signalling, suggesting its potential as a nutritional preventive strategy in neurodegenerative disorders. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. MERISTEM DISORGANIZATION1 encodes TEN1, an essential telomere protein that modulates telomerase processivity in Arabidopsis.

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    Leehy, Katherine A; Lee, Jung Ro; Song, Xiangyu; Renfrew, Kyle B; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2013-04-01

    Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage, and they facilitate the complete replication of linear chromosomes. CST [for CTC1(Cdc13)/STN1/TEN1] is a trimeric chromosome end binding complex implicated in both aspects of telomere function. Here, we characterize TEN1 in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We report that TEN1 (for telomeric pathways in association with Stn1, which stands for suppressor of cdc thirteen) is encoded by a previously characterized gene, MERISTEM DISORGANIZATION1 (MDO1). A point mutation in MDO1, mdo1-1/ten1-3 (G77E), triggers stem cell differentiation and death as well as a constitutive DNA damage response. We provide biochemical and genetic evidence that ten1-3 is likely to be a null mutation. As with ctc1 and stn1 null mutants, telomere tracts in ten1-3 are shorter and more heterogeneous than the wild type. Mutants also exhibit frequent telomere fusions, increased single-strand telomeric DNA, and telomeric circles. However, unlike stn1 or ctc1 mutants, telomerase enzyme activity is elevated in ten1-3 mutants due to an increase in repeat addition processivity. In addition, TEN1 is detected at a significantly smaller fraction of telomeres than CTC1. These data indicate that TEN1 is critical for telomere stability and also plays an unexpected role in modulating telomerase enzyme activity.

  13. DAX-1 Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation by Inhibiting β-Catenin Transcriptional Activity

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    Hong-Lei Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC represents the most common type of liver cancer. DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital critical region on X chromosome, gene 1, an atypical member of the nuclear receptor family due to lack of classical DNA-binding domains, has been known for its fundamental roles in the development, especially in the sex determination and steroidogenesis. Previous studies also showed that DAX-1 played a critical role in endocrine and sex steroid-dependent neoplasms such as adrenocortical, pituitary, endometrial, and ovarian tumors. However, its biological roles in the development of HCC remain largely unexplored. Methods: Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of DAX-1 in HCC tissues and cell lines. Immunoprecipitation (IP assay was used to show the interaction between DAX-1 and β-Catenin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA was used to silence the expression of DAX-1. BrdU incorporation and Cell-cycle assays were used to detect the role of DAX-1 in HCC cells proliferation. Migration and invasion assays were carried out to test the metastasis ability of DAX-1 in HCC cells. Results: In the present study, we found that mRNA and protein levels of DAX-1 were down-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, overexpression of DAX-1 could inhibit while its knockdown using small interfering RNA promoted cell proliferation in several HCC cell lines. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that DAX-1 could interact with β-Catenin and attenuate its transcriptional activity. Conclusion: Therefore, our results suggest a previously unknown DAX-1/β-Catenin molecular network controlling HCC development.

  14. Chemotherapeutic-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction: Physiological Effects, Early Detection—The Role of Telomerase to Counteract Mitochondrial Defects and Oxidative Stress

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    Quryshi, Nabeel; Norwood Toro, Laura E.; Ait-Aissa, Karima; Kong, Amanda; Beyer, Andreas M.

    2018-01-01

    Although chemotherapeutics can be highly effective at targeting malignancies, their ability to trigger cardiovascular morbidity is clinically significant. Chemotherapy can adversely affect cardiovascular physiology, resulting in the development of cardiomyopathy, heart failure and microvascular defects. Specifically, anthracyclines are known to cause an excessive buildup of free radical species and mitochondrial DNA damage (mtDNA) that can lead to oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular apoptosis. Therefore, oncologists and cardiologists maintain a network of communication when dealing with patients during treatment in order to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular damage; however, there is a need to discover more accurate biomarkers and therapeutics to combat and predict the onset of cardiovascular side effects. Telomerase, originally discovered to promote cellular proliferation, has recently emerged as a potential mechanism to counteract mitochondrial defects and restore healthy mitochondrial vascular phenotypes. This review details mechanisms currently used to assess cardiovascular damage, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and troponin levels, while also unearthing recently researched biomarkers, including circulating mtDNA, telomere length and telomerase activity. Further, we explore a potential role of telomerase in the mitigation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and maintenance of mtDNA integrity. Telomerase activity presents a promising indicator for the early detection and treatment of chemotherapy-derived cardiac damage. PMID:29534446

  15. A rhodanine derivative CCR-11 inhibits bacterial proliferation by inhibiting the assembly and GTPase activity of FtsZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parminder; Jindal, Bhavya; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal

    2012-07-10

    A perturbation of FtsZ assembly dynamics has been shown to inhibit bacterial cytokinesis. In this study, the antibacterial activity of 151 rhodanine compounds was assayed using Bacillus subtilis cells. Of 151 compounds, eight strongly inhibited bacterial proliferation at 2 μM. Subsequently, we used the elongation of B. subtilis cells as a secondary screen to identify potential FtsZ-targeted antibacterial agents. We found that three compounds significantly increased bacterial cell length. One of the three compounds, namely, CCR-11 [(E)-2-thioxo-5-({[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]furan-2-yl}methylene)thiazolidin-4-one], inhibited the assembly and GTPase activity of FtsZ in vitro. CCR-11 bound to FtsZ with a dissociation constant of 1.5 ± 0.3 μM. A docking analysis indicated that CCR-11 may bind to FtsZ in a cavity adjacent to the T7 loop and that short halogen-oxygen, H-bonding, and hydrophobic interactions might be important for the binding of CCR-11 with FtsZ. CCR-11 inhibited the proliferation of B. subtilis cells with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.2 ± 0.2 μM and a minimal inhibitory concentration of 3 μM. It also potently inhibited proliferation of Mycobacterium smegmatis cells. Further, CCR-11 perturbed Z-ring formation in B. subtilis cells; however, it neither visibly affected nucleoid segregation nor altered the membrane integrity of the cells. CCR-11 inhibited HeLa cell proliferation with an IC(50) value of 18.1 ± 0.2 μM (∼15 × IC(50) of B. subtilis cell proliferation). The results suggested that CCR-11 inhibits bacterial cytokinesis by inhibiting FtsZ assembly, and it can be used as a lead molecule to develop FtsZ-targeted antibacterial agents.

  16. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kellogg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively. The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  17. Inhibition of calmodulin - regulated calcium pump activity in rat brain by toxaphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trottman, C.H.; Moorthy, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo effects of toxaphene on calcium pump activity in rat brain synaptosomes was studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with toxaphene at 0,25,50, and 100 mg/kg/day for 3 days and sacrificed 24 h after last dose. Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and 45 Ca uptake were determined in brain P 2 fraction. Toxaphene inhibited both Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and 45 Ca 2+ uptake and the inhibition was dose dependent. Both substrate and Ca 2+ activation kinetics of Ca 2+ -ATPase indicated non-competitive type of inhibition as evidenced by decreased catalytic velocity but not enzyme-substrate affinity. The inhibited Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and Ca 2+ uptake were restored to normal level by exogenously added calmodulin which increased both velocity and affinity. The inhibition of Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and Ca 2+ uptake and restoration by calmodulin suggests that toxaphene may impair active calcium transport mechanisms by decreasing regulator protein calmodulin levels

  18. Andrographolide exhibits anti-invasive activity against colon cancer cells via inhibition of MMP2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Kuo, Cheng-Deng; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Fu, Shu-Ling

    2010-11-01

    Andrographolide, a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata, was previously shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities. The anticancer activity of andrographolide includes growth suppression, apoptosis promotion, antiangiogenesis, and antitransformation. However, the effect of andrographolide on cancer metastasis, the most malignant feature of cancer, has not been elucidated extensively. In the present study, we demonstrated that andrographolide at nontoxic to subtoxic concentrations (0.3-3 µM) suppressed the invasion ability of CT26 cells in Matrigel-based invasion assays. In addition, the expression of cell adhesion regulators (β-catenin and ILK) was not altered by andrographolide treatment. However, andrographolide indeed inhibited matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) activity without affecting its expression. Furthermore, the activation of ERK, but not Akt, was attenuated by andrographolide treatment. Notably, a similar inhibitory effect of andrographolide on the invasion and MMP2 activity of the human colon cancer cell line HT29 was also observed. In summary, our results indicate that andrographolide exhibits anti-invasive activity against colon cancer cells via inhibition of MMP2 activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Mathematical model of a telomerase transcriptional regulatory network developed by cell-based screening: analysis of inhibitor effects and telomerase expression mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E Bilsland

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells depend on transcription of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT. Many transcription factors affect TERT, though regulation occurs in context of a broader network. Network effects on telomerase regulation have not been investigated, though deeper understanding of TERT transcription requires a systems view. However, control over individual interactions in complex networks is not easily achievable. Mathematical modelling provides an attractive approach for analysis of complex systems and some models may prove useful in systems pharmacology approaches to drug discovery. In this report, we used transfection screening to test interactions among 14 TERT regulatory transcription factors and their respective promoters in ovarian cancer cells. The results were used to generate a network model of TERT transcription and to implement a dynamic Boolean model whose steady states were analysed. Modelled effects of signal transduction inhibitors successfully predicted TERT repression by Src-family inhibitor SU6656 and lack of repression by ERK inhibitor FR180204, results confirmed by RT-QPCR analysis of endogenous TERT expression in treated cells. Modelled effects of GSK3 inhibitor 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO predicted unstable TERT repression dependent on noise and expression of JUN, corresponding with observations from a previous study. MYC expression is critical in TERT activation in the model, consistent with its well known function in endogenous TERT regulation. Loss of MYC caused complete TERT suppression in our model, substantially rescued only by co-suppression of AR. Interestingly expression was easily rescued under modelled Ets-factor gain of function, as occurs in TERT promoter mutation. RNAi targeting AR, JUN, MXD1, SP3, or TP53, showed that AR suppression does rescue endogenous TERT expression following MYC knockdown in these cells and SP3 or TP53 siRNA also cause partial recovery. The model therefore successfully predicted several

  20. Elevated Human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene expression in blood cells associated with chronic and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure is associated with human cancer. Telomerase containing the catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of chromosomes, delay senescence and promoting cell proliferation leading to tumorigenesis. OBJECTIVE:...

  1. The Satiety Signaling Neuropeptide Perisulfakinin Inhibits the Activity of Central Neurons Promoting General Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Dieter; Derst, Christian; Gautier, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK) in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK) in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR), we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC50=11pM) due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca2+ current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPγ channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH): PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPγ channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage. PMID:18946521

  2. The satiety signaling neuropeptide perisulfakinin inhibits the activity of central neurons promoting general activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Wicher

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR, we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC50=11pM due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca2+ current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPγ channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH: PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPγ channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage.

  3. Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Gene Expression in Thyroid Carcinoma: Diagnostic and Prognostic Role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaad, N.Y.; Abdel Wahed, M.M.; Mohammed, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The catalytic component of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) has been found to be reactivated in immortalized cell lines and considered as a diagnostic marker for malignancy in different body tissues. Aim of Work: Therefore we thought to determine whether hTERT gene detection could serve as an adjunct in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions together with evaluation of its prognostic value. Patients and Methods: The study included 50 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma including; 28 papillary carcinoma, 14 follicular carcinoma,S anaplastic carcinoma and 3 medullary carcinoma in addition to 5 cases of nodular hyperplasia and 5 cases of follicular adenoma. RNA was extracted from paraffin sections of those patients and hTERT gene expression was identified by Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Results: RT-PCR of hTERT gene revealed expression in 43/50 (86%) malignant thyroid cases; including 25 papillary, 11 follicular, 4 anaplastic and 3 medullary carcinoma cases. On the other hand, hTERT gene expression could not be detected in either hyperplastic nodule or in follicular adenoma cases. The diagnostic validity of hTERT gene detection in benign and malignant thyroid lesions was in the form of 88.3% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 90% negative predictive value. No significant association has been found between hTERT gene expression and any clinico pathologic parameters concerned in this study. In thyroid carcinoma cases, hTERT gene detection was the most independent predictor of poor survival by multivariate survival analysis. Conclusion: Detection of hTERT gene expression should be considered in confirmation of malignant thyroid lesions. Moreover it could be one of the helpful tools in addition to grade, tumor type, and age to stratify patients with thyroid carcinoma into different prognostic categories. Hence, inhibition of hTERT could be of use prospectively in the

  4. Inhibition of stress-activated MAP kinases induces clinical improvement in moderate to severe Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Daan; van den Blink, Bernt; Plasse, Terry; Bartelsman, Joep; Xu, Cuiping; Macpherson, Bret; Tytgat, Guido; Peppelenbosch, Mailkel; van Deventer, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Background & Aims: We investigated if inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was beneficial in Crohn's disease. Methods: Inhibition of JNK and p38 MAPK activation with CNI-1493, a guanylhydrazone, was tested in vitro. Twelve patients with severe Crohn's disease (mean baseline, CDAI

  5. Antitumor and antimicrobial activities and inhibition of in-vitro lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antitumor activity was measured in DLA cell line induced mice. Inhibition of in vitro lipid peroxidation activity of the D. nobile in both liver homogenate and RBC ghosts was also carried out. The aqueous extracts of stem and flower of D. nobile showed better zone of bacterial inhibition than that of ethanol and chloroform

  6. The yeast telomerase RNA, TLC1, participates in two distinct modes of TLC1-TLC1 association processes in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tet Matsuguchi; Elizabeth Blackburn

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase core enzyme minimally consists of the telomerase reverse transcriptase domain-containing protein (Est2 in budding yeast S. cerevisiae) and telomerase RNA, which contains the template specifying the telomeric repeat sequence synthesized. Here we report that in vivo, a fraction of S. cerevisiae telomerase RNA (TLC1) molecules form complexes containing at least two molecules of TLC1, via two separable modes: one requiring a sequence in the 3? region of the immature TLC1 precursor and ...

  7. Screening of selected pesticides for inhibition of CYP19 aromatase activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Hnida, C.; Breinholt, V.

    2000-01-01

    than 50 mu M. The positive control 4-hydroxyandrostendione (1 mu M) caused an inhibition of aromatase activity by 74%. The compounds, which did not affect the aromatase activity, were bromopropylate, chlorfenvinphos. chlorobenzilate, chlorpyrifos, diuron, heptachlor, iprodion, linuron, pentachlorphenol...

  8. Inhibition of pericranial muscle activity, respiration, and heart rate enhances auditory sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, J.J.; van Boxtel, A.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether previously observed inhibition of pericranial electromyographic (EMG) activity, respiration, and heart rate during sensory intake processes improves auditory sensitivity. Participants had to detect weak auditory stimuli. We found that EMG activity in masticatory and lower

  9. Silencing of the hTERT gene by shRNA inhibits colon cancer SW480 cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Qun Liu

    Full Text Available Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT is the key enzyme responsible for synthesizing and maintaining the telomeres on the ends of chromosomes, and it is essential for cell proliferation. This has made hTERT a focus of oncology research and an attractive target for anticancer drug development. In this study, we designed a small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting the catalytic subunit of hTERT and tested its effects on the growth of telomerase-positive human colon carcinoma SW480 cells in vitro, as well as on the tumorigenicity of these cells in nude mice. Transient and stable transfection of hTERT siRNA into colon cancer SW480 cells suppressed hTERT expression, reduced telomerase activity and inhibited cell growth and proliferation. Knocking down hTERT expression in SW480 tumors xenografted into nude mice significantly slowed tumor growth and promoted tumor cell apoptosis. Our results suggest that hTERT is involved in carcinogenesis of human colon carcinoma, and they highlight the therapeutic potential of a hTERT knock-down approach.

  10. The GG genotype of telomerase reverse transcriptase at genetic locus rs2736100 is associated with human atherosclerosis risk in the Han Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    Full Text Available A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the second intron of human TERT (hTERT, rs2736100, acts as a critical factor in hTERT synthesis and activation. The rs2736100 SNP was found to be associated with susceptibility to many cancers. Recently, inhibition of telomerase and marked telomere shortening were determined to be closely associated with the increasing severity of atherosclerosis. The association between the SNP of rs2736100 and the presence of atherosclerosis was evaluated in 84 atherosclerosis patients and 257 healthy controls using multivariate logistic regression analyses. The proportion of the GG genotype in atherosclerosis patients (17.9% was significantly higher than in the control group (9.7%. Eight variables, including age, gender, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, homocysteine, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, and rs2736100 GG genotype, were associated with atherosclerosis with odds ratios of 1.88, 2.11, 1.66, 0.23, 1.27, 1.29, 1.53, and 1.74, respectively, using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Homozygous GG was demonstrated to be associated with the presence of atherosclerosis in our population.

  11. Immune-suppressive activity of punicalagin via inhibition of NFAT activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Ik; Kim, Byoung-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Shin; Lee, Samkeun; Shin, Kwang-Soo; Lim, Jong-Soon

    2008-01-01

    Since T cell activation is central to the development of autoimmune diseases, we screened a natural product library comprising 1400 samples of medicinal herbal extracts, to identify compounds that suppress T cell activity. Punicalagin (PCG) isolated from the fruit of Punica granatum was identified as a potent immune suppressant, based on its inhibitory action on the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). PCG downregulated the mRNA and soluble protein expression of interleukin-2 from anti-CD3/anti-CD28-stimulated murine splenic CD4+ T cells and suppressed mixed leukocytes reaction (MLR) without exhibiting cytotoxicity to the cells. In vivo, the PCG treatment inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced chronic ear edema in mice and decreased CD3+ T cell infiltration of the inflamed tissue. These results suggest that PCG could be a potential candidate for the therapeutics of various immune pathologies

  12. Suppression of Oncolytic Adenovirus-Mediated Hepatotoxicity by Liver-Specific Inhibition of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Machitani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase-specific replication-competent adenoviruses (Ads, i.e., TRADs, which possess an E1 gene expression cassette driven by the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter, are promising agents for cancer treatment. However, even though oncolytic Ads, including TRAD, are intratumorally administered, they are disseminated from the tumor to systemic circulation, causing concern about oncolytic Ad-mediated hepatotoxicity (due mainly to leaky expression of Ad genes in liver. We reported that inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB leads to the suppression of replication-incompetent Ad vector-mediated hepatotoxicity via reduction of the leaky expression of Ad genes in liver. Here, to develop a TRAD with an improved safety profile, we designed a TRAD that carries a liver-specific promoter-driven dominant-negative IκBα (DNIκBα expression cassette (TRAD-DNIκBα. Compared with a conventional TRAD, TRAD-DNIκBα showed hepatocyte-specific inhibition of NF-κB signaling and significantly reduced Ad gene expression and replication in the normal human hepatocyte cell line. TRAD-induced hepatotoxicity was largely suppressed in mice following intravenous administration of TRAD-DNIκBα. However, the replication profiles and oncolytic activities of TRAD-DNIκBα were comparable with those of the conventional TRAD in human non-hepatic tumor cells. These results indicate that oncolytic Ads containing the liver-specific DNIκBα expression cassette have improved safety profiles without inhibiting oncolytic activities.

  13. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND α-AMYLASE INHIBITION ACTIVITIES OF PANCHSAKAR CHURNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar B.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panchsakar Churna is the composition of Cassia angustifolia, Terminalia chebula, Zingiber officinale, Foeniculum vulgare and Saindhava lavana. Aqueous extract of churna was used to investigate antioxidant activity by ferrous ion chelating assay and ferric reducing power and alpha amylase inhibition activity by dinitrosalicylic acid method (DNSA. Aqueous extract of churna showed maximum ferrous chelating activity - 42.01 and ferric reducing power - 1.5 and 83.33 % of inhibition protein denaturation at 1000 µg/ml. Panchsakar churna showed significant antioxidant and alpha amylase inhibition activities.

  14. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parashar, Abhinav [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Venkatachalam, Avanthika [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India); Gideon, Daniel Andrew [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Manoj, Kelath Murali, E-mail: satyamjayatu@yahoo.com [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Cyanide (CN) is a well-studied toxic principle, known to inhibit heme-enzymes. • Inhibition is supposed to result from CN binding at the active site as a ligand. • Diverse heme enzymes’ CN inhibition profiles challenge prevailing mechanism. • Poor binding efficiency of CN at low enzyme concentrations and ligand pressures. • CN-based diffusible radicals cause ‘non-productive electron transfers’ (inhibition). - Abstract: The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins’ active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes.

