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Sample records for telemetric pressure sensor

  1. Telemetric implantable pressure sensor for short- and long-term monitoring of intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischholz, M; Sarmento, L; Wenzel, M; Aquilina, K; Edwards, R; Coakham, H B

    2007-01-01

    Patients with hydrocephalus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and head injury frequently require monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) and may need repeated episodes of monitoring months or years apart. The gold standard for measurement of ICP remains the external ventricular catheter. This is a fluid-filled catheter transducer system that allows regular recalibration and correction of zero drift by its position relative to a fixed anatomical reference. It also allows drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), providing a means of lowering the ICP. Several catheter tip transducer systems are currently in clinical use, including using strain gauges or fiber-optical pressure sensing techniques. In these devices, zero drift and calibration cannot be checked in vivo. All the ICP monitoring devices in current clinical use require a physical connection between the brain and the external environment. This is a source of infection and limits the duration of monitoring. A number of telemetric monitoring devices, in which data is in some way transmitted transcutaneously, have been developed over the last twenty years, but significant technical problems have precluded their use in routine clinical practice. All current ICP monitors are temporary percutaneous implanted devices. Placement of these devices carries significant morbidity, particularly infection. Patients undergoing repeated monitoring require multiple surgical procedures. Apart from decreasing the risk of infection in patients with severe head injury, the clinical value of an accurate telemetric ICP monitoring system which maintains its reliability over a long period of implantation is high.

  2. Detecting endoleaks after endovascular AAA repair with a minimally invasive, implantable, telemetric pressure sensor: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, Fabian; Pfeffer, Joachim-Georg; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Schlierf, Roland; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2007-01-01

    A feasibility study on a completely digital telemetric pressure sensor (TPS) to detect endoleaks was performed in an in vitro model of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). An endovascular-stented AAA silicone model with different types (I-III) and sizes (3-11 French) of endoleaks was created and pulsatile pressure was applied with physiological flow and pressure rates [mean intraaortic pressure (IAP): 95-130 mmHg] and different degrees of thrombosis of the aneurysm sac. Aneurysm sac pressure (ASP) was measured with the TPS and with wired pressure sensors (WPS) as a reference. Statistical analysis included paired t-test, Pearson's correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plots. After opening an endoleak, the mean ASP increased significantly (P < 0.0001) from 15 to almost 95% of the mean IAP depending on endoleak type and size. ASP could be measured accurately with the TPS and the WPS. The telemetric and wired ASP increase showed a high Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) for a non-thrombosed (r 0.97) and a thrombosed (r = 0.96) aneurysm sac. In an in vitro silicone model, the newly designed telemetric pressure sensor was able to detect the occurrence of an endoleak in a non-invasive way and might be a valuable device for follow-up of endovascular AAA repair. (orig.)

  3. Feasibility of Telemetric Intracranial Pressure Monitoring in the Neuro Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja-Cyron, Alexander; Kelsen, Jesper; Andresen, Morten; Fugleholm, Kåre; Juhler, Marianne

    2018-05-03

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is crucial in the management of acute neurosurgical conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, pathological ICP may persist beyond the admission to the neuro intensive care unit (NICU). We investigated the feasibility of telemetric ICP monitoring in the NICU, as this technology provides the possibility of long-term ICP assessment beyond NICU discharge. In this prospective investigation, we implanted telemetric ICP sensors (Raumedic Neurovent-P-tel) instead of conventional, cabled ICP sensors in patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy. We recorded ICP curves, duration of ICP monitoring, signal quality, and complications. Seventeen patients were included (median age 55 years) and diagnoses were: severe TBI (8), malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (8), and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (1). In total, 3015 h of ICP monitoring were performed, and the median duration of ICP monitoring was 188 h (interquartile range [IQR] 54-259). The ICP signal was lost 613 times (displacement of the reader unit on the skin) for a median of 1.5 min, corresponding to 0.8% of the total monitoring period. When the signal was lost, it could always be restored by realignment of the reader unit on the skin above the telemetric sensor. Sixteen of 17 patients survived the NICU admission, and ICP gradually decreased from 10.7 mm Hg (IQR 7.5-13.6) during the first postoperative day to 6.3 mm Hg (IQR 4.0-8.3) after 1 week in the NICU. All 17 implanted telemetric sensors functioned throughout the NICU admission, and no wound infections were observed. Therefore, telemetric ICP monitoring in an acute neurosurgical setting is feasible. Signal quality and stability are sufficient for clinical decision making based on mean ICP. The low sampling frequency (5 Hz) does not permit analysis of intracranial pulse wave morphology, but resolution is sufficient for calculation of derived indices such as the pressure reactivity

  4. Telemetric intra-cranial pressure monitoring: clinical and financial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James M; Pringle, Catherine J; Raffalli-Ebezant, Helen; Pathmanaban, Omar; Ramirez, Roberto; Kamaly-Asl, Ian D

    2017-06-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement is an important diagnostic tool in Neurosurgery. Until relatively recently, conventional monitoring has required that subjects be admitted to a hospital bed and the device is only able to be left in-situ for limited periods of time. We have evaluated a Telemetric ICP monitoring system that has been proven, by several other groups worldwide, to permit rapid, repeated and prolonged ICP measurement, in multiple environments. In our unit, 4 patients have been implanted to-date, between the ages of 4 and 16, manifesting a wide range of complex neurosurgical conditions. The sensors have been left in-situ for between 460 and 632 days. There have been no clinical complications and the system has been universally well tolerated. Clinical events, costs and patient experience were all assessed prior to and following implantation. Overall, there was a significant reduction in associated admissions (44.3%), imaging requirements (72.5%) and costs (50.0%). Subjective feedback from both the patients (where possible) and their families was overwhelmingly positive, partly due to (a) the system's ease of use, (b) its ability to reduce the number of admissions/tests required and (c) the facility for rapid measurement of ICP that permitted on-the-spot reassurance of concerns. Additionally, the ability to monitor ICP at home and/or whilst ambulant, has provided measurements that were hitherto inaccessible to our team, facilitating all the potential benefits that analysis of such information would provide. Indeed, we have seen the resultant management in each case has been completely altered by the availability of this data, reaffirming that the importance of being able to obtain it should not be underestimated. The combination of both this and the ability to markedly improve patient experience, along with generating significant cost-savings, lead the authors to suggest that the implantation of this system should be strongly considered in selected

  5. DRUGAS: implantable telemetric system for measuring the portal venous pressure: assembly aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Roland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing an implantable, telemetric pressure measuring system for venous applications makes a high degree of miniaturization necessary. Thus the influence on the measurement environment is minimized and the risk of thrombosis at small flow blood velocities is decreased. But these systems are limited in terms of accuracy and resolution. The asked system requirements could only be reached by optimising the assembly and encapsulation techniques. To achieve the high degree of miniaturization numerical simulations were performed on the shape and size of the implant and led to the development of a specific metal housing consisting of two main components. A small measuring chamber will be placed into the portal vein and is rigidly fixed to a flat circular part that contains the pressure sensor chip and a transponder board and will be located outside on top of the vein. The main focus of the assembly process was based on a stress-free design and mounting of the components.

  6. Telemetric real-time sensor for the detection of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostek, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Melanie; Keller, Jan; Fode, Mario; Melbert, Michael; Schurr, Marc O; Gottwald, Thomas; Prosst, Ruediger L

    2016-04-15

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleedings from ulcers or esophago-gastric varices are life threatening medical conditions which require immediate endoscopic therapy. Despite successful endoscopic hemostasis, there is a significant risk of rebleeding often requiring close surveillance of these patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Any time delay to recognize bleeding may lead to a high blood loss and increases the risk of death. A novel telemetric real-time bleeding sensor can help indicate blood in the stomach: the sensor is swallowed to detect active bleeding or is anchored endoscopically on the gastrointestinal wall close to the potential bleeding source. By telemetric communication with an extra-corporeal receiver, information about the bleeding status is displayed. In this study the novel sensor, which measures characteristic optical properties of blood, has been evaluated in an ex-vivo setting to assess its clinical applicability and usability. Human venous blood of different concentrations, various fluids, and liquid food were tested. The LED-based sensor was able to reliably distinguish between concentrated blood and other liquids, especially red-colored fluids. In addition, the spectrometric quality of the small sensor (size: 6.5mm in diameter, 25.5mm in length) was comparable to a much larger and technically more complex laboratory spectrophotometer. The experimental data confirm the capability of a miniaturized sensor to identify concentrated blood, which could help in the very near future the detection of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to survey high-risk patients for rebleeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On the importance of telemetric temperature sensor location during intraperitoneal implantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapon, P A; Bulla, J; Gauthier, A; Moussay, S

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to assess the thermal homogeneity of the intraperitoneal (IP) cavity and the relevance of using a fixed telemetric temperature sensor at a given location in studying rodents. Ten rats were intraperitoneally implanted with three Jonah® capsules each; after assessing the accuracy and reliability of the sensors. Two capsules were attached, one to the right iliac fossa (RIF) and the other to the left hypochondrium (LH), and another was placed between the intestines but not attached (Free). In the ex vivo condition, the differences between sensors and reference values remained in the range of ±0.1. In the in vivo condition, each sensor enabled the observation of temperature patterns. However, sensor location affected mean and median temperature values while the rats were moving freely. Indeed, temperature data collected in the LH were 0.1 significantly higher than those collected in the RIF and temperature data collected in the LH were 0.11 significantly higher than those collected with the Free capsules. In in vivo conditions, intra-sensor variability of temperature data was not affected by sensor location. Taking into account sensor accuracy, similar intra-sensor variability, and mean differences observed between the three locations, the impact of sensor location within the IP cavity could be considered negligible. In in vivo conditions, temperature differences between locations regularly exceeded ±0.2 and reached up to 2.5. These extreme values could be explained by behavioral factors such as food or water intake. Finally, considering the good thermal homogeneity of the IP cavity and possible adverse consequences of sensor attachment, it seems better to let sensors range free within the cavity.

  8. Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp® ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M; Shmon, Cindy L; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the CorTemp(®) ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp(®) sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the day in 6 resting dogs and during a 10-minute strenuous retrieving exercise in 6 dogs. Time required for the sensor to leave the stomach (120 to 610 min) was variable. Measured core temperature was consistently higher than rectal temperature across all GI locations but temperature differences based on GI location were not significant (P = 0.5218). Resting dogs had a core temperature that was on average 0.4°C above their rectal temperature with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between 1.2°C and -0.5°C. Core temperature in exercising dogs was on average 0.3°C higher than their concurrent rectal temperature, with LoA of +1.6°C and -1.1°C.

  9. Issues in Continuous 24-h Core Body Temperature Monitoring in Humans Using an Ingestible Capsule Telemetric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathriona R. Monnard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere is increasing interest in the use of pill-sized ingestible capsule telemetric sensors for assessing core body temperature (Tc as a potential indicator of variability in metabolic efficiency and thrifty metabolic traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of measuring Tc using the CorTemp® system.MethodsTc was measured over an average of 20 h in 27 human subjects, with measurements of energy expenditure made in the overnight fasted state at rest, during standardized low-intensity physical activity and after a 600 kcal mixed meal. Validation of accuracy of the capsule sensors was made ex vivo against mercury and electronic thermometers across the physiological range (35–40°C in morning and afternoon of 2 or 3 consecutive days. Comparisons between capsule sensors and thermometers were made using Bland–Altman analysis. Systematic bias, error, and temperature drift over time were assessed.ResultsThe circadian Tc profile classically reported in free-living humans was confirmed. Significant increases in Tc (+0.2°C were found in response to low-power cycling at 40–50 W (~3–4 METs, but no changes in Tc were detectable during low-level isometric leg press exercise (<2 METs or during the peak postprandial thermogenesis induced by the 600 kcal meal. Issues of particular interest include fast “turbo” gut transit with expulsion time of <15 h after capsule ingestion in one out of every five subjects and sudden erratic readings in teletransmission of Tc. Furthermore, ex vivo validation revealed a substantial mean bias (exceeding ±0.5°C between the Tc capsule readings and mercury or electronic thermometers in half of the capsules. When examined over 2 or 3 days, the initial bias (small or large drifted in excess of ±0.5°C in one out of every four capsules.ConclusionSince Tc is regulated within a very narrow range in the healthy homeotherm’s body (within 1°C, physiological

  10. An electrokinetic pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Duckjong

    2008-01-01

    A new concept for a micro pressure sensor is demonstrated. The pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of glass nanochannels is obtained by measuring the electrokinetically generated electric potential. To demonstrate the proposed concept, experimental investigations are performed for 100 nm wide nanochannels with sodium chloride solutions having various concentrations. The proposed pressure sensor is able to measure the pressure difference within a 10% deviation from linearity. The sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor with 10 −5 M sodium chloride solution is 18.5 µV Pa −1 , which is one order of magnitude higher than that of typical diaphragm-based pressure sensors. A numerical model is presented for investigating the effects of the concentration and the channel width on the sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor. Numerical results show that the sensitivity increases as the concentration decreases and the channel width increases

  11. Clinical experience with telemetric intracranial pressure monitoring in a Danish neurosurgical center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilja, Alexander; Andresen, Morten; Hadi, Amer

    2014-01-01

    kinds of hydrocephalus, seven patients had idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and three patients had normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Fifteen patients had a shunt prior to implantation. Median duration of implantation was 248 (49-666) days and median duration from implantation to last...

  12. Intracranial Pressure-Guided Shunt Valve Adjustments with the Miethke Sensor Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antes, Sebastian; Stadie, Axel; Müller, Simon; Linsler, Stefan; Breuskin, David; Oertel, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Telemetric intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring seems to be a promising therapy-supporting option in shunt-treated patients. Benefits become obvious when headaches are unspecific and clinical symptoms cannot be related to possible overdrainage or underdrainage. In this study, we evaluated a new telemetric device to individually adjust shunt valves according to ICP measurements. Between December 2015 and November 2016, 25 patients with suspected suboptimal shunt valve settings underwent insertion of a telemetric ICP sensor (Sensor Reservoir; Christoph Miethke, Potsdam, Germany). Over a 1-year period, a total of 183 telemetric ICP measurements and 85 shunt valve adjustments were carried out. Retrospective statistic analyses focused on valve adjustments, ICP values, and clinical outcomes. ICP-guided valve adjustments positively changed the clinical state in 18 out of 25 patients. Clinical improvement over time was associated with significant changes of the valve settings and ICP values. Interestingly, a therapeutically normalized ICP profile was not automatically associated with clinical improvement. The Sensor Reservoir is an important and valuable tool for shunt-treated patients suffering from drainage-related problems. The possibility to simultaneously recognize and solve shunt problems represents the decisive advantage. Nevertheless, measurements with the Sensor Reservoir did not allow for the determination of default valve settings or universal target ICP values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  14. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  15. Downhole pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    Sensor remains accurate in spite of varying temperatures. Very accurate, sensitive, and stable downhole pressure measurements are needed for vaiety of reservoir engineering applications, such as deep petroleum reservoirs, especially gas reservoirs, and in areas of high geothermal gradient.

  16. Pressure Measurement Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    FFPI Industries Inc. is the manufacturer of fiber-optic sensors that furnish accurate pressure measurements in internal combustion chambers. Such an assessment can help reduce pollution emitted by these engines. A chief component in the sensor owes its seven year- long development to Lewis Research Center funding to embed optical fibers and sensors in metal parts. NASA support to Texas A&M University played a critical role in developing this fiber optic technology and led to the formation of FFPI Industries and the production of fiber sensor products. The simple, rugged design of the sensor offers the potential for mass production at low cost. Widespread application of the new technology is forseen, from natural gas transmission, oil refining and electrical power generation to rail transport and the petrochemical paper product industry.

  17. Urodynamic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A transducer system was developed for measuring the closing pressure profile along the female urethra, which provides up to five sensors within the functional length of the urethra. This new development is an improvement over an earlier measurement method that has a smaller sensor area and was unable to respond to transient events. Three sensors were constructed; one of them was subjected to approximately eight hours of use in a clinical setting during which 576 data points were obtained. The complete instrument system, including the signal conditioning electronics, data acquisition unit, and the computer with its display and printer is described and illustrated.

  18. Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PZT Thin Film Sensors for Fully-Integrated, Passive Telemetric Transponders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard X. FU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The great potential of taking advantages of PZT in a single chip to achieve inexpensive, fully-integrated, passive telemetric transponders has been shown in this paper. The processes for the sputter deposition of Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PZT thin films from two different composite targets on both Si and c-plane sapphire substrates have been demonstrated. PZT thin films have been deposited by sputter technique. PZT films were deposited onto substrates (Si [(100 Cz wafer] and c-plane sapphire (0001//Ti//Pt followed by sputter-deposited Pt top electrodes. X-ray diffraction results showed that both sputtered PZT films were textured along the [110] direction. The degree of preference for the [110] direction was greater on sapphire substrate where the intensity of that peak is seen to be larger compared to the intensity one Si substrate. TEM data revealed that both sputtered PZT films were polycrystalline in nature. Selected area diffraction (SAD pattern showed that the degree of disorientation between the crystallites was smaller on sapphire substrate compared to on Si substrate, which confirmed the results from the XRD. The remnant polarization Pr on sapphire substrate was larger than on Si’s. The leakage current for the 11 % Pb target sputtered film was much less than 22 % Pb target sputtered film. The breakdown voltage on sapphire substrate was the best. However, for the 11 % Pb target sputtered film’s breakdown voltage was much higher than 22 % Pb target sputtered film.

  19. Micromachined pressure/flow-sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, R.E.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    1999-01-01

    The micromechanical equivalent of a differential pressure flow-sensor, well known in macro mechanics, is discussed. Two separate pressure sensors are used for the device, enabling to measure both, pressure as well as volume flow-rate. An integrated sensor with capacitive read-out as well as a

  20. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  1. Optical fiber powered pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, P.; Neveux, L.; Ostrowsky, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the system described, a pressure sensor and its associated electronics are optically powered by a 20 mw laser and a photovoltaic cell via an optical fiber. The sensor is periodically interrogated and sends the measures obtained back to the central unit using an LED and a second fiber. The results obtained as well as the expected evolution will be described

  2. Micro Coriolis mass flow sensor with integrated resistive pressure sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, Jarno; Alveringh, Dennis; Schut, Thomas; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    We report on novel resistive pressure sensors, integrated on-chip at the inlet- and outlet-channels of a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor. The pressure sensors can be used to measure the pressure drop over the Coriolis sensor which can be used to compensate pressure-dependent behaviour that might

  3. All-optical pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical pressure sensor comprising a waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector. Pressure sensing can then be provided by utilizing effective index modulation of the waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of light reflected from the Bragg...... reflector. Sound sensing may also be provided thereby having an all-optical microphone. One embodiment of the invention relates to an optical pressure sensor comprising at least one outer membrane and a waveguide, the waveguide comprising at least one core for confining and guiding light,at least one...... distributed Bragg reflector located in said at least one core, and at least one inner deflecting element forming at least a part of the core,wherein the pressure sensor is configured such that the geometry and/or dimension of the at least one core is changed when the at least one outer membrane is submitted...

  4. Fixture For Mounting A Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M.

    1995-01-01

    Fixture for mounting pressure sensor in aerodynamic model simplifies task of removal and replacement of sensor in event sensor becomes damaged. Makes it unnecessary to dismantle model. Also minimizes any change in aerodynamic characteristics of model in event of replacement. Removable pressure sensor installed in fixture in wall of model. Wires from sensor pass through channel under surface.

  5. Micro-fabricated all optical pressure sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havreland, Andreas Spandet; Petersen, Søren Dahl; Østergaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Optical pressure sensors can operate in certain harsh application areas where the electrical pressure sensors cannot. However, the sensitivity is often not as good for the optical sensors. This work presents an all optical pressure sensor, which is fabricated by micro fabrication techniques, where...... the sensitivity can be tuned in the fabrication process. The developed sensor design, simplifies the fabrication process leading to a lower fabrication cost, which can make the all optical pressure sensors more competitive towards their electrical counterpart. The sensor has shown promising results and a linear...... pressure response has been measured with a sensitivity of 0.6nm/bar....

  6. Resistive pressure sensors integrated with a Coriolis mass flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alveringh, Dennis; Schut, Thomas; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    We report on a novel resistive pressure sensor that is completely integrated with a Coriolis mass flow sensor on one chip, without the need for extra fabrication steps or different materials. Two pressure sensors are placed in-line with the Coriolis sensor without requiring any changes to the fluid

  7. Ultrahigh Temperature Capacitive Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Robust, miniaturized sensing systems are needed to improve performance, increase efficiency, and track system health status and failure modes of advanced propulsion systems. Because microsensors must operate in extremely harsh environments, there are many technical challenges involved in developing reliable systems. In addition to high temperatures and pressures, sensing systems are exposed to oxidation, corrosion, thermal shock, fatigue, fouling, and abrasive wear. In these harsh conditions, sensors must be able to withstand high flow rates, vibration, jet fuel, and exhaust. In order for existing and future aeropropulsion turbine engines to improve safety and reduce cost and emissions while controlling engine instabilities, more accurate and complete sensor information is necessary. High-temperature (300 to 1,350 C) capacitive pressure sensors are of particular interest due to their high measurement bandwidth and inherent suitability for wireless readout schemes. The objective of this project is to develop a capacitive pressure sensor based on silicon carbon nitride (SiCN), a new class of high-temperature ceramic materials, which possesses excellent mechanical and electric properties at temperatures up to 1,600 C.

  8. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array System for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight...

  9. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  10. Pressure-Sensor Assembly Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzan, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) recently developed an ultrathin data acquisition system for use in turbomachinery testing at NASA Glenn Research Center. This system integrates a microelectromechanical- systems- (MEMS-) based absolute pressure sensor [0 to 50 psia (0 to 345 kPa)], temperature sensor, signal-conditioning application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), microprocessor, and digital memory into a package which is roughly 2.8 in. (7.1 cm) long by 0.75 in. (1.9 cm) wide. Each of these components is flip-chip attached to a thin, flexible circuit board and subsequently ground and polished to achieve a total system thickness of 0.006 in. (0.15 mm). Because this instrument is so thin, it can be quickly adhered to any surface of interest where data can be collected without disrupting the flow being investigated. One issue in the development of the ultrathin data acquisition system was how to attach the MEMS pressure sensor to the circuit board in a manner which allowed the sensor s diaphragm to communicate with the ambient fluid while providing enough support for the chip to survive the grinding and polishing operations. The technique, developed by NEAR and Jabil Technology Services Group (San Jose, CA), is described below. In the approach developed, the sensor is attached to the specially designed circuit board, see Figure 1, using a modified flip-chip technique. The circular diaphragm on the left side of the sensor is used to actively measure the ambient pressure, while the diaphragm on the right is used to compensate for changes in output due to temperature variations. The circuit board is fabricated with an access hole through it so that when the completed system is installed onto a wind tunnel model (chip side down), the active diaphragm is exposed to the environment. After the sensor is flip-chip attached to the circuit board, the die is underfilled to support the chip during the subsequent grinding and polishing operations. To prevent this

  11. Pressure sensor based on distributed temperature sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2002-01-01

    A differential pressure sensor has been realized with thermal readout. The thermal readout allows simultaneous measurement of the membrane deflection due to a pressure difference and measurement of the absolute pressure by operating the structure as a Pirani pressure sensor. The measuring of the

  12. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  13. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  14. Maintained functionality of an implantable radiotelemetric blood pressure and heart rate sensor after magnetic resonance imaging in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nölte, I; Boll, H; Figueiredo, G; Groden, C; Brockmann, M A; Gorbey, S; Lemmer, B

    2011-01-01

    Radiotelemetric sensors for in vivo assessment of blood pressure and heart rate are widely used in animal research. MRI with implanted sensors is regarded as contraindicated as transmitter malfunction and injury of the animal may be caused. Moreover, artefacts are expected to compromise image evaluation. In vitro, the function of a radiotelemetric sensor (TA11PA-C10, Data Sciences International) after exposure to MRI up to 9.4 T was assessed. The magnetic force of the electromagnetic field on the sensor as well as radiofrequency (RF)-induced sensor heating was analysed. Finally, MRI with an implanted sensor was performed in a rat. Imaging artefacts were analysed at 3.0 and 9.4 T ex vivo and in vivo. Transmitted 24 h blood pressure and heart rate were compared before and after MRI to verify the integrity of the telemetric sensor. The function of the sensor was not altered by MRI up to 9.4 T. The maximum force exerted on the sensor was 273 ± 50 mN. RF-induced heating was ruled out. Artefacts impeded the assessment of the abdomen and thorax in a dead rat, but not of the head and neck. MRI with implanted radiotelemetric sensors is feasible in principal. The tested sensor maintains functionality up to 9.4 T. Artefacts hampered abdominal and throacic imaging in rats, while assessment of the head and neck is possible

  15. Intelligent pressure measurement in multiple sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Pressure data acquisition has typically consisted of a group of sensors scanned by an electronic or mechanical multiplexer. The data accuracy was dependent upon the temperature stability of the sensors. This paper describes a new method of pressure measurement that combines individual temperature compensated pressure sensors, a microprocessor, and an A/D converter in one module. Each sensor has its own temperature characteristics stored in a look-up table to minimize sensor thermal errors. The result is an intelligent pressure module that can output temperature compensated engineering units over an Ethernet interface. Calibration intervals can be dramatically extended depending upon system accuracy requirements and calibration techniques used

  16. Organic Electroluminescent Sensor for Pressure Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Niimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a novel concept of a pressure sensor called electroluminescent pressure sensor (ELPS based on oxygen quenching of electroluminescence. The sensor was fabricated as an organic light-emitting device (OLED with phosphorescent dyes whose phosphorescence can be quenched by oxygenmolecules, and with a polymer electrode which permeates oxygen molecules. The sensor was a single-layer OLED with Platinum (II octaethylporphine (PtOEP doped into poly(vinylcarbazole (PVK as an oxygen sensitive emissive layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS as an oxygen permeating polymer anode. The pressure sensitivity of the fabricated ELPS sample was equivalent to that of the sensor excited by an illumination light source. Moreover, the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is equivalent to that of conventional pressure-sensitive paint (PSP, which is an optical pressure sensor based on photoluminescence.

  17. Pressure sensor using liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Devendra S. (Inventor); Holmes, Harlan K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A pressure sensor includes a liquid crystal positioned between transparent, electrically conductive films (18 and 20), that are biased by a voltage (V) which induces an electric field (E) that causes the liquid crystal to assume a first state of orientation. Application of pressure (P) to a flexible, transparent film (24) causes the conductive film (20) to move closer to or farther from the conductive film (18), thereby causing a change in the electric field (E'(P)) which causes the liquid crystal to assume a second state of orientation. Polarized light (P.sub.1) is directed into the liquid crystal and transmitted or reflected to an analyzer (A or 30). Changes in the state of orientation of the liquid crystal induced by applied pressure (P) result in a different light intensity being detected at the analyzer (A or 30) as a function of the applied pressure (P). In particular embodiments, the liquid crystal is present as droplets (10) in a polymer matrix (12) or in cells (14) in a polymeric or dielectric grid (16) material in the form of a layer (13) between the electrically conductive films (18 and 20). The liquid crystal fills the open wells in the polymer matrix (12) or grid (16) only partially.

  18. Distributed pressure sensors for a urethral catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Rajamani, Rajesh; Timm, Gerald; Sezen, A S

    2015-01-01

    A flexible strip that incorporates multiple pressure sensors and is capable of being fixed to a urethral catheter is developed. The urethral catheter thus instrumented will be useful for measurement of pressure in a human urethra during urodynamic testing in a clinic. This would help diagnose the causes of urinary incontinence in patients. Capacitive pressure sensors are fabricated on a flexible polyimide-copper substrate using surface micromachining processes and alignment/assembly of the top and bottom portions of the sensor strip. The developed sensor strip is experimentally evaluated in an in vitro test rig using a pressure chamber. The sensor strip is shown to have adequate sensitivity and repeatability. While the calibration factors for the sensors on the strip vary from one sensor to another, even the least sensitive sensor has a resolution better than 0.1 psi.

  19. Microfabricated pressure and shear stress sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A microfabricated pressure sensor. The pressure sensor comprises a raised diaphragm disposed on a substrate. The diaphragm is configured to bend in response to an applied pressure difference. A strain gauge of a conductive material is coupled to a surface of the raised diaphragm and to at least one of the substrate and a piece rigidly connected to the substrate.

  20. Calculation Of Pneumatic Attenuation In Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Errors caused by attenuation of air-pressure waves in narrow tubes calculated by method based on fundamental equations of flow. Changes in ambient pressure transmitted along narrow tube to sensor. Attenuation of high-frequency components of pressure wave calculated from wave equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow in tube. Developed to understand and compensate for frictional attenuation in narrow tubes used to connect aircraft pressure sensors with pressure taps on affected surfaces.

  1. Micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiong; Yao Yan; Ma Jiahao; Zhang Zhaohua; Zhang Yanhang; Wang Qian; Ren Tianling

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement which belongs to BioMEMS. It can be used in lumbar puncture surgery to measure intracranial pressure. Miniaturization is key for lumbar puncture surgery because the sensor must be small enough to allow it be placed in the reagent chamber of the lumbar puncture needle. The size of the sensor is decided by the size of the sensor chip and package. Our sensor chip is based on silicon piezoresistive effect and the size is 400 × 400 μm 2 . It is much smaller than the reported polymer intracranial pressure sensors such as liquid crystal polymer sensors. In terms of package, the traditional dual in-line package obviously could not match the size need, the minimal size of recently reported MEMS-based intracranial pressure sensors after packaging is 10 × 10 mm 2 . In this work, we are the first to introduce a quad flat no-lead package as the package form of piezoresistive intracranial pressure sensors, the whole size of the sensor is minimized to only 3 × 3 mm 2 . Considering the liquid measurement environment, the sensor is gummed and waterproof performance is tested; the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.9 × 10 −2 mV/kPa. (paper)

  2. Evaluation of high temperature pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Mook; Woo, Sam-Yong; Kim, Yong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming more important to measure the pressure in high temperature environments in many industrial fields. However, there is no appropriate evaluation system and compensation method for high temperature pressure sensors since most pressure standards have been established at room temperature. In order to evaluate the high temperature pressure sensors used in harsh environments, such as high temperatures above 250 deg. C, a specialized system has been constructed and evaluated in this study. The pressure standard established at room temperature is connected to a high temperature pressure sensor through a chiller. The sensor can be evaluated in conditions of changing standard pressures at constant temperatures and of changing temperatures at constant pressures. According to the evaluation conditions, two compensation methods are proposed to eliminate deviation due to sensitivity changes and nonlinear behaviors except thermal hysteresis.

  3. A temperature and pressure controlled calibration system for pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.; Kahng, Seun K.

    1989-01-01

    A data acquisition and experiment control system capable of simulating temperatures from -184 to +220 C and pressures either absolute or differential from 0 to 344.74 kPa is developed to characterize silicon pressure sensor response to temperature and pressure. System software is described that includes sensor data acquisition, algorithms for numerically derived thermal offset and sensitivity correction, and operation of the environmental chamber and pressure standard. This system is shown to be capable of computer interfaced cryogenic testing to within 1 C and 34.47 Pa of single channel or multiplexed arrays of silicon pressure sensors.

  4. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements

  5. Microoptomechanical sensor for intracranial pressure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, A V; Luchinin, V V; Lutetskiy, N A; Sergushichev, A N

    2014-01-01

    The main idea of this research is the development of microoptomechanical sensor for intracranial pressure monitoring. Currently, the authors studied the scientific and technical knowledge in this field, as well as develop and test a prototype of microoptomechanical sensor for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring

  6. Inertia compensated force and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, B.; Engeler, P.; Gossweiler, C. [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    Any moving structure is affected by inertial effects. In case of force and pressure sensors, inertial effects cause measurement errors. The paper deals with novel signal conditioning methods and mechanical design features to minimize inertial effects. A novel solution for passive compensation of pressure sensors is presented. (orig.)

  7. Cryogenic Multichannel Pressure Sensor With Electronic Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Purnell, Jr.; Chapman, John J.; Kruse, Nancy M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Array of pressure sensors operates reliably and repeatably over wide temperature range, extending from normal boiling point of water down to boiling point of nitrogen. Sensors accurate and repeat to within 0.1 percent. Operate for 12 months without need for recalibration. Array scanned electronically, sensor readings multiplexed and sent to desktop computer for processing and storage. Used to measure distributions of pressure in research on boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers, achieved by low temperatures.

  8. Graphene Squeeze-Film Pressure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolleman, Robin J; Davidovikj, Dejan; Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; van der Zant, Herre S J; Steeneken, Peter G

    2016-01-13

    The operating principle of squeeze-film pressure sensors is based on the pressure dependence of a membrane's resonance frequency, caused by the compression of the surrounding gas which changes the resonator stiffness. To realize such sensors, not only strong and flexible membranes are required, but also minimization of the membrane's mass is essential to maximize responsivity. Here, we demonstrate the use of a few-layer graphene membrane as a squeeze-film pressure sensor. A clear pressure dependence of the membrane's resonant frequency is observed, with a frequency shift of 4 MHz between 8 and 1000 mbar. The sensor shows a reproducible response and no hysteresis. The measured responsivity of the device is 9000 Hz/mbar, which is a factor 45 higher than state-of-the-art MEMS-based squeeze-film pressure sensors while using a 25 times smaller membrane area.

  9. LPG based all plastic pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, R.; Leon-Saval, S.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype all-plastic pressure sensor is presented and characterized for potential use as an endoscope. The sensor is based on Long Period Gratings (LPG) inscribed with a CO2 laser in 6-ring microstructured PMMA fiber. Through a latex coated, plastic 3D-printed transducer pod, external pressure...... is converted to longitudinal elongation of the pod and therefore of the fiber containing the LPG. The sensor has been characterised for pressures of up to 160 mBar in an in-house built pressure chamber. Furthermore, the influence of the fiber prestrain, fiber thickness and the effect of different glues...

  10. Acceleration sensitivity of micromachined pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Richard; Maudie, Theresa; Miller, Todd F.; Thompson, Erik

    1999-08-01

    Pressure sensors serve a variety of automotive applications, some which may experience high levels of acceleration such as tire pressure monitoring. To design pressure sensors for high acceleration environments it is important to understand their sensitivity to acceleration especially if thick encapsulation layers are used to isolate the device from the hostile environment in which they reside. This paper describes a modeling approach to determine their sensitivity to acceleration that is very general and is applicable to different device designs and configurations. It also describes the results of device testing of a capacitive surface micromachined pressure sensor at constant acceleration levels from 500 to 2000 g's.

  11. Tests Of Array Of Flush Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Larry J.; Moes, Timothy R.; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1992-01-01

    Report describes tests of array of pressure sensors connected to small orifices flush with surface of 1/7-scale model of F-14 airplane in wind tunnel. Part of effort to determine whether pressure parameters consisting of various sums, differences, and ratios of measured pressures used to compute accurately free-stream values of stagnation pressure, static pressure, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and mach number. Such arrays of sensors and associated processing circuitry integrated into advanced aircraft as parts of flight-monitoring and -controlling systems.

  12. HOPG/ZnO/HOPG pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Mojtaba; Yousefiazari, Ehsan; Ghalamboran, Milad

    2017-12-01

    Pressure sensor is one of the most commonly used sensors in the research laboratories and industries. These are generally categorized in three different classes of absolute pressure sensors, gauge pressure sensors, and differential pressure sensors. In this paper, we fabricate and assess the pressure sensitivity of the current vs. voltage diagrams in a graphite/ZnO/graphite structure. Zinc oxide layers are deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates by sputtering a zinc target under oxygen plasma. The top electrode is also a slice of HOPG which is placed on the ZnO layer and connected to the outside electronic circuits. By recording the I-V characteristics of the device under different forces applied to the top HOPG electrode, the pressure sensitivity is demonstrated; at the optimum biasing voltage, the device current changes 10 times upon changing the pressure level on the top electrode by 20 times. Repeatability and reproducibility of the observed effect is studied on the same and different samples. All the materials used for the fabrication of this pressure sensor are biocompatible, the fabricated device is anticipated to find potential applications in biomedical engineering.

  13. Miniature piezoresistive solid state integrated pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of silicon pressure sensors with an ultra-small diaphragm are described. The pressure sensors utilize rectangular diaphragm as small as 0.0127 x 0.0254 cm and a p-type Wheatstone bridge consisting of diffused piezoresistive elements, 0.000254 cm by 0.00254 cm. These sensors exhibit as high as 0.5 MHz natural frequency and 1 mV/V/psi pressure sensitivity. Fabrication techniques and high frequency results from shock tube testing and low frequency comparison with microphones are presented.

  14. Self-correcting electronically scanned pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiple channel high data rate pressure sensing device is disclosed for use in wind tunnels, spacecraft, airborne, process control, automotive, etc., pressure measurements. Data rates in excess of 100,000 measurements per second are offered with inaccuracies from temperature shifts less than 0.25% (nominal) of full scale over a temperature span of 55 C. The device consists of thirty-two solid state sensors, signal multiplexing electronics to electronically address each sensor, and digital electronic circuitry to automatically correct the inherent thermal shift errors of the pressure sensors and their associated electronics.

  15. High-temperature fiber optic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to a program to develop fiber optic methods to measure diaphragm deflection. The end application is intended for pressure transducers capable of operating to 540 C. In this paper are reported the results of a laboratory study to characterize the performance of the fiber-optic microbend sensor. The data presented include sensitivity and spring constant. The advantages and limitations of the microbend sensor for static pressure measurement applications are described. A proposed design is presented for a 540 C pressure transducer using the fiber optic microbend sensor.

  16. Thermoelectric Control Of Temperatures Of Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.; West, James W.; Hutchinson, Mark A.; Lawrence, Robert M.; Crum, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Prototype controlled-temperature enclosure containing thermoelectric devices developed to house electronically scanned array of pressure sensors. Enclosure needed because (1) temperatures of transducers in sensors must be maintained at specified set point to ensure proper operation and calibration and (2) sensors sometimes used to measure pressure in hostile environments (wind tunnels in original application) that are hotter or colder than set point. Thus, depending on temperature of pressure-measurement environment, thermoelectric devices in enclosure used to heat or cool transducers to keep them at set point.

  17. A carbon nanotube-based pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Kh S; Saleem, M; Khan, Adam; Qasuria, T A; Mateen, A; Karieva, Z M

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based Al/CNT/Al pressure sensor was designed, fabricated and investigated. The sensor was fabricated by depositing CNTs on an adhesive elastic polymer tape and placing this in an elastic casing. The diameter of multiwalled nanotubes varied between 10 and 30 nm. The nominal thickness of the CNT layers in the sensors was in the range ∼300-430 μm. The inter-electrode distance (length) and the width of the surface-type sensors were in the ranges 4-6 and 3-4 mm, respectively. The dc resistance of the sensors decreased 3-4 times as the pressure was increased up to 17 kN m -2 . The resistance-pressure relationships were simulated.

  18. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheem, Sang K.

    2003-07-22

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  19. High Temperature Characterization of Ceramic Pressure Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fonseca, Michael A; English, Jennifer M; Von Arx, Martin; Allen, Mark G

    2001-01-01

    This work reports functional wireless ceramic micromachined pressure sensors operating at 450 C, with demonstrated materials and readout capability indicating potential extension to temperatures in excess of 600 C...

  20. Cryogenic MEMS Pressure Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A directly immersible cryogenic MEMS pressure sensor will be developed. Each silicon die will contain a vacuum-reference and a tent-like membrane. Offsetting thermal...

  1. Wave effects on a pressure sensor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; DeSa, E; Desa, E; McKeown, J.; Peshwe, V.B.

    Wave flume experiments indicated that for waves propagating on quiescent waters the sensor's performance improved (i.e. the difference Delta P between the average hydrostatic and measured pressures was small and positive) when the inlet...

  2. Bladder pressure sensors in an animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koldewijn, E. L.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Schaafsma, E.; Wijkstra, H.; Debruyne, F. M.; Brindley, G. S.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary incontinence due to detrusor hyperreflexia might be inhibited on demand if changes in bladder pressure could be detected by sensors and transferred into pudendal nerve electrostimulation. The aim of this study is to investigate how the bladder wall reacts on different sensor implants.

  3. A silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhangyang; Fan Shangchun; Cai Chenguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and test of a silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor. A square membrane and a doubly clamped resonant beam constitute a compound structure. The former senses the pressure directly, while the latter changes its resonant frequency according to deformation of the membrane. The final output relation between the resonant frequency and the applied pressure is deducted according to the structure mechanical properties. Sensors are fabricated by micromachining technology, and then sealed in vaccum. These sensors are tested by open-loop and close-loop system designed on purpose. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor has a sensitivity of 49.8Hz/kPa and repeatability of 0.08%.

  4. Plantar pressure cartography reconstruction from 3 sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Ghaida, Hussein; Mottet, Serge; Goujon, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Foot problem diagnosis is often made by using pressure mapping systems, unfortunately located and used in the laboratories. In the context of e-health and telemedicine for home monitoring of patients having foot problems, our focus is to present an acceptable system for daily use. We developed an ambulatory instrumented insole using 3 pressures sensors to visualize plantar pressure cartographies. We show that a standard insole with fixed sensor position could be used for different foot sizes. The results show an average error measured at each pixel of 0.01 daN, with a standard deviation of 0.005 daN.

  5. A Hybrid Pressure and Vector Sensor Towed Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Dehua

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is of a combined acoustic pressure and acoustic vector sensor array, where multiple acoustic pressure sensors are integrated with an acoustic vector sensor in a towed array...

  6. Alpha-Particle Gas-Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M. C.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    An approximate model was developed to establish design curves for the saturation region and a more complete model developed to characterize the current-voltage curves for an alpha-particle pressure sensor. A simple two-parameter current-voltage expression was developed to describe the dependence of the ion current on pressure. The parameters are the saturation-current pressure coefficient and mu/D, the ion mobility/diffusion coefficient. The sensor is useful in the pressure range between 0.1 and 1000 mb using a 1 - mu Ci(241) Am source. Experimental results, taken between 1 and up to 200 mb, show the sensor operates with an anode voltage of 5 V and a sensitivity of 20 fA/mb in nitrogen.

  7. Microwave Atmospheric-Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Bradford, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes tests of microwave pressure sounder (MPS) for use in satellite measurements of atmospheric pressure. MPS is multifrequency radar operating between 25 and 80 GHz. Determines signal absorption over vertical path through atmosphere by measuring strength of echoes from ocean surface. MPS operates with cloud cover, and suitable for use on current meteorological satellites.

  8. A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.

  9. Pressure sensor apparatus for indicating pressure in the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittman, F.; Fleischmann, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    A novel pressure sensor for indicating pressure in the body cavities of humans or animals is described in detail. The pressure sensor apparatus is relatively small and is easily implantable. It consists of a radioactive source (e.g. Pr-145, C-14, Ni-63, Sr-90 and Am-241) and associated radiation shielding and a bellows. The pressure acting upon the sensing tambour causes the bellows to expand and contract. This is turn causes the radiation shielding to move and changes in pressure can then be monitored external to the body using a conventional nuclear detector. The bellows is made of resilient material (e.g. gold plated nickel) and has a wall thickness of approximately 0.0003 inches. The apparatus is essentially insensitive to temperature variations. (U.K.)

  10. Ultrahigh Sensitivity Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Detection of Tiny Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Wu, Kunjie; Xu, Zeyang; Wang, Zhongwu; Meng, Yancheng; Li, Liqiang

    2018-05-31

    High sensitivity pressure sensors are crucial for the ultra-sensitive touch technology and E-skin, especially at the tiny pressure range below 100 Pa. However, it is highly challenging to substantially promote sensitivity beyond the current level at several to two hundred kPa -1 , and to improve the detection limit lower than 0.1 Pa, which is significant for the development of pressure sensors toward ultrasensitive and highly precise detection. Here, we develop an efficient strategy to greatly improve the sensitivity near to 2000 kPa -1 by using short channel coplanar device structure and sharp microstructure, which is systematically proposed for the first time and rationalized by the mathematic calculation and analysis. Significantly, benefiting from the ultrahigh sensitivity, the detection limit is improved to be as small as 0.075 Pa. The sensitivity and detection limit are both superior to the current levels, and far surpass the function of human skin. Furthermore, the sensor shows fast response time (50 μs), excellent reproducibility and stability, and low power consumption. Remarkably, the sensor shows excellent detection capacity in the tiny pressure range including LED switching with a pressure of 7 Pa, ringtone (2-20 Pa) recognition, and ultrasensitive (0.1 Pa) electronic glove. This work represents a performance and strategic progress in the field of pressure sensing.

  11. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Poeggel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas.

  12. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-07-15

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas.

  13. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas. PMID:26184228

  14. Telemetric Technologies for the Assay of Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Bamsey, Matthew; Berinstain, Alain; Neron, Philip; Graham, Thomas; Ferl, Robert

    Telemetric data collection has been widely used in spaceflight applications where human participation is limited (orbital mission payloads) or unfeasible (planetary landers, satellites, and probes). The transmission of digital data from electronic sensors of typical environmental parameters, growth patterns and physical properties of materials is routine telemetry, and even the collection and transmission of deep space images is a standard tool of astrophysics. But telemetric imaging for current biological payloads has thus far been limited to the collection of standard white-light photography that is largely confined to reporting the surface characteristics of the specimens involved. Advances in imaging technologies that facilitate the collection of a variety of light wavelengths will expand the science return on biological payloads to include evaluations of the molecular genetic response of organisms to the spaceflight or extraterrestrial environment, with minimal or no human intervention. Advanced imaging technology in combination with biologically engineered sensor organisms can create a system that can report via telemetry on the patterns of gene expression required to adapt to a novel environment. The utilization of genetically engineered plants as biosensors has made elegant strides in the recent years, providing keen insights into the health of plants in general and particularly in the nature and cellular location of stress responses. Moreover, molecular responses to gravitational vectors have been elegantly analyzed with fluorescent tools. Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) and other fluorophores have made it possible for analyses of gene expression and biological responses to occur telemetrically, with the information potentially delivered to the investigator over large distances as simple, preprocessed fluorescence images. Having previously deployed transgenic plant biosensors to evaluate responses to orbital spaceflight, we wish to develop both the plants

  15. High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.

  16. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  17. CMOS MEMS capacitive absolute pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narducci, M; Tsai, J; Yu-Chia, L; Fang, W

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a capacitive pressure sensor using a commercial 0.18 µm CMOS (complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) process and postprocess. The pressure sensor is capacitive and the structure is formed by an Al top electrode enclosed in a suspended SiO 2 membrane, which acts as a movable electrode against a bottom or stationary Al electrode fixed on the SiO 2 substrate. Both the movable and fixed electrodes form a variable parallel plate capacitor, whose capacitance varies with the applied pressure on the surface. In order to release the membranes the CMOS layers need to be applied postprocess and this mainly consists of four steps: (1) deposition and patterning of PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition) oxide to protect CMOS pads and to open the pressure sensor top surface, (2) etching of the sacrificial layer to release the suspended membrane, (3) deposition of PECVD oxide to seal the etching holes and creating vacuum inside the gap, and finally (4) etching of the passivation oxide to open the pads and allow electrical connections. This sensor design and fabrication is suitable to obey the design rules of a CMOS foundry and since it only uses low-temperature processes, it allows monolithic integration with other types of CMOS compatible sensors and IC (integrated circuit) interface on a single chip. Experimental results showed that the pressure sensor has a highly linear sensitivity of 0.14 fF kPa −1 in the pressure range of 0–300 kPa. (paper)

  18. Piezoresistive silicon pressure sensors in cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Seun K.; Chapman, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents data on low-temperature measurements of silicon pressure sensors. It was found that both the piezoresistance coefficients and the charge-carrier mobility increase with decreasing temperature. For lightly doped semiconductor materials, the density of free charge carriers decreases with temperature and can freeze out eventually. However, the effect of carrier freeze-out can be minimized by increasing the impurity content to higher levels, at which the temperature dependency of piezoresistance coefficients is reduced. An impurity density of 1 x 10 to the 19th/cu cm was found to be optimal for cryogenic applications of pressure sensor dies.

  19. Organic electronics based pressure sensor towards intracranial pressure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    The intra-cranial space, which houses the brain, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that acts as a fluid suspension medium for the brain. The CSF is always in circulation, is secreted in the cranium and is drained out through ducts called epidural veins. The venous drainage system has inherent resistance to the flow. Pressure is developed inside the cranium, which is similar to a rigid compartment. Normally a pressure of 5-15 mm Hg, in excess of atmospheric pressure, is observed at different locations inside the cranium. Increase in Intra-Cranial Pressure (ICP) can be caused by change in CSF volume caused by cerebral tumors, meningitis, by edema of a head injury or diseases related to cerebral atrophy. Hence, efficient ways of monitoring ICP need to be developed. A sensor system and monitoring scheme has been discussed here. The system architecture consists of a membrane less piezoelectric pressure sensitive element, organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based signal transduction, and signal telemetry. The components were fabricated on flexible substrate and have been assembled using flip-chip packaging technology. Material science and fabrication processes, subjective to the device performance, have been discussed. Capability of the device in detecting pressure variation, within the ICP pressure range, is investigated and applicability of measurement scheme to medical conditions has been argued for. Also, applications of such a sensor-OTFT assembly for logic sensor switching and patient specific-secure monitoring system have been discussed.

  20. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; Basurto-Pensado, M A; LiKamWa, P; May-Arrioja, D A

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 μV/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  1. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J [INAOE, Apartado Postal 51 y 216, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Basurto-Pensado, M A [CIICAp, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); LiKamWa, P [CREOL, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); May-Arrioja, D A, E-mail: iruiz@inaoep.mx, E-mail: mbasurto@uaem.mx, E-mail: delta_dirac@hotmail.com, E-mail: daniel_may_arrioja@hotmail.com [UAT Reynosa Rodhe, Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 {mu}V/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  2. Fiber-linked interferometric pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, G.; Fritsch, K.; Poorman, R. N.

    1987-01-01

    A fiber-optic pressure sensor is described which uses a diaphragm to modulate the mirror separation of a Fabry-Perot cavity (the sensing cavity). A multimode optical fiber delivers broadband light to the sensing cavity and returns the spectrally modulated light which the cavity reflects. The sensor's output spectrum is analyzed using a tunable Fabry-Perot cavity (the reference cavity) to determine the mismatch in the mirror separations of the two cavities. An electronic servo control uses this result to cause the mirror separation of the reference cavity to equal that of the sensing cavity. The displacement of the pressure-sensing diaphragm is then obtained by measuring the capacitance of the reference cavity's metal-coated mirrors. Relative to other fiber-optic sensors, an important advantage of this instrument is its high immunity to the effects of variations in both the transmissivity of the fiber link and the wavelength of the optical source.

  3. [Pressure sensors to prevent cardiac decompensation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Didier

    2017-11-01

    Most cases of hospitalisation for heart failure are preceded by episodes of cardiac decompensation. Preventing these episodes would improve quality of life and reduce mortality and treatment costs. The monitoring of intracardiac pressures, using innovative sensors, coupled with telemedicine, offers interesting perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacement of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely

  5. [A telemetrically-guided program for weight reduction in overweight subjects (the SMART study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körtke, H; Frisch, S; Zittermann, A; Berthold, H K; El-Arousy, M; Götting, C; Kleesiek, K; Stehle, P; Körfer, R

    2008-06-01

    Compliance with weight reducing programs can be improved by intensive care and control. We tested a telemetrically-guided weight reduction program in overweight and obese persons. 200 outpatients (62 males) with a mean body mass index of 34 kg/m (2) and a mean age of 47 years participated in a prospective study for one year. During the first six months, telemetrical support (weight-transmission via Bluetooth (short range)-technology, 20-minutes telephone consultation with a nutritionist) was given weekly. After six months, participants were randomly assigned either to a group with further telemonitoring support (telemetric group) or to a group without contact to our clinic (control group). At baseline, and after six and twelve months, body weight, body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), and parameters of the metabolic syndrome were assessed at our clinic. 16 participants terminated the study prematurely during the first 6 months and 19 participants (10 from the telemetric group and 9 from the control group) during the second 6 months. According to the intention-to-treat principle, mean weight loss was 6.7 kg (p < 0,001), mean loss of body fat was 5.1 kg (p < 0,001), and mean loss of fat-free mass was 1.6 kg (p < 0,001) within the first six months. Moreover, metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers such as waist circumference, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and blood glucose declined significantly (p < 0,001). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome fell from 49.5% to 42.0 % (p < 0,05). During the second six months body fat content, waist circumference, and blood glucose increased again in the control group but not in the telemetric group (p < 0,05-0,001). The telemetrically-guided weight loss program was a more efficacious measure than the less intensive support without telemonitoring.

  6. Test Structures for Rapid Prototyping of Gas and Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M.; Cheng, L. J.; Martin, D.

    1996-01-01

    A multi-project ceramic substrate was used in developing a gas sensor and pressure sensor. The ceramic substrate cantained 36 chips with six variants including sensors, process control monitors, and an interconnect ship. Tha gas sensor is being developed as an air quality monitor and the pressure gauge as a barometer.