  15. Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activities by phosphorylethanolamine and phosphorylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, G M; Gilad, V H

    1984-07-18

    Ornithine decarboxylase, which catalyzes the first step in polyamine biosynthesis, is rapidly and transiently increased in various tissues during growth and after various hormonal or noxious stimuli, prior to an elevation in choline kinase activity. Polyamines themselves have been demonstrated to activate choline kinase. The present study sought to determine the effect of phosphorylcholine, the product of the reaction catalyzed by choline kinase, on ornithine decarboxylase activity. The data demonstrate that ornithine decarboxylase activity. The data demonstrate that ornithine decarboxylase activity is inhibited by phosphorylcholine and more potently by the related compound phosphorylethanolamine. The inhibition by both compounds led to decreased affinity of partially purified ornithine decarboxylase for ornithine. The inhibition is not time dependent and reversible. Both compounds also inhibit glutamic acid decarboxylase activity. The results suggest that high intracellular levels of phosphorylethanolamine and phosphorylcholine can serve as natural inhibitors of decarboxylases.

  16. Helminth induced suppression of macrophage activation is correlated with inhibition of calcium channel activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Chauhan

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites cause persistent infections in humans and yet many infected individuals are asymptomatic. Neurocysticercosis (NCC, a disease of the central nervous system (CNS caused by the cestode Taenia solium, has a long asymptomatic phase correlated with an absence of brain inflammation. However, the mechanisms of immune suppression remain poorly understood. Here we report that murine NCC displays a lack of cell surface maturation markers in infiltrating myeloid cells. Furthermore, soluble parasite ligands (PL failed to induce maturation of macrophages, and inhibited TLR-induced inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, PL treatment abolished both LPS and thapsigargin-induced store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE. Moreover, electrophysiological recordings demonstrated PL-mediated inhibition of LPS or Tg-induced currents that were TRPC1-dependent. Concomitantly STIM1-TRPC1 complex was also impaired that was essential for SOCE and sustained Ca2+ entry. Likewise loss of SOCE due to PL further inhibited NFkB activation. Overall, our results indicate that the negative regulation of agonist induced Ca2+ signaling pathway by parasite ligands may be a novel immune suppressive mechanism to block the initiation of the inflammatory response associated with helminth infections.

  17. Dual inhibition of MET and SRC kinase activity as a combined targeting strategy for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Na; Qu, Xiujuan; Liu, Shizhou; Zhang, Simeng; Liu, Jing; Qu, Jinglei; Zheng, Huachuan; Liu, Yunpeng; Che, Xiaofang

    2017-08-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET signaling is implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and possesses therapeutic value for various types of cancer. However, inhibition of MET alone has been demonstrated to have limited efficacy. The present study examined the combined inhibition of MET and SRC kinase activity in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, the role of the HGF/MET pathway in ligand-dependent and -independent activation was demonstrated. The single inhibition of MET by knockdown small interfering RNA or inhibitor indicated a limited anti-viability effects without inhibiting the basal phosphorylation levels of SRC, protein kinase B (AKT) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In view of the strong association between MET and SRC identified by direct regulation, growth factor-induced MET activation was suppressed by pretreatment with the SRC inhibitor, dasatinib, and downstream phosphorylation of AKT and ERK partially decreased, which suggested that SRC activation was essential for ligand-dependent and -independent activation of MET. Considering that both the activation of MET and SRC was required in ligand-dependent and -independent MET activation, the antitumor effect of concurrent inhibition of MET and SRC was examined, and it was demonstrated that combination treatment exerted increased viability inhibition and apoptosis enhancement in mutant and wild type RAS colon cancer cells. Therefore, combinational inhibition of MET and SRC may be a promising strategy for the treatment of CRC.

  18. mTOR inhibition induces compensatory, therapeutically targetable MEK activation in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sean T; Zhou, Bing; Damrauer, Jeffrey S; Krishnan, Bhavani; Wilson, Harper L; Smith, Aleisha M; Li, Mingqing; Yeh, Jen Jen; Kim, William Y

    2014-01-01

    Rapamycin derivatives allosterically targeting mTOR are currently FDA approved to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and catalytic inhibitors of mTOR/PI3K are now in clinical trials for treating various solid tumors. We sought to investigate the relative efficacy of allosteric versus catalytic mTOR inhibition, evaluate the crosstalk between the mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways, as well as the therapeutic potential of dual mTOR and MEK inhibition in RCC. Pharmacologic (rapamycin and BEZ235) and genetic manipulation of the mTOR pathway were evaluated by in vitro assays as monotherapy as well as in combination with MEK inhibition (GSK1120212). Catalytic mTOR inhibition with BEZ235 decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis better than allosteric mTOR inhibition with rapamycin. While mTOR inhibition upregulated MEK/ERK signaling, concurrent inhibition of both pathways had enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Finally, primary RCC tumors could be classified into subgroups [(I) MEK activated, (II) Dual MEK and mTOR activated, (III) Not activated, and (IV) mTOR activated] based on their relative activation of the PI3K/mTOR and MEK pathways. Patients with mTOR only activated tumors had the worst prognosis. In summary, dual targeting of the mTOR and MEK pathways in RCC can enhance therapeutic efficacy and primary RCC can be subclassified based on their relative levels of mTOR and MEK activation with potential therapeutic implications.

  19. Inhibition of lipase activity in antibiotic-resistant propionibacterium acnes strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, M; Wasik, B; Becker, A; Höffler, U

    2002-01-01

    Erythromycin-sensitive and/or clindamycin-sensitive strains of Propionibacterium acnes show a reduced lipase production at levels below the minimal growth-inhibitory concentration (MIC). The objective of this study was to determine whether erythromycin and clindamycin concentrations far below the MIC inhibit lipase production in P. acnes strains resistant to these antibiotics. Of 42 P. acnes strains, 10 showed an MIC >256 micro g/ml for erythromycin. Two strains showed MICs of 0.19 and 0.25 micro g/ml, while the MIC of the remaining strains was Lipase activity was determined up to a concentration of 192 micro g/ml by cultivation on spirit blue agar + lipase reagent. The 10 strains whose erythromycin MIC was >256 micro g/ml were also tested for lipase inhibition by clindamycin. While this method fails to differentiate between inhibition of lipase production and inhibition of lipase activity, the absence of inhibition of lipase activity rules out inhibition of lipase production. Inhibition of lipolysis by sub-MIC concentrations was demonstrated only for clindamycin in 3 P. acnes strains. However, lipase inhibition was seen only at the dilution level immediately below the MIC. Resistant P. acnes strains with high erythromycin and/or clindamycin MICs can be ruled out to show in vitro inhibition of lipase production at antibiotic concentrations far below the MIC. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Transgenic expression of Telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert) improves cell proliferation of primary cells and enhances reprogramming efficiency into the induced pluripotent stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidema, Shizu; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Date, Shiori; Tokitake, Yuko; Matsui, Yasuhisa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2016-10-01

    The enzymatic activity of telomerase is important for the extension of the telomere repeat sequence and overcoming cellular senescence. We generated a conditional transgenic mouse line, carrying the telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert) expression cassette, controlled by the Cre-loxP-mediated recombination. In our study, Cre recombinase expression efficiently activated Tert expression, resulting in its increased enzymatic activity, which extended the period of cellular proliferation until the keratinocytes entered senescence. This suggests that transgenic Tert expression is effective in enhancing primary cell proliferation. Notably, Tert expression increased colony formation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells after the introduction of four reprogramming factors, Oct-4, klf4, SOX-2, and c-Myc into the transgenic fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the transgenic Tert expression enhances reprogramming efficiency of iPS cells, which indicates a critical role for Tert in the reprogramming process.

  1. Mechanisms of Rose Bengal inhibition on SecA ATPase and ion channel activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Huang, Ying-Ju; Jin, Jin-Shan; Yu, Liyan; Yang, Hsiuchin; Jiang, Chun; Wang, Binghe; Tai, Phang C

    2014-11-14

    SecA is an essential protein possessing ATPase activity in bacterial protein translocation for which Rose Bengal (RB) is the first reported sub-micromolar inhibitor in ATPase activity and protein translocation. Here, we examined the mechanisms of inhibition on various forms of SecA ATPase by conventional enzymatic assays, and by monitoring the SecA-dependent channel activity in the semi-physiological system in cells. We build on the previous observation that SecA with liposomes form active protein-conducting channels in the oocytes. Such ion channel activity is enhanced by purified Escherichia coli SecYEG-SecDF·YajC liposome complexes. Inhibition by RB could be monitored, providing correlation of in vitro activity and intact cell functionality. In this work, we found the intrinsic SecA ATPase is inhibited by RB competitively at low ATP concentration, and non-competitively at high ATP concentrations while the translocation ATPase with precursors and SecYEG is inhibited non-competitively by RB. The Inhibition by RB on SecA channel activity in the oocytes with exogenous ATP-Mg(2+), mimicking translocation ATPase activity, is also non-competitive. The non-competitive inhibition on channel activity has also been observed with SecA from other bacteria which otherwise would be difficult to examine without the cognate precursors and membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of Streptococcus gordonii Metabolic Activity in Biofilm by Cranberry Juice High-Molecular-Weight Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdish Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that a cranberry high-molecular-mass, nondialyzable material (NDM can inhibit adhesion of numerous species of bacteria and prevents bacterial coaggregation of bacterial pairs. Bacterial coaggregation leads to plaque formation leading to biofilm development on surfaces of oral cavity. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of low concentrations of NDM on Streptococcus gordonii metabolic activity and biofilm formation on restorative dental surfaces. We found that the NDM selectively inhibited metabolic activity of S. gordonii, without affecting bacterial viability. Inhibiting the metabolic activity of bacteria in biofilm may benefit the health of the oral cavity.

  3. Mitochondrial thiol modification by a targeted electrophile inhibits metabolism in breast adenocarcinoma cells by inhibiting enzyme activity and protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ryan Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many cancer cells follow an aberrant metabolic program to maintain energy for rapid cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming often involves the upregulation of glutaminolysis to generate reducing equivalents for the electron transport chain and amino acids for protein synthesis. Critical enzymes involved in metabolism possess a reactive thiolate group, which can be modified by certain oxidants. In the current study, we show that modification of mitochondrial protein thiols by a model compound, iodobutyl triphenylphosphonium (IBTP, decreased mitochondrial metabolism and ATP in MDA-MB 231 (MB231 breast adenocarcinoma cells up to 6 days after an initial 24 h treatment. Mitochondrial thiol modification also depressed oxygen consumption rates (OCR in a dose-dependent manner to a greater extent than a non-thiol modifying analog, suggesting that thiol reactivity is an important factor in the inhibition of cancer cell metabolism. In non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells, IBTP also decreased OCR; however the extracellular acidification rate was significantly increased at all but the highest concentration (10 µM of IBTP indicating that thiol modification can have significantly different effects on bioenergetics in tumorigenic versus non-tumorigenic cells. ATP and other adenonucleotide levels were also decreased by thiol modification up to 6 days post-treatment, indicating a decreased overall energetic state in MB231 cells. Cellular proliferation of MB231 cells was also inhibited up to 6 days post-treatment with little change to cell viability. Targeted metabolomic analyses revealed that thiol modification caused depletion of both Krebs cycle and glutaminolysis intermediates. Further experiments revealed that the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, aconitase, was attenuated in response to thiol modification. Additionally, the inhibition of glutaminolysis corresponded to decreased glutaminase C (GAC protein levels, although other protein levels were

  4. Cannabinoid inhibition of guinea-pig intestinal peristalsis via inhibition of excitatory and activation of inhibitory neural pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, A; Shahbazian, A; Holzer, P

    1999-09-01

    Since activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors inhibits gastrointestinal transit in the mouse, this study analyzed the action of the cannabinoid receptor agonist methanandamide on distension-induced propulsive motility. Peristalsis in luminally perfused segments of the guinea-pig isolated ileum was elicited by a rise of the intraluminal pressure. The pressure threshold at which peristaltic contractions were triggered was used to quantify drug effects. Methanandamide (0.1-3 microM) inhibited peristalsis as deduced from a concentration-related increase in the peristaltic pressure threshold, an action that was prevented by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (1 microM) per se, which had no effect on peristalsis. The distension-induced ascending reflex contraction of the circular muscle was likewise depressed by methanandamide in a SR141716A-sensitive manner, whereas indomethacin-induced phasic contractions of the circular muscle were left unchanged by methanandamide. The anti-peristaltic action of methanandamide was inhibited by apamin (0.5 microM), attenuated by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (300 microM) and left unaltered by suramin (300 microM), pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (150 microM) and naloxone (0.5 microM). It is concluded that methanandamide depresses intestinal peristalsis via activation of CB1 receptors on enteric neurons, which results in blockade of excitatory motor pathways and facilitation of inhibitory pathways operating via apamin-sensitive K+ channels and nitric oxide.

  5. MYC drives overexpression of telomerase RNA (hTR/TERC) in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Del Valle, Javier A; Zheng, Qizhi; Esopi, David M; Rubenstein, Michael; Hubbard, Gretchen K; Moncaliano, Maria C; Hruszkewycz, Andrew; Vaghasia, Ajay; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Wheelan, Sarah J; Meeker, Alan K; Heaphy, Christopher M; Graham, Mindy K; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2018-01-01

    Telomerase consists of at least two essential elements, an RNA component hTR or TERC that contains the template for telomere DNA addition and a catalytic reverse transcriptase (TERT). While expression of TERT has been considered the key rate-limiting component for telomerase activity, increasing evidence suggests an important role for the regulation of TERC in telomere maintenance and perhaps other functions in human cancer. By using three orthogonal methods including RNAseq, RT-qPCR, and an analytically validated chromogenic RNA in situ hybridization assay, we report consistent overexpression of TERC in prostate cancer. This overexpression occurs at the precursor stage (e.g. high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or PIN) and persists throughout all stages of disease progression. Levels of TERC correlate with levels of MYC (a known driver of prostate cancer) in clinical samples and we also show the following: forced reductions of MYC result in decreased TERC levels in eight cancer cell lines (prostate, lung, breast, and colorectal); forced overexpression of MYC in PCa cell lines, and in the mouse prostate, results in increased TERC levels; human TERC promoter activity is decreased after MYC silencing; and MYC occupies the TERC locus as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Finally, we show that knockdown of TERC by siRNA results in reduced proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines. These studies indicate that TERC is consistently overexpressed in all stages of prostatic adenocarcinoma and that its expression is regulated by MYC. These findings nominate TERC as a novel prostate cancer biomarker and therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Antiresorptive Activity of Bacillus-Fermented Antler Extracts: Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sik-Won Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antlers have been traditionally used for thousands of years as a natural product with medicinal and pharmaceutical properties. In developing healthy foods, Bacillus-mediated fermentation is widely used to enhance the biological activity of nutrients in foods. Recently, fermentation was shown to enhance the osteogenic activity of antlers. This study aimed to elucidate the antiresorptive activity of Bacillus-fermented antler and its mode of action. We found that Bacillus-fermented antler extract strongly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by downregulating the expression and activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1. This extract also inhibited the activation of phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2, a signaling molecule that could regulate NFATc1 transcriptional activity. This suggested that Bacillus-fermented antler extract could inhibit PLCγ2-NFATc1 signaling required for bone resorption and cell fusion. Consequently, Bacillus-fermented antler extract might benefit osteoclast-related disorders, including osteoporosis; furthermore, it may improve gastrointestinal activity.

  7. Antiresorptive Activity of Bacillus-Fermented Antler Extracts: Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sik-Won; Moon, Seong-Hee; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Son, Young-Jin; Yu, Ri; Kim, Young Su; Kim, So I.; Chae, Eun Jeong; Park, Sang-Joon; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Antlers have been traditionally used for thousands of years as a natural product with medicinal and pharmaceutical properties. In developing healthy foods, Bacillus-mediated fermentation is widely used to enhance the biological activity of nutrients in foods. Recently, fermentation was shown to enhance the osteogenic activity of antlers. This study aimed to elucidate the antiresorptive activity of Bacillus-fermented antler and its mode of action. We found that Bacillus-fermented antler extract strongly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by downregulating the expression and activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1). This extract also inhibited the activation of phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2), a signaling molecule that could regulate NFATc1 transcriptional activity. This suggested that Bacillus-fermented antler extract could inhibit PLCγ2-NFATc1 signaling required for bone resorption and cell fusion. Consequently, Bacillus-fermented antler extract might benefit osteoclast-related disorders, including osteoporosis; furthermore, it may improve gastrointestinal activity. PMID:23509596

  8. Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibition and Associated Antioxidant Activity in Plant Extracts with Potential Antidepressant Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and is involved in mood disorders, depression, oxidative stress, and adverse pharmacological reactions. This work studies the inhibition of human MAO-A by Hypericum perforatum, Peganum harmala, and Lepidium meyenii, which are reported to improve and affect mood and mental conditions. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO is determined in plant extracts for the first time. H. perforatum inhibited human MAO-A, and extracts from flowers gave the highest inhibition (IC50 of 63.6 μg/mL). Plant extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS and contained pseudohypericin, hypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, hyperfirin, and flavonoids. Hyperforin did not inhibit human MAO-A and hypericin was a poor inhibitor of this isoenzyme. Quercetin and flavonoids significantly contributed to MAO-A inhibition. P. harmala seed extracts highly inhibited MAO-A (IC50 of 49.9 μg/L), being a thousand times more potent than H. perforatum extracts owing to its content of β-carboline alkaloids (harmaline and harmine). L. meyenii root (maca) extracts did not inhibit MAO-A. These plants may exert protective actions related to antioxidant effects. Results in this work show that P. harmala and H. perforatum extracts exhibit antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO (i.e., lower production of H2O2). PMID:29568754

  9. Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibition and Associated Antioxidant Activity in Plant Extracts with Potential Antidepressant Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Herraiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoamine oxidase (MAO catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and is involved in mood disorders, depression, oxidative stress, and adverse pharmacological reactions. This work studies the inhibition of human MAO-A by Hypericum perforatum, Peganum harmala, and Lepidium meyenii, which are reported to improve and affect mood and mental conditions. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO is determined in plant extracts for the first time. H. perforatum inhibited human MAO-A, and extracts from flowers gave the highest inhibition (IC50 of 63.6 μg/mL. Plant extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS and contained pseudohypericin, hypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, hyperfirin, and flavonoids. Hyperforin did not inhibit human MAO-A and hypericin was a poor inhibitor of this isoenzyme. Quercetin and flavonoids significantly contributed to MAO-A inhibition. P. harmala seed extracts highly inhibited MAO-A (IC50 of 49.9 μg/L, being a thousand times more potent than H. perforatum extracts owing to its content of β-carboline alkaloids (harmaline and harmine. L. meyenii root (maca extracts did not inhibit MAO-A. These plants may exert protective actions related to antioxidant effects. Results in this work show that P. harmala and H. perforatum extracts exhibit antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO (i.e., lower production of H2O2.

  10. Anoxia inhibits biofilm development and modulates antibiotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Donavon J; Henry-Stanley, Michelle J; Lusczek, Elizabeth R; Beilman, Gregory J; Wells, Carol L

    2013-09-01

    Many infections involve bacterial biofilms that are notoriously antibiotic resistant. Unfortunately, the mechanism for this resistance is unclear. We tested the effect of oxygen concentration on development of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, and on the ability of gentamicin and vancomycin to inhibit biofilm development. To mimic catheter-associated biofilms, silastic coupons were inoculated with 10(7)S aureus and incubated either aerobically (∼21% O2) or anaerobically (10% CO2, 5% H2, 85% N2) for 16 h at 37°C with varying concentrations of gentamicin and vancomycin. Viable colony-forming units were quantified from sonicated biofilms, and the crystal violet assay quantified biofilm biomass. Metabolomic profiles probed biochemical differences between aerobic and anaerobic biofilms. Control biofilms (no antibiotic) cultivated aerobically contained 8.1-8.6 log10S aureus. Anaerobiasis inhibited biofilm development, quantified by viable bacterial numbers and biomass (P vancomycin was more uniform aerobically and anaerobically, although at high bactericidal concentrations, vancomycin effectiveness was decreased under anoxia. There were notable differences in the metabolomic profiles of biofilms cultivated under normoxia versus anoxia. Compared with aerobic incubation, anaerobiasis resulted in decreased biofilm development, and metabolomics is a promising tool to identify key compounds involved in biofilm formation. The effectiveness of a specific antibiotic depended on its mode of action, as well as on the oxygen concentration in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ramiprilate inhibits functional matrix metalloproteinase activity in Crohn's disease fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    from six controls were also included. Total functional MMP activity was measured by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based, fluorogenic MMP-substrate cleavage assay, and the specific activity of MMP-2, -3 and -9 by the MMP Biotrak Activity Assay. The MMP inhibitors comprised ethylene...

  12. Ramiprilate inhibits functional matrix metalloproteinase activity in Crohn's disease fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -3 and -9 has been demonstrated in Crohn's disease fistulas, but it is unknown whether these enzymes are biologically active and represent a therapeutic target. Therefore, we investigated the proteolytic activity of MMPs in fistula tissue...... from six controls were also included. Total functional MMP activity was measured by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based, fluorogenic MMP-substrate cleavage assay, and the specific activity of MMP-2, -3 and -9 by the MMP Biotrak Activity Assay. The MMP inhibitors comprised ethylene......-9.83) compared with non-Crohn's fistulas, [0.32 ng/ml, range 0-2.66, (p MMP-9 activity [0.64 ng/ml, range 0-5.66 and 0.17 ng/ml, range 0-1.1, respectively (p MMP activity level by 42% and suppressed the specific MMP-3...

  13. A "Signal On" Photoelectrochemical Biosensor Based on Bismuth@N,O-Codoped-Carbon Core-Shell Nanohybrids for Ultrasensitive Detection of Telomerase in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Shulin; Tu, Wenwen; Wang, Xiaoying; Wang, Xiao; Bao, Jianchun; Wang, Yu; Han, Min; Dai, Zhihui

    2018-03-12

    Core-shell nanohybrids (NHs) with good semiconducting properties are vital to promote optoelectronic, photocatalytic, biosensing and bioelectronics technologies. Although great process has been achieved, synthesis of NHs composed of semiconductor core and heteroatom-doped nanocarbon shell remains a challenge, and their applications in photoelectronchemical (PEC) biosensors have not been explored. Herein, the synthesis and properties of a Bi nanocrystal and N,O-codoped carbon (NOC) core-shell NHs (Bi@NOC) is described, which exhibits the typical semiconducting feature with the bandgap of 1.14 eV. Also, such NHs show good biocompatibility and their surfaces bear the carboxylic groups that facilitate further assembly of an amino-modified primer DNA. By taking advantage of the excellent PEC activity of Bi@NOC NHs and the signal amplification effect of thioflavine-T, a novel "signal on" PEC aptasensor for the detection of telomerase activity is constructed. The fabricated aptasensor can detect telomerase activity from 5.0×10 2 to 1.0×10 6 HeLa cells with a low detection limit of 60 cells. Also, the aptasensor shows a wide linear response ranges, high sensitivity and good reproducibility. This work not only enriches current core-shell NHs family but also offers a novel PEC biosensing platform for detecting telomerase activity that is helpful for early clinical diagnosis of cancer. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Transcription Requires Sp1/Sp3 Binding to the Promoter and a Permissive Chromatin Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, De; Zhao, Yuanjun; Wang, Shuwen; Jia, Wenwen; Kang, Jiuhong; Zhu, Jiyue

    2015-12-11

    The transcription of human telomerase gene hTERT is regulated by transcription factors (TFs), including Sp1 family proteins, and its chromatin environment. To understand its regulation in a relevant chromatin context, we employed bacterial artificial chromosome reporters containing 160 kb of human genomic sequence containing the hTERT gene. Upon chromosomal integration, the bacterial artificial chromosomes recapitulated endogenous hTERT expression, contrary to transient reporters. Sp1/Sp3 expression did not correlate with hTERT promoter activity, and these TFs bound to the hTERT promoters in both telomerase-positive and telomerase-negative cells. Mutation of the proximal GC-box resulted in a dramatic decrease of hTERT promoter activity, and mutations of all five GC-boxes eliminated its transcriptional activity. Neither mutations of GC-boxes nor knockdown of endogenous Sp1 impacted promoter binding by other TFs, including E-box-binding proteins, and histone acetylation and trimethylation of histone H3K9 at the hTERT promoter in telomerase-positive and -negative cells. The result indicated that promoter binding by Sp1/Sp3 was essential, but not a limiting step, for hTERT transcription. hTERT transcription required a permissive chromatin environment. Importantly, our data also revealed different functions of GC-boxes and E-boxes in hTERT regulation; although GC-boxes were essential for promoter activity, factors bound to the E-boxes functioned to de-repress hTERT promoter. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Adenovirus DNA binding protein inhibits SrCap-activated CBP and CREB-mediated transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiequn; Tarakanova, Vera; Chrivia, John; Yaciuk, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The SNF2-related CBP activator protein (SrCap) is a potent activator of transcription mediated by CBP and CREB. We have previously demonstrated that the Adenovirus 2 DNA Binding Protein (DBP) binds to SrCap and inhibits the transcription mediated by the carboxyl-terminal region of SrCap (amino acids 1275-2971). We report here that DBP inhibits the ability of full-length SrCap (1-2971) to activate transcription mediated by Gal-CREB and Gal-CBP. In addition, DBP also inhibits the ability of SrCap to enhance Protein Kinase A (PKA) activated transcription of the enkaphalin promoter. DBP was found to dramatically inhibit transcription of a mammalian two-hybrid system that was dependent on the interaction of SrCap and CBP binding domains. We also found that DBP has no effect on transcription mediated by a transcriptional activator that is not related to SrCap, indicating that our reported transcriptional inhibition is specific for SrCap and not due to nonspecific effects of DBP's DNA binding activity on the CAT reporter plasmid. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which DBP inhibits cellular transcription mediated by the interaction between SrCap and CBP

  16. Telomeres and Telomerase in Hematopoietic Dysfunction: Prognostic Implications and Pharmacological Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Vasko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length (TL has been suggested as a marker of biological age in healthy individuals, but can also reflect inherited and acquired hematopoietic dysfunctions or indicate an increased turnover of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment. In addition, TL is able to predict the response rate of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, indicates clinical outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, and can be used as screening tool for genetic sequencing of selected genes in patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS. In tumor cells and clonal hematopoietic disorders, telomeres are continuously stabilized by reactivation of telomerase, which can selectively be targeted by telomerase-specific therapy. The use of the telomerase inhibitor Imetelstat in patients with essential thrombocythmia or myelofibrosis as well as the use of dendritic cell-based telomerase vaccination in AML patients with complete remissions are promising examples for anti-telomerase targeted strategies in hematologic malignancies. In contrast, the elevation in telomerase levels through treatment with androgens has become an exciting clinical intervention for patients with BMFS. Here, we review recent developments, which highlight the impact of telomeres and telomerase targeted therapies in hematologic dysfunctions.

  17. The role of factor inhibiting HIF (FIH-1 in inhibiting HIF-1 transcriptional activity in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfeng Wang

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM accounts for about 38% of primary brain tumors in the United States. GBM is characterized by extensive angiogenesis induced by vascular growth factors and cytokines. The transcription of these growth factors and cytokines is regulated by the Hypoxia-Inducible-Factor-1(HIF-1, which is a key regulator mediating the cellular response to hypoxia. It is known that Factor Inhibiting HIF-1, or FIH-1, is also involved in the cellular response to hypoxia and has the capability to physically interact with HIF-1 and block its transcriptional activity under normoxic conditions. Delineation of the regulatory role of FIH-1 will help us to better understand the molecular mechanism responsible for tumor growth and progression and may lead to the design of new therapies targeting cellular pathways in response to hypoxia. Previous studies have shown that the chromosomal region of 10q24 containing the FIH-1 gene is often deleted in GBM, suggesting a role for the FIH-1 in GBM tumorigenesis and progression. In the current study, we found that FIH-1 is able to inhibit HIF-mediated transcription of GLUT1 and VEGF-A, even under hypoxic conditions in human glioblastoma cells. FIH-1 has been found to be more potent in inhibiting HIF function than PTEN. This observation points to the possibility that deletion of 10q23-24 and loss or decreased expression of FIH-1 gene may lead to a constitutive activation of HIF-1 activity, an alteration of HIF-1 targets such as GLUT-1 and VEGF-A, and may contribute to the survival of cancer cells in hypoxia and the development of hypervascularization observed in GBM. Therefore FIH-1 can be potential therapeutic target for the treatment of GBM patients with poor prognosis.

  18. Human neutrophil leukocyte elastase activity is inhibited by Phenol Red

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) activity in urine, sputum and nasal mucous is used as an indicator of inflammation due to viral or bacterial infection. However, bovine nasal mucous neutrophils collected, lysed and stored in Dulbecco's minimal medium containing Phenol Red, showed no NE activity with methox...

  19. Ramiprilate inhibits functional matrix metalloproteinase activity in Crohn's disease fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -3 and -9 has been demonstrated in Crohn's disease fistulas, but it is unknown whether these enzymes are biologically active and represent a therapeutic target. Therefore, we investigated the proteolytic activity of MMPs in fistula tissue...... and examined the effect of inhibitors, including clinically available drugs that beside their main action also suppress MMPs. Fistula specimens were obtained by surgical excision from 22 patients with Crohn's disease and from 10 patients with fistulas resulting from other causes. Colonic endoscopic biopsies......-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the synthetic broad-spectrum inhibitor, GM6001, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramiprilate, and the tetracycline, doxycycline. In Crohn's disease fistulas, about 50% of the total protease activity was attributable to MMP activity. The average total MMP activity...

  20. Ultrasonographic prediction of highly aggressive telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyuk; Ki, Chang-Seok; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Oh, Young Lyun; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Shin, Jung Hee

    2017-08-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations are found in highly aggressive thyroid malignancies. Our aim was to define the ultrasonographic features of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer and to evaluate their predictive performances. Ultrasonographic findings were reviewed for 185 patients with surgically confirmed papillary thyroid cancer between 1994 and 2004. Genomic DNA to identify telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations was extracted from archived surgical specimens. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare clinical factors and ultrasonographic findings between telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated and wild-type papillary thyroid cancers. A telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation was detected in 8.1% (15 of 185) of specimens from papillary thyroid cancer patients with a strong trend toward increasing age. Nonparallel orientation and microlobulated margin were independent ultrasonographic findings for predicting telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer in patients over 50 years (odds ratio 5.898, 95% confidence interval 1.092-31.851, P = 0.039 for orientation; odds ratio 5.813, 95% confidence interval 1.320-25.602, P = 0.020 for margin). Prevalence of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations increased to 50.0% in papillary thyroid cancer patients older than 50 years with both ultrasonographic findings and was 0% in patients without either finding. For identifying telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer, ultrasonographic had 64.3% sensitivity, 80.8% specificity, 50.0% positive predictive value and 88.4% negative predictive value. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer could be suggested by the ultrasonographic features of nonparallel orientation and microlobulated margin in patients older than 50 years. Prebiopsy recognition of this unique

  1. Value of endoscopic methylene blue and Lugol's iodine double staining and detection of GST-Pi and telomerase in the early diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Shuang-Hong; Zhang, Kun-He; Li, Bi-Ming; Chen, Jiang

    2005-10-21

    To explore the expressions of GST-Pi and telomerase activity in esophageal carcinoma and premalignant lesions and to investigate the value of endoscopic methylene blue (MB) and Lugol's iodine double staining. Seventy-two patients with esophagopathy were sprayed endoscopically with MB and Lugol's iodine in proper order and the areas stained blue and brown, and the area between the blue and brown stains were obtained. Depending on the pattern of mucosal staining, biopsy specimen was obtained. GST-Pi and telomerase activity in specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry and PCR-based silver staining telomeric repeat amplification protocol, respectively. After MB and Lugol's iodine staining, the area between both the colors was obtained in 64 of the 72 patients and the areas were stained blue and brown in all of the 72 patients. Association test of two simultaneous ordinal categorical data showed a correlation between the esophageal mucosal staining and the esophageal histology (PLugol's iodine double staining and detection of GST-Pi and telomerase activity may contribute to the early diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma.

  2. Value of endoscopic methylene blue and Lugol's iodine double staining and detection of GST-Π and telomerase in the early diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Shuang-Hong; Zhang, Kun-He; Li, Bi-Ming; Chen, Jiang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expressions of GST-Π and telomerase activity in esophageal carcinoma and premalignant lesions and to investigate the value of endoscopic methylene blue (MB) and Lugol's iodine double staining. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with esophagopathy were sprayed endoscopically with MB and Lugol's iodine in proper order and the areas stained blue and brown, and the area between the blue and brown stains were obtained. Depending on the pattern of mucosal staining, biopsy specimen was obtained. GST-Π and telomerase activity in specimens were examined by immunohis-tochemistry and PCR-based silver staining telomeric repeat amplification protocol, respectively. RESULTS: After MB and Lugol's iodine staining, the area between both the colors was obtained in 64 of the 72 patients and the areas were stained blue and brown in all of the 72 patients. Association test of two simultaneous ordinal categorical data showed a correlation between the esophageal mucosal staining and the esophageal histology (PLugol's iodine double staining and detection of GST-Π and telomerase activity may contribute to the early diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:16273632

  3. NOVEL HYDROXAMIC ACIDS HAVING HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITING ACTIVITY AND ANTI-CANCER COMPOSITION COMPRISING THE SAME AS AN ACTIVE INGREDIENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for anticancer including novel hydroxamic acid with histone deacetylase inhibiting activity as an active ingredient. Hydroxamic acid compound of the present invention has inhibitory activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and shows...... cytotoxicity to a variety of cancer cells, being useful in strong anti-cancer drug....

  4. Epigenetic-based combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene alters DNA damage response by affecting SIRT1 and DNMT enzyme expression, including SIRT1-dependent γ-H2AX and telomerase regulation in triple-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kala, Rishabh; Shah, Harsh N.; Martin, Samantha L.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is believed to be a primary contributor in regulating gene expression by affecting epigenetic pathways such as DNA methylation and histone modification. Resveratrol and pterostilbene are phytoalexins produced by plants as part of their defense system. These two bioactive compounds when used alone have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells, but the concentrations employed in various studies often far exceed physiologically achievable doses. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an often fatal condition that may be prevented or treated through novel dietary-based approaches. HCC1806 and MDA-MB-157 breast cancer cells were used as TNBC cell lines in this study. MCF10A cells were used as control breast epithelial cells to determine the safety of this dietary regimen. CompuSyn software was used to determine the combination index (CI) for drug combinations. Combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene administered at close to physiologically relevant doses resulted in synergistic (CI <1) growth inhibition of TNBCs. SIRT1, a type III histone deacetylase (HDAC), was down-regulated in response to this combinatorial treatment. We further explored the effects of this novel combinatorial approach on DNA damage response by monitoring γ-H2AX and telomerase expression. With combination of these two compounds there was a significant decrease in these two proteins which might further resulted in significant growth inhibition, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HCC1806 and MDA-MB-157 breast cancer cells, while there was no significant effect on cellular viability, colony forming potential, morphology or apoptosis in control MCF10A breast epithelial cells. SIRT1 knockdown reproduced the effects of combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene-induced SIRT1 down-regulation through inhibition of both telomerase activity and γ-H2AX expression in HCC1806 breast cancer cells. As a part of the repair mechanisms and role of SIRT1 in recruiting DNMTs

  5. Xanthine Oxidase: Isolation, Assays of Activity, and Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić, Danijela A.; Dimitrijević, Danica S.; Stojanović, Gordana S.; Palić, Ivan R.; Đorđević, Aleksandra S.; Ickovski, Jovana D.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an important enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid which is excreted by kidneys. Excessive production and/or inadequate excretion of uric acid results in hyperuricemia. This paper presents a detailed review of methods of isolation, determination of xanthine oxidase activity, and the effect of plant extracts and their constituents on it. Determining the content and activities of XO can be used for diagnostic purposes....

  6. Effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibition on Fe-S cluster protein activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mena, Natalia P. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Cell Dynamics and Biotechnology, Santiago (Chile); Bulteau, Anne Laure [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS 975 - UMR 7725, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); Inserm, U 975, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris 75013 (France); Salazar, Julio [Millennium Institute of Cell Dynamics and Biotechnology, Santiago (Chile); Hirsch, Etienne C. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMRS 975 - UMR 7725, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); Inserm, U 975, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences, ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, F-75005 Paris (France); ICM, Therapeutique Experimentale de la Neurodegenerescence, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris 75013 (France); Nunez, Marco T., E-mail: mnunez@uchile.cl [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Cell Dynamics and Biotechnology, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial complex I inhibition resulted in decreased activity of Fe-S containing enzymes mitochondrial aconitase and cytoplasmic aconitase and xanthine oxidase. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in the loss of Fe-S clusters in cytoplasmic aconitase and of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase. {yields} Consistent with loss of cytoplasmic aconitase activity, an increase in iron regulatory protein 1 activity was found. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in an increase in the labile cytoplasmic iron pool. -- Abstract: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are small inorganic cofactors formed by tetrahedral coordination of iron atoms with sulfur groups. Present in numerous proteins, these clusters are involved in key biological processes such as electron transfer, metabolic and regulatory processes, DNA synthesis and repair and protein structure stabilization. Fe-S clusters are synthesized mainly in the mitochondrion, where they are directly incorporated into mitochondrial Fe-S cluster-containing proteins or exported for cytoplasmic and nuclear cluster-protein assembly. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone decreases Fe-S cluster synthesis and cluster content and activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Inhibition of complex I resulted in decreased activity of three Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes: mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and xanthine oxidase. In addition, the Fe-S cluster content of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase and mitochondrial aconitase was dramatically decreased. The reduction in cytosolic aconitase activity was associated with an increase in iron regulatory protein (IRP) mRNA binding activity and with an increase in the cytoplasmic labile iron pool. Since IRP activity post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of iron import proteins, Fe-S cluster inhibition may result in a false iron deficiency signal. Given that

  7. Shaping inhibition: activity dependent structural plasticity of GABAergic synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E Flores

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory transmission through the neurotransmitter Ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA shapes network activity in the mammalian cerebral cortex by filtering synaptic incoming information and dictating the activity of principal cells. The incredibly diverse population of cortical neurons that use GABA as neurotransmitter shows an equally diverse range of mechanisms that regulate changes in the strength of GABAergic synaptic transmission and allow them to dynamically follow and command the activity of neuronal ensembles. Similarly to glutamatergic synaptic transmission, activity-dependent functional changes in inhibitory neurotransmission are accompanied by alterations in GABAergic synapse structure that range from morphological reorganization of postsynaptic density to de novo formation and elimination of inhibitory contacts. Here we review several aspects of structural plasticity of inhibitory synapses, including its induction by different forms of neuronal activity, behavioral and sensory experience and the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. We discuss the functional consequences of GABAergic synapse structural plasticity for information processing and memory formation in view of the heterogenous nature of the structural plasticity phenomena affecting inhibitory synapses impinging on somatic and dendritic compartments of cortical and hippocampal neurons.

  8. Inhibiting MAP kinase activity prevents calcium transients and mitosis entry in early sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipova, Rada; Larman, Mark G; Leckie, Calum P; Harrison, Patrick K; Groigno, Laurence; Whitaker, Michael

    2005-07-01

    A transient calcium increase triggers nuclear envelope breakdown (mitosis entry) in sea urchin embryos. Cdk1/cyclin B kinase activation is also known to be required for mitosis entry. More recently, MAP kinase activity has also been shown to increase during mitosis. In sea urchin embryos, both kinases show a similar activation profile, peaking at the time of mitosis entry. We tested whether the activity of both kinases is required for mitosis entry and whether either kinase controls mitotic calcium signals. We found that reducing the activity of either mitotic kinase prevents nuclear envelope breakdown, despite the presence of a calcium transient, when cdk1/cyclin B kinase activity is alone inhibited. When MAP kinase activity alone was inhibited, the calcium signal was absent, suggesting that MAP kinase activity is required to generate the calcium transient that triggers nuclear envelope breakdown. However, increasing intracellular free calcium by microinjection of calcium buffers or InsP(3) while MAP kinase was inhibited did not itself induce nuclear envelope breakdown, indicating that additional MAP kinase-regulated events are necessary. After MAP kinase inhibition early in the cell cycle, the early events of the cell cycle (pronuclear migration/fusion and DNA synthesis) were unaffected, but chromosome condensation and spindle assembly are prevented. These data indicate that in sea urchin embryos, MAP kinase activity is part of a signaling complex alongside two components previously shown to be essential for entry into mitosis: the calcium transient and the increase in cdk1/cyclinB kinase activity.