  7. Acoustic sensor for remote measuring of pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataev V. F.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with sensors based on delay lines on surface acoustic waves (SAW, having a receiving-emitting and a reflective interdigital transducers (IDT. The dependence of the reflection coefficient of SAW on type and intensity of the load was studied. The authors propose a composite delay line in which the phase of the reflection coefficient depends on the pressure. Pressure leads to a shift of the reflective IDT relative to the transceiver, because they are located on different substrates. The paper also presents functional diagrams of the interrogator.

  8. Piezoresistive pressure sensor array for robotic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Fahad; Sahasrabuddhe, Ritvij R.; Baptist, Joshua R.; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.; Lee, Woo H.; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Robots are starting to transition from the confines of the manufacturing floor to homes, schools, hospitals, and highly dynamic environments. As, a result, it is impossible to foresee all the probable operational situations of robots, and preprogram the robot behavior in those situations. Among human-robot interaction technologies, haptic communication is an intuitive physical interaction method that can help define operational behaviors for robots cooperating with humans. Multimodal robotic skin with distributed sensors can help robots increase perception capabilities of their surrounding environments. Electro-Hydro-Dynamic (EHD) printing is a flexible multi-modal sensor fabrication method because of its direct printing capability of a wide range of materials onto substrates with non-uniform topographies. In past work we designed interdigitated comb electrodes as a sensing element and printed piezoresistive strain sensors using customized EHD printable PEDOT:PSS based inks. We formulated a PEDOT:PSS derivative ink, by mixing PEDOT:PSS and DMSO. Bending induced characterization tests of prototyped sensors showed high sensitivity and sufficient stability. In this paper, we describe SkinCells, robot skin sensor arrays integrated with electronic modules. 4x4 EHD-printed arrays of strain sensors was packaged onto Kapton sheets and silicone encapsulant and interconnected to a custom electronic module that consists of a microcontroller, Wheatstone bridge with adjustable digital potentiometer, multiplexer, and serial communication unit. Thus, SkinCell's electronics can be used for signal acquisition, conditioning, and networking between sensor modules. Several SkinCells were loaded with controlled pressure, temperature and humidity testing apparatuses, and testing results are reported in this paper.

  9. A simple sensing mechanism for wireless, passive pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazan, John F; Wassick, Michael T; Dahle, Reena; Beardslee, Luke A; Cady, Nathaniel C; Ledet, Eric H

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a simple wireless pressure sensor that consists of only three electrically isolated components. Two conductive spirals are separated by a closed cell foam that deforms when exposed to changing pressures. This deformation changes the capacitance and thus the resonant frequency of the sensors. Prototype sensors were submerged and wirelessly interrogated while being exposed to physiologically relevant pressures from 10 to 130 mmHg. Sensors consistently exhibited a sensitivity of 4.35 kHz/mmHg which is sufficient for resolving physiologically relevant pressure changes in vivo. These simple sensors have the potential for in vivo pressure sensing.

  10. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  11. Low Power and High Sensitivity MOSFET-Based Pressure Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhao-Hua; Ren Tian-Ling; Zhang Yan-Hong; Han Rui-Rui; Liu Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) stress sensitive phenomenon, a low power MOSFET pressure sensor is proposed. Compared with the traditional piezoresistive pressure sensor, the present pressure sensor displays high performances on sensitivity and power consumption. The sensitivity of the MOSFET sensor is raised by 87%, meanwhile the power consumption is decreased by 20%. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. Design, fabrication and metrological evaluation of wearable pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, C B; Menichetti, V; Yanicelli, L M; Lucero, J B; López, M A Gómez; Parodi, N F; Herrera, M C

    2015-04-01

    Pressure sensors are valuable transducers that are necessary in a huge number of medical application. However, the state of the art of compact and lightweight pressure sensors with the capability of measuring the contact pressure between two surfaces (contact pressure sensors) is very poor. In this work, several types of wearable contact pressure sensors are fabricated using different conductive textile materials and piezo-resistive films. The fabricated sensors differ in size, the textile conductor used and/or the number of layers of the sandwiched piezo-resistive film. The intention is to study, through the obtaining of their calibration curves, their metrological properties (repeatability, sensitivity and range) and determine which physical characteristics improve their ability for measuring contact pressures. It has been found that it is possible to obtain wearable contact pressure sensors through the proposed fabrication process with satisfactory repeatability, range and sensitivity; and that some of these properties can be improved by the physical characteristics of the sensors.

  13. Method for making a dynamic pressure sensor and a pressure sensor made according to the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Robbins, William E. (Inventor); Robins, Glenn M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method for providing a perfectly flat top with a sharp edge on a dynamic pressure sensor using a cup-shaped stretched membrane as a sensing element is described. First, metal is deposited on the membrane and surrounding areas. Next, the side wall of the pressure sensor with the deposited metal is machined to a predetermined size. Finally, deposited metal is removed from the top of the membrane in small steps, by machining or lapping while the pressure sensor is mounted in a jig or the wall of a test object, until the true top surface of the membrane appears. A thin indicator layer having a color contrasting with the color of the membrane may be applied to the top of the membrane before metal is deposited to facilitate the determination of when to stop metal removal from the top surface of the membrane.

  14. All-plastic fiber-based pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, Richard; Leon-Saval, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We present a feasibility study and a prototype of an all-plastic fiber-based pressure sensor. The sensor is based on long period gratings inscribed for the first time to the best of our knowledge by a CO2 laser in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microstructured fibers and coupled to a pod......-like transducer that converts pressure to strain. The sensor prototype was characterized for pressures up to 150 mbars, and various parameters related to its construction were also characterized in order to enhance sensitivity. We consider this sensor in the context of future applications in endoscopic pressure...... sensors....

  15. Stress modeling of microdiaphragm pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, P. C.; Busta, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    A finite element program analysis was used to model the stress distribution of two monocrystalline silicon diaphragm pressure sensors. One configuration consists of an anisotropically backside etched diaphragm into a 250 micron thick, (100) oriented, silicon wafer. The diaphragm and total chip dimensions are given. The device is rigidly clamped on the back to a support substrate. Another configuration consists of a monocrystalline, (100), microdiaphragm which is formed on top of the wafer and whose area is reduced by a factor of 25 over the first configuration. The diaphragm is rigidly clamped to the silicon wafer. The stresses were calculated at a gauge pressure of 300 mm Hg and used to estimate the piezoresistive responses of resistor elements which were placed parallel and perpendicular near the diaphragm edges.

  16. Novel Designs for Application Specific MEMS Pressure Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio; Reck, Kasper; Lorenzen, Lasse Vestergaard

    2010-01-01

    and high capacitive output signal (more than 100 pF) is depicted. An optical pressure sensor intrinsically immune to electromagnetic interference, with large pressure range (0-350 bar) and a sensitivity of 1 pm/bar is presented. Finally, a resonating wireless pressure sensor power source free...

  17. Novel fabric pressure sensors: design, fabrication, and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yangyong; Hua, Tao; Zhu, Bo; Li, Qiao; Yi, Weijing; Tao, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Soft and pliable pressure sensors are essential elements in wearable electronics which have wide applications in modern daily lives. This paper presents a family of fabric pressure sensors made by sandwiching a piece of resistive fabric strain sensing element between two tooth-structured layers of soft elastomers. The pressure sensors are capable of measuring pressure from 0 to 2000 kPa, covering the whole range of human–machine interactions. A pressure sensitivity of up to 2.98 × 10 −3 kPa −1 was obtained. Theoretical modeling was conducted based on an energy method to predict the load–displacement relationship for various sensor configurations. By adjusting the Young's modulus of the two conversion layers, as well as the geometrical dimensions, the measurement ranges, and sensitivities of the sensors can be quantitatively determined. The sensors are being used for pressure measurements between the human body and garments, shoes, beds, and chairs

  18. Applications of pressure-sensitive dielectric elastomer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, Holger; Ocak, Deniz; Ehrlich, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer sensors for the measurement of compression loads with high sensitivity are described. The basic design of the sensors exhibits two profiled surfaces between which an elastomer film is confined. All components of the sensor were prepared with silicone whose stiffness can be varied in a wide range. Depending on details of the sensor design, various effects contribute to the enhancement of the capacitance. The intermediate elastomer film is stretched upon compression and electrode layers on the elastomer profiles and in the elastomer film approach each other. Different designs of the pressure sensor give rise to very different sensor characteristics in terms of the dependence of electric capacitance on compression force. Due to their inherent flexibility, the pressure sensors can be used on compliant substrates such as seats or beds or on the human body. This gives rise to numerous possible applications. The contribution describes also some examples of possible sensor applications. A glove was equipped with various sensors positioned at the finger tips. When grabbing an object with the glove, the sensors can detect the gripping forces of the individual fingers with high sensitivity. In a demonstrator of the glove equipped with seven sensors, the capacitances representing the gripping forces are recorded on a display. In another application example, a lower limb prosthesis was equipped with a pressure sensor to detect the load on the remaining part of the leg and the load is displayed in terms of the measured capacitance. The benefit of such sensors is to detect an eventual overload in order to prevent possible pressure sores. A third example introduces a seat load sensor system based on four extended pressure sensor mats. The sensor system detects the load distribution of a person on the seat. The examples emphasize the high performance of the new pressure sensor technology.

  19. Telemetric measurement of body core temperature in exercising unconditioned Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, T Craig; Gillette, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    This project evaluated the use of an ingestible temperature sensor to measure body core temperature (Tc) in exercising dogs. Twenty-five healthy, unconditioned Labrador retrievers participated in an outdoor 3.5-km run, completed in 20 min on a level, 400-m grass track. Core temperature was measured continuously with a telemetric monitoring system before, during, and after the run. Data were successfully collected with no missing data points during the exercise. Core temperature elevated in the dogs from 38.7 ± 0.3°C at pre-exercise to 40.4 ± 0.6°C post-exercise. While rectal temperatures are still the standard of measurement, telemetric core temperature monitors may offer an easier and more comfortable means of sampling core temperature with minimal human and mechanical interference with the exercising dog.

  20. Flight testing of a luminescent surface pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Espina, J.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.; Demandante, C. G. N.; Bjarke, L.

    1992-01-01

    NASA ARC has conducted flight tests of a new type of aerodynamic pressure sensor based on a luminescent surface coating. Flights were conducted at the NASA ARC-Dryden Flight Research Facility. The luminescent pressure sensor is based on a surface coating which, when illuminated with ultraviolet light, emits visible light with an intensity dependent on the local air pressure on the surface. This technique makes it possible to obtain pressure data over the entire surface of an aircraft, as opposed to conventional instrumentation, which can only make measurements at pre-selected points. The objective of the flight tests was to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of a luminescent pressure sensor in the actual flight environment. A luminescent pressure sensor was installed on a fin, the Flight Test Fixture (FTF), that is attached to the underside of an F-104 aircraft. The response of one particular surface coating was evaluated at low supersonic Mach numbers (M = 1.0-1.6) in order to provide an initial estimate of the sensor's capabilities. This memo describes the test approach, the techniques used, and the pressure sensor's behavior under flight conditions. A direct comparison between data provided by the luminescent pressure sensor and that produced by conventional pressure instrumentation shows that the luminescent sensor can provide quantitative data under flight conditions. However, the test results also show that the sensor has a number of limitations which must be addressed if this technique is to prove useful in the flight environment.

  1. Novel designs for application specific MEMS pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio; Reck, Kasper; Lorenzen, Lasse; Thomsen, Erik V

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of developing innovative microfabricated pressure sensors, we present here three designs based on different readout principles, each one tailored for a specific application. A touch mode capacitive pressure sensor with high sensitivity (14 pF/bar), low temperature dependence and high capacitive output signal (more than 100 pF) is depicted. An optical pressure sensor intrinsically immune to electromagnetic interference, with large pressure range (0-350 bar) and a sensitivity of 1 pm/bar is presented. Finally, a resonating wireless pressure sensor power source free with a sensitivity of 650 KHz/mmHg is described. These sensors will be related with their applications in harsh environment, distributed systems and medical environment, respectively. For many aspects, commercially available sensors, which in vast majority are piezoresistive, are not suited for the applications proposed.

  2. Novel Designs for Application Specific MEMS Pressure Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik V. Thomsen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of developing innovative microfabricated pressure sensors, we present here three designs based on different readout principles, each one tailored for a specific application. A touch mode capacitive pressure sensor with high sensitivity (14 pF/bar, low temperature dependence and high capacitive output signal (more than 100 pF is depicted. An optical pressure sensor intrinsically immune to electromagnetic interference, with large pressure range (0–350 bar and a sensitivity of 1 pm/bar is presented. Finally, a resonating wireless pressure sensor power source free with a sensitivity of 650 KHz/mmHg is described. These sensors will be related with their applications in  harsh environment, distributed systems and medical environment, respectively. For many aspects, commercially available sensors, which in vast majority are piezoresistive, are not suited for the applications proposed.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.215 - Pressure transducers, temperature sensors, and dewpoint sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sensors, and dewpoint sensors. 1065.215 Section 1065.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Measurement of Engine Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.215 Pressure transducers, temperature sensors, and dewpoint sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified in this section to measure...

  4. Fully wireless pressure sensor based on endoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yusaku; Mori, Hirohito; Nakagawa, Tomoaki; Takao, Hidekuni

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the result of developing a fully wireless pressure sensor based on endoscopy images for an endoscopic surgery is reported for the first time. The sensor device has structural color with a nm-scale narrow gap, and the gap is changed by air pressure. The structural color of the sensor is acquired from camera images. Pressure detection can be realized with existing endoscope configurations only. The inner air pressure of the human body should be measured under flexible-endoscope operation using the sensor. Air pressure monitoring, has two important purposes. The first is to quantitatively measure tumor size under a constant air pressure for treatment selection. The second purpose is to prevent the endangerment of a patient due to over transmission of air. The developed sensor was evaluated, and the detection principle based on only endoscopy images has been successfully demonstrated.

  5. Elastomeric polymer resonant waveguide grating based pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Fuchuan; Xie, Antonio Jou; Seo, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an elastomeric polymer resonant waveguide grating structure to be used as a pressure sensor. The applied pressure is measured by optical resonance spectrum peak shift. The sensitivity—as high as 86.74 pm psi −1 or 12.58 pm kPa −1 —has been experimentally obtained from a fabricated sensor. Potentially, the sensitivity of the demonstrated sensor can be tuned to different pressure ranges by the choices of elastic properties and layer thicknesses of the waveguide and cladding layers. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and indicate that the dominant effect on the sensor is the change of grating period when external pressure is applied. Based on the two-dimensional planar structure, the demonstrated sensor can be used to measure applied surface pressure optically, which has potential applications for optical ultrasound imaging and pressure wave detection/mapping

  6. Experience gained with capacitive pressure sensor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestrin, J.; Blazquez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to safety requirements, pressure sensors in a nuclear power plant must be kept under surveillance. The dynamics of the capacitive type Rosemount sensors is known. Sensor response time to a pressure ramp is the usual quantity required and it can be calculated. The noise signals contain the sensor dynamics, but in this case other irrelevant information from the plant is held, which disturbs the results. So, the signals must be conditioned previously. Also, it is necessary to do a process in order to separate the pressure sensor dynamics and to get a stationary signal. This can be done by using the autocorrelation function and filtering. Deterministic steps have been made and a relationship between the sensor response time, and the static pressure has been found. (author)

  7. A novel SOI pressure sensor for high temperature application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sainan; Liang Ting; Wang Wei; Hong Yingping; Zheng Tingli; Xiong Jijun

    2015-01-01

    The silicon on insulator (SOI) high temperature pressure sensor is a novel pressure sensor with high-performance and high-quality. A structure of a SOI high-temperature pressure sensor is presented in this paper. The key factors including doping concentration and power are analyzed. The process of the sensor is designed with the critical process parameters set appropriately. The test result at room temperature and high temperature shows that nonlinear error below is 0.1%, and hysteresis is less than 0.5%. High temperature measuring results show that the sensor can be used for from room temperature to 350 °C in harsh environments. It offers a reference for the development of high temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors. (semiconductor devices)

  8. Touch mode micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with signal conditioning electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio; Eriksen, Gert F.; Christensen, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, pressure sensors have been one of the greatest successes of the MEMS industry. Many companies are using them in a variety of applications from the automotive to the environmental field. Currently piezoresistive pressure sensors are the most developed, and a well established t...

  9. Optical Pressure-Temperature Sensor for a Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, John; Korman, Valentin; Gregory, Don

    2008-01-01

    A compact sensor for measuring temperature and pressure in a combusti on chamber has been proposed. The proposed sensor would include two optically birefringent, transmissive crystalline wedges: one of sapph ire (Al2O3) and one of magnesium oxide (MgO), the optical properties of both of which vary with temperature and pressure. The wedges wou ld be separated by a vapor-deposited thin-film transducer, which wou ld be primarily temperaturesensitive (in contradistinction to pressur e- sensitive) when attached to a crystalline substrate. The sensor w ould be housed in a rugged probe to survive the extreme temperatures and pressures in a combustion chamber.

  10. The baseline pressure of intracranial pressure (ICP) sensors can be altered by electrostatic discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per K; Bakken, André

    2011-08-22

    The monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has a crucial role in the surveillance of patients with brain injury. During long-term monitoring of ICP, we have seen spontaneous shifts in baseline pressure (ICP sensor zero point), which are of technical and not physiological origin. The aim of the present study was to explore whether or not baseline pressures of ICP sensors can be affected by electrostatics discharges (ESD's), when ESD's are delivered at clinically relevant magnitudes. We performed bench-testing of a set of commercial ICP sensors. In our experimental setup, the ICP sensor was placed in a container with 0.9% NaCl solution. A test person was charged 0.5-10 kV, and then delivered ESD's to the sensor by touching a metal rod that was located in the container. The continuous pressure signals were recorded continuously before/after the ESD's, and the pressure readings were stored digitally using a computerized system A total of 57 sensors were tested, including 25 Codman ICP sensors and 32 Raumedic sensors. When charging the test person in the range 0.5-10 kV, typically ESD's in the range 0.5-5 kV peak pulse were delivered to the ICP sensor. Alterations in baseline pressure ≥ 2 mmHg was seen in 24 of 25 (96%) Codman sensors and in 17 of 32 (53%) Raumedic sensors. Lasting changes in baseline pressure > 10 mmHg that in the clinical setting would affect patient management, were seen frequently for both sensor types. The changes in baseline pressure were either characterized by sudden shifts or gradual drifts in baseline pressure. The baseline pressures of commercial solid ICP sensors can be altered by ESD's at discharge magnitudes that are clinically relevant. Shifts in baseline pressure change the ICP levels visualised to the physician on the monitor screen, and thereby reveal wrong ICP values, which likely represent a severe risk to the patient.

  11. Flexible Sensors for Pressure Therapy: Effect of Substrate Curvature and Stiffness on Sensor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodasevych, Iryna; Parmar, Suresh; Troynikov, Olga

    2017-10-20

    Flexible pressure sensors are increasingly being used in medical and non-medical applications, and particularly in innovative health monitoring. Their efficacy in medical applications such as compression therapy depends on the accuracy and repeatability of their output, which in turn depend on factors such as sensor type, shape, pressure range, and conformability of the sensor to the body surface. Numerous researchers have examined the effects of sensor type and shape, but little information is available on the effect of human body parameters such as support surfaces' curvature and the stiffness of soft tissues on pressure sensing performance. We investigated the effects of body parameters on the performance of pressure sensors using a custom-made human-leg-like test setup. Pressure sensing parameters such as accuracy, drift and repeatability were determined in both static (eight hours continuous pressure) and dynamic (10 cycles of pressure application of 30 s duration) testing conditions. The testing was performed with a focus on compression therapy application for venous leg ulcer treatments, and was conducted in a low-pressure range of 20-70 mmHg. Commercially available sensors manufactured by Peratech and Sensitronics were used under various loading conditions to determine the influence of stiffness and curvature. Flat rigid, flat soft silicone and three cylindrical silicone surfaces of radii of curvature of 3.5 cm, 5.5 cm and 6.5 cm were used as substrates under the sensors. The Peratech sensor averaged 94% accuracy for both static and dynamic measurements on all substrates; the Sensitronics sensor averaged 88% accuracy. The Peratech sensor displayed moderate variations and the Sensitronics sensor large variations in output pressure readings depending on the underlying test surface, both of which were reduced markedly by individual pressure calibration for surface type. Sensor choice and need for calibration to surface type are important considerations for

  12. Research experiments on pressure-difference sensors with ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruican, Hao, E-mail: haoruican@163.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic, Beijing 100176 (China); Huagang, Liu; Wen, Gong; Na, Zhang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic, Beijing 100176 (China); Ruixiao, Hao [Civil and Architectural Engineering Institute of CCCC-FHEB Co., Ltd., Beijing 101102 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Ferrofluid has distinctive properties and can be applied in many industrial uses, especially in sensors. The principles of pressure-difference sensors with ferrofluid were illustrated and experiments were demonstrated. Four types of ferrofluids with different concentrations were selected for the experiments performed. Then, the parameters of ferrofluid, such as density and magnetization, were measured. The magnetization curves of the ferrofluid were sketched. Four U tubes with different diameters were designed and built. Experiments were conducted to analyze the impacts of tube diameter and ferrofluid concentration on the output voltage/pressure difference performance. According to the experiment results, the tube diameter has little effect on the sensor output voltage. With the concentration of ferrofluid increasing, the output voltage and sensitivity of the pressure-difference sensor increases. The measurable range of the sensor also increases with the increasing concentration of ferrofluid. The workable range and the sensitivity of the designed sensor were (−2000~+2000)Pa and 1.26 mV/Pa, respectively. - Highlights: • The principle of pressure difference sensor with ferrofluid was illustrated. • The parameters of ferrofluid, such as density and magnetization, were measured. The magnetization curves of the ferrofluid were sketched. • Four series of U tubes with different diameter were designed and manufactured. • The experiments were made to analyze the factors of the tube diameter and the concentration of ferrofluid on the output-input pressure difference. • The sensitivity of the pressure difference sensor with ferrofluid was studied and the corresponding conclusions were obtained.

  13. Research experiments on pressure-difference sensors with ferrofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruican, Hao; Huagang, Liu; Wen, Gong; Na, Zhang; Ruixiao, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ferrofluid has distinctive properties and can be applied in many industrial uses, especially in sensors. The principles of pressure-difference sensors with ferrofluid were illustrated and experiments were demonstrated. Four types of ferrofluids with different concentrations were selected for the experiments performed. Then, the parameters of ferrofluid, such as density and magnetization, were measured. The magnetization curves of the ferrofluid were sketched. Four U tubes with different diameters were designed and built. Experiments were conducted to analyze the impacts of tube diameter and ferrofluid concentration on the output voltage/pressure difference performance. According to the experiment results, the tube diameter has little effect on the sensor output voltage. With the concentration of ferrofluid increasing, the output voltage and sensitivity of the pressure-difference sensor increases. The measurable range of the sensor also increases with the increasing concentration of ferrofluid. The workable range and the sensitivity of the designed sensor were (−2000~+2000)Pa and 1.26 mV/Pa, respectively. - Highlights: • The principle of pressure difference sensor with ferrofluid was illustrated. • The parameters of ferrofluid, such as density and magnetization, were measured. The magnetization curves of the ferrofluid were sketched. • Four series of U tubes with different diameter were designed and manufactured. • The experiments were made to analyze the factors of the tube diameter and the concentration of ferrofluid on the output-input pressure difference. • The sensitivity of the pressure difference sensor with ferrofluid was studied and the corresponding conclusions were obtained.

  14. Fiber optic pressure sensors for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In the last few years, the nuclear industry has experienced some problems with the performance of pressure transmitters and has been interested in new sensors based on new technologies. Fiber optic pressure sensors offer the potential to improve on or overcome some of the limitations of existing pressure sensors. Up to now, research has been motivated towards development and refinement of fiber optic sensing technology. In most applications, reliability studies and failure mode analyses remain to be exhaustively conducted. Fiber optic sensors have currently penetrated certain cutting edge markets where they possess necessary inherent advantages over other existing technologies. In these markets (e.g. biomedical, aerospace, automotive, and petrochemical), fiber optic sensors are able to perform measurements for which no alternate sensor previously existed. Fiber optic sensing technology has not yet been fully adopted into the mainstream sensing market. This may be due to not only the current premium price of fiber optic sensors, but also the lack of characterization of their possible performance disadvantages. In other words, in conservative industries, the known disadvantages of conventional sensors are sometimes preferable to unknown or not fully characterized (but potentially fewer and less critical) disadvantages of fiber optic sensors. A six-month feasibility study has been initiated under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the performance and reliability of existing fiber optic pressure sensors for use in nuclear power plants. This assessment will include establishment of the state of the art in fiber optic pressure sensing, characterization of the reliability of fiber optic pressure sensors, and determination of the strengths and limitations of these sensors for nuclear safety-related services.

  15. Fiber optic pressure sensors for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    In the last few years, the nuclear industry has experienced some problems with the performance of pressure transmitters and has been interested in new sensors based on new technologies. Fiber optic pressure sensors offer the potential to improve on or overcome some of the limitations of existing pressure sensors. Up to now, research has been motivated towards development and refinement of fiber optic sensing technology. In most applications, reliability studies and failure mode analyses remain to be exhaustively conducted. Fiber optic sensors have currently penetrated certain cutting edge markets where they possess necessary inherent advantages over other existing technologies. In these markets (e.g. biomedical, aerospace, automotive, and petrochemical), fiber optic sensors are able to perform measurements for which no alternate sensor previously existed. Fiber optic sensing technology has not yet been fully adopted into the mainstream sensing market. This may be due to not only the current premium price of fiber optic sensors, but also the lack of characterization of their possible performance disadvantages. In other words, in conservative industries, the known disadvantages of conventional sensors are sometimes preferable to unknown or not fully characterized (but potentially fewer and less critical) disadvantages of fiber optic sensors. A six-month feasibility study has been initiated under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the performance and reliability of existing fiber optic pressure sensors for use in nuclear power plants. This assessment will include establishment of the state of the art in fiber optic pressure sensing, characterization of the reliability of fiber optic pressure sensors, and determination of the strengths and limitations of these sensors for nuclear safety-related services

  16. Method and Apparatus for Characterizing Pressure Sensors using Modulated Light Beam Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Embodiments of apparatuses and methods are provided that use light sources instead of sound sources for characterizing and calibrating sensors for measuring small pressures to mitigate many of the problems with using sound sources. In one embodiment an apparatus has a light source for directing a beam of light on a sensing surface of a pressure sensor for exerting a force on the sensing surface. The pressure sensor generates an electrical signal indicative of the force exerted on the sensing surface. A modulator modulates the beam of light. A signal processor is electrically coupled to the pressure sensor for receiving the electrical signal.

  17. Flexible pressure sensors for smart protective clothing against impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bo; Shu, Lin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The development of smart protective clothing will facilitate the quick detection of injuries from contact sports, traffic collisions and other accidents. To obtain real-time information like spatial and temporal pressure distributions on the clothing, flexible pressure sensor arrays are required. Based on a resistive fabric strain sensor we demonstrate all flexible, resistive pressure sensors with a large workable pressure range (0–8 MPa), a high sensitivity (1 MPa −1 ) and an excellent repeatability (lowest non-repeatability ±2.4% from 0.8 to 8 MPa) that can be inexpensively fabricated using fabric strain sensors and biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pressure sensitivity is tunable by using elastomers with different elasticities or by the pre-strain control of fabric strain sensors. Finite element simulation further confirms the sensor design. The simple structure, large workable pressure range, high sensitivity, high flexibility, facile fabrication and low cost of these pressure sensors make them promising candidates for smart protective clothing against impact loading. (paper)

  18. Optical detection system for MEMS-type pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareło, K; Górecka-Drzazga, A; Dziuban, J A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a special optical detection system designed for a MEMS-type (micro-electro-mechanical system) silicon pressure sensor is presented. The main part of the optical system—a detection unit with a perforated membrane—is bonded to the silicon sensor, and placed in a measuring system. An external light source illuminates the membrane of the pressure sensor. Owing to the light reflected from the deflected membrane sensor, the optical pattern consisting of light points is visible, and pressure can be estimated. The optical detection unit (20   ×   20   ×   20.4 mm 3 ) is fabricated using microengineering techniques. Its dimensions are adjusted to the dimensions of the pressure sensor (5   ×   5 mm 2 silicon membrane). Preliminary tests of the optical detection unit integrated with the silicon pressure sensor are carried out. For the membrane sensor from 15 to 60 µm thick, a repeatable detection of the differential pressure in the range of 0 to 280 kPa is achieved. The presented optical microsystem is especially suitable for the pressure measurements in a high radiation environment. (paper)

  19. Acoustic Detection Of Loose Particles In Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Lloyd C.

    1995-01-01

    Particle-impact-noise-detector (PIND) apparatus used in conjunction with computer program analyzing output of apparatus to detect extraneous particles trapped in pressure sensors. PIND tester essentially shaker equipped with microphone measuring noise in pressure sensor or other object being shaken. Shaker applies controlled vibration. Output of microphone recorded and expressed in terms of voltage, yielding history of noise subsequently processed by computer program. Data taken at sampling rate sufficiently high to enable identification of all impacts of particles on sensor diaphragm and on inner surfaces of sensor cavities.

  20. Fiber optic pressure sensors in skin-friction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Fiber optic lever pressure sensors intended for use in a low speed wind tunnel environment were designed, constructed and tested for the measurement of normal and shear displacements associated with the pressures acting on a flat aluminum plate. On-site tests performed along with several static and dynamic measurements made have established that, with proper modifications and improvements, the design concepts are acceptable and can be utilized for their intended use. Several elastomers were investigated for use in sensors and for their incorporation into these sensors. Design and assembly techniques for probes and complete sensors were developed.

  1. Simulation and fabrication of carbon nanotubes field emission pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Kaiyou; Chen Ting; Yan Bingyong; Lin Yangkui; Xu Dong; Sun Zhuo; Cai Bingchu

    2006-01-01

    A novel field emission pressure sensor has been achieved utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the electron source. The sensor consists of the anode sensing film fabricated by wet etching process and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) cathode in the micro-vacuum chamber. MWNTs on the silicon substrate were grown by thermal CVD. The prototype pressure sensor has a measured sensitivity of about 0.17-0.77 nA/Pa (101-550 KPa). The work shows the potential use of CNTs-based field-emitter in microsensors, such as accelerometers and tactile sensors

  2. A scalable pressure sensor based on an electrothermally and electrostatically operated resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Alcheikh, Nouha; Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Ilyas, Saad; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    We present a pressure sensor based on the convective cooling of the air surrounding an electrothermally heated resonant bridge. Unlike conventional pressure sensors that rely on diaphragm deformation in response to pressure, the sensor does

  3. The Telemetric Early Warning Environmental Radiation Monitoring System of Cyprus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofides, S [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the hardware design, the development of the software and the use of the Telemetric Early Warning Environmental Radiation Monitoring System (TEWERMS) of Cyprus. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs.

  4. Thin film devices used as oxygen partial pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canady, K. S.; Wortman, J. J.

    1970-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of zinc oxide films to be used in an oxygen partial pressure sensor is measured as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and other atmospheric constituents. Time response following partial pressure changes is studied as a function of temperature and environmental changes.

  5. Chronically implanted pressure sensors: challenges and state of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lawrence; Kim, Brian J; Meng, Ellis

    2014-10-31

    Several conditions and diseases are linked to the elevation or depression of internal pressures from a healthy, normal range, motivating the need for chronic implantable pressure sensors. A simple implantable pressure transduction system consists of a pressure-sensing element with a method to transmit the data to an external unit. The biological environment presents a host of engineering issues that must be considered for long term monitoring. Therefore, the design of such systems must carefully consider interactions between the implanted system and the body, including biocompatibility, surgical placement, and patient comfort. Here we review research developments on implantable sensors for chronic pressure monitoring within the body, focusing on general design requirements for implantable pressure sensors as well as specifications for different medical applications. We also discuss recent efforts to address biocompatibility, efficient telemetry, and drift management, and explore emerging trends.

  6. Recent Improvement of Medical Optical Fibre Pressure and Temperature Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeggel, Sven; Duraibabu, Dineshbabu; Kalli, Kyriacos; Leen, Gabriel; Dooly, Gerard; Lewis, Elfed; Kelly, Jimmy; Munroe, Maria

    2015-07-13

    This investigation describes a detailed analysis of the fabrication and testing of optical fibre pressure and temperature sensors (OFPTS). The optical sensor of this research is based on an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) with integrated fibre Bragg grating (FBG) for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements. The sensor is fabricated exclusively in glass and with a small diameter of 0.2 mm, making it suitable for volume-restricted bio-medical applications. Diaphragm shrinking techniques based on polishing, hydrofluoric (HF) acid and femtosecond (FS) laser micro-machining are described and analysed. The presented sensors were examined carefully and demonstrated a pressure sensitivity in the range of sp = 2-10 nm/kPa and a resolution of better than ΔP = 10 Pa protect (0.1 cm H2O). A static pressure test in 38 cm H2O shows no drift of the sensor in a six-day period. Additionally, a dynamic pressure analysis demonstrated that the OFPTS never exceeded a drift of more than 130 Pa (1.3 cm H2O) in a 12-h measurement, carried out in a cardiovascular simulator. The temperature sensitivity is given by k = 10.7 pm/K, which results in a temperature resolution of better than ΔT = 0.1 K. Since the temperature sensing element is placed close to the pressure sensing element, the pressure sensor is insensitive to temperature changes.

  7. Recent Improvement of Medical Optical Fibre Pressure and Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Poeggel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation describes a detailed analysis of the fabrication and testing of optical fibre pressure and temperature sensors (OFPTS. The optical sensor of this research is based on an extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer (EFPI with integrated fibre Bragg grating (FBG for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements. The sensor is fabricated exclusively in glass and with a small diameter of 0.2 mm, making it suitable for volume-restricted bio-medical applications. Diaphragm shrinking techniques based on polishing, hydrofluoric (HF acid and femtosecond (FS laser micro-machining are described and analysed. The presented sensors were examined carefully and demonstrated a pressure sensitivity in the range of \\(s_p\\ = 2–10 \\(\\frac{\\text{nm}}{\\text{kPa}}\\ and a resolution of better than \\(\\Delta P\\ = 10 Pa protect (0.1 cm H\\(_2\\O. A static pressure test in 38 cmH\\(_2\\O shows no drift of the sensor in a six-day period. Additionally, a dynamic pressure analysis demonstrated that the OFPTS never exceeded a drift of more than 130 Pa (1.3 cm H\\(_2\\O in a 12-h measurement, carried out in a cardiovascular simulator. The temperature sensitivity is given by \\(k=10.7\\ \\(\\frac{\\text{pm}}{\\text{K}}\\, which results in a temperature resolution of better than \\(\\Delta T\\ = 0.1 K. Since the temperature sensing element is placed close to the pressure sensing element, the pressure sensor is insensitive to temperature changes.

  8. Pressure sensor to determine spatial pressure distributions on boundary layer flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Piroozan, Parham; Corke, Thomas C.

    1997-03-01

    The determination of pressures along the surface of a wind tunnel proves difficult with methods that must introduce devices into the flow stream. This paper presents a sensor that is part of the wall. A special interferometric reflection moire technique is developed and used to produce signals that measures pressure both in static and dynamic settings. The sensor developed is an intelligent sensor that combines optics and electronics to analyze the pressure patterns. The sensor provides the input to a control system that is capable of modifying the shape of the wall and preserve the stability of the flow.

  9. Self-Correcting Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C.; Basta, T.

    1982-01-01

    High-data-rate sensor automatically corrects for temperature variations. Multichannel, self-correcting pressure sensor can be used in wind tunnels, aircraft, process controllers and automobiles. Offers data rates approaching 100,000 measurements per second with inaccuracies due to temperature shifts held below 0.25 percent (nominal) of full scale over a temperature span of 55 degrees C.

  10. Calibration Of Partial-Pressure-Of-Oxygen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, David W.; Heronimus, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Report and analysis of, and discussion of improvements in, procedure for calibrating partial-pressure-of-oxygen sensors to satisfy Spacelab calibration requirements released. Sensors exhibit fast drift, which results in short calibration period not suitable for Spacelab. By assessing complete process of determining total drift range available, calibration procedure modified to eliminate errors and still satisfy requirements without compromising integrity of system.

  11. High-Performance Pressure Sensor for Monitoring Mechanical Vibration and Air Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancheng Meng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To realize the practical applications of flexible pressure sensors, the high performance (sensitivity and response time as well as more functionalities are highly desired. In this work, we fabricated a piezoresistive pressure sensor based on the micro-structured composites films of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and poly (dimethylsiloxane (PDMS. In addition, we establish efficient strategies to improve key performance of our pressure sensor. Its sensitivity is improved up to 474.13 kPa−1 by minimizing pressure independent resistance of sensor, and response time is shorten as small as 2 μs by enhancing the elastic modulus of polymer elastomer. Benefiting from the high performance, the functionalities of sensors are successfully extended to the accurate detection of high frequency mechanical vibration (~300 Hz and large range of air pressure (6–101 kPa, both of which are not achieved before.

  12. Optical fiber pressure sensor based on fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongcao

    In oil field, it is important to measure the high pressure and temperature for down-hole oil exploration and well-logging, the available traditional electronic sensor is challenged due to the harsh, flammable environment. Recently, applications based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor in the oil industry have become a popular research because of its distinguishing advantages such as electrically passive operation, immunity to electromagnetic interference, high resolution, insensitivity to optical power fluctuation etc. This thesis is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the design of high pressure sensor based on FBG is described. Several sensing elements based on FBG for high pressure measurements have been proposed, for example bulk-modulus or free elastic modulus. But the structure of bulk-modulus and free elastic modulus is relatively complex and not easy to fabricate. In addition, the pressure sensitivity is not high and the repeatability of the structure has not been investigated. In this thesis, a novel host material of carbon fiber laminated composite (CFLC) for high pressure sensing is proposed. The mechanical characteristics including principal moduli in three directions and the shape repeatability are investigated. Because of it's Young's modulus in one direction and anisotropic characteristics, the pressure sensor made by CFLC has excellent sensitivity. This said structure can be used in very high pressure measurement due to carbon fiber composite's excellent shape repetition even under high pressure. The experimental results show high pressure sensitivity of 0.101nm/MPa and high pressure measurement up to 70MPa. A pressure sensor based on CFLC and FBG with temperature compensation has been designed. In the second section, the design of low pressure sensor based on FBG is demonstrated. Due to the trade off between measurement range and sensitivity, a sensor for lower pressure range needs more sensitivity. A novel material of carbon

  13. Ultrafast Dynamic Pressure Sensors Based on Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanbiao; Wu, Xing; Zhang, Dongdong; Guo, Congwei; Wang, Peng; Hu, Weida; Li, Xinming; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Xu, Hejun; Luo, Chen; Zhang, Jian; Chu, Junhao

    2017-07-19

    Mechanical flexible electronic skin has been focused on sensing various physical parameters, such as pressure and temperature. The studies of material design and array-accessible devices are the building blocks of strain sensors for subtle pressure sensing. Here, we report a new and facile preparation of a graphene hybrid structure with an ultrafast dynamic pressure response. Graphene oxide nanosheets are used as a surfactant to prevent graphene restacking in aqueous solution. This graphene hybrid structure exhibits a frequency-independent pressure resistive sensing property. Exceeding natural skin, such pressure sensors, can provide transient responses from static up to 10 000 Hz dynamic frequencies. Integrated by the controlling system, the array-accessible sensors can manipulate a robot arm and self-rectify the temperature of a heating blanket. This may pave a path toward the future application of graphene-based wearable electronics.

  14. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Hye-Mi; Sim, Jin Woo; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun; Chang, Won Seok

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate

  15. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Hye-Mi [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jin Woo [Advanced Nano Technology Ltd., Seoul 132-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jinhyeong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Department of Energy Science and School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won Seok, E-mail: paul@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate.

  16. Pressure-Application Device for Testing Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A portable pressure-application device has been designed and built for use in testing and calibrating piezoelectric pressure transducers in the field. The device generates pressure pulses of known amplitude. A pressure pulse (in contradistinction to a steady pressure) is needed because in the presence of a steady pressure, the electrical output of a piezoelectric pressure transducer decays rapidly with time. The device includes a stainless- steel compressed-air-storage cylinder of 500 cu cm volume. A manual hand pump with check valves and a pressure gauge are located at one end of the cylinder. A three-way solenoid valve that controls the release of pressurized air is located at the other end of the cylinder. Power for the device is provided by a 3.7-V cordless-telephone battery. The valve is controlled by means of a pushbutton switch, which activates a 5 V to +/-15 V DC-to-DC converter that powers the solenoid. The outlet of the solenoid valve is connected to the pressure transducer to be tested. Before the solenoid is energized, the transducer to be tested is at atmospheric pressure. When the solenoid is actuated by the push button, pressurized air from inside the cylinder is applied to the transducer. Once the pushbutton is released, the cylinder pressure is removed from the transducer and the pressurized air applied to the transducer is vented, bringing the transducer back to atmospheric pressure. Before this device was used for actual calibration, its accuracy was checked with a NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable calibrator and commercially calibrated pressure transducers. This work was done by Wanda Solano of Stennis Space Center and Greg Richardson of Lockheed Martin Corp.

  17. Research on pressure sensors for biomedical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a piezo-resistive pressure transducer is discussed suitable for recording pressures typically encountered in biomedical applications. The pressure transducer consists of a thin silicon diaphragm containing four strain-sensitive resistors, and is fabricated using silicon monolithic integrated-circuit technology. The pressure transducers can be as small as 0.7 mm outer diameter, and are, as a result, suitable for mounting at the tip of a catheter. Pressure-induced stress in the diaphragm is sensed by the resistors, which are interconnected to form a Wheatstone bridge.

  18. High precision silicon piezo resistive SMART pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Rod

    2005-01-01

    Instruments for test and calibration require a pressure sensor that is precise and stable. Market forces also dictate a move away from single measurand test equipment and, certainly in the case of pressure, away from single range equipment. A pressure 'module' is required which excels in pressure measurement but is interchangble with sensors for other measurands. A communications interface for such a sensor has been specified. Instrument Digital Output Sensor (IDOS) that permits this interchanagability and allows the sensor to be inside or outside the measuring instrument. This paper covers the design and specification of a silicon diaphragm piezo resistive SMART sensor using this interface. A brief history of instrument sensors will be given to establish the background to this development. Design choices of the silicon doping, bridge energisation method, temperature sensing, signal conversion, data processing, compensation method, communications interface will be discussed. The physical format of the 'in-instrument' version will be shown and then extended to the packaging design for the external version. Test results will show the accuracy achieved exceeds the target of 0.01%FS over a range of temperatures

  19. High precision silicon piezo resistive SMART pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rod

    2005-01-01

    Instruments for test and calibration require a pressure sensor that is precise and stable. Market forces also dictate a move away from single measurand test equipment and, certainly in the case of pressure, away from single range equipment. A pressure `module' is required which excels in pressure measurement but is interchangble with sensors for other measurands. A communications interface for such a sensor has been specified. Instrument Digital Output Sensor (IDOS) that permits this interchanagability and allows the sensor to be inside or outside the measuring instrument. This paper covers the design and specification of a silicon diaphragm piezo resistive SMART sensor using this interface. A brief history of instrument sensors will be given to establish the background to this development. Design choices of the silicon doping, bridge energisation method, temperature sensing, signal conversion, data processing, compensation method, communications interface will be discussed. The physical format of the `in-instrument' version will be shown and then extended to the packaging design for the external version. Test results will show the accuracy achieved exceeds the target of 0.01%FS over a range of temperatures.

  20. Implantable blood pressure sensor for analyzing elasticity in arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Ayala, Marco; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Reyes-Barranca, Alfredo; Sánchez de la Peña, Salvador; Álvarez-Chavez, José A.

    2009-03-01

    MEMS technology could be an option for the development of a pressure sensor which allows the monitoring of several electronic signals in humans. In this work, a comparison is made between the typical elasticity curves of several arteries in the human body and the elasticity obtained for MEMS silicon microstructures such as membranes and cantilevers employing Finite Element analysis tools. The purpose is to identify which types of microstructures are mechanically compatible with human arteries. The goal is to integrate a blood pressure sensor which can be implanted in proximity with an artery. The expected benefits for this type of sensor are mainly to reduce the problems associated with the use of bulk devices through the day and during several days. Such a sensor could give precise blood pressure readings in a continuous or periodic form, i.e. information that is especially important for some critical cases of hypertension patients.

  1. Discrete sensors distribution for accurate plantar pressure analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Laetitia; Ille, Anne; Moretto, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of discrete sensors under the footprint for accurate plantar pressure analyses. For this purpose, two different sensor layouts have been tested and compared, to determine which was the most accurate to monitor plantar pressure with wireless devices in research and/or clinical practice. Ten healthy volunteers participated in the study (age range: 23-58 years). The barycenter of pressures (BoP) determined from the plantar pressure system (W-inshoe®) was compared to the center of pressures (CoP) determined from a force platform (AMTI) in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Then, the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) obtained from both W-inshoe® and force platform was compared for both layouts for each subject. The BoP and vGRF determined from the plantar pressure system data showed good correlation (SCC) with those determined from the force platform data, notably for the second sensor organization (ML SCC= 0.95; AP SCC=0.99; vGRF SCC=0.91). The study demonstrates that an adjusted placement of removable sensors is key to accurate plantar pressure analyses. These results are promising for a plantar pressure recording outside clinical or laboratory settings, for long time monitoring, real time feedback or for whatever activity requiring a low-cost system. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated pressure sensing using capacitive Coriolis mass flow sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alveringh, Dennis; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    The cross-sectional shape of microchannels is, dependent on the fabrication method, never perfectly circular. Consequently, the channels deform with the pressure, which is a non-ideal effect in flow sensors, but may be used for pressure sensing. Multiple suspended channels with different lengths

  3. Multi-channel electronically scanned cryogenic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor); Kruse, Nancy M. H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A miniature, multi-channel, electronically scanned pressure measuring device uses electrostatically bonded silicon dies in a multielement array. These dies are bonded at specific sites on a glass, prepatterned substrate. Thermal data is multiplexed and recorded on each individual pressure measuring diaphragm. The device functions in a cryogenic environment without the need of heaters to keep the sensor at constant temperatures.

  4. Diaphragm size and sensitivity for fiber optic pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Cuomo, Frank W.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.

    1991-01-01

    A mechanism which leads to a significant increase in sensitivity and linear operating range in reflective type fiber optic pressure transducers with minute active dimensions is studied. A general theoretical formalism is presented which is in good agreement with the experimental data. These results are found useful in the development of small pressure sensors used in turbulent boundary layer studies and other applications.

  5. Intrinsic Low Hysteresis Touch Mode Capacitive Pressure Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio; Pedersen, Thomas; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Hysteresis has always been one of the main concerns when fabricating touch mode capacitive pressure sensors (TMCPS). This phenomenon can be fought at two different levels: during fabrication or after fabrication with the aid of a dedicated signal conditioning circuit. We will describe...... a microfabrication step that can be introduced in order to reduce drastically the hysteresis of this type of sensors without compromising their sensitivity. Medium-high range (0 to 10 bar absolute pressure) TMCPS with a capacitive signal span of over 100pF and less than 1 % hysteresis in the entire pressure range...

  6. Pirani pressure sensor with distributed temperature measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.; Bula, W.P.; Zalewski, D.R.; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2003-01-01

    Surface micro-machined distributed Pirani pressure gauges, with designed heater-to-heat sink distances (gap-heights) of 0.35 μm and 1.10 μm, are successfully fabricated, modeled and characterized. Measurements and model response correspond within 5% of the measured value in a pressure range of 10 to

  7. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  8. Surface acoustic wave oxygen pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transducer for the measurement of absolute gas-state oxygen pressure from pressures of less than 100 Pa to atmospheric pressure (1.01 x 10(exp 5) Pa) is based on a standard surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. The piezoelectric material of the SAW device is coated with a compound which will selectively and reversibly bind oxygen. When oxygen is bound by the coating, the mass of the coating increases by an amount equal to the mass of the bound oxygen. Such an increase in the mass of the coating causes a corresponding decrease in the resonant frequency of the SAW device.

  9. Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor With Dynamic Demodulation Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekki, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed in-house a method to detect pressure fluctuations using a fiber-optic sensor and dynamic signal processing. This work was in support of the Intelligent Systems Controls and Operations project under NASA's Information Technology Base Research Program. We constructed an optical pressure sensor by attaching a fiber-optic Bragg grating to a flexible membrane and then adhering the membrane to one end of a small cylinder. The other end of the cylinder was left open and exposed to pressure variations from a pulsed air jet. These pressure variations flexed the membrane, inducing a strain in the fiber-optic grating. This strain was read out optically with a dynamic spectrometer to record changes in the wavelength of light reflected from the grating. The dynamic spectrometer was built in-house to detect very small wavelength shifts induced by the pressure fluctuations. The spectrometer is an unbalanced interferometer specifically designed for maximum sensitivity to wavelength shifts. An optimum pathlength difference, which was determined empirically, resulted in a 14-percent sensitivity improvement over theoretically predicted path-length differences. This difference is suspected to be from uncertainty about the spectral power difference of the signal reflected from the Bragg grating. The figure shows the output of the dynamic spectrometer as the sensor was exposed to a nominally 2-kPa peak-to-peak square-wave pressure fluctuation. Good tracking, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratios are evident even though the sensor was constructed as a proof-of-concept and was not optimized in any way. Therefore the fiber-optic Bragg grating, which is normally considered a good candidate as a strain or temperature sensor, also has been shown to be a good candidate for a dynamic pressure sensor.

  10. Using pressure square-like wave to measure the dynamic characteristics of piezoelectric pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, L-L; Tsung, T-T; Chen, L-C; Chang Ho; Jwo, C-S

    2005-01-01

    Piezoelectric pressure sensors are commonly used to measuring the dynamic characteristics in a hydraulic system. The dynamic measurements require a pressure sensor which has a high response rate. In this paper, we proposed use of a pressure square wave to excite the piezoelectric pressure sensor. Experimental frequencies are 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 kHz at 10, 15, 20 bar, respectively. Results show that the waveform of time-domain and frequencydomain response are quite different under above testing conditions. The higher the frequencies tested, the faster the pressure-rise speeds obtained. Similarly, the higher the testing pressure, the shorter the rise time attained

  11. Embedding piezoresistive pressure sensors to obtain online pressure profiles inside fiber composite laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Maryam Kahali; Breede, Arne; Brauner, Christian; Lang, Walter

    2015-03-27

    The production of large and complex parts using fiber composite materials is costly due to the frequent formation of voids, porosity and waste products. By embedding different types of sensors and monitoring the process in real time, the amount of wastage can be significantly reduced. This work focuses on developing a knowledge-based method to improve and ensure complete impregnation of the fibers before initiation of the resin cure. Piezoresistive and capacitive pressure sensors were embedded in fiber composite laminates to measure the real-time the pressure values inside the laminate. A change of pressure indicates resin infusion. The sensors were placed in the laminate and the resin was infused by vacuum. The embedded piezoresistive pressure sensors were able to track the vacuum pressure in the fiber composite laminate setup, as well as the arrival of the resin at the sensor. The pressure increase due to closing the resin inlet was also measured. In contrast, the capacitive type of sensor was found to be inappropriate for measuring these quantities. The following study demonstrates real-time monitoring of pressure changes inside the fiber composite laminate, which validate the use of Darcy's law in porous media to control the resin flow during infusion.