  9. P53 and p73 differ in their ability to inhibit glucocorticoid receptor (GR transcriptional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Linghu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p53 is a tumor suppressor and potent inhibitor of cell growth. P73 is highly similar to p53 at both the amino acid sequence and structural levels. Given their similarities, it is important to determine whether p53 and p73 function in similar or distinct pathways. There is abundant evidence for negative cross-talk between glucocorticoid receptor (GR and p53. Neither physical nor functional interactions between GR and p73 have been reported. In this study, we examined the ability of p53 and p73 to interact with and inhibit GR transcriptional activity. Results We show that both p53 and p73 can bind GR, and that p53 and p73-mediated transcriptional activity is inhibited by GR co-expression. Wild-type p53 efficiently inhibited GR transcriptional activity in cells expressing both proteins. Surprisingly, however, p73 was either unable to efficiently inhibit GR, or increased GR activity slightly. To examine the basis for this difference, a series of p53:p73 chimeric proteins were generated in which corresponding regions of either protein have been swapped. Replacing N- and C-terminal sequences in p53 with the corresponding sequences from p73 prevented it from inhibiting GR. In contrast, replacing p73 N- and C-terminal sequences with the corresponding sequences from p53 allowed it to efficiently inhibit GR. Differences in GR inhibition were not related to differences in transcriptional activity of the p53:p73 chimeras or their ability to bind GR. Conclusion Our results indicate that both N- and C-terminal regions of p53 and p73 contribute to their regulation of GR. The differential ability of p53 and p73 to inhibit GR is due, in part, to differences in their N-terminal and C-terminal sequences.

  10. Reactive oxygen species inhibit catalytic activity of peptidylarginine deiminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Bjørn, Mads Emil; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2017-01-01

    on calcium and reducing conditions. However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to induce citrullination of histones in granulocytes. Here we examine the ability of H2O2 and leukocyte-derived ROS to regulate PAD activity using citrullination of fibrinogen as read-out. H2O2 at concentrations above...... from stimulated leukocytes was unaffected by exogenously added H2O2 at concentrations up to 1000 µM. The role of ROS in regulating PAD activity may play an important part in preventing hypercitrullination of proteins....

  11. Triptolide inhibits transcription of hTERT through down-regulation of transcription factor specificity protein 1 in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Cong; Wang, Jingchao; Guo, Wei; Wang, Huan; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a key component responsible for the regulation of telomerase activity, plays important roles in cellular immortalization and cancer development. Triptolide purified from Tripterygium extracts displays a broad-spectrum bioactivity profile, including immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor. In this study, it is investigated whether triptolide reduces hTERT expression and suppresses its activity in PEL cells. The mRNA and protein levels of hTERT were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activity of hTERT promoter was determined by Dual luciferase reporter assay. Our results demonstrated that triptolide decreased expression of hTERT at both mRNA and protein levels. Further gene sequence analysis indicated that the activity of hTERT promoter was suppressed by triptolide. Triptolide also reduced the half-time of hTERT. Additionally, triptolide inhibited the expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1(Sp1) in PEL cells. Furthermore, knock-down of Sp1 by using specific shRNAs resulted in down-regulation of hTERT transcription and protein expression levels. Inhibition of Sp1 by specific shRNAs enhanced triptolide-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of triptolide on hTERT transcription is possibly mediated by inhibition of transcription factor Sp1 in PEL cells. - Highlights: • Triptolide reduces expression of hTERT by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide reduces promoter activity and stability of hTERT. • Triptolide down-regulates expression of Sp1. • Special Sp1 shRNAs inhibit transcription and protein expression of hTERT. • Triptolide and Sp1 shRNA2 induce cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis.

  12. RKIP Inhibits Local Breast Cancer Invasion by Antagonizing the Transcriptional Activation of MMP13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Datar

    Full Text Available Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein or RKIP was initially identified as a Raf-1 binding protein using the yeast 2-hybrid screen. RKIP inhibits the activation phosphorylation of MEK by Raf-1 by competitively inhibiting the binding of MEK to Raf-1 and thus exerting an inhibitory effect on the Raf-MEK-Erk pathway. RKIP has been identified as a metastasis suppressor gene. Expression of RKIP is low in cancer metastases. Although primary tumor growth remains unaffected, re- expression of RKIP inhibits cancer metastasis. Mechanistically, RKIP constrains metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis, local invasion, intravasation, and colonization. The molecular mechanism of how RKIP inhibits these individual steps remains undefined. In our present study, using an unbiased PCR based screening and by analyzing DNA microarray expression datasets we observe that the expression of multiple metalloproteases (MMPs including MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP13 are negatively correlated with RKIP expression in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. Since expression of MMPs by cancer cells is important for cancer metastasis, we hypothesize that RKIP may mediate suppression of breast cancer metastasis by inhibiting multiple MMPs. We show that the expression signature of RKIP and MMPs is better at predicting high metastatic risk than the individual gene. Using a combination of loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we find that MMP13 is the cause of RKIP-mediated inhibition of local cancer invasion. Interestingly expression of MMP13 alone is not sufficient to reverse the inhibition of breast cancer cell metastasis to the lung due to the expression of RKIP. We find that RKIP negatively regulates MMP13 through the Erk2 signaling pathway and the repression of MMP13 by RKIP is transcription factor AP-1 independent. Together, our findings indicate that RKIP inhibits cancer cell invasion, in part, via MMP13 inhibition. These data also implicate RKIP in the regulation of MMP

  13. Sprouty regulates cell migration by inhibiting the activation of Rac1 GTPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppleton, Helen M.; Edwin, Francis; Jaggar, Laura; Ray, Ramesh; Johnson, Leonard R.; Patel, Tarun B.

    2004-01-01

    Sprouty (SPRY) protein negatively modulates fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor actions. We showed that human SPRY2 inhibits cell growth and migration in response to serum and several growth factors. Using rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells, we investigated the involvement of the Rho family of GTPases, RhoA, Rac1, and cdc42 in SPRY2-mediated inhibition of cell migration and proliferation. The ability of TAT-tagged SPRY2 to inhibit proliferation and migration of IEC-6 cells transfected with constitutively active mutants of RhoA(G14V), Rac1(G12V), and cdc42 (F28L) was determined. Constitutively active RhoA(G14V), Rac1(G12V), or cdc42(F28L) did not protect cells from the anti-proliferative actions of TAT-SPRY2. The ability of TAT-hSPRY2 to inhibit migration was not altered by of RhoA(G14V) and cdc42(F28L). However, Rac1(G12V) obliterated the ability of SPRY2 to inhibit cell autonomous or serum-induced migration. Also, the activation of endogenous Rac1 was attenuated by TAT-SPRY2. Thus, SPRY2 mediates its anti-migratory actions by inhibiting Rac1 activation

  14. Inhibition of class IIa histone deacetylase activity by gallic acid, sulforaphane, TMP269, and panobinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sin Young; Kee, Hae Jin; Jin, Li; Ryu, Yuhee; Sun, Simei; Kim, Gwi Ran; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-02-23

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are gaining increasing attention as potential therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. We recently reported that the class II HDAC inhibitor, MC1568, and the phytochemical, gallic acid, lowered high blood pressure in mouse models of hypertension. We hypothesized that class II HDACs may be involved in the regulation of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of well-known HDAC inhibitors (TMP269, panobinostat, and MC1568), phytochemicals (gallic acid, sulforaphane, and piceatannol), and anti-hypertensive drugs (losartan, carvedilol, and furosemide) on activities of class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, 7, and 9). The selective class IIa HDAC inhibitor, TMP269, and the pan-HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat, but not MC1568, clearly inhibited class IIa HDAC activities. Among the three phytochemicals, gallic acid showed remarkable inhibition, whereas sulforaphane presented mild inhibition of class IIa HDACs. Piceatannol inhibited only HDAC7 activity. As expected, the anti-hypertensive drugs losartan, carvedilol, and furosemide did not affect the activity of any class IIa HDAC. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of several compounds on the activity of class l HDACs (HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8) and class IIb HDAC (HDAC6). MC1568 did not affect the activities of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3, but it reduced the activity of HDAC8 at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM. Gallic acid weakly inhibited HDAC1 and HDAC6 activities, but strongly inhibited HDAC8 activity with effectiveness comparable to that of trichostatin A. Inhibition of HDAC2 activity by sulforaphane was stronger than that by piceatnnaol. These results indicated that gallic acid is a powerful dietary inhibitor of HDAC8 and class IIa/b HDAC activities. Sulforaphane may also be used as a dietary inhibitor of HDAC2 and class IIa HDAC. Our findings suggest that the class II HDAC inhibitor, MC1568, does not inhibit class IIa HDAC, but inhibits

  15. Polyphenol derivatives inhibit human neutrophil activity by suppressing oxidative burst

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drábiková, K.; Perečko, T.; Nosáľ, R.; Harmatha, Juraj; Šmidrkal, J.; Jančinová, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, Suppl.1 (2012), s. 31-31 ISSN 1337-6853. [Interdisciplinary Toxicological Conference & Advanced Toxicological Course /17./. 27.08.2012-31.08.2012, Stará Lesná] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : polyphenol derivatives * neutrophil activity * pinosylvin Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Antioxidant and sgc-7901 cell inhibition activities of Rhizoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to study the pharmacology of Dioscorea bulbifera L. on antioxidant and anticancer activity. Alcohol extracts of Dioscorea bulbifera L. were made out by different concentration alcohol; they were tested by Hydroxyl radical scavenging test, reducing capacity test and total antioxidant capacity ...

  17. Inhibition of parathyroid hormone release by maitotoxin, a calcium channel activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Yasumoto, T.; Aurbach, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    Maitotoxin, a toxin derived from a marine dinoflagellate, is a potent activator of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. To further test the hypothesis that inhibition of PTH secretion by calcium is mediated via a calcium channel we studied the effect of maitotoxin on dispersed bovine parathyroid cells. Maitotoxin inhibited PTH release in a dose-dependent fashion, and inhibition was maximal at 1 ng/ml. Chelation of extracellular calcium by EGTA blocked the inhibition of PTH by maitotoxin. Maitotoxin enhanced the effects of the dihydropyridine calcium channel agonist (+)202-791 and increased the rate of radiocalcium uptake in parathyroid cells. Pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein that interacts with calcium channels in the parathyroid cell, did not affect the inhibition of PTH secretion by maitotoxin. Maitotoxin, by its action on calcium channels allows entry of extracellular calcium and inhibits PTH release. Our results suggest that calcium channels are involved in the release of PTH. Inhibition of PTH release by maitotoxin is not sensitive to pertussis toxin, suggesting that maitotoxin may act distal to the site interacting with a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein, or maitotoxin could interact with other ions or second messengers to inhibit PTH release

  18. Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 Inhibits the Peroxidase Activity of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Hair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin is the natural carrier of oxygen in red blood cells (RBCs. While intracellular hemoglobin provides life-sustaining oxygen transport, extracellular free hemoglobin displays toxicity due to inherent peroxidase activity generating reactive oxygen species that subsequently react with the hemoglobin molecule to produce toxic heme degradation products resulting in free radicals, oxidative stress damage, and lipid peroxidation. We have recently demonstrated that Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1 inhibits peroxidase activity of the heme-based enzyme myeloperoxidase. To elucidate whether PIC1 could inhibit peroxidase activity of hemoglobin, we evaluated the consequence of PIC1 on RBC lysates, methemoglobin, and myoglobin using tetramethylbenzidine (TMB as an oxidation target. PIC1 reversibly and dose-dependently prevented TMB oxidation to tetramethylbenzidine diimine by RBC lysates, methemoglobin, and myoglobin, having comparable activity to the inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide. PIC1 inhibited TMB oxidation of RBC lysates similar to L-cysteine suggesting that the two cysteine residues contained in PIC1 may mediate peroxidase activity. PIC1 also inhibited heme destruction by NaOCl for RBC lysates, hemoglobin, and myoglobin as assayed by preservation of the Soret absorbance peak in the presence of NaOCl and reduction in free iron release. In conclusion, PIC1 inhibits peroxidase activity of hemoglobin and myoglobin likely via an antioxidant mechanism.

  19. Antioxidant, antityrosinase, anticholinesterase, and nitric oxide inhibition activities of three malaysian macaranga species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Nor Aishah; Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Ahmad, Syahida; Shaari, Khozirah; Khamis, Shamsul; Lajis, N H

    2013-01-01

    The methanol extracts of three Macaranga species (M. denticulata, M. pruinosa, and M. gigantea) were screened to evaluate their total phenolic contents and activities as cholinesterase inhibitors, nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitors, tyrosinase inhibitors, and antioxidants. The bark of M. denticulata showed the highest total phenolic content (2682 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g) and free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.063 mg/mL). All of the samples inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation by greater than 80%, with the leaves of M. gigantea exhibiting the highest inhibition of 92.21%. Most of the samples exhibited significant antioxidant potential. The bark of M. denticulata and the leaves of both M. pruinosa and M. gigantea exhibited greater than 50% tyrosinase inhibition, with the bark of M. denticulata having the highest percentage of inhibition (68.7%). The bark and leaves of M. denticulata exhibited greater than 50% inhibition (73.82% and 54.50%, resp.) of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE), while none of the samples showed any significant inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Only the bark of M. denticulata and M. gigantea displayed greater than 50% inhibition of nitric oxide production in cells (81.79% and 56.51%, resp.). These bioactivities indicate that some Macaranga spp. have therapeutic potential in medicinal research.

  20. Antioxidant, Antityrosinase, Anticholinesterase, and Nitric Oxide Inhibition Activities of Three Malaysian Macaranga Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aishah Mazlan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extracts of three Macaranga species (M. denticulata, M. pruinosa, and M. gigantea were screened to evaluate their total phenolic contents and activities as cholinesterase inhibitors, nitric oxide (NO production inhibitors, tyrosinase inhibitors, and antioxidants. The bark of M. denticulata showed the highest total phenolic content (2682 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g and free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.063 mg/mL. All of the samples inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation by greater than 80%, with the leaves of M. gigantea exhibiting the highest inhibition of 92.21%. Most of the samples exhibited significant antioxidant potential. The bark of M. denticulata and the leaves of both M. pruinosa and M. gigantea exhibited greater than 50% tyrosinase inhibition, with the bark of M. denticulata having the highest percentage of inhibition (68.7%. The bark and leaves of M. denticulata exhibited greater than 50% inhibition (73.82% and 54.50%, resp. of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE, while none of the samples showed any significant inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. Only the bark of M. denticulata and M. gigantea displayed greater than 50% inhibition of nitric oxide production in cells (81.79% and 56.51%, resp.. These bioactivities indicate that some Macaranga spp. have therapeutic potential in medicinal research.

  1. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Mokhtaria Boufadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO. By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 µM.

  2. NFAT5 regulates transcription of the mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiki, Tsukasa; Udono, Miyako; Kotake, Yojiro; Yamashita, Makiko; Shirahata, Sanetaka; Katakura, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to clarify the transcription-regulation mechanisms of the mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (mTERT). First, we searched for the promoter region required for transcriptional activation of mTERT and identified an enhancer cis-element (named mTERT-EE) located between - 200 and - 179 bp of the mouse TERT gene (mTERT). EMSA results suggested that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) member proteins bind to mTERT-EE. We then identified NFAT5 as the factor binding to mTERT-EE and found that it activates the transcription of the mTERT core promoter. The results that siRNA directed against NFAT5 significantly reduced mTERT expression and mTERT core promoter activity and that the expressions of NFAT5 and mTERT were well correlated in various mouse tissues except liver suggest that NFAT5 dominantly and directly regulates mTERT expression. To clarify their functionality further, we investigated the effect of hypertonic stress, a known stimulus affecting the expression and transcriptional activity of NFAT5, on mTERT expression. The result indicated that hypertonic stress activates mTERT transcription via the activation and recruitment of NFAT5 to the mTERT promoter. These results provide useful information about the transcription-regulation mechanisms of mTERT.

  3. NFAT5 regulates transcription of the mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Tsukasa; Udono, Miyako; Kotake, Yojiro; Yamashita, Makiko; Shirahata, Sanetaka; Katakura, Yoshinori

    2010-12-10

    We aimed to clarify the transcription-regulation mechanisms of the mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (mTERT). First, we searched for the promoter region required for transcriptional activation of mTERT and identified an enhancer cis-element (named mTERT-EE) located between -200 and -179bp of the mouse TERT gene (mTERT). EMSA results suggested that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) member proteins bind to mTERT-EE. We then identified NFAT5 as the factor binding to mTERT-EE and found that it activates the transcription of the mTERT core promoter. The results that siRNA directed against NFAT5 significantly reduced mTERT expression and mTERT core promoter activity and that the expressions of NFAT5 and mTERT were well correlated in various mouse tissues except liver suggest that NFAT5 dominantly and directly regulates mTERT expression. To clarify their functionality further, we investigated the effect of hypertonic stress, a known stimulus affecting the expression and transcriptional activity of NFAT5, on mTERT expression. The result indicated that hypertonic stress activates mTERT transcription via the activation and recruitment of NFAT5 to the mTERT promoter. These results provide useful information about the transcription-regulation mechanisms of mTERT. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Disposition, Metabolism and Histone Deacetylase and Acetyltransferase Inhibition Activity of Tetrahydrocurcumin and Other Curcuminoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia T. Novaes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC, curcumin and calebin-A are curcuminoids found in turmeric (Curcuma longa. Curcuminoids have been established to have a variety of pharmacological activities and are used as natural health supplements. The purpose of this study was to identify the metabolism, excretion, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of these curcuminoids and to determine disposition of THC in rats after oral administration. We developed a UHPLC–MS/MS assay for THC in rat serum and urine. THC shows multiple redistribution phases with corresponding increases in urinary excretion rate. In-vitro antioxidant activity, histone deacetylase (HDAC activity, histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity and anti-inflammatory inhibitory activity were examined using commercial assay kits. Anticancer activity was determined in Sup-T1 lymphoma cells. Our results indicate THC was poorly absorbed after oral administration and primarily excreted via non-renal routes. All curcuminoids exhibited multiple pharmacological effects in vitro, including potent antioxidant activity as well as inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and lipoxygenase activity without affecting the release of TNF-α. Unlike curcumin and calebin-A, THC did not inhibit HDAC1 and PCAF and displayed a weaker growth inhibition activity against Sup-T1 cells. We show evidence for the first time that curcumin and calebin-A inhibit HAT and PCAF, possibly through a Michael-addition mechanism.

  5. Tamoxifen does not inhibit the swell activated chloride channel in human neutrophils during the respiratory burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2008-10-31

    Effective functioning of neutrophils relies upon electron translocation through the NADPH oxidase (NOX). The electron current generated (I(e)) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential in activated human neutrophils. Swelling activated chloride channels have been demonstrated in part to counteract the depolarisation generated by the NADPH oxidase I(e). In the present study, the effects of inhibitors of swell activated chloride channels on ROS production and on the swelling activated chloride conductance was investigated in activated human neutrophils. Tamoxifen (10 microM), a specific inhibitor for swell activated chloride channels in neutrophils, completely inhibited both the PMA and FMLP stimulated respiratory burst. This inhibition of the neutrophil respiratory burst was not due to the blocking effect of tamoxifen on the swelling activated chloride conductance in these cells. These results demonstrate that a tamoxifen insensitive swell activated chloride channel has important significance during the neutrophil respiratory burst.

  6. Augmentation of the anticancer activity of CYT997 in human prostate cancer by inhibiting Src activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yong; Cai, Yafei; Pi, Wenhu; Gao, Lixia; Shay, Chloe

    2017-06-12

    Abnormalities of tubulin polymerization and microtubule assembly are often seen in cancer, which make them very suitable targets for the development of therapeutic approach against rapidly dividing and aggressive cancer cells. CYT997 is a novel microtubule-disrupting agent with anticancer activity in multiple cancer types including prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of CYT997 in prostate cancer have not been well characterized. Src knockdown cells were achieved by lentiviral-mediated interference. The drug effects on cell proliferation were measured by MTS. The drug effects on cell viability and death were determined by Cell Titer-Glo® Luminescent cell viability kit and flow cytometry with Zombie Aqua™ staining. The drug effects on apoptosis were assessed by Cell Death Detection Elisa kit and Western blot with a cleaved PARP antibody. The drug effects on cell invasion were examined by Matrigel-coated Boyden chambers. Oxidative stress was detected by DCFH-DA staining and electrochemical biosensor. Mouse models generated by subcutaneous or intracardiac injection were used to investigate the in vivo drug efficacy in tumor growth and metastasis. CYT997 effectively inhibited proliferation, survival, and invasion of prostate cancer cells via blocking multiple oncogenic signaling cascades but not the Src pathway. Inhibition of Src expression by small hairpin RNA or inactivation of Src by dasatinib increased the CYT997-induced cytotoxicity of in vitro. Moreover, the combination of dasatinib and CYT997 exhibited a superior inhibitory effect on tumor growth and metastasis compared with either of the drugs alone. Our findings demonstrate that blockage of Src augments the anticancer effect of CYT997 on prostate cancer and suggest that co-treatment of dasatinib and CYT997 may represent an effective therapeutic regimen for limiting prostate cancer.

  7. Hypoxia inhibits semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repessé, Xavier; Moldes, Marthe; Muscat, Adeline; Vatier, Camille; Chetrite, Gérard; Gille, Thomas; Planes, Carole; Filip, Anna; Mercier, Nathalie; Duranteau, Jacques; Fève, Bruno

    2015-08-15

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), an enzyme highly expressed on adipocyte plasma membranes, converts primary amines into aldehydes, ammonium and hydrogen peroxide, and is likely involved in endothelial damage during the course of diabetes and obesity. We investigated whether in vitro, adipocyte SSAO was modulated under hypoxic conditions that is present in adipose tissue from obese or intensive care unit. Physical or pharmacological hypoxia decreased SSAO activity in murine adipocytes and human adipose tissue explants, while enzyme expression was preserved. This effect was time-, dose-dependent and reversible. This down-regulation was confirmed in vivo in subcutaneous adipose tissue from a rat model of hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced suppression in SSAO activity was independent of the HIF-1-α pathway or of oxidative stress, but was partially antagonized by medium acidification. Hypoxia-induced down-regulation of SSAO activity could represent an adaptive mechanism to lower toxic molecules production, and may thus protect from tissue injury during these harmful conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence of gender differences in the ability to inhibit brain activation elicited by food stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Telang, Frank; Jayne, Millard; Ma, Yeming; Pradhan, Kith; Zhu, Wei; Wong, Christopher T.; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Geliebter, Allan; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2009-01-01

    Although impaired inhibitory control is linked to a broad spectrum of health problems, including obesity, the brain mechanism(s) underlying voluntary control of hunger are not well understood. We assessed the brain circuits involved in voluntary inhibition of hunger during food stimulation in 23 fasted men and women using PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG). In men, but not in women, food stimulation with inhibition significantly decreased activation in amygdala, hippocampus, insul...

  9. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits synthesis and release of decidual prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, I.; Costello, A.; Ganong, B.; Bell, R.M.; Handwerger, S.

    1986-01-01

    Activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C by diacylglycerol and phorbol esters has been shown to mediate release of hormones in many systems. To determine whether protein kinase C activation is also involved in the regulation of prolactin release from human decidual, the authors have examined the effects of various acylglycerols and phorbol esters on the synthesis and release of prolactin from cultured human decidual cells. sn-1,2-Dioctanolyglycerol (diC 8 ), which is known to stimulate protein kinase C in other systems, inhibited prolactin release in a dose-dependent manner with maximal inhibition of 53.1% at 100 μM. Diolein (100 μM), which also stimulates protein kinase C activity in some systems, inhibited prolactin release by 21.3%. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, and 4β-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, which activate protein kinase C in other systems, also inhibited the release of prolactin, which the protein kinase C inactivate 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate was without effect. The inhibition of prolactin release was secondary to a decrease in prolactin synthesis. Although diC 8 and PMA inhibited the synthesis and release of prolactin, these agents had no effect on the synthesis or release of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable [ 35 S]methionine-labeled decidual proteins and did not cause the release of the cytosolic enzymes lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. DiC 8 and PMA stimulates the specific activity of protein kinase C in decidual tissue by 14.6 and 14.0-fold, respectively. The inhibition of the synthesis and release of prolactin by diC 8 and phorbol esters strongly implicates protein kinase C in the regulation of the production and release of prolactin from the decidua

  10. Lumican Inhibits SNAIL-Induced Melanoma Cell Migration Specifically by Blocking MMP-14 Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stasiak

    Full Text Available Lumican, a small leucine rich proteoglycan, inhibits MMP-14 activity and melanoma cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Snail triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transitions endowing epithelial cells with migratory and invasive properties during tumor progression. The aim of this work was to investigate lumican effects on MMP-14 activity and migration of Snail overexpressing B16F1 (Snail-B16F1 melanoma cells and HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Lumican inhibits the Snail induced MMP-14 activity in B16F1 but not in HT-29 cells. In Snail-B16F1 cells, lumican inhibits migration, growth, and melanoma primary tumor development. A lumican-based strategy targeting Snail-induced MMP-14 activity might be useful for melanoma treatment.

  11. Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing α-Amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs, such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment. These results suggest that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency is caused by up-regulated expression of GA-inactivated genes, and the up-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes might be a consequence of negative feedback regulation of the bioactive GA deficiency. Moreover, we provide evidence that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression. Additionally, exogenous bioactive GA rescues NaCl-inhibited seed germination by enhancing α-amylase activity. Thus, NaCl treatment reduces bioactive GA content through promotion of bioactive GA inactivation, which in turn inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression.

  12. Platycodin D inhibits tumor growth by antiangiogenic activity via blocking VEGFR2-mediated signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Xin; Gao, Yun-Ge; Guan, Ying-Yun; Xu, Jian-Rong; Lu, Qin [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhao, Mei [Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Institute of Health Sciences and Health School Attached to SJTU-SM, 279 Zhouzhu Road, Shanghai 201318 (China); Liu, Ya-Rong; Liu, Hai-Jun [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Fang, Chao, E-mail: fangchao100@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Hong-Zhuan, E-mail: hongzhuan_chen@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Platycodin D (PD) is an active component mainly isolated from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum. Recent studies proved that PD exhibited inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration, invasion and xenograft growth of diverse cancer cell lines. However, whether PD is suppressive for angiogenesis, an important hallmark in cancer development, remains unknown. Here, we found that PD could dose-dependently inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, motility, migration and tube formation. PD also significantly inhibited angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Moreover, the antiangiogenic activity of PD contributed to its in vivo anticancer potency shown in the decreased microvessel density and delayed growth of HCT-15 xenograft in mice with no overt toxicity. Western blot analysis indicated that PD inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream protein kinase including PLCγ1, JAK2, FAK, Src, and Akt in endothelial cells. Molecular docking simulation showed that PD formed hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions within the ATP binding pocket of VEGFR2 kinase domain. The present study firstly revealed the high antiangiogenic activity and the underlying molecular basis of PD, suggesting that PD may be a potential antiangiogenic agent for angiogenesis-related diseases. - Highlights: • Platycodin D inhibits HUVEC proliferation, motility, migration and tube formation. • Platycodin D inhibits the angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. • Platycodin D suppresses the angiogenesis and growth of HCT-15 xenograft in mice. • Platycodin D inhibits the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and downstream kinases in HUVEC.

  13. Identification of the Types Properties and Functional Characteristics of Telomerase Expressing Cells in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hines, William

    2003-01-01

    ... biochemical and functional properties may be characterized. Through examining the role of telomerase in cancer, this project also fosters the education of the candidate through the interaction with several experts in breast cancer pathology, epidemiology, bio...

  14. Identification of the Types, Properties, and Functional Characteristics of Telomerase Expressing Cells in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hines, William C; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2005-01-01

    ... biochemical and functional properties may be characterized. Through examining the role of telomerase in cancer, this project also fosters the education of the candidate through the interaction with several experts in breast cancer pathology, epidemiology, bio...

  15. Identification of New Genes that Regulate Telomerase and Telomere Length in Budding Yeast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Otero, Joel

    2003-01-01

    In budding yeast, Cdc13 has both an essential function in chromosome end protection as well as a non-essential role in telomere replication, by mediating recruitment of telomerase to the chromosome end...

  16. Live-cell imaging of budding yeast telomerase RNA and TERRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprade, Hadrien; Lalonde, Maxime; Guérit, David; Chartrand, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    In most eukaryotes, the ribonucleoprotein complex telomerase is responsible for maintaining telomere length. In recent years, single-cell microscopy techniques such as fluorescent in situ hybridization and live-cell imaging have been developed to image the RNA subunit of the telomerase holoenzyme. These techniques are now becoming important tools for the study of telomerase biogenesis, its association with telomeres and its regulation. Here, we present detailed protocols for live-cell imaging of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA subunit, called TLC1, and also of the non-coding telomeric repeat-containing RNA TERRA. We describe the approach used for genomic integration of MS2 stem-loops in these transcripts, and provide information for optimal live-cell imaging of these non-coding RNAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thiolactomycin inhibits D-aspartate oxidase: a novel approach to probing the active site environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katane, Masumi; Saitoh, Yasuaki; Hanai, Toshihiko; Sekine, Masae; Furuchi, Takemitsu; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Nakagome, Izumi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Hirono, Shuichi; Homma, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    D-Aspartate oxidase (DDO) and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) are flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing flavoproteins that catalyze the oxidative deamination of D-amino acids. While several functionally and structurally important amino acid residues have been identified in the DAO protein, little is known about the structure-function relationships of DDO. In the search for a potent DDO inhibitor as a novel tool for investigating its structure-function relationships, a large number of biologically active compounds of microbial origin were screened for their ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of mouse DDO. We discovered several compounds that inhibited the activity of mouse DDO, and one of the compounds identified, thiolactomycin (TLM), was then characterized and evaluated as a novel DDO inhibitor. TLM reversibly inhibited the activity of mouse DDO with a mixed type of inhibition more efficiently than meso-tartrate and malonate, known competitive inhibitors of mammalian DDOs. The selectivity of TLM was investigated using various DDOs and DAOs, and it was found that TLM inhibits not only DDO, but also DAO. Further experiments with apoenzymes of DDO and DAO revealed that TLM is most likely to inhibit the activities of DDO and DAO by competition with both the substrate and the coenzyme, FAD. Structural models of mouse DDO/TLM complexes supported this finding. The binding mode of TLM to DDO was validated further by site-directed mutagenesis of an active site residue, Arg-237. Collectively, our findings show that TLM is a novel, active site-directed DDO inhibitor that will be useful for elucidating the molecular details of the active site environment of DDO. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii actively inhibits neuronal function in chronically infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Haroon

    Full Text Available Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii-infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca(2+ imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca(2+ signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca(2+ uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca(2+ stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host.

  19. Dimerization inhibits the activity of receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, G; den Hertog, J; Su, J

    1999-01-01

    that dimerization can negatively regulate activity, through the interaction of an inhibitory 'wedge' on one monomer with the catalytic cleft of domain 1 in the other monomer. Here we show that dimerization inhibits the activity of a full-length RPTP in vivo. We generated stable disulphide-bonded full...

  20. Oral glucose intake inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity more effectively than glucose infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Vidarsdottir, S.; Graaf, de C.; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P.; Viergever, M.A.; Pijl, H.; Grond, van der J.

    2007-01-01

    Oral glucose intake inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity more effectively than glucose infusion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293: E754-E758, 2007. First published June 12, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00231.2007. - We previously showed that hypothalamic neuronal activity, as measured by the blood

  1. Impairment of GABA transporter GAT-1 terminates cortical recurrent network activity via enhanced phasic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simon Razik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, GABA transporters (GATs very efficiently clear synaptically released GABA from the extracellular space, and thus exert a tight control on GABAergic inhibition. In neocortex, GABAergic inhibition is heavily recruited during recurrent phases of spontaneous action potential activity which alternate with neuronally quiet periods. Therefore, such activity should be quite sensitive to minute alterations of GAT function. Here, we explored the effects of a gradual impairment of GAT-1 and GAT-2/3 on spontaneous recurrent network activity – termed network bursts and silent periods – in organotypic slice cultures of rat neocortex. The GAT-1 specific antagonist NO-711 depressed activity already at nanomolar concentrations (IC50 for depression of spontaneous multiunit firing rate of 42 nM, reaching a level of 80% at 500-1000 nM. By contrast, the GAT-2/3 preferring antagonist SNAP-5114 had weaker and less consistent effects. Several lines of evidence pointed towards an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition as the dominant activity-depressing mechanism: network bursts were drastically shortened, phasic GABAergic currents decayed slower, and neuronal excitability during ongoing activity was diminished. In silent periods, NO-711 had little effect on neuronal excitability or membrane resistance, quite in contrast to the effects of muscimol, a GABA mimetic which activates GABAA receptors tonically. Our results suggest that an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition efficiently curtails cortical recurrent activity and may mediate antiepileptic effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of GAT-1 antagonists.

  2. ERK inhibition sensitizes CZ415-induced anti-osteosarcoma activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gang; Fan, Jin; Zhou, Wei; Ding, Qingfeng; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Xuan; Tang, Pengyu; Zhou, Hao; Wan, Bowen; Yin, Guoyong

    2017-10-10

    mTOR is a valuable oncotarget for osteosarcoma. The anti-osteosarcoma activity by a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor, CZ415, was evaluated. We demonstrated that CZ415 potently inhibited survival and proliferation of known osteosarcoma cell lines (U2OS, MG-63 and SaOs2), and primary human osteosarcoma cells. Further, CZ415 provoked apoptosis and disrupted cell cycle progression in osteosarcoma cells. CZ415 treatment in osteosarcoma cells concurrently blocked mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation. Intriguingly, ERK-MAPK activation could be a major resistance factor of CZ415. ERK inhibition (by MEK162/U0126) or knockdown (by targeted ERK1/2 shRNAs) dramatically sensitized CZ415-induced osteosarcoma cell apoptosis. In vivo , CZ415 oral administration efficiently inhibited U2OS tumor growth in mice. Its activity was further potentiated with co-administration of MEK162. Collectively, we demonstrate that ERK inhibition sensitizes CZ415-induced anti-osteosarcoma activity in vitro and in vivo . CZ415 could be further tested as a promising anti-osteosarcoma agent, alone or in combination of ERK inhibition.

  3. Cellular functions of the dual-targeted catalytic subunit of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase--potential role in senescence and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Dyballa-Rukes, Nadine; Jakob, Sascha; Altschmied, Joachim; Haendeler, Judith

    2014-08-01

    Over the last 40 years it has become clear that telomeres, the end of the chromosomes, and the enzyme telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), which is required to counteract their shortening, play a pivotal role in senescence and aging. However, over the last years several studies demonstrated that TERT belongs to the group of dual-targeted proteins. It contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal as well as a mitochondrial targeting sequence and, under physiological conditions, is found in both organelles in several cell types including terminally differentiated, post-mitotic cells. The canonical function of TERT is to prevent telomere erosion and thereby the development of replicative senescence and genetic instability. Besides telomere extension, TERT exhibits other non-telomeric activities such as cell cycle regulation, modulation of cellular signaling and gene expression, augmentation of proliferative lifespan as well as DNA damage responses. Mitochondrial TERT is able to reduce reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial DNA damage and apoptosis. Because of the localization of TERT in the nucleus and in the mitochondria, it must have different functions in the two organelles as mitochondrial DNA does not contain telomeric structures. However, the organelle-specific functions are not completely understood. Strikingly, the regulation by phosphorylation of TERT seems to reveal multiple parallels. This review will summarize the current knowledge about the cellular functions and post-translational regulation of the dual-targeted protein TERT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenolic constituents isolated from Fragaria ananassa Duch. inhibit antigen-stimulated degranulation through direct inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Masayuki; Itoh, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Suguru; Saiki, Miho; Narumiya, Kenji; Yasuda, Masaharu; Koshikawa, Kaneyuki; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2010-08-15

    We isolated eight phenolic constituents from Fragaria ananassa Duch. (strawberry) and determined their structures using 1D, 2D-NMR. Among the isolated compounds, linocinnamarin (LN), 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-beta-d-glucopyranose (CG), and cinnamic acid (CA) exhibited antigen (Ag)-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. In order to reveal the underlying mechanisms, we examined the effects of LN and CA on cellular responses induced by antigen stimulation. Treatment with both LN and CA markedly inhibited antigen-stimulated elevation of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both LN and CA suppressed Ag-stimulated spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) activation. These results indicate that inhibition of antigen-stimulated degranulation by LN and CA is mainly due to inactivation of Syk/phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) pathways. Our findings suggest that LN and CA isolated from F. ananassa Duch. (strawberry) could be beneficial agents for alleviating symptoms of type I allergy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Insights into the evolution of mammalian telomerase: Platypus TERT shares similarities with genes of birds and other reptiles and localizes on sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrdličková Radmila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TERT gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the telomerase complex and is responsible for maintaining telomere length. Vertebrate telomerase has been studied in eutherian mammals, fish, and the chicken, but less attention has been paid to other vertebrates. The platypus occupies an important evolutionary position, providing unique insight into the evolution of mammalian genes. We report the cloning of a platypus TERT (OanTERT ortholog, and provide a comparison with genes of other vertebrates. Results The OanTERT encodes a protein with a high sequence similarity to marsupial TERT and avian TERT. Like the TERT of sauropsids and marsupials, as well as that of sharks and echinoderms, OanTERT contains extended variable linkers in the N-terminal region suggesting that they were present already in basal vertebrates and lost independently in ray-finned fish and eutherian mammals. Several alternatively spliced OanTERT variants structurally similar to avian TERT variants were identified. Telomerase activity is expressed in all platypus tissues like that of cold-blooded animals and murine rodents. OanTERT was localized on pseudoautosomal regions of sex chromosomes X3/Y2, expanding the homology between human chromosome 5 and platypus sex chromosomes. Synteny analysis suggests that TERT co-localized with sex-linked genes in the last common mammalian ancestor. Interestingly, female platypuses express higher levels of telomerase in heart and liver tissues than do males. Conclusions OanTERT shares many features with TERT of the reptilian outgroup, suggesting that OanTERT represents the ancestral mammalian TERT. Features specific to TERT of eutherian mammals have, therefore, evolved more recently after the divergence of monotremes.

  6. Insights into the evolution of mammalian telomerase: platypus TERT shares similarities with genes of birds and other reptiles and localizes on sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdličková, Radmila; Nehyba, Jiří; Lim, Shu Ly; Grützner, Frank; Bose, Henry R

    2012-06-01

    The TERT gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the telomerase complex and is responsible for maintaining telomere length. Vertebrate telomerase has been studied in eutherian mammals, fish, and the chicken, but less attention has been paid to other vertebrates. The platypus occupies an important evolutionary position, providing unique insight into the evolution of mammalian genes. We report the cloning of a platypus TERT (OanTERT) ortholog, and provide a comparison with genes of other vertebrates. The OanTERT encodes a protein with a high sequence similarity to marsupial TERT and avian TERT. Like the TERT of sauropsids and marsupials, as well as that of sharks and echinoderms, OanTERT contains extended variable linkers in the N-terminal region suggesting that they were present already in basal vertebrates and lost independently in ray-finned fish and eutherian mammals. Several alternatively spliced OanTERT variants structurally similar to avian TERT variants were identified. Telomerase activity is expressed in all platypus tissues like that of cold-blooded animals and murine rodents. OanTERT was localized on pseudoautosomal regions of sex chromosomes X3/Y2, expanding the homology between human chromosome 5 and platypus sex chromosomes. Synteny analysis suggests that TERT co-localized with sex-linked genes in the last common mammalian ancestor. Interestingly, female platypuses express higher levels of telomerase in heart and liver tissues than do males. OanTERT shares many features with TERT of the reptilian outgroup, suggesting that OanTERT represents the ancestral mammalian TERT. Features specific to TERT of eutherian mammals have, therefore, evolved more recently after the divergence of monotremes.