  12. Film bulk acoustic resonator pressure sensor with self temperature reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X L; Jin, P C; Zhou, J; Wang, W B; Dong, S R; Luo, J K; Garcia-Gancedo, L; Flewitt, A J; Milne, W I

    2012-01-01

    A novel film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) with two resonant frequencies which have opposite reactions to temperature changes has been designed. The two resonant modes respond differently to changes in temperature and pressure, with the frequency shift being linearly correlated with temperature and pressure changes. By utilizing the FBAR's sealed back trench as a cavity, an on-chip single FBAR sensor suitable for measuring pressure and temperature simultaneously is proposed and demonstrated. The experimental results show that the pressure coefficient of frequency for the lower frequency peak of the FBAR sensors is approximately −17.4 ppm kPa −1 , while that for the second peak is approximately −6.1 ppm kPa −1 , both of them being much more sensitive than other existing pressure sensors. This dual mode on-chip pressure sensor is simple in structure and operation, can be fabricated at very low cost, and yet requires no specific package, therefore has great potential for applications. (paper)

  13. Transparent, Flexible, Conformal Capacitive Pressure Sensors with Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeohn; Kim, Gwangmook; Kim, Taehoon; Lee, Sangwoo; Kang, Donyoung; Hwang, Min-Soo; Chae, Youngcheol; Kang, Shinill; Lee, Hyungsuk; Park, Hong-Gyu; Shim, Wooyoung

    2018-02-01

    The fundamental challenge in designing transparent pressure sensors is the ideal combination of high optical transparency and high pressure sensitivity. Satisfying these competing demands is commonly achieved by a compromise between the transparency and usage of a patterned dielectric surface, which increases pressure sensitivity, but decreases transparency. Herein, a design strategy for fabricating high-transparency and high-sensitivity capacitive pressure sensors is proposed, which relies on the multiple states of nanoparticle dispersity resulting in enhanced surface roughness and light transmittance. We utilize two nanoparticle dispersion states on a surface: (i) homogeneous dispersion, where each nanoparticle (≈500 nm) with a size comparable to the visible light wavelength has low light scattering; and (ii) heterogeneous dispersion, where aggregated nanoparticles form a micrometer-sized feature, increasing pressure sensitivity. This approach is experimentally verified using a nanoparticle-dispersed polymer composite, which has high pressure sensitivity (1.0 kPa -1 ), and demonstrates excellent transparency (>95%). We demonstrate that the integration of nanoparticle-dispersed capacitor elements into an array readily yields a real-time pressure monitoring application and a fully functional touch device capable of acting as a pressure sensor-based input device, thereby opening up new avenues to establish processing techniques that are effective on the nanoscale yet applicable to macroscopic processing. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A Micromachined Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with a Shield Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Wang, Xiaoping; Xu, Yong; Liu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a piezoresistive pressure sensor with a shield layer for improved stability. Compared with the conventional piezoresistive pressure sensors, the new one reported in this paper has an n-type shield layer that covers p-type piezoresistors. This shield layer aims to minimize the impact of electrical field and reduce the temperature sensitivity of piezoresistors. The proposed sensors have been successfully fabricated by bulk-micromachining techniques. A sensitivity of 0.022 mV/V/kPa and a maximum non-linearity of 0.085% FS are obtained in a pressure range of 1 MPa. After numerical simulation, the role of the shield layer has been experimentally investigated. It is demonstrated that the shield layer is able to reduce the drift caused by electrical field and ambient temperature variation. PMID:27529254

  15. Simulations of piezoelectric pressure sensor for radial artery pulse measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Abhay B. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Kalange, Ashok E. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Tuljaram Chaturchand College, Baramati 413 102 (India); Bodas, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjay.bodas@gmail.co [Center for Nanobio Sciences, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004 (India); Gangal, S.A. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-04-15

    A radial artery pulse is used to diagnose human body constitution (Prakruti) in Ayurveda. A system consisting of piezoelectric sensor (22 mm x 12 mm), data acquisition card and LabView software was used to record the pulse data. The pulse obtained from the sensor was noisy, even though signal processing was done. Moreover due to large sized senor accurate measurements were not possible. Hence, a need was felt to develop a sensor of the size of the order of finger tip with a resonant frequency of the order of 1 Hz. A micromachined pressure sensor based on piezoelectric sensing mechanism was designed and simulated using CoventorWare. Simulations were carried out by varying dimensions of the sensor to optimize the resonant frequency, stresses and voltage generated as a function of applied pressure. All simulations were done with pressure ranging of 1-30 kPa, which is the range used by Ayurvedic practitioners for diagnosis. Preliminary work on fabrication of such a sensor was carried out successfully.

  16. Simulations of piezoelectric pressure sensor for radial artery pulse measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Abhay B.; Kalange, Ashok E.; Bodas, Dhananjay; Gangal, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A radial artery pulse is used to diagnose human body constitution (Prakruti) in Ayurveda. A system consisting of piezoelectric sensor (22 mm x 12 mm), data acquisition card and LabView software was used to record the pulse data. The pulse obtained from the sensor was noisy, even though signal processing was done. Moreover due to large sized senor accurate measurements were not possible. Hence, a need was felt to develop a sensor of the size of the order of finger tip with a resonant frequency of the order of 1 Hz. A micromachined pressure sensor based on piezoelectric sensing mechanism was designed and simulated using CoventorWare. Simulations were carried out by varying dimensions of the sensor to optimize the resonant frequency, stresses and voltage generated as a function of applied pressure. All simulations were done with pressure ranging of 1-30 kPa, which is the range used by Ayurvedic practitioners for diagnosis. Preliminary work on fabrication of such a sensor was carried out successfully.

  17. New pastes with high gauge factor for piezoresistive pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepanski, Z.; Kalenik, J.; Gonciara, P.; Jakubowska, M.

    1999-01-01

    The thick film resistors with gauge factor exhibit high reversible changes of resistance under the influence of external load. The piezoresistivity of thick film resistors is utilized in piezoresistive pressure sensors as well as sensors, those allow force detection. The results of studies concerning piezoresistivity in thick film resistors made of pastes elaborated by the authors are presented in this paper. The GF measurement method has been designed and several resistive pastes were tested. The values of gauge factor for these resistive compositions have been evaluated and piezoresistive properties were compared with ESL resistive composition designed for sensor application. (author)

  18. A CMOS pressure sensor tag chip for passive wireless applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Li, Bing; Zuo, Lei; Wu, Xiang; Fu, Zhihui

    2015-03-23

    This paper presents a novel monolithic pressure sensor tag for passive wireless applications. The proposed pressure sensor tag is based on an ultra-high frequency RFID system. The pressure sensor element is implemented in the 0.18 µm CMOS process and the membrane gap is formed by sacrificial layer release, resulting in a sensitivity of 1.2 fF/kPa within the range from 0 to 600 kPa. A three-stage rectifier adopts a chain of auxiliary floating rectifier cells to boost the gate voltage of the switching transistors, resulting in a power conversion efficiency of 53% at the low input power of -20 dBm. The capacitive sensor interface, using phase-locked loop archietcture, employs fully-digital blocks, which results in a 7.4 bits resolution and 0.8 µW power dissipation at 0.8 V supply voltage. The proposed passive wireless pressure sensor tag costs a total 3.2 µW power dissipation.

  19. A method enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement using a single piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantlović, Miloš; Stanković, Srđan; Jokić, Ivana; Lazić, Žarko; Smiljanić, Milče; Obradov, Marko; Vukelić, Branko; Jakšić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-performance, simple and low-cost method for simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature using a single piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor. The proposed measurement method utilizes the parasitic temperature sensitivity of the sensing element for both pressure measurement correction and temperature measurement. A parametric mathematical model of the sensor was established and its parameters were calculated using the obtained characterization data. Based on the model, a real-time sensor correction for both pressure and temperature measurements was implemented in a target measurement system. The proposed method was verified experimentally on a group of typical industrial-grade piezoresistive sensors. The obtained results indicate that the method enables the pressure measurement performance to exceed that of typical digital industrial pressure transmitters, achieving at the same time the temperature measurement performance comparable to industrial-grade platinum resistance temperature sensors. The presented work is directly applicable in industrial instrumentation, where it can add temperature measurement capability to the existing pressure measurement instruments, requiring little or no additional hardware, and without adverse effects on pressure measurement performance. (paper)

  20. An oxygen pressure sensor using surface acoustic wave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighty, Bradley D.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) piezoelectric devices are finding widespread applications in many arenas, particularly in the area of chemical sensing. We have developed an oxygen pressure sensor based on coating a SAW device with an oxygen binding agent which can be tailored to provide variable sensitivity. The coating is prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer which is then sprayed onto the surface of the SAW device. Experimental data shows the feasibility of tailoring sensors to measure the partial pressure of oxygen from 2.6 to 67 KPa (20 to 500 torr). Potential applications of this technology are discussed.

  1. Micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with signal conditioning electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio

    signal) of the device. Fusion bonding of two wafers has been used in order to obtain the cavities, this is also the only non-standard cleanroom process involved in the fabrication of the transducers. The device developed can measure absolute pressures from 0 to 10 bar with sensitivity up to 80 p...... characterized and presented at Grundfos Direct Sensors A/S and constitute the preliminary work for a new product which is intended target the low power or wireless pressure sensor for harsh environment market....

  2. Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Pressure Sensor for Footwear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Wheeler, Jason W.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Givler, Richard C.

    2008-09-23

    Footwear comprises a sole and a plurality of sealed cavities contained within the sole. The sealed cavities can be incorporated as deformable containers within an elastic medium, comprising the sole. A plurality of micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) pressure sensors are respectively contained within the sealed cavity plurality, and can be adapted to measure static and dynamic pressure within each of the sealed cavities. The pressure measurements can provide information relating to the contact pressure distribution between the sole of the footwear and the wearer's environment.

  3. Development of clinically relevant implantable pressure sensors: perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Ingelin; Glott, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    This review describes different aspects to consider when developing implantable pressure sensor systems. Measurement of pressure is in general highly important in clinical practice and medical research. Due to the small size, light weight and low energy consumption Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology represents new possibilities for monitoring of physiological parameters inside the human body. Development of clinical relevant sensors requires close collaboration between technological experts and medical clinicians.  Site of operation, size restrictions, patient safety, and required measurement range and resolution, are only some conditions that must be taken into account. An implantable device has to operate under very hostile conditions. Long-term in vivo pressure measurements are particularly demanding because the pressure sensitive part of the sensor must be in direct or indirect physical contact with the medium for which we want to detect the pressure. New sensor packaging concepts are demanded and must be developed through combined effort between scientists in MEMS technology, material science, and biology. Before launching a new medical device on the market, clinical studies must be performed. Regulatory documents and international standards set the premises for how such studies shall be conducted and reported.

  4. Packaged Capacitive Pressure Sensor System for Aircraft Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a packaged silicon carbide (SiC) based MEMS pressure sensor system designed specifically for a conventional turbofan engine. The electronic circuit is based on a Clapp-type oscillator that incorporates a 6H-SiC MESFET, a SiCN MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, titanate MIM capacitors, wirewound inductors, and thick film resistors. The pressure sensor serves as the capacitor in the LC tank circuit, thereby linking pressure to the resonant frequency of the oscillator. The oscillator and DC bias circuitry were fabricated on an alumina substrate and secured inside a metal housing. The packaged sensing system reliably operates at 0 to 350 psi and 25 to 540C. The system has a pressure sensitivity of 6.8 x 10E-2 MHzpsi. The packaged system shows negligible difference in frequency response between 25 and 400C. The fully packaged sensor passed standard benchtop acceptance tests and was evaluated on a flight-worthy engine.

  5. Foot modeling and smart plantar pressure reconstruction from three sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaida, Hussein Abou; Mottet, Serge; Goujon, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor pressure under feet, this study presents a biomechanical model of the human foot. The main elements of the foot that induce the plantar pressure distribution are described. Then the link between the forces applied at the ankle and the distribution of the plantar pressure is established. Assumptions are made by defining the concepts of a 3D internal foot shape, which can be extracted from the plantar pressure measurements, and a uniform elastic medium, which describes the soft tissues behaviour. In a second part, we show that just 3 discrete pressure sensors per foot are enough to generate real time plantar pressure cartographies in the standing position or during walking. Finally, the generated cartographies are compared with pressure cartographies issued from the F-SCAN system. The results show 0.01 daN (2% of full scale) average error, in the standing position.

  6. Flexible Ferroelectric Sensors with Ultrahigh Pressure Sensitivity and Linear Response over Exceptionally Broad Pressure Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngoh; Park, Jonghwa; Cho, Soowon; Shin, Young-Eun; Lee, Hochan; Kim, Jinyoung; Myoung, Jinyoung; Cho, Seungse; Kang, Saewon; Baig, Chunggi; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2018-04-24

    Flexible pressure sensors with a high sensitivity over a broad linear range can simplify wearable sensing systems without additional signal processing for the linear output, enabling device miniaturization and low power consumption. Here, we demonstrate a flexible ferroelectric sensor with ultrahigh pressure sensitivity and linear response over an exceptionally broad pressure range based on the material and structural design of ferroelectric composites with a multilayer interlocked microdome geometry. Due to the stress concentration between interlocked microdome arrays and increased contact area in the multilayer design, the flexible ferroelectric sensors could perceive static/dynamic pressure with high sensitivity (47.7 kPa -1 , 1.3 Pa minimum detection). In addition, efficient stress distribution between stacked multilayers enables linear sensing over exceptionally broad pressure range (0.0013-353 kPa) with fast response time (20 ms) and high reliability over 5000 repetitive cycles even at an extremely high pressure of 272 kPa. Our sensor can be used to monitor diverse stimuli from a low to a high pressure range including weak gas flow, acoustic sound, wrist pulse pressure, respiration, and foot pressure with a single device.

  7. Oxygen partial pressure sensor for gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, J.A.; Azcona, M.A.; Orce, A.

    1997-01-01

    Precise measurement of very low oxygen partial pressure is important in both laboratories and industries. Particularly in nuclear industry, it is relevant in the different steps of the nuclear fuel fabrication. It is presented an instrument which is handy and of easy construction, suitable for the measurement of oxygen partial pressure of gases, in the range of 10 -6 -1 atm. It is based on a solid electrolyte galvanic cell, using Yttria doped zirconia as a ceramic membrane. Through an indirect measurement and calibration, the instrument can be used to measure the content of free oxygen in liquids. It is a import feature in NPP instrumentation. The equipment was calibrated with mixtures of special nonreactive gases. (author). 5 refs

  8. Oxygen partial pressure sensor for gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, J.A.; Azcona, M.A.; Orce, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche

    1997-10-01

    Precise measurement of very low oxygen partial pressure is important in both laboratories and industries. Particularly in nuclear industry, it is relevant in the different steps of the nuclear fuel fabrication. It is presented an instrument which is handy and of easy construction, suitable for the measurement of oxygen partial pressure of gases, in the range of 10{sup -6}-1 atm. It is based on a solid electrolyte galvanic cell, using Yttria doped zirconia as a ceramic membrane. Through an indirect measurement and calibration, the instrument can be used to measure the content of free oxygen in liquids. It is a import feature in NPP instrumentation. The equipment was calibrated with mixtures of special nonreactive gases. (author). 5 refs.

  9. Demonstration of SiC Pressure Sensors at 750 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of MEMS-based 4H-SiC piezoresistive pressure sensors tested at 750 C and in the process confirmed the existence of strain sensitivity recovery with increasing temperature above 400 C, eventually achieving near or up to 100% of the room temperature values at 750 C. This strain sensitivity recovery phenomenon in 4H-SiC is uncharacteristic of the well-known monotonic decrease in strain sensitivity with increasing temperature in silicon piezoresistors. For the three sensors tested, the room temperature full-scale output (FSO) at 200 psig ranged between 29 and 36 mV. Although the FSO at 400 C dropped by about 60%, full recovery was achieved at 750 C. This result will allow the operation of SiC pressure sensors at higher temperatures, thereby permitting deeper insertion into the engine combustion chamber to improve the accurate quantification of combustor dynamics.

  10. Flexible pressure and proximity sensor surfaces manufactured with organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fattori, M.; Cantatore, E.; Pauer, G.; Agostinelli, T.; Stadlober, B.; Gold, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of two large-Area active matrixes on foil for pressure and proximity sensing applications. Frontend circuits based on organic thin-film transistors on foil are laminated with screen-printed PDVF-TrFE piezo and pyro sensors to create the complete flexible sensing

  11. Semiconductor-based electret sensors for sound and pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet; Sprenkels, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The theory and experimental results for integrated electret-based silicon sensors for the detection of sound and pressure are presented. A silicon electret microphone for use in hearing-aids is described. It has an experimentally determined sensitivity of 19 mV/Pa in the frequency range of 50 Hz to

  12. An Implantable Intravascular Pressure Sensor for a Ventricular Assist Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Brancato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the intravascular application of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS pressure sensor to directly measure the hemodynamic characteristics of a ventricular assist device (VAD. A bio- and hemo-compatible packaging strategy is implemented, based on a ceramic thick film process. A commercial sub-millimeter piezoresistive sensor is attached to an alumina substrate, and a double coating of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and parylene-C is applied. The final size of the packaged device is 2.6 mm by 3.6 mm by 1.8 mm. A prototype electronic circuit for conditioning and read-out of the pressure signal is developed, satisfying the VAD-specific requirements of low power consumption (less than 14.5 mW in continuous mode and small form factor. The packaged sensor has been submitted to extensive in vitro tests. The device displayed a temperature-independent sensitivity (12 μ V/V/mmHg and good in vitro stability when exposed to the continuous flow of saline solution (less than 0.05 mmHg/day drift after 50 h. During in vivo validation, the transducer has been successfully used to record the arterial pressure waveform of a female sheep. A small, intravascular sensor to continuously register the blood pressure at the inflow and the outflow of a VAD is developed and successfully validated in vivo.

  13. Simplifying the design of microstructured optical fibre pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Jonas H; Chesini, Giancarlo; Serrão, Valdir A; Franco, Marcos A R; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B

    2017-06-07

    In this paper, we propose a way to simplify the design of microstructured optical fibres with high sensitivity to applied pressure. The use of a capillary fibre with an embedded core allows the exploration of the pressure-induced material birefringence due to the capillary wall displacements and the photoelastic effect. An analytical description of pressure-induced material birefringence is provided, and fibre modal characteristics are explored through numerical simulations. Moreover, a capillary fibre with an embedded core is fabricated and used to probe pressure variations. Even though the embedded-core fibre has a non-optimized structure, measurements showed a pressure sensitivity of (1.04 ± 0.01) nm/bar, which compares well with more complex, specially designed fibre geometries reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that this geometry enables a novel route towards the simplification of microstructured fibre-based pressure sensors.

  14. A Manganin Thin Film Ultra-High Pressure Sensor for Microscale Detonation Pressure Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of energetic materials (EMs and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS initiating explosive devices, the measurement of detonation pressure generated by EMs in the microscale has become a pressing need. This paper develops a manganin thin film ultra-high pressure sensor based on MEMS technology for measuring the output pressure from micro-detonator. A reliable coefficient is proposed for designing the sensor’s sensitive element better. The sensor employs sandwich structure: the substrate uses a 0.5 mm thick alumina ceramic, the manganin sensitive element with a size of 0.2 mm × 0.1 mm × 2 μm and copper electrodes of 2 μm thick are sputtered sequentially on the substrate, and a 25 μm thick insulating layer of polyimide is wrapped on the sensitive element. The static test shows that the piezoresistive coefficient of manganin thin film is 0.0125 GPa−1. The dynamic experiment indicates that the detonation pressure of micro-detonator is 12.66 GPa, and the response time of the sensor is 37 ns. In a word, the sensor developed in this study is suitable for measuring ultra-high pressure in microscale and has a shorter response time than that of foil-like manganin gauges. Simultaneously, this study could be beneficial to research on ultra-high-pressure sensors with smaller size.

  15. Fibre optic sensors in pressurized water reactor alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.M.; Piguet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Measurement in the electrical engine environment (alternator, transformer...) is identified as one of the two main applications of fibre optic sensors within EDF; the other application niche is the monitoring of civil works (dams, containment building of nuclear reactors...). At the EDF Research and Development Division, temperature and vibration fibre optic sensors were evaluated by the Metrology Service, since their use is under consideration for alternator monitoring. For alternator stator thermal monitoring, the BERTIN company developed a fibre optic sensor network. The optic coding technique is based on broadband source spectral modulation; the sensors are interrogated sequentially by electronic commutation. For alternator stator vibration monitoring, a fibre optic accelerometer was developed in the frame of a manufacturers and universities consortium supported by the French Research and Technology Ministry. The accelerometer is of cantilever beam type and its networking is possible by chromatic multiplexing. The Metrology Service evaluated these temperature and vibration sensors in order to verify their metrological characteristics (bias error, hysteresis, repeatability, resolution, noise, amplitude linearity, response time, frequency response, etc.) and to test their behaviour in harsh alternator environmental conditions (pressure, vibrations and temperature). Ageing and accidental condition resistance tests were also carried out. Temperature sensor test results were very satisfactory. An eight-sensor BERTIN prototype was installed on the Tricastin 1 alternator during the september 1993 nuclear station periodic stop. On the contrary, the accelerometers presented deficient metrological characteristics (shorter span than foreseen, low repeatability...). They need some improvements and could not be installed on alternators. (authors). 5 refs., 8 figs

  16. Van der Waals pressure sensors using reduced graphene oxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju Ra; Ahn, Sung Il

    2018-04-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films intercalated with various polymers were fabricated by reaction-based self-assembly, and their characteristics as vacuum pressure sensors based on van der Waals interactions were studied. At low temperature, the electrical resistances of the samples decrease linearly with increasing vacuum pressure, whereas at high temperature the variation of the electrical resistance shows secondary order curves. Among all samples, the poly vinyl alcohol intercalated RGO shows the highest sensitivity, being almost two times more sensitive than reference RGO. All samples show almost the same signal for repetitive sudden pressure changes, indicating reasonable reproducibility and durability.

  17. Cantilever arrayed blood pressure sensor for arterial applanation tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeungleul; Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Bonghwan; Chun, Kukjin

    2014-03-01

    The authors developed a cantilever-arrayed blood pressure sensor array fabricated by (111) silicon bulk-micromachining for the non-invasive and continuous measurement of blood pressure. The blood pressure sensor measures the blood pressure based on the change in the resistance of the piezoresistor on a 5-microm-thick-arrayed perforated membrane and 20-microm-thick metal pads. The length and the width of the unit membrane are 210 and 310 microm, respectively. The width of the insensible zone between the adjacent units is only 10 microm. The resistance change over contact force was measured to verify the performance. The good linearity of the result confirmed that the polydimethylsiloxane package transfers the forces appropriately. The measured sensitivity was about 4.5%/N. The maximum measurement range and the resolution of the fabricated blood pressure sensor were greater than 900 mmHg (= 120 kPa) and less than 1 mmHg (= 133.3 Pa), respectively.

  18. Micro-Pressure Sensors for Future Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, David C.

    1996-01-01

    The joint research interchange effort was directed at the following principal areas: u further development of NASA-Ames' Mars Micro-meteorology mission concept as a viable NASA space mission especially with regard to the science and instrument specifications u interaction with the flight team from NASA's New Millennium 'Deep-Space 2' (DS-2) mission with regard to selection and design of micro-pressure sensors for Mars u further development of micro-pressure sensors suitable for Mars The research work undertaken in the course of the Joint Research Interchange should be placed in the context of an ongoing planetary exploration objective to characterize the climate system on Mars. In particular, a network of small probes globally-distributed on the surface of the planet has often been cited as the only way to address this particular science goal. A team from NASA Ames has proposed such a mission called the Micrometeorology mission, or 'Micro-met' for short. Surface pressure data are all that are required, in principle, to calculate the Martian atmospheric circulation, provided that simultaneous orbital measurements of the atmosphere are also obtained. Consequently, in the proposed Micro-met mission a large number of landers would measure barometric pressure at various locations around Mars, each equipped with a micro-pressure sensor. Much of the time on the JRI was therefore spent working with the engineers and scientists concerned with Micro-met to develop this particular mission concept into a more realistic proposition.

  19. Pressure mapping with textile sensors for compression therapy monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoli, Ilaria; Mazzocchi, Tommaso; Paoletti, Clara; Ricotti, Leonardo; Salvo, Pietro; Dini, Valentina; Laschi, Cecilia; Francesco, Fabio Di; Menciassi, Arianna

    2016-08-01

    Compression therapy is the cornerstone of treatment in the case of venous leg ulcers. The therapy outcome is strictly dependent on the pressure distribution produced by bandages along the lower limb length. To date, pressure monitoring has been carried out using sensors that present considerable drawbacks, such as single point instead of distributed sensing, no shape conformability, bulkiness and constraints on patient's movements. In this work, matrix textile sensing technologies were explored in terms of their ability to measure the sub-bandage pressure with a suitable temporal and spatial resolution. A multilayered textile matrix based on a piezoresistive sensing principle was developed, calibrated and tested with human subjects, with the aim of assessing real-time distributed pressure sensing at the skin/bandage interface. Experimental tests were carried out on three healthy volunteers, using two different bandage types, from among those most commonly used. Such tests allowed the trends of pressure distribution to be evaluated over time, both at rest and during daily life activities. Results revealed that the proposed device enables the dynamic assessment of compression mapping, with a suitable spatial and temporal resolution (20 mm and 10 Hz, respectively). In addition, the sensor is flexible and conformable, thus well accepted by the patient. Overall, this study demonstrates the adequacy of the proposed piezoresistive textile sensor for the real-time monitoring of bandage-based therapeutic treatments. © IMechE 2016.

  20. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  1. Scalable Pressure Sensor Based on Electrothermally Operated Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Alcheikh, Nouha; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a new pressure sensor that offers the flexibility of being scalable to small sizes up to the nano regime. Unlike conventional pressure sensors that rely on large diaphragms and big-surface structures, the principle of operation here relies on convective cooling of the air surrounding an electrothermally heated resonant structure, which can be a beam or a bridge. This concept is demonstrated using an electrothermally tuned and electrostatically driven MEMS resonator, which is designed to be deliberately curved. We show that the variation of pressure can be tracked accurately by monitoring the change in the resonance frequency of the resonator at a constant electrothermal voltage. We show that the range of the sensed pressure and the sensitivity of detection are controllable by the amount of the applied electrothermal voltage. Theoretically, we verify the device concept using a multi-physics nonlinear finite element model. The proposed pressure sensor is simple in principle and design and offers the possibility of further miniaturization to the nanoscale.

  2. Scalable Pressure Sensor Based on Electrothermally Operated Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.

    2017-11-03

    We experimentally demonstrate a new pressure sensor that offers the flexibility of being scalable to small sizes up to the nano regime. Unlike conventional pressure sensors that rely on large diaphragms and big-surface structures, the principle of operation here relies on convective cooling of the air surrounding an electrothermally heated resonant structure, which can be a beam or a bridge. This concept is demonstrated using an electrothermally tuned and electrostatically driven MEMS resonator, which is designed to be deliberately curved. We show that the variation of pressure can be tracked accurately by monitoring the change in the resonance frequency of the resonator at a constant electrothermal voltage. We show that the range of the sensed pressure and the sensitivity of detection are controllable by the amount of the applied electrothermal voltage. Theoretically, we verify the device concept using a multi-physics nonlinear finite element model. The proposed pressure sensor is simple in principle and design and offers the possibility of further miniaturization to the nanoscale.

  3. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  4. Development of gait segmentation methods for wearable foot pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, S; De Rossi, S M M; Donati, M; Reberšek, P; Novak, D; Vitiello, N; Lenzi, T; Podobnik, J; Munih, M; Carrozza, M C

    2012-01-01

    We present an automated segmentation method based on the analysis of plantar pressure signals recorded from two synchronized wireless foot insoles. Given the strict limits on computational power and power consumption typical of wearable electronic components, our aim is to investigate the capability of a Hidden Markov Model machine-learning method, to detect gait phases with different levels of complexity in the processing of the wearable pressure sensors signals. Therefore three different datasets are developed: raw voltage values, calibrated sensor signals and a calibrated estimation of total ground reaction force and position of the plantar center of pressure. The method is tested on a pool of 5 healthy subjects, through a leave-one-out cross validation. The results show high classification performances achieved using estimated biomechanical variables, being on average the 96%. Calibrated signals and raw voltage values show higher delays and dispersions in phase transition detection, suggesting a lower reliability for online applications.

  5. Review on pressure sensors for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikarwar, Samiksha; Satyendra; Singh, Shakti; Yadav, Bal Chandra

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports the state of art in a variety of pressure and the detailed study of various matrix based pressure sensors. The performances of the bridges, buildings, etc. are threatened by earthquakes, material degradations, and other environmental effects. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is crucial to protect the people and also for assets planning. This study is a contribution in developing the knowledge about self-sensing smart materials and structures for the construction industry. It deals with the study of self-sensing as well as mechanical and electrical properties of different matrices based on pressure sensors. The relationships among the compression, tensile strain, and crack length with electrical resistance change are also reviewed.

  6. Piezoelectric power generation for sensor applications: design of a battery-less wireless tire pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-06-01

    An in-wheel wireless and battery-less piezo-powered tire pressure sensor is developed. Where conventional battery powered Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) are marred by the limited battery life, TPMS based on power harvesting modules provide virtually unlimited sensor life. Furthermore, the elimination of a permanent energy reservoir simplifies the overall sensor design through the exclusion of extra circuitry required to sense vehicle motion and conserve precious battery capacity during vehicle idling periods. In this paper, two design solutions are presented, 1) with very low cost highly flexible piezoceramic (PZT) bender elements bonded directly to the tire to generate power required to run the sensor and, 2) a novel rim mounted PZT harvesting unit that can be used to power pressure sensors incorporated into the valve stem requiring minimal change to the presently used sensors. While both the designs eliminate the use of environmentally unfriendly battery from the TPMS design, they offer advantages of being very low cost, service free and easily replaceable during tire repair and replacement.

  7. Embedding Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors to Obtain Online Pressure Profiles Inside Fiber Composite Laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Kahali Moghaddam, Maryam; Breede, Arne; Brauner, Christian; Lang, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The production of large and complex parts using fiber composite materials is costly due to the frequent formation of voids, porosity and waste products. By embedding different types of sensors and monitoring the process in real time, the amount of wastage can be significantly reduced. This work focuses on developing a knowledge-based method to improve and ensure complete impregnation of the fibers before initiation of the resin cure. Piezoresistive and capacitive pressure sensors were embedde...

  8. A Miniaturized Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor Based on Sensing of pH-Sensitive Hydrogel Swelling with a Pressure Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, S.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    A measurement concept has been realized for the detection of carbon dioxide, where the CO2 induced pressure generation by an enclosed pH-sensitive hydrogel is measured with a micro pressure sensor. The application of the sensor is the quantification of the partial pressure of CO2 (Pco2) in the

  9. Nanocomposite-Based Microstructured Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Low-Pressure Measurement Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Mitrakos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoresistive pressure sensors capable of detecting ranges of low compressive stresses have been successfully fabricated and characterised. The 5.5 × 5 × 1.6 mm3 sensors consist of a planar aluminium top electrode and a microstructured bottom electrode containing a two-by-two array of truncated pyramids with a piezoresistive composite layer sandwiched in-between. The responses of two different piezocomposite materials, a Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT-elastomer composite and a Quantum Tunneling Composite (QTC, have been characterised as a function of applied pressure and effective contact area. The MWCNT piezoresistive composite-based sensor was able to detect pressures as low as 200 kPa. The QTC-based sensor was capable of detecting pressures as low as 50 kPa depending on the contact area of the bottom electrode. Such sensors could find useful applications requiring the detection of small compressive loads such as those encountered in haptic sensing or robotics.

  10. Thermal micropressure sensor for pressure monitoring in a minute package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S. N.; Mizuno, K.; Fujiyoshi, M.; Funabashi, H.; Sakata, J.

    2001-01-01

    A thermal micropressure sensor suitable for pressure measurements in the range from 7x10 -3 to 1x10 5 Pa has been fabricated by forming a titanium (Ti) thin-film resistor on a floating nondoped silica glass membrane, with the sensing area being as small as 60 μmx60 μm. The sensor performance is raised by: (1) increasing the ratio of gaseous thermal conduction in the total thermal conduction by sensor structure design; (2) compensating the effect of ambient-temperature drift by using a reference resistor located close to the sensing element but directly on the silicon substrate; and (3) utilizing an optimized novel constant-bias Wheatstone bridge circuit. By choosing a proper bias voltage, which can be found by simple calculation, the circuit extracts information on gaseous thermal conduction from the directly measurable total heat loss of the heated sensing element. The sensor was enclosed in a metal package with a capacity of about 0.5 ml by projection welding and was successfully applied to monitoring the pressure in the minute space

  11. Balloon-borne pressure sensor performance evaluation utilizing tracking radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, G. A.; Brooks, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The pressure sensors on balloon-borne sondes relate the sonde measurements to height above the Earth's surface through the hypsometric equation. It is crucial that sondes used to explore the vertical structure of the atmosphere do not contribute significant height errors to their measurements of atmospheric constituent concentrations and properties. A series of radiosonde flights was conducted. In most cases, each flight consisted of two sondes attached to a single balloon and each flight was tracked by a highly accurate C-band radar. For the first 19 radiosonde flights, the standard aneroid cell baroswitch assembly used was the pressure sensor. The last 26 radiosondes were equipped with a premium grade aneroid cell baroswitch assembly sensor and with a hypsometer. It is shown that both aneroid cell baroswitch sensors become increasingly inaccurate with altitude. The hypsometer radar differences are not strongly dependent upon altitude and it is found that the standard deviation of the differences at 35 km is 0.179 km.

  12. Sensitivity of Pressure Sensors Enhanced by Doping Silver Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhang Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a highly sensitive flexible pressure sensor based on a piezopolymer and silver nanowires (AgNWs composite. The composite nanofiber webs are made by electrospinning mixed solutions of poly(inylidene fluoride (PVDF and Ag NWs in a cosolvent mixture of dimethyl formamide and acetone. The diameter of the fibers ranges from 200 nm to 500 nm, as demonstrated by SEM images. FTIR and XRD results reveal that doping Ag NWs into PVDF greatly enhances the content of β phase in PVDF. This β phase increase can be attributed to interactions between the Ag NWs and the PVDF matrix, which forces the polymer chains to be embedded into the β phase crystalline. The sensitivity of the pressure sensors agrees well with the FTIR and XRD characteristics. In our experiments, the measured sensitivity reached up to 30 pC/N for the nanofiber webs containing 1.5 wt% Ag NWs, which is close to that of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene [P(VDF-TrFE, (77/23]. This study may provide a new method of fabricating high performance flexible sensors at relatively low cost compared with sensors based on [P(VDF-TrFE, (77/23].

  13. Pressure and Temperature Sensors Using Two Spin Crossover Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Linares, Jorge; Boulmaali, Ayoub; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Rotaru, Aurelian; Garcia, Yann

    2016-02-02

    The possibility of a new design concept for dual spin crossover based sensors for concomitant detection of both temperature and pressure is presented. It is conjectured from numerical results obtained by mean field approximation applied to a Ising-like model that using two different spin crossover compounds containing switching molecules with weak elastic interactions it is possible to simultaneously measure P and T. When the interaction parameters are optimized, the spin transition is gradual and for each spin crossover compounds, both temperature and pressure values being identified from their optical densities. This concept offers great perspectives for smart sensing devices.

  14. Pressure and Temperature Sensors Using Two Spin Crossover Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Linares, Jorge; Boulmaali, Ayoub; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Rotaru, Aurelian; Garcia, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of a new design concept for dual spin crossover based sensors for concomitant detection of both temperature and pressure is presented. It is conjectured from numerical results obtained by mean field approximation applied to a Ising-like model that using two different spin crossover compounds containing switching molecules with weak elastic interactions it is possible to simultaneously measure P and T. When the interaction parameters are optimized, the spin transition is gradual and for each spin crossover compounds, both temperature and pressure values being identified from their optical densities. This concept offers great perspectives for smart sensing devices. PMID:26848663

  15. Pressure and Temperature Sensors Using Two Spin Crossover Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin-Maricel Jureschi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a new design concept for dual spin crossover based sensors for concomitant detection of both temperature and pressure is presented. It is conjectured from numerical results obtained by mean field approximation applied to a Ising-like model that using two different spin crossover compounds containing switching molecules with weak elastic interactions it is possible to simultaneously measure P and T. When the interaction parameters are optimized, the spin transition is gradual and for each spin crossover compounds, both temperature and pressure values being identified from their optical densities. This concept offers great perspectives for smart sensing devices.

  16. Temperature Induced Voltage Offset Drifts in Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2012-01-01

    We report the reduction of transient drifts in the zero pressure offset voltage in silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors when operating at 600 C. The previously observed maximum drift of +/- 10 mV of the reference offset voltage at 600 C was reduced to within +/- 5 mV. The offset voltage drifts and bridge resistance changes over time at test temperature are explained in terms of the microstructure and phase changes occurring within the contact metallization, as analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results have helped to identify the upper temperature reliable operational limit of this particular metallization scheme to be 605 C.

  17. Carbon nanotube—cuprous oxide composite based pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Chani, Muhammad Tariq Saeed; Khalid, Fazal Ahmad; Khan, Adam; Khan, Rahim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design, the fabrication, and the experimental results of carbon nanotube (CNT) and Cu 2 O composite based pressure sensors. The pressed tablets of the CNT—Cu 2 O composite are fabricated at a pressure of 353 MPa. The diameters of the multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs) are between 10 nm and 30 nm. The sizes of the Cu 2 O micro particles are in the range of 3–4 μm. The average diameter and the average thickness of the pressed tablets are 10 mm and 4.0 mm, respectively. In order to make low resistance electric contacts, the two sides of the pressed tablet are covered by silver pastes. The direct current resistance of the pressure sensor decreases by 3.3 times as the pressure increases up to 37 kN/m 2 . The simulation result of the resistance—pressure relationship is in good agreement with the experimental result within a variation of ±2%. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  18. Particle-based optical pressure sensors for 3D pressure mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Niladri; Xie, Yan; Chalaseni, Sandeep; Mastrangelo, Carlos H

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents particle-based optical pressure sensors for in-flow pressure sensing, especially for microfluidic environments. Three generations of pressure sensitive particles have been developed- flat planar particles, particles with integrated retroreflectors and spherical microballoon particles. The first two versions suffer from pressure measurement dependence on particles orientation in 3D space and angle of interrogation. The third generation of microspherical particles with spherical symmetry solves these problems making particle-based manometry in microfluidic environment a viable and efficient methodology. Static and dynamic pressure measurements have been performed in liquid medium for long periods of time in a pressure range of atmospheric to 40 psi. Spherical particles with radius of 12 μm and balloon-wall thickness of 0.5 μm are effective for more than 5 h in this pressure range with an error of less than 5%.

  19. Fiber optic pressure sensors in skin-friction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    A fiber optic lever sensing technique that can be used to measure normal pressure as well as shear stresses is discussed. This method uses three unequal fibers combining small size and good sensitivity. Static measurements appear to confirm the theoretical models predicted by geometrical optics and dynamic tests performed at frequencies up to 10 kHz indicate a flat response within this frequency range. These sensors are intended for use in a low speed wind tunnel environment.

  20. Noninvasive Ph-telemetric Measurement of Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain experience with and validate the Heidelberg pH-telemetric methodology in order to determine if the pH-telemetric methodology would be a useful noninvasive measure of gastrointestinal transit time for future ground-based and in-flight drug evaluation studies. The Heidelberg pH metering system is a noninvasive, nonradioactive telemetric system that, following oral ingestion, continuously measures intraluminal pH of the stomach, duodenum, small bowel, ileocecal junction, and large bowel. Gastrointestinal motility profiles were obtained in normal volunteers using the lactulose breath-hydrogen and Heidelberg pH metering techniques. All profiles were obtained in the morning after an overnight fast. Heidelberg pH profiles were obtained in the fasting and fed states; lactulose breath-hydrogen profiles were obtained after a standard breakfast. Mouth-to-cecum transit time was measured as the interval from administration of lactulose (30 ml; 20 g) to a sustained increase in breath-hydrogen of 10 ppm or more. Gastric emptying time was measured as the interval from the administration of the Heidelberg capsule to a sustained increase in pH of three units or more.

  1. High Resolution and Large Dynamic Range Resonant Pressure Sensor Based on Q-Factor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Stell, Christopher B. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Vorperian, Vatche (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure sensor has a high degree of accuracy over a wide range of pressures. Using a pressure sensor relying upon resonant oscillations to determine pressure, a driving circuit drives such a pressure sensor at resonance and tracks resonant frequency and amplitude shifts with changes in pressure. Pressure changes affect the Q-factor of the resonating portion of the pressure sensor. Such Q-factor changes are detected by the driving/sensing circuit which in turn tracks the changes in resonant frequency to maintain the pressure sensor at resonance. Changes in the Q-factor are reflected in changes of amplitude of the resonating pressure sensor. In response, upon sensing the changes in the amplitude, the driving circuit changes the force or strength of the electrostatic driving signal to maintain the resonator at constant amplitude. The amplitude of the driving signals become a direct measure of the changes in pressure as the operating characteristics of the resonator give rise to a linear response curve for the amplitude of the driving signal. Pressure change resolution is on the order of 10(exp -6) torr over a range spanning from 7,600 torr to 10(exp -6) torr. No temperature compensation for the pressure sensor of the present invention is foreseen. Power requirements for the pressure sensor are generally minimal due to the low-loss mechanical design of the resonating pressure sensor and the simple control electronics.

  2. Pressure and Temperature Spin Crossover Sensors with Optical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Jorge; Codjovi, Epiphane; Garcia, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Iron(II) spin crossover molecular materials are made of coordination centres switchable between two states by temperature, pressure or a visible light irradiation. The relevant macroscopic parameter which monitors the magnetic state of a given solid is the high-spin (HS) fraction denoted nHS, i.e., the relative population of HS molecules. Each spin crossover material is distinguished by a transition temperature T1/2 where 50% of active molecules have switched to the low-spin (LS) state. In strongly interacting systems, the thermal spin switching occurs abruptly at T1/2. Applying pressure induces a shift from HS to LS states, which is the direct consequence of the lower volume for the LS molecule. Each material has thus a well defined pressure value P1/2. In both cases the spin state change is easily detectable by optical means thanks to a thermo/piezochromic effect that is often encountered in these materials. In this contribution, we discuss potential use of spin crossover molecular materials as temperature and pressure sensors with optical detection. The ones presenting smooth transitions behaviour, which have not been seriously considered for any application, are spotlighted as potential sensors which should stimulate a large interest on this well investigated class of materials. PMID:22666041

  3. Suburothelial Bladder Contraction Detection with Implanted Pressure Sensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve J A Majerus

    Full Text Available Managing bladder pressure in patients with neurogenic bladders is needed to improve rehabilitation options, avoid upper tract damage, incontinence, and their associated co-morbidities and mortality. Current methods of determining bladder contractions are not amenable to chronic or ambulatory settings. In this study we evaluated detection of bladder contractions using a novel piezoelectric catheter-free pressure sensor placed in a suburothelial bladder location in animals.Wired prototypes of the pressure monitor were implanted into 2 nonsurvival (feline and canine and one 13-day survival (canine animal. Vesical pressures were obtained from the device in both suburothelial and intraluminal locations and simultaneously from a pressure sensing catheter in the bladder. Intravesical pressure was monitored in the survival animal over 10 days from the suburothelial location and necropsy was performed to assess migration and erosion.In the nonsurvival animals, the average correlation between device and reference catheter data was high during both electrically stimulated bladder contractions and manual compressions (r = 0.93±0.03, r = 0.89±0.03. Measured pressures correlated strongly (r = 0.98±0.02 when the device was placed in the bladder lumen. The survival animal initially recorded physiologic data, but later this deteriorated. However, endstage intraluminal device recordings correlated (r = 0.85±0.13 with the pressure catheter. Significant erosion of the implant through the detrusor was found.This study confirms correlation between suburothelial pressure readings and intravesical bladder pressures. Due to device erosion during ambulatory studies, a wireless implant is recommended for clinical rehabilitation applications.

  4. Programmable assembly of pressure sensors using pattern-forming bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yangxiaolu; Feng, Yaying; Ryser, Marc D; Zhu, Kui; Herschlag, Gregory; Cao, Changyong; Marusak, Katherine; Zauscher, Stefan; You, Lingchong

    2017-11-01

    Biological systems can generate microstructured materials that combine organic and inorganic components and possess diverse physical and chemical properties. However, these natural processes in materials fabrication are not readily programmable. Here, we use a synthetic-biology approach to assemble patterned materials. We demonstrate programmable fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) materials by printing engineered self-patterning bacteria on permeable membranes that serve as a structural scaffold. Application of gold nanoparticles to the colonies creates hybrid organic-inorganic dome structures. The dynamics of the dome structures' response to pressure is determined by their geometry (colony size, dome height, and pattern), which is easily modified by varying the properties of the membrane (e.g., pore size and hydrophobicity). We generate resettable pressure sensors that process signals in response to varying pressure intensity and duration.

  5. Radiosonde pressure sensor performance - Evaluation using tracking radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.; Norcross, G. A.; Brooks, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The standard balloon-borne radiosonde employed for synoptic meteorology provides vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, and humidity as a function of elapsed time. These parameters are used in the hypsometric equation to calculate the geopotential altitude at each sampling point during the balloon's flight. It is important that the vertical location information be accurate. The present investigation was conducted with the objective to evaluate the altitude determination accuracy of the standard radiosonde throughout the entire balloon profile. The tests included two other commercially available pressure sensors to see if they could provide improved accuracy in the stratosphere. The pressure-measuring performance of standard baroswitches, premium baroswitches, and hypsometers in balloon-borne sondes was correlated with tracking radars. It was found that the standard and premium baroswitches perform well up to about 25 km altitude, while hypsometers provide more reliable data above 25 km.

  6. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  7. Therapeutic hypertension system based on a microbreathing pressure sensor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao Z

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ziji Diao1, Hongying Liu1, Lan Zhu1, Xiaoqiang Gao1, Suwen Zhao1, Xitian Pi1,2, Xiaolin Zheng1,21Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Chongqing University, Ministry of Education, Chongqing; 2Key Laboratories for National Defense Science and Technology of Innovative Micronano Devices and System Technology, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground and methods: A novel therapeutic system for the treatment of hypertension was developed on the basis of a slow-breath training mechanism, using a microbreathing pressure sensor device for the detection of human respiratory signals attached to the abdomen. The system utilizes a single-chip AT89C51 microcomputer as a core processor, programmed by Microsoft Visual C++6.0 to communicate with a PC via a full-speed PDIUSBD12 interface chip. The programming is based on a slow-breath guided algorithm in which the respiratory signal serves as a physiological feedback parameter. Inhalation and exhalation by the subject is guided by music signals.Results and conclusion: Our study indicates that this microbreathing sensor system may assist in slow-breath training and may help to decrease blood pressure.Keywords: hypertension, microbreathing sensor, single-chip microcomputer, slow-pace breathing

  8. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast, second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast, and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast. In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast.

  9. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Muhammad; Sher, Arshad; Abdul, Wadood; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2017-03-19

    In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast), second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast), and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast). In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC) is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast.

  10. Assessing Walking Strategies Using Insole Pressure Sensors for Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Organero, Mario; Parker, Jack; Powell, Lauren; Mawson, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Insole pressure sensors capture the different forces exercised over the different parts of the sole when performing tasks standing up such as walking. Using data analysis and machine learning techniques, common patterns and strategies from different users to achieve different tasks can be automatically extracted. In this paper, we present the results obtained for the automatic detection of different strategies used by stroke survivors when walking as integrated into an Information Communication Technology (ICT) enhanced Personalised Self-Management Rehabilitation System (PSMrS) for stroke rehabilitation. Fourteen stroke survivors and 10 healthy controls have participated in the experiment by walking six times a distance from chair to chair of approximately 10 m long. The Rivermead Mobility Index was used to assess the functional ability of each individual in the stroke survivor group. Several walking strategies are studied based on data gathered from insole pressure sensors and patterns found in stroke survivor patients are compared with average patterns found in healthy control users. A mechanism to automatically estimate a mobility index based on the similarity of the pressure patterns to a stereotyped stride is also used. Both data gathered from stroke survivors and healthy controls are used to evaluate the proposed mechanisms. The output of trained algorithms is applied to the PSMrS system to provide feedback on gait quality enabling stroke survivors to self-manage their rehabilitation.

  11. Assessing Walking Strategies Using Insole Pressure Sensors for Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Munoz-Organero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Insole pressure sensors capture the different forces exercised over the different parts of the sole when performing tasks standing up such as walking. Using data analysis and machine learning techniques, common patterns and strategies from different users to achieve different tasks can be automatically extracted. In this paper, we present the results obtained for the automatic detection of different strategies used by stroke survivors when walking as integrated into an Information Communication Technology (ICT enhanced Personalised Self-Management Rehabilitation System (PSMrS for stroke rehabilitation. Fourteen stroke survivors and 10 healthy controls have participated in the experiment by walking six times a distance from chair to chair of approximately 10 m long. The Rivermead Mobility Index was used to assess the functional ability of each individual in the stroke survivor group. Several walking strategies are studied based on data gathered from insole pressure sensors and patterns found in stroke survivor patients are compared with average patterns found in healthy control users. A mechanism to automatically estimate a mobility index based on the similarity of the pressure patterns to a stereotyped stride is also used. Both data gathered from stroke survivors and healthy controls are used to evaluate the proposed mechanisms. The output of trained algorithms is applied to the PSMrS system to provide feedback on gait quality enabling stroke survivors to self-manage their rehabilitation.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of magnetic composite membrane pressure sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah

    2016-04-20

    This paper describes a magnetic field powered pressure sensor, which comprises a coil array and a magnetic composite membrane. The composite membrane is made by embedding a ribbon of the amorphous soft magnetic alloy Vitrovac®, in a 17 mm x 25 mm x 1.5 mm Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer. PDMS is chosen for its low Young\\'s modulus and the amorphous alloy for its high permeability. The membrane is suspended 1.5 mm above a 17x19 array of microfabricated planar coils. The coils are fabricated by patterning a 620 nm thick gold layer. Each coil occupies an area of 36000 μm2 and consists of 14 turns. The sensor is tested by subjecting it to pressure and simultaneously exciting it by a 24 A/m, 100 kHz magnetic field. A pressure change from 0 kPa to 5.1 kPa, results in a 5400 ppm change in the voltage output.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of magnetic composite membrane pressure sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen; Bakolka, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a magnetic field powered pressure sensor, which comprises a coil array and a magnetic composite membrane. The composite membrane is made by embedding a ribbon of the amorphous soft magnetic alloy Vitrovac®, in a 17 mm x 25 mm x 1.5 mm Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer. PDMS is chosen for its low Young's modulus and the amorphous alloy for its high permeability. The membrane is suspended 1.5 mm above a 17x19 array of microfabricated planar coils. The coils are fabricated by patterning a 620 nm thick gold layer. Each coil occupies an area of 36000 μm2 and consists of 14 turns. The sensor is tested by subjecting it to pressure and simultaneously exciting it by a 24 A/m, 100 kHz magnetic field. A pressure change from 0 kPa to 5.1 kPa, results in a 5400 ppm change in the voltage output.

  14. A family of fiber-optic based pressure sensors for intracochlear measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Elizabeth S.; Nakajima, Hideko H.

    2015-02-01

    Fiber-optic pressure sensors have been developed for measurements of intracochlear pressure. The present family of transducers includes an 81 μm diameter sensor employing a SLED light source and single-mode optic fiber, and LED/multi-mode sensors with 126 and 202 μm diameter. The 126 μm diameter pressure sensor also has been constructed with an electrode adhered to its side, for coincident pressure and voltage measurements. These sensors have been used for quantifying cochlear mechanical impedances, informing our understanding of conductive hearing loss and its remediation, and probing the operation of the cochlear amplifier.

  15. Telemetric measurement system of beehive environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Sawicki, Aleksander

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a measurement system of beehive environmental conditions. The purpose of the device is to perform measurements of parameters such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, internal temperature, humidity and sound level. The measured values were transferred to the MySQL database, which is located on an external server, with the use of GPRS protocol. A website presents the measurement data in the form of tables and graphs. The study also shows exemplary results of environmental conditions measurements recorded in the beehive by hour cycle.

  16. Capacitive Micro Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates a capacitive micro pressure sensor integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on a chip. The integrated capacitive pressure sensor is fabricated using the commercial CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor process and a post-process. The ring oscillator is employed to convert the capacitance of the pressure sensor into the frequency output. The pressure sensor consists of 16 sensing cells in parallel. Each sensing cell contains a top electrode and a lower electrode, and the top electrode is a sandwich membrane. The pressure sensor needs a post-CMOS process to release the membranes after completion of the CMOS process. The post-process uses etchants to etch the sacrificial layers, and to release the membranes. The advantages of the post-process include easy execution and low cost. Experimental results reveal that the pressure sensor has a high sensitivity of 7 Hz/Pa in the pressure range of 0–300 kPa.

  17. Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mark; Pettit, Donald

    2003-01-01

    A device that generates an alarm when the partial pressure of oxygen decreases to less than a preset level has been developed to help prevent hypoxia in a pilot or other crewmember of a military or other high-performance aircraft. Loss of oxygen partial pressure can be caused by poor fit of the mask or failure of a hose or other component of an oxygen distribution system. The deleterious physical and mental effects of hypoxia cause the loss of a military aircraft and crew every few years. The device is installed in the crewmember s oxygen mask and is powered via communication wiring already present in all such oxygen masks. The device (see figure) includes an electrochemical sensor, the output potential of which is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen. The output of the sensor is amplified and fed to the input of a comparator circuit. A reference potential that corresponds to the amplified sensor output at the alarm oxygen-partial-pressure level is fed to the second input of the comparator. When the sensed partial pressure of oxygen falls below the minimum acceptable level, the output of the comparator goes from the low state (a few millivolts) to the high state (near the supply potential, which is typically 6.8 V for microphone power). The switching of the comparator output to the high state triggers a tactile alarm in the form of a vibration in the mask, generated by a small 1.3-Vdc pager motor spinning an eccentric mass at a rate between 8,000 and 10,000 rpm. The sensation of the mask vibrating against the crewmember s nose is very effective at alerting the crewmember, who may already be groggy from hypoxia and is immersed in an environment that is saturated with visual cues and sounds. Indeed, the sensation is one of rudeness, but such rudeness could be what is needed to stimulate the crewmember to take corrective action in a life-threatening situation.

  18. Justification of response time testing requirements for pressure and differential pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; Mayo, C.; Swisher, V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on response time testing (RTT) requirements that were imposed on pressure, differential pressure sensors as a conservative approach to insure that assumptions in the plant safety analyses were met. The purpose of this project has been to identify the need for response time testing using the bases identified in IEEE Standard 338. A combination of plant data analyses, failure modes, and effects analyses (FMEAs) was performed. Eighteen currently qualified sensor models were utilized. The results of these analyses indicate that there are only two failure modes that affect response time, not sensor output concurrently. For these failure modes, appropriate plant actions and testing techniques were identified. Safety system RTT requirements were established by IEEE Standard 338-1975. Criteria for the Periodic Testing of Class IE Power, Protection Systems, presuming the need existed for this testing. This standard established guidelines for periodic testing to verify that loop response times of installed nuclear safety-related equipment were within the limits presumed by the design basis plant transient, accident analyses. The requirements covered all passive, active components in an instrument loop, including sensors. Individual components could be tested either in groups or separately to determine the overall loop response time

  19. Tilted c-Axis Thin-Film Bulk Wave Resonant Pressure Sensors With Improved Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderås, Emil; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum nitride thin film bulk wave resonant pressure sensors employing c- and tilted c-axis texture, have been fabricated and tested for their pressure sensitivities. The c-axis tilted FBAR pressure sensors demonstrate substantially higher pressure sensitivity compared to its c-axis oriented counterpart. More specifically the thickness plate quasi-shear resonance has demonstrated the highest pressure sensitivity while further being able to preserve its performance in liquid environment.

  20. Flexible Piezoelectric-Induced Pressure Sensors for Static Measurements Based on Nanowires/Graphene Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zefeng; Wang, Zhao; Li, Xinming; Lin, Yuxuan; Luo, Ningqi; Long, Mingzhu; Zhao, Ni; Xu, Jian-Bin

    2017-05-23

    The piezoelectric effect is widely applied in pressure sensors for the detection of dynamic signals. However, these piezoelectric-induced pressure sensors have challenges in measuring static signals that are based on the transient flow of electrons in an external load as driven by the piezopotential arisen from dynamic stress. Here, we present a pressure sensor with nanowires/graphene heterostructures for static measurements based on the synergistic mechanisms between strain-induced polarization charges in piezoelectric nanowires and the caused change of carrier scattering in graphene. Compared to the conventional piezoelectric nanowire or graphene pressure sensors, this sensor is capable of measuring static pressures with a sensitivity of up to 9.4 × 10 -3 kPa -1 and a fast response time down to 5-7 ms. This demonstration of pressure sensors shows great potential in the applications of electronic skin and wearable devices.

  1. Design and Optimization of Dual Optical Fiber MEMS Pressure Sensor For Biomedical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagang, Guo; Po, Samuel Ng Choon; Hock, Francis Tay Eng; Rongming, Lin

    2006-01-01

    A novel Single Deeply Corrugated Diaphragm (SDCD) based dual optical fiber Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for blood pressure measurement is proposed. Both mechanical and optical simulations are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and superior performance of the proposed sensor. Result shows that less than 2% nonlinearity can be achieved for the proposed sensor using optimal Fabry-Perot microcavity. Also, the fabrication process of the proposed sensor is given, instead of complicated fusion bonding process, only bulk and surface micromachining techniques are required which facilitate the mass production of such biocompatible and disposable pressure sensors

  2. Methods and Systems for Configuring Sensor Acquisition Based on Pressure Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonato, Mathew (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Technologies are provided for underwater measurements. A system includes an underwater vessels including: a plurality of sensors disposed thereon for measuring underwater properties; and a programmable controller configured to selectively activate the plurality of sensors based at least in part on underwater pressure. A user may program at what pressure ranges certain sensors are activated to measure selected properties, and may also program the ascent/descent rate of the underwater vessel, which is correlated with the underwater pressure.

  3. Highly Sensitive, Transparent, and Durable Pressure Sensors Based on Sea-Urchin Shaped Metal Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Hyungjin; Jeong, Youngjun; Ahn, Yumi; Nam, Geonik; Lee, Youngu

    2016-11-01

    Highly sensitive, transparent, and durable pressure sensors are fabricated using sea-urchin-shaped metal nanoparticles and insulating polyurethane elastomer. The pressure sensors exhibit outstanding sensitivity (2.46 kPa -1 ), superior optical transmittance (84.8% at 550 nm), fast response/relaxation time (30 ms), and excellent operational durability. In addition, the pressure sensors successfully detect minute movements of human muscles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. System for detecting operating errors in a variable valve timing engine using pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Matthew A.; Marriot, Craig D

    2013-07-02

    A method and control module includes a pressure sensor data comparison module that compares measured pressure volume signal segments to ideal pressure volume segments. A valve actuation hardware remedy module performs a hardware remedy in response to comparing the measured pressure volume signal segments to the ideal pressure volume segments when a valve actuation hardware failure is detected.

  5. Wireless contactless pressure measurement of an LC passive pressure sensor with a novel antenna for high-temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chen; Tan Qiu-Lin; Xue Chen-Yang; Zhang Wen-Dong; Li Yun-Zhi; Xiong Ji-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel antenna is proposed for high-temperature testing, which can make the high-temperature pressure characteristics of a wireless passive ceramic pressure sensor demonstrated at up to a temperature of 600 °C. The design parameters of the antenna are similar to those of the sensor, which will increase the coupling strength between the sensor and testing antenna. The antenna is fabricated in thick film integrated technology, and the properties of the alumina ceramic and silver ensure the feasibility of the antenna in high-temperature environments. The sensor, coupled with the ceramic antenna, is investigated using a high-temperature pressure testing platform. The experimental measurement results show that the pressure signal in a harsh environment can be detected by the frequency diversity of the sensor. (paper)

  6. Response time verification of in situ hydraulic pressure sensors in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus for verifying response time in situ of hydraulic pressure and pressure differential sensing instrumentation in a nuclear circuit is disclosed. Hydraulic pressure at a reference sensor and at an in situ process sensor under test is varied according to a linear ramp. Sensor response time is then determined by comparison of the sensor electrical analog output signals. The process sensor is subjected to a relatively slowly changing and a relatively rapidly changing hydraulic pressure ramp signal to determine an upper bound for process sensor response time over the range of all pressure transients to which the sensor is required to respond. Signal linearity is independent of the volumetric displacement of the process sensor. The hydraulic signal generator includes a first pressurizable gas reservoir, a second pressurizable liquid and gas reservoir, a gate for rapidly opening a gas communication path between the two reservoirs, a throttle valve for regulating rate of gas pressure equalization between the two reservoirs, and hydraulic conduit means for simultaneously communicating a ramp of hydraulic pressure change between the liquid/gas reservoir and both a reference and a process sensor. By maintaining a sufficient pressure differential between the reservoirs and by maintaining a sufficient ratio of gas to liquid in the liquid/gas reservoir, excellent linearity and minimal transient effects can be achieved for all pressure ranges, magnitudes, and rates of change of interest

  7. The analytical calibration model of temperature effects on a silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Nie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, piezoresistive pressure sensors are highly demanded for using in various microelectronic devices. The electrical behavior of these pressure sensor is mainly dependent on the temperature gradient. In this paper, various factors,which includes effect of temperature, doping concentration on the pressure sensitive resistance, package stress, and temperature on the Young’s modulus etc., are responsible for the temperature drift of the pressure sensor are analyzed. Based on the above analysis, an analytical calibration model of the output voltage of the sensor is proposed and the experimental data is validated through a suitable model.

  8. Non-destructive residual pressure self-measurement method for the sensing chip of optical Fabry-Perot pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Xuezhi; Xiao, Mengnan; Xiao, Hai; Liu, Tiegen

    2017-12-11

    We introduce a simple residual pressure self-measurement method for the Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity of optical MEMS pressure sensor. No extra installation is required and the structure of the sensor is unchanged. In the method, the relationship between residual pressure and external pressure under the same diaphragm deflection condition at different temperatures is analyzed by using the deflection formula of the circular plate with clamped edges and the ideal gas law. Based on this, the residual pressure under the flat condition can be obtained by pressure scanning process and calculation process. We carried out the experiment to compare the residual pressures of two batches MEMS sensors fabricated by two kinds of bonding process. The measurement result indicates that our approach is reliable enough for the measurement.

  9. A Wireless Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Biodegradable Polymer Stent for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongsung; Kim, Ji-Kwan; Patil, Swati J; Park, Jun-Kyu; Park, SuA; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2016-06-02

    This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of a wireless pressure sensor for smart stent applications. The micromachined pressure sensor has an area of 3.13 × 3.16 mm² and is fabricated with a photosensitive SU-8 polymer. The wireless pressure sensor comprises a resonant circuit and can be used without the use of an internal power source. The capacitance variations caused by changes in the intravascular pressure shift the resonance frequency of the sensor. This change can be detected using an external antenna, thus enabling the measurement of the pressure changes inside a tube with a simple external circuit. The wireless pressure sensor is capable of measuring pressure from 0 mmHg to 230 mmHg, with a sensitivity of 0.043 MHz/mmHg. The biocompatibility of the pressure sensor was evaluated using cardiac cells isolated from neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. After inserting a metal stent integrated with the pressure sensor into a cardiovascular vessel of an animal, medical systems such as X-ray were employed to consistently monitor the condition of the blood vessel. No abnormality was found in the animal blood vessel for approximately one month. Furthermore, a biodegradable polymer (polycaprolactone) stent was fabricated with a 3D printer. The polymer stent exhibits better sensitivity degradation of the pressure sensor compared to the metal stent.

  10. A Wireless Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Biodegradable Polymer Stent for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongsung Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of a wireless pressure sensor for smart stent applications. The micromachined pressure sensor has an area of 3.13 × 3.16 mm2 and is fabricated with a photosensitive SU-8 polymer. The wireless pressure sensor comprises a resonant circuit and can be used without the use of an internal power source. The capacitance variations caused by changes in the intravascular pressure shift the resonance frequency of the sensor. This change can be detected using an external antenna, thus enabling the measurement of the pressure changes inside a tube with a simple external circuit. The wireless pressure sensor is capable of measuring pressure from 0 mmHg to 230 mmHg, with a sensitivity of 0.043 MHz/mmHg. The biocompatibility of the pressure sensor was evaluated using cardiac cells isolated from neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. After inserting a metal stent integrated with the pressure sensor into a cardiovascular vessel of an animal, medical systems such as X-ray were employed to consistently monitor the condition of the blood vessel. No abnormality was found in the animal blood vessel for approximately one month. Furthermore, a biodegradable polymer (polycaprolactone stent was fabricated with a 3D printer. The polymer stent exhibits better sensitivity degradation of the pressure sensor compared to the metal stent.

  11. Propagation of Radiosonde Pressure Sensor Errors to Ozonesonde Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, R. M.; Morris, G.A.; Thompson, A. M.; Joseph, E.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Nalli, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Several previous studies highlight pressure (or equivalently, pressure altitude) discrepancies between the radiosonde pressure sensor and that derived from a GPS flown with the radiosonde. The offsets vary during the ascent both in absolute and percent pressure differences. To investigate this problem further, a total of 731 radiosonde-ozonesonde launches from the Southern Hemisphere subtropics to Northern mid-latitudes are considered, with launches between 2005 - 2013 from both longer-term and campaign-based intensive stations. Five series of radiosondes from two manufacturers (International Met Systems: iMet, iMet-P, iMet-S, and Vaisala: RS80-15N and RS92-SGP) are analyzed to determine the magnitude of the pressure offset. Additionally, electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes from three manufacturers (Science Pump Corporation; SPC and ENSCI-Droplet Measurement Technologies; DMT) are analyzed to quantify the effects these offsets have on the calculation of ECC ozone (O3) mixing ratio profiles (O3MR) from the ozonesonde-measured partial pressure. Approximately half of all offsets are 0.6 hPa in the free troposphere, with nearly a third 1.0 hPa at 26 km, where the 1.0 hPa error represents 5 persent of the total atmospheric pressure. Pressure offsets have negligible effects on O3MR below 20 km (96 percent of launches lie within 5 percent O3MR error at 20 km). Ozone mixing ratio errors above 10 hPa (30 km), can approach greater than 10 percent ( 25 percent of launches that reach 30 km exceed this threshold). These errors cause disagreement between the integrated ozonesonde-only column O3 from the GPS and radiosonde pressure profile by an average of +6.5 DU. Comparisons of total column O3 between the GPS and radiosonde pressure profiles yield average differences of +1.1 DU when the O3 is integrated to burst with addition of the McPeters and Labow (2012) above-burst O3 column climatology. Total column differences are reduced to an average of -0.5 DU when

  12. A minimally invasive in-fiber Bragg grating sensor for intervertebral disc pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, Christopher R; Wild, Peter M; Wilson, David R; Cripton, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    We present an in-fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based intervertebral disc (IVD) pressure sensor that has pressure sensitivity seven times greater than that of a bare fiber, and a major diameter and sensing area of only 400 µm and 0.03 mm 2 , respectively. This is the only optical, the smallest and the most mechanically compliant disc pressure sensor reported in the literature. This is also an improvement over other FBG pressure sensors that achieve increased sensitivity through mechanical amplification schemes, usually resulting in major diameters and sensing lengths of many millimeters. Sensor sensitivity is predicted using numerical models, and the predicted sensitivity is verified through experimental calibrations. The sensor is validated by conducting IVD pressure measurements in porcine discs and comparing the FBG measurements to those obtained using the current standard sensor for IVD pressure. The predicted sensitivity of the FBG sensor matched with that measured experimentally. IVD pressure measurements showed excellent repeatability and agreement with those obtained from the standard sensor. Unlike the current larger sensors, the FBG sensor could be used in discs with small disc height (i.e. cervical or degenerated discs). Therefore, there is potential to conduct new measurements that could lead to new understanding of the biomechanics

  13. High Accuracy, Miniature Pressure Sensor for Very High Temperatures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop a compact, low-cost MEMS-based pressure sensor for very high temperatures and low pressures in hypersonic wind tunnels. Most currently...

  14. A highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive hydrogel spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Mulle, Matthieu; Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Wearable pressure sensing solutions have promising future for practical applications in health monitoring and human/machine interfaces. Here, a highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive single-walled carbon nanotube

  15. Novel High Temperature Capacitive Pressure Sensor Utilizing SiC Integrated Circuit Twin Ring Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, M.; Neudeck, P.; Spry, D.; Meredith, R.; Jordan, J.; Prokop, N.; Krasowski, M.; Beheim, G.; Hunter, G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes initial development and testing of a novel high temperature capacitive pressure sensor system. The pressure sensor system consists of two 4H-SiC 11-stage ring oscillators and a SiCN capacitive pressure sensor. One oscillator has the capacitive pressure sensor fixed at one node in its feedback loop and varies as a function of pressure and temperature while the other provides a pressure-independent reference frequency which can be used to temperature compensate the output of the first oscillator. A two-day repeatability test was performed up to 500C on the oscillators and the oscillator fundamental frequency changed by only 1. The SiCN capacitive pressure sensor was characterized at room temperature from 0 to 300 psi. The sensor had an initial capacitance of 3.76 pF at 0 psi and 1.75 pF at 300 psi corresponding to a 54 change in capacitance. The integrated pressure sensor system was characterized from 0 to 300 psi in steps of 50 psi over a temperature range of 25 to 500C. The pressure sensor system sensitivity was 0.113 kHzpsi at 25C and 0.026 kHzpsi at 500C.

  16. Conception and preliminary evaluation of an optical fibre sensor for simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, K; Moss, B; Leen, G; Mueller, I; Lewis, E; Lochmann, S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel concept of simultaneously measuring pressure and temperature using a silica optical fibre extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) pressure sensor incorporating a fibre Bragg grating (FBG), which is constructed entirely from fused-silica. The novel device is used to simultaneously provide accurate pressure and temperature readings at the point of measurement. Furthermore, the FBG temperature measurement is used to eliminate the temperature cross-sensitivity of the EFPI pressure sensor.

  17. Integrated arrays of air-dielectric graphene transistors as transparent active-matrix pressure sensors for wide pressure ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Ji, Sangyoon; Choi, Seiho; Pyo, Kyoung-Hee; Wan An, Byeong; Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Ki-Suk; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Heo, Jaeyeong; Park, Byong-Guk; Park, Jang-Ung

    2017-03-31

    Integrated electronic circuitries with pressure sensors have been extensively researched as a key component for emerging electronics applications such as electronic skins and health-monitoring devices. Although existing pressure sensors display high sensitivities, they can only be used for specific purposes due to the narrow range of detectable pressure (under tens of kPa) and the difficulty of forming highly integrated arrays. However, it is essential to develop tactile pressure sensors with a wide pressure range in order to use them for diverse application areas including medical diagnosis, robotics or automotive electronics. Here we report an unconventional approach for fabricating fully integrated active-matrix arrays of pressure-sensitive graphene transistors with air-dielectric layers simply formed by folding two opposing panels. Furthermore, this realizes a wide tactile pressure sensing range from 250 Pa to ∼3 MPa. Additionally, fabrication of pressure sensor arrays and transparent pressure sensors are demonstrated, suggesting their substantial promise as next-generation electronics.

  18. Miniaturised Prandtl tube with integrated pressure sensors for micro-thruster plume characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marcel; Ma, Kechun; de Boer, Meint J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2014-01-01

    A miniaturised Prandtl-tube sensor incorporating a 6 mm long 40 μm diameter microchannel with integrated pressure sensors has been realised. The sensor has been designed for the characterisation of rarefied plume flow from a MEMS-based monopropellant propulsion system for high-accuracy attitude

  19. Sensitivity enhancement using annealed polymer optical fibre based sensors for pressure sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pospori, A.; Marques, C. A. F.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2016-01-01

    for that investigation was an unexpected behaviour observed in an array of sensors which were used for liquid level monitoring. One sensor exhibited much lower pressure sensitivity and that was the only one that was not annealed. To further investigate the phenomenon, additional sensors were photo...... sensitivity of the devices. This can provide better performing sensors for use in stress, force and pressure sensing applications.......Thermal annealing can be used to induce a permanent negative Bragg wavelength shift for polymer fibre grating sensors and it was originally used for multiplexing purposes. Recently, researchers showed that annealing can also provide additional benefits, such as strain and humidity sensitivity...

  20. All-Optical Frequency Modulated High Pressure MEMS Sensor for Remote and Distributed Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a new all-optical frequency modulated pressure sensor. Using the tangential strain in a circular membrane, a waveguide with an integrated nanoscale Bragg grating is strained longitudinally proportional to the applied pressure causing...... a shift in the Bragg wavelength. The simple and robust design combined with the small chip area of 1 × 1.8 mm2 makes the sensor ideally suited for remote and distributed sensing in harsh environments and where miniaturized sensors are required. The sensor is designed for high pressure applications up...

  1. Design and evaluation of a pressure sensor for high temperature nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancey, M.E.

    1981-11-01

    The goal of this technical development task was the development of a small eddy-current pressure sensor for use within a high temperature nuclear environment. The sensor is designed for use at pressures and temperatures of up to 17.23 MPa and 650 0 F. The design of the sensor incorporated features to minimize possible errors due to temperature transients present in nuclear applications. This report describes a prototype pressure sensor that was designed, the associated 100 kHz signal conditioning electronics, and the evaluation tests which were conducted

  2. Total dose radiation effects of pressure sensors fabricated on uni-bond-SOI materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shiyang; Huang Yiping; Wang Jin; Li Anzhen; Shen Shaoqun; Bao Minhang

    2001-01-01

    Piezoresistive pressure sensors with a twin-island structure were successfully fabricated using high quality Uni-bond-SOI (On Insulator) materials. Since the piezoresistors were structured by the single crystalline silicon overlayer of the SOI wafer and were totally isolated by the buried SiO 2 , the sensors are radiation-hard. The sensitivity and the linearity of the pressure sensors keep their original values after being irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays up to 2.3 x 10 4 Gy(H 2 O). However, the offset voltage of the sensor has a slight drift, increasing with the radiation dose. The absolute value of the offset voltage deviation depends on the pressure sensor itself. For comparison, corresponding polysilicon pressure sensors were fabricated using the similar process and irradiated at the same condition

  3. Ring-shaped inductive sensor design and application to pressure sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Myoung Gyu; Baek, Seong Ki; Park, Young Woo [Dept. of Mechatronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Young [Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Inductive sensors are versatile and economical devices that are widely used to measure a wide variety of physical variables, such as displacement, force, and pressure. In this paper, we propose a simple inductive sensor consisting of a thin partial ring and a coil set. The self-inductance of the sensor was estimated using magnetic circuit analysis and validated through finite element analysis (FEA). The natural frequency of the ring was estimated using Castigliano's theorem and the method of equivalent mass. The estimation was validated through experiments and FEA. A prototype sensor with a signal processing circuit is built and applied to noninvasively sense the pressure inside a flexible tube. The obtained sensor outputs show quadratic behavior with respect to the pressure. When fitted to a quadratic equation, the least-square measurement error was less than 2%. The results confirm the feasibility of pressure sensing using the proposed inductive sensor.

  4. Embedding of MEMS pressure and temperature sensors in carbon fiber composites: a manufacturing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidinejad, Amir; Joshi, Shiv P.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper embedding of surface mount pressure and temperature sensors in the Carbon fiber composites are described. A commercially available surface mount pressure and temperature sensor are used for embedding in a composite lay- up of IM6/HST-7, IM6/3501 and AS4/E7T1-2 prepregs. The fabrication techniques developed here are the focus of this paper and provide for a successful embedding procedure of pressure sensors in fibrous composites. The techniques for positioning and insulating, the sensor and the lead wires, from the conductive carbon prepregs are described and illustrated. Procedural techniques are developed and discussed for isolating the sensor's flow-opening, from the exposure to the prepreg epoxy flow and exposure to the fibrous particles, during the autoclave curing of the composite laminate. The effects of the autoclave cycle (if any) on the operation of the embedded pressure sensor are discussed.

  5. Ring-shaped inductive sensor design and application to pressure sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Myoung Gyu; Baek, Seong Ki; Park, Young Woo; Kim, Sun Young

    2015-01-01

    Inductive sensors are versatile and economical devices that are widely used to measure a wide variety of physical variables, such as displacement, force, and pressure. In this paper, we propose a simple inductive sensor consisting of a thin partial ring and a coil set. The self-inductance of the sensor was estimated using magnetic circuit analysis and validated through finite element analysis (FEA). The natural frequency of the ring was estimated using Castigliano's theorem and the method of equivalent mass. The estimation was validated through experiments and FEA. A prototype sensor with a signal processing circuit is built and applied to noninvasively sense the pressure inside a flexible tube. The obtained sensor outputs show quadratic behavior with respect to the pressure. When fitted to a quadratic equation, the least-square measurement error was less than 2%. The results confirm the feasibility of pressure sensing using the proposed inductive sensor

  6. Epidermis Microstructure Inspired Graphene Pressure Sensor with Random Distributed Spinosum for High Sensitivity and Large Linearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Zhang, Kunning; Yang, Zhen; Jiang, Song; Ju, Zhenyi; Li, Yuxing; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Danyang; Jian, Muqiang; Zhang, Yingying; Liang, Renrong; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-03-27

    Recently, wearable pressure sensors have attracted tremendous attention because of their potential applications in monitoring physiological signals for human healthcare. Sensitivity and linearity are the two most essential parameters for pressure sensors. Although various designed micro/nanostructure morphologies have been introduced, the trade-off between sensitivity and linearity has not been well balanced. Human skin, which contains force receptors in a reticular layer, has a high sensitivity even for large external stimuli. Herein, inspired by the skin epidermis with high-performance force sensing, we have proposed a special surface morphology with spinosum microstructure of random distribution via the combination of an abrasive paper template and reduced graphene oxide. The sensitivity of the graphene pressure sensor with random distribution spinosum (RDS) microstructure is as high as 25.1 kPa -1 in a wide linearity range of 0-2.6 kPa. Our pressure sensor exhibits superior comprehensive properties compared with previous surface-modified pressure sensors. According to simulation and mechanism analyses, the spinosum microstructure and random distribution contribute to the high sensitivity and large linearity range, respectively. In addition, the pressure sensor shows promising potential in detecting human physiological signals, such as heartbeat, respiration, phonation, and human motions of a pushup, arm bending, and walking. The wearable pressure sensor array was further used to detect gait states of supination, neutral, and pronation. The RDS microstructure provides an alternative strategy to improve the performance of pressure sensors and extend their potential applications in monitoring human activities.

  7. Influence on Calculated Blood Pressure of Measurement Posture for the Development of Wearable Vital Sign Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhei Koyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a wearable blood pressure sensor using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor, which is a highly accurate strain sensor. This sensor is installed at the pulsation point of the human body to measure the pulse wave signal. A calibration curve is built that calculates the blood pressure by multivariate analysis using the pulse wave signal and a reference blood pressure measurement. However, if the measurement height of the FBG sensor is different from the reference measurement height, an error is included in the reference blood pressure. We verified the accuracy of the blood pressure calculation with respect to the measurement height difference and the posture of the subject. As the difference between the measurement height of the FBG sensor and the reference blood pressure measurement increased, the accuracy of the blood pressure calculation decreased. When the measurement height was identical and only posture was changed, good accuracy was achieved. In addition, when calibration curves were built using data measured in multiple postures, the blood pressure of each posture could be calculated from a single calibration curve. This will allow miniaturization of the necessary electronics of the sensor system, which is important for a wearable sensor.

  8. A vacuum pressure sensor based on ZnO nanobelt film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X J; Cao, X C; Sun, J; Yuan, B; Zhu, Z; Zhang, Y; Li, Q H

    2011-01-01

    A vacuum pressure sensor was fabricated by assembling ZnO nanobelt film on the interdigital electrodes, and the current-voltage characteristics were measured with an Agilent semiconductor parameter tester. Under different pressures of 1.0 x 10 3 , 6.7 x 10 -3 , 8.2 x 10 -4 and 9.5 x 10 -5 mbar, the currents are 8.71, 28.1, 46.1 and 89.6 nA, and the pressure sensitive resistances are 1150, 356, 217 and 112 MΩ, respectively. In the range of 10 -5 -10 3 mbar the smaller the pressure is, the higher the current is. The pressure sensitive resistance of the vacuum pressure sensor increases linearly with the logarithmic pressure, and the measurement range is at least one order of magnitude wider than that of the previous sensors. Under the final pressure, the vacuum pressure sensor has maximum sensitivity (9.29) and power consumption of 0.9 μW. The sensitivity is larger than that of the previous sensor based on a ZnO single nanowire at that pressure, and the power consumption is much lower than that for the sensor based on a ZnO nanowire array. The pressure sensitive mechanism is reasonably explained by using oxygen chemisorption and energy band theory.

  9. PIEZOELECTRIC WAVEGUIDE SENSOR FOR MEASURING PULSE PRESSURE IN CLOSED LIQUID VOLUMES AT HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Zhekul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigations of the characteristics of pressure waves presuppose the registration of the total profile of the pressure wave at a given point in space. For these purposes, various types of «pressure to the electrical signal» transmitters (sensors are used. Most of the common sensors are unsuitable for measuring the pulse pressure in a closed water volume at high hydrostatic pressures, in particular to study the effect of a powerful high-voltage pulse discharge on increasing the inflow of minerals and drinking water in wells. The purpose of the work was to develop antijamming piezoelectric waveguide sensor for measuring pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed volume of a liquid. Methodology. We have applied the calibration method as used as a secondary standard, the theory of electrical circuits. Results. We have selected the design and the circuit solution of the waveguide pressure sensor. We have developed a waveguide pulse-pressure sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop. This sensor makes it possible to study the spectral characteristics of pressure waves of high-voltage pulse discharge in closed volumes of liquid at a hydrostatic pressure of up to 20 MPa and a temperature of up to 80 °C. The sensor can be used to study pressure waves with a maximum amplitude value of up to 150 MPa and duration of up to 80 µs. According to the results of the calibration, the sensitivity of the developed sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop is 0.0346 V/MPa. Originality. We have further developed the theory of designing the waveguide piezoelectric pulse pressure sensors for measuring the pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed fluid volume by controlling the attenuation of the amplitude of the pressure signal. Practical value. We have developed, created, calibrated, used in scientific research waveguide pressure pulse sensors DTX-1. We propose sensors DTX-1 for sale

  10. Static and cyclic performance evaluation of sensors for human interface pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabling, Jeffrey G; Filatov, Anton; Wheeler, Jason W

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians often desire to monitor pressure distributions on soft tissues at interfaces to mechanical devices such as prosthetics, orthotics or shoes. The most common type of sensor used for this type of applications is a Force Sensitive Resistor (FSR) as these are convenient to use and inexpensive. Several other types of sensors exist that may have superior sensing performance but are less ubiquitous or more expensive, such as optical or capacitive sensors. We tested five sensors (two FSRs, one optical, one capacitive and one fluid pressure) in a static drift and cyclic loading configuration. The results show that relative to the important performance characteristics for soft tissue pressure monitoring (i.e. hysteresis, drift), many of the sensors tested have significant limitations. The FSRs exhibited hysteresis, drift and loss of sensitivity under cyclic loading. The capacitive sensor had substantial drift. The optical sensor had some hysteresis and temperature-related drift. The fluid pressure sensor performed well in these tests but is not as flat as the other sensors and is not commercially available. Researchers and clinicians should carefully consider the convenience and performance trade-offs when choosing a sensor for soft-tissue pressure monitoring.

  11. Advanced Packaging Technology Used in Fabricating a High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new aircraft engines requires the measurement of pressures in hot areas such as the combustor and the final stages of the compressor. The needs of the aircraft engine industry are not fully met by commercially available high-temperature pressure sensors, which are fabricated using silicon. Kulite Semiconductor Products and the NASA Glenn Research Center have been working together to develop silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors for use at high temperatures. At temperatures above 850 F, silicon begins to lose its nearly ideal elastic properties, so the output of a silicon pressure sensor will drift. SiC, however, maintains its nearly ideal mechanical properties to extremely high temperatures. Given a suitable sensor material, a key to the development of a practical high-temperature pressure sensor is the package. A SiC pressure sensor capable of operating at 930 F was fabricated using a newly developed package. The durability of this sensor was demonstrated in an on-engine test. The SiC pressure sensor uses a SiC diaphragm, which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. SiC strain gauges on the surface of the diaphragm sense the pressure difference across the diaphragm. Conventionally, the SiC chip is mounted to the package with the strain gauges outward, which exposes the sensitive metal contacts on the chip to the hostile measurement environment. In the new Kulite leadless package, the SiC chip is flipped over so that the metal contacts are protected from oxidation by a hermetic seal around the perimeter of the chip. In the leadless package, a conductive glass provides the electrical connection between the pins of the package and the chip, which eliminates the fragile gold wires used previously. The durability of the leadless SiC pressure sensor was demonstrated when two 930 F sensors were tested in the combustor of a Pratt & Whitney PW4000 series engine. Since the gas temperatures in these locations reach 1200 to 1300 F, the sensors were

  12. Design and Application of a High Sensitivity Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Low Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huiyang; Huang, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a pressure sensor for low pressure detection (0.5 kPa–40 kPa) is proposed. In one structure (No. 1), the silicon membrane is partly etched to form a crossed beam on its top for stress concentration. An aluminum layer is also deposited as part of the beam. Four piezoresistors are fabricated. Two are located at the two ends of the beam. The other two are located at the membrane periphery. Four piezoresistors connect into a Wheatstone bridge. To demonstrate the stress concentrate effect of this structure, two other structures were designed and fabricated. One is a flat membrane structure (No. 2), the other is a structure with the aluminum beam, but without etched silicon (No. 3). The measurement results of these three structures show that the No.1 structure has the highest sensitivity, which is about 3.8 times that of the No. 2 structure and 2.7 times that of the No. 3 structure. They also show that the residual stress in the beam has some backside effect on the sensor performance. PMID:26371001

  13. Flexible, Highly Sensitive, and Wearable Pressure and Strain Sensors with Graphene Porous Network Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Tian, He; Tao, Luqi; Li, Yuxing; Wang, Xuefeng; Deng, Ningqin; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-10-03

    A mechanical sensor with graphene porous network (GPN) combined with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated by the first time. Using the nickel foam as template and chemically etching method, the GPN can be created in the PDMS-nickel foam coated with graphene, which can achieve both pressure and strain sensing properties. Because of the pores in the GPN, the composite as pressure and strain sensor exhibit wide pressure sensing range and highest sensitivity among the graphene foam-based sensors, respectively. In addition, it shows potential applications in monitoring or even recognize the walking states, finger bending degree, and wrist blood pressure.

  14. Correlation between intrasac pressure measurements of a pressure sensor and an angiographic catheter during endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Galvagni Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish a correlation between intrasac pressure measurements of a pressure sensor and an angiographic catheter placed in the same aneurysm sac before and after its exclusion by an endoprosthesis. METHODS: Patients who underwent endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and received an EndoSureTM wireless pressure sensor implant between March 19 and December 11, 2004 were enrolled in the study. Simultaneous readings of systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse pressure within the aneurysm sac were obtained from the catheter and the sensor, both before and after sac exclusion by the endoprosthesis (Readings 1 and 2, respectively. Intrasac pressure measurements were compared using Pearson's correlation and Student's t test. Statistical significance was set at p0.05, mean (p>0.05, and pulse (p0.05 by the sensor. CONCLUSION: The excellent agreement between intrasac pressure readings recorded by the catheter and the sensor justifies use of the latter for detection of post-exclusion abdominal aortic aneurysm pressurization.

  15. New calibration method for I-scan sensors to enable the precise measurement of pressures delivered by 'pressure garments'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the pressure delivered by medical compression products is highly desirable both in monitoring treatment and in developing new pressure inducing garments or products. There are several complications in measuring pressure at the garment/body interface and at present no ideal pressure measurement tool exists for this purpose. This paper summarises a thorough evaluation of the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements taken following both of Tekscan Inc.'s recommended calibration procedures for I-scan sensors; and presents an improved method for calibrating and using I-scan pressure sensors. The proposed calibration method enables accurate (±2.1 mmHg) measurement of pressures delivered by pressure garments to body parts with a circumference ≥30 cm. This method is too cumbersome for routine clinical use but is very useful, accurate and reproducible for product development or clinical evaluation purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. A noncontact intraocular pressure measurement device using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Byeong Hee; Seo, Young Ho

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a novel, portable tonometer using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma. Because glaucoma progresses slowly and is not painful, glaucoma patients require a portable prediagnosis system to periodically measure intraocular pressure at home. Conventionally, intraocular pressure is measured by an air-puff tonometer whereby the cornea is deformed by a short pulse of air pressure and the magnitude of the corneal deformation is measured by optic systems such as a combination of laser- and photodiodes. In this study, a micro reflected air pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, and tested in order to measure the magnitude of corneal deformation without optic systems. In an experimental study, artificial eyes with different internal pressures were fabricated and these pressures were measured by the aforementioned system. (paper)

  17. Flexible, highly sensitive pressure sensor with a wide range based on graphene-silk network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Tao, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a flexible, simple-preparation, and low-cost graphene-silk pressure sensor based on soft silk substrate through thermal reduction was demonstrated. Taking silk as the support body, the device had formed a three-dimensional structure with ordered multi-layer structure. Through a simple and low-cost process technology, graphene-silk pressure sensor can achieve the sensitivity value of 0.4 kPa - 1 , and the measurement range can be as high as 140 kPa. Besides, pressure sensor can have a good combination with knitted clothing and textile product. The signal had good reproducibility in response to different pressures. Furthermore, graphene-silk pressure sensor can not only detect pressure higher than 100 kPa, but also can measure weak body signals. The characteristics of high-sensitivity, good repeatability, flexibility, and comfort for skin provide the high possibility to fit on various wearable electronics.

  18. A Flexible and Highly Sensitive Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Based on Micropatterned Films Coated with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-lin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent flexibility, high sensitivity, and low consumption are essential characteristics in flexible microtube pressure sensing occasion, for example, implantable medical devices, industrial pipeline, and microfluidic chip. This paper reports a flexible, highly sensitive, and ultrathin piezoresistive pressure sensor for fluid pressure sensing, whose sensing element is micropatterned films with conductive carbon nanotube layer. The flexible pressure sensor, the thickness of which is 40 ± 10 μm, could be economically fabricated by using biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. Experimental results show that the flexible pressure sensor has high sensitivity (0.047 kPa−1 in gas sensing and 5.6 × 10−3 kPa−1 in liquid sensing and low consumption (<180 μW, and the sensor could be used to measure the pressure in curved microtubes.

  19. MEMS capacitive pressure sensor monolithically integrated with CMOS readout circuit by using post CMOS processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Munseon; Yun, Kwang-Seok

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we presents a MEMS pressure sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip for an on-chip signal processing. The capacitive pressure sensor is formed on a CMOS chip by using a post-CMOS MEMS processes. The proposed device consists of a sensing capacitor that is square in shape, a reference capacitor and a readout circuitry based on a switched-capacitor scheme to detect capacitance change at various environmental pressures. The readout circuit was implemented by using a commercial 0.35 μm CMOS process with 2 polysilicon and 4 metal layers. Then, the pressure sensor was formed by wet etching of metal 2 layer through via hole structures. Experimental results show that the MEMS pressure sensor has a sensitivity of 11 mV/100 kPa at the pressure range of 100-400 kPa.

  20. A Wind Tunnel Study on the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) Lander Descent Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, J. Francisco; Coquilla, Rachael V.; Wilson, Gregory R.; Seiff, Alvin; Rivell, Tomas

    2001-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Mars Pathfinder lander local pressure readings in accordance with the actual ambient atmospheric pressures of Mars during parachute descent. In order to obtain good measurements, the plane of the lander pressure sensor opening should ideally be situated so that it is parallel to the freestream. However, due to two unfavorable conditions, the sensor was positioned in locations where correction factors are required. One of these disadvantages is due to the fact that the parachute attachment point rotated the lander's center of gravity forcing the location of the pressure sensor opening to be off tangent to the freestream. The second and most troublesome factor was that the lander descends with slight oscillations that could vary the amplitude of the sensor readings. In order to accurately map the correction factors required at each sensor position, an experiment simulating the lander descent was conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Using a 115 scale model at Earth ambient pressures, the test settings provided the necessary Reynolds number conditions in which the actual lander was possibly subjected to during the descent. In the analysis and results of this experiment, the readings from the lander sensor were converted to the form of pressure coefficients. With a contour map of pressure coefficients at each lander oscillatory position, this report will provide a guideline to determine the correction factors required for the Mars Pathfinder lander descent pressure sensor readings.

  1. An ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor for blast event measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Xingwei; Zou, Xiaotian; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Soldiers who are exposed to explosions are at risk of suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since the causal relationship between a blast and TBI is poorly understood, it is critical to have sensors that can accurately quantify the blast dynamics and resulting wave propagation through a helmet and skull that are imparted onto and inside the brain. To help quantify the cause of TBI, it is important to record transient pressure data during a blast event. However, very few sensors feature the capabilities of tracking the dynamic pressure transients due to the rapid change of the pressure during blast events, while not interfering with the physical material layers or wave propagation. In order to measure the pressure transients efficiently, a pressure sensor should have a high resonant frequency and a high spatial resolution. This paper describes an ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor based on the Fabry–Perot principle for the application of measuring the rapid pressure changes in a blast event. A shock tube experiment performed in US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center has demonstrated that the resonant frequency of the sensor is 4.12 MHz, which is relatively close to the designed theoretical value of 4.113 MHz. Moreover, the experiment illustrated that the sensor has a rise time of 120 ns, which demonstrates that the sensor is capable of observing the dynamics of the pressure transient during a blast event. (paper)

  2. Fabrication of All-SiC Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensors for High-Temperature Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonggang; Li, Jian; Zhou, Zhiwen; Jiang, Xinggang; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-10-17

    Single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC)-based pressure sensors can be used in harsh environments, as they exhibit stable mechanical and electrical properties at elevated temperatures. A fiber-optic pressure sensor with an all-SiC sensor head was fabricated and is herein proposed. SiC sensor diaphragms were fabricated via an ultrasonic vibration mill-grinding (UVMG) method, which resulted in a small grinding force and low surface roughness. The sensor head was formed by hermetically bonding two layers of SiC using a nickel diffusion bonding method. The pressure sensor illustrated a good linearity in the range of 0.1-0.9 MPa, with a resolution of 0.27% F.S. (full scale) at room temperature.

  3. An improved fiber optic pressure and temperature sensor for downhole application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref, S H; Zibaii, M I; Latifi, H

    2009-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a high pressure extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric (EFPI) fiber optic sensor for downhole applications by using a mechanical transducer. The mechanical transducer has been used for increasing the pressure sensitivity and the possibility of installation of the sensor downhole. The pressure–temperature cross-sensitivity (PTCS) problem has been solved by replacing the reflecting fiber with a metal microwire in the EFPI sensor. In this way the PTCS coefficient of the sensor was decreased from 47.25 psi °C −1 to 7 psi °C −1 . By using a new EFPI design, a temperature sensor was fabricated. Further improvement in the pressure and temperature sensor has been done by developing fabrication technique and signal processing

  4. Fabrication of All-SiC Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensors for High-Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC-based pressure sensors can be used in harsh environments, as they exhibit stable mechanical and electrical properties at elevated temperatures. A fiber-optic pressure sensor with an all-SiC sensor head was fabricated and is herein proposed. SiC sensor diaphragms were fabricated via an ultrasonic vibration mill-grinding (UVMG method, which resulted in a small grinding force and low surface roughness. The sensor head was formed by hermetically bonding two layers of SiC using a nickel diffusion bonding method. The pressure sensor illustrated a good linearity in the range of 0.1–0.9 MPa, with a resolution of 0.27% F.S. (full scale at room temperature.

  5. In-situ calibration of RTDs and pressure sensors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    New techniques have been developed and validated for in-situ calibration of pressure transmitters as installed in nuclear power plants. These new techniques originate from a desire within the nuclear industry to monitor the calibration of pressure sensors during normal power operation by monitoring the DC output of the sensors for any significant draft and other anomalies. Currently, the calibration of pressure sensors is performed once every fuel cycle (18-24 months). The work involves significant manpower, radiation exposure to plant personnel, and potential damage to the plant equipment. In-situ calibration offers the potential to identify the sensors that need to be replaced or require calibration during normal plant operation, and reduce the calibration effort during outages to those sensors that need to be calibrated, as opposed to calibrating all the sensors

  6. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV and scala tympani (ST is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures.

  7. High Temperature Capacitive Pressure Sensor Employing a SiC Based Ring Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Roger D.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Ponchak, George E.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Scardelletti, Maximilian; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Spry, David J.; Krawowski, Michael J.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to develop harsh environment electronic and sensor technologies for aircraft engine safety and monitoring, we have used capacitive-based pressure sensors to shift the frequency of a SiC-electronics-based oscillator to produce a pressure-indicating signal that can be readily transmitted, e.g. wirelessly, to a receiver located in a more benign environment. Our efforts target 500 C, a temperature well above normal operating conditions of commercial circuits but within areas of interest in aerospace engines, deep mining applications and for future missions to the Venus atmosphere. This paper reports for the first time a ring oscillator circuit integrated with a capacitive pressure sensor, both operating at 500 C. This demonstration represents a significant step towards a wireless pressure sensor that can operate at 500 C and confirms the viability of 500 C electronic sensor systems.

  8. Temperature-independent fiber-Bragg-grating-based atmospheric pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Shen, Chunyan; Li, Luming

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure is an important way to achieve a high degree of measurement for modern aircrafts, moreover, it is also an indispensable parameter in the meteorological telemetry system. With the development of society, people are increasingly concerned about the weather. Accurate and convenient atmospheric pressure parameters can provide strong support for meteorological analysis. However, electronic atmospheric pressure sensors currently in application suffer from several shortcomings. After an analysis and discussion, we propose an innovative structural design, in which a vacuum membrane box and a temperature-independent strain sensor based on an equal strength cantilever beam structure and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used. We provide experimental verification of that the atmospheric pressure sensor device has the characteristics of a simple structure, lack of an external power supply, automatic temperature compensation, and high sensitivity. The sensor system has good sensitivity, which can be up to 100 nm/MPa, and repeatability. In addition, the device exhibits desired hysteresis.

  9. Thin film metal sensors in fusion bonded glass chips for high-pressure microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Martin; Ek, Johan; Hedman, Ludvig; Johansson, Fredrik; Sehlstedt, Viktor; Stocklassa, Jesper; Snögren, Pär; Pettersson, Victor; Larsson, Jonas; Vizuete, Olivier; Hjort, Klas; Klintberg, Lena

    2017-01-01

    High-pressure microfluidics offers fast analyses of thermodynamic parameters for compressed process solvents. However, microfluidic platforms handling highly compressible supercritical CO 2 are difficult to control, and on-chip sensing would offer added control of the devices. Therefore, there is a need to integrate sensors into highly pressure tolerant glass chips. In this paper, thin film Pt sensors were embedded in shallow etched trenches in a glass wafer that was bonded with another glass wafer having microfluidic channels. The devices having sensors integrated into the flow channels sustained pressures up to 220 bar, typical for the operation of supercritical CO 2 . No leakage from the devices could be found. Integrated temperature sensors were capable of measuring local decompression cooling effects and integrated calorimetric sensors measured flow velocities over the range 0.5–13.8 mm s −1 . By this, a better control of high-pressure microfluidic platforms has been achieved. (paper)

  10. An Universal packaging technique for low-drift implantable pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Albert; Powell, Charles R; Ziaie, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring bodily pressures provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information. In particular, long-term measurement through implantable sensors is highly desirable in situations where percutaneous access can be complicated or dangerous (e.g., intracranial pressure in hydrocephalic patients). In spite of decades of progress in the fabrication of miniature solid-state pressure sensors, sensor drift has so far severely limited their application in implantable systems. In this paper, we report on a universal packaging technique for reducing the sensor drift. The described method isolates the pressure sensor from a major source of drift, i.e., contact with the aqueous surrounding environment, by encasing the sensor in a silicone-filled medical-grade polyurethane balloon. In-vitro soak tests for 100 days using commercial micromachined piezoresistive pressure sensors demonstrate a stable operation with the output remaining within 1.8 cmH2O (1.3 mmHg) of a reference pressure transducer. Under similar test conditions, a non-isolated sensor fluctuates between 10 and 20 cmH2O (7.4-14.7 mmHg) of the reference, without ever settling to a stable operation regime. Implantation in Ossabow pigs demonstrate the robustness of the package and its in-vivo efficacy in reducing the baseline drift.

  11. Evaluation of Flexible Force Sensors for Pressure Monitoring in Treatment of Chronic Venous Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Suresh; Khodasevych, Iryna; Troynikov, Olga

    2017-08-21

    The recent use of graduated compression therapy for treatment of chronic venous disorders such as leg ulcers and oedema has led to considerable research interest in flexible and low-cost force sensors. Properly applied low pressure during compression therapy can substantially improve the treatment of chronic venous disorders. However, achievement of the recommended low pressure levels and its accurate determination in real-life conditions is still a challenge. Several thin and flexible force sensors, which can also function as pressure sensors, are commercially available, but their real-life sensing performance has not been evaluated. Moreover, no researchers have reported information on sensor performance during static and dynamic loading within the realistic test conditions required for compression therapy. This research investigated the sensing performance of five low-cost commercial pressure sensors on a human-leg-like test apparatus and presents quantitative results on the accuracy and drift behaviour of these sensors in both static and dynamic conditions required for compression therapy. Extensive experimental work on this new human-leg-like test setup demonstrated its utility for evaluating the sensors. Results showed variation in static and dynamic sensing performance, including accuracy and drift characteristics. Only one commercially available pressure sensor was found to reliably deliver accuracy of 95% and above for all three test pressure points of 30, 50 and 70 mmHg.

  12. High temperature piezoresistive {beta}-SiC-on-SOI pressure sensor for combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. von; Ziermann, R.; Reichert, W.; Obermeier, E. [Tech. Univ. Berlin (Germany). Microsensor and Actuator Technol. Center; Eickhoff, M.; Kroetz, G. [Daimler Benz AG, Munich (Germany); Thoma, U.; Boltshauser, T.; Cavalloni, C. [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Nendza, J.P. [TRW Deutschland GmbH, Barsinghausen (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    For measuring the cylinder pressure in combustion engines of automobiles a high temperature pressure sensor has been developed. The sensor is made of a membrane based piezoresistive {beta}-SiC-on-SOI (SiCOI) sensor chip and a specially designed housing. The SiCOI sensor was characterized under static pressures of up to 200 bar in the temperature range between room temperature and 300 C. The sensitivity of the sensor at room temperature is approximately 0.19 mV/bar and decreases to about 0.12 mV/bar at 300 C. For monitoring the dynamic cylinder pressure the sensor was placed into the combustion chamber of a gasoline engine. The measurements were performed at 1500 rpm under different loads, and for comparison a quartz pressure transducer from Kistler AG was used as a reference. The maximum pressure at partial load operation amounts to about 15 bar. The difference between the calibrated SiCOI sensor and the reference sensor is significantly less than 1 bar during the whole operation. (orig.) 8 refs.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of bending and pressure sensors for a soft prosthetic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rui Pedro; Alhais Lopes, Pedro; de Almeida, Anibal T.; Tavakoli, Mahmoud; Majidi, Carmel

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate fabrication, characterization, and implementation of ‘soft-matter’ pressure and bending sensors for a soft robotic hand. The elastomer-based sensors are embedded in a robot finger composed of a 3D printed endoskeleton and covered by an elastomeric skin. Two types of sensors are evaluated, resistive pressure sensors and capacitive pressure sensors. The sensor is fabricated entirely out of insulating and conductive rubber, the latter composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer embedded with a percolating network of structured carbon black (CB). The sensor-integrated fingers have a simple materials architecture, can be fabricated with standard rapid prototyping methods, and are inexpensive to produce. When incorporated into a robotic hand, the CB-PDMS sensors and PDMS carrier medium function as an ‘artificial skin’ for touch and bend detection. Results show improved response with a capacitive sensor architecture, which, unlike a resistive sensor, is robust to electromechanical hysteresis, creep, and drift in the CB-PDMS composite. The sensorized fingers are integrated in an anthropomorphic hand and results for a variety of grasping tasks are presented.

  14. Determination of time constants of reactor pressure and temperature sensors: the dynamic data system method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.M.; Hsu, M.C.; Chow, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    A new modeling technique is introduced for on-line sensor time constant identification, both for the resistance temperature detector (RTD) and for the pressure sensor using power plant operational data. The sensor's time constant is estimated from a real characteristic root of the fitted autoregressive moving average model. The RTD's time constant values were identified to be 8.4 s, with a standard deviation of 1.2 s. The pressure sensor time constant was identified to be 28.6 ms, with a standard deviation of 3.5 ms

  15. Sensor response monitoring in pressurized water reactors using time series modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kerlin, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Random data analysis in nuclear power reactors for purposes of process surveillance, pattern recognition and monitoring of temperature, pressure, flow and neutron sensors has gained increasing attention in view of their potential for helping to ensure safe plant operation. In this study, application of autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) time series modeling for monitoring temperature sensor response characteristrics is presented. The ARMA model is used to estimate the step and ramp response of the sensors and the related time constant and ramp delay time. The ARMA parameters are estimated by a two-stage algorithm in the spectral domain. Results of sensor testing for an operating pressurized water reactor are presented. 16 refs

  16. Facile Fabrication of Multi-hierarchical Porous Polyaniline Composite as Pressure Sensor and Gas Sensor with Adjustable Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Jin-Tao; Jia, Xian-Sheng; Tong, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jie; Ning, Xin; Long, Yun-Ze

    2017-08-01

    A multi-hierarchical porous polyaniline (PANI) composite which could be used in good performance pressure sensor and adjustable sensitivity gas sensor has been fabricated by a facile in situ polymerization. Commercial grade sponge was utilized as a template scaffold to deposit PANI via in situ polymerization. With abundant interconnected pores throughout the whole structure, the sponge provided sufficient surface for the growth of PANI nanobranches. The flexible porous structure helped the composite to show high performance in pressure detection with fast response and favorable recoverability and gas detection with adjustable sensitivity. The sensing mechanism of the PANI/sponge-based flexible sensor has also been discussed. The results indicate that this work provides a feasible approach to fabricate efficient sensors with advantages of low cost, facile preparation, and easy signal collection.

  17. Flexible hemispheric microarrays of highly pressure-sensitive sensors based on breath figure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Jin; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2018-05-30

    Recently, flexible pressure sensors featuring high sensitivity, broad sensing range and real-time detection have aroused great attention owing to their crucial role in the development of artificial intelligent devices and healthcare systems. Herein, highly sensitive pressure sensors based on hemisphere-microarray flexible substrates are fabricated via inversely templating honeycomb structures deriving from a facile and static breath figure process. The interlocked and subtle microstructures greatly improve the sensing characteristics and compressibility of the as-prepared pressure sensor, endowing it a sensitivity as high as 196 kPa-1 and a wide pressure sensing range (0-100 kPa), as well as other superior performance, including a lower detection limit of 0.5 Pa, fast response time (10 000 cycles). Based on the outstanding sensing performance, the potential capability of our pressure sensor in capturing physiological information and recognizing speech signals has been demonstrated, indicating promising application in wearable and intelligent electronics.

  18. Combined Differential and Static Pressure Sensor based on a Double-Bridged Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper; Jespersen, S.T.; Krog, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    A combined differential and static silicon microelectromechanical system pressure sensor based on a double piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge structure is presented. The developed sensor has a conventional (inner) bridge on a micromachined diaphragm and a secondary (outer) bridge on the chip...... substrate. A novel approach is demonstrated with a combined measurement of outputs from the two bridges, which results in a combined deduction of both differential and static media pressure. Also following this new approach, a significant improvement in differential pressure sensor accuracy is achieved....... Output from the two bridges depends linearly on both differential and absolute (relative to atmospheric pressure) media pressure. Furthermore, the sensor stress distributions involved are studied by three-dimensional finite-element (FE) stress analysis. Furthermore, the FE analysis evaluates current...