  7. Telomerase as an Androgen Receptor-Regulated Target in Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    androgens through de novo steroidogenesis (41–43). Xeno - graft studies have shown that knocking down AR expres- sion by shRNA could delay the progression...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0291 TITLE: Telomerase as an Androgen Receptor...March 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Telomerase as an Androgen Receptor-Regulated Target in Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate

  8. Mapping of the Gene for the Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase, hTERT, to Chromosome 5p15.33 by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Bryce

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase, the enzyme that maintains the ends of chromosomes, is absent from the majority of somatic cells but is present and active in most tumours. The gene for the reverse transcriptase component of telomerase (hTERT has recently been identified. A cDNA clone of this gene was used as a probe to identify three genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones, one of which was used as a probe to map hTERT by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to chromosome 5p15.33. This BAC probe was further used to look at copy number of the hTERT region in immortal cell lines. We found that 10/15 immortal cell lines had a modal copy number of 3 or more per cell, with one cell line (CaSki having a modal copy number of 11. This suggests that increases in copy number of the hTERT gene region do occur, and may well be one route to upregulating telomerase levels in tumour cells. 5p15 gains and amplifications have been documented for various tumour types, including non-small cell lung carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, and uterine cervix cancer, making hTERT a potential target.

  9. A novel peptide-nucleotide dual vaccine of human telomerase reverse transcriptase induces a potent cytotoxic T-cell response in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hong; Hao, Jia; Wu, Chao; Shi, Yun; Zhao, Xiao-yan; Fang, Dian-chun

    2007-01-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is highly expressed in over 85% of human cancers, which makes it a broadly applicable molecular target for cancer therapy. Several groups have demonstrated that hTERT can efficiently evoke specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses for malignant tumors. In the present study, we developed a novel virus-like particulate peptide-nucleotide dual vaccine (PNDV) of hTERT, which was composed of a low-affinity epitope variant with encoding full-length gene in the same virus-size particulate. We verified the formation of PNDV by DNA retarding assay, DNase I protection assay and transmission electron microscopy, and confirmed its immunogenicity and transfection activities in mammalian cells. Furthermore, in vivo immunization of HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice generated efficient IFN-γ secretion and hTERT-specific CTLs which are known to cause selective cell death of telomerase positive gastrointestinal cancer cells. To our knowledge, this represents the first report on collocating a low-affinity epitope variant with a full-length hTERT gene for anti-cancer vaccine design. This novel strategy for vaccine design not only enables enhanced immunity to a universal tumor antigen, but also has the potential to generate CTLs effective in telomerase-positive tumor cells of diverse tissue origins. Therefore, our findings bear significant implications for immunotherapy of human cancers

  10. Sestrins Inhibit mTORC1 Kinase Activation through the GATOR Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Parmigiani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 kinase is a sensor of different environmental conditions and regulator of cell growth, metabolism, and autophagy. mTORC1 is activated by Rag GTPases, working as RagA:RagB and RagC:RagD heterodimers. Rags control mTORC1 activity by tethering mTORC1 to the lysosomes where it is activated by Rheb GTPase. RagA:RagB, active in its GTP-bound form, is inhibited by GATOR1 complex, a GTPase-activating protein, and GATOR1 is in turn negatively regulated by GATOR2 complex. Sestrins are stress-responsive proteins that inhibit mTORC1 via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and tuberous sclerosis complex. Here we report an AMPK-independent mechanism of mTORC1 inhibition by Sestrins mediated by their interaction with GATOR2. As a result of this interaction, the Sestrins suppress mTOR lysosomal localization in a Rag-dependent manner. This mechanism is potentially involved in mTORC1 regulation by amino acids, rotenone, and tunicamycin, connecting stress response with mTORC1 inhibition.

  11. Antimycobacterial and Photosynthetic Electron Transport Inhibiting Activity of Ring-Substituted 4-Arylamino-7-Chloroquinolinium Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois Cizek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of twenty-five ring-substituted 4-arylamino-7-chloroquinolinium chlorides were prepared and characterized. The compounds were tested for their activity related to inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts and also primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was performed against mycobacterial species. 4-[(2-Bromophenylamino]-7-chloroquinolinium chloride showed high biological activity against M. marinum, M. kansasii, M. smegmatis and 7-chloro-4-[(2-methylphenylamino]quinolinium chloride demonstrated noteworthy biological activity against M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compounds demonstrated quite low toxicity (LD50 > 20 μmol/L against the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line within preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity screening. The tested compounds were found to inhibit PET in photosystem II. The PET-inhibiting activity expressed by IC50 value of the most active compound 7-chloro-4-[(3-trifluoromethylphenylamino]quinolinium chloride was 27 μmol/L and PET-inhibiting activity of ortho-substituted compounds was significantly lower than this of meta- and para-substituted ones. The structure-activity relationships are discussed for all compounds.

  12. A novel AMPK activator hernandezine inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Xiaofang; Wu, Yonghong; Li, Manxiang; Wang, Xiaochuang

    2017-09-15

    Here, we found that hernandezine, a novel AMPK activator, inhibited LPS-induced TNFα expression/production in human macrophage cells (THP-1 and U937 lines). Activation of AMPK is required for hernandezine-induced anti-LPS response. AMPKα shRNA or dominant negative mutation (T172A) blocked hernandezine-induced AMPK activation, which almost completely reversed anti-LPS activity by hernandezine. Exogenous expression of the constitutively activate AMPKα (T172D, caAMPKα) also suppressed TNFα production by LPS. Remarkably, hernandezine was unable to further inhibit LPS-mediated TNFα production in caAMPKα-expressing cells. Hernandezine inhibited LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation. Treatment of hernandezine in ex-vivo cultured primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) also largely attenuated LPS-induced TNFα production. Together, we conclude that AMPK activation by hernandezine inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production in macrophages/monocytes.

  13. Genistein inhibited ammonia induced astrocyte swelling by inhibiting NF-κB activation-mediated nitric oxide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongliang; Jia, Guizhi; Wang, Wei; Liang, Chunguang; Han, Siyu; Chu, Minghui; Mei, Xifan

    2017-06-01

    Our previous study has indicated the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling, which represents a major pathogenesis of brain edema in hepatic encephalopathy. In this study, we examined the effect of genistein, a naturally occurred broad-spectrum protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor, on ammonia-induced cell swelling. We found that genistein pretreatment significantly prevented ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. Mechanistically, ammonia triggered EGFR/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) association and subsequent ERK phosphorylation were alleviated by genistein pretreatment. Moreover, ammonia-induced NF-κB nuclear location, iNOS expression, and consequent NO production were all prevented by AG1478 and genistein pretreatment. This study suggested that genistein could alleviate ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling, which may be, at least partly, related to its PTK-inhibiting activity and repression of NF-κB mediated iNOS-derived NO accumulation.

  14. Thermodynamic characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA pseudoknot domain in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Kim, Yoora; Cruickshank, Charmion; Theimer, Carla A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent structural and functional characterization of the pseudoknot in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA (TLC1) has demonstrated that tertiary structure is present, similar to that previously described for the human and Kluyveromyces lactis telomerase RNAs. In order to biophysically characterize the identified pseudoknot secondary and tertiary structures, UV-monitored thermal denaturation experiments, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and native gel electrophoresis were used to investigate various potential conformations in the pseudoknot domain in vitro, in the absence of the telomerase protein. Here, we demonstrate that alternative secondary structures are not mutually exclusive in the S. cerevisiae telomerase RNA, tertiary structure contributes 1.5 kcal mol−1 to the stability of the pseudoknot (∼half the stability observed for the human telomerase pseudoknot), and identify additional base pairs in the 3′ pseudoknot stem near the helical junction. In addition, sequence conservation in an adjacent overlapping hairpin appears to prevent dimerization and alternative conformations in the context of the entire pseudoknot-containing region. Thus, this work provides a detailed in vitro characterization of the thermodynamic features of the S. cerevisiae TLC1 pseudoknot region for comparison with other telomerase RNA pseudoknots. PMID:22450759

  15. A Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase trafficking in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Li, Jian; Culp, Bradley R.; Terns, Rebecca M., E-mail: rterns@bmb.uga.edu; Terns, Michael P., E-mail: mterns@bmb.uga.edu

    2010-10-15

    The intranuclear trafficking of human telomerase involves a dynamic interplay between multiple nuclear sites, most notably Cajal bodies and telomeres. Cajal bodies are proposed to serve as sites of telomerase maturation, storage, and assembly, as well as to function in the cell cycle-regulated delivery of telomerase to telomeres in human cells. Here, we find that telomerase RNA does not localize to Cajal bodies in mouse cells, and instead resides in separate nuclear foci throughout much of the cell cycle. However, as in humans, mouse telomerase RNA (mTR) localizes to subsets of telomeres specifically during S phase. The localization of mTR to telomeres in mouse cells does not require coilin-containing Cajal bodies, as mTR is found at telomeres at similar frequencies in cells from wild-type and coilin knockout mice. At the same time, we find that human TR localizes to Cajal bodies (as well as telomeres) in mouse cells, indicating that the distinct trafficking of mTR is attributable to an intrinsic property of the RNA (rather than a difference in the mouse cell environment such as the properties of mouse Cajal bodies). We also find that during S phase, mTR foci coalesce into short chains, with at least one of the conjoined mTR foci co-localizing with a telomere. These findings point to a novel, Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase biogenesis and trafficking in mice.

  16. A Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase trafficking in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Li, Jian; Culp, Bradley R.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    The intranuclear trafficking of human telomerase involves a dynamic interplay between multiple nuclear sites, most notably Cajal bodies and telomeres. Cajal bodies are proposed to serve as sites of telomerase maturation, storage, and assembly, as well as to function in the cell cycle-regulated delivery of telomerase to telomeres in human cells. Here, we find that telomerase RNA does not localize to Cajal bodies in mouse cells, and instead resides in separate nuclear foci throughout much of the cell cycle. However, as in humans, mouse telomerase RNA (mTR) localizes to subsets of telomeres specifically during S phase. The localization of mTR to telomeres in mouse cells does not require coilin-containing Cajal bodies, as mTR is found at telomeres at similar frequencies in cells from wild-type and coilin knockout mice. At the same time, we find that human TR localizes to Cajal bodies (as well as telomeres) in mouse cells, indicating that the distinct trafficking of mTR is attributable to an intrinsic property of the RNA (rather than a difference in the mouse cell environment such as the properties of mouse Cajal bodies). We also find that during S phase, mTR foci coalesce into short chains, with at least one of the conjoined mTR foci co-localizing with a telomere. These findings point to a novel, Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase biogenesis and trafficking in mice.

  17. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-11-04

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity.

  18. Feed-forward inhibition of androgen receptor activity by glucocorticoid action in human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Sean M; He, Bin; Newberg, Justin Y; Ochsner, Scott A; Loose, David S; Lanz, Rainer B; McKenna, Neil J; Buehrer, Benjamin M; McGuire, Sean E; Marcelli, Marco; Mancini, Michael A

    2012-09-21

    We compared transcriptomes of terminally differentiated mouse 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes to identify cell-specific differences. Gene expression and high content analysis (HCA) data identified the androgen receptor (AR) as both expressed and functional, exclusively during early human adipocyte differentiation. The AR agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) inhibited human adipocyte maturation by downregulation of adipocyte marker genes, but not in 3T3-L1. It is interesting that AR induction corresponded with dexamethasone activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR); however, when exposed to the differentiation cocktail required for adipocyte maturation, AR adopted an antagonist conformation and was transcriptionally repressed. To further explore effectors within the cocktail, we applied an image-based support vector machine (SVM) classification scheme to show that adipocyte differentiation components inhibit AR action. The results demonstrate human adipocyte differentiation, via GR activation, upregulates AR but also inhibits AR transcriptional activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Telomerase expression in individuals with chronic and aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarkar, Atul; Saha, Arindam; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Kundu, Debabrata; Bandyopadhyay, Prasanta; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of human telomerase reverse transcription (hTERT) enzyme in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared with healthy individuals. A total of 79 individuals consented to participate in the study. The study sample comprised healthy individuals (n = 30), patients with CP (n = 30), and patients with AgP (n = 19). Gingival tissue was collected and evaluated for hTERT expression by Western blot and immunohistochemical methods. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed using the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples. The hTERT messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in AgP compared with CP (P periodontal disease progression, suggesting that hTERT could be a potential prognostic marker.

  20. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in primary cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Barbara; Nagore, Eduardo; Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Garcia-Casado, Zaida; Requena, Celia; Traves, Victor; Becker, Jürgen; Soufir, Nadem; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2014-02-26

    We previously reported a disease segregating causal germline mutation in a melanoma family and recurrent somatic mutations in metastasized tumours from unrelated patients in the core promoter region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene. Here we show that the TERT promoter mutations, besides causing an increased gene expression, associate with increased patient age, increased Breslow thickness and tumour ulceration in 287 primary melanomas. The mutations are more frequent at both intermittently and chronically sun-exposed sites than non-exposed sites and tend to co-occur with BRAF and CDKN2A alterations. The association with parameters generally connected with poor outcome, coupled with high recurrence and mechanistic relevance, raises the possibility of the eventual use of TERT promoter mutations in the disease management.

  1. Hypouricaemic action of mangiferin results from metabolite norathyriol via inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanfen; Liu, Jia; Liu, Hai-Yang; Gao, Li-Hui; Feng, Guo-Hua; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling

    2016-09-01

    Context Mangiferin has been reported to possess a potential hypouricaemic effect. However, the pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that its oral bioavailability was only 1.2%, suggesting that mangiferin metabolites might exert the action. Objective The hypouricaemic effect and the xanthine oxidase inhibition of mangiferin and norathyriol, a mangiferin metabolite, were investigated. Inhibition of norathyriol analogues (compounds 3-9) toward xanthine oxidase was also evaluated. Materials and methods For a dose-dependent study, mangiferin (1.5-6.0 mg/kg) and norathyriol (0.92-3.7 mg/kg) were administered intragastrically to mice twice daily for five times. For a time-course study, mice received mangiferin and norathyriol both at a single dose of 7.1 μmol/kg. In vitro, inhibition of test compounds (2.4-2.4 mM) against xanthine oxidase activity was evaluated by the spectrophotometrical method. The inhibition type was identified from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Results Norathyriol (0.92, 1.85 and 3.7 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the serum urate levels by 27.0, 33.6 and 37.4%, respectively. The action was more potent than that of mangiferin at the low dose, but was equivalent at the higher doses. Additionally, the hypouricaemic action of them exhibited a time dependence. In vitro, norathyriol markedly inhibited the xanthine oxidase activities, with the IC50 value of 44.6 μM, but mangiferin did not. The kinetic studies showed that norathyriol was an uncompetitive inhibitor by Lineweaver-Burk plots. The structure-activity relationships exhibited that three hydroxyl groups in norathyriol at the C-1, C-3 and C-6 positions were essential for maintaining xanthine oxidase inhibition. Discussion and conclusion Norathyriol was responsible for the hypouricaemic effect of mangiferin via inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity.

  2. Lithium potentiates GSK-3β activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lithium suppresses Akt activity by reducing PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation. • Lithium enhances GSK-3β activity by reducing Akt-mediated GSK-3β phosphorylation. • Lithium suppresses GSK-3β activity through its direct inhibition. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3β. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li 2 CO 3 significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li 2 CO 3 did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P 3 production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3β activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li 2 CO 3 on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, but otherwise Li 2 CO 3 significantly reduced GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3β in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li 2 CO 3 significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3β activity

  3. Inhibition of natural killer cell activity by eicosapentaenoic acid in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, N.; Sugiyama, E.; Hamazaki, T.; Yano, S.

    1988-01-15

    To examine the effects of in vivo eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on natural killer (NK) cell activity, C3H/He mice each received a single intraperitoneal bolus of an emulsion of trieicosapentaenoyl-glycerol (EPA-TG). Spleen cells were tested for NK activity using /sup 51/Chromium-release assays against YAC-1 target cells. Forty eight hours after injection, NK activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. EPA-TG emulsion also inhibited the NK activity of NK-enriched effector cells. Decreased cytotoxicity was first noted 24 hr after injection; it resumed the baseline by 7 days. The addition of EPA-TG emulsion to a cytotoxicity assay system resulted in moderate depression of NK activity. These results demonstrate that EPA has significant immunomodulatory effects on NK activity.

  4. Tanshinone IIA attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibiting glial activation and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fa-Le; Xu, Min; Wang, Yan; Gong, Ke-Rui; Zhang, Jin-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia, is a devastating neurological disease that seriously affects patients' quality of life. We have previously shown that tanshinone IIA (TIIA), an important lipophilic component of Danshen, had significant anti-nociceptive effect in somatic and visceral pain, it is surprisingly noted that few pharmacological studies have been carried out to explore the possible analgesic action of TIIA on neuropathic pain and the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, by using spinal nerve ligation (SNL) pain model, the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of TIIA on neuropathic pain were evaluated by intraperitoneal administration in rats. The results indicated that TIIA dose-dependently inhibited SNL-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. As revealed by OX42 levels, TIIA effectively repressed the activation of spinal microglial activation in SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Meanwhile, TIIA also decreased the expressions of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the spinal cord. Furthermore, TIIA inhibited oxidative stress by significantly rescuing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, TIIA depressed SNL-induced MAPKs activation in spinal cord. Taken together, our study provides evidence that TIIA inhibited SNL-induced neuropathic pain through depressing microglial activation and immune response by the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways. Our findings suggest that TIIA might be a promising agent in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel aspirin prodrug inhibits NFκB activity and breast cancer stem cell properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastrati, Irida; Litosh, Vladislav A.; Zhao, Shuangping; Alvarez, Manuel; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.; Frasor, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    Activation of cyclooxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) pathways can promote breast tumor initiation, growth, and progression to drug resistance and metastasis. Thus, anti-inflammatory drugs have been widely explored as chemopreventive and antineoplastic agents. Aspirin (ASA), in particular, is associated with reduced breast cancer incidence but gastrointestinal toxicity has limited its usefulness. To improve potency and minimize toxicity, ASA ester prodrugs have been developed, in which the carboxylic acid of ASA is masked and ancillary pharmacophores can be incorporated. To date, the effects of ASA and ASA prodrugs have been largely attributed to COX inhibition and reduced prostaglandin production. However, ASA has also been reported to inhibit the NFκB pathway at very high doses. Whether ASA prodrugs can inhibit NFκB signaling remains relatively unexplored. A library of ASA prodrugs was synthesized and screened for inhibition of NFκB activity and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties, an important PGE2-and NFκB-dependent phenotype of aggressive breast cancers. Inhibition of NFκB activity was determined by dual luciferase assay, RT-QPCR, p65 DNA binding activity and Western blots. Inhibition of CSC properties was determined by mammosphere growth, CD44 + CD24 − immunophenotype and tumorigenicity at limiting dilution. While we identified multiple ASA prodrugs that are capable of inhibiting the NFκB pathway, several were associated with cytotoxicity. Of particular interest was GTCpFE, an ASA prodrug with fumarate as the ancillary pharmacophore. This prodrug potently inhibits NFκB activity without innate cytotoxicity. In addition, GTCpFE exhibited selective anti-CSC activity by reducing mammosphere growth and the CD44 + CD24 − immunophenotype. Moreover, GTCpFE pre-treated cells were less tumorigenic and, when tumors did form, latency was increased and growth rate was reduced. Structure-activity relationships for GTCpFE indicate

  6. Thioredoxin 80-Activated-Monocytes (TAMs) Inhibit the Replication of Intracellular Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes-Bratti, Ximena; Brasseres, Eugenie; Herrera-Rodriquez, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    for a role of TAMs in the control of intracellular bacterial infections. As model pathogens we have chosen Listeria monocytogenes and Brucella abortus which replicate in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum respectively. Our data indicate that TAMs efficiently inhibit intracellular growth of both L....... monocytogenes and B. abortus. Further analysis shows that Trx80 activation prevents the escape of GFP-tagged L. monocytogenes into the cytosol, and induces accumulation of the bacteria within the lysosomes. Inhibition of the lysosomal activity by chloroquine treatment resulted in higher replication of bacteria...