  19. Direct Printing of Stretchable Elastomers for Highly Sensitive Capillary Pressure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenguang; Yan, Chaoyi

    2018-03-28

    We demonstrate the successful fabrication of highly sensitive capillary pressure sensors using an innovative 3D printing method. Unlike conventional capacitive pressure sensors where the capacitance changes were due to the pressure-induced interspace variations between the parallel plate electrodes, in our capillary sensors the capacitance was determined by the extrusion and extraction of liquid medium and consequent changes of dielectric constants. Significant pressure sensitivity advances up to 547.9 KPa -1 were achieved. Moreover, we suggest that our innovative capillary pressure sensors can adopt a wide range of liquid mediums, such as ethanol, deionized water, and their mixtures. The devices also showed stable performances upon repeated pressing cycles. The direct and versatile printing method combined with the significant performance advances are expected to find important applications in future stretchable and wearable electronics.

  20. Facile Fabrication of Multi-hierarchical Porous Polyaniline Composite as Pressure Sensor and Gas Sensor with Adjustable Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Jin-Tao; Jia, Xian-Sheng; Tong, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jie; Ning, Xin; Long, Yun-Ze

    2017-01-01

    A multi-hierarchical porous polyaniline (PANI) composite which could be used in good performance pressure sensor and adjustable sensitivity gas sensor has been fabricated by a facile in situ polymerization. Commercial grade sponge was utilized as a template scaffold to deposit PANI via in situ polymerization. With abundant interconnected pores throughout the whole structure, the sponge provided sufficient surface for the growth of PANI nanobranches. The flexible porous structure helped the co...

  1. Research on Water Velocity Measurement of Reservoir Based on Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To address the problem that pressure sensor can only measure the liquid level in reservoir, we designed a current velocity measurement system of reservoir based on pressure sensor, analyzed the error of current velocity measurement system, and proposed the error processing method and corresponding program. Several tests and experimental results show that in this measurement system, the liquid level measurement standard deviation is no more than 0.01 cm, and the current velocity measurement standard deviation is no more than 0.35 mL/s, which proves that the pressure sensor can measure both liquid level and current velocity synchronously.

  2. An Optical Fibre Depth (Pressure) Sensor for Remote Operated Vehicles in Underwater Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraibabu, Dinesh Babu; Poeggel, Sven; Omerdic, Edin; Capocci, Romano; Lewis, Elfed; Newe, Thomas; Leen, Gabriel; Toal, Daniel; Dooly, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    A miniature sensor for accurate measurement of pressure (depth) with temperature compensation in the ocean environment is described. The sensor is based on an optical fibre Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) combined with a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG). The EFPI provides pressure measurements while the Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) provides temperature measurements. The sensor is mechanically robust, corrosion-resistant and suitable for use in underwater applications. The combined pressure and temperature sensor system was mounted on-board a mini remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) in order to monitor the pressure changes at various depths. The reflected optical spectrum from the sensor was monitored online and a pressure or temperature change caused a corresponding observable shift in the received optical spectrum. The sensor exhibited excellent stability when measured over a 2 h period underwater and its performance is compared with a commercially available reference sensor also mounted on the ROV. The measurements illustrates that the EFPI/FBG sensor is more accurate for depth measurements (depth of ~0.020 m). PMID:28218727

  3. Attachment of MEM piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor dies using different adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Vesna B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives comparison and discussion of adhesives used for attachment of silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor dies. Special attention is paid on low pressure sensor dies because of their extreme sensitivity on stresses, which can arise from packaging procedure and applied materials. Commercially available adhesives “Scotch Weld 2214 Hi-Temp” from “3M Co.” and “DM2700P/H848” from “DIEMAT”, USA, were compared. First of them is aluminum filled epoxy adhesive and second is low melting temperature (LMT glass paste. Comparing test results for low pressure sensor chips we found that LMT glass (glass frit is better adhesive for this application. Applying LMT glass paste minimizes internal stresses caused by disagreement of coefficients of thermal expansions between sensor die and housing material. Also, it minimizes stresses introduced during applying external loads in the process of pressure measuring. Regarding the measurements, for the sensors installed with filled epoxy paste, resistor for compensation of temperature offset change had negative values in all cases, which means that linear temperature compensation, of sensors installed this way, would be impossible. In the sensors installed with LMT glass paste, all results, without exception, were in their common limits (values, which give the possibility of passive temperature compensation. Furthermore, LMT glass attachment can broaden temperature operating range of MEM silicon pressure sensors towards higher values, up to 120 ºC.

  4. Noise reducing screen devices for in-flow pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Fredric (Inventor); Liu, Sandy (Inventor); Jaeger, Stephen (Inventor); Horne, W. Clifton (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An acoustic sensor assembly is provided for sensing acoustic signals in a moving fluid such as high speed fluid stream. The assembly includes one or more acoustic sensors and a porous, acoustically transparent screen supported between the moving fluid stream and the sensor and having a major surface disposed so as to be tangent to the moving fluid. A layer of reduced velocity fluid separating the sensor from the porous screen. This reduced velocity fluid can comprise substantially still air. A foam filler material attenuates acoustic signals arriving at the assembly from other than a predetermined range of incident angles.

  5. Acoustic calibration apparatus for calibrating plethysmographic acoustic pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Davis, David C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for calibrating an acoustic sensor is described. The apparatus includes a transmission material having an acoustic impedance approximately matching the acoustic impedance of the actual acoustic medium existing when the acoustic sensor is applied in actual in-service conditions. An elastic container holds the transmission material. A first sensor is coupled to the container at a first location on the container and a second sensor coupled to the container at a second location on the container, the second location being different from the first location. A sound producing device is coupled to the container and transmits acoustic signals inside the container.

  6. Wireless Prototype Based on Pressure and Bending Sensors for Measuring Gate Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenez, Florent; Villarejo, María Viqueira; Zapirain, Begoña García; Zorrilla, Amaia Méndez

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a technological solution based on sensors controlled remotely in order to monitor, track and evaluate the gait quality in people with or without associated pathology. Special hardware simulating a shoe was developed, which consists of three pressure sensors, two bending sensors, an Arduino mini and a Bluetooth module. The obtained signals are digitally processed, calculating the standard deviation and establishing thresholds obtained empirically. A group of users was chosen with the aim of executing two modalities: natural walking and dragging the left foot. The gait was parameterized with the following variables: as far as pressure sensors are concerned, one pressure sensor under the first metatarsal (right sensor), another one under the fifth metatarsal (left) and a third one under the heel were placed. With respect to bending sensors, one bending sensor was placed for the ankle movement and another one for the foot sole. The obtained results show a rate accuracy oscillating between 85% (right sensor) and 100% (heel and bending sensors). Therefore, the developed prototype is able to differentiate between healthy gait and pathological gait, and it will be used as the base of a more complex and integral technological solution, which is being developed currently. PMID:23899935

  7. The trade-off characteristics of acoustic and pressure sensors for the NASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Martin; Bush, Chuck

    1992-01-01

    Results of a trade study for the development of pressure and acoustic sensors for use on the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) are summarized. Pressure sensors are needed to operate to 100 psia; acoustic sensors are needed that can give meaningful information about a 200 dB sound pressure level (SPL) environment. Both sensors will have to operate from a high temperature of 2000 F down to absolute zero. The main conclusions of the study are the following: (1) Diaphragm materials limit minimum size and maximum frequency response attainable. (2) No transduction is available to meet all the NASP requirements with existing technology. (3) Capacitive sensors are large relative to the requirement, have limited resolution and frequency response due to noise, and cable length is limited to approximately 20 feet. (4) Eddy current sensors are large relative to the requirement and have limited cable lengths. (5) Fiber optic sensors provide the possibility for a small sensor, even though present developments do not exhibit that characteristic. The need to use sapphire at high temperature complicates the design. Present high temperature research sensors suffer from poor resolution. A significant development effort will be required to realize the potential of fiber optics. (6) Short-term development seems to favor eddy current techniques with the penalty of larger size and reduced dynamic range for acoustic sensors. (7) Long-term development may favor fiber optics with the penalties of cost, schedule, and uncertainty.

  8. Wireless prototype based on pressure and bending sensors for measuring gait [corrected] quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenez, Florent; Viqueira Villarejo, María; García Zapirain, Begoña; Méndez Zorrilla, Amaia

    2013-07-29

    This paper presents a technological solution based on sensors controlled remotely in order to monitor, track and evaluate the gait quality in people with or without associated pathology. Special hardware simulating a shoe was developed, which consists of three pressure sensors, two bending sensors, an Arduino mini and a Bluetooth module. The obtained signals are digitally processed, calculating the standard deviation and establishing thresholds obtained empirically. A group of users was chosen with the aim of executing two modalities: natural walking and dragging the left foot. The gait was parameterized with the following variables: as far as pressure sensors are concerned, one pressure sensor under the first metatarsal (right sensor), another one under the fifth metatarsal (left) and a third one under the heel were placed. With respect to bending sensors, one bending sensor was placed for the ankle movement and another one for the foot sole. The obtained results show a rate accuracy oscillating between 85% (right sensor) and 100% (heel and bending sensors). Therefore, the developed prototype is able to differentiate between healthy gait and pathological gait, and it will be used as the base of a more complex and integral technological solution, which is being developed currently.

  9. Wireless Prototype Based on Pressure and Bending Sensors for Measuring Gate Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Méndez Zorrilla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technological solution based on sensors controlled remotely in order to monitor, track and evaluate the gait quality in people with or without associated pathology. Special hardware simulating a shoe was developed, which consists of three pressure sensors, two bending sensors, an Arduino mini and a Bluetooth module. The obtained signals are digitally processed, calculating the standard deviation and establishing thresholds obtained empirically. A group of users was chosen with the aim of executing two modalities: natural walking and dragging the left foot. The gait was parameterized with the following variables: as far as pressure sensors are concerned, one pressure sensor under the first metatarsal (right sensor, another one under the fifth metatarsal (left and a third one under the heel were placed. With respect to bending sensors, one bending sensor was placed for the ankle movement and another one for the foot sole. The obtained results show a rate accuracy oscillating between 85% (right sensor and 100% (heel and bending sensors. Therefore, the developed prototype is able to differentiate between healthy gait and pathological gait, and it will be used as the base of a more complex and integral technological solution, which is being developed currently.

  10. Novel highly sensitive and wearable pressure sensors from conductive three-dimensional fabric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Xu, Bingang

    2015-01-01

    Pressure sensors based on three-dimensional fabrics have all the excellent properties of the textile substrate: excellent compressibility, good air permeability and moisture transmission ability, which will find applications ranging from the healthcare industry to daily usage. In this paper, novel pressure sensors based on 3D spacer fabrics have been developed by a proposed multi-coating method. By this coating method, carbon black can be coated uniformly on the silicon elastomer which is attached and slightly cured on the 3D fabric surface beforehand. The as-made pressure sensors have good conductivity and can measure external pressure up to 283 kPa with an electrical conductivity range of 9.8 kΩ. The sensitivity of 3D fabric pressure sensors can be as high as 50.31×10 −3 kPa −1 , which is better than other textile based pressure sensors. When the as-made sensors are pressed, their electrical resistance will decrease because of more conductive connections and bending of fibers in the spacer layer. The sensing mechanism related to fiber bending has been explored by using an equivalent resistance model. The newly developed 3D sensor devices can be designed to exhibit different sensing performances by simply changing the structures of fabric substrate, which endows this kind of device more flexibility in related applications. (paper)

  11. FEM Simulation of Influence of Protective Encapsulation on MEMS Pressure Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Qingshan; Janting, Jakob; Branebjerg, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the work is to evaluate the feasibility of packaging a MEMS silicon pressure sensor by using either a polymer encapsulation or a combination of a polymer encapsulation and a metallic protection Membrane (fig. 1). The potential application of the protected sensor is for harsh...... environments. Several steps of simulation are carried out:1) Comparisons of the sensitivities are made among the non-encapsulated silicon sensor, the polymer encapsulated and polymer with metal encapsulated sensor. This is for evaluating whether the encapsulating materials reduce the pressure sensitivity...... whether the metallic membrane / coating will peel off when applying the maximum pressure, which is 4000 bar leading to high shear stress between the metallic membrane and the polymer encapsulation material.3) Thermal calculations are made to evaluate the influence of the environment on the packaged sensor...

  12. Fabrications and Performance of Wireless LC Pressure Sensors through LTCC Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Ma, Mingsheng; Zhang, Faqiang; Liu, Feng; Liu, Zhifu; Li, Yongxiang

    2018-01-25

    This paper presents a kind of passive wireless pressure sensor comprised of a planar spiral inductor and a cavity parallel plate capacitor fabricated through low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology. The LTCC material with a low Young's modulus of ~65 GPa prepared by our laboratory was used to obtain high sensitivity. A three-step lamination process was applied to construct a high quality cavity structure without using any sacrificial materials. The effects of the thickness of the sensing membranes on the sensitivity and detection range of the pressure sensors were investigated. The sensor with a 148 μm sensing membrane showed the highest sensitivity of 3.76 kHz/kPa, and the sensor with a 432 μm sensing membrane presented a high detection limit of 2660 kPa. The tunable sensitivity and detection limit of the wireless pressure sensors can meet the requirements of different scenes.

  13. Flexible Pressure Sensor with Ag Wrinkled Electrodes Based on PDMS Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible pressure sensors are essential components of electronic skins for future attractive applications ranging from human healthcare monitoring to biomedical diagnostics, robotic skins, and prosthetic limbs. Here we report a new kind of flexible pressure sensor. The sensors are capacitive, and composed of two Ag wrinkled electrodes separated by a carbon nanotubes (CNTs/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS composite deformable dielectric layer. Ag wrinkled electrodes were formed by vacuum deposition on top of pre-strained and relaxed PDMS substrates which were treated using an O2 plasma, a surface functionalization process, and a magnetron sputtering process. Ultimately, the developed sensor exhibits a maximum sensitivity of 19.80% kPa−1 to capacitance, great durability over 500 cycles, and rapid mechanical responses (<200 ms. We also demonstrate that our sensor can be used to effectively detect the location and distribution of finger pressure.

  14. New type of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Environments with Rapidly Changing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhan Myroslav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of a new type of piezo-resistive pressure sensors for environments with rapidly changing temperatures are presented. The idea is that the sensor has two identical diaphragms which have different coefficients of linear thermal expansion. Therefore, when measuring pressure in environments with variable temperature, the diaphragms will have different deflection. This difference can be used to make appropriate correction of the sensor output signal and, thus, to increase accuracy of measurement. Since physical principles of sensors operation enable fast correction of the output signal, the sensor can be used in environments with rapidly changing temperature, which is its essential advantage. The paper presents practical implementation of the proposed theoretical aspects and the results of testing the developed sensor.

  15. Validation of a new micro-manometer pressure sensor for cardiovascular measurements in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Rodolfo J; Jones, Douglas L; Escobedo, Daniel; Porterfield, John; Larson, Erik; Chisholm, Gary B; Barton, Amanda; Feldman, Marc D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Scisense (London, ON, Canada) micro-manometer pressure sensor is currently being used by investigators to evaluate cardiovascular physiology in mice, but has not been validated to date. The purpose of the current study is to compare the 1.2 F Scisense pressure sensor to the current gold standard produced by Millar Instruments (Houston, TX) (1.4 F). In vitro comparisons were preformed including temperature drift, frequency response analysis up to 250 Hz, and damping coefficient and natural frequency determined via a pop test. The authors also performed in vivo comparisons including pressure drift, dose-response studies to IV isoproterenol, maximum adrenergic stimulation with IV dobutamine, and simultaneous placement of both micro-manometer pressure sensors in the same intact murine hearts. The authors conclude that both sensors are equivalent, and that the Scisense pressure sensor represents an alternative to the current gold standard, the Millar micro-manometer pressure sensor for in vivo pressure measurements in the mouse.

  16. Telemetric Evaluation of Body Temperature and Physical Activity as Predictors of Mortality in a Murine Model of Staphylococcal Enterotoxic Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vlach, Kim

    2000-01-01

    .... This study determined whether body temperature and physical activity, monitored telemetrically, could predict impending death and provide an earlier, more humane experimental endpoint. Methods...

  17. A GENERIC PACKAGING TECHNIQUE USING FLUIDIC ISOLATION FOR LOW-DRIFT IMPLANTABLE PRESSURE SENSORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A; Powell, C R; Ziaie, B

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on a generic packaging method for reducing drift in implantable pressure sensors. The described technique uses fluidic isolation by encasing the pressure sensor in a liquid-filled medical-grade polyurethane balloon; thus, isolating it from surrounding aqueous environment that is the major source of baseline drift. In-vitro tests using commercial micromachined piezoresistive pressure sensors show an average baseline drift of 0.006 cmH 2 O/day (0.13 mmHg/month) for over 100 days of saline soak test, as compared to 0.101 cmH 2 O/day (2.23 mmHg/month) for a non-fluidic-isolated one soaked for 18 days. To our knowledge, this is the lowest reported drift for an implantable pressure sensor.

  18. The annealing effects on irradiated SiC piezo resistive pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaz, E.; Blue, T. E.; Zhang, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of temperature on annealing of Silicon Carbide (SiC) piezo resistive pressure sensor which was broken after high fluence neutron irradiation, were investigated. Previously, SiC piezo resistive sensor irradiated with gamma ray and fast neutron in the Co-60 gamma-ray irradiator and Beam Port 1 (BP1) and Auxiliary Irradiation Facility (AIF) at the Ohio State University Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (OSUNRL) respectively. The Annealing temperatures were tested up to 400 C. The Pressure-Output voltage results showed recovery after annealing process on SiC piezo resistive pressure sensor. The bridge resistances of the SiC pressure sensor stayed at the same level up to 300 C. After 400 C annealing, the resistance values changed dramatically.

  19. High-Frequency Flush Mounted Miniature LOX Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor II, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations has teamed with the University of Alabama, Huntsville, to develop a miniature flush-mounted fiber-optic pressure sensor that will allow accurate,...

  20. High-Frequency Flush Mounted Miniature LOX Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations is teaming with the University of Alabama, Huntsville, to develop a miniature flush-mounted fiber-optic pressure sensor that will allow accurate,...

  1. High-Temperature, High-Bandwidth Fiber Optic Pressure and Temperature Sensors for Gas Turbine Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fielder, Robert S; Palmer, Matthew E

    2003-01-01

    ..., and redesign compressor and turbine stages based on actual measurements. There currently exists no sensor technology capable of making pressure measurements in the critical hot regions of gas turbine engines...

  2. Fabrication of an Implantable Micro-pressure Sensor to Measure Deviation Within the Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Perez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cochlear Implant is broadly worn by people with deep hearing damage. This device makes up an electrode array to electrically stimulate the auditory nerves. When the electrode is implanted into the inner ear by surgery, the scala tympani is ill-treated due to the strong pressure applied on the internal ear structures. To minimize this intra-cochlear trauma, it is proposed to fabricate a micro pressure-sensor and built it in the electrode array, in such a way that the pressure applied by the electrode is measured. This work selected the MEMS SU-8 Fabry-Perot interferometer-based pressure sensor. This paper describes the sensor fabrication process carried out, and explains how to integrate this sensor with the electrode array.

  3. Development of temperature stable charge based piezoelectric composite quasi-static pressure sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2010-01-01

    In this work piezoelectric composite charge based sensors are developed, aimed at quasi-static pressure sensor or switch type applications. The use of piezoelectric composite materials allows for manufacturing robust devices which can easily be integrated with conventional polymer processing.

  4. One-Dimensional Contact Mode Interdigitated Center of Pressure Sensor (CMIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Kang, Jinho; Park, Cheol; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E.

    2009-01-01

    A one dimensional contact mode interdigitated center of pressure sensor (CMIPS) has been developed. The experimental study demonstrated that the CMIPS has the capability to measure the overall pressure as well as the center of pressure in one dimension, simultaneously. A theoretical model for the CMIPS is established here based on the equivalent circuit of the configuration of the CMIPS as well as the material properties of the sensor. The experimental results match well with theoretical modeling predictions. A system mapped with two or more pieces of the CMIPS can be used to obtain information from the pressure distribution in multi-dimensions.

  5. Development of a CMOS MEMS pressure sensor with a mechanical force-displacement transduction structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chao-Lin; Chang, Heng-Chung; Fang, Weileun; Chang, Chun-I

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a capacitive pressure sensor with a mechanical force-displacement transduction structure based on the commercially available standard CMOS process (the TSMC 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process). The pressure sensor has a deformable diaphragm to support a movable plate with an embedded sensing electrode. As the diaphragm is deformed by the ambient pressure, the movable plate and its embedded sensing electrode are displaced. Thus, the pressure is detected from the capacitance change between the movable and fixed electrodes. The undeformed movable electrode will increase the effective sensing area between the sensing electrodes, thereby improving the sensitivity. Experimental results show that the proposed pressure sensor with a force-displacement transducer will increase the sensitivity by 126% within the 20 kPa–300 kPa absolute pressure range. Moreover, this study extends the design to add pillars inside the pressure sensor to further increase its sensing area as well as sensitivity. A sensitivity improvement of 117% is also demonstrated for a pressure sensor with an enlarged sensing electrode (the overlap area is increased two fold). (paper)

  6. Highly Sensitive and Patchable Pressure Sensors Mimicking Ion-Channel-Engaged Sensory Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Son, Young Jun; Han, Chang-Soo

    2016-04-26

    Biological ion channels have led to much inspiration because of their unique and exquisite operational functions in living cells. Specifically, their extreme and dynamic sensing abilities can be realized by the combination of receptors and nanopores coupled together to construct an ion channel system. In the current study, we demonstrated that artificial ion channel pressure sensors inspired by nature for detecting pressure are highly sensitive and patchable. Our ion channel pressure sensors basically consisted of receptors and nanopore membranes, enabling dynamic current responses to external forces for multiple applications. The ion channel pressure sensors had a sensitivity of ∼5.6 kPa(-1) and a response time of ∼12 ms at a frequency of 1 Hz. The power consumption was recorded as less than a few μW. Moreover, a reliability test showed stability over 10 000 loading-unloading cycles. Additionally, linear regression was performed in terms of temperature, which showed no significant variations, and there were no significant current variations with humidity. The patchable ion channel pressure sensors were then used to detect blood pressure/pulse in humans, and different signals were clearly observed for each person. Additionally, modified ion channel pressure sensors detected complex motions including pressing and folding in a high-pressure range (10-20 kPa).

  7. A High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with an Integrated Signal-Conditioning Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of a high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit, which consists of an encapsulated pressure-sensitive chip, a temperature compensation circuit and a signal-conditioning circuit. A silicon on insulation (SOI material and a standard MEMS process are used in the pressure-sensitive chip fabrication, and high-temperature electronic components are adopted in the temperature-compensation and signal-conditioning circuits. The entire pressure sensor achieves a hermetic seal and can be operated long-term in the range of −50 °C to 220 °C. Unlike traditional pressure sensor output voltage ranges (in the dozens to hundreds of millivolts, the output voltage of this sensor is from 0 V to 5 V, which can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and measurement accuracy in practical applications of long-term transmission based on experimental verification. Furthermore, because this flexible sensor’s output voltage is adjustable, general follow-up pressure transmitter devices for voltage converters need not be used, which greatly reduces the cost of the test system. Thus, the proposed high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit is expected to be highly applicable to pressure measurements in harsh environments.

  8. Temperature Compensation Fiber Bragg Grating Pressure Sensor Based on Plane Diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minfu; Fang, Xinqiu; Ning, Yaosheng

    2018-03-01

    Pressure sensors are the essential equipments in the field of pressure measurement. In this work, we propose a temperature compensation fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensor based on the plane diaphragm. The plane diaphragm and pressure sensitivity FBG (PS FBG) are used as the pressure sensitive components, and the temperature compensation FBG (TC FBG) is used to improve the temperature cross-sensitivity. Mechanical deformation model and deformation characteristics simulation analysis of the diaphragm are presented. The measurement principle and theoretical analysis of the mathematical relationship between the FBG central wavelength shift and pressure of the sensor are introduced. The sensitivity and measure range can be adjusted by utilizing the different materials and sizes of the diaphragm to accommodate different measure environments. The performance experiments are carried out, and the results indicate that the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is 35.7 pm/MPa in a range from 0 MPa to 50 MPa and has good linearity with a linear fitting correlation coefficient of 99.95%. In addition, the sensor has the advantages of low frequency chirp and high stability, which can be used to measure pressure in mining engineering, civil engineering, or other complex environment.

  9. Temperature Compensation Fiber Bragg Grating Pressure Sensor Based on Plane Diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minfu; Fang, Xinqiu; Ning, Yaosheng

    2018-06-01

    Pressure sensors are the essential equipments in the field of pressure measurement. In this work, we propose a temperature compensation fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensor based on the plane diaphragm. The plane diaphragm and pressure sensitivity FBG (PS FBG) are used as the pressure sensitive components, and the temperature compensation FBG (TC FBG) is used to improve the temperature cross-sensitivity. Mechanical deformation model and deformation characteristics simulation analysis of the diaphragm are presented. The measurement principle and theoretical analysis of the mathematical relationship between the FBG central wavelength shift and pressure of the sensor are introduced. The sensitivity and measure range can be adjusted by utilizing the different materials and sizes of the diaphragm to accommodate different measure environments. The performance experiments are carried out, and the results indicate that the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is 35.7 pm/MPa in a range from 0 MPa to 50 MPa and has good linearity with a linear fitting correlation coefficient of 99.95%. In addition, the sensor has the advantages of low frequency chirp and high stability, which can be used to measure pressure in mining engineering, civil engineering, or other complex environment.

  10. Wireless contactless pressure measurement of an LC passive pressure sensor with a novel antenna for high-temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Tan, Qiu-Lin; Xue, Chen-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Dong; Li, Yun-Zhi; Xiong, Ji-Jun

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a novel antenna is proposed for high-temperature testing, which can make the high-temperature pressure characteristics of a wireless passive ceramic pressure sensor demonstrated at up to a temperature of 600 °C. The design parameters of the antenna are similar to those of the sensor, which will increase the coupling strength between the sensor and testing antenna. The antenna is fabricated in thick film integrated technology, and the properties of the alumina ceramic and silver ensure the feasibility of the antenna in high-temperature environments. The sensor, coupled with the ceramic antenna, is investigated using a high-temperature pressure testing platform. The experimental measurement results show that the pressure signal in a harsh environment can be detected by the frequency diversity of the sensor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars, China (Grant No. 51425505), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61471324), the Program for the Outstanding Innovative Teams of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013-077), and the Graduate Students Outstanding Innovation Project of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 20143020).

  11. A Simple Model for Complex Fabrication of MEMS based Pressure Sensor: A Challenging Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani SHARMA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have presented the simple model for complex fabrication of MEMS based absolute micro pressure sensor. This kind of modeling is extremely useful for determining its complexity in fabrication steps and provides complete information about process sequence to be followed during manufacturing. Therefore, the need for test iteration decreases and cost, time can be reduced significantly. By using DevEdit tool (part of SILVACO tool, a behavioral model of pressure sensor have been presented and implemented.

  12. On-line measurements of response time of temperature and pressure sensors in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    A review of modern techniques for in-situ response time testing of resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), and pressure, level and flow transmitters is presented. These techniques have been developed and validated for use in pressurized and boiling water reactors. The significance of the modern techniques is that they permit testing of installed sensors at process operating conditions and thereby provide the actual in-service response times of the sensors. (author)

  13. The Design of a Novel Flexible Tactile Sensor Based on Pressure-conductive Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flexible tactile sensor using conductive rubber with electrical-wires knitted method is presented. The sensor’s design is based on rubber’s pressure-sensitive property. It is flexible and can be mounted on any object to measure tactile information. The mathematic piezoresistivity model of the rubber is described, and we also discuss the sensor’s structure and scanning method. The simulation results show that the sensor can detect pressure accurately.

  14. Design and Development of a Pressure Transmitter Using Modified Inductance Measuring Network and Bellow Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata Lakshmi Narayana K.; Bhujanga Rao A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a pressure transmitter using a modified op-amp based network for inductance measurement using a bellow as sensor has been proposed to measure the pressure and to convert pressure changes in to an electrical current which can be transmitted to a remote indicator. The change in inductance due to change in pressure is measured by an improved modified operational amplifier based network. The proposed network permits offset inductance compensation of sensing coil and also minimizes ...

  15. A Quad-Cantilevered Plate micro-sensor for intracranial pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalkov, Vasko; Qasaimeh, Mohammad A

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a new design for pressure-sensing micro-plate platform to bring higher sensitivity to a pressure sensor based on piezoresistive MEMS sensing mechanism. The proposed design is composed of a suspended plate having four stepped cantilever beams connected to its corners, and thus defined as Quad-Cantilevered Plate (QCP). Finite element analysis was performed to determine the optimal design for sensitivity and structural stability under a range of applied forces. Furthermore, a piezoresistive analysis was performed to calculate sensor sensitivity. Both the maximum stress and the change in resistance of the piezoresistor associated with the QCP were found to be higher compared to previously published designs, and linearly related to the applied pressure as desired. Therefore, the QCP demonstrates greater sensitivity, and could be potentially used as an efficient pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement.

  16. Improvement of a sensor unit for wrist blood pressure monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sangjun; Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Ayuzenara, Odgerel; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    A blood pressure sensor unit for ubiquitous healthcare monitoring was newly developed. The digital wrist band-type blood pressure devices for home are popular already in the market. It is useful for checking blood pressure level at home and control of hypertension. Especially, it is very essential home device to check the health condition of blood circulation disease. Nowadays many product types are available. But the measurement of blood pressure is not accurate enough compared with the mechanical type. It needs to be upgraded to assure the precise health data enough to use in the hospital. The structure, feature and output signal of capacitor type pressure sensors are analyzed. An improved design of capacitor sensor is suggested. It shows more precise health data after use on a wrist band type health unit. They can be applied for remote u-health medical service.

  17. Pressure Sensors and Filtering Techniques for Stone Stability Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.

    2001-01-01

    This report is structured as follows: In chapter 2 the importance of wall pressures with respect to the present research is described. The literature on wall pressures that was used, and some general features of wall pressure fluctuations are subsequently described in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with

  18. [Implantable sensors for outpatient assessment of ventricular filling pressure in advanced heart failure : Which telemonitoring design is optimal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, E; Fichtlscherer, S; Hohnloser, S H; Zeiher, A M; Aßmus, B

    2016-12-01

    Patients with advanced heart failure suffer from frequent hospitalizations. Non-invasive hemodynamic telemonitoring for assessment of ventricular filling pressure has been shown to reduce hospitalizations. We report on the right ventricular (RVP), the pulmonary artery (PAP) and the left atrial pressure (LAP) sensor for non-invasive assessment of the ventricular filling pressure. A literature search concerning the available implantable pressure sensors for noninvasive haemodynamic telemonitoring in patients with advanced heart failure was performed. Until now, only implantation of the PAP-sensor was able to reduce hospitalizations for cardiac decompensation and to improve quality of life. The right ventricular pressure sensor missed the primary endpoint of a significant reduction of hospitalizations, clinical data using the left atrial pressure sensor are still pending. The implantation of a pressure sensor for assessment of pulmonary artery filling pressure is suitable for reducing hospitalizations for heart failure and for improving quality of life in patients with advanced heart failure.

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of a Pressure Sensor using a Pitch-based Carbon Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Sin; Kang, Bo Seon; Lee, Dong Weon

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports fabrication and characterization of a pressure sensor using a pitch-based carbon fiber. Pitch-based carbon fibers have been shown to exhibit the piezoresistive effect, in which the electric resistance of the carbon fiber changes under mechanical deformation. The main structure of pressure sensors was built by performing backside etching on a SOI wafer and creating a suspended square membrane on the front side. An AC electric field which causes dielectrophoresis was used for the alignment and deposition of a carbon fiber across the microscale gap between two electrodes on the membrane. The fabricated pressure sensors were tested by applying static pressure to the membrane and measuring the resistance change of the carbon fiber. The resistance change of carbon fibers clearly shows linear response to the applied pressure and the calculated sensitivities of pressure sensors are 0.25∼0.35 and 61.8 Ω/kΩ·bar for thicker and thinner membrane, respectively. All these observations demonstrated the possibilities of carbon fiber-based pressure sensors

  20. Temperature and Pressure Sensors Based on Spin-Allowed Broadband Luminescence of Doped Orthorhombic Perovskite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I. (Inventor); Chambers, Matthew D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods that are capable of measuring pressure or temperature based on luminescence are discussed herein. These systems and methods are based on spin-allowed broadband luminescence of sensors with orthorhombic perovskite structures of rare earth aluminates doped with chromium or similar transition metals, such as chromium-doped gadolinium aluminate. Luminescence from these sensors can be measured to determine at least one of temperature or pressure, based on either the intense luminescence of these sensors, even at high temperatures, or low temperature techniques discussed herein.

  1. Test and fabrication of piezoresistive sensors for contact pressure measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Andrés Valle-Lopera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de sensores de presión de contacto se ha popularizado en diferentes disciplinas de la ingeniería en los últimos años. Se utilizan en la caracterización de llantas para vehículos, rodamientos, túneles de viento, diseño de prótesis, análisis ergonómicos, entre otras áreas. Estos sensores, son diseñados con materiales que poseen ciertas propiedades tales como piezoelectricidad, piezorresistencia y capacitancia variable; sin embargo, la característica más usada es la piezorresistencia. En este artículo se describe la fabricación de tres sensores de presión diferentes usando materiales piezorresistivos. Adicionalmente, se realizó un estudio técnico comparativo incluyendo un sensor comercial usado como punto de referencia con el fin de seleccionar el material idóneo para medir presión por contacto. La repetibilidad y la histéresis de cada sensor fueron evaluadas en una prueba de respuesta a la carga realizada varias veces. También se llevó a cabo una prueba de desviación en el tiempo para evaluar estabilidad de la medición de un peso muerto. Los materiales como la tela o tinta piezoresistiva muestran ser adecuados para aplicaciones en las que haya deformación y se necesite de sensores flexibles, el Velostat es el menos preciso pero adecuado para aplicaciones básicas y en las cuales no se necesite de mucha resolución. Finalmente se presentan recomendaciones respecto al tipo de material que se debe utilizar en sensores de presión para diversas aplicaciones en ingeniería en general y en el campo biomédico en particular.

  2. Silicon–glass-based single piezoresistive pressure sensors for harsh environment applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San, Haisheng; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Yuxi; Chen, Xuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Silicon–glass (Si–glass)-based single piezoresistive pressure sensors were designed and fabricated by standard MEMS technology. The single piezoresistive sensing element was designed to be on the lower surface of the silicon diaphragm and be vacuum-sealed in a Si–glass cavity, which form a self-packaging protection structure helpful to the applications of sensors in harsh media. The pressure sensors were fabricated using a Si–glass anodic bonding technique, and the embedded Al feedthrough lines at the Si–glass interface are used to realize the electrical connections between the piezo-sensing element and the electrode-pads, and two larger-size electrode-pads are fabricated for realizing the soldered electrical connection between the sensor and the external circuit. The performance of the pressure sensors was characterized by a pressure test system at different temperature conditions. The temperature compensation was performed by the difference between the output voltage at zero-pressure and the output at operation pressure. The measurement results show that the sensitivity is 24 mV V –1 MPa −1 , the coefficient of sensitivity is 0.14% FS °C –1 , and both the zero-point offset and the temperature coefficient of offset are equal to zero, which are able to meet the commercial application requirements. However, a nonlinearity of 5.2% FS caused by the balloon effect would considerably worsen the accuracy of the pressure sensor. It is suggested to reduce the balloon effect by using a bossed-diaphragm structure in the pressure sensor. (paper)

  3. STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THERMAL DRIFT ON RELIABILITY OF PRESSURE SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELAZIZ BEDDIAF

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Piezoresistive pressure sensors, using a Wheatstone bridge with the piezoresistors, are typically supplied with a voltage ranging from 3 to 10 V involve thermal drift caused by Joule heating. In this paper, an accurate numerical model for optimization and predicting the thermal drift in piezoresistive pressure sensors due to the electric heater in its piezoresistors is adopted. In this case, by using the solution of 2D heat transfer equation considering Joule heating in Cartesian coordinates for the transient regime, we determine how the temperature affects the sensor when the supply voltage is applied. For this, the elevation of temperature due to the Joule heating has been calculated for various values of supply voltage and for several operating times of the sensor; by varying different geometrical parameters. Otherwise, the variation of the coefficient 44 in p-Si and pressure sensitivity as a function of the applied potential, as well as, for various times, for different dimensions of the device, have been also established. It is observed that the electrical heating leads to an important temperature rise in the piezoresistor. Consequently, it causes drift in the pressure sensitivity of the sensor upon application of a voltage. Finally, this work allows us to evaluate the reliability of sensors. Also, it permits to predict their behaviour against temperature due to the application of a voltage of a bridge and to minimize this effect by optimizing the geometrical parameters of the sensor and by reducing the supply voltage.

  4. Enhanced performance of microfluidic soft pressure sensors with embedded solid microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee-Sup; Ryu, Jaiyoung; Majidi, Carmel; Park, Yong-Lae

    2016-02-01

    The cross-sectional geometry of an embedded microchannel influences the electromechanical response of a soft microfluidic sensor to applied surface pressure. When a pressure is exerted on the surface of the sensor deforming the soft structure, the cross-sectional area of the embedded channel filled with a conductive fluid decreases, increasing the channel’s electrical resistance. This electromechanical coupling can be tuned by adding solid microspheres into the channel. In order to determine the influence of microspheres, we use both analytic and computational methods to predict the pressure responses of soft microfluidic sensors with two different channel cross-sections: a square and an equilateral triangular. The analytical models were derived from contact mechanics in which microspheres were regarded as spherical indenters, and finite element analysis (FEA) was used for simulation. For experimental validation, sensor samples with the two different channel cross-sections were prepared and tested. For comparison, the sensor samples were tested both with and without microspheres. All three results from the analytical models, the FEA simulations, and the experiments showed reasonable agreement confirming that the multi-material soft structure significantly improved its pressure response in terms of both linearity and sensitivity. The embedded solid particles enhanced the performance of soft sensors while maintaining their flexible and stretchable mechanical characteristic. We also provide analytical and experimental analyses of hysteresis of microfluidic soft sensors considering a resistive force to the shape recovery of the polymer structure by the embedded viscous fluid.

  5. Highly sensitive micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with reduced hysteresis and low parasitic capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Fragiacomo, Giulio; Hansen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a capacitive pressure sensor that has a large capacitance signal and a high sensitivity of 76 pF/bar in touch mode operation. Due to the large signal, problems with parasitic capacitances are avoided and hence it is possible to integrate the sensor...... bonding to create vacuum cavities. The exposed part of the sensor is perfectly flat such that it can be coated with corrosion resistant thin films. Hysteresis is an inherent problem in touch mode capacitive pressure sensors and a technique to significantly reduce it is presented....... with a discrete components electronics circuit for signal conditioning. Using an AC bridge electronics circuit a resolution of 8 mV/mbar is achieved. The large signal is obtained due to a novel membrane structure utilizing closely packed hexagonal elements. The sensor is fabricated in a process based on fusion...

  6. Large-Area All-Textile Pressure Sensors for Monitoring Human Motion and Physiological Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Pu, Xiong; Jiang, Chunyan; Liu, Ting; Huang, Xin; Chen, Libo; Du, Chunhua; Sun, Jiangman; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-11-01

    Wearable pressure sensors, which can perceive and respond to environmental stimuli, are essential components of smart textiles. Here, large-area all-textile-based pressure-sensor arrays are successfully realized on common fabric substrates. The textile sensor unit achieves high sensitivity (14.4 kPa -1 ), low detection limit (2 Pa), fast response (≈24 ms), low power consumption (sensor is demonstrated to be able to recognize finger movement, hand gestures, acoustic vibrations, and real-time pulse wave. Furthermore, large-area sensor arrays are successfully fabricated on one textile substrate to spatially map tactile stimuli and can be directly incorporated into a fabric garment for stylish designs without sacrifice of comfort, suggesting great potential in smart textiles or wearable electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Miniature all-silica optical fiber pressure sensor with an ultrathin uniform diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

    2010-04-26

    This paper presents an all-silica miniature optical fiber pressure/acoustic sensor based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometric principle. The endface of the etched optical fiber tip and silica thin diaphragm on it form the FP structure. The uniform and thin silica diaphragm was fabricated by etching away the silicon substrate from a commercial silicon wafer that has a thermal oxide layer. The thin film was directly thermally bonded to the endface of the optical fiber thus creating the Fabry-Perot cavity. Thin films with a thickness from 1microm to 3microm have been bonded successfully. The sensor shows good linearity and hysteresis during measurement. A sensor with 0.75 microm-thick diaphragm thinned by post silica etching was demonstrated to have a sensitivity of 11 nm/kPa. The new sensor has great potential to be used as a non-intrusive pressure sensor in a variety of sensing applications.

  8. Analysis of using PDMS polymer as the sensors of the pressure or weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargus, Jan; Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Novak, Martin; Mec, Pavel; Cvejn, Daniel; Bujdos, David; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) can be used for its optical properties, and its composition offers the possibility of use in the diverse environments (industry, photonics, medicine applications, security devices and etc.). Therefore authors of this article focused on more detailed working with this material. This material could be use for the sensory applications such as the sensor of pressure or weight, which may find use also in the field of security and defense. The article describes the process of making the prototype of the sensor and its verification based on laboratory results. Measurement methodology is based on the determination of the change of optical power at the output of the sensor prototype depending on the change in pressure or weight. We estimate the maximum load of the sensor on the basis of the laboratory results in the units of tons. Using a calibration measurement can determine the amount of pressure and weight with an accuracy of +/- 2 %.

  9. Design and Manufacturing of a Passive Pressure Sensor Based on LC Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The LC resonator-based passive pressure sensor attracts much attention because it does not need a power source or lead wires between the sensing element and the readout system. This paper presents the design and manufacturing of a passive pressure sensor that contains a variable capacitor and a copper-electroplated planar inductor. The sensor is fabricated using silicon bulk micro-machining, electroplating, and anodic bonding technology. The finite element method is used to model the deflection of the silicon diaphragm and extract the capacitance change corresponding to the applied pressure. Within the measurement range from 5 to 100 kPa, the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.052 MHz/kPa, the linearity is 2.79%, and the hysteresis error is 0.2%. Compared with the sensitivity at 27 °C, the drop of output performance is 3.53% at 140 °C.

  10. Investigation of shock waves in explosive blasts using fibre optic pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); MacPherson, W N [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Barton, J S [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Jones, J D C [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Tyas, A [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Pichugin, A V [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hindle, A [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Parkes, W [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Dunare, C [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Stevenson, T [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    We describe miniature all-optical pressure sensors, fabricated by wafer etching techniques, less than 1mm{sup 2} in overall cross-section with rise times in the {mu}s regime and pressure ranges typically 600 kPa. Their performance is suitable for experimental studies of the pressure-time history for test models exposed to shocks initiated by an explosive charge. The small size and fast response of the sensors promises higher quality data than has been previously available from conventional electrical sensors, with potential improvements to numerical models of blast effects. Provisional results from blast tests will be presented in which up to 6 sensors were multiplexed, embedded within test models in a range of orientations relative to the shock front.

  11. Investigation of shock waves in explosive blasts using fibre optic pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S; MacPherson, W N; Barton, J S; Jones, J D C; Tyas, A; Pichugin, A V; Hindle, A; Parkes, W; Dunare, C; Stevenson, T

    2005-01-01

    We describe miniature all-optical pressure sensors, fabricated by wafer etching techniques, less than 1mm 2 in overall cross-section with rise times in the μs regime and pressure ranges typically 600 kPa. Their performance is suitable for experimental studies of the pressure-time history for test models exposed to shocks initiated by an explosive charge. The small size and fast response of the sensors promises higher quality data than has been previously available from conventional electrical sensors, with potential improvements to numerical models of blast effects. Provisional results from blast tests will be presented in which up to 6 sensors were multiplexed, embedded within test models in a range of orientations relative to the shock front

  12. Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Based on Synergistical Innerconnect Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanowires/Wrinkled Graphene Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijie; Liu, Nishuang; Yue, Yang; Rao, Jiangyu; Cheng, Feng; Su, Jun; Liu, Zhitian; Gao, Yihua

    2018-04-01

    Piezoresistive sensor is a promising pressure sensor due to its attractive advantages including uncomplicated signal collection, simple manufacture, economical and practical characteristics. Here, a flexible and highly sensitive pressure sensor based on wrinkled graphene film (WGF)/innerconnected polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanowires/interdigital electrodes is fabricated. Due to the synergistic effect between WGF and innerconnected PVA nanowires, the as-prepared pressure sensor realizes a high sensitivity of 28.34 kPa -1 . In addition, the device is able to discern lightweight rice about 22.4 mg (≈2.24 Pa) and shows excellent durability and reliability after 6000 repeated loading and unloading cycles. What is more, the device can detect subtle pulse beat and monitor various human movement behaviors in real-time. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. CMOS-compatible ruggedized high-temperature Lamb wave pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropelnicki, P; Mu, X J; Randles, A B; Cai, H; Ang, W C; Tsai, J M; Muckensturm, K-M; Vogt, H

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel ruggedized high-temperature pressure sensor operating in lateral field exited (LFE) Lamb wave mode. The comb-like structure electrodes on top of aluminum nitride (AlN) were used to generate the wave. A membrane was fabricated on SOI wafer with a 10 µm thick device layer. The sensor chip was mounted on a pressure test package and pressure was applied to the backside of the membrane, with a range of 20–100 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) was experimentally measured in the temperature range of −50 °C to 300 °C. By using the modified Butterworth–van Dyke model, coupling coefficients and quality factor were extracted. Temperature-dependent Young's modulus of composite structure was determined using resonance frequency and sensor interdigital transducer (IDT) wavelength which is mainly dominated by an AlN layer. Absolute sensor phase noise was measured at resonance to estimate the sensor pressure and temperature sensitivity. This paper demonstrates an AlN-based pressure sensor which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications. (paper)

  14. Prediction of Composite Pressure Vessel Failure Location using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreger, Steven T.; Taylor, F. Tad; Ortyl, Nicholas E.; Grant, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Ten composite pressure vessels were instrumented with fiber Bragg grating sensors in order to assess the strain levels of the vessel under various loading conditions. This paper and presentation will discuss the testing methodology, the test results, compare the testing results to the analytical model, and present a possible methodology for predicting the failure location and strain level of composite pressure vessels.

  15. Manufacturing a Micro-model with Integrated Fibre Optic Pressure Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarikos, I.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; van Oosterhout, L.M.; van Oordt, Wim

    The measurement of fluid pressure inside pores is a major challenge in experimental studies of two-phase flow in porous media. In this paper, we describe the manufacturing procedure of a micro-model with integrated fibre optic pressure sensors. They have a circular measurement window with a diameter

  16. Influence of Individual Differences on the Calculation Method for FBG-Type Blood Pressure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shouhei; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Chino, Shun; Kobayashi, Yuka

    2016-12-28

    In this paper, we propose a blood pressure calculation and associated measurement method that by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. There are several points at which the pulse can be measured on the surface of the human body, and when a FBG sensor located at any of these points, the pulse wave signal can be measured. The measured waveform is similar to the acceleration pulse wave. The pulse wave signal changes depending on several factors, including whether or not the individual is healthy and/or elderly. The measured pulse wave signal can be used to calculate the blood pressure using a calibration curve, which is constructed by a partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis using a reference blood pressure and the pulse wave signal. In this paper, we focus on the influence of individual differences from calculated blood pressure based on each calibration curve. In our study, the calculated blood pressure from both the individual and overall calibration curves were compared, and our results show that the calculated blood pressure based on the overall calibration curve had a lower measurement accuracy than that based on an individual calibration curve. We also found that the influence of the individual differences on the calculated blood pressure when using the FBG sensor method were very low. Therefore, the FBG sensor method that we developed for measuring the blood pressure was found to be suitable for use by many people.

  17. Spatially digitized tactile pressure sensors with tunable sensitivity and sensing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsuk; Sul, Onejae; Hwang, Soonhyung; Cho, Joonhyung; Chun, Hyunsuk; Kim, Hongjun; Lee, Seung-Beck

    2014-10-24

    When developing an electronic skin with touch sensation, an array of tactile pressure sensors with various ranges of pressure detection need to be integrated. This requires low noise, highly reliable sensors with tunable sensing characteristics. We demonstrate the operation of tactile pressure sensors that utilize the spatial distribution of contact electrodes to detect various ranges of tactile pressures. The device consists of a suspended elastomer diaphragm, with a carbon nanotube thin-film on the bottom, which makes contact with the electrodes on the substrate with applied pressure. The electrodes separated by set distances become connected in sequence with tactile pressure, enabling consecutive electrodes to produce a signal. Thus, the pressure is detected not by how much of a signal is produced but by which of the electrodes is registering an output. By modulating the diaphragm diameter, and suspension height, it was possible to tune the pressure sensitivity and sensing range. Also, adding a fingerprint ridge structure enabled the sensor to detect the periodicity of sub-millimeter grating patterns on a silicon wafer.

  18. Systematic approach to development of pressure sensors using dielectric electro-active polymer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, A; Seelecke, S; Dunn, J

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric electro-active polymers (DEAPs) have become attractive materials for various actuation and sensing applications due to their high energy and power density, high efficiency, light weight, and fast response speed. However, commercial development has been hindered due to a variety of constraints such as reliability, non-linear behavior, cost of driving electronics, and form factor requirements. This paper presents the systematic development from laboratory concept to commercial readiness of a novel pressure sensing system using a DEAP membrane. The pressure sensing system was designed for in-line pressure measurements for low pressure applications such as health systems monitoring. A first generation sensor was designed, built and tested with a focus on the qualitative capabilities of EAP membranes as sensors. Experimental measurements were conducted that demonstrated the capability of the sensor to output a voltage signal proportional to a changing pressure. Several undesirable characteristics were observed during these initial tests such as strong hysteresis, non-linearity, very limited pressure range, and low fatigue life. A second generation prototype was then designed to remove or compensate for these undesirable characteristics. This prototype was then built and tested. The new design showed an almost complete removal of hysteretic non-linear effects and was capable of operating at 10 × the pressure range of the initial generation. This new design is the framework for a novel DEAP based pressure sensor ready for commercial applications. (paper)

  19. Using Smartphone Pressure Sensors to Measure Vertical Velocities of Elevators, Stairways, and Drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Martín; Martí, Arturo C.

    2017-01-01

    We measure the vertical velocities of elevators, pedestrians climbing stairs, and drones (flying unmanned aerial vehicles), by means of smartphone pressure sensors. The barometric pressure obtained with the smartphone is related to the altitude of the device via the hydrostatic approximation. From the altitude values, vertical velocities are…

  20. GaN nanostructures-poly(vinyl alcohol) composite based hydrostatic pressure sensor device

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Linganiso, EC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available pressure sensors were fabricated using a GaN/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite film deposited onto an interdigitated electrode and studied by measuring the change in alternating current conductance of the devices at varied applied pressures. Three different...

  1. Study of thermal pressure and phase transitions in H2O using optical pressure sensors in the diamond anvil cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Sara; Lazor, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We present results of a study on the phase equilibria and pressure-volume-temperature relations for water and ice VII using an optical system designed for Raman spectroscopy and pressure-temperature measurements. The study shows that the strontium borate sensor represents an important tool for high-pressure-high-temperature manometry for temperatures below 600 K. In the pressure-temperature ranges 0-5 GPa and 240-600 K we detected phase transformations between four phases of H 2 O as documented by Raman spectra, pressure-temperature scans, and visual observations. Analysis of the interference fringes and comparison of the experimental data on thermal pressure with the published equations of state (EOSs) show that the heating/cooling cycles were carried out under quasi-isochoric conditions. The experimental results are discussed/analysed on the basis of different EOSs for water and ice

  2. Time response measurements of pressure sensors using pink noise technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Santos, Roberto Carlos dos

    2009-01-01

    This work presents an experimental setup for Pink Noise method application on pressure transmitters' response times. The Pink Noise method consists on injecting artificial pressure noise into the pressure transmitter. The artificial pressure noise is generated using a current-to-pressure (I-to-P) converter, which is driven by a random noise signal generator. The output pressure transmitter noise is then analyzed using conventional Noise Analysis Technique. Noise signals may be interpreted using spectral techniques or empirical time series models. The frequency domain method consists of evaluating the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. The information needed for time constant estimation can be obtained by fitting an all-pole transfer function to this power spectral density. (author)

  3. Laterally Driven Resonant Pressure Sensor with Etched Silicon Dual Diaphragms and Combined Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel structure of the resonant pressure sensor is presented in this paper, which tactfully employs intercoupling between dual pressure-sensing diaphragms and a laterally driven resonant strain gauge. After the resonant pressure sensor principle is introduced, the coupling mechanism of the diaphragms and resonator is analyzed and the frequency equation of the resonator based on the triangle geometry theory is developed for this new coupling structure. The finite element (FE simulation results match the theoretical analysis over the full scale of the device. This pressure sensor was first fabricated by dry/wet etching and thermal silicon bonding, followed by vacuum-packaging using anodic bonding technology. The test maximum error of the fabricated sensor is 0.0310%F.S. (full scale in the range of 30 to 190 kPa, its pressure sensitivity is negative and exceeding 8 Hz/kPa, and its Q-factor reaches 20,000 after wafer vacuum-packaging. A novel resonant pressure sensor with high accuracy is presented in this paper.

  4. Investigation based on nano-electromechanical system double Si3N4 resonant beam pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan; Guo, Can; Yuan, Xiaowei

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a type of NEMS (Nano-Electromechanical System) double Si3N4 resonant beams pressure sensor. The mathematical models are established in allusion to the Si3N4 resonant beams and pressure sensitive diaphragm. The distribution state of stress has been analyzed theoretically based on the mathematical model of pressure sensitive diaphragm; from the analysis result, the position of the Si3N4 resonant beams above the pressure sensitive diaphragm was optimized and then the dominance observed after the double resonant beams are adopted is illustrated. From the analysis result, the position of the Si3N4 resonant beams above the pressure sensitive diaphragm is optimized, illustrating advantages in the adoption of double resonant beams. The capability of the optimized sensor was generally analyzed using the ANSYS software of finite element analysis. The range of measured pressure is 0-400 Kpa, the coefficient of linearity correlation is 0.99346, and the sensitivity of the sensor is 498.24 Hz/Kpa, higher than the traditional sensors. Finally the processing techniques of the sensor chip have been designed with sample being successfully processed.

  5. A scalable pressure sensor based on an electrothermally and electrostatically operated resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.

    2017-11-29

    We present a pressure sensor based on the convective cooling of the air surrounding an electrothermally heated resonant bridge. Unlike conventional pressure sensors that rely on diaphragm deformation in response to pressure, the sensor does not require diaphragms of the large surface area, and hence is scalable and can be realized even at the nanoscale. The concept is demonstrated using both straight and arch microbeam resonators driven and sensed electrostatically. The change in the surrounding pressure is shown to be accurately tracked by monitoring the change in the resonance frequency of the structure. The sensitivity of the sensor, which is controllable by the applied electrothermal load, is shown near 57 811 ppm/mbar for a pressure range from 1 to 10 Torr. We show that a straight beam operated near the buckling threshold leads to the maximum sensitivity of the device. The experimental data and simulation results, based on a multi-physics finite element model, demonstrate the feasibility and simplicity of the pressure sensor. Published by AIP Publishing.

  6. Analysis of small deflection touch mode behavior in capacitive pressure sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio; Ansbæk, Thor; Pedersen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Due to an increasing need for devices with low power consumption, capacitive pressure sensors have become good substitutes for the well known piezoresistive pressure sensors. Mathematical models are necessary to design and characterize the device, preferably the model is analytical...... such that geometrical scalings are revealed. We show that, in the case of linear elastic behavior, a simple analytical model can be found for a touch mode capacitive pressure sensor (TMCPS). With this model it is possible to readily evaluate the main features of a TMCPS such as: sensitivity (both in normal and touch...... mode), touch point pressure and parasitic capacitance. Therefore, the desired device can be designed without using finite element modeling (FEM). This reduces the effort needed to design a micromachined TMCPS. Finally, the model has been compared with a micromachined TMCPS showing an excellent...

  7. Model-based design of MEMS resonant pressure sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijlen, M.A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The massive integration of micromechanical structures on ICs to allow microsystems to sense and control the environment is expected to be one of the most important technological breakthroughs of the future. At present, cheap and small MEMS sensors are emerging in countless applications. Automotive

  8. Monitoring pressure profiles across an airfoil with a fiber Bragg grating sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Anthony W.; Parkinson, Luke A.; Karas, Andrew R.; Hansen, Kristy L.; Arkwright, John W.

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow over an airfoil section creates a pressure difference across the upper and lower surfaces, thus generating lift. Successful wing design is a combination of engineering design and experience in the field, with subtleties in design and manufacture having significant impact on the amount of lift produced. Current methods of airfoil optimization and validation typically involve computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and extensive wind tunnel testing with pressure sensors embedded into the airfoil to measure the pressure over the wing. Monitoring pressure along an airfoil in a wind tunnel is typically achieved using surface pressure taps that consist of hollow tubes running from the surface of the airfoil to individual pressure sensors external to the tunnel. These pressure taps are complex to configure and not ideal for in-flight testing. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensing arrays provide a highly viable option for both wind tunnel and inflight pressure measurement. We present a fiber optic sensor array that can detect positive and negative pressure suitable for validating CFD models of airfoil profile sections. The sensing array presented here consists of 6 independent sensing elements, each capable of a pressure resolution of less than 10 Pa over the range of 70 kPa to 120 kPa. The device has been tested with the sensor array attached to a 90mm chord length airfoil section subjected to low velocity flow. Results show that the arrays are capable of accurately detecting variations of the pressure profile along the airfoil as the angle of attack is varied from zero to the point at which stall occurs.

  9. Wireless Capacitive Pressure Sensor With Directional RF Chip Antenna for High Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, M. C.; Jordan, J. L.; Ponchak, G. E.; Zorman, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a wireless capacitive pressure sensor with directional RF chip antenna that is envisioned for the health monitoring of aircraft engines operating in harsh environments. The sensing system is characterized from room temperature (25 C) to 300 C for a pressure range from 0 to 100 psi. The wireless pressure system consists of a Clapp-type oscillator design with a capacitive MEMS pressure sensor located in the LC-tank circuit of the oscillator. Therefore, as the pressure of the aircraft engine changes, so does the output resonant frequency of the sensing system. A chip antenna is integrated to transmit the system output to a receive antenna 10 m away.The design frequency of the wireless pressure sensor is 127 MHz and a 2 increase in resonant frequency over the temperature range of 25 to 300 C from 0 to 100 psi is observed. The phase noise is less than minus 30 dBcHz at the 1 kHz offset and decreases to less than minus 80 dBcHz at 10 kHz over the entire temperature range. The RF radiation patterns for two cuts of the wireless system have been measured and show that the system is highly directional and the MEMS pressure sensor is extremely linear from 0 to 100 psi.

  10. Characteristics research of pressure sensor based on nanopolysilicon thin films resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Li, Dandan; Wen, Dianzhong

    2017-10-01

    To further improve the sensitivity temperature characteristics of pressure sensor, a kind of pressure sensor taking nanopolysilicon thin films as piezoresistors is proposed in this paper. On the basis of the microstructure analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) tests, the preparing process of nanopolysilicon thin films is optimized. The effects of film thickness and annealing temperature on the micro-structure of nanopolysilicon thin films were studied, respectively. In order to realize the measurement of external pressure, four nanopolysilicon thin films resistors were arranged at the edges of square silicon diaphragm connected to a Wheatstone bridge, and the chip of the sensor was designed and fabricated on a 〈100〉 orientation silicon wafer by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. Experimental result shows that when I = 6.80 mA, the sensitivity of the sensor PS-1 is 0.308 mV/kPa, and the temperature coefficient of sensitivity (TCS) is about -1742 ppm/∘C in the range of -40-140∘C. It is possible to obviously improve the sensitivity temperature characteristics of pressure sensor by the proposed sensors.

  11. A CMOS pressure sensor with integrated interface for passive RFID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Wu, Xiang; Fu, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS pressure sensor with integrated interface for passive RFID sensing applications. The pressure sensor consists of three parts: top electrode, dielectric layer and bottom electrode. The dielectric layer consists of silicon oxide and an air gap. The bottom electrode is made of polysilicon. The gap is formed by sacrificial layer release and the Al vapor process is used to seal the gap and form the top electrode. The sensor interface is based on phase-locked architecture, which allows the use of fully digital blocks. The proposed pressure sensor and interface is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results show the pressure sensor achieves excellent linearity with a sensitivity of 1.2 fF kPa −1 . The sensor interface consumes only 1.1 µW of power at 0.5 V voltage supply, which is at least an order of magnitude better than state-of-the-art designs. (paper)

  12. Initial development and testing of a novel foam-based pressure sensor for wearable sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyth Barry

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper provides an overview of initial research conducted in the development of pressure-sensitive foam and its application in wearable sensing. The foam sensor is composed of polypyrrole-coated polyurethane foam, which exhibits a piezo-resistive reaction when exposed to electrical current. The use of this polymer-coated foam is attractive for wearable sensing due to the sensor's retention of desirable mechanical properties similar to those exhibited by textile structures. Methods The development of the foam sensor is described, as well as the development of a prototype sensing garment with sensors in several areas on the torso to measure breathing, shoulder movement, neck movement, and scapula pressure. Sensor properties were characterized, and data from pilot tests was examined visually. Results The foam exhibits a positive linear conductance response to increased pressure. Torso tests show that it responds in a predictable and measurable manner to breathing, shoulder movement, neck movement, and scapula pressure. Conclusion The polypyrrole foam shows considerable promise as a sensor for medical, wearable, and ubiquitous computing applications. Further investigation of the foam's consistency of response, durability over time, and specificity of response is necessary.

  13. A highly sensitive pressure sensor using a Au-patterned polydimethylsiloxane membrane for biosensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinchuan; Zhu, Yihao; Nomani, Md W; Koley, Goutam; Wen, Xuejun; Hsia, Tain-Yen

    2013-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a highly sensitive pressure sensor using a Au film patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The strain-induced change in the film resistance was utilized to perform the quantitative measurement of absolute pressure. The highest sensitivity obtained for a 200 µm thick PDMS film sensor was 0.23/KPa with a range of 50 mm Hg, which is the best result reported so far, over that range, for any pressure sensor on a flexible membrane. The noise-limited pressure resolution was found to be 0.9 Pa (0.007 mm Hg), and a response time of ∼200 ms, are the best reported results for these sensors. The ultrahigh sensitivity is attributed to the strain-induced formation of microcracks, the effect of which on the resistance change was found to be highly reversible within a certain pressure range. A physical model correlating the sensitivity with the sensor parameters and crack geometry has been proposed. (paper)

  14. Slot Antenna Integrated Re-Entrant Resonator Based Wireless Pressure Sensor for High-Temperature Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shujing; Lu, Fei; Wu, Guozhu; Wu, Dezhi; Tan, Qiulin; Dong, Helei; Xiong, Jijun

    2017-08-25

    The highly sensitive pressure sensor presented in this paper aims at wireless passive sensing in a high temperature environment by using microwave backscattering technology. The structure of the re-entrant resonator was analyzed and optimized using theoretical calculation, software simulation, and its equivalent lump circuit model was first modified by us. Micro-machining and high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) process technologies were applied to fabricate the sensor, solving the common problem of cavity sealing during the air pressure loading test. In addition, to prevent the response signal from being immersed in the strong background clutter of the hermetic metal chamber, which makes its detection difficult, we proposed two key techniques to improve the signal to noise ratio: the suppression of strong background clutter and the detection of the weak backscattered signal of the sensor. The pressure sensor demonstrated in this paper works well for gas pressure loading between 40 and 120 kPa in a temperature range of 24 °C to 800 °C. The experimental results show that the sensor resonant frequency lies at 2.1065 GHz, with a maximum pressure sensitivity of 73.125 kHz/kPa.

  15. A Micro CO2 Gas Sensor Based on Sensing of pH-Sensitive Hydrogel Swelling by Means of a Pressure Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, S.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a sensor is presented for the detection of carbon dioxide gas inside the stomach in order to diagnose gastrointestinal ischemia. The operational principle of the sensor is measuring the CO2 induced pressure generation of a confined pH-sensitive hydrogel by means of a micro pressure

  16. Stretchable Array of Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensors Consisting of Polyaniline Nanofibers and Au-Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Micropillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heun; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jin, Sangwoo; Lee, Seung-Jung; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2015-10-27

    We report on the facile fabrication of a stretchable array of highly sensitive pressure sensors. The proposed pressure sensor consists of the top layer of Au-deposited polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars and the bottom layer of conductive polyaniline nanofibers on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The sensors are operated by the changes in contact resistance between Au-coated micropillars and polyaniline according to the varying pressure. The fabricated pressure sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 2.0 kPa(-1) in the pressure range below 0.22 kPa, a low detection limit of 15 Pa, a fast response time of 50 ms, and high stability over 10000 cycles of pressure loading/unloading with a low operating voltage of 1.0 V. The sensor is also capable of noninvasively detecting human-pulse waveforms from carotid and radial artery. A 5 × 5 array of the pressure sensors on the deformable substrate, which consists of PDMS islands for sensors and the mixed thin film of PDMS and Ecoflex with embedded liquid metal interconnections, shows stable sensing of pressure under biaxial stretching by 15%. The strain distribution obtained by the finite element method confirms that the maximum strain applied to the pressure sensor in the strain-suppressed region is less than 0.04% under a 15% biaxial strain of the unit module. This work demonstrates the potential application of our proposed stretchable pressure sensor array for wearable and artificial electronic skin devices.

  17. Design, Fabrication, and Implementation of an Array-Type MEMS Piezoresistive Intelligent Pressure Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the radiosonde requirement of high sensitivity and linearity, this study designs and implements a monolithically integrated array-type piezoresistive intelligent pressure sensor system which is made up of two groups of four pressure sensors with the pressure range of 0–50 kPa and 0–100 kPa respectively. First, theoretical models and ANSYS (version 14.5, Canonsburg, PA, USA finite element method (FEM are adopted to optimize the parameters of array sensor structure. Combing with FEM stress distribution results, the size and material characteristics of the array-type sensor are determined according to the analysis of the sensitivity and the ratio of signal to noise (SNR. Based on the optimized parameters, the manufacture and packaging of array-type sensor chips are then realized by using the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS and microelectromechanical system (MEMS process. Furthermore, an intelligent acquisition and processing system for pressure and temperature signals is achieved. The S3C2440A microprocessor (Samsung, Seoul, Korea is regarded as the core part which can be applied to collect and process data. In particular, digital signal storage, display and transmission are realized by the application of a graphical user interface (GUI written in QT/E. Besides, for the sake of compensating the temperature drift and nonlinear error, the data fusion technique is proposed based on a wavelet neural network improved by genetic algorithm (GA-WNN for average measuring signal. The GA-WNN model is implemented in hardware by using a S3C2440A microprocessor. Finally, the results of calibration and test experiments achieved with the temperature ranges from −20 to 20 °C show that: (1 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity of the array-type pressure sensor are 8330 × 10−4 and 0.052 mV/V/kPa in the range of 0–50 kPa, respectively; (2 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity are 8129 × 10−4 and 0.020 mV/V/kPa in the

  18. A variable pressure method for characterizing nanoparticle surface charge using pore sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Robert; Anderson, Will; Eldridge, James; Glossop, Ben; Willmott, Geoff

    2012-04-03

    A novel method using resistive pulse sensors for electrokinetic surface charge measurements of nanoparticles is presented. This method involves recording the particle blockade rate while the pressure applied across a pore sensor is varied. This applied pressure acts in a direction which opposes transport due to the combination of electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, and inherent pressure. The blockade rate reaches a minimum when the velocity of nanoparticles in the vicinity of the pore approaches zero, and the forces on typical nanoparticles are in equilibrium. The pressure applied at this minimum rate can be used to calculate the zeta potential of the nanoparticles. The efficacy of this variable pressure method was demonstrated for a range of carboxylated 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles with different surface charge densities. Results were of the same order as phase analysis light scattering (PALS) measurements. Unlike PALS results, the sequence of increasing zeta potential for different particle types agreed with conductometric titration.

  19. Zinc oxide nanowire-poly(methyl methacrylate) dielectric layers for polymer capacitive pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Sheng; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Chen, Shih-Ping; Tseng, Pin-Yen; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-14

    Polymer capacitive pressure sensors based on a dielectric composite layer of zinc oxide nanowire and poly(methyl methacrylate) show pressure sensitivity in the range of 2.63 × 10(-3) to 9.95 × 10(-3) cm(2) gf(-1). This represents an increase of capacitance change by as much as a factor of 23 over pristine polymer devices. An ultralight load of only 10 mg (corresponding to an applied pressure of ∼0.01 gf cm(-2)) can be clearly recognized, demonstrating remarkable characteristics of these nanowire-polymer capacitive pressure sensors. In addition, optical transmittance of the dielectric composite layer is approximately 90% in the visible wavelength region. Their low processing temperature, transparency, and flexible dielectric film makes them a highly promising means for flexible touching and pressure-sensing applications.

  20. Deep-Sea DuraFET: A Pressure Tolerant pH Sensor Designed for Global Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S; Jannasch, Hans W; Coletti, Luke J; Elrod, Virginia A; Martz, Todd R; Takeshita, Yuichiro; Carlson, Robert J; Connery, James G

    2016-03-15

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide is driving a long-term decrease in ocean pH which is superimposed on daily to seasonal variability. These changes impact ecosystem processes, and they serve as a record of ecosystem metabolism. However, the temporal variability in pH is observed at only a few locations in the ocean because a ship is required to support pH observations of sufficient precision and accuracy. This paper describes a pressure tolerant Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor pH sensor that is based on the Honeywell Durafet ISFET die. When combined with a AgCl pseudoreference sensor that is immersed directly in seawater, the system is capable of operating for years at a time on platforms that cycle from depths of several km to the surface. The paper also describes the calibration scheme developed to allow calibrated pH measurements to be derived from the activity of HCl reported by the sensor system over the range of ocean pressure and temperature. Deployments on vertical profiling platforms enable self-calibration in deep waters where pH values are stable. Measurements with the sensor indicate that it is capable of reporting pH with an accuracy of 0.01 or better on the total proton scale and a precision over multiyear periods of 0.005. This system enables a global ocean observing system for ocean pH.

  1. FISH & CHIPS: Single Chip Silicon MEMS CTDL Salinity, Temperature, Pressure and Light sensor for use in fisheries research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Anders; Hansen, Ole; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2005-01-01

    A single-chip silicon MEMS CTDL multi sensor for use in aqueous environments is presented. The new sensor chip consists of a conductivity sensor based on platinum electrodes (C), an ion-implanted thermistor temperature sensor (T), a piezoresistive pressure sensor (D for depth/pressure) and an ion......-implanted p-n junction light sensor (L). The design and fabrication process is described. A temperature sensitivity of 0.8 × 10-3K-1 has been measured and detailed analysis of conductivity measurement data shows a cell constant of 81 cm-1....

  2. Integrated pressure and temperature sensor with high immunity against external disturbance for flexible endoscope operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yusaku; Maeda, Kohei; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Takao, Hidekuni

    2017-04-01

    In this study, an integrated pressure and temperature sensor device for a flexible endoscope with long-term stability in in vivo environments was developed and demonstrated. The sensor, which is embedded in the thin wall of the disposable endoscope hood, is intended for use in endoscopic surgery. The device surface is coated with a Cr layer to prevent photoelectronic generation induced by the strong light of the endoscope. The integrated temperature sensor allows compensation for the effect of the temperature drift on a pressure signal. The fabricated device pressure resolution is 0.4 mmHg; the corresponding pressure error is 3.2 mmHg. The packaged device was used in a surgical simulation in an animal experiment. Pressure and temperature monitoring was achieved even in a pH 1 acid solution. The device enables intraluminal pressure and temperature measurements of the stomach, which facilitate the maintenance of internal stomach conditions. The applicability of the sensor was successfully demonstrated in animal experiments.

  3. Development of a high resolution plantar pressure monitoring pad based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, R; Bhalla, S; Hao, J; Singh, C

    2015-01-01

    High importance is given to plantar pressure monitoring in the field of biomedical engineering for the diagnosis of posture related ailments associated with diseases such as diabetes and gonarthrosis. This paper presents the proof-of-concept development of a new high resolution plantar pressure monitoring pad based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In the proposed configuration, the FBG sensors are embedded within layers of carbon composite material (CCM) in turn conforming to an arc shape. A total of four such arc shaped sensors are instrumented in the pad at the locations of the forefoot and the hind foot. As a test of the pad, static plantar pressure is monitored on normal subjects under various posture conditions. The pad is evaluated both as a standalone platform as well as a pad inserted inside a standard shoe. An average pressure sensitivity of 1.2 pm/kPa and a resolution of approximately 0.8 kPa is obtained in this special configuration. The pad is found to be suitable in both configurations- stand-alone pad as well as an insert inside a standard shoe. The proposed set up offers a cost-effective high resolution and accurate plantar pressure measurement system suitable for clinical deployment. The novelty of the developed pressure pad lies in its ability to be used both as platform type as well as inserted in-sole type sensor system.

  4. Demonstration of a Packaged Capacitive Pressure Sensor System Suitable for Jet Turbofan Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Meredith, Roger D.; Harsh, Kevin; Pilant, Evan; Usrey, Michael W.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the development and characterization of a packaged pressure sensor system suitable for jet engine health monitoring is demonstrated. The sensing system operates from 97 to 117 MHz over a pressure range from 0 to 350 psi and a temperature range from 25 to 500 deg. The sensing system consists of a Clapp-type oscillator that is fabricated on an alumina substrate and is comprised of a Cree SiC MESFET, MIM capacitors, a wire-wound inductor, chip resistors and a SiCN capacitive pressure sensor. The pressure sensor is located in the LC tank circuit of the oscillator so that a change in pressure causes a change in capacitance, thus changing the resonant frequency of the sensing system. The chip resistors, wire-wound inductors and MIM capacitors have all been characterized at temperature and operational frequency, and perform with less than 5% variance in electrical performance. The measured capacitive pressure sensing system agrees very well with simulated results. The packaged pressure sensing system is specifically designed to measure the pressure on a jet turbofan engine. The packaged system can be installed by way of borescope plug adaptor fitted to a borescope port exposed to the gas path of a turbofan engine.

  5. Characterization of Piezoresistive PEDOT:PSS Pressure Sensors with Inter-Digitated and Cross-Point Electrode Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jer-Chyi; Karmakar, Rajat; Lu, Yu-Jen; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The piezoresistive characteristics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) pressure sensors with inter-digitated (IDE) and cross-point electrode (CPE) structures have been investigated. A small variation of the resistance of the pressure sensors with IDE without bottom indium-tin-oxide (b-ITO) film and with CPE structures was observed owing to the single carrier-conducting pathway. For the IDE pressure sensors with b-ITO, the piezoresistive characteristics at low...

  6. Variability at Multiple Scales: Using an Array of Current and Pressure Sensor Equipped Inverted Echo Sounders to Measure the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    of Current- and Pressure - Sensor Equipped Inverted Echo Sounders to Measure the Ocean 5b. GRANT NUMBER NOOO 14-15-1-2857 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...inverted echo sounders (lESs) equipped with pressure and current sensors (CPIESs). CPIESs are moored instruments that measure the round-trip acoustic...at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The goals of this project were to enhance the pool of pressure - sensor equipped lESs available at the

  7. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-08-18

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a "one-sensor-one-packaging_technology" concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a "floating-concept", capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not "floating" but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA.

  8. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Duong Ngo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a “one-sensor-one-packaging_technology” concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a “floating-concept”, capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO. A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process. A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not “floating” but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA.

  9. Design and Optimization of a Low Power Pressure Sensor for Wireless Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sosa

    2015-01-01

    (ADC are designed, optimized, and integrated in the same substrate using a commercial 1 μm CMOS technology. As result of the optimization, we obtained a digital sensor with high sensitivity, low noise (0.002 μV/Hz, and low power consumption (358 μW. Finally, the piezoresistance noise does not affect the pressure sensor application since its value is lower than half least significant bit (LSB of the ADC.

  10. A microfluidic circulatory system integrated with capillary-assisted pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangfan; Chan, Ho Nam; Michael, Sean A; Shen, Yusheng; Chen, Yin; Tian, Qian; Huang, Lu; Wu, Hongkai

    2017-02-14

    The human circulatory system comprises a complex network of blood vessels interconnecting biologically relevant organs and a heart driving blood recirculation throughout this system. Recreating this system in vitro would act as a bridge between organ-on-a-chip and "body-on-a-chip" and advance the development of in vitro models. Here, we present a microfluidic circulatory system integrated with an on-chip pressure sensor to closely mimic human systemic circulation in vitro. A cardiac-like on-chip pumping system is incorporated in the device. It consists of four pumping units and passive check valves, which mimic the four heart chambers and heart valves, respectively. Each pumping unit is independently controlled with adjustable pressure and pump rate, enabling users to control the mimicked blood pressure and heartbeat rate within the device. A check valve is located downstream of each pumping unit to prevent backward leakage. Pulsatile and unidirectional flow can be generated to recirculate within the device by programming the four pumping units. We also report an on-chip capillary-assisted pressure sensor to monitor the pressure inside the device. One end of the capillary was placed in the measurement region, while the other end was sealed. Time-dependent pressure changes were measured by recording the movement of the liquid-gas interface in the capillary and calculating the pressure using the ideal gas law. The sensor covered the physiologically relevant blood pressure range found in humans (0-142.5 mmHg) and could respond to 0.2 s actuation time. With the aid of the sensor, the pressure inside the device could be adjusted to the desired range. As a proof of concept, human normal left ventricular and arterial pressure profiles were mimicked inside this device. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on chip and cells can respond to mechanical forces generated by arterial-like flow patterns.

  11. Novel threshold pressure sensors based on nonlinear dynamics of MEMS resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad H.; Alsaleem, Fadi M.; Ouakad, Hassen M.

    2018-06-01

    Triggering an alarm in a car for low air-pressure in the tire or tripping an HVAC compressor if the refrigerant pressure is lower than a threshold value are examples for applications where measuring the amount of pressure is not as important as determining if the pressure has exceeded a threshold value for an action to occur. Unfortunately, current technology still relies on analog pressure sensors to perform this functionality by adding a complex interface (extra circuitry, controllers, and/or decision units). In this paper, we demonstrate two new smart tunable-threshold pressure switch concepts that can reduce the complexity of a threshold pressure sensor. The first concept is based on the nonlinear subharmonic resonance of a straight double cantilever microbeam with a proof mass and the other concept is based on the snap-through bi-stability of a clamped-clamped MEMS shallow arch. In both designs, the sensor operation concept is simple. Any actuation performed at a certain pressure lower than a threshold value will activate a nonlinear dynamic behavior (subharmonic resonance or snap-through bi-stability) yielding a large output that would be interpreted as a logic value of ONE, or ON. Once the pressure exceeds the threshold value, the nonlinear response ceases to exist, yielding a small output that would be interpreted as a logic value of ZERO, or OFF. A lumped, single degree of freedom model for the double cantilever beam, that is validated using experimental data, and a continuous beam model for the arch beam, are used to simulate the operation range of the proposed sensors by identifying the relationship between the excitation signal and the critical cut-off pressure.

  12. A wearable and highly sensitive pressure sensor with ultrathin gold nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shu; Schwalb, Willem; Wang, Yongwei; Chen, Yi; Tang, Yue; Si, Jye; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Cheng, Wenlong

    2014-02-01

    Ultrathin gold nanowires are mechanically flexible yet robust, which are novel building blocks with potential applications in future wearable optoelectronic devices. Here we report an efficient, low-cost fabrication strategy to construct a highly sensitive, flexible pressure sensor by sandwiching ultrathin gold nanowire-impregnated tissue paper between two thin polydimethylsiloxane sheets. The entire device fabrication process is scalable, enabling facile large-area integration and patterning for mapping spatial pressure distribution. Our gold nanowires-based pressure sensors can be operated at a battery voltage of 1.5 V with low energy consumption (1.14 kPa-1) and high stability (>50,000 loading-unloading cycles). In addition, our sensor can resolve pressing, bending, torsional forces and acoustic vibrations. The superior sensing properties in conjunction with mechanical flexibility and robustness enabled real-time monitoring of blood pulses as well as detection of small vibration forces from music.

  13. Sensor for measurement of fuel rod gas pressure during loss-of-fluid-tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, T.R.

    1979-05-01

    Qualification tests have been conducted of a measurement system for determining the pressure of certain fuel rods in the loss-of-fluid-test (LOFT) reactor. Because of physical size (0.35-in. OD by 5.5-in length) and operational characteristics, an eddy current device was selected as the most promising measurement transducer for the application. The sensor must operate at pressure up to 17.2 MPa (2500 psig) and at temperatures up to 800 0 F. During the reactor transient caused by loss of coolant flow, sensor temperature and applied pressure will vary rapidly and significantly. Consequently, qualification tests included subjection of the sensor to rapid depressurization, temperature transients, and blowdowns in an autoclave, as well as to calibrations and various slow temperature cycles

  14. Real-Time Strap Pressure Sensor System for Powered Exoskeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Tamez-Duque

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Assistive and rehabilitative powered exoskeletons for spinal cord injury (SCI and stroke subjects have recently reached the clinic. Proper tension and joint alignment are critical to ensuring safety. Challenges still exist in adjustment and fitting, with most current systems depending on personnel experience for appropriate individual fastening. Paraplegia and tetraplegia patients using these devices have impaired sensation and cannot signal if straps are uncomfortable or painful. Excessive pressure and blood-flow restriction can lead to skin ulcers, necrotic tissue and infections. Tension must be just enough to prevent slipping and maintain posture. Research in pressure dynamics is extensive for wheelchairs and mattresses, but little research has been done on exoskeleton straps. We present a system to monitor pressure exerted by physical human-machine interfaces and provide data about levels of skin/body pressure in fastening straps. The system consists of sensing arrays, signal processing hardware with wireless transmission, and an interactive GUI. For validation, a lower-body powered exoskeleton carrying the full weight of users was used. Experimental trials were conducted with one SCI and one able-bodied subject. The system can help prevent skin injuries related to excessive pressure in mobility-impaired patients using powered exoskeletons, supporting functionality, independence and better overall quality of life.

  15. Stretchable Dual-Capacitor Multi-Sensor for Touch-Curvature-Pressure-Strain Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hanbyul; Jung, Sungchul; Kim, Junhyung; Heo, Sanghyun; Lim, Jaeik; Park, Wonsang; Chu, Hye Yong; Bien, Franklin; Park, Kibog

    2017-09-07

    We introduce a new type of multi-functional capacitive sensor that can sense several different external stimuli. It is fabricated only with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films and silver nanowire electrodes by using selective oxygen plasma treatment method without photolithography and etching processes. Differently from the conventional single-capacitor multi-functional sensors, our new multi-functional sensor is composed of two vertically-stacked capacitors (dual-capacitor). The unique dual-capacitor structure can detect the type and strength of external stimuli including curvature, pressure, strain, and touch with clear distinction, and it can also detect the surface-normal directionality of curvature, pressure, and touch. Meanwhile, the conventional single-capacitor sensor has ambiguity in distinguishing curvature and pressure and it can detect only the strength of external stimulus. The type, directionality, and strength of external stimulus can be determined based on the relative capacitance changes of the two stacked capacitors. Additionally, the logical flow reflected on a tree structure with its branches reaching the direction and strength of the corresponding external stimulus unambiguously is devised. This logical flow can be readily implemented in the sensor driving circuit if the dual-capacitor sensor is commercialized actually in the future.

  16. Integration of piezo-capacitive and piezo-electric nanoweb based pressure sensors for imaging of static and dynamic pressure distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Y J; Oh, T I; Woo, E J; Kim, K J

    2017-07-01

    Recently, highly flexible and soft pressure distribution imaging sensor is in great demand for tactile sensing, gait analysis, ubiquitous life-care based on activity recognition, and therapeutics. In this study, we integrate the piezo-capacitive and piezo-electric nanowebs with the conductive fabric sheets for detecting static and dynamic pressure distributions on a large sensing area. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and electric source imaging are applied for reconstructing pressure distribution images from measured current-voltage data on the boundary of the hybrid fabric sensor. We evaluated the piezo-capacitive nanoweb sensor, piezo-electric nanoweb sensor, and hybrid fabric sensor. The results show the feasibility of static and dynamic pressure distribution imaging from the boundary measurements of the fabric sensors.

  17. Design and Analysis of a New Tuning Fork Structure for Resonant Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a micromachined resonant pressure sensor. The sensor is designed to optimize the sensitivity and reduce the cross-talk between the driving electrodes and sensing electrodes. The relationship between the sensitivity of the sensor and the main design parameters is analyzed both theoretically and numerically. The sensing and driving electrodes are optimized to get both high sensing capacitance and low cross-talk. This sensor is fabricated using a micromachining process based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI wafer. An open-loop measurement system and a closed-loop self-oscillation system is employed to measure the characteristics of the sensor. The experiment result shows that the sensor has a pressure sensitivity of about 29 Hz/kPa, a nonlinearity of 0.02%FS, a hysteresis error of 0.05%FS, and a repeatability error of 0.01%FS. The temperature coefficient is less than 2 Hz/°C in the range of −40 to 80 °C and the short-term stability of the sensor is better than 0.005%FS.

  18. Parylene-on-oil packaging for long-term implantable pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Aubrey M; Liu, Yang; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports and analyzes the feasibility study of a parylene-on-oil encapsulation packaging method of pressure sensors targeted for long-term implantation. Commercial barometric digital-output pressure sensors are enclosed in silicone oil and then encapsulated in situ with parylene-C or -D (PA-C, PA-D) chemical vapor deposition. Experimentally, sensors encapsulated with 30,000 cSt silicone oil and 27 μm PA-D show good performance for 6 weeks in 77 °C saline with >99 % of original sensitivity, corresponding to an extrapolated lifetime of around 21 months in 37 °C saline. This work shows that, with proper designs, such a packaging method can preserve the original pressure sensor sensitivity without offset, validated throughout accelerated lifetime tests. In experiments, wires on the prototypes are used for external electronics but it is found that they contributed to early failures, which would be absent in real wireless versions, indicating a potential for even longer lifetimes. Finally, a verified model is presented to predict the pressure sensor sensitivity of parylene-on-oil packaging with and without the presence of a bubble in the oil.

  19. A flexible liquid crystal polymer MEMS pressure sensor array for fish-like underwater sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J M; Barbastathis, G; Triantafyllou, M S

    2012-01-01

    In order to perform underwater surveillance, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) require flexible, light-weight, reliable and robust sensing systems that are capable of flow sensing and detecting underwater objects. Underwater animals like fish perform a similar task using an efficient and ubiquitous sensory system called a lateral-line constituting of an array of pressure-gradient sensors. We demonstrate here the development of arrays of polymer microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors which are flexible and can be readily mounted on curved surfaces of AUV bodies. An array of ten sensors with a footprint of 60 (L) mm × 25 (W) mm × 0.4 (H) mm is fabricated using liquid crystal polymer (LCP) as the sensing membrane material. The flow sensing and object detection capabilities of the array are illustrated with proof-of-concept experiments conducted in a water tunnel. The sensors demonstrate a pressure sensitivity of 14.3 μV Pa −1 . A high resolution of 25 mm s −1 is achieved in water flow sensing. The sensors can passively sense underwater objects by transducing the pressure variations generated underwater by the movement of objects. The experimental results demonstrate the array’s ability to detect the velocity of underwater objects towed past by with high accuracy, and an average error of only 2.5%. (paper)

  20. Energy autonomous pressure sensor for automotive applications; Energieautarker Drucksensor fuer Anwendungen im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, Martin [A. Raymond GmbH und CoKG, Loerrach (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    In this contribution a wireless, energy autonomous sensor micro-system is presented. The innovation of this wireless system is that it has been designed as an energy autonomous sensor system especially for use in vehicles. The newly developed pressure sensor system is intended to measure the pressure in the fuel system of vehicles and to wirelessly transmit it in the 2.4 GHz-frequency band to a receiver. The sensor system is powered by an electromagnetic energy harvester driven by vibration and transmits the measured data as soon as there is sufficient energy available in the system. As a consequence the system's data rate varies depending on the system energy level and consequently on the vibration power available. So the basic idea is to supply an energy storage system, e. g. a capacitor, with energy until a certain threshold value is achieved. This threshold value was defined such that the stored energy is sufficient for measuring the pressure and the temperature and transmitting these values to the receiver. After successful transmission the circuit goes back into the state of ''energy collection''. In order to realize a system setup as compact as possible consisting of pressure sensor, energy converter with energy storage, controller, and HF module, we have developed and implemented a housing constructed as a PCB/MID support frame.

  1. A noncontact wireless passive radio frequency (RF) resonant pressure sensor with optimized design for applications in high-temperature environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen; Tan, Qiulin; Xiong, Jijun; Jia, Pinggang; Hong, Yingping; Ren, Zhong; Luo, Tao; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    A noncontact wireless passive pressure sensor based on alumina ceramic for pressure measurement is presented in this paper. A faithful pressure signal in harsh environment is captured through wireless sensing, and a novel antenna design method is developed to increase the measurement distance between the antenna and the sensor. The sensor is fabricated using a novel no-co-fired technology, and the properties of the alumina ceramic and platinum ensure the feasibility of the sensor in high-temperature environments. The experimental results show that the coupled distance between the antenna and the sensor can be up to 5.5 cm, and the designed sensor, featuring improved structural parameters, has a high responsivity (15.5 kHz kPa −1 ) in a pressure environment at room temperature. The sensor can be coupled with the antenna at 850 °C, which verifies the feasibility in high-temperature environments. (paper)

  2. Effects of normal aging on calibration and response time of nuclear plant RTDs and pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.L.; Riner, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) and pressure, level, and flow transmitters provide a majority of the vital signals for the control and safety of nuclear power plants. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure that the performance of these sensors are maintained at an acceptable level while the plant is operating. Since aging has the potential to cause performance degradation in RTDs and pressure transmitters, several research projects have been sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study the aging characteristics of these sensors and ensure that adequate test methods and test frequencies are followed by the nuclear industry to ensure safety. The details of these projects are summarized in this paper

  3. Design of Novel FBG-Based Sensor of Differential Pressure with Magnetic Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Lyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a differential pressure sensor with magnetic transfer is proposed, in which the non-electric measurement based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG with the position limiting mechanism is implemented without the direct contact of the sensing unit with the measuring fluid. The test shows that the designed sensor is effective for measuring differential pressure in the range of 0~10 kPa with a sensitivity of 0.0112 nm/kPa, which can be used in environments with high temperature, strong corrosion and high overload measurements.

  4. Design of Novel FBG-Based Sensor of Differential Pressure with Magnetic Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Guohui; Che, Guohang; Li, Junqing; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Keda; Han, Yueqiang; Gao, Laixu

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, a differential pressure sensor with magnetic transfer is proposed, in which the non-electric measurement based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with the position limiting mechanism is implemented without the direct contact of the sensing unit with the measuring fluid. The test shows that the designed sensor is effective for measuring differential pressure in the range of 0~10 kPa with a sensitivity of 0.0112 nm/kPa, which can be used in environments with high temperature, strong corrosion and high overload measurements.

  5. Touch-mode capacitive pressure sensor with graphene-polymer heterostructure membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Phillips, Rory; Pasternak, Iwona; Sobieski, Jan; Strupinski, Wlodek; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind

    2018-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterisation of a touch-mode capacitive pressure sensor (TMCPS) with a robust design that comprises a graphene-polymer heterostructure film, laminated onto the silicon dioxide surface of a silicon wafer, incorporating a SU-8 spacer grid structure. The spacer grid structure allows the flexible graphene-polymer film to be partially suspended above the substrate, such that a pressure on the membrane results in a reproducible deflection, even after exposing the membrane to pressures over 10 times the operating range. Sensors show reproducible pressure transduction in water submersion at varying depths under static and dynamic loading. The measured capacitance change in response to pressure is in good agreement with an analytical model of clamped plates in touch mode. The device shows a pressure sensitivity of 27.1 +/- 0.5 fF Pa-1 over a pressure range of 0.5 kPa-8.5 kPa. In addition, we demonstrate the operation of this device as a force-touch sensor in air.

  6. MEMS fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, G. C.; Jia, P. G.; Cao, Q.; Xiong, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We design and demonstrate a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor (FOFPPS) for high-temperature sensing by employing micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. The FOFPPS is fabricated by anodically bonding the silicon wafer and the Pyrex glass together and fixing the facet of the optical fiber in parallel with the silicon surface by glass frit and organic adhesive. The silicon wafer can be reduced through dry etching technology to construct the sensitive diaphragm. The length of the cavity changes with the deformation of the diaphragm due to the loaded pressure, which leads to a wavelength shift of the interference spectrum. The pressure can be gauged by measuring the wavelength shift. The pressure experimental results show that the sensor has linear pressure sensitivities ranging from 0 kPa to 600 kPa at temperature range between 20°C to 300°C. The pressure sensitivity at 300°C is approximately 27.63 pm/kPa. The pressure sensitivities gradually decrease with increasing the temperature. The sensor also has a linear thermal drift when temperature changes from 20°C - 300°C.

  7. Chemically Designed Metallic/Insulating Hybrid Nanostructures with Silver Nanocrystals for Highly Sensitive Wearable Pressure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haneun; Lee, Seung-Wook; Joh, Hyungmok; Seong, Mingi; Lee, Woo Seok; Kang, Min Su; Pyo, Jun Beom; Oh, Soong Ju

    2018-01-10

    With the increase in interest in wearable tactile pressure sensors for e-skin, researches to make nanostructures to achieve high sensitivity have been actively conducted. However, limitations such as complex fabrication processes using expensive equipment still exist. Herein, simple lithography-free techniques to develop pyramid-like metal/insulator hybrid nanostructures utilizing nanocrystals (NCs) are demonstrated. Ligand-exchanged and unexchanged silver NC thin films are used as metallic and insulating components, respectively. The interfaces of each NC layer are chemically engineered to create discontinuous insulating layers, i.e., spacers for improved sensitivity, and eventually to realize fully solution-processed pressure sensors. Device performance analysis with structural, chemical, and electronic characterization and conductive atomic force microscopy study reveals that hybrid nanostructure based pressure sensor shows an enhanced sensitivity of higher than 500 kPa -1 , reliability, and low power consumption with a wide range of pressure sensing. Nano-/micro-hierarchical structures are also designed by combining hybrid nanostructures with conventional microstructures, exhibiting further enhanced sensing range and achieving a record sensitivity of 2.72 × 10 4 kPa -1 . Finally, all-solution-processed pressure sensor arrays with high pixel density, capable of detecting delicate signals with high spatial selectivity much better than the human tactile threshold, are introduced.

  8. Design of air blast pressure sensors based on miniature silicon membrane and piezoresistive gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riondet, J.; Coustou, A.; Aubert, H.; Pons, P.; Lavayssière, M.; Luc, J.; Lefrançois, A.

    2017-11-01

    Available commercial piezoelectric pressure sensors are not able to accurately reproduce the ultra-fast transient pressure occurring during an air blast experiment. In this communication a new pressure sensor prototype based on a miniature silicon membrane and piezoresistive gauges is reported for significantly improving the performances in terms of time response. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of a pressure transducer having a fundamental resonant frequency almost ten times greater than the commercial piezoelectric sensors one. The sensor uses a 5μm-thick SOI membrane and four P-type silicon gauges (doping level ≅ 1019 at/cm3) in Wheatstone bridge configuration. To obtain a good trade-off between the fundamental mechanical resonant frequency and pressure sensitivity values, the typical dimension of the rectangular membrane is fixed to 30μm x 90μm with gauge dimension of 1μm x 5μm. The achieved simulated mechanical resonant frequency of these configuration is greater than 40MHz with a sensitivity of 0.04% per bar.

  9. Passive Resistor Temperature Compensation for a High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zong; Liang, Ting; Jia, Pinggang; Hong, Yingping; Qi, Lei; Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Wangwang; Zhang, Diya; Xiong, Jijun

    2016-07-22

    The main limitation of high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors is the variation of output voltage with operating temperature, which seriously reduces their measurement accuracy. This paper presents a passive resistor temperature compensation technique whose parameters are calculated using differential equations. Unlike traditional experiential arithmetic, the differential equations are independent of the parameter deviation among the piezoresistors of the microelectromechanical pressure sensor and the residual stress caused by the fabrication process or a mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients. The differential equations are solved using calibration data from uncompensated high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors. Tests conducted on the calibrated equipment at various temperatures and pressures show that the passive resistor temperature compensation produces a remarkable effect. Additionally, a high-temperature signal-conditioning circuit is used to improve the output sensitivity of the sensor, which can be reduced by the temperature compensation. Compared to traditional experiential arithmetic, the proposed passive resistor temperature compensation technique exhibits less temperature drift and is expected to be highly applicable for pressure measurements in harsh environments with large temperature variations.

  10. Large dynamic range pressure sensor based on two semicircle-holes microstructured fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyong; Htein, Lin; Lee, Kang-Kuen; Lau, Kin-Tak; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2018-01-08

    This paper presents a sensitive and large dynamic range pressure sensor based on a novel birefringence microstructured optical fiber (MOF) deployed in a Sagnac interferometer configuration. The MOF has two large semicircle holes in the cladding and a rectangular strut with germanium-doped core in the center. The fiber structure permits surrounding pressure to induce large effective index difference between the two polarized modes. The calculated and measured group birefringence of the fiber are 1.49 × 10 -4 , 1.23 × 10 -4 , respectively, at the wavelength of 1550 nm. Experimental results shown that the pressure sensitivity of the sensor varied from 45,000 pm/MPa to 50,000 pm/MPa, and minimum detectable pressure of 80 Pa and dynamic range of better than 116 dB could be achieved with the novel fiber sensor. The proposed sensor could be used in harsh environment and is an ideal candidate for downhole applications where high pressure measurement at elevated temperature up to 250 °C is needed.

  11. High-resolution dynamic pressure sensor array based on piezo-phototronic effect tuned photoluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingzeng; Li, Zhou; Liu, Caihong; Zheng, Qiang; Shi, Xieqing; Song, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Du, Shiyu; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    A high-resolution dynamic tactile/pressure display is indispensable to the comprehensive perception of force/mechanical stimulations such as electronic skin, biomechanical imaging/analysis, or personalized signatures. Here, we present a dynamic pressure sensor array based on pressure/strain tuned photoluminescence imaging without the need for electricity. Each sensor is a nanopillar that consists of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells. Its photoluminescence intensity can be modulated dramatically and linearly by small strain (0-0.15%) owing to the piezo-phototronic effect. The sensor array has a high pixel density of 6350 dpi and exceptional small standard deviation of photoluminescence. High-quality tactile/pressure sensing distribution can be real-time recorded by parallel photoluminescence imaging without any cross-talk. The sensor array can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas by semiconductor product lines. The proposed dynamic all-optical pressure imaging with excellent resolution, high sensitivity, good uniformity, and ultrafast response time offers a suitable way for smart sensing, micro/nano-opto-electromechanical systems.

  12. Unconstrained pulse pressure monitoring for health management using hetero-core fiber optic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Michiko; Sonobe, Masako; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a pulse pressure waveform sensor that does not constrain a wearer's daily activity; the sensor uses hetero-core fiber optics. Hetero-core fiber sensors have been found to be sensitive to moderate bending. To detect minute pulse pressure changes from the radial artery at the wrist, we devised a fiber sensor arrangement using three-point bending supports. We analyzed and evaluated the measurement validity using wavelet transformation, which is well-suited for biological signal processing. It was confirmed that the detected pulse waveform had a fundamental mode frequency of around 1.25 Hz over the time-varying waveform. A band-pass filter with a range of frequencies from 0.85 to 1.7 Hz was used to pick up the fundamental mode. In addition, a high-pass filter with 0.85 Hz frequency eliminated arm motion artifacts; consequently, we achieved high signal-to-noise ratio. For unrestricted daily health management, it is desirable that pulse pressure monitoring can be achieved by simply placing a device on the hand without the sensor being noticed. Two types of arrangements were developed and demonstrated in which the pulse sensors were either embedded in a base, such as an armrest, or in a wearable device. A wearable device without cuff pressure using a sensitivity-enhanced fiber sensor was successfully achieved with a sensitivity of 0.07-0.3 dB with a noise floor lower than 0.01 dB for multiple subjects.

  13. Analysis of assisted gait by a telemetric system ANÁLISIS DE LA MARCHA ASISTIDA CON BASTONES MEDIANTE UN SISTEMA TELEMÉTRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Rodríguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new system of teletransmission to analyse the walk during reeducation is presented. The system is made of three emitting sensors housed into the two canes and the feet switches, which assit the patient during the ambulatory function. An adaptating circuit is put between the emitter and the antenna to eliminate the interferences caused by simultaneous signals in the same area.

    KEY WORDS: Telemetry. Gait analysis. Assisted gait.

    Se describe un nuevo sistema de telemetría destinado al análisis de la marcha asistida durante su reeducación. Este dispositivo consta de tres receptores-emisores colocados en las dos suelas y en los dos bastones que asisten al paciente durante la deambulación. Se ha diseñado un circuito que se ha adaptado entre el emisor y la antena, con el fin de eliminar las interferencias producidas por la emisión simultánea de diferentes señales en una misma área.

    PALABRAS CLAVE: Telemetría. Análisis de la marcha. Marcha asistida.

  14. Low Cost Plastic Optical Fiber Pressure Sensor Embedded in Mattress for Vital Signal Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiano, Demetrio; Sales, Salvador

    2017-12-13

    The aim of this paper is to report the design of a low-cost plastic optical fiber (POF) pressure sensor, embedded in a mattress. We report the design of a multipoint sensor, a cheap alternative to the most common fiber sensors. The sensor is implemented using Arduino board, standard LEDs for optical communication in POF (λ = 645 nm) and a silicon light sensor. The Super ESKA ® plastic fibers were used to implement the fiber intensity sensor, arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix. During the breathing cycles, the force transmitted from the lungs to the thorax is in the order of tens of Newtons, and the respiration rate is of one breath every 2-5 s (0.2-0.5 Hz). The sensor has a resolution of force applied on a single point of 2.2-4.5%/N on the normalized voltage output, and a bandwidth of 10 Hz, it is then suitable to monitor the respiration movements. Another issue to be addressed is the presence of hysteresis over load cycles. The sensor was loaded cyclically to estimate the drift of the system, and the hysteresis was found to be negligible.

  15. Low Cost Plastic Optical Fiber Pressure Sensor Embedded in Mattress for Vital Signal Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrio Sartiano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the design of a low-cost plastic optical fiber (POF pressure sensor, embedded in a mattress. We report the design of a multipoint sensor, a cheap alternative to the most common fiber sensors. The sensor is implemented using Arduino board, standard LEDs for optical communication in POF (λ = 645 nm and a silicon light sensor. The Super ESKA® plastic fibers were used to implement the fiber intensity sensor, arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix. During the breathing cycles, the force transmitted from the lungs to the thorax is in the order of tens of Newtons, and the respiration rate is of one breath every 2–5 s (0.2–0.5 Hz. The sensor has a resolution of force applied on a single point of 2.2–4.5%/N on the normalized voltage output, and a bandwidth of 10 Hz, it is then suitable to monitor the respiration movements. Another issue to be addressed is the presence of hysteresis over load cycles. The sensor was loaded cyclically to estimate the drift of the system, and the hysteresis was found to be negligible.

  16. Design and simulation analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on graphene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, M.; Xia, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.

    2018-02-01

    A novel pressure sensor structure based on graphene film as the sensitive membrane was proposed in this paper, which solved the problem to measure low and minor pressure with high sensitivity. Moreover, the fabrication process was designed which can be compatible with CMOS IC fabrication technology. Finite element analysis has been used to simulate the displacement distribution of the thin movable graphene film of the designed pressure sensor under the different pressures with different dimensions. From the simulation results, the optimized structure has been obtained which can be applied in the low measurement range from 10hPa to 60hPa. The length and thickness of the graphene film could be designed as 100μm and 0.2μm, respectively. The maximum mechanical stress on the edge of the sensitive membrane was 1.84kPa, which was far below the breaking strength of the silicon nitride and graphene film.

  17. Design and Fabrication of a Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Ultra High Temperature Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L B; Zhao, Y L; Jiang, Z D

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the pressure measurement problem in the harsh environment, a piezoresistive pressure sensor has been developed, which can be used under high temperature above 200 deg. C and is able to endure instantaneous ultra high temperature (2000deg. C, duration≤2s) impact. Based on the MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) and integrated circuit technology, the piezoresistive pressure sensor's sensitive element was fabricated and constituted by silicon substrate, a thin buried silicon dioxide layer, four p-type resistors in the measuring circuit layer by boron ion implantation and photolithography, the top SiO2 layer by oxidation, stress matching Si3N4 layer, and a Ti-Pt-Au beam lead layer for connecting p-type resistors by sputtering. In order to decrease the leak-current influence to sensor in high temperature above 200deg. C, the buried SiO2 layer with the thickness 367 nm was fabricated by the SIMOX (Separation by Implantation of Oxygen) technology, which was instead of p-n junction to isolate the upper measuring circuit layer from Si substrate. In order to endure instantaneous ultra high temperature impact, the mechanical structure with cantilever and diaphragm and transmitting beam was designed. By laser welding and high temperature packaging technology, the high temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor was fabricated with range of 120MPa. After the thermal compensation, the sensor's thermal zero drift k 0 and thermal sensitivity drift k s were easy to be less than 3x10 -4 FS/deg. C. The experimental results show that the developed piezoresistive pressure sensor has good performances under high temperature and is able to endure instantaneous ultra high temperature impact, which meets the requirements of modern industry, such as aviation, oil, engine, etc

  18. Highly stretchable resistive pressure sensors using a conductive elastomeric composite on a micropyramid array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Chwee-Lin; Shim, Mun-Bo; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Jeon, Sanghun; Ko, Dong-Su; Kang, Tae-Hyung; Bae, Jihyun; Lee, Sung Hoon; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Im, Jungkyun; Jeong, Yong Jin; Park, Chan Eon; Park, Jong-Jin; Chung, U-In

    2014-06-04

    A stretchable resistive pressure sensor is achieved by coating a compressible substrate with a highly stretchable electrode. The substrate contains an array of microscale pyramidal features, and the electrode comprises a polymer composite. When the pressure-induced geometrical change experienced by the electrode is maximized at 40% elongation, a sensitivity of 10.3 kPa(-1) is achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Multi-Channel Electronically Scanned Cryogenic Pressure Sensor And Method For Making Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A miniature, multi-channel, electronically scanned pressure measuring device uses electrostatically bonded silicon dies in a multi-element array. These dies are bonded at specific sites on a glass, pre-patterned substrate. Thermal data is multiplexed and recorded on each individual pressure measuring diaphragm. The device functions in a cryogenic environment without the need of heaters to keep the sensor at constant temperatures.

  20. Temperature characteristics research of SOI pressure sensor based on asymmetric base region transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Li, Dandan; Yu, Yang; Wen, Dianzhong

    2017-07-01

    Based on the asymmetric base region transistor, a pressure sensor with temperature compensation circuit is proposed in this paper. The pressure sensitive structure of the proposed sensor is constructed by a C-type silicon cup and a Wheatstone bridge with four piezoresistors ({R}1, {R}2, {R}3 and {R}4) locating on the edge of a square silicon membrane. The chip was designed and fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer by micro electromechanical system (MEMS) technology and bipolar transistor process. When the supply voltage is 5.0 V, the corresponding temperature coefficient of the sensitivity (TCS) for the sensor before and after temperature compensation are -1862 and -1067 ppm/°C, respectively. Through varying the ratio of the base region resistances {r}1 and {r}2, the TCS for the sensor with the compensation circuit is -127 ppm/°C. It is possible to use this compensation circuit to improve the temperature characteristics of the pressure sensor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61471159), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (No. F201433), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province (No. 2015018), and the Special Funds for Science and Technology Innovation Talents of Harbin in China (No. 2016RAXXJ016).

  1. Polydimethylsiloxane pressure sensors for force analysis in tension band wiring of the olecranon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zens, Martin; Goldschmidtboeing, Frank; Wagner, Ferdinand; Reising, Kilian; Südkamp, Norbert P; Woias, Peter

    2016-11-14

    Several different surgical techniques are used in the treatment of olecranon fractures. Tension band wiring is one of the most preferred options by surgeons worldwide. The concept of this technique is to transform a tensile force into a compression force that adjoins two surfaces of a fractured bone. Currently, little is known about the resulting compression force within a fracture. Sensor devices are needed that directly transduce the compression force into a measurement quality. This allows the comparison of different surgical techniques. Ideally the sensor devices ought to be placed in the gap between the fractured segments. The design, development and characterization of miniaturized pressure sensors fabricated entirely from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for a placement within a fracture is presented. The pressure sensors presented in this work are tested, calibrated and used in an experimental in vitro study. The pressure sensors are highly sensitive with an accuracy of approximately 3 kPa. A flexible fabrication process for various possible applications is described. The first in vitro study shows that using a single-twist or double-twist technique in tension band wiring of the olecranon has no significant effect on the resulting compression forces. The in vitro study shows the feasibility of the proposed measurement technique and the results of a first exemplary study.

  2. Differential pressure measurement using a free-flying insect-like ornithopter with an MEMS sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Aoyama, Yuichiro; Ohsawa, Kazuharu; Iwase, Eiji; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao; Tanaka, Hiroto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents direct measurements of the aerodynamic forces on the wing of a free-flying, insect-like ornithopter that was modeled on a hawk moth (Manduca sexta). A micro differential pressure sensor was fabricated with micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and attached to the wing of the ornithopter. The sensor chip was less than 0.1% of the wing area. The mass of the sensor chip was 2.0 mg, which was less than 1% of the wing mass. Thus, the sensor was both small and light in comparison with the wing, resulting in a measurement system that had a minimal impact on the aerodynamics of the wing. With this sensor, the 'pressure coefficient' of the ornithopter wing was measured during both steady airflow and actual free flight. The maximum pressure coefficient observed for steady airflow conditions was 1.4 at an angle of attack of 30 0 . In flapping flight, the coefficient was around 2.0 for angles of attack that ranged from 25 0 to 40 0 . Therefore, a larger aerodynamic force was generated during the downstroke in free flight compared to steady airflow conditions.

  3. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Cooper

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s−1 and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the global positioning system, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature, these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that although the initial calibration of the measured static and dynamic pressures requires a measured temperature, once calibrated these measured pressures and the measurement of airspeed from the new laser air-motion sensor provide a measurement of temperature that does not depend on any other temperature sensor.

  4. Soft-Matter Resistive Sensor for Measuring Shear and Pressure Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepayotl-Ramirez, Daniel; Roberts, Peter; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-03-01

    Building on emerging paradigms in soft-matter electronics, we introduce liquid-phase electronic sensors that simultaneously measures elastic pressure and shear deformation. The sensors are com- posed of a sheet of elastomer that is embedded with fluidic channels containing eutectic Gallium- Indium (EGaIn), a metal alloy that is liquid at room temperature. Applying pressure or shear traction to the surface of the surrounding elastomer causes the elastomer to elastically deform and changes the geometry and electrical properties of the embedded liquid-phase circuit elements. We introduce analytic models that predict the electrical response of the sensor to prescribed surface tractions. These models are validated with both Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and experimental measurements.

  5. A low hydraulic capacitance pressure sensor for integration with a micro viscosity detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, F.H.J.; Blom, M.T.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Chmela, E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tijssen, R.P; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    A design is presented for a micromachined differential viscometer, that is suitable for integration into a planar hydrodynamic chromatography system (HDC) for polymer analysis. The viscometer consists of four equal flow restrictions and two pressure sensors, connected in a Wheatstone bridge

  6. Rough-Surface-Enabled Capacitive Pressure Sensors with 3D Touch Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kilsoo; Lee, Jaehong; Kim, Gwangmook; Kim, Youngjae; Kang, Subin; Cho, Sungjun; Kim, SeulGee; Kim, Jae-Kang; Lee, Wooyoung; Kim, Dae-Eun; Kang, Shinill; Kim, DaeEun; Lee, Taeyoon; Shim, Wooyoung

    2017-11-01

    Fabrication strategies that pursue "simplicity" for the production process and "functionality" for a device, in general, are mutually exclusive. Therefore, strategies that are less expensive, less equipment-intensive, and consequently, more accessible to researchers for the realization of omnipresent electronics are required. Here, this study presents a conceptually different approach that utilizes the inartificial design of the surface roughness of paper to realize a capacitive pressure sensor with high performance compared with sensors produced using costly microfabrication processes. This study utilizes a writing activity with a pencil and paper, which enables the construction of a fundamental capacitor that can be used as a flexible capacitive pressure sensor with high pressure sensitivity and short response time and that it can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas. Furthermore, the paper-based pressure sensors are integrated into a fully functional 3D touch-pad device, which is a step toward the realization of omnipresent electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Process Optimization for Monolithic Integration of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor and MOSFET Amplifier with SOI Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V Vinoth; Dasgupta, A; Bhat, K N; KNatarajan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and process optimization for fabricating piezoresitive pressure sensor and MOSFET Differential Amplifier simultaneously on the same chip. Silicon On Insulator approach has been used for realizing the membrane as well as the electronics on the same chip. The amplifier circuit has been configured in the common source connection and it has been designed with PSPICE simulation to achieve a voltage gain of about 5. In the initial set of experiments the Pressure sensor and the amplifier were fabricated on separate chips to optimize the process steps and tested in the hybrid mode. In the next set of experiments, SOI wafer having the SOI layer thickness of about 11 microns was used for realizing the membrane by anisotropic etching from the backside. The piezo-resistive pressure sensor was realized on this membrane by connecting the polysilicon resistors in the form of a Wheatstone bridge. The MOSFET source follower amplifier was also fabricated on the same SOI wafer by tailoring the process steps to suit the requirement of simultaneous fabrication of piezoresistors and the amplifier for achieving MOSFET Integrated Pressure Sensor. Reproducible results have been achieved on the SOI wafers, with the process steps developed in the laboratory. Sensitivity of 270 mV /Bar/10V, with the on chip amplifier gain of 4.5, has been achieved with this process

  8. A highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive hydrogel spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2015-01-01

    Wearable pressure sensing solutions have promising future for practical applications in health monitoring and human/machine interfaces. Here, a highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/alginate hydrogel spheres is reported. Conductive and piezoresistive spheres are embedded between conductive electrodes (indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate films) and subjected to environmental pressure. The detection mechanism is based on the piezoresistivity of the SWCNT/alginate conductive spheres and on the sphere-electrode contact. Step-by-step, we optimized the design parameters to maximize the sensitivity of the sensor. The optimized hydrogel sensor exhibited a satisfactory sensitivity (0.176 ΔR/R0/kPa-1) and a low detectable limit (10 Pa). Moreover, a brief response time (a few milliseconds) and successful repeatability were also demonstrated. Finally, the efficiency of this strategy was verified through a series of practical tests such as monitoring human wrist pulse, detecting throat muscle motion or identifying the location and the distribution of an external pressure using an array sensor (4 × 4). © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Development and characterization of a multilayer matrix textile sensor for interface pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoli, Ilaria; Maselli, Martina; Cecchi, Francesca; Laschi, Cecilia

    2017-10-01

    Matrix textile sensors hold great potential for measuring pressure distribution in applications of modern daily lives, mainly regarding the biomedical field, but also robotics, automotive systems, and wearable and consumer electronics. However, an experimental analysis of their metrological properties is lacking in the literature, thus compromising their widespread acceptance. In the present work, we report the characterization of an 8 × 8 textile sensor assembled by sandwiching a piezoresistive fabric sheet between two outer fabric layers embedding conductive rows and columns. The location of the applied pressure can be identified by detecting the position where the change of resistances occurs between the external conductive paths. The sensor structure, its electrical circuit and characteristics are described in detail, after studying both the integration levels of the hierarchical structure and the composition of the piezoresistive fabric sheet. The pressure measurement range and the calibration curve were studied by tuning circuital parameters. Repeatability, time drift, temperature dependence, signal-to-noise ratio and dynamic response were analyzed. Novel tests were employed to consider the sensor sensitivity to stretch, shear force and surface curvature. A special analysis was taken over hysteresis and dynamic accuracy, focusing on a possible compensating solution. Results indicated that the system provides overall good quality performances with the main drawback of a limited dynamic accuracy, typical of piezoresistive sensing elements. Nevertheless, the use of textiles allows the realization of lightweight, wearable, washable, thin and stretchable sensors. In addition fabric sensors are robust, cheap, easy-to-use and employable to cover large area three dimensional surfaces. The wide characterization reported here could provide precious insights and guidelines to help researchers and users in taking advantages from all of these benefits, supporting them in

  10. Microwave bonding of MWNTs and fabrication of a low-cost, high-performance polymer pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gau, C; Chen, H T; Ko, H S

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of a simple, low-cost pressure sensor that can be readily mass produced. Microwave-induced heating is used to bond a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) network to a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate that serves as a pressure diaphragm. The MWNT network can be patterned with a damascene process and used as the sensor material. The pressure diaphragm with the MWNT network can be bonded with any flexible substrate pre-drilled with a cavity that allows a deflection of the diaphragm. Design and fabrication considerations for the sensor are discussed and its performance is demonstrated and evaluated. The sensor is thermally stable and has a much higher sensitivity and gauge factor than polysilicon sensors. In addition to the simple fabrication process, the sensor can be widely applied and integrated into microfluidic systems or biochips where pressure information is required.

  11. Structural Engineering for High Sensitivity, Ultrathin Pressure Sensors Based on Wrinkled Graphene and Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; Gui, Xuchun; Liang, Binghao; Yang, Rongliang; Zheng, Yongjia; Zhao, Chengchun; Li, Xinming; Zhu, Hai; Tang, Zikang

    2017-07-19

    Nature-motivated pressure sensors have been greatly important components integrated into flexible electronics and applied in artificial intelligence. Here, we report a high sensitivity, ultrathin, and transparent pressure sensor based on wrinkled graphene prepared by a facile liquid-phase shrink method. Two pieces of wrinkled graphene are face to face assembled into a pressure sensor, in which a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane with the thickness of only 200 nm was used to insulate the two layers of graphene. The pressure sensor exhibits ultrahigh operating sensitivity (6.92 kPa -1 ), resulting from the insulation in its inactive state and conduction under compression. Formation of current pathways is attributed to the contact of graphene wrinkles through the pores of AAO membrane. In addition, the pressure sensor is also an on/off and energy saving device, due to the complete isolation between the two graphene layers when the sensor is not subjected to any pressure. We believe that our high-performance pressure sensor is an ideal candidate for integration in flexible electronics, but also paves the way for other 2D materials to be involved in the fabrication of pressure sensors.

  12. Evaluation of Pressure Capacitive Sensors for Application in Grasping and Manipulation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessia, Paola; Cordella, Francesca; Schena, Emiliano; Davalli, Angelo; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Zollo, Loredana

    2017-12-08

    The analysis of the human grasping and manipulation capabilities is paramount for investigating human sensory-motor control and developing prosthetic and robotic hands resembling the human ones. A viable solution to perform this analysis is to develop instrumented objects measuring the interaction forces with the hand. In this context, the performance of the sensors embedded in the objects is crucial. This paper focuses on the experimental characterization of a class of capacitive pressure sensors suitable for biomechanical analysis. The analysis was performed in three loading conditions (Distributed load, 9 Tips load, and Wave-shaped load, thanks to three different inter-elements) via a traction/compression testing machine. Sensor assessment was also carried out under human- like grasping condition by placing a silicon material with the same properties of prosthetic cosmetic gloves in between the sensor and the inter-element in order to simulate the human skin. Data show that the input-output relationship of the analyzed, sensor is strongly influenced by both the loading condition (i.e., type of inter-element) and the grasping condition (with or without the silicon material). This needs to be taken into account to avoid significant measurement error. To go over this hurdle, the sensors have to be calibrated under each specific condition in order to apply suitable corrections to the sensor output and significantly improve the measurement accuracy.

  13. A Tilt, Soil Moisture, and Pore Water Pressure Sensor System for Slope Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanno de Dios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and characterization of a sensor network intended for monitoring of slope deformation and potential failures. The sensor network system consists of a tilt and moisture sensor column, a pore water pressure sensor column and a personal computer for data storage and processing. The tilt sensor column consists of several pipe segments containing tri-axial accelerometers and signal processing electronics. Each segment is joined together by flexible joints to allow for the column to deform and subsequently track underground movement. Capacitive-type sensors for soil moisture measurement are also included in the sensor column, which are used to measure the soil moisture at different depths. The measurements at each segment are transferred via a Controller Area Network (CAN bus, where the CAN master node is located at the top of the column above ground. The CAN master node transmits the collected data from the slave nodes via a wireless connection to a personal computer that performs data storage, processing and display via a Python-based graphical user interface (GUI. The entire system was deployed and characterized on a small-scale slope model. Slope failure was induced via water seepage and the system was demonstrated to ably measure the inclination and soil moisture content throughout the landslide event.

  14. Shock tunnel measurements of surface pressures in shock induced separated flow field using MEMS sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, R; Jagadeesh, G; Ram, S N; Hegde, G M; Nayak, M M

    2015-01-01

    Characterized not just by high Mach numbers, but also high flow total enthalpies—often accompanied by dissociation and ionization of flowing gas itself—the experimental simulation of hypersonic flows requires impulse facilities like shock tunnels. However, shock tunnel simulation imposes challenges and restrictions on the flow diagnostics, not just because of the possible extreme flow conditions, but also the short run times—typically around 1 ms. The development, calibration and application of fast response MEMS sensors for surface pressure measurements in IISc hypersonic shock tunnel HST-2, with a typical test time of 600 μs, for the complex flow field of strong (impinging) shock boundary layer interaction with separation close to the leading edge, is delineated in this paper. For Mach numbers 5.96 (total enthalpy 1.3 MJ kg −1 ) and 8.67 (total enthalpy 1.6 MJ kg −1 ), surface pressures ranging from around 200 Pa to 50 000 Pa, in various regions of the flow field, are measured using the MEMS sensors. The measurements are found to compare well with the measurements using commercial sensors. It was possible to resolve important regions of the flow field involving significant spatial gradients of pressure, with a resolution of 5 data points within 12 mm in each MEMS array, which cannot be achieved with the other commercial sensors. In particular, MEMS sensors enabled the measurement of separation pressure (at Mach 8.67) near the leading edge and the sharply varying pressure in the reattachment zone. (paper)

  15. PBO Borehole Strainmeters and Pore Pressure Sensors: Recording Hydrological Strain Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, M. H.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Henderson, D. B.; Johnson, W.; Van Boskirk, E.; Pyatt, C.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    UNAVCO operates a network of 75 borehole strainmeters along the west coast of the United States and Vancouver Island, Canada as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the NSF-funded Earthscope program. Borehole strainmeters are designed to detect variations in the strain field at the nanostrain level and can easily detect transient strains caused by aseismic creep events, Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events and seismically induced co- and post-seimic signals. In 2016, one strainmeter was installed in an Oklahoma oil field to characterize in-situ deformation during CO2 injection. Twenty-three strainmeter sites also have pore pressure sensors to measure fluctuations in groundwater pressure. Both the strainmeter network and the pore pressure sensors provide unique data against which those using water-level measurements, GPS time-series or InSAR data can compare possible subsidence signals caused by groundwater withdrawal or fluid re-injection. Operating for 12 years, the PBO strainmeter and pore pressure network provides a long-term, continuous, 1-sps record of deformation. PBO deploys GTSM21 tensor strainmeters from GTSM Technologies, which consist of four horizontal strain gauges stacked vertically, at different orientations, within a single 2 m-long instrument. The strainmeters are typically installed at depths of 200 to 250 m and grouted into the bottom of 15 cm diameter boreholes. The pore pressure sensors are Digiquartz Depth Sensors from Paros Scientific. These sensors are installed in 2" PVC, sampling groundwater through a screened section 15 m above the co-located strainmeter. These sensors are also recording at 1-sps with a resolution in the hundredths of hPa. High-rate local barometric pressure data and low-rate rainfall data also available at all locations. PBO Strainmeter and pore pressure data are available in SEED, SAC-ASCII and time-stamped ASCII format from the IRIS Data Managements Center. Strainmeter data are

  16. Wireless Capacitive Pressure Sensor Operating up to 400 Celcius from 0 to 100 psi Utilizing Power Scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Harsh, Kevin; Mackey, Jonathan A.; Meredith, Roger D.; Zorman, Christian A.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Dynys, Frederick W.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a wireless capacitive pressure sensor developed for the health monitoring of aircraft engines has been demonstrated. The sensing system is composed of a Clapp-type oscillator that operates at 131 MHz. The Clapp oscillator is fabricated on a alumina substrate and consists of a Cree SiC (silicon carbide) MESFET (Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors), this film inductor, Compex chip capacitors and Sporian Microsystem capacitive pressure sensor. The resonant tank circuit within the oscillator is made up of the pressure sensor and a spiral thin film inductor, which is used to magnetically couple the wireless pressure sensor signal to a coil antenna placed over 1 meter away. 75% of the power used to bias the sensing system is generated from thermoelectric power modules. The wireless pressure sensor is operational at room temperature through 400 C from 0 to 100 psi and exhibits a frequency shift of over 600 kHz.

  17. MEMS Technology Sensors as a More Advantageous Technique for Measuring Foot Plantar Pressure and Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Sanz Morère

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor activities are part and parcel of daily human life. During walking or running, feet are subjected to high plantar pressure, leading sometimes to limb problems, pain, or foot ulceration. A current objective in foot plantar pressure measurements is developing sensors that are small in size, lightweight, and energy efficient, while enabling high mobility, particularly for wearable applications. Moreover, improvements in spatial resolution, accuracy, and sensitivity are of interest. Sensors with improved sensing techniques can be applied to a variety of research problems: diagnosing limb problems, footwear design, or injury prevention. This paper reviews commercially available sensors used in foot plantar pressure measurements and proposes the utilization of pressure sensors based on the MEMS (microelectromechanical systems technique. Pressure sensors based on this technique have the capacity to measure pressure with high accuracy and linearity up to high pressure levels. Moreover, being small in size, they are highly suitable for this type of measurement. We present two MEMS sensor models and study their suitability for the intended purpose by performing several experiments. Preliminary results indicate that the sensors are indeed suitable for measuring foot plantar pressure. Importantly, by measuring pressure continuously, they can also be utilized for body balance measurements.

  18. Differential pressure distribution measurement with an MEMS sensor on a free-flying butterfly wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao; Tanaka, Hiroto

    2012-01-01

    An insect can perform various flight maneuvers. However, the aerodynamic force generated by real insect wings during free flight has never been measured directly. In this study, we present the direct measurement of the four points of the differential pressures acting on the wing surface of a flying insect. A small-scale differential pressure sensor of 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm × 0.3 mm in size was developed using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and was attached to a butterfly wing. Total weight of the sensor chip and the flexible electrode on the wing was 4.5 mg, which was less than 10% of the wing weight. Four points on the wing were chosen as measurement points, and one sensor chip was attached in each flight experiment. During takeoff, the wing's flapping motion induced a periodic and symmetric differential pressure between upstroke and downstroke. The average absolute value of the local differential pressure differed significantly with the location: 7.4 Pa at the forewing tip, 5.5 Pa at the forewing center, 2.1 Pa at the forewing root and 2.1 Pa at the hindwing center. The instantaneous pressure at the forewing tip reached 10 Pa, which was ten times larger than wing loading of the butterfly. (paper)

  19. 800 C Silicon Carbide (SiC) Pressure Sensors for Engine Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    MEMS-based 4H-SiC piezoresistive pressure sensors have been demonstrated at 800 C, leading to the discovery of strain sensitivity recovery with increasing temperatures above 400 C, eventually achieving up to, or near, 100 recovery of the room temperature values at 800 C. This result will allow the insertion of highly sensitive pressure sensors closer to jet, rocket, and hypersonic engine combustion chambers to improve the quantification accuracy of combustor dynamics, performance, and increase safety margin. Also, by operating at higher temperature and locating closer to the combustion chamber, reduction of the length (weight) of pressure tubes that are currently used will be achieved. This will result in reduced costlb to access space.

  20. Pressure Modulation of the Enzymatic Activity of Phospholipase A2, A Putative Membrane-Associated Pressure Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suladze, Saba; Cinar, Suleyman; Sperlich, Benjamin; Winter, Roland

    2015-10-07

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyze the hydrolysis reaction of sn-2 fatty acids of membrane phospholipids and are also involved in receptor signaling and transcriptional pathways. Here, we used pressure modulation of the PLA2 activity and of the membrane's physical-chemical properties to reveal new mechanistic information about the membrane association and subsequent enzymatic reaction of PLA2. Although the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on aqueous soluble and integral membrane proteins has been investigated to some extent, its effect on enzymatic reactions operating at the water/lipid interface has not been explored, yet. This study focuses on the effect of HHP on the structure, membrane binding and enzymatic activity of membrane-associated bee venom PLA2, covering a pressure range up to 2 kbar. To this end, high-pressure Fourier-transform infrared and high-pressure stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopies were applied. The results show that PLA2 binding to model biomembranes is not significantly affected by pressure and occurs in at least two kinetically distinct steps. Followed by fast initial membrane association, structural reorganization of α-helical segments of PLA2 takes place at the lipid water interface. FRET-based activity measurements reveal that pressure has a marked inhibitory effect on the lipid hydrolysis rate, which decreases by 75% upon compression up to 2 kbar. Lipid hydrolysis under extreme environmental conditions, such as those encountered in the deep sea where pressures up to the kbar-level are encountered, is hence markedly affected by HHP, rendering PLA2, next to being a primary osmosensor, a good candidate for a sensitive pressure sensor in vivo.

  1. Performance, Calibration and Stability of the Mars InSight Mission Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Don; Banerdt, Bruce; Hurst, Ken; Grinblat, Jonny; murray, alex; Carpenter, Scott

    2017-10-01

    The NASA Mars InSight Discovery Mission is primarily aimed at understanding the seismic environment at Mars and in turn the interior structure of the planet. To this end, it carries a set of very sensitive seismometers to characterize fine ground movements from quakes, impacts and tides. However, to remove atmospheric perturbations that would otherwise corrupt the seismic signals, InSight also carries a pressure sensor of unprecedented sensitivity and frequency response for a Mars mission.The instrument is based on a commercial spacecraft pressure sensor built by the Tavis Corporation. Tavis heritage transducers have provided pressure measurements on several interplanetary missions, starting with a similar application on the Viking Landers. The sensor developed for the Insight mission is their most sensitive device. That same sensitivity was the root of the challenges faced in the design and development for Insight. It uses inductive sensing of a deformable membrane, and includes an internal temperature sensor to compensate for temperature effects in its overall response.The technical requirement on the pressure sensor performance is 0.01(f/0.1)^(-2/3) Pa/sqrt(Hz) between 0.01 and 0.1 Hz, and 0.01 Pa/sqrt(Hz) between 0.1 and 1 Hz. The actual noise spectrum is about 0.01(f/0.3)^(-2/3) Pa/sqrt(Hz) between 0.01 and 1 Hz, and its frequency response (including inlet plumbing) has good response up to about 10 Hz Nyquist (it will be sampled at 20 Hz).Achieving the required sensitivity proved to be a difficult engineering challenge, which necessitated extensive experimentation and prototyping of the electronics design. In addition, a late discovery of the introduction of noise by the signal processing chain into the measurement stream forced a last-minute change in the instrument’s firmware.The flight unit has been calibrated twice, separated by a time span of about 2 years due to the delay in launching the InSight mission. This has the benefit of allowing a direct

  2. Design of Diaphragm Based MEMS Pressure Sensor with Sensitivity Analysis for Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nallathambi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Micro-electromechanical System (MEMS diaphragm based pressure sensor for environmental applications is discussed. The main focus of this paper is to design, simulate and analyze the sensitivity of MEMS based diaphragm using different structures to measure the low and high pressure values. The simulation is done through the finite element tool and specifications related the maximum convinced stress; deflection and sensitivity of the diaphragms have been analyzed using the software INTELLISUITE 8.7v. The change in pressure is to bending of the diaphragm that modifies the measured displacement between the substrate and the diaphragm. This change in displacement gives the measure of the pressure in that environment. The design of these studies can be used to improve the sensitivity of these devices. Here the diaphragm based pressure sensor produced better displacement, sensitivity and stress output responses are obtained from the square diaphragm. The pressure range from 0.6 MPa to 25 MPa and its maximum displacement is accordingly 59 mm over a pressure range of 0 to 2 MPa. Its sensitivity is therefore 2.35 [10E-12/Pa].

  3. Dynamic pressure sensor calibration techniques offering expanded bandwidth with increased resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewiski, David

    2015-03-01

    Advancements in the aerospace, defense and energy markets are being made possible by increasingly more sophisticated systems and sub-systems which rely upon critical information to be conveyed from the physical environment being monitored through ever more specialized, extreme environment sensing components. One sensing parameter of particular interest is dynamic pressure measurement. Crossing the boundary of all three markets (i.e. aerospace, defense and energy) is dynamic pressure sensing which is used in research and development of gas turbine technology, and subsequently embedded into a control loop used for long-term monitoring. Applications include quantifying the effects of aircraft boundary layer ingestion into the engine inlet to provide a reliable and robust design. Another application includes optimization of combustor dynamics by "listening" to the acoustic signature so that fuel-to-air mixture can be adjusted in real-time to provide cost operating efficiencies and reduced NOx emissions. With the vast majority of pressure sensors supplied today being calibrated either statically or "quasi" statically, the dynamic response characterization of the frequency dependent sensitivity (i.e. transfer function) of the pressure sensor is noticeably absent. The shock tube has been shown to be an efficient vehicle to provide frequency response of pressure sensors from extremely high frequencies down to 500 Hz. Recent development activity has lowered this starting frequency; thereby augmenting the calibration bandwidth with increased frequency resolution so that as the pressure sensor is used in an actual test application, more understanding of the physical measurement can be ascertained by the end-user.

  4. Remote Left Ventricular Hemodynamic Monitoring Using a Novel Intracardiac Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondritzki, Thomas; Boehme, Philip; White, Jason; Park, Jin Woo; Hoffmann, Jessica; Vogel, Julia; Kolkhof, Peter; Walsh, Stuart; Sandner, Peter; Bischoff, Erwin; Dinh, Wilfried; Hüser, Jörg; Truebel, Hubert

    2018-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) remains the most common reason for hospital admission in patients aged >65 years. Despite modern drug therapy, mortality and readmission rates for patients hospitalized with HF remain high. This necessitates further research to identify early patients at risk for readmission to limit hospitalization by timely adjustment of medical therapy. Implantable devices can monitor left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and remotely and continuously detect the early signs of decompensation to trigger interventions and reduce the risk of hospitalization for HF. Here, we report the first preclinical study validating a new batteryless and easy to implant LV-microelectromechanical system to assess LV performance. A miniaturized implantable wireless pressure sensor was adapted for implantation in the LV apex. The LV-microelectromechanical system sensor was tested in a canine model of HF. The wireless pressure sensor measurements were compared with invasive left heart catheter-derived measurements at several time points. During different pharmacological challenge studies with dobutamine or vasopressin, the device was equally sensitive compared with invasive standard procedures. No adverse events or any observable reaction related to the implantation and application of the device for a period of 35 days was observed. Our miniaturized wireless pressure sensor placed in the LV (LV-microelectromechanical system) has the potential to become a new telemetric tool to earlier identify patients at risk for HF decompensation and to guide the treatment of patients with HF. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Battery-free, wireless sensors for full-body pressure and temperature mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungyong; Kim, Jeonghyun; Won, Sang Min; Ma, Yinji; Kang, Daeshik; Xie, Zhaoqian; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Chung, Ha Uk; Banks, Anthony; Min, Seunghwan; Heo, Seung Yun; Davies, Charles R; Lee, Jung Woo; Lee, Chi-Hwan; Kim, Bong Hoon; Li, Kan; Zhou, Yadong; Wei, Chen; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2018-04-04

    Thin, soft, skin-like sensors capable of precise, continuous measurements of physiological health have broad potential relevance to clinical health care. Use of sensors distributed over a wide area for full-body, spatiotemporal mapping of physiological processes would be a considerable advance for this field. We introduce materials, device designs, wireless power delivery and communication strategies, and overall system architectures for skin-like, battery-free sensors of temperature and pressure that can be used across the entire body. Combined experimental and theoretical investigations of the sensor operation and the modes for wireless addressing define the key features of these systems. Studies with human subjects in clinical sleep laboratories and in adjustable hospital beds demonstrate functionality of the sensors, with potential implications for monitoring of circadian cycles and mitigating risks for pressure-induced skin ulcers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Outflow monitoring of a pneumatic ventricular assist device using external pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong Min; Her, Keun; Choi, Seong Wook

    2016-08-25

    In this study, a new algorithm was developed for estimating the pump outflow of a pneumatic ventricular assist device (p-VAD). The pump outflow estimation algorithm was derived from the ideal gas equation and determined the change in blood-sac volume of a p-VAD using two external pressure sensors. Based on in vitro experiments, the algorithm was revised to consider the effects of structural compliance caused by volume changes in an implanted unit, an air driveline, and the pressure difference between the sensors and the implanted unit. In animal experiments, p-VADs were connected to the left ventricles and the descending aorta of three calves (70-100 kg). Their outflows were estimated using the new algorithm and compared to the results obtained using an ultrasonic blood flow meter (UBF) (TS-410, Transonic Systems Inc., Ithaca, NY, USA). The estimated and measured values had a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.864. The pressure sensors were installed at the external controller and connected to the air driveline on the same side as the external actuator, which made the sensors easy to manage.

  7. Micro-controller based air pressure monitoring instrumentation system using optical fibers as sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, D.; Pegu, D. S.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes a micro-controller based instrumentation system to monitor air pressure using optical fiber sensors. The principle of macrobending is used to develop the sensor system. The instrumentation system consists of a laser source, a beam splitter, two multi mode optical fibers, two Light Dependent Resistance (LDR) based timer circuits and a AT89S8252 micro-controller. The beam splitter is used to divide the laser beam into two parts and then these two beams are launched into two multi mode fibers. One of the multi mode fibers is used as the sensor fiber and the other one is used as the reference fiber. The use of the reference fiber is to eliminate the environmental effects while measuring the air pressure magnitude. The laser beams from the sensor and reference fibers are applied to two identical LDR based timer circuits. The LDR based timer circuits are interfaced to a micro-controller through its counter pins. The micro-controller samples the frequencies of the timer circuits using its counter-0 and counter-1 and the counter values are then processed to provide the measure of air pressure magnitude.

  8. Comparison of Engine/Inlet Distortion Measurements with MEMS and ESP Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Hector L.; Hernandez, Corey D.

    2004-01-01

    A study of active-flow control in a small-scale boundary layer ingestion inlet was conducted at the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART). Forty MEMS pressure sensors, in a rake style configuration, were used to examine both the mean (DC) and high frequency (AC) components of the total pressure across the inlet/engine interface plane. The mean component was acquired and used to calculate pressure distortion. The AC component was acquired separately, at a high sampling rate, and is used to study the unsteady effects of the active-flow control. An identical total pressure rake, utilizing an Electronically Scanned Pressure (ESP) system, was also used to calculate distortion; a comparison of the results obtained using the two rakes is presented.

  9. Paper-based origami triboelectric nanogenerators and self-powered pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Pokang

    2015-01-27

    Discovering renewable and sustainable power sources is indispensable for the development of green electronics and sensor networks. In this paper, we present origami triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) using paper as the starting material, with a high degree of flexibility, light weight, low cost, and recyclability. Slinky- and doodlebug-shaped TENGs can be easily fabricated by properly folding printer papers. The as-fabricated TENGs are capable of harvesting ambient mechanical energy from various kinds of human motions, such as stretching, lifting, and twisting. The generated electric outputs have been used to directly light-up commercial LEDs. In addition, the as-fabricated TENGs can also serve as self-powered pressure sensors.

  10. Combined application of FBG and PZT sensors for plantar pressure monitoring at low and high speed walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, R; Bhalla, S; Singh, C; Kaur, N; Hao, J; Anand, S

    2015-01-01

    Clinical monitoring of planar pressure is vital in several pathological conditions, such as diabetes, where excess pressure might have serious repercussions on health of the patient, even to the extent of amputation. The main objective of this paper is to experimentally evaluate the combined application of the Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) and the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramic sensors for plantar pressure monitoring during walk at low and high speeds. For fabrication of the pressure sensors, the FBGs are embedded within layers of carbon composite material and stacked in an arc shape. From this embedding technique, average pressure sensitivity of 1.3 pm/kPa and resolution of nearly 0.8 kPa is obtained. These sensors are found to be suitable for measuring the static and the low-speed walk generated foot pressure. Simultaneously, PZT patches of size 10 × 10 × 0.3 mm were used as sensors, utilizing the d_{33} (thickness) coupling mode. A sensitivity of 7.06 mV/kPa and a pressure resolution of 0.14 kPa is obtained from these sensors, which are found to be suitable for foot pressure measurement during high speed walking and running. Both types of sensors are attached to the underside of the sole of commercially available shoes. In the experiments, a healthy male subject walks/runs over the treadmill wearing the fabricated shoes at various speeds and the peak pressure is measured using both the sensors. Commercially available low-cost hardware is used for interrogation of the two sensor types. The test results clearly show the feasibility of the FBG and the PZT sensors for measurement of plantar pressure. The PZT sensors are more accurate for measurement of pressure during walking at high speeds. The FBG sensors, on the other hand, are found to be suitable for static and quasi-dynamic (slow walking) conditions. Typically, the measured pressure varied from 400 to 600 kPa below the forefoot and 100 to 1000 kPa below the heel as the walking speed varied from 1

  11. Fabrication and characterization of a polycrystalline 3C-SiC piezoresistive micro-pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Gwiy-Sang

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes polycrystalline (poly) 3C-SiC piezoresistive micro-pressure sensors for extreme environment applications prepared with a combination crystal growth technology using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and micromachining techniques. The device was designed using bulk micromachining under a 1 x 1 mm 2 diaphragm and a Si membrane with a thickness of 20 μm. The pressure sensitivities of the fabricated pressure sensors were 0.1 mV/V·bar. The nonlinearity of the devices was ±0.44%·FS, and the hysteresis was 0.61%·FS. The temperature characteristics of the temperature coefficient of sensitivity (TCS), the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and the temperature coefficient of the gauge factor (TCGF) were also evaluated. The TCS of the pressure sensors was -1,867 ppm/ .deg. C, the TCR was -792 ppm/ .deg. C, and the TCGF to 5 bars was -1,042 ppm/ .deg. C, from 25 to 400 .deg. C.

  12. A film bulk acoustic resonator-based high-performance pressure sensor integrated with temperature control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Mengying; Zhao, Zhan; Du, Lidong; Fang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presented a high-performance pressure sensor based on a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR). The support film of the FBAR chip was made of silicon nitride and the part under the resonator area was etched to enhance the sensitivity and improve the linearity of the pressure sensor. A micro resistor temperature sensor and a micro resistor heater were integrated in the chip to monitor and control the operating temperature. The sensor chip was fabricated, and packaged in an oscillator circuit for differential pressure detection. When the detected pressure ranged from  −100 hPa to 600 hPa, the sensitivity of the improved FBAR pressure sensor was  −0.967 kHz hPa −1 , namely  −0.69 ppm hPa −1 , which was 19% higher than that of existing sensors with a complete support film. The nonlinearity of the improved sensor was less than  ±0.35%, while that of the existing sensor was  ±5%. To eliminate measurement errors from humidity, the temperature control system integrated in the sensor chip controlled the temperature of the resonator up to 75 °C, with accuracy of  ±0.015 °C and power of 20 mW. (paper)

  13. Analysis of knocking combustion with the aid of pressure sensors; Einsatz von Drucksensoren zur Beurteilung klopfender Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, J.; Walter, T. [Kistler AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Bertola, A.; Wolfer, P.; Hoewing, J. [Kistler Instrumente GmbH, Ostfildern (Germany); Gossweiler, C. [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (Switzerland). ITFE; Rothe, M.; Spicher, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Kolbenmaschinen

    2006-07-01

    Depending on its frequency and intensity, knocking combustion can cause engine damage due to excessive thermal or mechanical stress on components. During knocking combustion, the cylinder pressure signal is overlaid with high-frequency pressure oscillations. Reliable detection of the knock timing and quantification of the knock intensity based on local measurement of the cylinder pressure demand for particular care, especially when it comes to selecting and adapting the sensor technology and also during the evaluation process using customary knock analysis methods. This publication examines various types of cylinder pressure sensors, how they are installed in the combustion chamber, the effect of sensor positioning and assesses them with regard to accuracy. Finally, on the basis of the test results, recommendations are given for selecting sensors and adapting them within the combustion chamber. A crucial factor for pressure measurement during knocking combustion is the sensor position within the combustion chamber. The sensor type is of secondary importance; at most, cavities between the combustion chamber and the sensor may influence the measuring signal. To assess the sensitivity of the knock evaluation algorithms to various mounting positions and sensor types, it is advisable to carry out comparative measurements between different sensor positions and the measuring spark plug. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of a contact lens-embedded sensor for intraocular pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twa, Michael D; Roberts, Cynthia J; Karol, Huikai J; Mahmoud, Ashraf M; Weber, Paul A; Small, Robert H

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate a novel contact lens-embedded pressure sensor for continuous measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP). Repeated measurements of IOP and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) were recorded in 12 eyes of 12 subjects in sitting and supine positions using 3 configurations of the dynamic contour tonometer: slit-lamp mounted (DCT), hand-held (HH), and contact lens-embedded sensor (CL). The IOP and OPA for each condition were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and the 95% limits of agreement were calculated. The sitting IOP (mean and 95% CI) for each configuration was DCT: 16.3 mm Hg (15.6 to 17.1 mm Hg), HH: 16.6 mm Hg (15.6 to 17.6 mm Hg), and CL: 15.7 mm Hg (15 to 16.3 mm Hg). The sitting OPA for each configuration was DCT: 2.4 mm Hg (2.1 to 2.6 mm Hg), HH: 2.4 mm Hg (2.1 to 2.7 mm Hg), and CL: 2.1 mm Hg (1.8 to 2.3 mm Hg). Supine IOP and OPA measurements with the CL and HH sensors were both greater than their corresponding sitting measurements, but were significantly less with the CL sensor than the HH sensor. The mean difference and 95% Limits of Agreement were smallest for the DCT and CL sensor comparisons (0.7+/-3.9 mm Hg) and widest for the CL and HH sensors (-1.9+/-7.25 mm Hg); these wider limits were attributed to greater HH measurement variability. The CL sensor was comparable to HH and DCT sensors with sitting subjects and is a viable method for measuring IOP and OPA. Supine measurements of IOP and OPA were greater than sitting conditions and were comparatively lower with the CL sensor. HH measurements were more variable than CL measurements and this influenced the Limits of Agreement for both sitting and supine conditions.

  15. Effects of the van der Waals Force on the Dynamics Performance for a Micro Resonant Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The micro resonant pressure sensor outputs the frequency signals where the distortion does not take place in a long distance transmission. As the dimensions of the sensor decrease, the effects of the van der Waals forces should be considered. Here, a coupled dynamic model of the micro resonant pressure sensor is proposed and its coupled dynamic equation is given in which the van der Waals force is considered. By the equation, the effects of the van der Waals force on the natural frequencies and vibration amplitudes of the micro resonant pressure sensor are investigated. Results show that the natural frequency and the vibrating amplitudes of the micro resonant pressure sensor are affected significantly by van der Waals force for a small clearance between the film and the base plate, a small initial tension stress of the film, and some other conditions.

  16. Package-friendly piezoresistive pressure sensors with on-chip integrated packaging-stress-suppressed suspension (PS3) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiachou; Li, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    An on-chip integrated packaging-stress-suppressed suspension (PS 3 ) technology for a packaging-stress-free pressure sensor is proposed and developed. With a MIS (microholes interetch and sealing) micromachining process implemented only from the front-side of a single-side polished (1 1 1) silicon wafer, a compact cantilever-shaped PS 3 is on-chip integrated surrounding a piezoresistive pressure-sensing structure to provide a packaging-process/substrate-friendly method for low-cost but high-performance sensor applications. With the MIS process, the chip size of the PS 3 -enclosed pressure sensor is as small as 0.8 mm × 0.8 mm. Compared with a normal pressure sensor without PS 3 (but with an identical pressure-sensing structure), the proposed pressure sensor has the same sensitivity of 0.046 mV kPa −1 (3.3 V) −1 . However, without using the thermal compensation technique, a temperature coefficient of offset of only 0.016% °C −1 FS is noted for the sensor with PS 3 , which is about 15 times better than that for the sensor without PS 3 . Featuring effective isolation and elimination of the influence from packaging stress, the PS 3 technique is promising to be widely used for packaging-friendly mechanical sensors. (paper)

  17. Development of a combined piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor using a chemical protective coating for Kraft pulp digester process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Abdolreza R; Chiao, Mu; Bennington, Chad P J

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an integrated piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor for multiphase chemical reactors, primarily Kraft pulp digesters (pH 13.5, temperatures up to 175 °C, reaching a local maximum of 180 °C and pressures up to 2 MPa). The absolute piezoresistive pressure sensor consisted of a large square silicon diaphragm (1000 × 1000 µm 2 ) and high resistance piezoresistors (10 000 Ω). A 4500 Ω buried piezoresistive wire was patterned on the silicon chip to form a piezoresistive temperature sensor which was used for pressure sensor compensation and temperature measurement. A 4 µm thick Parylene HT® coating, a chemically resistant epoxy and a silicone conformal coating were deposited to passivate the pressure sensor against the caustic environment in Kraft digesters. The sensors were characterized up to 2 MPa and 180 °C in an environment chamber. A maximum thermal error of ±0.72% full-scale output (FSO), an average sensitivity of 0.116 mV (V kPa) −1 and a power consumption of 0.3 mW were measured in the pressure sensor. The sensors' resistances were measured before and after test in a Kraft pulping cycle and showed no change in their values. SEM pictures and topographical surfaces were also analyzed before and after pulp liquor exposure and showed no observable changes.

  18. Fabrication of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistor-driven flexible thermal and pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ick-Joon; Jeong, Chan-Yong; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho; Cho, Eou-Sik; Kwon, Sang Jik; Kim, Bosul; Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present the results concerning the use of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) as a driving transistor of the flexible thermal and pressure sensors which are applicable to artificial skin systems. Although the a-IGZO TFT has been attracting much attention as a driving transistor of the next-generation flat panel displays, no study has been performed about the application of this new device to the driving transistor of the flexible sensors yet. The proposed thermal sensor pixel is composed of the series-connected a-IGZO TFT and ZnO-based thermistor fabricated on a polished metal foil, and the ZnO-based thermistor is replaced by the pressure sensitive rubber in the pressure sensor pixel. In both sensor pixels, the a-IGZO TFT acts as the driving transistor and the temperature/pressure-dependent resistance of the ZnO-based thermistor/pressure-sensitive rubber mainly determines the magnitude of the output currents. The fabricated a-IGZO TFT-driven flexible thermal sensor shows around a seven times increase in the output current as the temperature increases from 20 °C to 100 °C, and the a-IGZO TFT-driven flexible pressure sensors also exhibit high sensitivity under various pressure environments. (paper)

  19. Fast analytical model of MZI micro-opto-mechanical pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochus, V.; Jansen, R.; Goyvaerts, J.; Neutens, P.; O’Callaghan, J.; Rottenberg, X.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a fast analytical procedure in order to design a micro-opto-mechanical pressure sensor (MOMPS) taking into account the mechanical nonlinearity and the optical losses. A realistic model of the photonic MZI is proposed, strongly coupled to a nonlinear mechanical model of the membrane. Based on the membrane dimensions, the residual stress, the position of the waveguide, the optical wavelength and the phase variation due to the opto-mechanical coupling, we derive an analytical model which allows us to predict the response of the total system. The effect of the nonlinearity and the losses on the total performance are carefully studied and measurements on fabricated devices are used to validate the model. Finally, a design procedure is proposed in order to realize fast design of this new type of pressure sensor.

  20. Pressure Sensor via Optical Detection Based on a 1D Spin Transition Coordination Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jureschi, Cătălin M.; Linares, Jorge; Rotaru, Aurelian; Ritti, Marie Hélène; Parlier, Michel; Dîrtu, Marinela M.; Wolff, Mariusz; Garcia, Yann

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the suitability of using the 1D spin crossover coordination polymer [Fe(4-(2′-hydroxyethyl)-1,2,4-triazole)3]I2·H2O, known to crossover around room temperature, as a pressure sensor via optical detection using various contact pressures up to 250 MPa. A dramatic persistent colour change is observed. The experimental data, obtained by calorimetric and Mössbauer measurements, have been used for a theoretical analysis, in the framework of the Ising-like model, of the thermal and pressure induced spin state switching. The pressure (P)-temperature (T) phase diagram calculated for this compound has been used to obtain the P-T bistability region. PMID:25621610

  1. Design, simulation and analysis of piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor for fast reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, Mahesh Kumar; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Kalyana Rao, K.; Sridhar, S.

    2013-01-01

    To exploit the extraordinary benefits of MEMS technology in fast reactor domain, a piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor was designed, simulated and analyzed using Intellisuite Software to measure the RCB air pressure in 0 - 1.25 bar (a) range. For sensing the pressure, a thin square silicon diaphragm of size of 800 x 800 μm 2 with thickness of 20 μm was optimized using FEM analysis and to transfer the mechanical stress, induce in the diaphragm due to pressure, into electrical output voltage signal, a set of piezoresistors were arranged on top side of the diaphragm in full active wheatstone bridge configuration for obtaining the higher sensitivity. The simulation results were compared with the analytical results which were found in line of expectations and electrical sensitivity was obtained at 15 mV/V.bar. (author)

  2. A real time study of the human equilibrium using an instrumented insole with 3 pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Ghaida, Hussein; Mottet, Serge; Goujon, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the study of the human equilibrium using an ambulatory e-health system. One of the point on which we focus is the fall risk, when losing equilibrium control. A specific postural learning model is presented, and an ambulatory instrumented insole is developed using 3 pressures sensors per foot, in order to determine the real-time displacement and the velocity of the centre of pressure (CoP). The increase of these parameters signals a loss of physiological sensation, usually of vision or of the inner ear. The results are compared to those obtained from classical more complex systems.

  3. Highly sensitive multi-layer pressure sensor with an active nanostructured layer of an organic molecular metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laukhin, V; Lebedev, V; Laukhina, E; Rovira, C; Veciana, J

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses to the modern technologies that need to be instrumented with lightweight highly sensitive pressure sensors. The paper presents the development of a new plain flexible thin pressure sensor using a nanostructured layer of the highly sensitive organic piezoresistive metal β-(BEDT-TTF) 2 I 3 as an active component; BEDT-TTF=bis (ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene. The original construction approach permits one to operate the developed sensor on the principle of electrical resistance variations when its piezoresistive layer is elongated under a pressure increase. The pressure sensing element and a set of gold electrodes were integrated into one compact multi-layer design. The construction was optimized to enable one generic design for pressure ranges from 1 to 400 bar. The pressure tests showed that the sensor is able to control a small pressure change as a well definite electrical signal. So the developed type of the sensors is very attractive as a new generation of compact, lightweight, low-cost sensors that might monitor pressure with a good level of measurement accuracy. (paper)

  4. Batch-processed carbon nanotube wall as pressure and flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jungwook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2010-01-01

    A pressure and flow sensor based on the electrothermal-thermistor effect of a batch-processed carbon nanotube wall (CNT wall) is presented. The negative temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of CNTs and the temperature dependent tunneling rate through the CNT/silicon junction enable vacuum pressure and flow velocity sensing because the heat transfer rate between CNTs and the surrounding gas molecules differs depending on pressure and flow rate. The CNT walls are synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on an array of microelectrodes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The CNTs are self-assembled between the microelectrodes and substrate across the thickness of a buried oxide layer during the synthesis process, and the simple batch fabrication results in high throughput and yield. A wide pressure range, down to 3 x 10 -3 from 10 5 Pa, and a nitrogen flow velocity range between 1 and 52.4 mm s -1 , are sensed. Further experimental characterizations of the bias voltage dependent response of the sensor as a vacuum pressure gauge are presented.

  5. Turbine engine rotor blade fault diagnostics through casing pressure and vibration sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J; Anusonti-Inthra, P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an exact solution is provided for a previously indeterminate equation used for rotor blade fault diagnostics. The method estimates rotor blade natural frequency through turbine engine casing pressure and vibration sensors. The equation requires accurate measurements of low-amplitude sideband signals in the frequency domain. With this in mind, statistical evaluation was also completed with the goal of determining the effect of sampling time and frequency on sideband resolution in the frequency domain

  6. A Smart High Accuracy Silicon Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Temperature Compensation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanwu Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis in this paper indicates that the accuracy of a silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is mainly affected by thermal drift, and varies nonlinearly with the temperature. Here, a smart temperature compensation system to reduce its effect on accuracy is proposed. Firstly, an effective conditioning circuit for signal processing and data acquisition is designed. The hardware to implement the system is fabricated. Then, a program is developed on LabVIEW which incorporates an extreme learning machine (ELM as the calibration algorithm for the pressure drift. The implementation of the algorithm was ported to a micro-control unit (MCU after calibration in the computer. Practical pressure measurement experiments are carried out to verify the system’s performance. The temperature compensation is solved in the interval from −40 to 85 °C. The compensated sensor is aimed at providing pressure measurement in oil-gas pipelines. Compared with other algorithms, ELM acquires higher accuracy and is more suitable for batch compensation because of its higher generalization and faster learning speed. The accuracy, linearity, zero temperature coefficient and sensitivity temperature coefficient of the tested sensor are 2.57% FS, 2.49% FS, 8.1 × 10−5/°C and 29.5 × 10−5/°C before compensation, and are improved to 0.13%FS, 0.15%FS, 1.17 × 10−5/°C and 2.1 × 10−5/°C respectively, after compensation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system is valid for the temperature compensation and high accuracy requirement of the sensor.

  7. Microbubble-based fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for high-temperature application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Jia, Pinggang; Fang, Guocheng; Liang, Hao; Liang, Ting; Liu, Wenyi; Xiong, Jijun

    2018-03-10

    Using arc discharge technology, we fabricated a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot (FP) pressure sensor with a very low temperature coefficient based on a microbubble that can be applied in a high-temperature environment. The thin-walled microbubble can be fabricated by heating the gas-pressurized hollow silica tube (HST) using a commercial fusion splicer. Then, the well-cut single-mode fiber (SMF) was inserted into the microbubble, and they were fused together. Thus, the FP cavity can be formed between the end of the SMF and the inner surface of the microbubble. The diameter of the microbubble can be up to 360 μm with the thickness of the wall being approximately 0.5 μm. Experimental results show that such a sensor has a linear sensitivity of approximately -6.382  nm/MPa, -5.912  nm/MPa at 20°C, and 600°C within the pressure range of 1 MPa. Due to the thermal expansion coefficient of the SMF being slightly larger than that of silica, we can fuse the SMF and the HST with different lengths; thus, the sensor has a very low temperature coefficient of approximately 0.17 pm/°C.