  7. Inhibition of hemolysis activities by polysaccharides in the seaweed of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    前田, 陽一; 柴田, 潔; 長谷川, 和清; 荒井, 千明

    2014-01-01

    Hemolytic activities of crude extracts from 10 seaweed ( 2 green algae, 2 brown algae and 6 red algae ) were evaluated by the absorbance at 541nm on the spectrophotometric analysis. The activities of Eisenia bicyclis and Undaria pinnatifida showed without density-dependent. Quantitative Analysis of Polysaccharides in algae by phenol-sulfuric acid reaction ware carried out and revealed the inhibition of hemolysis activity ware increased by the quantity of Polysaccharides although not proportio...

  8. Punigratane, a novel pyrrolidine alkaloid from Punica granatum rind with putative efflux inhibition activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Zumaana; Narasimhan, Sreevidya; Vennila, Rosy; Vaidyanathan, Rama

    2016-02-25

    A new pyrrolidine alkaloid named Punigratane was isolated from the rind of Punica granatum. This is the first report of a pyrrolidine-like structure from the rind. The activity of this compound was tested in a representative MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae strain which exhibited high efflux pump activity. At a concentration of 6 mg, this compound Punigratane was found to have efflux inhibition activity.

  9. Telomerase activity and apoptosis genes as parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is hypothesized that Down syndrome (DS) patients are associated with abnormalities of the immune system. Accordingly, this study was conducted to measure replicative aging and apoptosis in lymphocytes, which play an important role in the immune system, before and after being biostimulated with He:Ne laser.

  10. Telomerase activity and apoptosis genes as parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekram Abdel-Salam

    2013-01-23

    Jan 23, 2013 ... Abstract It is hypothesized that Down syndrome (DS) patients are associated with abnormalities of the immune system. Accordingly, this study was conducted to measure replicative aging and apoptosis in lymphocytes, which play an important role in the immune system, before and after being biostimulated ...

  11. Liver δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Inhibited by Neonicotinoids and Restored by Antioxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Sauer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids represent the most used class of insecticides worldwide, and their precursor, imidacloprid, is the most widely marketed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of imidacloprid on the activity of hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D, protective effect of potential antioxidants against this potential effect and presence of chemical elements in the constitution of this pesticide. We observed that δ-ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited by imidacloprid at all concentrations tested in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value was obtained and used to evaluate the restoration of the enzymatic activity. δ-ALA-D inhibition was completely restored by addition of dithiotreitol (DTT and partly by ZnCl2, demonstrating that the inhibition occurs by oxidation of thiol groups and by displacement of the Zn (II, which can be explained by the presence of chemical elements found in the constitution of pesticides. Reduced glutathione (GSH had the best antioxidant effect against to δ-ALA-D inhibition caused by imidacloprid, followed by curcumin and resveratrol. It is well known that inhibition of the enzyme δ-ALA-D may result in accumulation of its neurotoxic substrate (δ-ALA, in this line, our results suggest that further studies are needed to investigate the possible neurotoxicity induced by neonicotinoids and the involvement of antioxidants in cases of poisoning by neonicotinoids.

  12. D-tyrosine negatively regulates melanin synthesis by competitively inhibiting tyrosinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisu; Jung, Hyejung; Kim, Kyuri; Lim, Kyung-Min; Kim, Ji-Young; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2017-11-09

    Although L-tyrosine is well known for its melanogenic effect, the contribution of D-tyrosine to melanin synthesis was previously unexplored. Here, we reveal that, unlike L-tyrosine, D-tyrosine dose-dependently reduced the melanin contents of human MNT-1 melanoma cells and primary human melanocytes. In addition, 500 μM of D-tyrosine completely inhibited 10 μM L-tyrosine-induced melanogenesis, and both in vitro assays and L-DOPA staining MNT-1 cells showed that tyrosinase activity is reduced by D-tyrosine treatment. Thus, D-tyrosine appears to inhibit L-tyrosine-mediated melanogenesis by competitively inhibiting tyrosinase activity. Furthermore, we found that D-tyrosine inhibited melanogenesis induced by α-MSH treatment or UV irradiation, which are the most common environmental factors responsible for melanin synthesis. Finally, we confirmed that D-tyrosine reduced melanin synthesis in the epidermal basal layer of a 3D human skin model. Taken together, these data suggest that D-tyrosine negatively regulates melanin synthesis by inhibiting tyrosinase activity in melanocyte-derived cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Glaucocalyxin A inhibits platelet activation and thrombus formation preferentially via GPVI signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Platelets play a pivotal role in atherothrombosis and the antiplatelet agents have been proved to be useful in preventing onset of acute clinical events including myocardial infarction and stroke. Increasing number of natural compounds has been identified to be potential antiplatelet agents. Here we report the antiplatelet effect of glaucocalyxin A (GLA, an ent-diterpenoid that we isolated and purified from the aerial parts of Rabdosia japonica (Burm. f. var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, and investigate the molecular mechanisms by which GLA inhibits platelet activation and thrombus formation. The effect of GLA on platelet activation was measured using platelets freshly isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors. Results showed that pretreatment of human platelets with lower concentrations of GLA (0.01 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen (P<0.001 and CRP (P<0.01, a synthetic GPVI ligand, but not by ADP and U46619. Accordingly, GLA inhibited collagen-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, LAT, and phospholipase Cγ2, the signaling events in collagen receptor GPⅥ pathway. GLA also inhibited platelet p-selectin secretion and integrin activation by convulxin, a GPVI selective ligand. Additionally, GLA was found to inhibit low-dose thrombin-induced platelet activation. Using a flow chamber device, GLA was found to attenuate platelet adhesion on collagen surfaces in high shear condition. In vivo studies showed that GLA administration increased the time for complete occlusion upon vascular injury in mice, but did not extend tail-bleeding time when mice were administered with relatively lower doses of GLA. Therefore, the present results provide the molecular basis for the inhibition effect of GLA on platelet activation and its in vivo effect on thrombus formation, suggesting that GLA could potentially be developed as an antiplatelet and antithrombotic agent.

  14. Potent inhibition of human neutrophil activations by bractelactone, a novel chalcone from Fissistigma bracteolatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yang-Chang [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Sureshbabu, Munisamy; Fang, Yao-Ching; Wu, Yi-Hsiu [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lan, Yu-Hsuan [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Chang, Fang-Rong [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ya-Wen [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Tsong-Long, E-mail: htl@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chinese Herbal Medicine Research Team, Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Fissistigma bracteolatum is widely used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. However, its active components and mechanisms of action remain unclear. In this study, (3Z)-6,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3-(phenylmethylidene)-5-(3-phenylpropanoyl) -1-benzofuran-2(3H) (bractelactone), a novel chalcone from F. bracteolatum, showed potent inhibitory effects against superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) production, elastase release, and CD11b expression in formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced human neutrophils. However, bractelactone showed only weak inhibition of phorbol myristate acetate-caused O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The peak cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) was unaltered by bractelactone in FMLP-induced neutrophils, but the decay time of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was significantly shortened. In a calcium-free solution, changes in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} caused by the addition of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} were inhibited by bractelactone in FMLP-activated cells. In addition, bractelactone did not alter the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, JNK, or AKT or the concentration of cAMP. These results suggest that bractelactone selectively inhibits store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). In agreement with this concept, bractelactone suppressed sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} changes in thapsigargin-activated neutrophils. Furthermore, bractelactone did not alter FMLP-induced formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effects of bractelactone, an active ingredient of F. bracteolatum, in human neutrophils are through the selective inhibition of SOCE. Highlights: ► Bractelactone isolated from Fissistigma bracteolatum. ► Bractelactone inhibited FMLP-induced human neutrophil activations. ► Bractelactone had no effect on IP3 formation. ► Bractelactone did not alter MAPKs, AKT, and cAMP pathways. ► Bractelactone inhibited store-operated calcium entry.

  15. Locally formed dopamine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase activity in rat renal cortical tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri, I.; Kone, B.C.; Gullans, S.R.; Aperia, A.; Brenner, B.M.; Ballermann, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dopamine, generated locally from L-dopa, inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase in permeabilized rat proximal tubules under maximum transport rate conditions for sodium. To determine whether locally formed dopamine inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase activity in intact cortical tubule cells we studied the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption rate (Qo 2 ) and 86 Rb uptake in renal cortical tubule cell suspensions. L-Dopa did not affect ouabain-insensitive Qo 2 or mitochondrial respiration. However, L-dopa inhibited ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal inhibition (K 0.5 ) of 5 x 10 -7 M and a maximal inhibition of 14.1 ± 1.5% at 10 -4 M. L-Dopa also blunted the nystatin-stimulated Qo 2 in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating the L-dopa directly inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase activity and not sodium entry. Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake was also inhibited by L-dopa. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine, eliminated the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 and 86 Rb uptake, indicating that dopamine rather than L-dopa was the active agent. The finding that the L-dopa concentration-response curve was shifted to the left by one order of magnitude in the presence of nystatin suggests that the inhibitory effect is enhanced when the intracellular sodium concentration is increased. By studying the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 at increasing extracellular sodium concentrations in the presence of nystatin, the authors demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of locally formed dopamine on the Na + -K + -ATPase is indeed dependent on the sodium available for the enzyme and occurs in an uncompetitive manner

  16. Optimal Fermentation Conditions of Hyaluronidase Inhibition Activity on Asparagus cochinchinensis Merrill by Weissella cibaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Kim, Won-Baek; Koo, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Bo Ram; Kim, Doohyun; Lee, Seoyoun; Son, Hong Joo; Hwang, Dae Youn; Kim, Dong Seob; Lee, Chung Yeoul; Lee, Heeseob

    2017-04-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibition activity of Asparagus cochinchinesis (AC) extracts following fermentation by Weissella cibaria through response surface methodology. To optimize the HAase inhibition activity, a central composite design was introduced based on four variables: the concentration of AC extract ( X 1 : 1-5%), amount of starter culture ( X 2 : 1-5%), pH ( X 3 : 4-8), and fermentation time ( X 4 : 0-10 days). The experimental data were fitted to quadratic regression equations, the accuracy of the equations was analyzed by ANOVA, and the regression coefficients for the surface quadratic model of HAase inhibition activity in the fermented AC extract were estimated by the F test and the corresponding p values. The HAase inhibition activity indicated that fermentation time was most significant among the parameters within the conditions tested. To validate the model, two different conditions among those generated by the Design Expert program were selected. Under both conditions, predicted and experimental data agreed well. Moreover, the content of protodioscin (a well-known compound related to anti-inflammation activity) was elevated after fermentation of the AC extract at the optimized fermentation condition.

  17. Regorafenib inhibited gastric cancer cells growth and invasion via CXCR4 activated Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Qi; Tang, Lei; Sun, Li; Han, Ting; Wang, Li-Wei; Xiao, Xiu-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Regorafenib is an oral small-molecule multi kinase inhibitor. Recently, several clinical trials have revealed that regorafenib has an anti-tumor activity in gastric cancer. However, only part of patients benefit from regorafenib, and the mechanisms of regorafenib's anti-tumor effect need further demonstrating. In this study, we would assess the potential anti-tumor effects and the underlying mechanisms of regorafenib in gastric cancer cells, and explore novel biomarkers for patients selecting of regorafenib. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells were analyzed via cell proliferation and invasion. The underlying mechanisms were demonstrated using molecular biology techniques. We found that regorafenib inhibited cell proliferation and invasion at the concentration of 20μmol/L and in a dose dependent manner. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib related to the decreased expression of CXCR4, and elevated expression and activation of CXCR4 could reverse the inhibition effect of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells. Further studies revealed that regorafenib reduced the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and led to decreased expression of Wnt pathway target genes, while overexpression and activation of CXCR4 could attenuate the inhibition effect of regorafenib on Wnt/β-Catenin pathway. Our findings demonstrated that regorafenib effectively inhibited cell proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells via decreasing the expression of CXCR4 and further reducing the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway.

  18. Inhibition of PTEN activity aggravates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Fan, Youling; Tang, Simin; Wu, Huiping; Zhong, Jiying; Huang, Zhengxing; Yang, Chengxiang; Chen, Hongtao

    2017-11-28

    Cisplatin (cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum II) has been widely and effectively used in chemotherapy against tumors. Nephrotoxicity due to cisplatin is one of the most common clinical causes of acute kidney injury (AKI), which has a poor prognosis and high mortality. The signaling mechanisms underlying cisplatin-induced AKI are not completely understood. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates the cell-survival pathway and is considered a double-edged sword in organ damage. In this study, we examined the effect that inhibiting PTEN activity in experimental models of cisplatin-induced AKI had on the degrees of AKI. Compared with vehicle mice, mice treated with bpV(pic) (specific inhibitor of PTEN) had exacerbated renal damage due to cisplatin-induced AKI. Furthermore, inhibition of PTEN activity increased cell apoptosis in the kidneys of mice induced by cisplatin. More inflammatory cytokines were activated after cisplatin treatment in mice of the bpV(pic)-treated group compared with vehicle mice, and these inflammatory cytokines may be partially derived from bone marrow cells. In addition, inhibiting PTEN activity decreased the phosphorylation of p53 in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced AKI. In summary, our study has demonstrated that inhibiting PTEN activity aggravates cisplatin-induced AKI via apoptosis, inflammatory reaction, and p53 signaling pathway. These results indicated that PTEN may serve as a novel therapeutic target for cisplatin-induced AKI.

  19. Mammalian O-phosphorylethanolamine phospho-lyase activity and its inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøn, I H

    1978-04-01

    The activity of the enzyme O-phosphorylethanolamine phospho-lyase, metabolizing O-phosphorylethanolamine to acetaldehyde, orthophosphate, and ammonia in vitro, was studied in human liver biopsy and autopsy material, and leucocytes. Only in the liver biopsies enzyme activity towards O-phosphorylethanolamine could be found, and in amounts corresponding to one tenth of the activity found in rat liver examined under identical conditions. The enzyme activity of the liver biopsies was confined to the post-microsomal fraction, the activity amounting to 35 +/- 7 (SD) micromicron/mg protein. The results suggest the presence of an inhibiting factor of protein character. Inhibition was not due to competition from alkaline phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.1.) or O-phosphorylethanolamine cytidylyl-transferase (E.C. 2.7.7.14).

  20. Lactobacillus bulgaricus OLL1181 activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway and inhibits colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Takeyuki; Harama, Daisuke; Fukumoto, Suguru; Nakamura, Yuki; Shimokawa, Naomi; Ishimaru, Kayoko; Ikegami, Shuji; Makino, Seiya; Kitamura, Masanori; Nakao, Atsuhito

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway has an important role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Most recently, we have shown that the activation of the AhR pathway by a potent AhR agonist inhibits the development of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, a model of human ulcerative colitis, by the induction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the large intestine. Because several strains of probiotic lactic acid bacteria have been reported to inhibit DSS-induced colitis by unidentified mechanisms, we hypothesized that particular strains of lactic acid bacterium might have the potential to activate the AhR pathway, thereby inhibiting DSS-induced colitis. This study investigated whether there are specific lactic acid bacterial strains that can activate the AhR pathway, and if so, whether this AhR-activating potential is associated with suppression of DSS-induced colitis. By using AhR signaling reporter cells, we found that Lactobacillus bulgaricus OLL1181 had the potential to activate the AhR pathway. OLL1181 also induced the mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 family 1A1 (CYP1A1), a target gene of the AhR pathway, in human colon cells, which was inhibited by the addition of an AhR antagonist, α-naphthoflavon (αNF). In addition, mice treated orally with OLL1181 showed an increase in CYP1A1 mRNA expression in the large intestine and amelioration of DSS-induced colitis. Thus, OLL1181 can induce activation of the intestinal AhR pathway and inhibit DSS-induced colitis in mice. This strain of lactic acid bacterium has therefore the potential to activate the AhR pathway, which may be able to suppress colitis. PMID:21321579

  1. Antroquinonol blocks Ras and Rho signaling via the inhibition of protein isoprenyltransferase activity in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Liang; Wang, Jui-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Cheng, Hsiu-Yi; Wen, Wu-Che; Cheng, Howard Hao-Yu; Chen, Miles Chih-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Antroquinonol is the smallest anticancer molecule isolated from Antrodia camphorata thus far. The ubiquinone-like structure of Antroquinonol exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against malignancies in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanism of action of Antroquinonol remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Antroquinonol plays a role in the inhibition of Ras and Ras-related small GTP-binding protein functions through the inhibition of protein isoprenyl transferase activity in cancer cells. Using cell line-based assays, we found that the inactive forms of Ras and Rho proteins were significantly elevated after treatment with Antroquinonol. We also demonstrated that Antroquinonol binds directly to farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase-I, which are key enzymes involved in activation of Ras-related proteins, and inhibits enzymes activities in vitro. Furthermore, a molecular docking analysis illustrated that the isoprenoid moiety of Antroquinonol binds along the hydrophobic cavity of farnesyltransferase similar to its natural substrate, farnesyl pyrophosphate. In contrast, the ring structure of Antroquinonol lies adjacent to the Ras-CAAX motif-binding site on farnesyltransferase. The molecular docking study also showed a reasonable correlation with the IC50 values of Antroquinonol analogues. We also found that the levels of LC3B-II and the autophagosome-associated LC3 form were also significantly increased in H838 after Antroquinonol administration. In conclusion, Antroquinonol inhibited Ras and Ras-related GTP-binding protein activation through inhibition of protein isoprenyl transferase activity, leading to activation of autophagy and associated mode of cell death in cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Troglitazone inhibits endothelial cell proliferation through suppression of casein kinase 2 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kuy-Sook; Park, Jin-Hee; Lee, Seahyoung; Lim, Hyun-Joung; Jang, Yangsoo; Park, Hyun-Young

    2006-01-01

    Troglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptorγ (PPARγ), has been reported to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation by suppressing Akt activation. Recently, it has been also proposed that phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) plays an important role in such effect of troglitazone. However, the mechanism of how troglitazone regulates PTEN remains to be elucidated. We therefore investigated the effects of troglitazone on casein kinase 2 (CK2), which is known to negatively regulate PTEN activity. Troglitazone significantly inhibited serum-induced proliferation of HUVEC in a concentration dependent manner. Serum-induced Akt and its downstream signaling pathway activation was attenuated by troglitazone (10 μM) pretreatment. The phosphorylation of PTEN, which was directly related to Akt activation, was decreased with troglitazone pretreatment and was inversely proportional to CK2 activity. DRB, a CK2 inhibitor, also showed effects similar to that of troglitazone on Akt and its downstream signaling molecules. In conclusion, our results suggest that troglitazone inhibits proliferation of HUVECs through suppression of CK2 activity rendering PTEN to remain activated, and this effect of troglitazone in HUVECs seems to be PPARγ independent

  3. Dextromethorphan inhibits osteoclast differentiation by suppressing RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Karl; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Liou, Houng-Chi; Lu, Dai-Hua; Chen, Yi-Ru; Fu, Wen-Mei; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2013-08-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM), a commonly used antitussive, is a dextrorotatory morphinan. Here, we report that DXM inhibits the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by abrogating the activation of NF-κB signalling in vitro. Oral administration of DXM ameliorates ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis in vivo. DXM was reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of the release of pro-inflammatory factors. However, the potential role and action mechanism of DXM on osteoclasts and osteoblasts remain unclear. In this study, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed to investigate the potential effects of DXM on osteoclastogenesis and OVX-induced bone loss. Osteoclastogenesis was examined by the TRAP staining, pit resorption, TNF-α release, and CCR2 and CALCR gene expression. Osteoblast differentiation was analyzed by calcium deposition. Osteogenic and adipogenic genes were measured by real-time PCR. Signaling pathways were explored using Western blot. ICR mice were used in an OVX-induced osteoporosis model. Tibiae were measured by µCT and serum markers were examined with ELISA kits. DXM inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. DXM mainly inhibited osteoclastogenesis via abrogation of IKK-IκBα-NF-κB pathways. However, a higher dosage of DXM antagonized the differentiation of osteoblasts via the inhibition of osteogenic signals and increase of adipogenic signals. Oral administration of DXM (20 mg/kg/day) partially reduced trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized mice. DXM inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activity by affecting NF-κB signaling. Therefore, DXM at suitable doses may have new therapeutic applications for the treatment of diseases associated with excessive osteoclastic activity.