  8. Ultrafast Fabry-Perot fiber-optic pressure sensors for multimedia blast event measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yang; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

    2013-02-20

    A shock wave (SW) is characterized as a large pressure fluctuation that typically lasts only a few milliseconds. On the battlefield, SWs pose a serious threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions, which may lead to blast-induced traumatic brain injuries. SWs can also be used beneficially and have been applied to a variety of medical treatments due to their unique interaction with tissues and cells. Consequently, it is important to have sensors that can quantify SW dynamics in order to better understand the physical interaction between body tissue and the incident acoustic wave. In this paper, the ultrafast fiber-optic sensor based on the Fabry-Perot interferometric principle was designed and four such sensors were fabricated to quantify a blast event within different media, simultaneously. The compact design of the fiber-optic sensor allows for a high degree of spatial resolution when capturing the wavefront of the traveling SW. Several blast event experiments were conducted within different media (e.g., air, rubber membrane, and water) to evaluate the sensor's performance. This research revealed valuable knowledge for further study of SW behavior and SW-related applications.

  9. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, J; Triantafyllou, M S; Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J; Woo, M E; Lang, J H

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics. (paper)

  10. Pressure sensor based on MEMS nano-cantilever beam structure as a heterodielectric gate electrode of dopingless TFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gagan; Raman, Ashish

    2016-12-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has enticed numerous scientists since recent decades particularly in the field of miniaturized-sensors and actuators. Pressure sensor is pivotal component in both of the forerunning fields. The pursuance of a pressure sensor is exigently relying upon its different physical properties i.e. Piezo-resistive, Piezoelectric, Capacitive, Magnetic and Electrostatic. This article presents an outline and scrutiny of the Doping-less Cantilever Based Pressure Sensor using tunnel field effect transistor technology. The propounded pressure sensor based on the principle of capacitive gate coupling, due to which the tunneling current is modified. Additionally, to enhance the affectability of pressure sensor, the work function of metal gate electrode is amended using gas molecule diffusion. Simulation uncovers a phenomenal relationship amongst hypothetical and practical accepts of configuration. The pressure sensor is composed at Silvaco Atlas tool utilizing 40 nm technologies. The performance results exhibit that the proposed model consumes ≤1 mW power and 250 μA tunneling current per nm bending of cantilever beam structure. The inclusive length of the proposed device is 100 nm.

  11. Sensitivity enhancement of polysilicon piezo-resistive pressure sensors with phosphorous diffused resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, K; Dasgupta, N; Bhat, K N; Natarajan, K

    2006-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the piezo-resistive coefficient in single crystal silicon is higher when P-type impurities such as boron are used for doping the resistors. In this paper we demonstrate that the sensitivity of polycrystalline silicon piezo-resistive pressure sensors can be enhanced considerably when phosphorus diffusion source is used instead of boron dopant for realizing the piezo-resistors. Pressure sensors have been designed and fabricated with the polycrystalline piezo-resistors connected in the form of a Wheatstone bridge and laid out on thermal oxide grown on membranes obtained with a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) approach. The SOI wafers required for this purpose have been realized in-house by Silicon Fusion Bonding (SFB) and etch back technique in our laboratory. This approach provides excellent isolation between the resistors and enables zero temperature coefficient of the polysilicon resistor. The results obtained in our laboratory have clearly demonstrated that by optimizing the phosphorus diffusion temperature and duration, it is possible to achieve sensitivities in excess of 20mV /Bar for bridge input voltage of 10V, with linearity within 1% over a differential pressure range up to 10Bar (10 6 Pascal), and burst pressure in excess of 50 Bar as compared to the 10mV /Bar sensitivity obtained with boron doped polysilicon piezo-resistors. This enhancement is attributed to grain boundary passivation by phosphorous atoms

  12. Low-power operation of a barometric pressure sensor for use in an automatic fall detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Lu; Changhong Wang; Stevens, Michael C; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2016-08-01

    The use of a barometric pressure sensor in a wearable fall detector has been shown to improve the detection accuracy by determining the altitude change associated with the fall event. However, the barometer is a high-power-consuming sensor. This paper proposes a fall detection approach using a hermetically sealed and waterproof enclosure incorporating a small window covered by a semi-permeable membrane (SPM) to delay the equilibrium of internal and external pressures. This feature can be utilized to limit the time the barometer is powered but still capturing critical pressure information to discriminate fall and non-fall events. The proposed fall detection system is evaluated with an existing data set of simulated fall and activities of daily living in which the barometric pressure data are delayed using a mathematical model of the enclosure and SPM assembly. Also, a benchtop test is performed to estimate the power and battery life. The proposed fall detection system achieves 94.0% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity with an estimated battery life of 995.7 days.

  13. Measurement of temperature and pressure on the surface of a blunt cone using FBG sensor in hypersonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A. S. Guru; Sharath, U.; Nagarjun, V.; Hegde, G. M.; Asokan, S.

    2013-09-01

    Measurement of temperature and pressure exerted on the leeward surface of a blunt cone specimen has been demonstrated in the present work in a hypersonic wind tunnel using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The experiments were conducted on a 30° apex-angle blunt cone with 51 mm base diameter at wind flow speeds of Mach 6.5 and 8.35 in a 300 mm hypersonic wind tunnel of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. A special pressure insensitive temperature sensor probe along with the conventional bare FBG sensors was used for explicit temperature and aerodynamic pressure measurement respectively on the leeward surface of the specimen. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field around the blunt cone specimen has also been carried out to obtain the temperature and pressure at conditions analogous to experiments. The results obtained from FBG sensors and the CFD simulations are found to be in good agreement with each other.

  14. Measurement of temperature and pressure on the surface of a blunt cone using FBG sensor in hypersonic wind tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guru Prasad, A S; Sharath, U; Asokan, S; Nagarjun, V; Hegde, G M

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of temperature and pressure exerted on the leeward surface of a blunt cone specimen has been demonstrated in the present work in a hypersonic wind tunnel using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The experiments were conducted on a 30° apex-angle blunt cone with 51 mm base diameter at wind flow speeds of Mach 6.5 and 8.35 in a 300 mm hypersonic wind tunnel of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. A special pressure insensitive temperature sensor probe along with the conventional bare FBG sensors was used for explicit temperature and aerodynamic pressure measurement respectively on the leeward surface of the specimen. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field around the blunt cone specimen has also been carried out to obtain the temperature and pressure at conditions analogous to experiments. The results obtained from FBG sensors and the CFD simulations are found to be in good agreement with each other. (paper)

  15. Pressure-sensitive strain sensor based on a single percolated Ag nanowire layer embedded in colorless polyimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan-Jae [Display Materials & Components Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 68 Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Sungwoo [Display Materials & Components Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 68 Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Display and Nanosystem Laboratory, College of Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Byeong-Kwon [Display and Nanosystem Laboratory, College of Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Woong, E-mail: wyjd@keti.re.kr [Display Materials & Components Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 68 Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 463-816 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of an elastomer-free, transparent, pressure-sensitive strain sensor consisting of a specially designed silver nanowire (AgNW) pattern and colorless polyimide (cPI). A percolated AgNW network was patterned with a simple tandem compound circuit, which was then embedded in the surface of the cPI via inverted layer processing. The resulting film-type sensor was highly transparent (~93.5% transmittance at 550 nm) and mechanically stable (capable of resisting 10000 cycles of bending to a 500 µm radius of curvature). We demonstrated that a thin, transparent, and mechanically stable electrode can be produced using a combination of AgNWs and cPI, and used to produce a system sensitive to pressure-induced bending. The capacitance of the AgNW tandem compound electrode pattern grew via fringing, which increased with the pressure-induced bending applied to the surface of the sensor. The sensitivity was four times higher than that of an elastomeric pressure sensor made with the same design. Finally, we demonstrated a skin-like pressure sensor attached to the inside wrist of a human arm. - Highlights: • A thin, transparent pressure sensor was fabricated from AgNWs and cPI. • An AgNW network was patterned with a simple circuit, and then embedded into cPI. • The resulting film-type sensor was highly transparent and mechanically stable. • The sensor sensitivity was 4x higher than that of an elastomeric pressure sensor.

  16. Characterization of Piezoresistive PEDOT:PSS Pressure Sensors with Inter-Digitated and Cross-Point Electrode Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jer-Chyi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The piezoresistive characteristics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS pressure sensors with inter-digitated (IDE and cross-point electrode (CPE structures have been investigated. A small variation of the resistance of the pressure sensors with IDE without bottom indium-tin-oxide (b-ITO film and with CPE structures was observed owing to the single carrier-conducting pathway. For the IDE pressure sensors with b-ITO, the piezoresistive characteristics at low and high pressure were similar to those of the pressure sensors with IDE without b-ITO and with CPE structures, respectively, leading to increased piezoresistive pressure sensitivity as the PEDOT:PSS film thickness decreased. A maximum sensitivity of more than 42 kΩ/Pa was achieved. When the normal pressure was applied, the increased number of conducting points or the reduced distance between the PEDOT oligomers within the PEDOT:PSS film resulted in a decrease of the resistance. The piezoresistive pressure sensors with a single carrier-conducting pathway, i.e., IDE without b-ITO and CPE structures, exhibited a small relaxation time and a superior reversible operation, which can be advantageous for fast piezoresistive response applications.

  17. Characterization of piezoresistive PEDOT:PSS pressure sensors with inter-digitated and cross-point electrode structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jer-Chyi; Karmakar, Rajat Subhra; Lu, Yu-Jen; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2015-01-05

    The piezoresistive characteristics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) pressure sensors with inter-digitated (IDE) and cross-point electrode (CPE) structures have been investigated. A small variation of the resistance of the pressure sensors with IDE without bottom indium-tin-oxide (b-ITO) film and with CPE structures was observed owing to the single carrier-conducting pathway. For the IDE pressure sensors with b-ITO, the piezoresistive characteristics at low and high pressure were similar to those of the pressure sensors with IDE without b-ITO and with CPE structures, respectively, leading to increased piezoresistive pressure sensitivity as the PEDOT:PSS film thickness decreased. A maximum sensitivity of more than 42 kΩ/Pa was achieved. When the normal pressure was applied, the increased number of conducting points or the reduced distance between the PEDOT oligomers within the PEDOT:PSS film resulted in a decrease of the resistance. The piezoresistive pressure sensors with a single carrier-conducting pathway, i.e., IDE without b-ITO and CPE structures, exhibited a small relaxation time and a superior reversible operation, which can be advantageous for fast piezoresistive response applications.

  18. Low cost self-made pressure distribution sensors for ergonomic chair: Are they suitable for posture monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaitis, Arnas; Daunoraviciene, Kristina

    2018-05-18

    Long sitting causes many health problems for people. Healthy sitting monitoring systems, like real-time pressure distribution measuring, is in high demand and many methods of posture recognition were developed. Such systems are usually expensive and hardly available for the regular user. The aim of study is to develop low cost but sensitive enough pressure sensors and posture monitoring system. New self-made pressure sensors have been developed and tested, and prototype of pressure distribution measuring system was designed. Sensors measured at average noise amplitude of a = 56 mV (1.12%), average variation in sequential measurements of the same sensor s = 17 mV (0.34%). Signal variability between sensors averaged at 100 mV (2.0%). Weight to signal dependency graph was measured and hysteresis calculated. Results suggested the use of total sixteen sensors for posture monitoring system with accuracy of sensor sensitivity and repeatability are acceptable for posture monitoring, and it is possible to build low cost pressure distribution measurement system with graphical visualization without expensive equipment or complicated software.

  19. Sensitivity enhancement of fiber loop cavity ring-down pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yajun; Yang, Dexing; Tang, Daqing; Zhao, Jianlin

    2009-11-10

    We present a theoretical and experimental study on sensitivity enhancement of a fiber-loop cavity ring-down pressure sensor. The cladding of the sensing fiber is etched in hydrofluoric acid solution to enhance its sensitivity. The experimental results demonstrate that the pressure applied on the sensing fiber is linearly proportional to the difference between the reciprocals of the ring-down time with and without pressure, and the relative sensitivity exponentially increases with decreasing the cladding diameter. When the sensing fiber is etched to 41.15 microm, its sensitivity is about 36 times that of nonetched fiber in the range of 0 to 32.5 MPa. The measured relative standard deviation of the ring-down time is about 0.15% and, correspondingly, the least detectable loss is about 0.00069 dB.

  20. A Novel Intracranial Pressure Readout Circuit for Passive Wireless LC Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fa; Zhang, Xuan; Shokoueinejad, Mehdi; Iskandar, Bermans J; Medow, Joshua E; Webster, John G

    2017-10-01

    We present a wide frequency range, low cost, wireless intracranial pressure monitoring system, which includes an implantable passive sensor and an external reader. The passive sensor consists of two spiral coils and transduces the pressure change to a resonant frequency shift. The external portable reader reads out the sensor's resonant frequency over a wide frequency range (35 MHz-2.7 GHz). We propose a novel circuit topology, which tracks the system's impedance and phase change at a high frequency with low-cost components. This circuit is very simple and reliable. A prototype has been developed, and measurement results demonstrate that the device achieves a suitable measurement distance (>2 cm), sufficient sample frequency (>6 Hz), fine resolution, and good measurement accuracy for medical practice. Responsivity of this prototype is 0.92 MHz/mmHg and resolution is 0.028 mmHg. COMSOL specific absorption rate simulation proves that this system is safe. Considerations to improve the device performance have been discussed, which include the size of antenna, the power radiation, the Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) choice, and the signal processing algorithm.

  1. Stretchable Optomechanical Fiber Sensors for Pressure Determination in Compressive Medical Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Joseph D; Moudio, Marie; Clark, J Kenji; Hardin, James; Argenti, Christian; Carty, Matthew; Lewis, Jennifer A; Kolle, Mathias

    2018-05-29

    Medical textiles are widely used to exert pressure on human tissues during treatment of post-surgical hematoma, burn-related wounds, chronic venous ulceration, and other maladies. However, the inability to dynamically sense and adjust the applied pressure often leads to suboptimal pressure application, prolonging treatment or resulting in poor patient outcomes. Here, a simple strategy for measuring sub-bandage pressure by integrating stretchable optomechanical fibers into elastic bandages is demonstrated. Specifically, these fibers possess an elastomeric photonic multilayer cladding that surrounds an extruded stretchable core filament. They can sustain repetitive strains of over 100%, and respond to deformation with a predictable and reversible color variation. Integrated into elastic textiles, which apply pressure as a function of their strain, these fibers can provide instantaneous and localized pressure feedback. These colorimetric fiber sensors are well suited for medical textiles, athletic apparel, and other smart wearable technologies, especially when repetitive, large deformations are required. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Wireless, Ultra-Low-Power Implantable Sensor for Chronic Bladder Pressure Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve J A; Garverick, Steven L; Suster, Michael A; Fletter, Paul C; Damaser, Margot S

    2012-06-01

    The wireless implantable/intracavity micromanometer (WIMM) system was designed to fulfill the unmet need for a chronic bladder pressure sensing device in urological fields such as urodynamics for diagnosis and neuromodulation for bladder control. Neuromodulation in particular would benefit from a wireless bladder pressure sensor which could provide real-time pressure feedback to an implanted stimulator, resulting in greater bladder capacity while using less power. The WIMM uses custom integrated circuitry, a MEMS transducer, and a wireless antenna to transmit pressure telemetry at a rate of 10 Hz. Aggressive power management techniques yield an average current draw of 9 μ A from a 3.6-Volt micro-battery, which minimizes the implant size. Automatic pressure offset cancellation circuits maximize the sensing dynamic range to account for drifting pressure offset due to environmental factors, and a custom telemetry protocol allows transmission with minimum overhead. Wireless operation of the WIMM has demonstrated that the external receiver can receive the telemetry packets, and the low power consumption allows for at least 24 hours of operation with a 4-hour wireless recharge session.

  3. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing-line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.; March-Leuba, J.; Thie, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis method that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Thie, J.A.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.E.; March-Leuba, J.

    1985-09-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis methods that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants

  5. Design and Development of a Pressure Transmitter Using Modified Inductance Measuring Network and Bellow Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Lakshmi Narayana K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a pressure transmitter using a modified op-amp based network for inductance measurement using a bellow as sensor has been proposed to measure the pressure and to convert pressure changes in to an electrical current which can be transmitted to a remote indicator. The change in inductance due to change in pressure is measured by an improved modified operational amplifier based network. The proposed network permits offset inductance compensation of sensing coil and also minimizes the stray capacitance between sensing coil and ground using dummy inductor whose value equal to zero level inductance of sensing coil and op-amps with high input impedance. In the first part of experiment, a modified op-amp based inductance measuring circuit has been simulated using LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench and studied with test inductance, and in the second part, the experimentation was done by replacing the test inductance with a sensing coil fitted to bellow by means of ferromagnetic wire for the measurement of pressure. It has been observed that the variation in gauge pressure from 0 to 70 psi having linear relationship with output ac voltage in the range of 0 to 85.0 mV. Corresponding to pressure variations, the ac output voltage further converted into an electric current of 4 to 20 mA for remote indication and control purpose. The investigations have been performed to sense air pressure of pressure tank fitted with pump piston. The experimental results are found to have good linearity of about ± 0.1 % and resolution.

  6. Qualification of the Lasentec M600P Particle Size Analyzer and the Red Valve Model 1151 Pressure Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JR Bontha; NG Colton; EA Daymo; TD Hylton; CK Bayne; TH May

    2000-01-01

    The Lasentec M600 in-line particle size analyzer was installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in August 1998 to support retrieval of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT). Before installation at ORNL, the sensor underwent validation testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Instrument Validation facility. Mechanically, the instrument worked well during validation testing and met all expectations. Operationally, much was learned about optimum ways to display and interpret the data. Slurry samples taken during the in-line tests at PNNL were shipped to the vendor for analysis with a benchtop Lasentec sensor. These experiments were performed to determine if off-line analyses yield particle size distributions similar to those generated by the in-line sensor. It was determined that the Lasentec sensor measures repeatable chord lengths as long as particles are ''presenter'' to the sensor window the same way. After the initial non-radioactive simulant testing at PNNL, the instrument was shipped for radioactive validation and acceptance testing in the Slurry Monitoring Test System (SMTS) connected to the Tank W-9 of the GAATs at ORNL. For all acceptance tests conducted at ORNL, the variation in the chord length distribution and the total particle count corresponded very well with the slurry density data as determined using an in-line Promass 63M Coriolis meter. Based on the performance results obtained, the Lasentec M600P FBRM is expected to meet the requirements for measuring the particle size distribution during the slurry transfer operations at Hanford and the Oak Ridge GAAT remediation project. The Red Valve pressure sensor was endorsed at the Hanford Site following instrument validation tests at PNNL and is currently in operation in the Tank 241-C-106 pump pit. While this instrument measures pressure within a transfer line, this type of pressure sensor could be configured to measure pressure drop over time. In turn, the status of a slurry

  7. Activity classification based on inertial and barometric pressure sensors at different anatomical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada-Torres, A; Leuenberger, K; Gonzenbach, R; Luft, A; Gassert, R

    2014-07-01

    Miniature, wearable sensor modules are a promising technology to monitor activities of daily living (ADL) over extended periods of time. To assure both user compliance and meaningful results, the selection and placement site of sensors requires careful consideration. We investigated these aspects for the classification of 16 ADL in 6 healthy subjects under laboratory conditions using ReSense, our custom-made inertial measurement unit enhanced with a barometric pressure sensor used to capture activity-related altitude changes. Subjects wore a module on each wrist and ankle, and one on the trunk. Activities comprised whole body movements as well as gross and dextrous upper-limb activities. Wrist-module data outperformed the other locations for the three activity groups. Specifically, overall classification accuracy rates of almost 93% and more than 95% were achieved for the repeated holdout and user-specific validation methods, respectively, for all 16 activities. Including the altitude profile resulted in a considerable improvement of up to 20% in the classification accuracy for stair ascent and descent. The gyroscopes provided no useful information for activity classification under this scheme. The proposed sensor setting could allow for robust long-term activity monitoring with high compliance in different patient populations.

  8. Activity classification based on inertial and barometric pressure sensors at different anatomical locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncada-Torres, A; Leuenberger, K; Gassert, R; Gonzenbach, R; Luft, A

    2014-01-01

    Miniature, wearable sensor modules are a promising technology to monitor activities of daily living (ADL) over extended periods of time. To assure both user compliance and meaningful results, the selection and placement site of sensors requires careful consideration. We investigated these aspects for the classification of 16 ADL in 6 healthy subjects under laboratory conditions using ReSense, our custom-made inertial measurement unit enhanced with a barometric pressure sensor used to capture activity-related altitude changes. Subjects wore a module on each wrist and ankle, and one on the trunk. Activities comprised whole body movements as well as gross and dextrous upper-limb activities. Wrist-module data outperformed the other locations for the three activity groups. Specifically, overall classification accuracy rates of almost 93% and more than 95% were achieved for the repeated holdout and user-specific validation methods, respectively, for all 16 activities. Including the altitude profile resulted in a considerable improvement of up to 20% in the classification accuracy for stair ascent and descent. The gyroscopes provided no useful information for activity classification under this scheme. The proposed sensor setting could allow for robust long-term activity monitoring with high compliance in different patient populations. (paper)

  9. The Capacitance and Temperature Effects of the SiC- and Si-Based MEMS Pressure Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsi, N; Majlis, B Y; Hamzah, A A; Mohd, F

    2013-01-01

    This project develops the pressure sensor for monitoring the extreme conditions inside the gas turbine engine. The capacitive-based instead of piezoresistive-based pressure sensor is employed to avoid temperature drift. The deflecting (top) plate and the fixed (bottom) plate generate the capacitance, which is proportional to the applied input pressure and temperature. Two thin film materials of four different sizes are employed for the top plate, namely cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) and silicon (Si). Their performances in term of the sensitivity and linearity of the capacitance versus pressure are simulated at the temperature of 27°C, 500°C, 700°C and 1000°C. The results show that both materials display linear characteristics for temperature up to 500°C, although SiC-based sensor shows higher sensitivity. However, when the temperatures are increased to 700°C and 1000°C, the Si- based pressure sensor starts to malfunction at 50 MPa. However, the SiC-based pressure sensor continues to demonstrate high sensitivity and linearity at such high temperature and pressure. This paper validates the need of employing silicon carbide instead of silicon for sensing of extreme environments.

  10. MEMS pressure sensor with maximum performances by using novel back-side direct-exposure concept featuring through glass vias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, B.; Fritz, M.; Mackowiak, P.; Vu, T. C.; Ehrmann, O.; Lang, K.-D.; Ngo, H.-D.

    2013-05-01

    Design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of novel MEMS pressure sensors with new back-side-direct-exposure packaging concept are presented. The sensor design is optimized for harsh environments e.g. space, military, offshore and medical applications. Unbreakable connection between the active side of the Si-sensor and the protecting glass capping was realized by anodic bonding using a thin layer of metal. To avoid signal corruption of the measured pressure caused by an encapsulation system, the media has direct contact to the backside of the Si membrane and can deflect it.

  11. Detection and estimation of sensor drifts using Kalman filters with a demonstration on a pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sungwhan; Jiang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► How the expectation of the innovations changes in the drift case is formulated. ► Using the divergence in the expectation for detection of the drift is demonstrated. ► An augmented system model is proposed for estimation of the drift. ► Demonstration of the proposed algorithm is presented using a pressurizer model. - Abstract: An algorithm for detection and estimation of sensor drifts is proposed in this paper. The algorithm is based on estimation of the process states from which the measurements are made and the rate of drifts using a state augmented Kalman filter. The detection and the estimation of a drift are carried out by evaluating the mean of the innovation sequence of the Kalman filter. The relationship between the mean and the drift is analyzed in detail to provide insights on the connection between the innovation sequence and the drift. The developed algorithm has been successfully applied to a pressurizer for detection and estimation of pressure sensor drifts. The results convincingly demonstrate the capability of the algorithm.

  12. A Flexible Sensor Technology for the Distributed Measurement of Interaction Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Marco; Vitiello, Nicola; De Rossi, Stefano Marco Maria; Lenzi, Tommaso; Crea, Simona; Persichetti, Alessandro; Giovacchini, Francesco; Koopman, Bram; Podobnik, Janez; Munih, Marko; Carrozza, Maria Chiara

    2013-01-01

    We present a sensor technology for the measure of the physical human-robot interaction pressure developed in the last years at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna. The system is composed of flexible matrices of opto-electronic sensors covered by a soft silicone cover. This sensory system is completely modular and scalable, allowing one to cover areas of any sizes and shapes, and to measure different pressure ranges. In this work we present the main application areas for this technology. A first generation of the system was used to monitor human-robot interaction in upper- (NEUROExos; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna) and lower-limb (LOPES; University of Twente) exoskeletons for rehabilitation. A second generation, with increased resolution and wireless connection, was used to develop a pressure-sensitive foot insole and an improved human-robot interaction measurement systems. The experimental characterization of the latter system along with its validation on three healthy subjects is presented here for the first time. A perspective on future uses and development of the technology is finally drafted. PMID:23322104

  13. Proceedings of a U.S. Geological Survey pressure-sensor Workshop, Denver, Colorado, July 28-31, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbourn, Sammy L.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a Pressure Sensor Workshop, oriented toward the measurement of stage in surface waters, in Denver, Colorado, July 28-31, 1992. Twenty attendees from the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration gave presentations concerning their experiences with the use of pressure sensors in hydrologic investigations. This report is a compilation of the abstracts of the presentations made at the workshop. Workshop participants concluded that each of the sensors evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey has strengths and weaknesses. Personnel contemplating the use of pressure sensors discussed at this workshop should contact workshop attendees and consult with them about their experiences with those sensors. The attendees preferred to use stilling wells with float-operated water-level sensors as the primary means for monitoring water levels. However, pressure sensor systems were favored as replacements for mercury manometers and as alternatives to stilling wells at sites where stilling wells are not practical or cost effective.

  14. Multi-parameter brain tissue microsensor and interface systems: calibration, reliability and user experiences of pressure and temperature sensors in the setting of neurointensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Charmaine; Wang, Li; Neoh, Boon Kwee; Goh, Hok Liok; Zu, Mya Myint; Aung, Phyo Wai; Yeo, Tseng Tsai

    2014-10-01

    The objective was to investigate sensor measurement uncertainty for intracerebral probes inserted during neurosurgery and remaining in situ during neurocritical care. This describes a prospective observational study of two sensor types and including performance of the complete sensor-bedside monitoring and readout system. Sensors from 16 patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were obtained at the time of removal from the brain. When tested, 40% of sensors achieved the manufacturer temperature specification of 0.1 °C. Pressure sensors calibration differed from the manufacturers at all test pressures in 8/20 sensors. The largest pressure measurement error was in the intraparenchymal triple sensor. Measurement uncertainty is not influenced by duration in situ. User experiences reveal problems with sensor 'handling', alarms and firmware. Rigorous investigation of the performance of intracerebral sensors in the laboratory and at the bedside has established measurement uncertainty in the 'real world' setting of neurocritical care.

  15. Development of Wearable Sheet-Type Shear Force Sensor and Measurement System that is Insusceptible to Temperature and Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Shigeru; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Shirogane, Satoshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Umino, Tokio; Uehara, Ryo; Okamoto, Takuma; Igarashi, Hiroshi

    2017-07-31

    A sheet-type shear force sensor and a measurement system for the sensor were developed. The sensor has an original structure where a liquid electrolyte is filled in a space composed of two electrode-patterned polymer films and an elastic rubber ring. When a shear force is applied on the surface of the sensor, the two electrode-patterned films mutually move so that the distance between the internal electrodes of the sensor changes, resulting in current increase or decrease between the electrodes. Therefore, the shear force can be calculated by monitoring the current between the electrodes. Moreover, it is possible to measure two-dimensional shear force given that the sensor has multiple electrodes. The diameter and thickness of the sensor head were 10 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively. Additionally, we also developed a measurement system that drives the sensor, corrects the baseline of the raw sensor output, displays data, and stores data as a computer file. Though the raw sensor output was considerably affected by the surrounding temperature, the influence of temperature was drastically decreased by introducing a simple arithmetical calculation. Moreover, the influence of pressure simultaneously decreased after the same calculation process. A demonstrative measurement using the sensor revealed the practical usefulness for on-site monitoring.

  16. Pressure Sensitive Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Its Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asar Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs and graphene have attracted a great deal of interest due to their outstanding mechanical, optical, electrical, and structural properties. Most of the scientists and researchers have investigated the optical and electrical properties of these materials. However, due to unique electromechanical properties of these materials, it is required to explore the piezoresistive properties of bulk nanostructured CNTs, graphene, and CNT-graphene composites. We investigated and compared the sensitivities and piezoresistive properties of sandwich-type pure CNT, pure graphene, and CNT-graphene composite pressure sensors. For all the samples, increase in pressure from 0 to 0.183 kNm−2 results in a decrease in the impedance and direct current (DC resistance. Sensitivity and percentage decrease in resistance and impedance of CNT-graphene composite were lower than pure CNT while being higher than pure graphene based sample. Moreover, under the same external applied pressure, the sensitivity and percentage decrease in impedance for pure CNT, pure graphene, and CNT-graphene composite were smaller than the corresponding sensitivity and percentage decrease in resistance. The achieved experimental results of the composite sample were compared with simulated results which exhibit reasonable agreement with each other. The deviations of simulated resistance-pressure and impedance-pressure curves from experimental graphs were 0.029% and 0.105%, respectively.

  17. Energy harvesting from arterial blood pressure for powering embedded brain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Aditya; Karami, M. Amin

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates energy harvesting from arterial blood pressure via the piezoelectric effect by using a novel streaked cylinder geometry for the purpose of powering embedded micro-sensors in the brain. Initially, we look at the energy harvested by a piezoelectric cylinder placed inside an artery acted upon by blood pressure. Such an arrangement would be tantamount to constructing a stent out of piezoelectric materials. A stent is a cylinder placed in veins and arteries to prevent obstruction in blood flow. The governing equations of a conductor coated piezoelectric cylinder are obtained using Hamilton's principle. Pressure acting in arteries is radially directed and this is used to simplify the modal analysis and obtain the transfer function relating pressure to the induced voltage across the surface of the harvester. The power harvested by the cylindrical harvester is obtained for different shunt resistances. Radially directed pressure occurs elsewhere and we also look at harvesting energy from oil flow in pipelines. Although the energy harvested by the cylindrical energy harvester is significant at resonance, the natural frequency of the system is found to be very high. To decrease the natural frequency, we propose a novel streaked stent design by cutting it along the length, transforming it to a curved plate and decreasing the natural frequency. The governing equations corresponding to the new geometry are derived using Hamilton's principle and modal analysis is used to obtain the transfer function.

  18. Pressure prediction model based on artificial neural network optimized by genetic algorithm and its application in quasi-static calibration of piezoelectric high-pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tingwei; Kong, Deren; Jiang, Jian; Shang, Fei; Chen, Jing

    2016-12-01

    This paper applies back propagation neural network (BPNN) optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) for the prediction of pressure generated by a drop-weight device and the quasi-static calibration of piezoelectric high-pressure sensors for the measurement of propellant powder gas pressure. The method can effectively overcome the slow convergence and local minimum problems of BPNN. Based on test data of quasi-static comparison calibration method, a mathematical model between each parameter of drop-weight device and peak pressure and pulse width was established, through which the practical quasi-static calibration without continuously using expensive reference sensors could be realized. Compared with multiple linear regression method, the GA-BPNN model has higher prediction accuracy and stability. The percentages of prediction error of peak pressure and pulse width are less than 0.7% and 0.3%, respectively.

  19. Utilization of a pressure sensor guidewire to measure bileaflet mechanical valve gradients: hemodynamic and echocardiographic sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorey, Andrew J; Gakhal, Mandip; Pasquale, Michael J

    2006-04-01

    Suspected prosthetic valve dysfunction is a difficult clinical problem, because of the high risk of repeat valvular surgery. Echocardiographic measurements of prosthetic valvular dysfunction can be misleading, especially with bileaflet valves. Direct measurement of trans-valvular gradients is problematic because of potentially serious catheter entrapment issues. We report a case in which a high-fidelity pressure sensor angioplasty guidewire was used to cross prosthetic mitral and aortic valves in a patient, with hemodynamic and echocardiographic assessment. This technique was safe and effective, refuting the inaccurate non-invasive tests that over-estimated the aortic valvular gradient.

  20. The coexistence of pressure waves in the operation of quartz-crystal shear-wave sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, SM; Jones, JP; Lewis, TJ

    1998-01-01

    It is demonstrated that an AT-cut quartz crystal driven in the thickness-shear-wave mode and typically used as a sensor to monitor the viscoelastic shear-wave properties of a fluid also produce longitudinal pressure waves. Unlike the shear wave, these waves are capable of long-range propagation through the fluid and of reflection at its boundaries, notably at an outer fluid–air interface. They introduce a component into the measured electrical impedance and resonance frequency shift of the cr...

  1. Flexible pressure sensor based on graphene aerogel microstructures functionalized with CdS nanocrystalline thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesco, Irina; Dragoman, Mircea; Strobel, Julian; Ghimpu, Lidia; Schütt, Fabian; Dinescu, Adrian; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Kienle, Lorenz; Adelung, Rainer; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report on functionalization of graphene aerogel with a CdS thin film deposited by magnetron sputtering and on the development of flexible pressure sensors based on ultra-lightweight CdS-aerogel nanocomposite. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclose the uniform deposition of nanocrystalline CdS films with quasi-stoichiometric composition. The piezoresistive response of the aforementioned nanocomposite in the pressure range from 1 to 5 atm is found to be more than one order of magnitude higher than that inherent to suspended graphene membranes, leading to an average sensitivity as high as 3.2 × 10-4 kPa-1.

  2. Improved Reliability of SiC Pressure Sensors for Long Term High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, R. S.; Nguyen, V.; Savrun, E.; Lukco, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report advancement in the reliability of silicon carbide pressure sensors operating at 600 C for extended periods. The large temporal drifts in zero pressure offset voltage at 600 C observed previously were significantly suppressed to allow improved reliable operation. This improvement was the result of further enhancement of the electrical and mechanical integrity of the bondpad/contact metallization, and the introduction of studded bump bonding on the pad. The stud bump contact promoted strong adhesion between the Au bond pad and the Au die-attach. The changes in the zero offset voltage and bridge resistance over time at temperature were explained by the microstructure and phase changes within the contact metallization, that were analyzed with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).

  3. Optical fiber tip interferometer gas pressure sensor based on anti-resonant reflecting guidance mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. B.; Wang, D. N.; Xu, Ben; Wang, Z. K.

    2018-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a gas pressure sensor based on an anti-resonant reflecting guidance (ARRG) mechanism in quartz capillary tube with an open cavity. The device is simple in fabrication by only fusion splicing a segment of capillary tube with single mode fiber. It has compact size, robust structure, convenient mode of operation, and high sensitivity of 4.278 nm/MPa. Moreover, as two Faby-Perot cavities exist in the device, which create the interference spectrum with several distinct resonance dips, a simultaneous gas pressure and temperature detection can be readily achieved by tracing two dip wavelengths. The error in the measurement due to the choice of different resonant dips can be effectively reduced by using the Fourier band pass filtering method.

  4. Integrated pressure sensor systems in the cylinder-head gasket; Integrierte Drucksensorik in der Zylinderkopfdichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, A.; Maier, U. [ElringKlinger AG (Germany); Eifler, G. [ElringKlinger Motortechnik GmbH (Germany); Schnepf, M. [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2004-01-01

    The optimisation of engine management plays a major role in the development of modern engines. A significant contribution to this optimisation will be made by a cylinder-head gasket with integrated pressure sensors of the quality required to measure in-cylinder pressure, which ElringKlinger AG together with Kistler Instrumente AG are currently working on. The goal is to provide the automotive industry with a system that makes it possible to optimally control combustion in each individual cylinder. (orig.) [German] Die Optimierung des Motormanagements spielt bei der Entwicklung moderner Motoren eine zentrale Rolle. Eine Zylinderkopfdichtung mit integrierten Druckaufnehmern in Indizierqualitaet, an der die Elring-Klinger AG und die Kistler Instrumente AG derzeit gemeinsam arbeiten, soll hierzu einen entscheidenden Beitrag leisten. Ziel ist es, der Automobilindustrie ein System zur Verfuegung zu stellen, das eine optimierte und zylinderindividuelle Steuerung der Verbrennung ermoeglicht. (orig.)

  5. MEMS Fabry-Perot sensor interrogated by optical system-on-a-chip for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Cheng; Bae, Hyungdae; Gupta, Ashwani; Bryden, Kenneth; Yu, Miao

    2013-09-23

    We present a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based Fabry-Perot (FP) sensor along with an optical system-on-a-chip (SOC) interrogator for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing. The sensor employs a simple structure with an air-backed silicon membrane cross-axially bonded to a 45° polished optical fiber. This structure renders two cascaded FP cavities, enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing in close proximity along the optical axis. The optical SOC consists of a broadband source, a MEMS FP tunable filter, a photodetector, and the supporting circuitry, serving as a miniature spectrometer for retrieving the two FP cavity lengths. Within the measured pressure and temperature ranges, experimental results demonstrate that the sensor exhibits a good linear response to external pressure and temperature changes.

  6. Flexible and self-powered temperature-pressure dual-parameter sensors using microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Zang, Yaping; Huang, Dazhen; di, Chong-An; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-09-01

    Skin-like temperature- and pressure-sensing capabilities are essential features for the next generation of artificial intelligent products. Previous studies of e-skin and smart elements have focused on flexible pressure sensors, whereas the simultaneous and sensitive detection of temperature and pressure with a single device remains a challenge. Here we report developing flexible dual-parameter temperature-pressure sensors based on microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric (MFSOTE) materials. The effective transduction of temperature and pressure stimuli into two independent electrical signals permits the instantaneous sensing of temperature and pressure with an accurate temperature resolution of cost and large-area fabrication, make MFSOTE materials possess promising applications in e-skin and health-monitoring elements.

  7. Chlorine-trapped CVD bilayer graphene for resistive pressure sensor with high detection limit and high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Pham, Viet; Triet Nguyen, Minh; Park, Jin Woo; Kwak, Sung Soo; Nguyen, Dieu Hien Thi; Kyeom Mun, Mu; Danh Phan, Hoang; San Kim, Doo; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Nae-Eung; Yeom, Geun Young

    2017-06-01

    Pressure sensing is one of the key functions for smart electronics. Considerably more effort is required to achieve the fabrication of pressure sensors that can imitate and overcome the sophisticated pressure sensing characteristics in nature and industry, especially in the innovation of materials and structures. Almost all of the pressure sensors reported until now have a high sensitivity at a low-pressure detection limit (type chlorine trap doping in the channel graphene with chlorine radicals without damaging the graphene. This work indicates that the ZGClG channel used for the pressure sensing device could also provide a simple and essential sensing platform for chemical-, medical-, and biological-sensing for future smart electronics.

  8. Energy-Based Tetrahedron Sensor for High-Temperature, High-Pressure Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kent L.; Sommerfeldt, Scott D.; Blotter, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic energy-based probe has been developed that incorporates multiple acoustic sensing elements in order to obtain the acoustic pressure and three-dimensional acoustic particle velocity. With these quantities, the user can obtain various energy-based quantities, including acoustic energy density, acoustic intensity, and acoustic impedance. In this specific development, the probe has been designed to operate in an environment characterized by high temperatures and high pressures as is found in the close vicinity of rocket plumes. Given these capabilities, the probe is designed to be used to investigate the acoustic conditions within the plume of a rocket engine or jet engine to facilitate greater understanding of the noise generation mechanisms in those plumes. The probe features sensors mounted inside a solid sphere. The associated electronics for the probe are contained within the sphere and the associated handle for the probe. More importantly, the design of the probe has desirable properties that reduce the bias errors associated with determining the acoustic pressure and velocity using finite sum and difference techniques. The diameter of the probe dictates the lower and upper operating frequencies for the probe, where accurate measurements can be acquired. The current probe design implements a sphere diameter of 1 in. (2.5 cm), which limits the upper operating frequency to about 4.5 kHz. The sensors are operational up to much higher frequencies, and could be used to acquire pressure data at higher frequencies, but the energy-based measurements are limited to that upper frequency. Larger or smaller spherical probes could be designed to go to lower or higher frequency range

  9. Cost-effective optical fiber pressure sensor based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric micro-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, M. Fátima; Rodriguez, Camilo A.; Martins, Joana; Tavares, Cátia; Marques, Carlos; Alberto, Nélia; André, Paulo; Antunes, Paulo

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a cost-effective procedure to manufacture optical fiber pressure sensors is presented. This has a high relevance for integration in robotic exoskeletons or for gait plantar pressure monitoring within the physical rehabilitation scenarios, among other applications. The sensing elements are based on Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) micro-cavities, created from the recycling of optical fibers previously destroyed by the catastrophic fuse effect. To produce the pressure sensors, the fiber containing the FPI micro-cavities was embedded in an epoxy resin cylinder used as pressure transducer and responsible to transfer the pressure applied on its surface to the optical fiber containing the FPI micro-cavity. Before the embedding process, some FPI sensors were also characterized to strain variations. After that, the effect of the encapsulation of the FPI structure into the resin was assessed, from which a slight decrease on the FPI interferogram fringes visibility was verified, indicating a small increase in the micro-cavity length. Up on the sensors characterization, a linear dependence of the wavelength shift with the induced pressure was obtained, which leads to a maximum sensitivity of 59.39 ± 1.7 pm/kPa. Moreover, direct dependence of the pressure sensitivity with the micro-cavity volume and length was found.

  10. Modeling, fabrication and plasma actuator coupling of flexible pressure sensors for flow separation detection and control in aeronautical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francioso, L; De Pascali, C; Siciliano, P; Pescini, E; De Giorgi, M G

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the flow separation could enhance the performance of propulsion systems and future civil aircraft. To this end, a fast detection of boundary layer separation is mandatory for a sustainable and successful application of active flow control devices, such as plasma actuators. The present work reports on the design, fabrication and functional tests of low-cost capacitive pressure sensors coupled with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators to detect and then control flow separation. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were used to obtain information on the deflection and the stress distribution in different-shaped floating membranes. The sensor sensitivity as a function of the pressure load was also calculated by experimental tests. The results of the calibration of different capacitive pressure sensors are reported in this work, together with functional tests in a wind tunnel equipped with a curved wall plate on which a DBD plasma actuator was mounted to control the flow separation. The flow behavior was experimentally investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Statistical and spectral analysis, applied to the output signals of the pressure sensor placed downstream of the profile leading edge, demonstrated that the sensor is able to discriminate different ionic wind velocity and turbulence conditions. The sensor sensitivity in the 0–100 Pa range was experimentally measured and it ranged between 0.0030 and 0.0046 pF Pa −1 for the best devices. (paper)

  11. The Capability of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors to Measure Amputees’ Trans-Tibial Stump/Socket Interface Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first investigation into the capability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors to measure interface pressure between the stump and the prosthetic sockets of a trans-tibial amputee. FBG element(s were recoated with and embedded in a thin layer of epoxy material to form a sensing pad, which was in turn embedded in a silicone polymer material to form a pressure sensor. The sensor was tested in real time by inserting a heavy-duty balloon into the socket and inflating it by using an air compressor. This test was conducted to examine the sensitivity and repeatability of the sensor when subjected to pressure from the stump of the trans-tibial amputee and to mimic the actual environment of the amputee’s Patellar Tendon (PT bar. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 127 pm/N and a maximum FSO hysteresis of around ~0.09 in real-time operation. Very good reliability was achieved when the sensor was utilized for in situ measurements. This study may lead to smart FBG-based amputee stump/socket structures for pressure monitoring in amputee socket systems, which will result in better-designed prosthetic sockets that ensure improved patient satisfaction.

  12. The capability of fiber Bragg grating sensors to measure amputees' trans-tibial stump/socket interface pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

    2013-08-12

    This study presents the first investigation into the capability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to measure interface pressure between the stump and the prosthetic sockets of a trans-tibial amputee. FBG element(s) were recoated with and embedded in a thin layer of epoxy material to form a sensing pad, which was in turn embedded in a silicone polymer material to form a pressure sensor. The sensor was tested in real time by inserting a heavy-duty balloon into the socket and inflating it by using an air compressor. This test was conducted to examine the sensitivity and repeatability of the sensor when subjected to pressure from the stump of the trans-tibial amputee and to mimic the actual environment of the amputee's Patellar Tendon (PT) bar. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 127 pm/N and a maximum FSO hysteresis of around ~0.09 in real-time operation. Very good reliability was achieved when the sensor was utilized for in situ measurements. This study may lead to smart FBG-based amputee stump/socket structures for pressure monitoring in amputee socket systems, which will result in better-designed prosthetic sockets that ensure improved patient satisfaction.

  13. Highly Sensitive Reentrant Cavity-Microstrip Patch Antenna Integrated Wireless Passive Pressure Sensor for High Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel reentrant cavity-microstrip patch antenna integrated wireless passive pressure sensor was proposed in this paper for high temperature applications. The reentrant cavity was analyzed from aspects of distributed model and equivalent lumped circuit model, on the basis of which an optimal sensor structure integrated with a rectangular microstrip patch antenna was proposed to better transmit/receive wireless signals. In this paper, the proposed sensor was fabricated with high temperature resistant alumina ceramic and silver metalization with weld sealing, and it was measured in a hermetic metal tank with nitrogen pressure loading. It was verified that the sensor was highly sensitive, keeping stable performance up to 300 kPa with an average sensitivity of 981.8 kHz/kPa at temperature 25°C, while, for high temperature measurement, the sensor can operate properly under pressure of 60–120 kPa in the temperature range of 25–300°C with maximum pressure sensitivity of 179.2 kHz/kPa. In practical application, the proposed sensor is used in a method called table lookup with a maximum error of 5.78%.

  14. Modeling, fabrication and plasma actuator coupling of flexible pressure sensors for flow separation detection and control in aeronautical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francioso, L.; De Pascali, C.; Pescini, E.; De Giorgi, M. G.; Siciliano, P.

    2016-06-01

    Preventing the flow separation could enhance the performance of propulsion systems and future civil aircraft. To this end, a fast detection of boundary layer separation is mandatory for a sustainable and successful application of active flow control devices, such as plasma actuators. The present work reports on the design, fabrication and functional tests of low-cost capacitive pressure sensors coupled with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators to detect and then control flow separation. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were used to obtain information on the deflection and the stress distribution in different-shaped floating membranes. The sensor sensitivity as a function of the pressure load was also calculated by experimental tests. The results of the calibration of different capacitive pressure sensors are reported in this work, together with functional tests in a wind tunnel equipped with a curved wall plate on which a DBD plasma actuator was mounted to control the flow separation. The flow behavior was experimentally investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Statistical and spectral analysis, applied to the output signals of the pressure sensor placed downstream of the profile leading edge, demonstrated that the sensor is able to discriminate different ionic wind velocity and turbulence conditions. The sensor sensitivity in the 0-100 Pa range was experimentally measured and it ranged between 0.0030 and 0.0046 pF Pa-1 for the best devices.

  15. A novel dual-functional MEMS sensor integrating both pressure and temperature units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tao; Zhang Zhaohua; Ren Tianling; Miao Gujin; Zhou Changjian; Lin Huiwang; Liu Litian, E-mail: RenTL@tsinghua.edu.c [National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-07-15

    This paper proposes a novel miniature dual-functional sensor integrating both pressure and temperature sensitive units on a single chip. The device wafer of SOI is used as a pizeoresistive diaphragm which features excellent consistency in thickness. The conventional anisotropic wet etching has been abandoned, while ICP etching has been employed to etch out the reference cave to minimize the area of individual device in the way that the 57.4{sup 0} slope has been eliminated. As a result, the average cost of the single chip is reduced. Two PN junctions with constant ratio of the areas of depletion regions have also been integrated on the same chip to serve as a temperature sensor, and each PN junction shows high linearity over -40 to 100 {sup 0}C and low power consumption. The iron implanting process for PN junction is exactly compatible with the piezoresistor, with no additional expenditure. The pressure sensitivity is 86 mV/MPa, while temperature sensitivity is 1.43 mV/{sup 0}C, both complying with the design objective.

  16. A novel dual-functional MEMS sensor integrating both pressure and temperature units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tao; Zhang Zhaohua; Ren Tianling; Miao Gujin; Zhou Changjian; Lin Huiwang; Liu Litian

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel miniature dual-functional sensor integrating both pressure and temperature sensitive units on a single chip. The device wafer of SOI is used as a pizeoresistive diaphragm which features excellent consistency in thickness. The conventional anisotropic wet etching has been abandoned, while ICP etching has been employed to etch out the reference cave to minimize the area of individual device in the way that the 57.4 0 slope has been eliminated. As a result, the average cost of the single chip is reduced. Two PN junctions with constant ratio of the areas of depletion regions have also been integrated on the same chip to serve as a temperature sensor, and each PN junction shows high linearity over -40 to 100 0 C and low power consumption. The iron implanting process for PN junction is exactly compatible with the piezoresistor, with no additional expenditure. The pressure sensitivity is 86 mV/MPa, while temperature sensitivity is 1.43 mV/ 0 C, both complying with the design objective.

  17. Skin-like pressure and strain sensors based on transparent elastic films of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipomi, Darren J; Vosgueritchian, Michael; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Hellstrom, Sondra L; Lee, Jennifer A; Fox, Courtney H; Bao, Zhenan

    2011-10-23

    Transparent, elastic conductors are essential components of electronic and optoelectronic devices that facilitate human interaction and biofeedback, such as interactive electronics, implantable medical devices and robotic systems with human-like sensing capabilities. The availability of conducting thin films with these properties could lead to the development of skin-like sensors that stretch reversibly, sense pressure (not just touch), bend into hairpin turns, integrate with collapsible, stretchable and mechanically robust displays and solar cells, and also wrap around non-planar and biological surfaces such as skin and organs, without wrinkling. We report transparent, conducting spray-deposited films of single-walled carbon nanotubes that can be rendered stretchable by applying strain along each axis, and then releasing this strain. This process produces spring-like structures in the nanotubes that accommodate strains of up to 150% and demonstrate conductivities as high as 2,200 S cm(-1) in the stretched state. We also use the nanotube films as electrodes in arrays of transparent, stretchable capacitors, which behave as pressure and strain sensors.

  18. In vitro protocol for validating interface pressure sensors for therapeutic compression garments: Importance of sphygmomanometer placement and initial cuff diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inhwa Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An optimal protocol is needed to validate the performance of future interface pressure sensors for compression garments when using a sphygmomanometer. PicoPress® was used on a rigid plastic cylinder (r=4 cm. An FDA-cleared aneroid sphygmomanometer was used to apply pressures from 10-60 mmHg with a diameter of 8 cm or 12 cm placed either beneath the sphygmomanometer’s airbag or fabric cuff. A two-tail t-test was performed (P<0.05 for significance for all applied pressures. PicoPress® outputs vary with sensor placement (airbag vs fabric cuff and the initial cuff diameter. Sensor placement overlying the sphygmomanometer’s fabric cuff compared to the airbag led to significantly higher pressures (37%-135% depending on the cuff diameter size. These differences were nearly all statistically significant (P<0.05. Validation of new interface pressure sensors deploying a sphygmomanometer for calibration should specify the location of sensor placement location and initial diameter with a preference for placement under the airbag.

  19. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  20. Influence of newly designed monorail pressure sensor catheter on coronary diagnostic parameters: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak K; Peelukhana, Srikara V; Goswami, Ishan

    2014-02-07

    The decision to perform intervention on a patient with coronary stenosis is often based on functional diagnostic parameters obtained from pressure and flow measurements using sensor-tipped guidewire at maximal vasodilation (hyperemia). Recently, a rapid exchange Monorail Pressure Sensor catheter of 0.022″ diameter (MPS22), with pressure sensor at distal end has been developed for improved assessment of stenosis severity. The hollow shaft of the MPS22 is designed to slide over any standard 0.014″ guidewire (G14). Hence, influence of MPS22 diameter on coronary diagnostic parameters needs investigation. An in vitro experiment was conducted to replicate physiologic flows in three representative area stenosis (AS): mild (64% AS), intermediate (80% AS), and severe (90% AS), for two arterial diameters, 3mm (N2; more common) and 2.5mm (N1). Influence of MPS22 on diagnostic parameters: fractional flow reserve (FFR) and pressure drop coefficient (CDP) was evaluated both at hyperemic and basal conditions, while comparing it with G14. The FFR values decreased for the MPS22 in comparison to G14, (Mild: 0.87 vs 0.88, Intermediate: 0.68 vs 0.73, Severe: 0.48 vs 0.56) and CDP values increased (Mild: 16 vs 14, Intermediate: 75 vs 56, Severe: 370 vs 182) for N2. Similar trend was observed in the case of N1. The FFR values were found to be well above (mild) and below (intermediate and severe) the diagnostic cut-off of 0.75. Therefore, MPS22 catheter can be used as a possible alternative to G14. Further, irrespective of the MPS22 or G14, basal FFR (FFRb) had overlapping ranges in close proximity for clinically relevant mild and intermediate stenoses that will lead to diagnostic uncertainty under both N1 and N2. However, CDPb had distinct ranges for different stenosis severities and could be a potential diagnostic parameter under basal conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.