  4. HSV and glycoprotein J inhibit caspase activation and apoptosis induced by granzyme B or Fas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, K R; Chen, Z; Lang, R; Torres, M R; Hofmeister, J; Smith, S; Fox, R; Froelich, C J; Corey, L

    2001-10-01

    HSV-1 inhibits apoptosis of infected cells, presumably to ensure that the infected cell survives long enough to allow completion of viral replication. Because cytotoxic lymphocytes kill their targets via the induction of apoptosis, protection from apoptosis could constitute a mechanism of immune evasion for HSV. Several HSV genes are involved in the inhibition of apoptosis, including Us5, which encodes glycoprotein J (gJ). Viruses deleted for Us5 showed defects in inhibition of caspase activation after Fas ligation or UV irradiation. Transfected cells expressing the Us5 gene product gJ were protected from Fas- or UV-induced apoptosis, as measured by morphology, caspase activation, membrane permeability changes, or mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In contrast, caspase 3 activation in mitochondria-free cell lysates by granzyme (gr)B was inhibited equivalently by Us5 deletion and rescue viruses, suggesting that gJ is not required for HSV to inhibition this process. However, mitochondria-free lysates from transfected cells expressing Us5/gJ were protected from grB-induced caspase activation, suggesting that Us5/gJ is sufficient to inhibit this process. Transfected cells expressing Us5/gJ were also protected from death induced by incubation with purified grB and perforin. These findings suggest that HSV has a comprehensive set of immune evasion functions that antagonize both Fas ligand- and grB-mediated pathways of CTL-induced apoptosis. The understanding of HSV effects on killing by CTL effector mechanisms may shed light on the incomplete control of HSV infections by the immune system and may allow more rational approaches to the development of immune modulatory treatments for HSV infection.

  5. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression in activated microglia and peroxynitrite scavenging activity by Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming Hong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Tae Hee; Jin, Changbae; Kwak, Wie-Jong; Han, Chang-Kyun; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2006-09-01

    Activated microglia by neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation overproduce nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, resulting in neurodegenerative diseases. The toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the reaction product of NO and superoxide anion further contributes to oxidative neurotoxicity. A butanol fraction obtained from 50% ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten (Cactaceae) stem (SK OFB901) and its hydrolysis product (SK OFB901H) inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia in a dose dependent manner (IC50 15.9, 4.2 microg/mL, respectively). They also suppressed the expression of protein and mRNA of iNOS in LPS-activated microglial cells at higher than 30 microg/mL as observed by western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiment. They also inhibited the degradation of I-kappaB-alpha in activated microglia. Moreover, they showed strong activity of peroxynitrite scavenging in a cell free bioassay system. These results imply that Opuntia ficus indica may have neuroprotective activity through the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells and peroxynitrite scavenging activity. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Resveratrol inhibits Cdk5 activity through regulation of p35 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Ashok B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 participates in the regulation of nociceptive signaling. Through activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α induces expression of Egr-1. This results in the sustained and robust expression of p35, a coactivator of Cdk5, in PC12 cells, thereby increasing Cdk5 kinase activity. The aim of our present study was to test whether resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound with known analgesic activity, can regulate Cdk5/p35 activity. Results Here we used a cell-based assay in which a p35 promoter-luciferase construct was stably transfected in PC12 cells. Our studies demonstrate that resveratrol inhibits p35 promoter activity and also blocks the TNF-α mediated increase in Cdk5 activity in PC12 cells. Resveratrol also inhibits p35 expression and blocks the TNF-α mediated increase in Cdk5 activity in DRG neurons. In the presence of resveratrol, the MEK inhibitor decreased p35 promoter activity, whereas the inhibitors of p38 MAPK, JNK and NF-κB increased p35 promoter activity, indicating that these pathways regulate p35 expression differently. The TNF-α-mediated increase in Egr-1 expression was decreased by resveratrol treatment with a concomitant reduction in p35 expression and protein levels, resulting in reduced Cdk5 kinase activity. Conclusions We demonstrate here that resveratrol regulates p35 promoter activity in PC12 cells and DRG neurons. Most importantly, resveratrol blocks the TNF-α-mediated increase in p35 promoter activity, thereby reducing p35 expression and subsequent Cdk5 kinase activity. This new molecular mechanism adds to the known analgesic effects of resveratrol and confirms the need for identifying new analgesics based on their ability to inhibit Cdk5 activity for effective treatment of pain.

  7. Caffeine inhibition of GLUT1 is dependent on the activation state of the transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnink, Leesha K; Busscher, Brianna M; Wodarek, Jeremy A; Rosette, Kylee A; Strohbehn, Lauren E; Looyenga, Brendan D; Louters, Larry L

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine has been shown to be a robust uncompetitive inhibitor of glucose uptake in erythrocytes. It preferentially binds to the nucleotide-binding site on GLUT1 in its tetrameric form and mimics the inhibitory action of ATP. Here we demonstrate that caffeine is also a dose-dependent, uncompetitive inhibitor of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake in L929 fibroblasts. The inhibitory effect on 2DG uptake in these cells was reversible with a rapid onset and was additive to the competitive inhibitory effects of glucose itself, confirming that caffeine does not interfere with glucose binding. We also report for the first time that caffeine inhibition was additive to inhibition by curcumin, suggesting distinct binding sites for curcumin and caffeine. In contrast, caffeine inhibition was not additive to that of cytochalasin B, consistent with previous data that reported that these two inhibitors have overlapping binding sites. More importantly, we show that the magnitude of maximal caffeine inhibition in L929 cells is much lower than in erythrocytes (35% compared to 90%). Two epithelial cell lines, HCLE and HK2, have both higher concentrations of GLUT1 and increased basal 2DG uptake (3-4 fold) compared to L929 cells, and subsequently display greater maximal inhibition by caffeine (66-70%). Interestingly, activation of 2DG uptake (3-fold) in L929 cells by glucose deprivation shifted the responsiveness of these cells to caffeine inhibition (35%-70%) without a change in total GLUT1 concentration. These data indicate that the inhibition of caffeine is dependent on the activity state of GLUT1, not merely on the concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. KSHV inhibits stress granule formation by viral ORF57 blocking PKR activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi R Sharma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TIA-1 positive stress granules (SG represent the storage sites of stalled mRNAs and are often associated with the cellular antiviral response. In this report, we provide evidence that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV overcomes the host antiviral response by inhibition of SG formation via a viral lytic protein ORF57. By immunofluorescence analysis, we found that B lymphocytes with KSHV lytic infection are refractory to SG induction. KSHV ORF57, an essential post-transcriptional regulator of viral gene expression and the production of new viral progeny, inhibits SG formation induced experimentally by arsenite and poly I:C, but not by heat stress. KSHV ORF37 (vSOX bearing intrinsic endoribonuclease activity also inhibits arsenite-induced SG formation, but KSHV RTA, vIRF-2, ORF45, ORF59 and LANA exert no such function. ORF57 binds both PKR-activating protein (PACT and protein kinase R (PKR through their RNA-binding motifs and prevents PACT-PKR interaction in the PKR pathway which inhibits KSHV production. Consistently, knocking down PKR expression significantly promotes KSHV virion production. ORF57 interacts with PKR to inhibit PKR binding dsRNA and its autophosphorylation, leading to inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation and SG formation. Homologous protein HSV-1 ICP27, but not EBV EB2, resembles KSHV ORF57 in the ability to block the PKR/eIF2α/SG pathway. In addition, KSHV ORF57 inhibits poly I:C-induced TLR3 phosphorylation. Altogether, our data provide the first evidence that KSHV ORF57 plays a role in modulating PKR/eIF2α/SG axis and enhances virus production during virus lytic infection.

  9. Novel dimeric bis(7)-tacrine proton-dependently inhibits NMDA-activated currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jialie; Li, Wenming; Liu, Yuwei; Zhang, Wei; Fu, Hongjun; Lee, Nelson T.K.; Yu, Hua; Pang, Yuanping; Huang, Pingbo; Xia, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wang; Li, Chaoying; Han, Yifan

    2007-01-01

    Bis(7)-tacrine has been shown to prevent glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis by blocking NMDA receptors. However, the characteristics of the inhibition have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we further characterize the features of bis(7)-tacrine inhibition of NMDA-activated current in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The results show that with the increase of extracellular pH, the inhibitory effect decreases dramatically. At pH 8.0, the concentration-response curve of bis(7)-tacrine is shifted rightwards with the IC 50 value increased from 0.19 ± 0.03 μM to 0.41 ± 0.04 μM. In addition, bis(7)-tacrine shifts the proton inhibition curve rightwards. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of bis(7)-tacrine is not altered by the presence of the NMDA receptor proton sensor shield spermidine. These results indicate that bis(7)-tacrine inhibits NMDA-activated current in a pH-dependent manner by sensitizing NMDA receptors to proton inhibition, rendering it potentially beneficial therapeutic effects under acidic conditions associated with stroke and ischemia

  10. Mechanism of the inhibition of milk xanthine oxidase activity by metal ions: a transient kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, M S; Sau, A K; Mitra, S

    2000-07-14

    The nature and mechanism of the inhibition of the oxidoreductase activity of milk xanthine oxidase (XO) by Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Ag(+) ions has been studied by steady state and stopped flow transient kinetic measurements. The results show that the nature of the inhibition is noncompetitive. The inhibition constants for Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) are in the micromolar and that for Ag(+) is in the nanomolar range. This suggests that the metal ions have strong affinity towards XO. pH dependence studies of the inhibition indicate that at least two ionisable groups of XO are involved in the binding of these metal ions. The effect of the interaction of the metal ions on the reductive and oxidative half reactions of XO has been investigated, and it is observed that the kinetic parameters of the reductive half reaction are not affected by these metal ions. However, the interaction of these metal ions with XO significantly affects the kinetic parameters of the oxidative half reaction. It is suggested that this may be the main cause for the inhibition of XO activity by the metal ions.

  11. Inhibition of APOBEC3G Activity Impedes Double-Strand DNA Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ponnandy; Shandilya, Shivender; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Nagler, Adi; Schiffer, Celia A.; Kotler, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    The cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) was first described as an anti-HIV-1 restriction factor by directly deaminating reverse transcripts of the viral genome. HIV-1 Vif neutralizes the activity of A3G, primarily by mediating degradation of A3G to establish effective infection in host target cells. Lymphoma cells, which express high amounts of A3G, can restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1. Interestingly, these cells are more stable in the face of treatments that result in dsDNA damage, such as ionizing irradiation (IR) and chemotherapies. Previously, we showed that the Vif-derived peptide (Vif25-39) efficiently inhibits A3G deamination, and increases sensitivity of lymphoma cells to IR. In the current study, we show that additional peptides derived from Vif, A3G and A3F, which contain the LYYF motif, inhibit deamination activity. Each residue in the Vif25-39 sequence moderately contributes to the inhibitory effect, while, replacing a single amino acid in the LYYF motif completely abrogate inhibition of deamination. Treatment of A3G-expressing lymphoma cells exposed to ionizing radiation with the new inhibitory peptides reduces double-strand break (DSB) repair after radiation. Incubation of cultured irradiated lymphoma cells with peptides that inhibit DSB repair halts their propagation. These results suggest that A3G may be a potential therapeutic target amenable to peptide and peptidomimetic inhibition. PMID:26460502

  12. Inhibition of APOBEC3G activity impedes double-stranded DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ponnandy; Shandilya, Shivender M D; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Nagler, Adi; Schiffer, Celia A; Kotler, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    The cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) was first described as an anti-HIV-1 restriction factor, acting by directly deaminating reverse transcripts of the viral genome. HIV-1 Vif neutralizes the activity of A3G, primarily by mediating degradation of A3G to establish effective infection in host target cells. Lymphoma cells, which express high amounts of A3G, can restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1. Interestingly, these cells are more stable in the face of treatments that result in double-stranded DNA damage, such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapies. Previously, we showed that the Vif-derived peptide (Vif25-39) efficiently inhibits A3G deamination, and increases the sensitivity of lymphoma cells to ionizing radiation. In the current study, we show that additional peptides derived from Vif, A3G, and APOBEC3F, which contain the LYYF motif, inhibit deamination activity. Each residue in the Vif25-39 sequence moderately contributes to the inhibitory effect, whereas replacing a single residue in the LYYF motif completely abrogates inhibition of deamination. Treatment of A3G-expressing lymphoma cells exposed to ionizing radiation with the new inhibitory peptides reduces double-strand break repair after irradiation. Incubation of cultured irradiated lymphoma cells with peptides that inhibit double-strand break repair halts their propagation. These results suggest that A3G may be a potential therapeutic target that is amenable to peptide and peptidomimetic inhibition. © 2015 FEBS.

  13. Late-night suckling inhibits onset of postpartum oestrous activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Late-night suckling inhibits onset of postpartum oestrous activity in beef cows. Iona B. Stewart, B.P. Louw, A.W. Lishman, P.G. Stewart. Abstract. To determine whether suckling of calves late at night would prolong lactation anoestrus, 5l Hereford-type cows (21 -29 days postpartum) were divided into three treatment groups.

  14. Temperamental activation and inhibition associated with autonomic function in preadolescents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, Andrea; Riese, Harriette; van Roon, Arie M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    We investigated the temperamental traits high-intensity pleasure (temperamental activation) and shyness (temperamental inhibition) in relation to autonomic function as measured by heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in 938 10-13-year-old

  15. Behavioral inhibition system (BIS), Behavioral activation system (BAS) and schizophrenia : Relationship with psychopathology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Marion R. M.; van Honk, Jack; Aleman, Andre; Kahn, Rene S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) have been conceptualized as two neural motivational systems that regulate sensitivity to punishment (BIS) and reward (BAS). Imbalance in BIS and BAS levels has been reported to be related to various forms of

  16. Potassium humate inhibits complement activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Naude, P.J. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-08-15

    The effects of brown coal derived potassium humate on lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and complement activation were investigated in vitro. Potassium humate increased lymphocyte proliferation of phytohaemaglutinin A (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated mononuclear lymphocytes (MNL) in vitro from concentrations of 20 to 80 {mu} g/ml, in a dose dependant manner. On the other hand potassium humate, at 40 {mu} g/ml, significantly inhibited the release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PHA stimulated MNL. Regarding complement activation it was found that potassium humate inhibits the activation of both the alternative and classical pathways without affecting the stability of the red blood cell membranes. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory potential of potassium humate could be partially due to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for the initiation of these reactions as well as inhibition of complement activation. The increased lymphocyte proliferation observed, might be due to increased IL-2 production as previously been documented.

  17. In vitro antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activities of spiced red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spiced chili paste (green or red), locally known as Datta, is a traditional popular spicy paste consumed in Ethiopia. This study investigated the total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), in vitro antioxidant, and α-amylase inhibition activities of water, acetone, petroleum ether, methanol, and 80% methanol ...

  18. The Joint Contribution of Activation and Inhibition in Moderating Carryover Effects of Anger on Social Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fiori

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carryover effects of emotions that lead to biases in social judgments are commonly observed. We suggest that such effects may be influenced by the ability to engage or disengage attention from emotional stimuli. We assessed the ability to activate and inhibit attention to anger stimuli, experimentally induced anger in a demanding task, and measured social judgment toward an ambiguous target. Results show that higher activation and higher inhibition of anger-related information predicted more biased evaluations of the ambiguous target when individuals were experiencing anger, but not in an emotionally neutral condition. Interestingly, the effect of activation and inhibition in the anger condition emerged only when such variables were entered simultaneously in the regression model, indicating that they had an additive effect in predicting carryover effects of anger on social judgement. Results are consistent with a cooperative suppression effect (Conger, 1974 of activation and inhibition and may be explained by either an increased accessibility of anger-related cues leading to more biased social judgments, or by an instance in which being good at engaging in and disengaging attention from emotional cues might have depleted participants’ resources making carryover effects of anger more likely to occur. Ultimately, the finding highlight that individual differences in attentional processes are important moderators for carryover effects of emotions.

  19. Genotoxic activity and inhibition of soil respiration by ptaquiloside, a bracken fern carcinogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Rasmussen, L.H.; Svendsen, Gitte Winkel

    2005-01-01

    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a natural toxin produced by bracken (Pteridium aquilinum [L.] Kuhn). Assessment of PTA toxicity is needed because PTA deposited from bracken to soil may leach to surface and groundwater. Inhibition of soil respiration and genotoxic activity of PTA was determined by a soil...

  20. Cell-surface expression of Hsp70 on hematopoietic cancer cells after inhibition of HDAC activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Hansen, Karen Aagaard

    clinically applied reagents, such as alkyl-lysophospholipides, chemotherapeutic agents, and anti-inflammatory reagents, have been found to enhance Hsp70 surface expression on cancer cells. We have found that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity leads to surface expression of Hsp70 on various...

  1. CCR 20th anniversary commentary: a chimeric antibody, C225, inhibits EGFR activation and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, John; Prewett, Marie; Rockwell, Patricia; Goldstein, Neil I

    2015-01-15

    Murine mAb 225 was effective against the EGFR tyrosine kinase and inhibited tumor growth in preclinical studies. A phase I trial showed safety, tumor localization, and satisfactory pharmacokinetics. Human:murine chimeric C225 retained biologic activity, which was essential for the conduct of subsequent combination therapy trials and eventual regulatory approval. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Speed-accuracy modulation in case of conflict: The roles of activation and inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Band, G.P.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated how the speed-accuracy balance is modulated by changes in the time course of motor activation and inhibition of a primed response. Responses and event-related brain potentials were recorded in a paradigm in which the first stimulus indicated the correct response with 80%

  3. Inhibition of receptor-bound urokinase by plasminogen-activator inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, Vincent John; Wun, T C; Behrendt, N

    1990-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) binds to a specific receptor on various cell types, the bound molecule retaining its enzymatic activity against plasminogen. We have now investigated whether receptor-bound uPA also retains the ability to react with and be inhibited by plasminogen...... activator inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2). uPA bound to its receptor on human U937 monocyte-like cells was inhibited by PAI-1 (in its active form in the presence of vitronectin fragments) with an association rate constant of 4.5 x 10(6) M-1 s-1, which was 40% lower than that obtained for uPA in solution (7.9 x...... 10(6) M-1 s-1). The inhibition of uPA by PAI-2 was decreased to a similar extent by receptor binding, falling from 5.3 x 10(5) to 3.3 x 10(5) M-1 s-1. Stimulation of U937 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was accompanied by a further reduction in receptor-bound uPA inhibition by PAI-1...

  4. Antiviral activity of human lactoferrin : Inhibition of alphavirus interaction with heparan sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waarts, Barry-Lee; Aneke, Onwuchekwa J.C.; Smit, Jolanda; Kimata, Koji; Bittman, Robert; Meijer, Dirk K.F.; Wilschut, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Human lactoferrin is a component of the non-specific immune system with distinct antiviral properties. We used alphaviruses, adapted to interaction with heparan sulfate (HS), as a tool to investigate the mechanism of lactoferrin's antiviral activity. Lactoferrin inhibited infection of BHK-21 cells

  5. Inhibition of DNA polymerase λ and associated inflammatory activities of extracts from steamed germinated soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors from more than 50 plant food materials, we found that the extract from steamed germinated soybeans (Glycine max L.) inhibited human pol λ activity. Among the three processed soybean samples tested (boiled soybeans, steamed soybeans, and steamed germinated soybeans), both the hot water extract and organic solvent extract from the steamed germinated soybeans had the strongest pol λ inhibition. We previously isolated two glucosyl compounds, a cerebroside (glucosyl ceramide, AS-1-4, compound ) and a steroidal glycoside (eleutheroside A, compound ), from dried soybean, and these compounds were prevalent in the extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans as pol inhibitors. The hot water and organic solvent extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans and compounds and selectively inhibited the activity of eukaryotic pol λ in vitro but did not influence the activities of other eukaryotic pols, including those from the A-family (pol γ), B-family (pols α, δ, and ε), and Y-family (pols η, ι, and κ), and also showed no effect on the activity of pol β, which is of the same family (X) as pol λ. The tendency for in vitro pol λ inhibition by these extracts and compounds showed a positive correlation with the in vivo suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation in mouse ear. These results suggest that steamed germinated soybeans, especially the glucosyl compound components, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties.