WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology-enhanced formative evaluation

  1. Teacher Learning of Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Allan; Capobianco, Brenda M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the integration of technology enhanced formative assessment (FA) into teachers' practice. Participants were high school physics teachers interested in improving their use of a classroom response system (CRS) to promote FA. Data were collected using interviews, direct classroom observations, and collaborative discussions. The…

  2. Teacher Learning of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Ian D.; Feldman, Allan; Leonard, William J.; Gerace, William J.; St. Cyr, Karen; Lee, Hyunju; Harris, Robby

    2008-01-01

    "Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment" (TEFA) is an innovative pedagogy for teaching secondary school science or mathematics with "classroom response system" technology. "Teacher Learning of TEFA" (TLT) is a five year research project studying teacher change in the context of an intensive, sustained, on-site professional development (PD)…

  3. Teacher Learning of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Beatty, Ian D; Leonard, William J; Gerace, William J; Cyr, Karen St; Lee, Hyunju; Harris, Robby

    2008-01-01

    Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) is a pedagogy for teaching with classroom response technology. Teacher Learning of TEFA is a five-year research project studying teacher change, in the context of an intensive professional development program designed to help science and mathematics teachers learn TEFA. First, we provide an overview of the project's participating teachers, its intervention (consisting of the technology, the pedagogy, and the professional development program), and its research design. Then, we present narratives describing the unfolding change process experienced by four teachers. Afterward, we present some preliminary findings of the research, describe a "model for the co-evolution of teacher and pedagogy" that we are developing, and identify general implications for professional development.

  4. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to pose appropriate questions according to the location of the student. A student's location can be obtained using the device position or by scanning a QR code attached to a dried plant sheet in a herbarium or to a fresh plant in an arboretum. The assessment questions are complemented with elaborated feedback that, according to the students' responses, provides indications of possible mistakes and correct answers. Three experiments were designed to measure the effectiveness of the formative assessment using dried and fresh plants. Three questionnaires were used to evaluate the system performance from the students' perspective. The results clearly indicate that formative assessment is objectively effective compared to traditional methods and that the students' attitudes towards the system were very positive.

  5. A Report on the Technological Enhancements Project Evaluation: Deepening Early Learning Experiences through Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupert, Naomi; Cervantes, Francisco; DeGroof, Emily

    2010-01-01

    As part of the "Ready to Learn" Initiative, Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC), was charged with addressing the evaluation of Technological Enhancements for the outreach efforts of three producers: Out of the Blue's Super WHY! Technology Add-On; Sesame Workshop's The Electric Company School's Initiative Curriculum; and WordWorld's eBook…

  6. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment: A Research-Based Pedagogy for Teaching Science with Classroom Response Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Ian D.; Gerace, William J.

    2009-01-01

    "Classroom response systems" (CRSs) are a promising instructional technology, but most literature on CRS use fails to distinguish between technology and pedagogy, to define and justify a pedagogical perspective, or to discriminate between pedagogies. "Technology-enhanced formative assessment" (TEFA) is our pedagogy for CRS-based science…

  7. Factors that Affect Science and Mathematics Teachers' Initial Implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment Using a Classroom Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan; Beatty, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to uncover and understand the factors that affect secondary science and mathematics teachers' initial implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA), a pedagogy developed for teaching with classroom response system (CRS) technology. We sought to identify the most common and strongest factors, and to…

  8. An evaluation of UK foundation trainee doctors' learning behaviours in a technology-enhanced learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Hannah L; Pontefract, Sarah K; Hodson, James; Blackwell, Nicholas; Hughes, Elizabeth; Marriott, John F; Coleman, Jamie J

    2016-05-03

    Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) can be used to educate Foundation Programme trainee (F1 and F2) doctors. Despite the advantages of TEL, learning behaviours may be exhibited that are not desired by system developers or educators. The aim of this evaluation was to investigate how learner behaviours (e.g. time spent on task) were affected by temporal (e.g. time of year), module (e.g. word count), and individual (e.g. knowledge) factors for 16 mandatory TEL modules related to prescribing and therapeutics. Data were extracted from the SCRIPT e-Learning platform for first year Foundation trainee (F1) doctors in the Health Education England's West Midland region from 1(st) August 2013 to 5(th) August 2014. Generalised Estimating Equation models were used to examine the relationship between time taken to complete modules, date modules were completed, pre- and post-test scores, and module factors. Over the time period examined, 688 F1 doctors interacted with the 16 compulsory modules 10,255 times. The geometric mean time taken to complete a module was 28.9 min (95% Confidence Interval: 28.4-29.5) and 1,075 (10.5%) modules were completed in less than 10 min. In February and June (prior to F1 progression reviews) peaks occurred in the number of modules completed and troughs in the time taken. Most modules were completed, and the greatest amount of time was spent on the learning on a Sunday. More time was taken by those doctors with greater pre-test scores and those with larger improvements in test scores. Foundation trainees are exhibiting unintended learning behaviours in this TEL environment, which may be attributed to several factors. These findings can help guide future developments of this TEL programme and the integration of other TEL programmes into curricula by raising awareness of potential behavioural issues that may arise.

  9. Developing and evaluating a technology enhanced interaction framework and method that can enhance the accessibility of mobile learning

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and evaluation of a Technology Enhanced Interaction Framework and Method that can help with designing accessible mobile learning interactions involving disabled people. This new framework and method were developed to help design technological support for communication and interactions between people, technology, and objects particularly when disabled people are involved. A review of existing interaction frameworks showed that none of them helped technolog...

  10. Factors that Affect Science and Mathematics Teachers' Initial Implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment Using a Classroom Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan; Beatty, Ian D.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to uncover and understand the factors that affect secondary science and mathematics teachers' initial implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA), a pedagogy developed for teaching with classroom response system (CRS) technology. We sought to identify the most common and strongest factors, and to understand the general process of how teachers adopt TEFA. We identified ten main hindering factors reported by teachers, and found that time limitations and question development difficulties are reported as the most problematic. In this paper we provide five vignettes of teachers' initial implementation experiences, illustrating different courses that TEFA adoption can follow. We classify our ten factors into four groups: contextual factors that directly hinder teachers' attempts to implement TEFA (extrinsic type I); circumstances that affect teachers' teaching in general (extrinsic type 0); gaps that teachers have in the knowledge and skills they need to adopt TEFA (intrinsic type I); and ways of being a teacher that describe teachers' deeper perspectives and beliefs, which may be consonant or dissonant with TEFA (intrinsic type II). Finally, we identify four general categories that describe the teachers' initial TEFA implementation.

  11. Learning when Serious: Psychophysiological Evaluation of a Technology-Enhanced Learning Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Ben; Fantato, Martino; Jennett, Charlene; Ruskov, Martin; Ravaja, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    We report an evaluation study for a novel learning platform, motivated by the growing need for methods to do assessment of serious game efficacy. The study was a laboratory experiment combining evaluation methods from the fields of learning assessment and psychophysiology. 15 participants used the TARGET game platform for 25 minutes, while the…

  12. Using Teacher Inquiry to Support Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment: A Review of the Literature to Inform a New Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckin, Rosemary; Clark, Wilma; Avramides, Katerina; Hunter, Jade; Oliver, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review the literature on teacher inquiry (TI) to explore the possibility that this process can equip teachers to investigate students' learning as a step towards the process of formative assessment. We draw a distinction between formative assessment and summative forms of assessment [CRELL. (2009). The transition to computer-based…

  13. How to start with technology-enhanced formative assessment of 21st century skills in your classroom(s)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Tasouris, Christodoulos; Economou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Workshop participants will learn to: Understand the reasons behind the shift from assessment of learning to assessment for learning; Make a difference between the objectives of formative and summative assessment; Distinguish between different formative eAassessment methods; Understand the benefits

  14. How to start with technology-enhanced formative assessment of 21st century skills in your classroom(s)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Tasouris, Christodoulos; Economou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Workshop participants will learn to: Understand the reasons behind the shift from assessment of learning to assessment for learning; Make a difference between the objectives of formative and summative assessment; Distinguish between different formative eAassessment methods; Understand the benefits a

  15. Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2013, 26-27 September). Technology Enhanced Learning. Presentation at the fourth international conference on eLearning (eLearning 2013), Belgrade, Serbia. http://econference.metropolitan.ac.rs/

  16. The Technology Enhanced Conference - A Board Game!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette

    , and the sharing of knowledge beyond the event days. But how can we help the organizers and participants realize the potential of an interactive conference? Because let's face it: the easier choice is to leave out the technology enhancement and stick with the well-known conference format. We came up with a visual...... been great, and maybe the board game can be used for other areas, where one needs to communicate complicated options for technology enhanced events or teaching and support organizers in making good choices....

  17. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning…

  18. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning effectiveness of the programme. A total of around 200 students from nine local secondary schools participated in both the physics programme and its subsequent evaluation which consists of a combination of research and assessment tools, including pre- and post-multiple-choice tests, a questionnaire survey and an interview as specifically developed for this programme, or adopted from some well-accepted research instruments. Based on the evaluation of students' academic performance, there are two educationally significant findings on enhancing the students' physics learning: (a) traditionally large gender differences in physics performance and interest of learning are mostly eliminated; and (b) a less-exciting ride called the aviator (instead of the most exciting roller-coaster ride) can induce the largest learning effect (or gain in academic performance) amongst teenagers. Besides, findings from the questionnaire survey and interviews of participants are reported to reveal their views, perceptions, positive and negative comments or feedback on this programme which could provide valuable insights for future development of other similar community-based programmes.

  19. Formative Evaluations in Online Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Peterson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Online courses are continuing to become an important component of higher education course offerings. As the number of such courses increases, the need for quality course evaluations and course improvements is also increasing. However, there is not general agreement on the best ways to evaluate and use evaluation data to improve online courses. While summative student evaluations are commonly used, these may not be the most effective for online course evaluation and quality improvement. Formative evaluation is one method of providing course evaluation and feedback to the instructor during the course while course improvements can be made to benefit the students currently in the course as well as future students. This method of evaluation not only provides for an effective course evaluation but also continuous improvement in the course. This case study reviews formative evaluations done in two online courses in a Health Information Management program. These formative evaluations were found to be quite effective for the identification and development of needed course improvement throughout the semester as well as for use as input into overall course evaluations. These evaluations demonstrate the value of formative evaluations and provide a methodology for implementing such evaluations into an online course.

  20. Technology-enhanced suicide prevention interventions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuze, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Carolyn; Gregoski, Mathew; York, Janet; Mueller, Martina; Lamis, Dorian A; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2017-07-01

    Objective Suicide prevention is a high priority. Scalable and sustainable interventions for suicide prevention are needed to set the stage for population-level impact. This systematic review explores how technology-enhanced interventions target suicide risk and protective factors, using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2015) Risk and Protective Factors Ecological Model. Methods Information databases (PsycINFO, PubMed and CINAHL) were systematically searched and records including technology-enhanced interventions for suicide prevention ( n = 3764) were reviewed. Records with varying technologies and diverse methodologies were integrated into the search. Results Review of the records resulted in the inclusion of 16 studies that utilized technology-enhanced interventions to address determinants of suicidal behaviour. This includes the use of standalone or, in most cases, adjunct technology-enhanced interventions for suicide prevention delivered by mobile phone application, text message, telephone, computer, web, CD-ROM and video. Conclusion Intervention effectiveness was variable, but several technology-enhanced interventions have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing suicidal ideation and mental health co-morbidities. Large-scale research and evaluation initiatives are needed to evaluate the costs and long-term population-level impact of these interventions.

  1. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...... and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also...

  2. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bugge Henriksen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems and Freshwaters (REEF, the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM. The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also be a huge benefit from developing learning design patterns that facilitate informal peer learning and reinforce knowledge sharing practices.

  3. Teachers as designers of technology enhanced learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kali, Yael; McKenney, Susan; Sagy, Ornit

    2013-01-01

    Kali, Y., McKenney, S., & Sagy, O. (2012, 2-6 July). Teachers as designers of technology enhanced learning. Presentation at the Teachers as Designers of Technology Enhanced Learning pre-conference workshop in conjunction with the ISLS annual meeting, Sydney, Australia.

  4. Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gennari, Rosella; Vittorini, Pierpaolo; Prieta, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents recent research on Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning. It contains the contributions of MIS4TEL 2015, which took place in Salamanca, Spain,. On June 3rd to 5th 2015. Like the previous edition, this proceedings and the conference is an open forum for discussing intelligent systems for Technology Enhanced Learning and empirical methodologies for their design or evaluation MIS4TEL’15 conference has been organized by University of L’aquila, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano and the University of Salamanca.  .

  5. Teacher Design Knowledge for Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney-Jensh, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation shares a framework for investigating the knowledge teachers need to be able to design technology-enhanced learning. Specific activities are undertaken to consider elements within the framework

  6. Learning in a technology enhanced world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Specht, M. (2009). Learning in a technology enhanced world. Invited talk given at the World Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare & Higher Education. October, 27, 2009, Vancouver, Canada.

  7. Evaluation of a technology-enhanced integrated care model for frail older persons: protocol of the SPEC study, a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsoo; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Jung, Young-Il; Choi, Hyoungshim; Lee, Seyune; Kim, Gi-Soo; Yang, Dong-Wook; Paik, Myunghee Cho; Lee, Tae-Jin

    2017-04-18

    Limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of the chronic care model for people with multimorbidity. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an information and communication technology- (ICT-)enhanced integrated care model, called Systems for Person-centered Elder Care (SPEC), for frail older adults at nursing homes. SPEC is a prospective stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial conducted at 10 nursing homes in South Korea. Residents aged 65 or older meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria in all the homes are eligible to participate. The multifaceted SPEC intervention, a geriatric care model guided by the chronic care model, consists of five components: comprehensive geriatric assessment for need/risk profiling, individual need-based care planning, interdisciplinary case conferences, person-centered care coordination, and a cloud-based information and communications technology (ICT) tool supporting the intervention process. The primary outcome is quality of care for older residents using a composite measure of quality indicators from the interRAI LTCF assessment system. Outcome assessors and data analysts will be blinded to group assignment. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, healthcare utilization, and cost. Process evaluation will be also conducted. This study is expected to provide important new evidence on the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and implementation process of an ICT-supported chronic care model for older persons with multiple chronic illnesses. The SPEC intervention is also unique as the first registered trial implementing an integrated care model using technology to promote person-centered care for frail older nursing home residents in South Korea, where formal LTC was recently introduced. ISRCTN11972147.

  8. Lean Data Strategies for Formative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.

    The intent of formative evaluation is to improve programs as well as to justify their continuation. It is critical to separate clearly those functions of the evaluation which are political from those which may lead the way to instructional improvement. Data for formative evaluation should be gathered in an interpretable way at the level at which…

  9. Teachers as designers of technology enhanced learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kali, Yael; McKenney, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Kali, Y., & McKenney, S. (2012). Teachers as designers of technology enhanced learning. In J. van Aalst, K. Thompson, M. J. Jacobson, & P. Reimann (Eds.), The future of learning: Proceedings of the 10th international conference of the learning sciences (Vol. 2, pp. 582-583). Sydney, NSW, Australia:

  10. Teachers as designers of technology enhanced learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kali, Yael; McKenney, Susan; Sagy, Ornit; Voogt, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Design of (technology-enhanced) learning activities and materials is one fruitful process through which teachers learn and become professionals. To facilitate this process, research is needed to understand how teachers learn through design, how this process may be supported, and how teacher involvem

  11. Teachers as designers of technology enhanced learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kali, Yael; McKenney, Susan; Sagy, Ornit; Voogt, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Design of (technology-enhanced) learning activities and materials is one fruitful process through which teachers learn and become professionals. To facilitate this process, research is needed to understand how teachers learn through design, how this process may be supported, and how teacher involvem

  12. Formative Evaluations in Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Online courses are continuing to become an important component of higher education course offerings. As the number of such courses increases, the need for quality course evaluations and course improvements is also increasing. However, there is not general agreement on the best ways to evaluate and use evaluation data to improve online courses.…

  13. Modifying Formative Evaluation Techniques For Distance Education Class Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. WALKER

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Modifying Formative Evaluation Techniques For Distance Education Class Evaluation Assistant Professor Scott L. WALKERDepartment of GeographyTexas State UniversitySan Marcos, USA ABSTRACTPost-secondary classes are usually followed by mandatory summative evaluations, yet changes in teaching and course structure cannot be made with summative evaluations. Formative evaluations in online education can result in candid responses from students if a third-party facilitator is involved in the process. This paper presents a method for conducting formative evaluation in an online class by utilizing the assistance of a colleague. Results of one such evaluation are presented, as are its advantages and disadvantages.

  14. The Technology Enhanced Conference - A Board Game!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette

    ITMEDIA at the University of Copenhagen have been working with taking the academic conference online for years. Streaming events, using backchannel chat systems and Twitter, producing introductory pre-event videos, setting up audio debates with keynotes to enrich and prolong the conference...... been great, and maybe the board game can be used for other areas, where one needs to communicate complicated options for technology enhanced events or teaching and support organizers in making good choices....

  15. Right timing in formative program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jori; Freeman, Melissa; Roulston, Kathy

    2014-08-01

    Since many educational researchers and program developers have limited knowledge of formative evaluation, formative data may be underutilized during the development and implementation of an educational program. The purpose of this article is to explain how participatory, responsive, educative, and qualitative approaches to formative evaluation can facilitate a partnership between evaluators and educational researchers and program managers to generate data useful to inform program implementation and improvement. This partnership is critical, we argue, because it enables an awareness of when to take appropriate action to ensure successful educational programs or "kairos". To illustrate, we use examples from our own evaluation work to highlight how formative evaluation may facilitate opportune moments to (1) define the substance and purpose of a program, (2) develop understanding and awareness of the cultural interpretations of program participants, and (3) show the relevance of stakeholder experiences to program goals.

  16. Clinical Evaluation: Issues of Examination Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    1981-01-01

    The utility of general or select response formats for evaluating certain types of clinical competence is studied. Consideration of the suitability of an examination format to fulfill its intended purpose and the appropriateness of the questions included is recommended when designing an examination. (Author/AL)

  17. MyPlate, Children, and Formative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Roofe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning at the critical preschool level, preventing childhood obesity is a multifaceted challenge with health, economic, ethical, and social implications. In particular, increasing emphasis will be placed upon educating children and their caregivers about the USDA’s MyPlate model of good nutrition. To date, evidence-based efforts to teach preschool children nutrition facts and appropriate behaviors are limited, and developers of evidence-based practices do not appear to use formative-evaluation to an adequate extent. Crucial among these evaluations is assessing what the preschool child already knows about the MyPlate components (fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, and dairy. University researchers along with graduate students in nutrition and psychology conducted a review of current research regarding the use of MyPlate in early childhood education settings. Minimal empirical studies were found, indicating a need to expand the literature in the areas of MyPlate, early childhood nutrition education, and formative evaluation. In the current article, authors present the systematic review process of the scant knowledge that exists regarding formative evaluation research to document what preschool-age children already know about nutrition, suggest ways that this research base might be expanded, and advocate for the increased use of formative evaluation in both research and curriculum development.

  18. Formative Evaluation of a Neuroanatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterret, Patrick R.; Littlefield, John H.

    1976-01-01

    Student cognitive performance data and affective reactions provided the basis for a formative evaluation of this neuroanatomy curriculum for freshmen medical students. The cerebral hempispheres topic area was marked by poor cognitive performance and low ratings in lecture quality. Videotapes designed to augment neurophysiology also received low…

  19. Formative Evaluation as Efficient Strategy for Learning Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Sajadi

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation always was problem for teachers and or instructors in present educational systems. Teacher yet did not know whether formative evaluation is proper or summative formative. Obviously formative evaluation has efficiency than summative evaluation. In this study, quasi-experimental method is used and via simple sampling method, formative evaluation is applied in two forms such as multiple- choice evaluation and essay formative evaluation among girl students of Shahrekord at first grade ...

  20. Computational intelligence for technology enhanced learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xhafa, Fatos [Polytechnic Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Languages and Informatics Systems; Caballe, Santi; Daradoumis, Thanasis [Open Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Computer Sciences Multimedia and Telecommunications; Abraham, Ajith [Machine Intelligence Research Labs (MIR Labs), Auburn, WA (United States). Scientific Network for Innovation and Research Excellence; Juan Perez, Angel Alejandro (eds.) [Open Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Information Sciences

    2010-07-01

    E-Learning has become one of the most wide spread ways of distance teaching and learning. Technologies such as Web, Grid, and Mobile and Wireless networks are pushing teaching and learning communities to find new and intelligent ways of using these technologies to enhance teaching and learning activities. Indeed, these new technologies can play an important role in increasing the support to teachers and learners, to shorten the time to learning and teaching; yet, it is necessary to use intelligent techniques to take advantage of these new technologies to achieve the desired support to teachers and learners and enhance learners' performance in distributed learning environments. The chapters of this volume bring advances in using intelligent techniques for technology enhanced learning as well as development of e-Learning applications based on such techniques and supported by technology. Such intelligent techniques include clustering and classification for personalization of learning, intelligent context-aware techniques, adaptive learning, data mining techniques and ontologies in e-Learning systems, among others. Academics, scientists, software developers, teachers and tutors and students interested in e-Learning will find this book useful for their academic, research and practice activity. (orig.)

  1. Do we need teachers as designers of technology enhanced learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    In this special issue, five teams of researchers discuss different aspects of the teacher as designer of technology enhanced learning situations. This final contribution critically discusses if and how teachers as designers of technology enhanced learning might (not) be feasible or even desirable. T

  2. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  3. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to…

  4. The Impact of Technology-Enhanced Curriculum on Learning Advanced Algebra in US High School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Stephen J.; Dalton, Sara; Tapper, John R.

    2015-01-01

    We report on two large studies conducted in advanced algebra classrooms in the US, which evaluated the effect of replacing traditional algebra 2 curriculum with an integrated suite of dynamic interactive software, wireless networks and technology-enhanced curriculum on student learning. The first study was a cluster randomized trial and the second…

  5. The Impact of Technology-Enhanced Curriculum on Learning Advanced Algebra in US High School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Stephen J.; Dalton, Sara; Tapper, John R.

    2015-01-01

    We report on two large studies conducted in advanced algebra classrooms in the US, which evaluated the effect of replacing traditional algebra 2 curriculum with an integrated suite of dynamic interactive software, wireless networks and technology-enhanced curriculum on student learning. The first study was a cluster randomized trial and the second…

  6. Evaluating the Fraser Health Balanced Scorecard--a formative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnardo, Catherine; Jivanni, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Fraser Health (FH), a large, Canadian, integrated health care network, adopted the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach to monitor organizational performance in 2006. This paper reports on the results of a formative evaluation, conducted in April, 2008, to assess the usefulness of the BSC as a performance-reporting system and a performance management tool. Results indicated that the BSC has proven to be useful for reporting performance but is not currently used for performance management in a substantial way.

  7. The potential use of mobile technology: enhancing accessibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential use of mobile technology: enhancing accessibility and ... Mobile technology is increasingly being used to support blended learning beyond computer ... limitations of the present study, and suggestions for future research were ...

  8. Technology Enhanced Learning: topics in tel & serious gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P. (2012, 30 November). Technology Enhanced Learning: topics in tel & serious gaming. Presentation at the course "Hightech Entrepreneurship and new Media (Serious Games)", RWTH Aachen Informatik 5 Information Systems, Aachen, Germany.

  9. Formative Evaluation as Efficient Strategy for Learning Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sajadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation always was problem for teachers and or instructors in present educational systems. Teacher yet did not know whether formative evaluation is proper or summative formative. Obviously formative evaluation has efficiency than summative evaluation. In this study, quasi-experimental method is used and via simple sampling method, formative evaluation is applied in two forms such as multiple- choice evaluation and essay formative evaluation among girl students of Shahrekord at first grade of high school. 67 girl students are chosen as three separate groups; group 1, 2, 3 that group 1 and 2 are applied multiple- choice evaluation and essay evaluation as the formative forms versus group 3 who is used of summative evaluation only. The results of ANOVA and Scheffe tests have indicated that there are differences among three groups which are considered as multiple-choice evaluation, essay formative evaluation and summative evaluation respectively. Finally it is showed that multiple-choice evaluation has not significant difference versus summative evaluation. Therefore essay formative is the best the kind of formative evaluation.

  10. Recommender systems for technology enhanced learning research trends and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien

    2014-01-01

    Presents cutting edge research from leading experts in the growing field of Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSys TEL) International contributions are included to demonstrate the merging of various efforts and communities Topics include: Linked Data and the Social Web as Facilitators for TEL Recommender Systems in Research and Practice, Personalised Learning-Plan Recommendations in Game-Based Learning and Recommendations from Heterogeneous Sources in a Technology Enhanced Learning Ecosystem

  11. Prototyping Feedback for Technology Enhanced Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cojocaru, Dorian; Spikol, Daniel; Friesel, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The development of new educational technologies, in the area of practical activities is the main aim of the FP7 PELARS project. As part of the constructivist learning scenarios, according to the project proposal, the development and evaluation of technology designs are envisaged, for analytic dat...

  12. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...

  13. Empirical Study of Formative Evaluation in Adult ESL Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qin

    2012-01-01

    Formative Evaluation is a method of evaluating a program while the program activities are forming or happening. Formative evaluation focuses on the "process" during which problems are timely spotted, corrected and adjustments made so that an intended goal can be accomplished. Through a four-month empirical research work with students of…

  14. Facilitating participation in formative evaluation supported by effect map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander

    2009-01-01

    designed effect map. The purpose of the effect map is twofold: a) To encourage user participation in the early activities of formative evaluation b) The effects specified can be used as formative evaluation measures and guidance in the process of improving the system. The evaluation approach and the effect...

  15. A Framework for Examining the Utility of Technology-Enhanced Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Interest in and use of technology-enhanced items has increased over the past decade. Given the additional time required to administer many technology-enhanced items and the increased expense required to develop them, it is important for testing programs to consider the utility of technology-enhanced items. The Technology-Enhanced Item Utility…

  16. Wellsite Evaluation Method of Undercompacted Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qingxia; Wei Xinghua; Hu Yutao; Yang Haibo

    2000-01-01

    Staring from the view point of practical application, based on large amount of pressure well- logging data home and abroad, the author demonstrated how to distinguish overpressure Formation using wellsite data througl selected methods such as drilling parameters, rock cutting analysis, drilling fluid parameters, and electric welline logs.

  17. Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, Demetrios; Fytros, Demetrios

    2008-01-01

    Please cite as: Sampson, D., & Fytros, D. (2008). Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning. In H. H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlowski & D. Sampson (Eds.), International Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training, 2nd Edition, Springer, June 2008

  18. Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, Demetrios; Fytros, Demetrios

    2008-01-01

    Please cite as: Sampson, D., & Fytros, D. (2008). Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning. In H. H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlowski & D. Sampson (Eds.), International Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training, 2nd Edition, Springer, June 2008

  19. Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning: Research Trends & Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Drachsler, Hendrik; Santos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    As an area, Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test socio-technical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of individuals and organizations. Information retrieval is a pivotal activity in TEL and the deployment of recommender systems has attracted in

  20. Modelling Benefits-Oriented Costs for Technology Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of technology enhanced learning (TEL) methods changes the deployment of the most important resource in the education system: teachers' and learners' time. New technology promises greater personalization and greater productivity, but without careful modeling of the effects on the use of staff time, TEL methods can easily increase…

  1. Organisational Culture and Technology-Enhanced Innovation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Higher education institutions are evolving and technology often plays a central role in their transformations. Educational changes benefit from a supportive environment. The study examines the relationship between organisational culture and teachers' perceptions of and responses to technology-enhanced innovation among Chinese universities. A…

  2. Critical Approaches to Accessibility for Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The term "accessibility" is broadly used to describe the degree to which a service or product gives learners the "ability to access" functionality, services or materials. In recent years there has been a push towards accessibility in technology-enhanced learning (TEL) across all levels of education. However, accessibility represents a shifting…

  3. Organisational Culture and Technology-Enhanced Innovation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Higher education institutions are evolving and technology often plays a central role in their transformations. Educational changes benefit from a supportive environment. The study examines the relationship between organisational culture and teachers' perceptions of and responses to technology-enhanced innovation among Chinese universities. A…

  4. Making Sense of Technologically Enhanced Learning in Context: A Research Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon; Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2006-01-01

    and from a micro analytical or ‘inside out’ perspective of individual sense-making in learning situations. As a framework we will be using Sense-Making methodology and a model for Causal Layered Analysis. Our area of attention will be limited to the ‘remediated classroom’ of constructivist net based......This chapter proposes that technologically enhanced learning should be understood and evaluated by means of a combination of analytical strategies. These will allow us to analyze it both as seen from the macro analytical or ‘outside’ perspective of a rich social, cultural and technological context...... university education. Problematizing some common assumptions about technologically enhanced learning the authors define ten questions that may serve as the basis for a research agenda meant to help us understand why the many visions and ideals of the online or remediated classroom are not more widely...

  5. 7th International Conference in Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gennari, Rosella; Mascio, Tania; Rodríguez, Sara; Prieta, Fernando; Ramos, Carlos; Silveira, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the outcomes of the 7th International Conference in Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (MIS4TEL'17), hosted by the Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal from 21 to 23 June 2017. Expanding on the topics of the previous conferences, it provided an open forum for discussing intelligent systems for technology enhanced learning (TEL) and their roots in novel learning theories, empirical methodologies for their design or evaluation, stand-alone and web-based solutions, and makerspaces. It also fostered entrepreneurship and business startup ideas, bringing together researchers and developers from industry, education and the academic world to report on the latest scientific research, technical advances and methodologies.

  6. Acceptance of technology-enhanced learning for a theoretical radiological science course: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkenke Emeka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technology-enhanced learning (TEL gives a view to improved education. However, there is a need to clarify how TEL can be used effectively. The study compared students' attitudes and opinions towards a traditional face-to-face course on theoretical radiological science and a TEL course where students could combine face-to-face lectures and e-learning modules at their best convenience. Methods 42 third-year dental students were randomly assigned to the traditional face-to-face group and the TEL group. Both groups completed questionnaires before the beginning and after completion of the course on attitudes and opinions towards a traditional face-to-face lectures and technology-enhanced learning. After completion of the course both groups also filled in the validated German-language TRIL (Trierer Inventar zur Lehrevaluation questionnaire for the evaluation of courses given at universities. Results Both groups had a positive attitude towards e-learning that did not change over time. The TEL group attended significantly less face-to-face lectures than the traditional group. However, both groups stated that face-to-face lectures were the basis for education in a theoretical radiological science course. The members of the TEL group rated e-mail reminders significantly more important when they filled in the questionnaire on attitudes and opinions towards a traditional face-to-face lectures and technology-enhanced learning for the second time after completion of the course. The members of the technology-enhanced learning group were significantly less confident in passing the exam compared to the members of the traditional group. However, examination results did not differ significantly for traditional and the TEL group. Conclusions It seems that technology-enhanced learning in a theoretical radiological science course has the potential to reduce the need for face-to-face lectures. At the same time examination results are not impaired

  7. An Evaluation Format for "Open" Software Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cheryl A.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates six "open" (empty of content and customized by users) software programs using the literature-based characteristics of documentation, learner control, branching capabilities, portability, ease of use, and cost-effectiveness. Interviewed computer-knowledgeable individuals to confirm the legitimacy of the evaluative characteristics. (LRW)

  8. Developing and evaluating a multimodal course format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Katja Årosin; Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete

    2015-01-01

    , at other institutions of higher education and research, or in private companies working with development and research at a level corresponding to that of a university” (p. 62). We base our reflections primarily on a participant survey, which focuses on the integration of Information and Communications......This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course Danish for knowledge workers – labour market-related Danish. As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are “highly educated people who typically work at universities...... Technology (ICT) into the course format. Our point of departure for developing the course is blending online and classroom learning. In order to fully meet the Danish language needs of the knowledge workers, one essential aspect to reflect on is that of authenticity in language learning, for instance...

  9. Evaluating Secure Cluster Formation in Personal Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehangir, A.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate our previously proposed security architecture for Personal Networks (PNs). Personal Network is a new concept utilizing pervasive and distributed computing to meet the needs of the user. We aim to secure Personal Networks with lightweight security mechanisms that are suitabl

  10. A Technology Enhanced Learning Model for Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherly, Elizabeth; Uddin, Md. Meraj

    Technology Enhanced Learning and Teaching (TELT) Model provides learning through collaborations and interactions with a framework for content development and collaborative knowledge sharing system as a supplementary for learning to improve the quality of education system. TELT deals with a unique pedagogy model for Technology Enhanced Learning System which includes course management system, digital library, multimedia enriched contents and video lectures, open content management system and collaboration and knowledge sharing systems. Open sources like Moodle and Wiki for content development, video on demand solution with a low cost mid range system, an exhaustive digital library are provided in a portal system. The paper depicts a case study of e-learning initiatives with TELT model at IIITM-K and how effectively implemented.

  11. Identifying Areas of Tension in the Field of Technology-Enhanced Learning: Results of an International Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesch, Christine; Kaendler, Celia; Rummel, Nikol; Wiedmann, Michael; Spada, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Despite steady progress in research in technology-enhanced learning (TEL), the translation of research findings and technology into educational practices falls short of expectations. We present five Areas of Tension which were identified and evaluated in an international Delphi study on TEL. These tensions might impede a more comprehensive…

  12. Investment Portfolio Formation Using Multi-criteria evaluation Method MULTIMOORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilius Vaišvilas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Information that has to be analyzed by investors is complicated and can be interpreted differently by different people, which is why choosing what should be added to the investment portfolio is complicated task. Complexity grows substantially when there are more alternatives to choose from. Multi – criteria evaluation method can be used to choose the best alternatives. Multi–criteria evaluation method MULTIMOORA is not subjective because there is no need to decide ratio of any given variable that is evaluated. MULTIMOORA consists of: formation of ratio system, application of multi – criteria evaluation method as well as investment evaluation and ranking. Purpose of this article is to apply multi – criteria evaluation method MULTIMOORA for the formation and management of investment portfolio from stocks of the Baltic stock market companies. Methods used in the analysis for the article: analysis of scientific literature, statistical analysis, organization and comparison of data, idealization, calculations of MULTIMOORA.

  13. International Workshop on Evidence-Based Technology Enhanced Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gennari, Rosella; Marenzi, Ivana; Prieta, Fernando; Rodríguez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Research on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) investigates how information and communication technologies can be designed in order to support pedagogical activities. The workshop proceedings collects contributions concerning evidence based TEL systems, like their design following EBD principles as well as studies or best practices that educators, education stakeholders or psychologists used to diagnose or improve their students' learning skills, including students with specific difficulties. The international ebTEL’12 workshop wants to be a forum in which TEL researchers and practitioners alike can discuss ideas, projects, and lessons related to ebTEL. The workshop takes place in Salamanca, Spain, on March 28th-30th 2012.  

  14. Progress in NMR Applications to Well Logging and Formation Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Since its discovery in 1946, NMR has become a valuable tool in physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. With the invention of NMR logging tools that take the medical MRI or laboratory NMR equipment and turn it inside-out, the application of sophisticated laboratory techniques to determine formation properties in situ is now available. The capability has opened a new era in formation evaluation just as the introduction of NMR has revolutionized the other scientific areas.

  15. Technology-enhanced simulation in emergency medicine: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, Jonathan S; Sherbino, Jonathan; Cook, David A

    2013-02-01

    Technology-enhanced simulation is used frequently in emergency medicine (EM) training programs. Evidence for its effectiveness, however, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of technology-enhanced simulation for training in EM and identify instructional design features associated with improved outcomes by conducting a systematic review. The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsychINFO, Scopus, key journals, and previous review bibliographies through May 2011. Original research articles in any language were selected if they compared simulation to no intervention or another educational activity for the purposes of training EM health professionals (including student and practicing physicians, midlevel providers, nurses, and prehospital providers). Reviewers evaluated study quality and abstracted information on learners, instructional design (curricular integration, feedback, repetitive practice, mastery learning), and outcomes. From a collection of 10,903 articles, 85 eligible studies enrolling 6,099 EM learners were identified. Of these, 56 studies compared simulation to no intervention, 12 compared simulation with another form of instruction, and 19 compared two forms of simulation. Effect sizes were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity among these studies was large (I(2) ≥ 50%). Among studies comparing simulation to no intervention, pooled effect sizes were large (range = 1.13 to 1.48) for knowledge, time, and skills and small to moderate for behaviors with patients (0.62) and patient effects (0.43; all p 0.1). Qualitative comparisons of different simulation curricula are limited, although feedback, mastery learning, and higher fidelity were associated with improved learning outcomes. Technology-enhanced simulation for EM learners is associated with moderate or large favorable effects in comparison with no intervention and generally small and nonsignificant benefits in comparison

  16. Evaluating File Formats for Long-term Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUDITH ROG; CAROLINE VAN WIJK

    2008-01-01

    National and international publishers have been depositing digital publications at the National Library of the Netherlands(KB)since 2003.Until recently,most of these publications were deposited in the Portable Document Format.New projects,for example the Web archiving project,force the KB to handle more heterogeneous material.Therefore,the KB has developed a quantifiable file format risk assessment method.This method can be used to define digital preservation strategies for specific file formats.The choice for a specific file format at creation time or later in the life cycle of a digital object influences the long-term access to the digital object.The evaluation method contains seven sustainability criteria for file formats that are weighed for importance.There seems to be consensus on the sustainability criteria.However,as the weighing of these criteria is connected to an institution's policy,the KB wonders whether agreement on the relative importance of the criteria can be reached at all.With this paper,the KB hopes to inspire other cultural heritage institutions to define their own quantifiable file format evaluation method.

  17. Supporting students' knowledge integration with technology-enhanced inquiry curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jennifer Lopseen

    Dynamic visualizations of scientific phenomena have the potential to transform how students learn and understand science. Dynamic visualizations enable interaction and experimentation with unobservable atomic-level phenomena. A series of studies clarify the conditions under which embedding dynamic visualizations in technology-enhanced inquiry instruction can help students develop robust and durable chemistry knowledge. Using the knowledge integration perspective, I designed Chemical Reactions, a technology-enhanced curriculum unit, with a partnership of teachers, educational researchers, and chemists. This unit guides students in an exploration of how energy and chemical reactions relate to climate change. It uses powerful dynamic visualizations to connect atomic level interactions to the accumulation of greenhouse gases. The series of studies were conducted in typical classrooms in eleven high schools across the country. This dissertation describes four studies that contribute to understanding of how visualizations can be used to transform chemistry learning. The efficacy study investigated the impact of the Chemical Reactions unit compared to traditional instruction using pre-, post- and delayed posttest assessments. The self-monitoring study used self-ratings in combination with embedded assessments to explore how explanation prompts help students learn from dynamic visualizations. The self-regulation study used log files of students' interactions with the learning environment to investigate how external feedback and explanation prompts influence students' exploration of dynamic visualizations. The explanation study compared specific and general explanation prompts to explore the processes by which explanations benefit learning with dynamic visualizations. These studies delineate the conditions under which dynamic visualizations embedded in inquiry instruction can enhance student outcomes. The studies reveal that visualizations can be deceptively clear

  18. Evaluating evaluation as a communication process. What role for formative evaluation in ICT-based knowledge acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    USEILLE Philippe

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how formative evaluation as a communication process contributes to knowledge acquisition in using ICT (Information and Communication Technologies. Previous studies, especially in the field of education and training, have shown that formative evaluation plays a crucial part in the learning process because it contributes to learning to learn. Through formative evaluation, the learner becomes aware of errors and can adjust learning strategies to the situation. In addition, formative evaluation provides the teaching side with significant and useful information. Consequently, ICT researches have developed a wide range of solutions for this specific purpose. It is however difficult to check the efficiency of these tools by considering the effects of ICT in the knowledge acquisition process. I suggest that formative evaluation includes also a communication system that has an effect on the learning process. This study tackles the issue by proposing an alternative approach to formative evaluation that considers it as both a learning and a communication process. The study is based on SADT (Structure Analysis and Design Technique that provides a suitable description for the whole complex communication process. It allows a rigorous understanding and identification of the variables of evaluation as a communication process in order to take care of an ICT frame. Finally, this article outlines a multidisciplinary method to evaluate formative evaluation by focusing on the validity facets of the communication process. Keywords: formative evaluation, communication process, validity criteria, ICT training context.

  19. Knowledge Generation in Technology-Enhanced Health Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Kharlamov, Nikita; Zachariasssen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from eye-tracking studies of audience interaction and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health promotion exhibition PULSE at a science centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. The main purpose of the study was to understand what types of knowledge audiences build...... in health promotion exhibitions designed to include direct physical interaction. The current study is part of the larger PULSE project, which aims to develop innovative health promotion activities that include a science museum exhibition as a key setting. The primary target group is families with children...... age 6–12. Health promotion technologies are defined here, as technologies designed specifically for the purpose of health promotion, be they educational or focused on physical activities. The study was conducted in late 2015 and comprised eight families with children in 2nd-6th grade visiting...

  20. Technology-enhanced learning in transnational higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunasalam, Nirmala

    2016-11-24

    Some university schools of nursing in Australia and the UK have developed collaborative links with Malaysia to deliver part-time Transnational Higher Education (TNHE) post-registration top-up nursing degree courses. It enables nurses trained to diploma level to upgrade to a degree qualification. The views of 18 Malaysian nurses who had studied with one Australian and two UK TNHE universities were explored using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Participants recruited via convenience and snowball sampling methods were interviewed in English and Bahasa Malaysia (Malaysian language). Thematic analysis were used to analyse data. Findings indicated nurses' frustration with technology-enhanced teaching and learning and a lack of support throughout the programme. Although nurses developed confidence in using computer technology, they remained disappointed with the level of academic support. The data and some useful strategies outlined provide important insights for TNHE providers, the Malaysian Nursing Board and private hospital employers to consider for enhancing nurses learning and experiences.

  1. A formative multi-method approach to evaluating training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Holly; Scott, Victoria; Abraczinskas, Michelle; Scaccia, Jonathan; Stout, Soma; Wandersman, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    This article describes how we used a formative multi-method evaluation approach to gather real-time information about the processes of a complex, multi-day training with 24 community coalitions in the United States. The evaluation team used seven distinct, evaluation strategies to obtain evaluation data from the first Community Health Improvement Leadership Academy (CHILA) within a three-prong framework (inquiry, observation, and reflection). These methods included: comprehensive survey, rapid feedback form, learning wall, observational form, team debrief, social network analysis and critical moments reflection. The seven distinct methods allowed for both real time quality improvement during the CHILA and long term planning for the next CHILA. The methods also gave a comprehensive picture of the CHILA, which when synthesized allowed the evaluation team to assess the effectiveness of a training designed to tap into natural community strengths and accelerate health improvement. We hope that these formative evaluation methods can continue to be refined and used by others to evaluate training.

  2. Issues and Considerations regarding Sharable Data Sets for Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Bogers, Toine; Vuorikari, Riina

    2010-01-01

    This paper raises the issue of missing standardised data sets for recommender systems in Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) that can be used as benchmarks to compare different recommendation approaches. It discusses how suitable data sets could be created according to some initial suggestions......, and investigates a number of steps that may be followed in order to develop reference data sets that will be adopted and reused within a scientific community. In addition, policies are discussed that are needed to enhance sharing of data sets by taking into account legal protection rights. Finally, an initial...... elaboration of a representation and exchange format for sharable TEL data sets is carried out. The paper concludes with future research needs....

  3. Modeling Tools for Drilling, Reservoir Navigation, and Formation Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Dutta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The oil and gas industry routinely uses borehole tools for measuring or logging rock and fluid properties of geologic formations to locate hydrocarbons and maximize their production. Pore fluids in formations of interest are usually hydrocarbons or water. Resistivity logging is based on the fact that oil and gas have a substantially higher resistivity than water. The first resistivity log was acquired in 1927, and resistivity logging is still the foremost measurement used for drilling and evaluation. However, the acquisition and interpretation of resistivity logging data has grown in complexity over the years. Resistivity logging tools operate in a wide range of frequencies (from DC to GHz and encounter extremely high (several orders of magnitude conductivity contrast between the metal mandrel of the tool and the geologic formation. Typical challenges include arbitrary angles of tool inclination, full tensor electric and magnetic field measurements, and interpretation of complicated anisotropic formation properties. These challenges combine to form some of the most intractable computational electromagnetic problems in the world. Reliable, fast, and convenient numerical modeling of logging tool responses is critical for tool design, sensor optimization, virtual prototyping, and log data inversion. This spectrum of applications necessitates both depth and breadth of modeling software—from blazing fast one-dimensional (1-D modeling codes to advanced threedimensional (3-D modeling software, and from in-house developed codes to commercial modeling packages. In this paper, with the help of several examples, we demonstrate our approach for using different modeling software to address different drilling and evaluation applications. In one example, fast 1-D modeling provides proactive geosteering information from a deep-reading azimuthal propagation resistivity measurement. In the second example, a 3-D model with multiple vertical resistive fractures

  4. Modeling Tools for Drilling, Reservoir Navigation, and Formation Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Dutta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The oil and gas industry routinely uses borehole tools for measuring or logging rock and fluid properties of geologic formations to locate hydrocarbons and maximize their production. Pore fluids in formations of interest are usually hydrocarbons or water. Resistivity logging is based on the fact that oil and gas have a substantially higher resistivity than water. The first resistivity log was acquired in 1927, and resistivity logging is still the foremost measurement used for drilling and evaluation. However, the acquisition and interpretation of resistivity logging data has grown in complexity over the years. Resistivity logging tools operate in a wide range of frequencies (from DC to GHz and encounter extremely high (several orders of magnitude conductivity contrast between the metal mandrel of the tool and the geologic formation. Typical challenges include arbitrary angles of tool inclination, full tensor electric and magnetic field measurements, and interpretation of complicated anisotropic formation properties. These challenges combine to form some of the most intractable computational electromagnetic problems in the world. Reliable, fast, and convenient numerical modeling of logging tool responses is critical for tool design, sensor optimization, virtual prototyping, and log data inversion. This spectrum of applications necessitates both depth and breadth of modeling software—from blazing fast one-dimensional (1-D modeling codes to advanced threedimensional (3-D modeling software, and from in-house developed codes to commercial modeling packages. In this paper, with the help of several examples, we demonstrate our approach for using different modeling software to address different drilling and evaluation applications. In one example, fast 1-D modeling provides proactive geosteering information from a deep-reading azimuthal propagation resistivity measurement. In the second example, a 3-D model with multiple vertical resistive fractures

  5. Global Crop Yields, Climatic Trends and Technology Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, E.; Devineni, N.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Kogan, F.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decades the global agricultural production has soared up and technology enhancement is still making positive contribution to yield growth. However, continuing population, water crisis, deforestation and climate change threaten the global food security. Attempts to predict food availability in the future around the world can be partly understood from the impact of changes to date. A new multilevel model for yield prediction at the country scale using climate covariates and technology trend is presented in this paper. The structural relationships between average yield and climate attributes as well as trends are estimated simultaneously. All countries are modeled in a single multilevel model with partial pooling and/or clustering to automatically group and reduce estimation uncertainties. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), Geopotential height (GPH), historical CO2 level and time-trend as a relatively reliable approximation of technology measurement are used as predictors to estimate annual agricultural crop yields for each country from 1961 to 2007. Results show that these indicators can explain the variability in historical crop yields for most of the countries and the model performs well under out-of-sample verifications.

  6. Technology-Enhanced Learning in Developing Nations: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalni Gulati

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning ‘using’ technologies has become a global phenomenon. The Internet is often seen as a value-neutral tool that potentially allows individuals to overcome the constraints of traditional elitist spaces and gain unhindered access to learning. It is widely suggested that online technologies can help address issues of educational equity and social exclusion, and open up democratic and accessible educational opportunities. The national governments and non-governmental agencies who fund educational endeavours in developing countries have advocated the use of new technologies to reduce the cost of reaching and educating large numbers of children and adults who are currently missing out on education. This paper presents an overview of the educational developments in open, distance, and technology-facilitated learning that aim to reach the educationally deprived populations of the world. It reveals the challenges encountered by children and adults in developing countries as they attempt to access available educational opportunities. The discussion questions whether, in face of these challenges, developing nations should continue to invest money, time, and effort into e-learning developments. Can technology-enhanced learning help address the poverty, literacy, social, and political problems in developing countries?

  7. 6th International Conference in Methodologies and intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Prieta, Fernando; Mascio, Tania; Gennari, Rosella; Rodríguez, Javier; Vittorini, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    The 6th International Conference in Methodologies and intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning held in Seville (Spain) is host by the University of Seville from 1st to 3rd June, 2016. The 6th edition of this conference expands the topics of the evidence-based TEL workshops series in order to provide an open forum for discussing intelligent systems for TEL, their roots in novel learning theories, empirical methodologies for their design or evaluation, stand-alone solutions or web-based ones. It intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry, the education field and the academic world to report on the latest scientific research, technical advances and methodologies.

  8. Examining Technology-Enhanced Coursework in Rehabilitation Counselor Education Using Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Timothy N.; Schopieray, Scott; Boland, Elizabeth; Lane, Frank; Pruett, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of technology-enhanced coursework by rehabilitation counselor educators has increased dramatically over the last decade. In many cases, educators are using new technologies to support traditional modes of teaching and learning. Research conducted in technology-enhanced coursework has primarily focused on the cognitive and psychomotor…

  9. Flexible Pedagogies: Technology-Enhanced Learning. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This publication is part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future". It focuses on a better understanding of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) and: (1) identifies key international drivers in the move towards technology-enhanced learning; (2) highlights some of the challenges and opportunities…

  10. Theoretical and practical aspects of self-regulated learning in technology enhanced preschools and primary classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2012, 20 September). Theoretical and practical aspects of self-regulated learning in technology enhanced preschools and primary classrooms. Invited presentation for the symposion Self-regulated learning in technology enhanced learning environments at the ‘European Conference on Educational Research’ (ECER) of the ‘European Educational Research Association’ (EERA), Cádiz, Spain.

  11. Theoretical and practical aspects of self-regulated learning in technology enhanced preschools and primary classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2012, 20 September). Theoretical and practical aspects of self-regulated learning in technology enhanced preschools and primary classrooms. Invited presentation for the symposion Self-regulated learning in technology enhanced learning environments at the ‘European Conference on Educationa

  12. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, Adam; Pammer, Viktoria; Pannese, Lucia; Prilla, Michael; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Ullman, Thomas; Voigt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Moore, A., Pammer, V., Pannese, L., Prilla, M., Rajagopal, K., Reinhardt, W., Ullman, Th. D., & Voigt, Ch. (Eds.) (2012). Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology Enhanced Learning. In conjunction with the 7th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning: 21st

  13. Social network analysis for technology-enhanced learning: review and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory; Ullmann, Thomas; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Cela, Karina; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L., Ullmann, T. D., Rajagopal, K., Cela, K., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., & Sloep, P. B. (2012). Social network analysis for technology-enhanced learning: review and future directions. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(3/4), 172-190.

  14. Exploring Mechanisms for Effective Technology-Enhanced Simulation-based Education in Wilderness Medicine: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Ralph; Aitken, Deborah; Humphries, Christopher

    2015-12-17

     Technology-enhanced simulation is well-established in healthcare teaching curricula, including those regarding wilderness medicine. Compellingly, the evidence base for the value of this educational modality to improve learner competencies and patient outcomes are increasing.  The aim was to systematically review the characteristics of technology-enhanced simulation presented in the wilderness medicine literature to date. Then, the secondary aim was to explore how this technology has been used and if the use of this technology has been associated with improved learner or patient outcomes.  EMBASE and MEDLINE were systematically searched from 1946 to 2014, for articles on the provision of technology-enhanced simulation to teach wilderness medicine. Working independently, the team evaluated the information on the criteria of learners, setting, instructional design, content, and outcomes.  From a pool of 37 articles, 11 publications were eligible for systematic review. The majority of learners in the included publications were medical students, settings included both indoors and outdoors, and the main focus clinical content was initial trauma management with some including leadership skills. The most prevalent instructional design components were clinical variation and cognitive interactivity, with learner satisfaction as the main outcome.  The results confirm that the current provision of wilderness medicine utilizing technology-enhanced simulation is aligned with instructional design characteristics that have been used to achieve effective learning. Future research should aim to demonstrate the translation of learning into the clinical field to produce improved learner outcomes and create improved patient outcomes.

  15. What's new in well logging and formation evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, S.

    2011-01-01

    A number of significant new developments is emerging in well logging and formation evaluation. Some of the new developments include an ultrasonic wireline imager, an electromagnetic free-point indicator, wired and fiber-optic coiled tubing systems, and extreme-temperature logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. The continued consolidation of logging and petrophysical service providers in 2010 means that these innovations are increasingly being provided by a few large companies. Weatherford International has launched a slimhole cross-dipole tool as part of the company's line of compact logging tools. The 26-ft-long Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) tool can be run as part of a quad-combo compact logging string. Halliburton has introduced a version of its circumferential acoustic scanning tool (CAST) that runs on monoconductor cable (CAST-M) to provide high-resolution images in open hole and in cased hole for casing and cement evaluation.

  16. The role of awareness in attitude formation through evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweldens, Steven; Corneille, Olivier; Yzerbyt, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    This article provides a review of past and contemporary debates regarding the role of awareness in attitude formation through evaluative conditioning (EC), that is, by repeatedly pairing a stimulus with other stimuli of positive or negative valence. Because EC is considered the most prototypical method to form and change the network of evaluative associations in memory, the role of awareness in this effect is critical to the question of whether attitudes may be formed and changed through dual processes. We analyze the reasons why there has been so much discussion and disagreement regarding the role of awareness, review past and contemporary methodologies and their limitations, discuss the role of mental processes and conditioning procedures, and identify promising directions for future research in this area.

  17. A case study in modeling a nuclear formation evaluation sub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, S. (Teleco Oilfield Services, Inc., Middletown, CT (United States))

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports that constructing an accurate Monte Carlo representation of a complex nuclear formation evaluation tool requires careful matching of computed values to the results of laboratory experiments. The availability of only finite computing resources forces restraint in the step by step addition of complexity to the model. Once confidence in the model has been established, it can be used to predict tool response to many situations not reproducible in a laboratory. High temperatures, high pressures, and pore fluids composed of liquid-gas mixtures are typical of conditions encountered in real oil wells that are difficult to reproduce in a laboratory. Tool design and the effects of design modifications can also be evaluated efficiently using the model.

  18. A formative model for student nurse development and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. van der Merwe

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Preparing student nurses for the profession is a complex task for nurse educators; especially when dealing with the development of personal and interpersonal skills, qualities and values held in high esteem by the nursing profession and the community they serve. These researchers developed a model for formative evaluation of students by using the principles of inductive and deductive reasoning. This model was implemented in clinical practice situations and evaluated for its usefulness. It seems that the model enhanced the standards of nursing care because it had a positive effect on the behaviour of students and they were better motivated; the model also improved interpersonal relationships and communication between practising nurses and students.

  19. A formative evaluation of a staff reward and recognition programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleemah Salie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: It is generally assumed that reward and recognition programmes have increased staff motivation and reduced staff turnover.Research purpose: The main aim of this evaluation was to test the plausibility of the programme theory underlying a staff reward and recognition programme within a retail setting. Secondary aims were to assess whether or not the programme was implemented as intended and whether or not its outcomes were well defined.Motivation for the study: Different groups of people may have different assumptions about whether a reward and recognition programme works or not. This evaluation was motivated by the different assumptions held by programme stakeholders, programme recipients and social science researchers regarding the programme.Research design, approach and method: This formative evaluation used a descriptive design. Primary qualitative data were collected by means of structured interviews with the Human Resource Development (HRD Facilitator and ten programme participants.Main findings: The results showed that the programme theory was not plausible and that the programme was not implemented as intended. Although the HRD Facilitator and the participants agreed that the programme led to improved customer service, they disagreed about the other programme outcomes.Practical/managerial implications: This evaluation contains practical suggestions for improving the programme theory, the programme implementation process and the redefinition of the outcomes of the programme as standard performance indicators.Contribution/value-add: This evaluation contributed to the limited literature on the effect of reward and recognition programmes. Whilst there is a vast amount of literature pertaining to such programmes, very few formal evaluations exist about them.

  20. Evaluation of N-Nitrosamine Formation in Routine Potato Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qajarbeygi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrosamine is amongst carcinogen chemical compounds, which can enter the human body through consumption of food. Potatoes are a root vegetable consumed by many people around the world, however their potential for nitrosamine formation during cooking processes needs to be considered for public health matters. Objectives In this study we evaluated the effect of conventional potato cooking method on N-nitrosamine compound formation. Materials and Methods The amounts of four nitrosamines, namely N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR were determined in four different potato-baking methods. Sixty potato samples were randomly collected from Hamadan city. Fried potato samples were roasted at 180°C and boiled potato samples were scalded at 120°C. Nitrosamine levels were measured using gas chromatography coupled with electronic ionization detector (GC-EID, and spectrophotometry was used for measuring nitrite. Results Fried samples that were measured by the gas chromatography method had the highest average levels of nitrosamine compounds; NDMA, 5.09 ng kg-1, and NDEA, 8.66 ng kg-1. Low levels of nitrosamine compounds were associated with raw potatoes, in which no nitrosamine compound was detected. Based on the analysis of the potato samples by spectrophotometry, the highest levels of nitrite was found in raw potatoes with a mean of 2.43 mg kg-1 and the lowest levels of nitrite were detected in boiled potatoes with an average of 1.172 mg kg-1. Conclusions Nitrosamine was formed with conventional potato baking methods with the most nitrosamine formation found on the surface fried samples. Nitrites amount in baked potatoes decreased. Generally, the amount of nitrosamine in baked potato samples was lower than acceptable limits.

  1. Quantitative evaluation about property of thin-film formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Huawei [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan) and School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University (China)]. E-mail: chen_hua_wei@yahoo.com; Hagiwara, Ichiro [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Huang Tian [Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University (China); Zhang Dawei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University (China)

    2006-03-15

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is gradually emphasized as one promising method for nanomaterial formation. Such growth mechanism has been mainly investigated on basis of experiment. Due to large cost of the equipment of experiment and low level of current measurement, the comprehension about authentic effect of formation condition on properties of nanomaterial is limited in qualitative manner. Three quantitative items: flatness of primary deposition, adhesion between cluster and substrate, and degree of epitaxial growth were proposed to evaluate the property of thin film. In this simulation, three different cluster sizes of 203, 653, 1563 atoms with different velocities (0, 10, 100, 1000, 3000 m/s) were deposited on a Cu(0 0 1) substrate whose temperatures were set between 300 and 1000 K. Within one velocity range, not only the speed of epitaxial growth and adhesion between thin film and substrate were enhanced, but also the degree of epitaxy increased and the shape of thin film became more flat with velocity increasing. Moreover, the epitaxial growth became well as the temperature of substrate was raised within a certain range, and the degree of epitaxy of small cluster was larger than larger cluster. The results indicated that the property of thin film could be controlled if the effect of situations of process was made clear.

  2. Petrophysical evaluation methods: basal quartz formation, Manyberries Area , Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, both oil and gas, have been discovered in the basal quartz formation in the Manyberries area of SE Alberta. Estimation of producible fluids and hydrocarbons in place has been difficult due to the very shaly nature of the reservoir rock. Calculations of water saturation with no corrections for clay conductivity underestimates the hydrocarbons in place. The Waxman-Smits evaluation technique, which provides a method to account for clay conductivities, was used to estimate water saturation based on total porosity. Work of other authors provides a technique to correlate total and effective porosities. This was used to estimate effective porosity and subsequently water saturation based on the effective porosity. Error analysis was undertaken to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated water saturations.

  3. A formative evaluation of CU-SeeMe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Michael

    1995-02-01

    CU-SeeMe is a video conferencing software package that was designed and programmed at Cornell University. The program works with the TCP/IP network protocol and allows two or more parties to conduct a real-time video conference with full audio support. In this paper we evaluate CU-SeeMe through the process of Formative Evaluation. We first perform a Critical Review of the software using a subset of the Smith and Mosier Guidelines for Human-Computer Interaction. Next, we empirically review the software interface through a series of benchmark tests that are derived directly from a set of scenarios. The scenarios attempt to model real world situations that might be encountered by an individual in the target user class. Designing benchmark tasks becomes a natural and straightforward process when they are derived from the scenario set. Empirical measures are taken for each task, including completion times and error counts. These measures are accompanied by critical incident analysis 2 7 13 which serves to identify problems with the interface and the cognitive roots of those problems. The critical incidents reported by participants are accompanied by explanations of what caused the problem and why This helps in the process of formulating solutions for observed usability problems. All the testing results are combined in the Appendix in an illustrated partial redesign of the CU-SeeMe Interface.

  4. Where’s the Transformation? Unlocking the Potential of Technology-Enhanced Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy Sweeney

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study provides insight into technology-enhanced assessment (TEA in diverse higher education contexts. The effectiveness of using technology for assessment in higher education is still equivocal, particularly in regard to evidence of improvements in student learning. This empirical research explores the affordances that technology offers to assessment for transforming student learning. A systematic literature review, guided by an analytic survey tool, was used to identify and interrogate recent scholarly articles published in 19 international journals. From a total of 1713 articles, 139 articles were identified as being focused on the use of technology for assessment. The analytic tool guided the rigorous exploration of the literature regarding the types of technology being used, the educational goal, the type of assessment, and the degree of “transformation” afforded by the technology. Results showed that, in the sample investigated, TEA is used most frequently for formative peer learning, as part of the task design and feedback stages of the assessment cycle, and that social media has been a major affordance for this. Results are discussed with a view to fostering a future culture of inquiry and scholarship around TEA in higher education.

  5. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  6. Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks

    OpenAIRE

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Swart, Elise K.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of technology-enhanced stories for young children’s literacy development when compared to listening to stories in more traditional settings like storybook reading. A small but significant additional benefit of technology was found for story comprehension (g+ = 0.17) and expressive vocabulary (g+ = 0.20), based on data from 2,147 children in 43 studies. When investigating the different characteristics of technology-enhanced stories, multimedia featu...

  7. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Adam; Pammer, Viktoria; Pannese, Lucia; Prilla, Michael; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Ullman, Thomas; Voigt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Moore, A., Pammer, V., Pannese, L., Prilla, M., Rajagopal, K., Reinhardt, W., Ullman, Th. D., & Voigt, Ch. (Eds.) (2012). Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology Enhanced Learning. In conjunction with the 7th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning: 21st Century Learning for 21st Century Skills (ARTEL/EC-TEL 2012). September, 18, 2012, Saarbrücken, Germany. Available online at http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-931/.

  8. Technology-enhanced focus groups as a component of instrument development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strout, Tania D; DiFazio, Rachel L; Vessey, Judith A

    2017-06-22

    Background Bullying is a critical public health problem and a screening tool for use in healthcare is needed. Focus groups are a common tool for generating qualitative data when developing an instrument and evidence suggests that technology-enhanced focus groups can be effective in simultaneously engaging participants from diverse settings. Aim To examine the use of technology-enhanced focus groups in generating an item pool to develop a youth-bullying screening tool. Discussion The authors explore methodological and ethical issues related to conducting technology-enhanced focus groups, drawing on their experience in developing a youth-bullying measure. They conducted qualitative focus groups with professionals from the front lines of bullying response and intervention. They describe the experience of conducting technology-enhanced focus group sessions, focusing on the methodological and ethical issues that researchers engaging in similar work may encounter. Challenges associated with this methodology include establishing rapport among participants, privacy concerns and limited non-verbal communication. Conclusion The use of technology-enhanced focus groups can be valuable in obtaining rich data from a wide variety of disciplines and contexts. Organising these focus groups was inexpensive and preferred by the study's participants. Implications for practice Researchers should consider using technology-enhanced focus groups to generate data to develop health-related measurement tools.

  9. Teaching evaluation at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg, part II: formative teaching evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peus, Verena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the annual summative evaluation of the entire curriculum at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg a formative course evaluation has been developed. The primary goal was a valid and detailed analysis of the quality of structure, process and outcome concerning the several courses as a basis for quality improvement.Method: The multidimensional questionnaire was constructed in consideration of academic and pragmatic aspects.The student evaluation takes place at the end of the individual course. The instructor receives the results on the next working day.Results: The internal consistency of the questionnaire as well as of its four main components supply evidence for the reliability of the procedure. Validity of content is ensured by the method of construction. The analysis of the four main components of the questionnaire shows construct validity. The assumed bias variables "interest in the subject" and "previous knowledge" did not influence the overall score. The clear improvements of the results indicate the relevance of the evaluation system.Conclusions: The formative teaching evaluation of the Medical Faculty of Freiburg allows a valid assessment of teaching quality. At the same time it provides precise perspectives for quality improving measures. Therefore it is highly accepted and effectively used by the instructors.

  10. Evaluation of the dentogingival area during early plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, P; Lopes de Souza, M A; Oppermann, R V

    2001-07-01

    The aims of this investigation were to evaluate the pattern of supragingival plaque formation in the dentogingival area within 96 hours after abstinence from mechanical plaque control and to clinically analyze the gingival inflammatory response observed. Six male volunteers, 20 to 23 years of age, had their upper incisors and cuspids polished. Four independent periods of no mechanical plaque control--24, 48, 72, and 96 hours--were instituted. In each period, plaque was disclosed and standardized individual photographs were taken. Impressions were taken and replicas were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected at baseline and 96 hours. The height of the gingival papilla was measured at baseline, 24, and 96 hours. Results showed the presence of a plaque-free zone (PFZ) along the gingival margin up to 72 hours. After 96 hours, there was a significant reduction in the presence of PFZ in the proximal thirds of the buccal surface when compared to the other experimental periods. At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in the GCF flow as well as edema of the interdental papilla, when compared to baseline values. The PFZ observed during the initial phase was less apparent at the 96-hour period. At this time, there was an increase in the gingival inflammatory response, represented clinically by increased GCF flow and edema.

  11. Updating the FORECAST formative evaluation approach and some implications for ameliorating theory failure, implementation failure, and evaluation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jason; Wandersman, Abraham; Goodman, Robert M; Griffin, Sarah; Wilson, Dawn K; Schillaci, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Historically, there has been considerable variability in how formative evaluation has been conceptualized and practiced. FORmative Evaluation Consultation And Systems Technique (FORECAST) is a formative evaluation approach that develops a set of models and processes that can be used across settings and times, while allowing for local adaptations and innovations. FORECAST integrates specific models and tools to improve limitations in program theory, implementation, and evaluation. In the period since its initial use in a federally funded community prevention project in the early 1990s, evaluators have incorporated important formative evaluation innovations into FORECAST, including the integration of feedback loops and proximal outcome evaluation. In addition, FORECAST has been applied in a randomized community research trial. In this article, we describe updates to FORECAST and the implications of FORECAST for ameliorating failures in program theory, implementation, and evaluation.

  12. Tools for Formative Evaluation: Gathering the Information Necessary for Program Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2016-01-01

    New Extension educators experience a steep learning curve when attempting to develop effective Extension programs. Formative evaluation is helpful to new, and experienced, Extension educators in determining the changes necessary for making programs more effective. Formative evaluation is an essential part of program evaluation. However, its use…

  13. Evaluation of Format- Preserving Encryption Algorithms for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Agbeyibor, Richard; Butts, Jonathan; Grimaila, Michael; Mills, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Part 5: Advanced Techniques; International audience; Legacy critical infrastructure systems lack secure communications capabilities that can protect against modern threats. In particular, operational requirements such as message format and interoperability prevent the adoption of standard encryption algorithms. Three new algorithms recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for format-preserving encryption could potentially support the encryption of legacy protoc...

  14. Formative Evaluation of English in Vocational Colleges from a Humanis-tic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui

    2016-01-01

    The existing summative evaluation method cannot reveal all the relevant facts about students’learning, potentially leading students to only pay attention to memorizing fragmented language knowledge instead of improving their communicative competence. Therefore, the formative evaluation method should be used to supplement the current summative evaluation meth-od in College English teaching in vocational institutes. When using formative evaluation, plans and objectives need to be de-signed, tools for evaluation selected, information collected regularly, and plans adjusted accordingly.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Passive Optical Network Using Different Modulation Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravneet; Dewra, Sanjeev

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of passive optical network is analyzed and compared for different modulation formats such as non-return to zero (NRZ), return to zero (RZ) at 2.5 Gb/s bit rate with 16 optical network units. This system is investigated in terms of quality (Q)-factor, optical received power and eye height at different transmission distances. NRZ achieves maximum transmission distance up to 48 km having Q-factor of 6.18 and RZ achieves the maximum transmission distance up to 41 km having Q-factor of 6.21. Furthermore, it is found that NRZ modulation format is more superior and covers more distance as compared to RZ modulation format.

  16. The Role of Formative Evaluation in the Development of an Interdisciplinary Academic Center. Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Susan B.

    This document reports on how formative evaluation was used by the National Institute for Science Education (NISE) to achieve its stated goals and to develop an institute from an amorphous group. It was found that formative evaluation should provide ideas, information, models, and language that an emerging interdisciplinary organization can use to…

  17. Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction (ICAI): Formative Evaluation of Two Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    ICAI research and devopment . 14 1-.i -: Evaluation Questions The evaluation questions guiding the study are presented below. In each of these...result in a very powerful instructional tool . PROUST takes an intention-based approach to analyzing a novice’s program. Rather than compare the student...developed sufficient strength of underlying technology, tools and science so that 83w Contracting Project Evaluation Technical Agency - Technology

  18. Effect of Peer Evaluation Format on Student Engagement in a Group Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    Active participation in classrooms often involves group work. In order to examine the effect of using peer evaluations as part of that experience, this study measured the influence of four formats of peer evaluation on students' perceptions of fairness of the peer evaluation method, its impact on peer engagement, and peer evaluation scores. The…

  19. Evaluating conditions for the formation of chitosan/gelatin microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan/gelatin microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation. Three chitosan (CH samples, with different acetylation degrees and intrinsic viscosities, were used together with commercial gelatin (G samples. Microparticles formation was investigated at various CH/G ratios, within the pH range of 3.5 to 6.0. Reactions were carried out at 40 and 60 ºC, for 2, 4, and 6 hours. Turbidity measurements performed at 633 nm were used to monitor the process. The resulting curves revealed maximum values, which were correlated to the glucosamine content of CH samples. After isolation, yields were determined, and the microparticles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetry (TGA. Both techniques evidenced the formation of coacervate microparticles. The highest yields in microparticles were determined for the system comprising the CH sample with the lowest degree of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity, and the gelatin sample with the lowest bloom strength.

  20. Steps toward a Formative Evaluation of NSDL. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikson, Tora K.; Kalra, Nidhi; Galway, Lionel A.; Agnew, Grace

    2011-01-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) National Science Digital Library/Distributed Learning (NSDL) program turned 10 years old in 2010. This report presents results of a preliminary program evaluation carried out by RAND and is organized around three principal goals: (1) Provide an initial evaluation of NSDL based on existing information…

  1. Steps toward a Formative Evaluation of NSDL. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikson, Tora K.; Kalra, Nidhi; Galway, Lionel A.; Agnew, Grace

    2011-01-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) National Science Digital Library/Distributed Learning (NSDL) program turned 10 years old in 2010. This report presents results of a preliminary program evaluation carried out by RAND and is organized around three principal goals: (1) Provide an initial evaluation of NSDL based on existing information…

  2. Evaluation of scale formation in waterwall heated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylasheva Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibility of forecasting assessments of the speed and the time of formation of depositions in the evaporator-tube elements of double-drum boilers. The values of thermal flow in the wall region of tank screens of boiler furnace are obtained, besides the velocity values of scaling metal corrosion products are obtained. Conclusions about the ability of forecasting unnominal situations and emergency risks dependent with damage to the screen surface heating pipes are made.

  3. Evaluation of Customer Loyalty to Different Format Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noskova EV

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article notes that at present for different retailers an important strategic objective is to create loyal customers. Under these conditions, the urgency to identify and assess the factors affecting the formation of customer loyalty increases. The purpose of this study is to estimate factors affecting customer loyalty with an average level of income in the context of different formats of retail trade of food specialization in the cities with a population of 1 million people. In the study a methodical approach to customer loyalty and factors it forming is developed. The basic factors of customer loyalty in the context of the marketing mix 7P are discovered (product, price, place, promotion, personnel, physical evidence, and process. A quantitative assessment of the factors of customer loyalty on the basis of the calculation of the index of satisfaction in the context of retail formats (hypermarket, supermarket, and shop near home is given. The study may be of interest to market operators of retail services in the development of programs to improve customer loyalty to different retailers.

  4. Assessing the Crossdisciplinarity of Technology-Enhanced Learning with Science Overlay Maps and Diversity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the assessment of the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Based on a general discussion of the concept interdisciplinarity and a summary of the discussion in the field, two empirical methods from scientometrics are introduced and applied. Science overlay maps and the Rao-Stirling diversity index are…

  5. Assessing the Crossdisciplinarity of Technology-Enhanced Learning with Science Overlay Maps and Diversity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the assessment of the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Based on a general discussion of the concept interdisciplinarity and a summary of the discussion in the field, two empirical methods from scientometrics are introduced and applied. Science overlay maps and the Rao-Stirling diversity index are…

  6. Technology-Enhanced Learning in Sports Education Using Clickers: Satisfaction, Performance and Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Vaso; Ioannou, Andri

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses ICT in Education by describing an empirical investigation of technology-enhanced sports education. The study examines the use of clickers by 162 Judo athletes during seminars on the rules and regulations of the sport. Results are based on quantitative data collected on athletes' performances and attitudes and qualitative data…

  7. Enhancing Vocational Preparedness for At Risk Students through Technology Enhanced Learning Using Reading/Writing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Kevin; Parkins, Sherri

    The authors describe their experience over the last 4 years at Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology, enhancing the vocational opportunities for at risk students through the use of Reading and Writing Technology, primarily, Microsofts word processor, Word and WordQ, a word prediction and text to speech software designed to assist learning…

  8. Assessing the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning with science overlay maps and diversity measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the assessment of the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Based on a general discussion of the concept interdisciplinarity and a summary of the discussion in the field two empirical methods from scientometrics are introduced and applied. Science overlay m

  9. A Delphi Study on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) Applied on Computer Science (CS) Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Marcela; Mas-Machuca, Marta; Martinez-Costa, Carme; Maillet, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) is a new pedagogical domain aiming to study the usage of information and communication technologies to support teaching and learning. The following study investigated how this domain is used to increase technical skills in Computer Science (CS). A Delphi method was applied, using three-rounds of online survey…

  10. School-Based Teachers' Professional Development through Technology-Enhanced Learning in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohel, M. Mahruf C.; Banks, Frank

    2012-01-01

    To promote significant pedagogical change, the most successful teacher education programmes for the global south happen in the school context. This paper is based on a pre-pilot intervention study of an international education development programme in Bangladesh. Technology-enhanced learning, in this case the use of the Apple[R] iPod[R] (iPod…

  11. The Role of Professional Objects in Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitter, Ilya; de Bruijn, Elly; Simons, Robert-Jan; ten Cate, Olle

    2012-01-01

    We study project-based, technology-enhanced learning environments in higher education, which should produce, by means of specific mechanisms, learning outcomes in terms of transferable knowledge and learning-, thinking-, collaboration- and regulation-skills. Our focus is on the role of objects from professional practice serving as boundary objects…

  12. Spanish Vocabulary-Bridging Technology-Enhanced Instruction for Young English Language Learners' Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacox, Lindsey; Jackson, Carla Wood

    2014-01-01

    This study examined preschool and kindergarten English language learners (ELLs) attending a migrant summer programme and their vocabulary word learning during both adult-read and technology-enhanced repeated readings. In a within-subject design, 24 ELLs (four to six years old) engaged in repeated readings in a control and a treatment condition. In…

  13. Students and Teachers' Perceptions on Technology-Enhanced Turkish Language Learning Environment in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine learners' and instructors' perceptions about technology-enhanced learning environment. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. A Likert-scale survey was developed and administered to 48 Turkish language learners in various language courses in Istanbul to investigate their perceptions of…

  14. What Do Students Want? Making Sense of Student Preferences in Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina; Aeschliman, Carol

    2017-01-01

    This article, with its focus on university students as intended recipients and users of technological innovations in education, explores student preferences across three dimensions of technology-enhanced learning: mode of instruction; communication; and educational technology tools embedded in learning and teaching activities. The article draws on…

  15. Self-Regulated Learning: A Touchstone for Technology-Enhanced Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuirter Scott, Ruth; Meeussen, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Technology-enhanced classrooms offer dynamic possibilities for teachers and students. The teacher's role can shift from being an expert in control of the class to being a coach who challenges students to use technology to explore the world and share their findings in innovative ways. Such redefining of roles, however, involves risk and often…

  16. Critical thinking instruction and technology enhanced learning from the student perspective: A mixed methods research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    Critical thinking is acclaimed as a valuable asset for graduates from higher education programs. Technology has advanced in quantity and quality; recognized as a requirement of 21st century learners. A mixed methods research study was undertaken, examining undergraduate nursing student engagement with critical thinking instruction, platformed on two technology-enhanced learning environments: a classroom response system face-to-face in-class and an online discussion forum out-of-class. The Community of Inquiry framed the study capturing constructivist collaborative inquiry to support learning, and facilitate critical thinking capability. Inclusion of quantitative and qualitative data sources aimed to gather a comprehensive understanding of students' development of critical thinking and engagement with technology-enhanced learning. The findings from the students' perspectives were positive toward the inclusion of technology-enhanced learning, and use in supporting their development of critical thinking. Students considered the use of two forms of technology beneficial in meeting different needs and preferences, offering varied means to actively participate in learning. They valued critical thinking instruction being intentionally aligned with subject-specific content facilitating understanding, application, and relevance of course material. While the findings are limited to student participants, the instructional strategies and technology-enhanced learning identified as beneficial can inform course design for the development of critical thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  18. Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments to Solve Performance Problems: A Case of a Korean Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a case describing how technology enhanced learning environments can be used to improve employees' competence development. For this purpose, specific problematic situations in a Korean insurance company are portrayed. These situations demonstrate that everyday life in a workplace provides opportunities for learning and performance…

  19. The Status of Technology-Enhanced Education and Service Delivery in Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Gina R.; Huber, Mary J.; Wilson, Josephine F.; Embree, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the upsurge of technology-enhanced rehabilitation education programs and telerehabilitation services, to provide examples of these advancements, and to discuss the implications of this technology for education and the field including the unique advantage to developing technological skills through…

  20. Teachers as Participatory Designers: Two Case Studies with Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cober, Rebecca; Tan, Esther; Slotta, Jim; So, Hyo-Jeong; Könings, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are not typically involved as participatory designers in the design of technology-enhanced learning environments. As they have unique and valuable perspectives on the role of technology in education, it is of utmost importance to engage them in a participatory design process. Adopting a case study methodology, we aim to reveal in what…

  1. Teacher design knowledge for technology enhanced learning: a framework for investigating assets and needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney-Jensh, Susan E.; Kali, Y.; Mauiskaite, L.; Voogt, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Design of (technology-enhanced) learning activities and materials is one fruitful process through which teachers learn and become professionals. To facilitate this process, research is needed to understand how teachers learn through design, how this process may be supported, and how teacher

  2. Study on contexts in tracking usage and attention metadata in multilingual Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuorikari, Riina; Berendt, Bettina

    2009-01-01

    Vuorikari, R., & Berendt, B. (2009). Study on contexts in tracking usage and attention metadata in multilingual Technology Enhanced Learning. In S. Fischer, E. Maehle & R. Reischuk (Eds.), Im Focus das Leben, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) (Vol. 154, pp. 181, 1654-1663). Informatik 2009, Lübeck,

  3. Integration of Technology Enhanced Learning within Business Organizations: Which Strategy to Choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Rutkiene, Aušra; Trepule, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses a responsible and a responsive strategic organizational approach for a smooth integration of technology enhanced learning (TEL). A response to external and internal contingencies and an involvement of different stakeholders into the development and implementation of the so-called eLearning strategies is one of the approaches…

  4. Teacher design knowledge for technology enhanced learning: a framework for investigating assets and needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney-Jensh, Susan E.; Kali, Y.; Mauiskaite, L.; Voogt, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Design of (technology-enhanced) learning activities and materials is one fruitful process through which teachers learn and become professionals. To facilitate this process, research is needed to understand how teachers learn through design, how this process may be supported, and how teacher involvem

  5. A Fingerprint Pattern of Supports for Teachers' Designing of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard; Sagy, Ornit; Kali, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Teachers often find themselves in a position in which they need to adapt technology-enhanced materials to meet the needs of their students. As new technologies--especially those not specifically designed for learning--find their way into schools, teachers need to be able to design learning experiences that use these new technologies in their local…

  6. Technology to Support Teachers Using Evidence from Student Work to Customize Technology-Enhanced Inquiry Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuk, Camillia F.; Linn, Marcia C.; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' involvement in curriculum design is essential for sustaining the relevance of technology-enhanced learning materials. Customizing--making small adjustments to tailor given materials to particular situations and settings--is one design activity in which busy teachers can feasibly engage. Research indicates that customizations based…

  7. Pedagogy First: Realising Technology Enhanced Learning by Focusing on Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Ian; Hepplestone, Stuart; Parkin, Helen J.; Rodger, Helen; Irwin, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores a "pedagogy first" approach to technology enhanced learning developed by Sheffield Hallam University (SHU) as a method to encourage use of, and experimentation with, technology within teaching practice and to promote the mainstreaming of innovative practice. Through a consultative approach where all staff members were…

  8. Investigating Technology-Enhanced Teacher Professional Development in Rural, High-Poverty Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Margaret R.; LePrevost, Catherine E.; Tolin, A. Dell; Gutierrez, Kristie S.

    2016-01-01

    This 3-year, mixed-methods study investigated the effects of teacher technology-enhanced professional development (TPD) on 20 teachers' beliefs and practices. Teachers in two middle schools located in neighboring rural, high-poverty districts in the southeastern United States participated in reform-based lessons and learned how to integrate…

  9. How Recommender Systems in Technology-Enhanced Learning depend on Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Manouselis, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Drachsler, H., & Manouselis, N. (2009). How Recommender Systems in Technology-Enhanced Learning depend on Context. Presentation given at the 1st workshop on Context-aware Recommender Systems for Learning at the Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009. November, 30 - December, 3, 2009, Garmisch-Patenkirchen, Germany

  10. A Fingerprint Pattern of Supports for Teachers' Designing of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard; Sagy, Ornit; Kali, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Teachers often find themselves in a position in which they need to adapt technology-enhanced materials to meet the needs of their students. As new technologies--especially those not specifically designed for learning--find their way into schools, teachers need to be able to design learning experiences that use these new technologies in their local…

  11. LaaN: Convergence of Knowledge Management and Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatti, M. A.; Schroeder, U.; Jarke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) and Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) have attracted attention over the past two decades and are meanwhile considered as important means to increase individual and organizational performance. There is, however, a wide agreement that traditional KM and TEL models have failed to cope with the fast-paced change and critical…

  12. A mixed methods study of foreign language teachers implementing technology-enhanced multimedia instructio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Ketsman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology-enhanced multimedia instruction offers benefits for foreign language learners. Despite having much potential, technology itself is neither effective or nor effective, but teachers play a key role in determining its effectiveness because they are in charge of making instructional decisions and choose whether and how to use technology. This article fills a gap in the literature by reporting findings of a mixed methods study of technology- enhanced multimedia instruction in middle and high school foreign language classrooms. Convergent parallel mixed methods design was applied in this study and data was collected through quantitative survey and qualitative semi-structured interviews with teachers. Results from the study indicated a significant positive correlation between variables that contribute to the use of technology-enhanced multimedia instruction in foreign language classrooms and described effective technology-enhanced multimedia practices. The findings of the study have implications for teachers, administrators and faculty of teacher preparation programs as well as state teacher education policy makers.

  13. The potential relevance of cognitive neuroscience for the development and use of technology-enhanced learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating

  14. Effect of Technology Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on Students' Understanding of Buoyant Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of technology enhanced conceptual change texts on elementary school students' understanding of buoyant force was investigated. The conceptual change texts (written forms) used in this study are proven for effectiveness and are enriched by using technology support in this study. These texts were tried out on two groups. A…

  15. Teachers as Participatory Designers: Two Case Studies with Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cober, Rebecca; Tan, Esther; Slotta, Jim; So, Hyo-Jeong; Könings, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are not typically involved as participatory designers in the design of technology-enhanced learning environments. As they have unique and valuable perspectives on the role of technology in education, it is of utmost importance to engage them in a participatory design process. Adopting a case study methodology, we aim to reveal in what…

  16. Technology Enhanced Learning Environments for Closing the Gap in Student Achievement between Regions: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Hasan; Delialioglu, Omer; Dennis, Alan; Duffy, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Student achievement gap between urban and suburban regions are a major issue in U.S. schools. Technology enhanced learning environments that support teaching and learning process with advanced technology may close this achievement gap. This paper examines the impact of student and school factors with an emphasis on schools' geographic location on…

  17. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  18. Technology-Enhanced Storytelling Stimulating Parent-Child Interaction and Preschool Children's Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepe, R. C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a story structure and real-time visual, auditory and…

  19. Technology-Enhanced Pedagogical Framework for Collaborative Creativity: Analyses of Students' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifarré, Manoli; Martí, Laura; Cujba, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of a technology-enhanced pedagogical framework on collaborative creativity processes. The pedagogical framework is built on socio-cultural theory which conceptualizes creativity as a social activity based on intersubjectivity and dialogical interactions. Dialogue becomes an instrument for collaborative creativity…

  20. Cui Bono? On the Relative Merits of Technology-Enhanced Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhnenko, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    This article provides evidence from a 4-year longitudinal study on the comparative use of illustrative video podcasts during Economic Geography lectures vis-à-vis traditional educational methods in order to guide pedagogic practice and future research on the relative merits of technology-enhanced learning in higher education. Key benefits derived…

  1. Often overlooked: formative evaluation in the development of ScienceComics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Weitkamp

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Formative evaluation should play a key role in the development of a science communication project or initiative. Such research is vital to understanding the needs and interests of the audience or participants; meeting these needs and interests helps ensure the project’s success. However, there can be a temptation to plough ahead without undertaking adequate formative evaluation. Using ScienceComics (www.sciencecomics.uwe.ac.uk as a case study, this article explores both the challenges and benefits of using formative evaluation to guide project development. It focuses on the actors involved in the formative stages and the impacts these actors had on the final outputs. This evidence is used to develop practical guidance on integrating formative evaluation right from the start.

  2. A formative evaluation of a pay-for-performance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Pay-for-performance (PFP systems emerged during the 1980s as performance improvement tools. However, research findings have shown contradictory evidence as to whether these systems motivate employees to improve their performance. Research purpose: The main aim of this evaluation was to assess whether a PFP system, which a South African university introduced for administrative employees, improved their performance. A secondary aim was to examine whether the university implemented the system as it intended to.Motivation for the evaluation: The motivation for this evaluation was to add to the social science literature on the effectiveness of PFP systems. There are many contradictions in the literature and further exploration of whether these systems deliver their intended outcomes seemed overdue.Research design, approach and method: The evaluators used a descriptive design. They administered a customised questionnaire, to which 391 university staff members responded. Of these, 129 were line managers and 262 were administrative staff.Main findings: The administrative staff, whose working lives the PFP system affected, thought that it did not improve their performance. Both line managers and administrative staff indicated that the pay aspect of the system did not differentiate between poor and excellent performance.Practical/managerial implications: The evaluators made practical recommendations for improving the implementation of the system.Contribution/value-add: This evaluation contributed to the social science literature on the effectiveness of PFP systems by showing that poor implementation rather than poor design often lies at the root of a system that does not deliver its intended outcomes.

  3. Learning English Electronically: Formative Evaluation in ESL Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.

    Learning English Electronically (LEE), a computer software package designed for adult English as a Second Language (ESL) students enrolled in intermediate level community college ESL classes, was evaluated at Glendale Community College in Glendale, Arizona to assess student and teacher attitudes toward the program. LEE consists of 43 lessons…

  4. Situated Research Design and Methodological Choices in Formative Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…

  5. Adoption? Adaptation? Evaluating the Formation of Educational Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Megan; Hauser, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Sociologists have long used educational expectations to understand the complex mental processes underlying individuals' educational decision making. Yet, little research evaluates how students actually formulate their educational expectations. Status attainment theory asserts that students adopt their educational expectations early based on family…

  6. Situated Research Design and Methodological Choices in Formative Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…

  7. Histological evaluation of corneal scar formation in pseudophakic bullous keratopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate histological changes in the corneal stroma in pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (28 eyes with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy underwent therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty at Shandong Eye Institute between January 2006 and November 2011. The patients were divided into two groups according to the duration of bullous keratopathy (1.0 year group, and three buttons from enucleated eyes with choroidal melanoma served as a control. In vivo confocal microscopy examination, hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome stain and Van Gieson staining were used for microscopic examination. The histological evaluation and scoring of the buttons for morphological changes, including the degree of stromal scars, neovascularization and inflammatory cells within the corneal buttons, were compared. To study the underlying mechanism, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF and TGF-β immunohistochemistry were performed. RESULTS: Confocal microscopy examination and histological evaluation and scoring of the buttons showed that compared with the 1.0 year group (P1.0 year group. CONCLUSIONS: During the progression of pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, stromal scars occurred more often in the patients that had a longer duration of disease. Cytokines such as CTGF and TGF-β1 may play a role in this pathological process and deserve further investigation.

  8. Development of a Scale for Evaluating the Pedagogical Formation Program Implemented with Turkish Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiguzel, Oktay Cem

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to develop a scale to evaluate the Pedagogical Formation Program implemented at a Turkish state university. Participants were 221 prospective teachers enrolled in the Pedagogical Formation Program in the 2010-2011 academic year. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the scale items which revealed four factors…

  9. Collaborative Falls Prevention: Interprofessional Team Formation, Implementation, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasater, Kathie; Cotrell, Victoria; McKenzie, Glenise; Simonson, William; Morgove, Megan W; Long, Emily E; Eckstrom, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    As health care rapidly evolves to promote person-centered care, evidence-based practice, and team-structured environments, nurses must lead interprofessional (IP) teams to collaborate for optimal health of the populations and more cost-effective health care. Four professions-nursing, medicine, social work, and pharmacy-formed a teaching team to address fall prevention among older adults in Oregon using an IP approach. The teaching team developed training sessions that included interactive, evidence-based sessions, followed by individualized team coaching. This article describes how the IP teaching team came together to use a unique cross-training approach to teach each other. They then taught and coached IP teams from a variety of community practice settings to foster their integration of team-based falls-prevention strategies into practice. After coaching 25 teams for a year each, the authors present the lessons learned from the teaching team's formation and experiences, as well as feedback from practice team participants that can provide direction for other IP teams. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(12):545-550.

  10. Web-based support for constructing competence maps: Design and formative evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, Angela; Martens, Rob; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Stoof, A., Martens, R. L., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2007). Web-based support for constructing competence maps: Design and formative evaluation. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 55(4), 347-368.

  11. Web-based support for constructing competence maps: Design and formative evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, Angela; Martens, Rob; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Stoof, A., Martens, R. L., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2007). Web-based support for constructing competence maps: Design and formative evaluation. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 55(4), 347-368.

  12. Towards App-based Formative Feedback to Support Summarizing Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Boshuizen, Els

    2013-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Kester, L., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2013, 18 September). Towards App‐based Formative Feedback to Support Summarizing Skills. Presentation given at ECTEL 2013: Workshop on Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA), Paphos, Cyprus.

  13. Formative Evaluation des mobilen Classroom-Response-Systems SMILE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bezug nehmend auf das Hauptziel von Classroom-Response-Systems (CRS) – der Förderung der Interaktion in Massenlehrveranstaltungen – wird im vorliegenden Beitrag die Evaluation eines mobilen CRS namens SMILE dargestellt und diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Funktionalitäten der SMILE-App – Live-Feedback, Quizfragen und Question&Answer – von den Studierenden der Pilotvorlesung unterschiedlich häufig genutzt wurden. Darüber hinaus wurden die Akzeptanz der Studierenden gegenüber dem Ein...

  14. Student Readiness for Technology Enhanced History Education in Turkish High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Turan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether the Turkish high school social sciences major students would feel adequate and fit in atechnology-enhanced educational environment, particularly in history classrooms. To this extent, this study investigated highschool students’ level of proficiency in technology-use and their attitudes toward the use of educational technologies inclassrooms. The data for this study was collected using Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (LSI Version-3 and a 27-item TechnologyQuestionnaire. The results revealed that from the point of proficiency and attitude Turkish high school social sciences majorstudents have the essential technology skills and knowledge to feel adequate in a technology-enhanced learning environment.They also have positive attitudes toward use of educational technologies in history classrooms. Therefore they seem to beready for technology-enhanced instruction.

  15. Infusing informatics into interprofessional education: the iTEAM (Interprofessional Technology Enhanced Advanced practice Model) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Diane J; Barton, Amy J; Knapfel, Sarah; Moore, Gina; Trinkley, Katy

    2014-01-01

    The iTEAM goal is to prepare advanced practice nurses, physicians and pharmacists with the interprofessional (IP) core competencies (informatics, patient centric, quality-focused, evidence based care) to provide technology enhanced collaborative care by: offering technology enhanced learning opportunities through a required informatics course, advanced practice courses (team based experiences with both standardized and virtual patients) and team based clinical experiences including e-health experiences. The innovative features of iTEAM project will be achieved through use of social media strategies, a web accessible Electronic Health Records (EHRs) system, a Virtual Clinic/Hospital in Second Life, various e-health applications including traditional telehealth tools and consumer oriented tools such as patient portals, social media consumer groups and mobile health (m-health) applications for health and wellness functions. It builds upon the schools' rich history of IP education and includes clinical partners, such as the VA and other clinical sites focused on care for underserved patient populations.

  16. Technology Enhanced Learning for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Cerebral Paralysis: The MAS Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Paniagua-Martín, Fernando; García-Crespo, Ángel; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén

    Education for students with disabilities now takes place in a wide range of settings, thus, including a wider range of assistive tools. As a result of this, one of the most interesting application domains of technology enhanced learning is related to the adoption of learning technologies and designs for people with disabilities. Following this unstoppable trend, this paper presents MAS, a software platform aimed to help people with severe intellectual disabilities and cerebral paralysis in their learning processes. MAS, as a technology enhanced learning platform, provides several tools that supports learning and monitoring for people with special needs, including adaptative games, data processing and monitoring tools. Installed in a special needs education institution in Madrid, Spain, MAS provides special educators with a tool that improved students education processes.

  17. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  18. Linking Emotional Intelligence To Achieve 
Technology Enhanced Learning In Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    KRUGER, Janette; A. Seugnet BLIIGNAUT

    2015-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) increasingly use technology-enhanced learning (TEL) environments (e.g. blended learning and e-learning) to improve student throughput and retention rates. As the demand for TEL courses increases, expectations rise for faculty to meet the challenge of using TEL effectively. The promises that TEL holds have not yet materialized, as not enough faculty master the skills and knowledge to integrate TEL into their teaching and learning. The role of emotional i...

  19. Creating an Information Literacy Badges Program in Blackboard: A Formative Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunon, Johanna; Ramirez, Laura Lucio; Ryckman, Brian; Campbell, Loy; Mlinar, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    A formative program evaluation using Stufflebeam's (2010) Context, Input, Process, Product (CIPP) model was conducted to assess the use of digital badges for tracking basic library instructional skills across academic programs at Nova Southeastern University. Based on the evaluation of pilot library modules and Blackboard Learn's badges…

  20. Information Literacy Follow-Through: Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Information Evaluation Skills through Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Sara Robertson; Fry, Sara Winstead; Ruppel, Margie

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into preservice teachers' information evaluation skills at a large university suggests that formative assessment can improve student achievement. Preservice teachers were asked to apply information evaluation skills in the areas of currency, relevancy, authority, accuracy, and purpose. The study used quantitative methods to assess…

  1. Iterative Design and Classroom Evaluation of Automated Formative Feedback for Improving Peer Feedback Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy; Xiong, Wenting; Litman, Diane

    2017-01-01

    A peer-review system that automatically evaluates and provides formative feedback on free-text feedback comments of students was iteratively designed and evaluated in college and high-school classrooms. Classroom assignments required students to write paper drafts and submit them to a peer-review system. When student peers later submitted feedback…

  2. Creating an Information Literacy Badges Program in Blackboard: A Formative Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunon, Johanna; Ramirez, Laura Lucio; Ryckman, Brian; Campbell, Loy; Mlinar, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    A formative program evaluation using Stufflebeam's (2010) Context, Input, Process, Product (CIPP) model was conducted to assess the use of digital badges for tracking basic library instructional skills across academic programs at Nova Southeastern University. Based on the evaluation of pilot library modules and Blackboard Learn's badges…

  3. Formative Evaluation of Computer-Based Training for a University Financial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kathryn M.; Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Sullivan, Howard J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a formative evaluation of a one-day introductory computer-based training course for university employees using a new online financial and purchasing system. Evaluated the effectiveness of the training, identified appropriate revisions that were incorporated into the training program, and examined learner attitudes toward the course.…

  4. Subjective Quality Information: Effects of Patient Experience Outcomes and Display Formats on Evaluation and Choice Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Martin; Renner, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of subjective quality information in the form of aggregate patient experience outcomes on respondent evaluation and intended choice of hospitals. We compared clinical performance-based quality measures (i.e., wound infection rates) with participant evaluations and choice intentions when they were additionally provided with subjective quality information (i.e., patient experience outcomes in different display formats). Results suggest that patient experience outcomes significantly affected the evaluations and choice intentions. Additionally, we found significant effects of subjective information display formats. Limitations, directions for future research, and implications for publishing subjective quality information in health care markets are discussed.

  5. 'Translational formative evaluation': critical in up-scaling public health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Phongsavan, Philayrath; King, Lesley; Develin, Elizabeth; Milat, Andrew J; Eggins, Dianne; King, Elizabeth; Smith, Joanne; Bauman, Adrian E

    2014-03-01

    The process of generating evidence-based public health interventions is understood to include steps that define the issue, generate and test solutions in controlled settings, replicate and then disseminate more widely. However, to date models have not considered the types and scale of formative evaluation tasks that are needed to up-scale interventions, from efficacy to population-wide dissemination in the real world. In this paper, we propose that an additional stage of 'translational formative evaluation' is necessary for the translation of effectiveness evidence into wide-scale public health practice. We illustrate the utility of translational formative evaluation, through a case study of the Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service(®) (GHS), a population-based telephone service designed to assist adults change lifestyle-related behaviours. The additional translational formative evaluation steps comprised synthesis of efficacy studies, qualitative research with the wider target audience, environmental analysis and stakeholder consultation. They produced precise recommendations to refine GHS design and implementation. Translational formative evaluation is a necessary intermediate step, following efficacy studies and a precursor to population-wide implementation of public health programmes.

  6. A Formative Program Evaluation of Electronic Clinical Tracking System Documentation to Meet National Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynette S; Branstetter, M Laurie

    2016-09-01

    Electronic clinical tracking systems are used in many educational institutions of higher learning to document advanced practice registered nursing students' clinical experiences. Students' clinical experiences are constructed according to the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties core competencies. These competencies form a basis for evaluation of advanced practice registered nursing programs. However, no previous studies have evaluated the use of electronic clinical tracking systems to validate students' clinical experiences in meeting national core competencies. Medatrax, an electronic clinical tracking system, is evaluated using a formative program evaluation approach to determine if students' clinical documentations meet Family/Across the Lifespan Nurse Practitioner Competencies in a midsouthern family nurse practitioner program. This formative program evaluation supports the use of an electronic clinical tracking system in facilitating accreditation and program outcome goals. The significance of this study is that it provides novel evidence to support the use of an electronic clinical tracking system to assist a midsouthern school of nursing in meeting national core competencies.

  7. PROPOSITION OF A SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION OF LEARNING FOR MANAGERS FORMATION BASED ON MANAGERIAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara da Silva Simões

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Managers are the outcomes of production systems rationality designed. The manager as outcome is a mix of knowledge, skills and behavior pattern whose utility is directly proportional to the consistency of your professional formation, just the production systems rationality designed. Thus, this paper aims to present a systematic evaluation of learning based on managerial process functions: planning, organization, directing and control. It consist of ten steps: definition of knowledge to be evaluate; definition of skills to be evaluate; choosing of test framework; writing of questions; definition of test solution norms; evaluation pre-test; testing; organization of data; evaluation of results; and analyzing the causes of failure and replanning. The results show that manager formation process can be optimized if higher education institutions use the system in accordance with the course objectives.

  8. Effect of problem solving support and cognitive style on idea generation: Implications for Technology-Enhanced-Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., & Kirschner, P. (2007). Effect of problem solving support and cognitive style on idea generation: Implications for Technology-Enhanced-Learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(1), 49-63.

  9. Making Sense of Technologically Enhanced Learning in Context: A Research Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon; Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2006-01-01

    and from a micro analytical or ‘inside out’ perspective of individual sense-making in learning situations. As a framework we will be using Sense-Making methodology and a model for Causal Layered Analysis. Our area of attention will be limited to the ‘remediated classroom’ of constructivist net based...... university education. Problematizing some common assumptions about technologically enhanced learning the authors define ten questions that may serve as the basis for a research agenda meant to help us understand why the many visions and ideals of the online or remediated classroom are not more widely...

  10. Technology Enhanced Learning e didattica universitaria: i diversi approcci e i motivi della loro scelta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Trentin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un’analisi su come si orientano i docenti universitari nella scelta di Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL. Vengono inoltro proposte alcuni suggerimenti utili su come orientarsi. La discussione prende in esame una serie di iniziative presso l’Universita’ di Torino tese a convogliare competenze metodologiche, tecnologiche e risorse economiche a favore sia di quei docenti gia’ attivi nell’uso didattico delle TEL sia della diffusione culturale e di competenze fra coloro invece che non avevano ancora mai avuto occasione di cimentarsi nel loro uso.

  11. Using technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning for student comprehension and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-05-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly divided into two groups, participated in this study and provided data through questionnaires issued before and after the experiment. The results, obtained through analyses of variance and structural equation modelling, reveal that technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning improves students' comprehension and academic performance.

  12. eLearning or technology enhanced learning in medical education-Hope, not hype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Poh Sun

    2016-09-01

    This Personal View elaborates on my strong conviction that the excitement and positive feelings that many of us have for eLearning or Technology enhanced learning (TeL) is well founded, and will argue why our hopes are justified, and not misplaced. In a nutshell, I believe that eLearning or TeL is a significant advance from previous generations of educational innovation, and offers benefits for students, educators and administrators; by synergistically combining the capabilities of digital content, the Internet, and mobile technology, supported by software and applications or "Apps".

  13. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhashiro, A., E-mail: A.Shakhashiro@iaea.or [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Sansone, U. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Wershofen, H. [Environmental Radioactivity, PTP, Braunschweig (Germany); Bollhoefer, A. [Environmental Radioactivity, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Darwin (Australia); Kim, C.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kim, C.S. [Department of Environmental Radioactivity Assessment, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon, Republic of Korea (Former collaborator) (Korea, Republic of); Kis-Benedek, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Korun, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lee, S.H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tarjan, S. [Central Radiological Laboratory, Hungarian Agricultural Authority, Budapest (Hungary); Al-Masri, M.S. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2011-01-15

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  14. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhashiro, A; Sansone, U; Wershofen, H; Bollhöfer, A; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Kis-Benedek, G; Korun, M; Moune, M; Lee, S H; Tarjan, S; Al-Masri, M S

    2011-01-01

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  15. Evidence-Based Principles for Using Technology-Enhanced Learning in the Continuing Professional Development of Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M; Baur, Louise; Barrett, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, health professional training involves the use of educational technologies through what is broadly termed "Technology-Enhanced Learning" (TEL). TEL includes hardware, such as computers and mobile devices, and software, such as software applications (apps), learning management systems, and discussion boards. For many years, TEL has formed an integral part of health professional programs and is growing in acceptance, if not expectation, in postgraduate training and continuing education. TEL generally aims to be flexible, engaging, learner focused and interactive, and may involve collaboration and communication. It offers many benefits for learning and teaching, whether used on its own or in conjunction with face-to-face teaching through blended learning. The ubiquity of mobile devices in clinical settings means TEL is ideal for busy clinicians, both as learners and teachers. TEL enables participants to learn at a time and place that is convenient to them, so learners living in geographically dispersed locations can access standardized courses. To realize these potential benefits, we recommend that those developing TEL programs for health professionals take a systematic approach to planning, development, implementation, and evaluation. To that end, we propose 10 principles: clarify purpose and conduct a needs assessment; allocate adequate time and technology; incorporate proven approaches to improve learning; consider the need for a skills component; enable interaction between learners and with others; create different resources for different groups; pilot before implementing; incorporate measures to retain learners; provide opportunities for revision to aid retention; and evaluate learning outcomes, not just satisfaction.

  16. Evaluation and prevention of formation damage in offshore sandstone reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shenglai; Sheng Zhichao; Liu Wenhui; Song Zhixue; Wu Ming; Zhang Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in water injectivity would be harmful to the waterflood development of offshore sandstone oil reservoirs. In this paper the magnitude of formation damage during water injection was evaluated by analyzing the performance of water injection in the Bohai offshore oilfield, China. Two parameters, permeability reduction and rate of wellhead pressure rise, were proposed to evaluate the formation damage around injection wells. The pressure performance curve could be divided into three stages with different characteristics. Analysis of field data shows that formation damage caused by water injection was severe in some wells in the Bohai offshore oilfield, China. In the laboratory, the content of clay minerals in reservoir rock was analyzed and sensitivity tests (including sensitivity to water,flow rate, alkali, salt and acid) were also conducted. Experimental results show that the reservoir had a strong to medium sensitivity to water (i.e. clay swelling) and a strong to medium sensitivity to flow rate,which may cause formation damage. For formation damage prevention, three injection schemes of clay stabilizer (CS) were studied, i.e. continuous injection of low concentration CS (Ci), slug injection of high concentration CS (SI), and slug injection of high concentration CS followed by continuous injection of low concentration CS (SI-CI). Core flooding experiments show that SI-CI is an effective scheme to prevent formation damage and is recommended for the sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bohai offshore oilfield during water injection.

  17. Negotiating Content with Learners Using Technology Enhanced Teaching and Learning Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines issues around learning ‘content’ and its place in the new digital learning culture. We focus on the increasing demands of digital learners for content that is relevant and the challenges this poses if educators are to stay relevant to them. We say ‘relevance’ is best achieved when content is negotiated with learners in collaboration with instructors. We describe strategies in which technology enhanced teaching and learning solutions have enabled learners to negotiate and create digitised learning content that is educationally, culturally and socially relevant. We cite two case studies that exemplify this approach: a trial of negotiated content with primary school aged digital learners at Brisbane School of Distance Education (BSDE, Australia, and the content decision-making processes used for the development of e-learning courses for hearing health professionals and Auditory-Verbal Therapy at Hear and Say WorldWide Brisbane, Australia. We focus on the changing demands and skill sets of digital learners, their learning managers and subject matter experts, and the use of technology enhanced teaching and learning solutions as the negotiating tool in the development of digital content that is academically rigorous and also learner friendly.

  18. TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED TEACHING: A REVOLUTIONARY APPROACH TO TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberth Alberth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The online course offerings have grown exponentially globally since the turn of the 21st century - be they as a primary mode of instruction or as a supplement to traditional face-to-face classroom instruction, and this phenomenon is most noticeable in higher education. More recently, the new technology has also been integrated into the English as a Foreign Language,henceforth called EFL, classrooms. This article argues that the notion of technology-enhanced language learning is not just an intriguing idea – it is a necessity, for it has a great potential to offer in facilitating the development of English language proficiency of EFL learners through computer-mediated communication. Additionally, it contends that the new technology can potentially address most, if not all, of the shortcomings inherent to the EFL classroom including, but not limited to, lack of exposure to the target language, lack of practice, and lack of learning resources. Theoretical implications of technology-enhanced language teaching and learning will also be explored.

  19. Data formats and procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garber, D.; Dunford, C.; Pearlstein, S.

    1975-10-01

    This report describes the philosophy of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) and the data formats and procedures that have been developed for it. The ENDF system was designed for the storage and retrieval of the evaluated nuclear data that are required for neutronics, photonics and decay heat calculations. This system is composed of several parts that include a series of data processing codes and neutron and photon cross section nuclear structure libraries.

  20. MARKETING STRATEGY OF THE UNIVERSITY: FORMATION AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION REALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia К. Shemetova

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at developing an algorithm of formation of university’s marketing strategy and the development of evaluating methods of its effectiveness realization. Despite the competitive expansion of the educational services market and the transition to a system of university self-financing, researchers have not paid due attention to the process of developing the marketing strategy of the university and the evaluation of its effectiveness yet. Methods. The applied methods include the m...

  1. Student Performance and Attitudes under Formative Evaluation by Teacher, Self and Peer Evaluators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Gamze; Sullivan, Howard

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of teacher, self and peer evaluation on preservice teachers' performance, knowledge and attitudes. Earlier research by the same authors revealed that students made significant improvements in their lesson plans under all three of these conditions, but the teacher-evaluation improved significantly more than the…

  2. Clinical Evaluation of Baccalaureate Nursing Students Using SBAR Format: Faculty versus Self Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saied, Hala; James, Joemol; Singh, Evangelin Jeya; Al Humaied, Lulawah

    2016-01-01

    Clinical training is of paramount importance in nursing education and clinical evaluation is one of the most challenging responsibilities of nursing faculty. The use of objective tools and criteria and involvement of the students in the evaluation process are some techniques to facilitate quality learning in the clinical setting. Aim: The aim of…

  3. An integrated evaluation of formation inhomogeneity, accounting for the field ''trend''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultanov, C.A.; Akhmodov, A.M.; Allakhverdieva, L.I.

    1979-01-01

    It is recommended that the degree of characteristic variation in the geological parameters by area be accounted for using the ''trend'' characteristic when evaluating the geological inhomogeneity of formations; this characteristic denotes any systematic variations which are noted in the diagram of the target under study. A method for solving these problems is proposed. A problem is solved using a sample study of the ruggedness factor of several beds in the 16th formation and the series of the 15th formation in the Starii field and the Bukhti Ilch field in Bibi-Eibat. The ''regression analysis'' program was used in drafting these models; this program was developed at the computer center of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. A multiple correlation coefficient for square-law models was used to evaluate the ''trend''.

  4. Formative Evaluation of a Nutritional Marketing Project in City-Center Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Andree; Renaud, Lise

    1992-01-01

    Formative evaluation of a community health project providing and promoting low-fat foods in five restaurants in Montreal (Canada) shows that restaurateurs are willing to collaborate in project implementation but not in training waiters and that the project did not cause an increase in market demand for low-fat menu offerings. (SLD)

  5. Heuristic and Formative Evaluation: A Case Study Illustrator of a New Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Chin, Kevin; Luppicini, Rocci J.

    As the value of media-delivered information is increasingly emphasized as a powerful instructional tool, user knowledge gains are being more frequently investigated. Formative evaluation techniques that assess learning are often employed. While it is important to appraise this aspect of an instructional program or Web site, it is also necessary to…

  6. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Flipped Format General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Gabriela C.; SturtevantHannah G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that active problem-solving in a collaborative environment supports more effective learning than the traditional lecture approach. In this study, a flipped classroom format was implemented and evaluated in the chemistry majors' sequence at Purdue University over a period of three years. What was formerly lecture…

  7. Formative Evaluation of the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership Program. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the report on the formative evaluation of the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership (ASEP) program conducted by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC), covering the period from November 2003 to November 2006. The report is organized into four sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the ASEP program…

  8. Assessment in Finland: A Scholarly Reflection on One Country's Use of Formative, Summative, and Evaluative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Katie A.

    2012-01-01

    Finland's high test scores have prompted international comparisons of educational policy. This article explores the use of assessment in Finland, particularly the intended use of student assessment and evaluation of schools as described in the National Curriculum. This article explores Finnish educational policy through the lens of formative and…

  9. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Flipped Format General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Gabriela C.; SturtevantHannah G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that active problem-solving in a collaborative environment supports more effective learning than the traditional lecture approach. In this study, a flipped classroom format was implemented and evaluated in the chemistry majors' sequence at Purdue University over a period of three years. What was formerly lecture…

  10. Formative Evaluation of the Intel[R] Design and Discovery Curriculum Report. CCT Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Katie McMillan; Keane, Julie Thompson; Meade, Terri; Nudell, Hannah

    2004-01-01

    Between May 2003 and January 2004, Education Development Center's Center for Children and Technology (CCT) undertook a formative evaluation of Design and Discovery, a hands-on, project-based design and engineering curriculum being disseminated as part of the Intel Innovation in Education initiatives. The Design and Discovery curriculum invites 11-…

  11. Formative Evaluation of the Intel[R] Innovation in Education Institutes. Summary Report. CCT Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Julie Thompson; Keisch, Deborah; Culp, Katie McMillan

    2004-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2003, Education Development Center's Center for Children and Technology (CCT) undertook a formative evaluation of the Intel Innovation in Education institutes. The institutes are one- to two-and-a-half day district-level trainings intended to introduce professional development providers to the online resources and…

  12. Formative Evaluation of the Intel Seeing Reason Seminars (U.S.). Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Dara; Culp, Katie McMillan

    2004-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2003, Education Development Center's Center for Children and Technology (CCT) undertook a formative evaluation of Seeing Reason: Mindful Mapping of Cause & Effect, an Intel Teach to the Future professional development seminar. Intel's seminars are designed to introduce teachers to software tools that they can use to…

  13. A Formative Evaluation of the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk Coaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Smith, Burgess; Hawkey, Kyle R.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Borden, Lynne M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe the results of a formative evaluation of a coaching model designed to support recipients of funding through the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) initiative. Results indicate that CYFAR coaches draw from a variety of types of coaching and that CYFAR principle investigators (PIs) are generally satisfied with…

  14. Making Online Products More Tangible: The Effect of Product Presentation Formats on Product Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Tibert; Vonkeman, Charlotte; van Dolen, Willemijn

    2016-07-01

    Although several studies have looked at the effects of online product presentations on consumer decision making, no study thus far has considered a potential key factor in online product evaluations: tangibility. The present study aims at filling this gap by developing and testing a model that relates different online product presentation formats to the three-dimensional concept of product tangibility. We test how the three tangibility dimensions influence perceived diagnosticity and, eventually, online purchase intentions. A between-subjects lab experiment (n = 366) was used to test the hypothesized effects of three common online product presentation formats (pictures vs. 360 spin rotation vs. virtual mirror). The results showed that out of these formats, virtual mirrors were superior in providing a sense of product tangibility, followed by the 360-spin rotation format and static pictures. Furthermore, in terms of predictive validity, two of the three tangibility dimensions significantly increased perceived diagnosticity, which, in turn, positively and strongly affected purchase intentions. Overall, our results add to previous works studying the relationships between online product presentation formats and consumer decision making. Also, they hold value for online practitioners by highlighting the potential benefits of applying technologically advanced product presentation formats such as the virtual mirror.

  15. Applying Quantitative Approaches to the Formative Evaluation of Antismoking Campaign Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvanta, Sarah; Gibson, Laura; Forquer, Heather; Shapiro-Luft, Dina; Dean, Lorraine; Freres, Derek; Lerman, Caryn; Mallya, Giridhar; Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Tan, Andy; Cappella, Joseph; Hornik, Robert

    2013-12-01

    This article shares an in-depth summary of a formative evaluation that used quantitative data to inform the development and selection of promotional ads for the antismoking communication component of a social marketing campaign. A foundational survey provided cross-sectional data to identify beliefs about quitting smoking that campaign messages should target, as well as beliefs to avoid. Pretesting draft ads against quantitative indicators of message effectiveness further facilitated the selection and rejection of final campaign ads. Finally, we consider lessons learned from the process of balancing quantitative methods and judgment to make formative decisions about more and less promising persuasive messages for campaigns.

  16. Evaluation of the formation of a junctional DNA nanostructure through annealing curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-02-20

    During the self-assembly of different numbers of oligonucleotides comprising junctional DNA nanostructures, a change in environmental variables (e.g., temperature or salt concentration) has a substantial influence on the final products. Further, distinctive annealing temperatures of oligonucleotides are observed depending on the state of hybridization. Here, we present an evaluation of the annealing characteristics of oligonucleotides for the formation of a simple junctional DNA nanostructure using an annealing curve analysis. This method may be useful for analyzing the formation of complex junctional DNA nanostructures.

  17. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews...

  18. Interaction Design Beyond the Product : Creating Technology-Enhanced Activity Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptelinin, Victor; Bannon, Liam J.

    2012-01-01

    The field of interaction design to date has been predominantly concerned with designing products, that is, devices, systems, and more recently services. A growing body of theoretical and empirical analyses suggests that the scope of interaction design needs to be expanded: An explicit concern...... of the field should include not only helping designers create better products but also helping people themselves create better environments for their work, learning, and leisure activities. In this article we argue that expanding the scope of interaction design beyond products requires a revision of some...... between intrinsic and extrinsic technology-enabled practice transformation, and foreground the need for interaction design research and practice to more directly deal with analysis and construction of technology-enhanced activity spaces. The implications of these notions for the research agenda...

  19. Grand challenges in technology enhanced learning outcomes of the 3rd Alpine Rendez-Vous

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Frank; Sutherland, Rosamund; Zirn, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a key piece of the vision and strategy developed in STELLAR. It sets out a new mid-term agenda by defining Grand Challenges for research and development in technology-enhanced learning. Other than mere technology prizes, STELLAR Grand Challenges deal with problems at the interface of social and technical sciences. They pose problems that can be solved only in interdisciplinary collaboration. The descriptions of the Grand Challenge Problems were sent out to a number of stakeholders from industry, academia, and policy-making who responded with insightful, creative and critical comments bringing in their specific perspectives. This book will inspire everyone interested in TEL and its neighboring disciplines in their future projects. All of the listed problems, first hints with respect to the approach, measurable success indicators and funding sources are outlined. The challenges focus on what noted experts regard as important upcoming, pending, and innovative fields of research, the solution o...

  20. 2nd International Workshop on Evidence-Based Technology Enhanced Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gennari, Rosella; Marenzi, Ivana; Mascio, Tania; Prieta, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Research on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) investigates how information and communication technologies can be designed in order to support pedagogical activities. The Evidence Based Design (EBD) of a system bases its decisions on empirical evidence and effectiveness. The evidence-based TEL workshop (ebTEL) brings together TEL and EBD.   The first edition of ebTEL collected contributions in the area of TEL from computer science, artificial intelligence, evidence-based medicine, educational psychology and pedagogy. Like the previous edition, this second edition, ebTEL’13, wants to be a forum in which TEL researchers and practitioners alike can discuss innovative evidence-based ideas, projects, and lessons related to TEL.   The workshop took place in Salamanca, Spain, on May 22nd-24th 2013.  

  1. Developing technology-enhanced active learning for medical education: challenges, solutions, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Bennett, Thomas; Carrasco, Noel; Brysacz, Stanley; Makin, Inder Raj S; Hutman, Ryan; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-04-01

    Growing up in an era of video games and Web-based applications has primed current medical students to expect rapid, interactive feedback. To address this need, the A.T. Still University-School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (Mesa) has developed and integrated a variety of approaches using technology-enhanced active learning for medical education (TEAL-MEd) into its curriculum. Over the course of 3 years (2010-2013), the authors facilitated more than 80 implementations of games and virtual patient simulations into the education of 550 osteopathic medical students. The authors report on 4 key aspects of the TEAL-MEd initiative, including purpose, portfolio of tools, progress to date regarding challenges and solutions, and future directions. Lessons learned may be of benefit to medical educators at academic and clinical training sites who wish to implement TEAL-MEd activities.

  2. MARKETING STRATEGY OF THE UNIVERSITY: FORMATION AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION REALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia К. Shemetova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at developing an algorithm of formation of university’s marketing strategy and the development of evaluating methods of its effectiveness realization. Despite the competitive expansion of the educational services market and the transition to a system of university self-financing, researchers have not paid due attention to the process of developing the marketing strategy of the university and the evaluation of its effectiveness yet. Methods. The applied methods include the method of general systems theory, and the complex of specialized marketing tools (PEST-, SNWand SWOT-analysis. Results. The algorithm of university’s marketing strategy formation and methodology for its effectiveness assessing is given in five fields: economic, informational, social, integration, and demand stage. The set of criteria is worked out for every field listed above. The author has developed a formula for determining the total indicator or general index of the effectiveness of university’s marketing strategy. Scientific novelty. The prospects of using the algorithm of formation of university’s marketing strategy and the system of monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of marketing in higher vocational education was proved and evaluated by the author in the Ural Institute of Management of RANEPA. Practical significance. The research results can be used by the experts in the field of management of the higher educational institutions, and also as teaching materials while preparing the experts in marketing. 

  3. Peer Observation and Evaluation Tool (POET: A Formative Peer Review Supporting Scholarly Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Crabtree

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Peer Observation and Evaluation Tool (POET is a valid and reliable measure developed for formative peer evaluation of pharmacy faculty. The authors replicated a study conducted on the POET in pharmacy in order to report the instrument’s validity and reliability in occupational therapy and to explore its potential as a formative teaching evaluation for occupational therapy educators. To verify item importance, seven participants from the faculty in an occupational therapy department rated each item. To establish inter-rater reliability, the participants evaluated one videotaped 55 min lecture. The POET was reliable with ICC at 0.93. There were high levels of agreement with the importance ratings among the participants with all scales. The POET appears to be a valid and reliable formative measure of teaching. At a time of significant change in the level of occupational therapy education, this measure may be an important support for scholarly teaching in two ways: First, this measure offers several opportunities to document the instructor’s strengths and, second, it offers the instructor suggestions about ways to improve teaching quality. Finally, the POET may facilitate faculty professional growth and development through systematic, strategic, and constructive peer review feedback.

  4. Student Attitudes toward Technology Enhanced History Education: Comparison between Turkish and American Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Turan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Teacher and student attitudes towards the technology enhanced instruction plays a critical role in determining its effectiveness. The purpose of the study is to examine Turkish and American students’ attitudes and thoughts toward the use of educational technologies in history courses, and to compare the results to determine whether there are any differences between the attitudes of Turkish and American student. This study was conducted with 197 American students from Upper Saint Claire High school in Pittsburgh, PA, and 214 Turkish students from Konya High school who volutered for this study. The required data for this study were gathered by a 26-item technology questionnaire, which included 7 multiple-choice questions and 19 Likert scale questions. This questionnaire was developed to gather data on five different areas of interest: (1 demographic information, (2 participants’ computer- and Internet-usage skills, (3 the level of technology used in history classrooms, (4 participants’ attitudes toward technology-enhanced history education, and (5 participants’ attitudes toward history. Most of the Turkish and American students rated themselves as being very well experienced on the eight computer- and Internet-usage skills targeted in this study. But the comparison of the data indicated that American students have higher computer- and Internet-usage skills than Turkish students do, and this difference is statistically significant (p = 0.001. Most of the Turkish and American students showed positive attitudes on using educational technologies in history classrooms. A majority of the Turkish and American students stated that they would be able to focus and learn better if more technological materials were used in classroom activities, and this, in turn, would increase their academic achievements.

  5. Technology-enhanced program for child disruptive behavior disorders: development and pilot randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Parent, Justin; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Gonzalez, Michelle; Anton, Margaret; Newey, Greg A

    2014-01-01

    Early onset disruptive behavior disorders are overrepresented in low-income families; yet these families are less likely to engage in behavioral parent training (BPT) than other groups. This project aimed to develop and pilot test a technology-enhanced version of one evidence-based BPT program, Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC). The aim was to increase engagement of low-income families and, in turn, child behavior outcomes, with potential cost-savings associated with greater treatment efficiency. Low-income families of 3- to 8-year-old children with clinically significant disruptive behaviors were randomized to and completed standard HNC (n = 8) or Technology-Enhanced HNC (TE-HNC; n = 7). On average, caregivers were 37 years old; 87% were female, and 80% worked at least part-time. More than half (53%) of the youth were boys; the average age of the sample was 5.67 years. All families received the standard HNC program; however, TE-HNC also included the following smartphone enhancements: (a) skills video series, (b) brief daily surveys, (c) text message reminders, (d) video recording home practice, and (e) midweek video calls. TE-HNC yielded larger effect sizes than HNC for all engagement outcomes. Both groups yielded clinically significant improvements in disruptive behavior; however, findings suggest that the greater program engagement associated with TE-HNC boosted child treatment outcome. Further evidence for the boost afforded by the technology is revealed in family responses to postassessment interviews. Finally, cost analysis suggests that TE-HNC families also required fewer sessions than HNC families to complete the program, an efficiency that did not compromise family satisfaction. TE-HNC shows promise as an innovative approach to engaging low-income families in BPT with potential cost-savings and, therefore, merits further investigation on a larger scale.

  6. Formation of a Methodological Approach to Evaluating the State of Management of Enterprise Flow Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzobko Iryna P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a methodological approach to evaluating management of the state of enterprise flow processes has been considered. Proceeding from the developed and presented in literary sources theoretical propositions on organization of management of enterprise flow processes, the hypothesis of the study is correlation of quantitative and qualitative evaluations of management effectiveness and formation of the integral index on their basis. The article presents stages of implementation of a methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes, which implies indicating the components, their characteristics and methods of research. The composition of indicators, on the basis of which it is possible to evaluate effectiveness of management of enterprise flow processes, has been determined. Grouping of such indicators based on the flow nature of enterprise processes has been performed. The grouping of indicators is justified by a pairwise determination of canonical correlations between the selected groups (the obtained high correlation coefficients confirmed the author’s systematization of indicators. It is shown that a specificity of the formation of a methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes requires expansion in the direction of aggregation of the results and determination of factors that influence effectiveness of flow processes management. The article carries out such aggregation using the factor analysis. Distribution of a set of objects into different classes according to the results of the cluster analysis has been presented. To obtain an integral estimation of effectiveness of flow processes management, the taxonomic index of a multidimensional object has been built. A peculiarity of the formed methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes is in the matrix correlation of integral indicators calculated on

  7. Evaluation of the Transfer of Permanent Formation: Analysis of an Experience of Workshops on Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Elena; Fabregat, Jaime; Ros, Rosa M.

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of a European project to bring astronomy near to children, several permanent teachers training activities were developed. These actions included workshops with teachers from various stages of the educational system. This paper presents the process and results of the evaluation of that training program. It intends to assess the satisfaction of the participants, as well as their learning and their later transfer of formation to the classroom. Barriers encountered in the transfer of formation, some of them linked to the type of training method chosen and other factors derived from personal and institutional conditions, are outlined. Finally, some guidelines for improving the transfer of scientific formation to the classroom in the future are pointed out.

  8. Evaluation of Slope Assessment System in Predicting Landslides along Roads Underlain by Granitic Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujang B.K. Huat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A slope assessment is to estimate the probability of occurrence and likely severity of landslides in a given area. This study evaluates two existing Slope Assessment Systems (SAS for predicting landslide at the micro level of assessment developed by the Public Works Department of Malaysia, namely the Slope Information Management System (SIMS and the Slope Management and Risk Tracking System (SMART. From the results of this study, it appears that none of the existing SAS is satisfactory for predicting landslide in granitic formation, for various reasons such as the use of hazard score developed from another country and use of data-base derived from different rock formation. A new SAS was developed using nine-parameters equation that was based on the stepwise discriminant analysis. The new SAS appears to show a good capability in predicting landslides in granitic formations.

  9. Evaluation of Formation Damage and Assessment of Well Productivity of Oredo Field, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotara O. Oluwagbenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Formation damage canincurconsiderable cost for remediation and deferred production. Thorough understanding of the formation damage mechanisms, stringent measures for its control and prevention, and effective and efficient treatments are the keys for optimum production strategies for oil and gas fields. WELL 4X was investigated in this study to properly diagnosed and evaluate productivity in OREDO FIELD and Bottom Hole Pressure survey was used from Bottom Hole Pressure analysis in addition to the information of the well production history and reservoir data available to determine and assess the extent of the formation damage in the well. The WELL 4X was stimulated using Acid Foam Diversion Techniques to enhance reservoir productivity and increase economic operations. The stimulation job done on the well showed a peak increase of production from 850 bbl/day to 3200 b/d before it declined to 2150 bbl/day, and finally maintained an average stabilized rate of 2000 bbl/day. It has to be established that the treatment method on WELL 4X using Acid Foam Diversion Techniques and the Bottom Hole Pressure survey conducted on the WELL 4X in OREDO FIELD is found to be efficient in the determination and evaluation of formation damage.

  10. COMPUTER EVALUATION OF SKILLS FORMATION QUALITY IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMPETENCE-BASED APPROACH TO LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalia A. Zhuravleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of effective organization of skills forming as an important part of the competence approach in education, implemented via educational standards of new generation. The solution of the problem suggests using of computer tools to assess the quality of skills formation and abilities based on the proposed model of the problem. This paper proposes an approach to creating an assessing model of the level of skills formation in knowledge management systems based on mathematical modeling methods. Attention is paid to the evaluation strategy and technology of assessment, which is based on the use of rules of fuzzy mathematics. Algorithmic implementation of the proposed model of evaluation of the quality of skills development is shown as well. 

  11. Managing fear in public health campaigns: a theory-based formative evaluation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunyi; Witte, Kim

    2005-10-01

    The HIV/AIDS infection rate of Ethiopia is one of the world's highest. Prevention campaigns should systematically incorporate and respond to at-risk population's existing beliefs, emotions, and perceived barriers in the message design process to effectively promote behavior change. However, guidelines for conducting formative evaluation that are grounded in proven risk communication theory and empirical data analysis techniques are hard to find. This article provides a five-step formative evaluation process that translates theory and research for developing effective messages for behavior change. Guided by the extended parallel process model, the five-step process helps message designers manage public's fear surrounding issues such as HIV/AIDS. An entertainment education project that used the process to design HIV/AIDS prevention messages for Ethiopian urban youth is reported. Data were collected in five urban regions of Ethiopia and analyzed according to the process to develop key messages for a 26-week radio soap opera.

  12. Evaluation of the NCPDP Structured and Codified Sig Format for e-prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hangsheng; Burkhart, Q; Bell, Douglas S

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of the structure and code sets specified in the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs Structured and Codified Sig Format to represent ambulatory electronic prescriptions. We parsed the Sig strings from a sample of 20,161 de-identified ambulatory e-prescriptions into variables representing the fields of the Structured and Codified Sig Format. A stratified random sample of these representations was then reviewed by a group of experts. For codified Sig fields, we attempted to map the actual words used by prescribers to the equivalent terms in the designated terminology. Proportion of prescriptions that the Format could fully represent; proportion of terms used that could be mapped to the designated terminology. The fields defined in the Format could fully represent 95% of Sigs (95% CI 93% to 97%), but ambiguities were identified, particularly in representing multiple-step instructions. The terms used by prescribers could be codified for only 60% of dose delivery methods, 84% of dose forms, 82% of vehicles, 95% of routes, 70% of sites, 33% of administration timings, and 93% of indications. The findings are based on a retrospective sample of ambulatory prescriptions derived mostly from primary care physicians. The fields defined in the Format could represent most of the patient instructions in a large prescription sample, but prior to its mandatory adoption, further work is needed to ensure that potential ambiguities are addressed and that a complete set of terms is available for the codified fields.

  13. Enhancing the impact of groups: an evaluation of two group formats for smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, P; Belcher, M; Stapleton, J

    1985-11-01

    The effects of two different group formats constituting part of an otherwise identical smoking cessation programme were evaluated. Each group format was in use for one full calendar year. One hundred and thirty-two smokers were treated in 14 'therapist-oriented' (T-O) groups run in traditional didactic style and 138 in 14 'group-oriented' (G-O) groups, where the primary emphasis was on group resources (group support, group pressure and spontaneous modelling of coping responses). G-O groups were significantly more successful. The two types of groups did not differ in the number of clients who succeeded in stopping smoking just after the first meeting, i.e. before the difference in group formats could have any impact; but in the G-O groups more of those who failed initially persisted in trying and succeeded later in the course. Independently of the format, larger groups were more successful and in addition there was significant variation between single groups regardless of both format and size. Group processes seem to play an important role in smoking cessation and the way in which a group is structured can affect outcome.

  14. Evaluation of pre-treatments for inhibiting bromate formation during ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    This study compared several pre-treatment methods for inhibiting BrO3- formation during ozonation of tap water, from the DTU campus, including H2O2 addition (perozone), pH-depression, NH4+ and Cl2/NH4+ addition. At the same time, the inhibition of atrazine and carbamazepine removal was evaluated...... for each pre-treatment. The required delivered O3 dose to achieve 90% removal of atrazine in the tap water from the DTU-campus was 3.5 mg/L which produced 130-170 µg/L BrO3-. Perozone did not reduce the required O3 dose for contaminant removal, however it limited BrO3- formation below the drinking water...... limit of 10 μg/L. Depression of solution pH to 6.0, reduced BrO3- formation to half, but it was still well above the water limit. Pre-treatment with NH4+ also reduced BrO3- formation by approximately 50%, though it reduced atrazine degradation to 65%. Pre-treatment with Cl2/NH4+ reduced BrO3- formation...

  15. Evaluation of in vitro glistening formation in hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Thomes BE; Callaghan TA

    2013-01-01

    Brett E Thomes, Thomas A CallaghanAlcon Research Ltd (A Novartis Company), Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: To evaluate the impact of continuous manufacturing process improvements on glistening formation in AcrySof hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) by comparing lenses manufactured in 2003 with lenses manufactured in 2012.Methods: Glistenings were experimentally created as aqueous-filled microvacuoles utilizing an accelerated laboratory method by immersing the lens in water at 45&de...

  16. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part I: utility, technical performance and service provider perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Formative evaluation is conducted in the early stages of system implementation to assess how it works in practice and to identify opportunities for improving technical and process performance. A formative evaluation of a teleneurophysiology service was conducted to examine its technical and sociological dimensions.

  17. Formative evaluation: Developing measures for online family mental health recovery education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rue, Lisa A; Estrada, Samantha; Floren, Michael; MacKinnon, Krista

    2016-04-01

    Families facing mental health challenges have very limited access to ongoing support. A formative evaluation of Families Healing Together (FHT), a new online family mental health recovery program was conducted using five waves (N=108) of data. Exploratory factor analysis of the measures identified as important to the program theory found strong reliability evidence (α=.77-.86) for 6 constructs. A poor response rate (25%) did not allow for valid pre and postoutcome evaluation, however we did have enough information to assess the psychometric properties of the new measures. The new evaluation tool accounted for 34% of the variance in Capacity to Support Family Member, and nearly 50% of the variance in Hopefulness toward Recovery. New programs without existing measures require formative evaluation strategies that accurately describe program activities in order to develop outcome measures sensitive to novel aspects of program components. Most outcome measures are developed for individuals with mental health challenges not family members. These new measures may be beneficial to effectively evaluate programs that promote family recovery and wellness.

  18. Completion evaluation of the Eagle Ford formation with heterogeneous proppant placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, A.; Altman, R.; Oussoltsev, D.; Kanneganti, K.; Xu, J.; Grant, D.; Indriati, S.; Pena, A.; Loayza, M.; Kirkham, B.; Rhein, T. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the major developments of the Eagle Ford shale in Texas, there has been an increasing focus on the optimization of stimulation techniques. Many techniques have already been implemented in order to improve productivity across Eagle Ford. This paper analyzes completion techniques currently in place through the Hawkville field with the goal of determining key parameters and their impact on the well. The paper focuses mainly on channel fracturing based on a heterogeneous proppant placement technique and evaluates it against current slickwater and hybrid stimulation treatments. The evaluation described in the paper was conducted by first collecting data from 51 horizontal wells in the Eagle Ford formation. It then follows through the evaluation completing a normalized production comparison, a productivity index analysis, neural network trained self-organizing maps, and numerical simulations. Through evaluations and comparisons the paper shows that channel fracturing can allow for a significant improvement in production of dry gas wells.

  19. Editorial: Shifting from Technology-Enhanced Learning to Technology-Transformed Learning - Best Papers Selected from the Conference APTEL 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Shing Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the rapid development of computer and communication technologies brings many opportunities for developing innovative learning environments with rich resources. Technology enhanced learning shifted their focus from technology to support factual learning, memorization and the reinforcement of basic skills to stimulate students to engage in meaningful learning and situated learning. With the support of computer and communication technologies, students are able to develop higher-order skills, such as critical thinking and problem-solving skills individually or collaboratively. Technology enhanced learning has become an interdisciplinary issue that attracts researchers from various fields to work together.

  20. Synergistic evaluation of a complex conglomerate reservoir for enhanced oil recovery, Barrancas Formation, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simlote, V.N.; Ebanks, W.J.; Eslinger, E.V.

    1982-09-01

    An Engineering-geological study of the Top Red Conglomerate (TRC) portions of the Barrancas formation, Mendoza area, Argentina, was conducted to evaluate waterflood performance and develop a predictive model for use in evaluating reservoir response to caustic flooding. Initial oil in place of the TRC reservoir was approximately 400 million STB. The field has produced 154 million STB through 1980, and it is being considered for enhanced recovery processes. The TRC has large variations in permeability, owing to its origin as the uppermost part of a thick alluvial fan-braided channel sequence of sediments. Porosity and permeability development in these rocks are governed mainly by the abundance of detrital clay, and are reduced somewhat by calcite and zeolite cements and authigenic clays. Chemically reactive components are potential causes of formation damage by reactions with injected chemicals. A geological model of layering and areal variability in the reservoir was used to guide the application of a black oil simulator to two cross-sections. This simulation of waterflooded performance indicated good vertical sweep efficiency near injection wells but less efficient sweep farther away because of gravity segregation. The relative merits of several enhanced recovery processes were evaluated for recovering the oil left after waterflooding. Caustic flooding appears to be the most feasible; therefore, the chemical reactivity of representative core samples were evaluated. The mineralogy and cation exchange capacity (CEC) results are presented. CEC values were compared with short term caustic consumption measurements.

  1. [Development of evaluation methods for student performance in National Universities: formative assessment and portfolio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Yoshiharu; Arai, Kunizo; Ieiri, Ichiro; Uejima, Etsuko; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2012-01-01

    Formative assessment which refers to frequent, interactive assessments of student progress and understanding is one of the most effective strategies for promoting high student performance and developing students' "learning to learn" skills. Portfolio (personal record of learning) is a useful tool for tracking individual student progress toward learning goals. We conducted the questionnaire survey in 14 National Universities on approach to the formative assessment methods and the use of portfolio in the long-term practice experience (pharmacy clerkship) at community pharmacy and hospital pharmacy which was undergone for the first time in 2010. The finding obtained from our questionnaires implicated that portfolio is useful for sharing information among student, tutorial pharmacist and faculty members. All universities have provided tools for visible assessment of student achievement. However, they are not used enough for feedback on student performance, and formative assessment is not practiced systematically. A reason seems to be differences in understanding of it. In addition to improvement of the tools to support formative assessment, promotion of effective assessment practice will need for systematic evaluation.

  2. Modelling a Complex System: Using Novice-Expert Analysis for Developing an Effective Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to present the design of a technology-enhanced learning environment (Air Pollution Modeling Environment [APoME]) that was informed by a novice-expert analysis and to discuss high school students' development of modelling practices in the learning environment. APoME was designed to help high school students…

  3. Technology Enhanced Learning: Virtual Realities; Concrete Results--Case Study on the Impact of TEL on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Hayat

    2011-01-01

    Technology Enhanced Learning is a feature of 21st century education. Innovations in ICT have provided unbound access to information in support of the learning process (APTEL, 2010; Allert et al, 2002; Baldry et al, 2006; Frustenberg et al, 2001; Sarkis, 2010). LMS has been extensively put to use in universities and educational institutions to…

  4. Presentations and recorded keynotes of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Several

    2007-01-01

    Presentations and recorded keynotes at the 1st European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology-Enhanced Learning, March, 29-30, 2007. Heerlen, The Netherlands: The Open University of the Netherlands. Please see the conference website for more information:

  5. Staff Experience and Attitudes towards Technology-Enhanced Learning Initiatives in One Faculty of Health and Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Further to earlier work carried out by the student union (SU) along with strategic discussions regarding technology-enhanced learning (TEL), this research aimed to identify the attitudes and experience of teaching staff in relation to specific uses of technology in learning and teaching. Data obtained through an online questionnaire (n = 100)…

  6. Exploring Teacher Knowledge and Actions Supporting Technology-Enhanced Teaching in Elementary Schools: Two Approaches by Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figg, Candace; Jamani, Kamini Jaipal

    2011-01-01

    Two approaches to teaching with technology to highlight practice-based teacher knowledge and actions for teaching technologically enhanced lessons are presented. Participants were two elementary pre-service teachers teaching during practicum. Qualitative data sources included verbatim transcripts of participant interviews, field notes of planning…

  7. Presentations and recorded keynotes of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Several

    2007-01-01

    Presentations and recorded keynotes at the 1st European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology-Enhanced Learning, March, 29-30, 2007. Heerlen, The Netherlands: The Open University of the Netherlands. Please see the conference website for more information: http://homer.ou.nl/lsa-workshop0

  8. The Technological Enhancement of Normally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Red Mud due to the Production of Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice O. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of technological enhancement of normally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM in the red mud waste due to the production of alumina in Jamaica. Technological enhancements factors (TEF were determined for the uranium, thorium, actinium series, their progenies, and the nonseries potassium-40 using gamma spectrometry. The study concluded that bauxite production technologically enhances the uranium progenies Th-234, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pa-234 and the thorium-232 progenies Ac-228, Pb-212, and Bi-212 in red mud. The actinium series was technologically enhanced, but K-40 and the thorium daughter, Tl-208, were reduced. The spectrometric comparison of Tl-208 (at 510 keV was unexpected since its other photopeaks at 583 keV, 934 keV, and 968 keV were markedly different. An explanation for this anomaly is discussed. An explanation regarding the process of accumulation and fractionation of organically derived phosphate deposits and potassium-feldspar is offered to explain the spectrometric differences between the alumina product and its waste material, red mud.

  9. Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Swart, Elise K.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of technology-enhanced stories for young children's literacy development when compared to listening to stories in more traditional settings like storybook reading. A small but significant additional benefit of technology was found for story comprehension (g+ = 0.17) and expressive vocabulary (g+ =…

  10. Academic Workload: The Silent Barrier to the Implementation of Technology-Enhanced Learning Strategies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Mary Sarah-Jane; Lodge, Jason Michael

    2015-01-01

    The effect of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) strategies in higher education has arguably been transformative despite the not-insignificant barriers existing in this context. Throughout the discourse very little attention has been paid to those primarily responsible for this implementation--academic teaching staff. This paper aims to highlight…

  11. Mobile Eye Tracking Methodology in Informal E-Learning in Social Groups in Technology-Enhanced Science Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Kharlamov, Nikita; Larsen, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological discussion of the potential and challenges of involving mobile eye tracking technology in studies of knowledge generation and learning in a science centre context. The methodological exploration is based on eye-tracking studies of audience interaction and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health…

  12. Presentations and recorded keynotes of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Several

    2007-01-01

    Presentations and recorded keynotes at the 1st European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology-Enhanced Learning, March, 29-30, 2007. Heerlen, The Netherlands: The Open University of the Netherlands. Please see the conference website for more information: http://homer.ou.nl/lsa-workshop0

  13. Spanish Vocabulary-Bridging Technology-Enhanced Instruction for Young English Language Learners' Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacox, Lindsey; Jackson, Carla Wood

    2014-01-01

    This study examined preschool and kindergarten English language learners (ELLs) attending a migrant summer programme and their vocabulary word learning during both adult-read and technology-enhanced repeated readings. In a within-subject design, 24 ELLs (four to six years old) engaged in repeated readings in a control and a treatment condition. In…

  14. THE RESULTS OF TESTING TO EVALUATE CRYSTAL FORMATION AND SETTLING IN THE COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.

    2009-06-30

    The Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology offers the potential to increase waste loading for High Level Waste (HLW) glasses leading to significant improvements in waste throughput rates compared to the reference Joule Heated Melter (JHM). Prior to implementation of a CCIM in a production facility it is necessary to better understand processing constraints associated with the CCIM. The glass liquidus temperature requirement for processing in the CCIM is an open issue. Testing was conducted to evaluate crystal formation and crystal settling during processing in the CCIM to gain insight into the effects on processing. A high aluminum/high iron content glass composition with known crystal formation tendencies was selected for testing. A continuous melter test was conducted for approximately 51 hours. To evaluate crystal formation, glass samples were obtained from pours and from glass receipt canisters where the glass melt had varying residence time in the melter. Additionally, upon conclusion of the testing, glass samples from the bottom of the melter were obtained to assess the degree of crystal settling. Glass samples were characterized in an attempt to determine quantitative fractions of crystals in the glass matrix. Crystal identity and relative composition were determined using a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Select samples were also analyzed by digesting the glass and determining the composition using inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). There was evidence of crystal formation (primarily spinels) in the melt and during cooling of the collected glass. There was evidence of crystal settling in the melt over the duration of the melter campaign.

  15. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-03-02

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented.

  16. Teaching Science Through the Language of Students in Technology-Enhanced Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Kihyun

    2015-02-01

    This study examines whether and how tapping into students' everyday language in a web-based learning environment can improve all students' science learning in linguistically heterogeneous classrooms. A total of 220 fifth-grade English Language Learners (ELLs) and their non-ELL peers were assigned to either an everyday English approach condition or a textbook approach condition, and completed technology-enhanced instruction focusing on respiration and photosynthesis. Students in the everyday English approach condition were taught the concepts in everyday, conversational English before content-specific scientific terms were introduced, while students in the textbook approach condition were taught the same concepts and vocabulary simultaneously. The results show that the everyday English approach was significantly more effective in helping both ELLs and non-ELL students develop a coherent understanding of abstract concepts related to photosynthesis and respiration. Students in the everyday English approach condition were also better able to link content-specific terms to their understanding of the concepts. These findings show the potential advantage of using students' everyday English as a resource to make science more accessible to linguistically diverse students in mainstream classrooms. By integrating students' everyday language in science instruction, it is possible for all students including ELLs to acquire both the content and language of science.

  17. Is it necessary to raise awareness about technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Bogusław

    2009-10-01

    Since radiation risks are usually considered to be related to nuclear energy, the majority of research on radiation protection has focused on artificial radionuclides in radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel or global fallout caused by A-bomb tests and nuclear power plant failures. Far less attention has been paid to the radiation risk caused by exposure to ionizing radiation originating from natural radioactivity enhanced due to human activity, despite the fact that technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials are common in many branches of the non-nuclear industry. They differ significantly from "classical" nuclear materials and usually look like other industrial waste. The derived radiation risk is usually associated with risk caused by other pollutants and can not be controlled by applying rules designed for pure radioactive waste. Existing data have pointed out a strong need to take into account the non-nuclear industry where materials containing enhanced natural radioactivity occur as a special case of radiation risk and enclose them in the frame of the formal control. But up to now there are no reasonable and clear regulations in this matter. As a result, the non-nuclear industries of concern are not aware of problems connected with natural radioactivity or they would expect negative consequences in the case of implementing radiation protection measures. The modification of widely comprehended environmental legislation with requirements taken from radiation protection seems to be the first step to solve this problem and raise awareness about enhanced natural radioactivity for all stakeholders of concern.

  18. LINKING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TO ACHIEVE TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette KRUGER

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions (HEIs increasingly use technology-enhanced learning (TEL environments (e.g. blended learning and e-learning to improve student throughput and retention rates. As the demand for TEL courses increases, expectations rise for faculty to meet the challenge of using TEL effectively. The promises that TEL holds have not yet materialized, as not enough faculty master the skills and knowledge to integrate TEL into their teaching and learning. The role of emotional intelligence (EI in attaining TEL in e-learning and blended learning environments is not yet clear. This article reports a case study at a South African university where the former Department of Telematic Education introduced a program to prepare faculty for the implementation of TEL for ODL. This research explores and describes links between emotional intelligence and faculty’s ability to cope with new learning technologies. The purposive sampling comprised ten participants who completed a set of e-activities. A mixed methods approach triangulated the findings which provided insight into the coping tactics participants used to accomplish TEL for ODL. Five trends emerged: perception of adequate ability, cognitive decision making; perception of stressful situations; emotional disclosure; and social networking. Although the study identified links between emotional intelligence and coping strategies, the interdependency of coping strategies and emotional intelligence remains elusive.

  19. Heave Compensation Evaluation and Formation Strength Estimation from Drill String Acceleration Measurements While Coring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, G.; Goldberg, D.; Meltser, A.

    2001-05-01

    One of the recurring challenges in deep-sea drilling has been to maintain a precise control of coring depths, and to limit the influence of surface heave on drill bit motion. Operating in water depths between 1 and 6 km, the Ocean Drilling Program has relied on a drill string heave compensator to collect more than 200 km of cores, with maximum penetration of 2km. To evaluate the efficiency of the heave compensation, a device was developed to measure downhole acceleration from the top of the core barrel. This probe records three-axis acceleration and pressure at up to 100 samples per second. The first deployments of this instrument on ODP Legs 185 and 191 show that the heave compensator limits the bit motion to about 10% of the surface heave. This device could prove most useful to monitor heave compensation on shallow water drilling platforms where heave is a primary concern. The high-resolution downhole acceleration data can also be used to determine some of the mechanical properties of the formation. When deployed on piston cores, a maximum vertical acceleration of up to 3G is recorded as the coring shoe penetrates the formation. This maximum value is characteristic of the sediment strength and its degree of consolidation and can be used to identify formations that are typically difficult to recover, such as hard layers or hydrate-bearing sediments. With rotary coring, downhole acceleration signals decrease in magnitude and frequency content with the increasing hardness of the formation. High amplitude is observed in uncompacted sediments and low amplitudes in low-porosity oceanic basalt. Comparison between acceleration records and geophysical logs show that this relationship can be observed at a dm-scale within an individual core. Easy to deploy and adding almost no time to coring operations, the downhole accelerometer tool offers a way to characterize formations continuously while coring, which is particularly useful in the event of poor core recovery.

  20. Technology-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning Methodology in Geographically Dispersed Learners of Tshwane University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibitse M. Tlhapane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving teaching and learning methodologies is not just a wish but rather strife for most educational institutions globally. To attain this, the Adelaide Tambo School of Nursing Science implemented a Technology-enhanced Problem-Based Learning methodology in the programme B Tech Occupational Nursing, in 2006. This is a two-year post-basic nursing program. The students are geographically dispersed and the curriculum design is the typically student-centred outcomes-based education. The research question posed by this paper is: How does technology-enhanced problem-based learning enhance student-centred learning, thinking skills, social skills and social space for learners? To answer the above question, a case study with both qualitative and quantitative data was utilised. The participants consisted of all students registered for the subject Occupational Health level 4. The sample group was chosen from willing participants from the Pretoria, eMalahleni and Polokwane learning sites, using the snowball method. This method was seen as appropriate due to the timing of the study. Data was collected using a questionnaire with both open and closed-ended questions. An analyses of the students‟ end of year examination was also done, including a comparison of performances by students on technology enhanced problem-based learning and those on problem-based learning only. The findings revealed that with Technology-enhanced Problem Based Learning (PBL, students‟ critical thinking, problem solving, and social skills improved and that social space was enhanced. This was supported by improved grades in students‟ on Technology-enhanced PBL as compared to those on PBL only.

  1. Synergistic evaluation of a complex conglomerate reservoir for EOR, Barrancas formation, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simlote, V.N.; Ebanks, W.J.; Eslinger, E.V.; Harpole, K.J.

    1985-02-01

    An engineering/geological study of the Top Red Conglomerate (TRC) section of the Barrancas formation, Mendoza area, Argentina, was conducted (1) to evaluate historical waterflood performance and recovery efficiency and (2) to develop a reservoir description and predictive model for later use in evaluation of reservoir response to EOR process applications. Original oil in place (OOIP) in the TRC reservoir was about 400 million STB (63.6 x 10/sup 6/ stock-tank m/sup 3/). The field had produced about 154 million STB (24.5 x 10/sup 6/ stock-tank m/sup 3/) or 38.5% OOIP through 1980 and is under consideration for application of a caustic flooding EOR process. The TRC shows extremely large variations in permeability, both areally and vertically, owing to its origin as the uppermost part of a thick, alluvial fan, braided channel sequence of sediments. Porosity and permeability development in these rocks is governed primarily by the abundance of detrital clays. Reservoir quality also is reduced somewhat in localized areas by the presence of calcite and zeolite cements and by authigenic clays. An abundance of chemically reactive minerals in the formation poses a significant potential for formation damage and/or adverse reactions with injected EOR chemicals. A geological description of layering and areal variability in the reservoir was developed and used to guide the application of a black oil simulator to two cross-sectional models. Simulation of waterflood performance indicated good vertical sweep efficiency near injection wells, with less efficient sweep farther away owing to gravity segregation and an adverse mobility ratio. A preliminary screening and feasibility study evaluated several EOR processes for recovering the oil left after waterflooding. Caustic flooding appeared to be the most feasible EOR process for application in this reservoir.

  2. Formative clinical evaluation of first-year students in fundamental nursing science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wannenburg

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of any system of evaluation has a considerable impact on the daily lives of students in a variety of educational settings. Hence, it was attempted to illustrate the complexity of the problem when evaluating the performance skills of first year students in the clinical environment of the general hospital. The choice of the research field originated from the increasing concern of the researcher about the reliability of the current evaluation practices in the formative assessment of first year student nurses. The impression gained is that nurse educators are more concerned with the end results of evaluation than with the teaching-learning process needed to reach this goal. Due to the many variables that can influence its results, the implementation of the evaluation process in clinical nursing is extremely complicated. In the course of studying the literature relevant to the research field, the researcher identified aspects that can be considered as of critical importance in the assessment of student performance in clinical nursing.

  3. Evaluation of the Components Released by Wine Yeast Strains on Protein Haze Formation in White Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristine Giese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultures of 23 indigenous yeast strains (22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a non-Saccharomyces, Torulaspora delbrueckii, isolated from fermentation tanks at wineries in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain, and were performed under winemaking conditions using a synthetic must. Polysaccharide analysis and turbidity assays were conducted so as to observe the capacity of the released mannoproteins against protein haze formation in white wine, and 3 strains (2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii were chosen for further experiments. The action of a commercial b-glucanolytic enzyme preparation (Lallzyme BETA®, and a β-(1→3-glucanase preparation from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai were evaluated to release polysaccharides from the different yeast strains’ cell walls. Protection against protein haze formation was strain dependent, and only two strains (Sc2 and Sc4 presented >50% stabilization in comparison to controls. Addition of β-glucanases did not increase the concentrations of polysaccharides in the fermentation musts; however, a significant increase of polymeric mannose (mannoproteins was detected using an enzymatic assay following total acid hydrolysis of the soluble polysaccharides. Enzymatic treatment presented positive effects and decreased protein haze formation in white wine. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i6.869

  4. Evaluation of the Heat, Entropy, and Rotational Changes Produced by Gravitational Segregation during Core Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne M. Hofmeister; Robert E. Criss

    2015-01-01

    Core formation by gravitational segregation allegedly released sufficient interior heat to melt the Earth. Analysis of the energetics, which compare gravitational potential energy (Ug) of a fictitious, homogeneous reference state to Earth’s current layered configuration, needs updating to correct errors and omissions, and to accommodate recent findings: (1) An erroneous positive sign was used for Ug while maintaining the reference value of 0 at infinity, which results in an incorrect sign for ΔUg, which is crucial in determining whether a process is endothermic or exothermic. (2) The value of Ug for Earth’s initial state is uncertain. (3) Recent meteorite evidence indicates that core formation began before the Earth was full-sized, which severely limitsDUg. (4) Inhomogeneous accretion additionally reducedDUg. (5) The potentially large effect of differential rotation between the core and the mantle was not accounted for. (6) Entropy changes associated with creating order were neglected. Accordingly, we revise values of Ug, evaluate uncertainties, and show thatDUg was converted substantially to configurational energy (TDS). These considerations limit the large sources of primordial heat to impacts and radioactivity. Although these processes may play a role in core formation, their energies are independent of gravitational segregation, which produces order and rotational energy, not internal heat. Instead, gravitational segregation promotes planetary cooling mainly because it segregates lithophilic radioactive elements upward, increasing surface heat flux while shortening the distance over which radiogenic heat diffuses outwards.

  5. Evolution of multi-mineral formation evaluation using LWD data in complex carbonates offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, Paolo; Borovskaya, Irina [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Petrophysical Formation Evaluation using Logging While Drilling (LWD) measurements is a new requisite when drilling in carbonates reservoirs offshore Brazil. These reservoirs are difficult to characterize due to an unusual mixture of the minerals constituting the matrix and affecting rock texture. As wells are getting deeper and more expensive, an early identification of the drilled targets potential is necessary for valuable decisions. Brazil operators have been especially demanding towards service providers, pushing for development of suitable services able to positively identify and quantify not only the presence of hydrocarbons but also their flowing capability. In addition to the standard gamma ray / resistivity / porosity and density measurements, three new measurements have proven to be critical to evaluate complex carbonate formations: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Spectroscopy and Capture Cross-Section (sigma). Under appropriate logging conditions, NMR data provides lithology independent porosity, bound and free fluids fractions, reservoir texture and permeability. Capture Spectroscopy allows assessment of mineral composition in terms of calcite, dolomite, quartz and clay fractions, and in addition highlights presence of other heavier minerals. Finally, sigma allows performing a volumetric formation evaluation without requiring custom optimization of the classical exponents used in all forms of resistivity saturation equations. All these new measurements are inherently statistical and if provided by wireline after drilling the well they may result in significant usage of rig time. When acquired simultaneously while drilling they have three very clear advantages: 1) no extra rig time, 2) improved statistics due to long formation exposure (drilling these carbonates is a slow process and rate of penetration (ROP) rarely exceeds 10 m/hr), 3) less invasion effect and better hole condition. This paper describes the development of two LWD tools performing the

  6. Sourceless formation evaluation. An LWD solution providing density and neutron measurements without the use of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, R.; Reichel, N. [Schlumberger, Sungai Buloh (Malaysia)

    2013-08-01

    For many years the industry has been searching for a way to eliminate the logistical difficulties and risk associated with deployment of radioisotopes for formation evaluation. The traditional gamma-gamma density (GGD) measurement uses the scattering of 662-keV gamma rays from a 137Cs radioisotopic source, with a 30.17-year half-life, to determine formation density. The traditional neutron measurement uses an Am-Be source emitting neutrons with an energy around 4 MeV, with a half-life of 432 years. Both these radioisotopic sources pose health, security, and environmental risks. Pulsed-neutron generators have been used in the industry for several decades in wireline tools and more recently in logging-while-drilling tools. These generators produce 14-MeV neutrons, many of which interact with the nuclei in the formation. Elastic collisions allow a neutron porosity measurement to be derived, which has been available to the industry since 2005. Inelastic interactions are typically followed by the emission of a variety of high-energy gamma rays. Similar to the case of the GGD measurement, the transport and attenuation of these gamma rays is a strong function of the formation density. However, the gamma-ray source is now distributed over a volume within the formation, where gamma rays have been induced by neutron interactions and the source can no longer be considered to be a point as in the case of a radioisotopic source. In addition, the extent of the induced source region depends on the transport of the fast neutrons from the source to the point of gamma-ray production. Even though the physics is more complex, it is possible to measure the formation density if the fast neutron transport is taken into account when deriving the density answer. This paper briefly reviews the physics underlying the sourceless neutron porosity and recently introduced neutron-gamma density (SNGD) measurement, demonstrates how they can be used in traditional workflows and illustrates their

  7. Evaluated Enthalpies of Formation of the Stable Closed Shell C1 and C2 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Jeffrey A.

    2002-03-01

    Experimental data on the enthalpies of formation of chloromethanes, chloroethynes, chloroethenes, and chloroethanes are critically reviewed. Enthalpy of formation values for the C1 and C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons are highly cross-linked by various measured reaction equilibria and currently available sets of values are not internally self-consistent. It is shown that the early static bomb combustion calorimetry studies on highly chlorinated compounds generally give enthalpies of formation that are systematically more positive than later values derivable from rotating bomb combustion or equilibria studies. Those previously recommended values which were based mainly on the early static bomb work therefore need substantial revision. On the basis of more recent literature data obtained with rotating bomb combustion calorimetry, together with analyses of literature data on other reaction enthalpies and equilibria involving chlorinated hydrocarbons, an updated self-consistent set of ΔfHo[298.15 K] values for closed shell chlorinated C1 and C2 hydrocarbons (25 compounds) is recommended. Data on the enthalpies of vaporization are also reviewed and values of ΔvapH[298.15 K] and ΔvapHo[298.15 K] are recommended. The presently suggested enthalpies of formation for highly chlorinated alkenes and alkanes (particularly C2Cl4, C2HCl3, C2HCl5, and C2Cl6) are significantly (8-15 kJ mol-1) more negative than given by most previous evaluators. Values for the chloroethynes are 10-25 kJ mol-1 more positive than given in previous reviews and more limited changes are suggested for other compounds in the series.

  8. A new laboratory method for evaluating formation damage in fractured carbonate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Yan; Yan Jienian; Zou Shengli; Wang Shuqi; Lu Rende

    2008-01-01

    Natural carbonate core samples with artificial fractures are often used to evaluate the damage of fractured carbonate formations in the laboratory. It is shown that the most frequent error for evaluation results directly from the random width characterized by the artificial fractures. To solve this problem,a series of simulated fractured core samples made of stainless steel with a given width of fracture were prepared. The relative error for the width of artificial fracture decreased to 1%. The width of natural and artificial fractures in carbonate reservoirs can be estimated by image log data. A series of tests for formation damage were conducted by using the stainless steel simulated core samples flushed with different drilling fluids, such as the suifonate/polymer drill-in fluid and the solids-free drill-in fluid with or without ideal packing bridging materials. Based on the experimental results using this kind of simulated cores, a novel approach to the damage control of fractured carbonate reservoirs was presented. The effective temporary plugging ring on the end face of the simulated core sample can be observed clearly.The experimental results also show that the stainless steel simulated cores made it possible to visualize the solids and filtrate invasion.

  9. Biofilm formation by Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans in the presence of farnesol: a quantitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Renan Aparecido; Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Arias, Laís Salomão; Fernandes, Gabriela Lopes; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Barbosa, Debora Barros

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the QS molecule farnesol on single and mixed species biofilms formed by Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The anti-biofilm effect of farnesol was assessed through total biomass quantification, counting of colony forming units (CFUs) and evaluation of metabolic activity. Biofilms were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was observed that farnesol reduced the formation of single and mixed biofilms, with significant reductions of 37% to 90% and 64% to 96%, respectively, for total biomass and metabolic activity. Regarding cell viability, farnesol treatment promoted significant log reductions in the number of CFUs, ie 1.3-4.2 log10 and 0.67-5.32 log10, respectively, for single and mixed species biofilms. SEM images confirmed these results, showing decreases in the number of cells in all biofilms. In conclusion, these findings highlight the role of farnesol as an alternative agent with the potential to reduce the formation of pathogenic biofilms.

  10. ENDF-102 DATA FORMATS AND PROCEDURES FOR THE EVALUATION NUCLEAR DATA FILE ENDF-6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCLANE,V.

    2001-05-15

    The Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) formats and libraries are decided by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a cooperative effort of national laboratories, industry, and universities in the U.S. and Canada, and are maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). Earlier versions of the ENDF format provided representations for neutron cross sections and distributions, photon production from neutron reactions, a limited amount of charged-particle production from neutron reactions, photo-atomic interaction data, thermal neutron scattering data, and radionuclide production and decay data (including fission products). Version 6 (ENDF-6) allows higher incident energies, adds more complete descriptions of the distributions of emitted particles, and provides for incident charged particles and photonuclear data by partitioning the ENDF library into sub-libraries. Decay data, fission product yield data, thermal scattering data, and photo-atomic data have also been formally placed in sub-libraries. In addition, this rewrite represents an extensive update to the Version V manual.

  11. Growth, inactivation and histamine formation of Morganella psychrotolerans and Morganella morganii - development and evaluation of predictive models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical models for growth, heat inactivation and histamine formation by Morganella psychrotolerons and Morganella morganii were studied to evaluate the importance of these bacteria in seafood. Curves for growth and histamine formation by M. psychrotolerans in broth and seafood were generated...

  12. Development and formative evaluation of the e-Health Implementation Toolkit (e-HIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mair Frances

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT or e-Health is seen as essential for a modern, cost-effective health service. However, there are well documented problems with implementation of e-Health initiatives, despite the existence of a great deal of research into how best to implement e-Health (an example of the gap between research and practice. This paper reports on the development and formative evaluation of an e-Health Implementation Toolkit (e-HIT which aims to summarise and synthesise new and existing research on implementation of e-Health initiatives, and present it to senior managers in a user-friendly format. Results The content of the e-HIT was derived by combining data from a systematic review of reviews of barriers and facilitators to implementation of e-Health initiatives with qualitative data derived from interviews of "implementers", that is people who had been charged with implementing an e-Health initiative. These data were summarised, synthesised and combined with the constructs from the Normalisation Process Model. The software for the toolkit was developed by a commercial company (RocketScience. Formative evaluation was undertaken by obtaining user feedback. There are three components to the toolkit - a section on background and instructions for use aimed at novice users; the toolkit itself; and the report generated by completing the toolkit. It is available to download from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/pcph/research/ehealth/documents/e-HIT.xls Conclusions The e-HIT shows potential as a tool for enhancing future e-Health implementations. Further work is needed to make it fully web-enabled, and to determine its predictive potential for future implementations.

  13. A formative evaluation of the recovery public works programme in Blantyre City, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khembo, Felix; Chapman, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Public works programmes (PWPs) are popular social protection instruments in the context of chronic poverty but very little has been published in the way of implementation and outcomes of these programmes. This paper presents a formative process and outcome evaluation of the recovery PWP in Blantyre City, Malawi. The evaluation used longitudinal household survey data of PWP beneficiaries, programme records and interview responses from programme staff and community leaders. Largely, the process evaluation findings showed an agreement between actual and planned activities. The outcome evaluation found indications that the PWP community assets offered some potential benefits to the communities, and that PWP wages allowed the beneficiaries to purchase some food. This however, did not translate into more meals per day, nor did the earnings prevent the decline in household assets as expected. Given a plausible PWP theory and high implementation fidelity, the PWP wage rate or number of days was either just enough to smooth participant income, or insufficient altogether, to enable achievement of more distal outcomes.

  14. ENDF-6 Formats Manual Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/B-VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Members of the Cross Sections Evaluation Working Group

    2009-06-01

    In December 2006, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) of the United States released the new ENDF/B-VII.0 library. This represented considerable achievement as it was the 1st major release since 1990 when ENDF/B-VI has been made publicly available. The two libraries have been released in the same format, ENDF-6, which has been originally developed for the ENDF/B-VI library. In the early stage of work on the VII-th generation of the library CSEWG made important decision to use the same formats. This decision was adopted even though it was argued that it would be timely to modernize the formats and several interesting ideas were proposed. After careful deliberation CSEWG concluded that actual implementation would require considerable resources needed to modify processing codes and to guarantee high quality of the files processed by these codes. In view of this the idea of format modernization has been postponed and ENDF-6 format was adopted for the new ENDF/B-VII library. In several other areas related to ENDF we made our best to move beyond established tradition and achieve maximum modernization. Thus, the 'Big Paper' on ENDF/B-VII.0 has been published, also in December 2006, as the Special Issue of Nuclear Data Sheets 107 (1996) 2931-3060. The new web retrieval and plotting system for ENDF-6 formatted data, Sigma, was developed by the NNDC and released in 2007. Extensive paper has been published on the advanced tool for nuclear reaction data evaluation, EMPIRE, in 2007. This effort was complemented with release of updated set of ENDF checking codes in 2009. As the final item on this list, major revision of ENDF-6 Formats Manual was made. This work started in 2006 and came to fruition in 2009 as documented in the present report.

  15. Measuring Student Career Interest within the Context of Technology-Enhanced STEM Projects: A Cross-Project Comparison Study Based on the Career Interest Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Kermish-Allen, Ruth; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2016-03-01

    This article describes Energy for ME and Going Green! Middle Schoolers Out to Save the World, two Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education programs with the common goal of improving students' attitudes about scientific careers. The authors represent two project teams, each with funding from the National Science Foundation's ITEST program. Using different approaches and technology, both projects challenged students to use electricity monitoring system data to create action plans for conserving energy in their homes and communities. The impact of each project on students' career interests was assessed via a multi-method evaluation that included the Career Interest Questionnaire (CIQ), a measure that was validated within the context of ITEST projects and has since become one of the instruments used most commonly across the ITEST community. This article explores the extent to which the CIQ can be used to document the effects of technology-enhanced STEM educational experiences on students' career attitudes and intentions in different environments. The results indicate that the CIQ, and the Intent subscale in particular, served as significant predictors of students' self-reported STEM career aspirations across project context. Results from each project also demonstrated content gains by students and demonstrated the impact of project participation and gender on student outcomes. The authors conclude that the CIQ is a useful tool for providing empirical evidence to document the impact of technology-enhanced science education programs, particularly with regard to Intent to purse a STEM career. The need for additional cross-project comparison studies is also discussed.

  16. Measuring Student Career Interest within the Context of Technology-Enhanced STEM Projects: A Cross-Project Comparison Study Based on the Career Interest Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Kermish-Allen, Ruth; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2016-12-01

    This article describes Energy for ME and Going Green! Middle Schoolers Out to Save the World, two Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education programs with the common goal of improving students' attitudes about scientific careers. The authors represent two project teams, each with funding from the National Science Foundation's ITEST program. Using different approaches and technology, both projects challenged students to use electricity monitoring system data to create action plans for conserving energy in their homes and communities. The impact of each project on students' career interests was assessed via a multi-method evaluation that included the Career Interest Questionnaire (CIQ), a measure that was validated within the context of ITEST projects and has since become one of the instruments used most commonly across the ITEST community. This article explores the extent to which the CIQ can be used to document the effects of technology-enhanced STEM educational experiences on students' career attitudes and intentions in different environments. The results indicate that the CIQ, and the Intent subscale in particular, served as significant predictors of students' self-reported STEM career aspirations across project context. Results from each project also demonstrated content gains by students and demonstrated the impact of project participation and gender on student outcomes. The authors conclude that the CIQ is a useful tool for providing empirical evidence to document the impact of technology-enhanced science education programs, particularly with regard to Intent to purse a STEM career. The need for additional cross-project comparison studies is also discussed.

  17. Prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of interdisciplinary student aging interest groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine J; Vandenberg, Edward V; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and posttest of attitudes toward interdisciplinary education and knowledge about aging. Twenty-nine of 32 responding institutions funded by the Reynolds Foundation conducted a group; only medical students participated in one half of these groups. Panel presentations were the most prevalent group activity. Evaluation of their group revealed that an interprofessional service learning experience had the greatest impact on student perceptions of the educational preparation and competency of other disciplines. At posttest, medical students in their group had significantly less positive perceptions of actual cooperation between disciplines than did physical therapy or pharmacy students. Aging interest groups conducted by institutions funded by the Reynolds Foundation did not have a high level of interdisciplinary participation. Intermittent exposure to other disciplines during a small number of group activities may be insufficient to overcome "disciplinary split" and achieve interprofessional team orientation without changes in the structure of medical education.

  18. Evaluation of the atmospheric significance of multiphase reactions in atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelencsér

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a simple conceptual cloud-aerosol model the mass of secondary organic aerosol (SOA that may be formed in multiphase reaction in an idealized scenario involving two cloud cycles separated with a cloud-free period is evaluated. The conditions are set to those typical of continental clouds, and each parameter used in the model calculations is selected as a mean of available observational data of individual species for which the multiphase SOA formation route has been established. In the idealized setting gas and aqueous-phase reactions are both considered, but only the latter is expected to yield products of sufficiently low volatility to be retained by aerosol particles after the cloud dissipates. The key variable of the model is the Henry-constant which primarily determines how important multiphase reactions are relative to gas-phase photooxidation processes. The precursor considered in the model is assumed to already have some affinity to water, i.e. it is a compound having oxygen-containing functional group(s. As a principal model output an aerosol yield parameter is calculated for the multiphase SOA formation route as a function of the Henry-constant, and has been found to be significant already above H~103 M atm-1. Among the potential precursors that may be eligible for this mechanism based on their Henry constants, there are a suite of oxygenated compounds such as primary oxidation products of biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons, including, for example, pinonaldehyde. Finally, the analogy of multiphase SOA formation to in-cloud sulfate production is exploited.

  19. A formative evaluation of a family-based walking intervention-Furness Families Walk4Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull Fiona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family unit may be an important mechanism for increasing physical activity levels, yet little is known about what types of family-based interventions are effective. This study involved a formative evaluation of a 12 week intervention to encourage walking as a family based activity. The intervention consisted of several key elements including led walks and tailored resources, as well as remote support provided via the telephone. The project aimed to explore factors associated with successful delivery of the programme and to identify areas of improvement for future implementation. Methods A total of nine interviews were undertaken with programme staff who were involved in either the set up or delivery of the intervention. In addition, four interviews and two focus groups were undertaken with participants to explore their experiences of the programme. The analysis involved both deductive and inductive reasoning. Results In total, 114 people participated in the programme, which included 36 adults, 10 adolescents and 68 children (≤ 10 years of age. Adult participants reported several barriers to walking including concerns over their children's behaviour and their ability to maintain 'control' of their children. Walking in a group with other families gave parents confidence to go out walking with their children and provided a valuable opportunity for social interaction for parents and children alike. The most successful walks incorporated specific destinations and an activity to undertake upon reaching the destination. Incorporating other activities along the way also helped to keep the children engaged. Conclusions The results of this study have highlighted the important contribution that formative research can make in informing and refining a programme to increase appropriateness and effectiveness. The study has helped to highlight the key characteristics associated with delivering a successful walking intervention to young

  20. Evaluation of PpIX formation in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia I (CIN) using widefield fluorescence images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Vollet Filho, José D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Optical techniques has been described as auxiliary technology for screening of neoplasia because shows the potential for tissues differentiation in real-time and it is a noninvasive detection and safe. However, only endogenous fluorophores presents the lesion may be insufficient and needed of the administration of the fluorophores synthesized, such as, precursor molecule of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5- aminolevulinic acid and your derivatives. Topical application of methylaminolevulinate (MAL), induces formation of the endogenous photosensitizer, PpIX in tissues where carcinogenesis has begun. The PpIX tend to accumulate in premalignant and malignant tissues and the illumination with light with appropriate wavelength beginning to excitation of PpIX fluorescence, which helps to localize PpIX-rich areas and identify potentially malignant tissues. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of PpIX in the cervix with CIN I through of the fluorescence images captured after 1 hour of cream application. It was possible to visualize PpIX fluorescence in cervix and it was possible to observe the selectivity in fluorescence in squamous-columnar junction, which a pre-cancerous condition (CIN) and usually is localized. Through the image processing it was possible to quantify the increase of red fluorescence. For the CIN I the increase of red fluorescence was approximately of 4 times indicating a good PpIX formation.

  1. Microstructure parameters evaluation of Botucatu formation sandstone by X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jaquiel S.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Marques, Leonardo C., E-mail: jaquielfernandes@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: appoloni@uel.b, E-mail: leocarma@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Fernandes, Celso P., E-mail: celso@lmpt.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Meios Porosos e Propriedades TermoFisicas (LMPT)

    2009-07-01

    Microstructural parameters evaluation of reservoir rocks are very important to petroleum industry. This work presents total porosity and pore size distribution measurement of a silicified sandstone sample from the Botucatu formation, collected at municipal district of Faxinal, Parana, Brazil. Porosity and pores size distribution were determined using X-Ray microtomography and imaging techniques. Acquired images had 2.9 mum spatial resolution. 800 2-D images where reconstructed for the microstructure analysis. The determined average porosity was 6.1 +- 2.1 %. 95 % of the porous phase refers to pores with radius ranging from 2.9 to 167.4 mum, presenting the larger frequency (6 %) at 5.9 mum radius. The 3-D volume of the sample was reconstructed and compared with the 3-D model obtained through the autocorrelation functions from the 2-D images analysis. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the effect of formic acid and sodium formate on hair reduction in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banihashemi M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mahnaz Banihashemi1,2, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad2, Seyed Abbas Tabatabaee Yazdi2, Hasan Rakhshande2, Vahid Mashayekhi Ghoyonlo1,2, Zahra Zabihi3, Hadis Yousefzadeh41Research Center for Skin Diseases and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Ghaem Hospital, 2School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS, Mashad, Iran; 3Neishabour Medical University, Neishabour, Iran; 4Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, IranAbstract: Hirsutism is a common problem in dermatology that imposes high socioeconomical costs on medical care. Consequently, researchers are actively searching for cheaper and safer methods for therapeutic treatment. The objective of the present study is to evaluate formic oil, enriched from formic acid, for the removal of unwanted hair. In this study, 32 female rats (150–200 g were randomly divided into four groups and maintained with normal water and food availability. A patch of skin was shaved on each rat for application of test solutions. The control group was treated with local once-daily applications of normal saline. The formic acid, acetic acid, and sodium formate groups were treated with once-daily applications of formic acid (pH 5.5, acetic acid (pH 5.5, or sodium formate, respectively. After 2 weeks, horizontally cut sample biopsies were removed, and the numbers of hair follicles were counted under high field microscopy by a specialist blinded to the treatments. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test results indicated a nonparametric distribution for the rat groups. ANOVA analysis indicated no statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05. There weren't any side effects or evidence for toxicity during the study period. However, hair follicle counts showed a descending order of control, acetic acid, formic acid, and sodium formate. Although the sodium formate group had the lowest hair follicle numbers, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Formic acid was not

  3. Implementing a Formative Evaluation Plan for the Princeton Earth Physics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. M.; Phinney, R. A.; Slater, T. F.; Steinberg, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    Since 1997, the Princeton Earth Physics Project (PEPP) has supported the distribution of seismometers to approximately 70 schools across the country, sponsored by faculty hosts at nearby universities. The main goal of PEPP is to get students and teachers involved in doing authentic, hands-on science by providing them with a seismometer for geological data acquisition. After three years, less than half of the schools are still actively operating stations. A formative project evaluation was conducted during the 2000-2001 academic year to determine the effectiveness of the PEPP program. The evaluation focus was to understand the characteristics and infrastructure of those schools that are successfully operating stations and to recommend program changes that would facilitate increased participation in the future. Evaluators first held a series of exploratory interviews with select participants to determine the issues they felt were highest priority. From these interviews we developed a survey that was administered online to all participants. Finally, follow-up interviews were conducted with participants to further explore details of the survey results. Despite many technological improvements made during the program, there are still several technical problems being faced by some teacher-participants. Active teacher-participants are utilizing PEPP throughout the school year in a wide manner of applications, ranging from displaying earthquake data to class triangulation activities to independent research projects by students. Many participants feel that PEPP supports national and state science education standards efforts very well; in particular, inquiry and technology issues in the standards are strongly supported by a program such as this. Unfortunately, there is very little known at this point about the impact that PEPP might have on student learning. There were a significant number of informal observations made by the evaluators presented to the principal

  4. Frameworks for change in healthcare organisations: a formative evaluation of the NHS Change Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham P; Sutton, Elizabeth; Willars, Janet; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Organisational change in complex healthcare systems is a multifaceted process. The English National Health Service recently introduced a 'Change Model' that seeks to offer an evidence-based framework for guiding change. We report findings from a formative evaluation of the NHS Change Model and make recommendations for those developing the Model and its users. The evaluation involved 28 interviews with managers and clinicians making use of the Change Model in relation to a variety of projects. Interviews were fully transcribed and were analysed using an approach based on the Framework method. Participants saw the Change Model as valuable and practically useful. Fidelity to core principles of the Model was variable: participants often altered the Model, especially when using it to orchestrate the work of others. In challenging organisational contexts, the Change Model was sometimes used to delegitimise opposition rather than identify shared purpose among different interest groups. Those guiding change may benefit from frameworks, guidance and toolkits to structure and inform their planning and activities. Participants' experiences suggested the Change Model has much potential. Further work on its design and on supporting materials may optimise the approach, but its utility rests in particular on organisational cultures that support faithful application. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Evaluating Latino WIC Mothers' Perceptions of Infant's Healthy Growth: A Formative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Angela C; Thomson, Cynthia A; Duncan, Burris; Arthur, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on a formative assessment with Latino mothers in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) evaluating knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding healthy growth for infants and their understanding of infant growth monitoring. Further, we explored the acceptability and feasibility of mothers' monitoring their infants' growth. This assessment includes healthy growth perceptions from mothers, caregivers and from WIC staff. Utilizing a mixed method approach, this assessment included qualitative focus groups with WIC mothers that included a growth chart plotting exercise and a quantitative survey. In-depth interviews with clinic staff discussing protocols used in assessing children's growth were also conducted in one WIC clinic. Focus group participants included 34 mothers and 19 caregivers with a mean age of 32 years; 90 % identified as Latino. Themes included concern for underweight status, and reports of limited conversations between mothers and healthcare providers regarding overweight status, and infant feeding practices/beliefs that may contribute to feeding behaviors associated with risk for excess weight gain during infancy. Growth charts were well received, mothers were able to plot with modest accuracy; but effectiveness of growth plotting might be limited without refinement for health literacy and the provision of culturally-sensitive education in relation to feeding behaviors to support healthy infant growth. This represents a first effort in evaluating Latino mothers' perceptions of infants' healthy growth and use growth charts as a potential tool that can help prevent excess weight gain in early infancy.

  6. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba Debra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. Methods To evaluate the intervention we: 1 interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2 reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3 abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. Results The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. Conclusions The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of

  7. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A

    2011-05-23

    Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. To evaluate the intervention we: 1) interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2) reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3) abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of evaluation due to insufficient resources and a waning of local

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Phytol on the Formation of PAHs in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytol or (2E,7R,11R-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen- 1-ol (MW = 296.53 a.u., is naturally present in tobacco at levels around 100-150 µg/g dry leaf, where it is bound in the form of an ester to a porphyrine type group (known as chlorin with several substituents and chelated to Mg2+ ion, to form chlorophyll. This study evaluated the formation of PAHs when several levels of phytol up to ten times higher than typical phytol level were added on 3R4F cigarettes. The cigarettes were smoked under two different smoking conditions. One regimen (indicated as 35/60 used 35 mL puff volume, 2 s puff duration, each puff taken every 60 s, and in the other used 60 mL puff volume, 2 s puff duration, each puff taken every 30 s (indicated as 60/30. The increase in the PAHs level upon phytol addition was not significant. A statistical evaluation of the dependence of total PAHs and the added level of phytol showed that the hypothesis of a zero slope for the dependence line phytol/total PAHs cannot be rejected (with a p = 0.101 for 35/60 smoking and p = 0.626 for 60/30 smoking. Still, for 35/60 smoking conditions, an increase of about 14% in total levels of PAHs was noticed when the added phytol level was 1.5 mg phytol per cigarette. However, this PAHs increased level was not necessarily determined by the phytol addition, and can be caused by random procedural/analytical errors (as indicated by the statistical analysis or by the modification of cigarettes during phytol addition. Also, the observed level is much lower than the expected 100% increase in the PAHs level, based on literature prediction. Intensive smoking did not show an increase in PAHs level at all. Flash pyrolysis of free phytol and of chlorophyll a provided results that indicated that phytol bound in chlorophyll is not likely to generate different PAHs level compared to free phytol. Thus, phytol has been shown not to be a significant contributor/ precursor to the PAHs formation in cigarette smoke.

  9. Performance evaluation of multilevel modulation formats using partial response for capacity upgrade in access network with limited electronic bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    We present a successful experimental evaluation of 4 level Pulse Amplitude Modulation (4-PAM) and Duobinary modulation. An experimental performance evaluation is presented for Duobinary 4 PAM and other modulation formats. All modulation formants used, may be considered to be implemented in future...... Passive Optical Network (PON) class access networks with limited electrical bandwidth. We compared NRZ, Duobinary, 4-PAM and Duobinary 4-PAM operating at 9 Gbaud over 20 km single mode fiber. The results provides an insight and guidelines on the utilization of these advanced modulation formats....

  10. Performance evaluation of multilevel modulation formats using partial response for capacity upgrade in access network with limited electronic bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Peter; Frejstrup Suhr, Lau; Sebastian Rodriguez, Juan; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-09-01

    We present a successful experimental evaluation of 4 level Pulse Amplitude Modulation (4-PAM) and Duobinary modulation. An experimental performance evaluation is presented for Duobinary 4 PAM and other modulation formats. All modulation formants used, may be considered to be implemented in future Passive Optical Network (PON) class access networks with limited electrical bandwidth. We compared NRZ, Duobinary, 4-PAM and Duobinary 4-PAM operating at 9 Gbaud over 20 km single mode fiber. The results provides an insight and guidelines on the utilization of these advanced modulation formats.

  11. Geological Carbon Sequestration in the Ohio River Valley: An Evaluation of Possible Target Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, T. A.; Daniels, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    The development of geological carbon sequestration within the Ohio River Valley is of major interest to the national electricity and coal industries because the Valley is home to a heavy concentration of coal-burning electricity generation plants and the infrastructure is impossible to eliminate in the short-term. It has been determined by Ohio's politicians and citizenry that the continued use of coal in this region until alternative energy supplies are available will be necessary over the next few years. Geologic sequestration is the only possible means of keeping the CO2 out of the atmosphere in the region. The cost of the sequestration effort greatly decreases CO2 emissions by sequestering CO2 directly on site of these plants, or by minimizing the distance between fossil-fueled generation and sequestration (i.e., by eliminating the cost of transportation of supercritical CO2 from plant to sequestration site). Thus, the practicality of CO2 geologic sequestration within the Ohio River Valley is central to the development of such a commercial effort. Though extensive work has been done by the Regional Partnerships of the DOE/NETL in the characterization of general areas for carbon sequestration throughout the nation, few projects have narrowed their focus into a single geologic region in order to evaluate the sites of greatest commercial potential. As an undergraduate of the Earth Sciences at Ohio State, I have engaged in thorough research to obtain a detailed understanding of the geology of the Ohio River Valley and its potential for commercial-scale carbon sequestration. Through this research, I have been able to offer an estimate of the areas of greatest interest for CO2 geologic sequestration. This research has involved petrological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geophysical analyses of four major reservoir formations within Ohio—the Rose Run, the Copper Ridge, the Clinton, and the Oriskany—along with an evaluation of the possible effects of injection

  12. Evaluation of incense-resinous wood formation in agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. using sonic tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Putri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Incense-resinous wood of agarwood is a high-value non-timber forest product found in the trunk or branches of Aquliaria and Gyrinops species. Incense-resinous wood of agarwood is formed as a response to tree damage caused by wounding or fungal attack. Detection of such wood in trees has generally been carried out based on natural signs such as dark spots or black marks when peeling back tree bark, but these often yield uncertain results. Sonic tomography can be applied to predict the presence of incense-resinous wood in standing trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate sonic tomography at various trunk heights based on variations in the sound velocity associated with the presence of incense-resinous wood. Ten agarwood trees (Aquilaria malaccensis were selected for this study; five trees were artificially inoculated with Fusarium solani fungus and the other five were untreated. The results showed that the height of the measurement did not significantly affect the propagation velocity of sound waves or the tomographic results. Sonic tomography revealed that prediction of the deteriorated zone which is indicative of incense-resinous wood formation was 1.1% greater in inoculated trees than in uninoculated trees.

  13. Evaluation of a liquid dispenser for assay development and enzymology in 1536-well format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butendeich, Heike; Pierret, Noëlle M; Numao, Shin

    2013-06-01

    Although developments in liquid dispensers have made the use of 1536-well plates for high-throughput screening (HTS) standard, there is still a gap in dispenser technology for performing matrix experiments with several components. Experiments such as those performed during assay development and enzymological studies are therefore still performed by manual pipetting in lower-density plates. We have evaluated a new dispenser, the Certus liquid dispenser (Gyger Fluidics GmbH, Switzerland), that is capable of flexible dispensing in 1536-well format, with a dead volume of less than 200 µL. Taking advantage of the precision of the dispenser for volumes down to 50 nL, we have created concentration gradients on plates by dispensing different volumes of reagent and then backfilling with buffer. Using this method and the flexibility of the dispenser software, we have performed several multidimensional experiments varying two to three components, including an assay development for an HTS, a mode of inhibition study, and a cofactor optimization, in which we determined 32 KM values. Overall, the flexibility of the plate layout for multiple components, the accuracy to dispense volumes ranging 2 log orders, and minimal reagent usage enable this dispenser for complex biochemical experiments.

  14. Formation and evaluation of artificial patinas over copper; Formacion y evaluacion de patinas artificiales sobre cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, B.M.; Moriena, G. [DEICOR, CITEFA, Zufriategui 4380, (1603) Villa Martelli, Argentina PAX 54 1 709-3210 Rosa Vera Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Inst. de Quimica, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso, Chile FAX 56 32 23-9254 (Chile)

    1998-12-31

    The unprecise characteristic of the environmental parameters determines passive variable properties in the formed corrosion products out in the open. They were required at least three years by essaying in the atmospheres where the patina is naturally formed for a long term information disposition about its protector power, its stabilization velocity and its attack morphology suffered by the metal. In patinas formed in laboratory on the contrary, to get morphology and a defined chemical composition, allowing its accelerated formation and an uniform attack, with a reproducible and controllable metal corrosion velocity. The protective properties of the patinas formed on copper as like artificial way (blue, green, violet, and maroon) as natural way out in the open which were evaluated by means of different characterization techniques. It was applied potential kinetics polarizations, scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and surface analysis EDAX. The corrosion products composition was determined by X-ray diffraction and W spectroscopy. Starting from obtained results through different techniques it was concluded that the green patinas, as artificial as the naturally formed, as well as those of the best protector power. the others three ones present different failures as less adherence, high porosity and basic metal exfoliation. (Author)

  15. Fracture Formation Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Structure Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Panjsetooni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE is an important nondestructive evaluation (NDE technique used in the field of structural engineering for both case local and global monitoring. In this study AE technique with a new approach was employed to investigate the process of fracture formation in reinforced concrete structure. A number of reinforced concrete (RC one story frames were tested under loading cycle and were simultaneously monitored using AE. The AE test data was analyzed using the relaxation ratio and calm and load ratio method. Also, the relaxation ratio was dominated with approaching load to 58% of the ultimate load. In addition three levels of damage using calm and load ratio were distinguished. The trend of relaxation ratio and calm and load ratio method during loading and unloading showed that these methods are strongly sensitive with cracks growth in RC frame specimens and were able to indicate the levels of damage. Also, results showed that AE can be considered as a viable method to predict the remaining service life of reinforced concrete. In addition, with respect to the results obtained from relaxation ratio and, load and calm ratio indicated, a new chart is proposed.

  16. Evaluation of ultrasonic influence intensities providing formation of cavitation area in liquids with various rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N.Golykh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The model of cavitation area containing cavitation bubbles ensemble in high-viscous and nonNewtonian (usually with a solid dispersed phase liquids is presented in this article. Proposed model is based on the study of the cavitation bubbles ensemble as a whole but taking into account the main effects and phenomena occurring inside this ensemble. This model takes into account coalescence and breakup of bubbles due to collapsing. According to model, breakup and coalescence effects lead to concentration bubbles dependency on ultrasonic pressure amplitude or intensity. Thus, these effects affect on total energy of shock waves being generated by collapsing cavitation bubbles as well as bubble radius. The analysis of the model allows revealing optimum intensities of the ultrasonic influence, that are necessary to provide maximum total shock wave energy, at which, for example, the maximum degree of solid particle’s destruction (maximum interphase surface contact or maximum free surface “liquid-gas” due to formation and breakage of capillary waves (formed on liquid’s free surface is achieved. The analysis of the model lets evaluating, that optimum intensity of the influence for the most of liquids does not exceed 40 W/cm2 at the frequency of 22 kHz. However for dilatant liquids intensity of influence can achieve 100 W/cm2 . Obtained results can be applied for the choice of power modes of the ultrasonic technological equipment to increase interphase surface under cavitation influence.

  17. Comparative evaluation of secondary caries formation around light-cured fluoride-releasing restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sathyajith Naik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate secondary caries formation around light-cured fluoride-releasing restorative materials. Methodology: Standard Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of forty extracted healthy premolars. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of ten teeth each and labeled as Group I, II, III, and IV and restored with one of the following materials, namely, Fuji II LC (Group I, Vitremer (Group II, F-2000 (Group III, and Z-100 (Group IV; Control. The teeth were thermocycled and immersed in jars containing an acid gel for caries-like lesion formation. After 15 weeks, the samples were removed, washed, and sectioned buccolingually through the restoration. The sections were then grounded to a thickness of 80–100 µm. After imbibition in water, the sections were mounted on slides and lesions were examined, measured, and photographed with Leica DMRB Research Microscope. The observation recorded was subjected to (a analysis of variance, (b Studentized range test (Newman–Keuls, (c Snedecor's F-test. Results: The depth of the outer lesion in teeth restored with Z-100 (Group IV; Control was significantly higher than the teeth restored with F-2000 (Group III, Vitremer (Group II, and Fuji II LC (Group I (P < 0.01. The depth of the outer lesion in teeth restored with F-2000 (Group III was also significantly higher than the teeth restored with Vitremer (Group II and Fuji II LC (Group I (P < 0.01. However, there was no significant difference in depth of the outer lesions among the teeth restored with Vitremer (Group II and Fuji II LC (Group I. No wall lesion (WL was evident in teeth restored with Vitremer (Group II and Fuji II LC (Group I. The WL length and body depth in teeth restored with Z-100 (Group IV; Control were significantly higher than the teeth restored with F-2000 (Group III (P < 0.01. Conclusion: It was concluded that Fuji II LC and Vitremer had a inhibitory effect on the

  18. Clinical evaluation of a novel herbal dental cream in plaque formation: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    amrutesh, sunita; Malini, J; Tandur, Prakash S; Pralhad S. Patki

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal dental cream in comparison to fluoride dental cream. Objectives Clinical evaluation of a novel herbal dental cream in plaque formation: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Methods One hundred and two patients with established dental plaque were randomly assigned to either herbal dental group or fluoride dental group for six weeks in a double-blind design. Improvement in plaque index, oral hyg...

  19. Elevance of PCDD/PCDF formation for the evaluation of POPs destruction technologies - Necessity and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) states in Article 6 that POPs waste should be destroyed or disposed of in a way that the POPs content is destroyed or irreversibly transformed. In this context it is critical that the destruction methods used do not create by-products that are themselves POPs. Therefore one important criterion for assessment of a POPs destruction technology is the potential formation of POPs and other toxic by-products, in particular if higher toxic PCDDs/PCDFs are formed and under which operation conditions their formation is relevant (for the respective POPs destruction technology). A detailed evaluation of non-combustion technologies with respect to PCDD/PCDF formation is lacking to date. Most information with respect to PCDD/PCDF formation in non-combustion technologies in the present stage of evaluation is provided by the companies developing or selling the facility. In a laboratory study it was discovered that super critical water oxidation (SCWO), a technology listed from United Nations Environmental Programme UNEP as ''Commercialised Technology with Considerable Experience'' and from United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) as ''Emerging and Innovative Technologies'', has the potential to form high concentrations of PCDFs (in the % range) during PCB destruction. Such elevated PCDF formations might occur even at temperatures of potential application. This highlights the necessity of a more rigorous assessment of non-combustion technologies with respect to their PCDD/PCDF formation potential and their actual applicability for PCB/POPs destruction. The present paper provides a critical impulse in this respect, discusses the relevant formation pathways with respect to POPs destruction technologies and proposes a basic framework on how evaluations may be performed.

  20. A Formative Evaluation of Healthy Heroes: A Photo Comic Book-Social Cognitive Theory Based Obesity Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Paul; Housley, Alexandra; Bhochhibhoya, Amir; Hayes, Logan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Low consumption of fruits and vegetables is often associated with poor diet quality, and childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, and conduct a formative evaluation, of Healthy Heroes, an innovative, social cognitive theory-based program that uses child created photo-comic books to promote fruit and…

  1. Formative Evaluation of MyFit: A Curriculum to Promote Self-Regulation of Physical Activity among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Melissa; Petosa, Rick; Hortz, Brian; Hunt, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous interventions to increase physical activity among middle school students have not produced long-term results. Often, students lack the self-regulation skills needed to support long-term adherence to physical activity. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of a self-regulation based physical…

  2. A Formative Evaluation of Customized Pamphlets to Promote Physical Activity and Symptom Self-Management in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plow, Matthew; Bethoux, Francois; Mai, Kimloan; Marcus, Bess

    2014-01-01

    Inactivity is a prevalent problem in the population affected with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, there is a need to develop and test physical activity (PA) interventions that can be widely disseminated. We conducted a formative evaluation as part of a randomized controlled trial of a pamphlet-based PA intervention among 30 women with MS. Pamphlets…

  3. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part II: the referring clinician and patient perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Feedback from service users will provide insight into opportunities for improvement so that performance can be optimised. In the context of a formative evaluation referring clinician and patient satisfaction with a teleneurophysiology service was examined during a 20 week pilot period.

  4. The Development of a Food Safety Brochure for Families: The Use of Formative Evaluation and Plain Language Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie; Litchfield, Ruth; Meysenburg, Rebecca L.; Er, Ida NgYin; Lum, Adeline; Beattie, Sam; Larvick, Carol; Schwarz, Carol; Temple, Jan; Meimann, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Printed materials have been used extensively as an educational tool to increase food safety awareness. Few educational materials have been designed to target families with young children for food safety education. This article reports the use of the formative evaluation process to develop a brochure designed to enhance awareness about food safety…

  5. Findings of a Formative Evaluation of a Transitional Housing Program for Forensic Patients Discharged into the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Rebecca; Nandlal, Joan; Ecker, John; Aubry, Tim; Pettey, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Using results from a formative evaluation, this article describes the transitional rehabilitation housing pilot (TRHP) program located in two metropolitan Canadian cities. TRHP is an innovative community mental health service, created to support hospitalized forensic patients in their transition to living independently in the community. The…

  6. Using Systems Thinking to Evaluate Formative Feedback in UK Higher Education: The Case of Classroom Response Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Rosane; Paucar-Caceres, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Providing high quality formative feedback to large and very diverse cohorts of students taking short intensive blocks of teaching (block release) has become crucial in management education provision. The paper proposes the exploitation of classroom response technology (CRT) to evaluate learning activities of students taking block release modules.…

  7. The Development of a Food Safety Brochure for Families: The Use of Formative Evaluation and Plain Language Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie; Litchfield, Ruth; Meysenburg, Rebecca L.; Er, Ida NgYin; Lum, Adeline; Beattie, Sam; Larvick, Carol; Schwarz, Carol; Temple, Jan; Meimann, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Printed materials have been used extensively as an educational tool to increase food safety awareness. Few educational materials have been designed to target families with young children for food safety education. This article reports the use of the formative evaluation process to develop a brochure designed to enhance awareness about food safety…

  8. Towards App-based Formative Feedback to Support Summarizing Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Boshuizen, Els

    2013-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Kester, L., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2013). Towards App‐based Formative Feedback to Support Summarizing Skills. ECTEL 2013: Workshop on Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA). September, 17-18, 2013, Paphos, Cyprus. Available online at: http://www.kbs.uni-hannover.de/tefa201

  9. A formative evaluation of a high school blended learning biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellman, Stephen William

    As growing student populations continue to tax the resources of public high schools, administrators are constantly looking for ways to address the needs of all students. One option for increasing the number of students in a classroom without sacrificing quality of instruction is to use "blended learning". Blended learning is defined by Marsh et al. (2003, p.2) as a situation where "face-to-face and distance education delivery methods and resources are merged". In such a course, students receive the benefits of classroom-based instruction, while also benefiting from several aspects of distance learning. This is especially true for science courses that rely heavily on both hands-on labs and various multimedia. The purpose of this study was a formative evaluation of a high school blended learning biology course, focusing on a genetics unit. The research question addressed by the study was "Will participants increase their domain knowledge and problem-solving skills after instruction in a high school level blended distance learning biology course? Also investigated was if higher levels of self-regulation skills were correlated to higher levels of content-understanding and problem-solving. The study was composed of a pilot study and a main study. Participants were students in an urban Southern California public high school biology course. Classroom instruction was from a single instructor, and online content was managed using the "Moodle" course management system. Participants were assessed for their gains in genetics content-understanding, genetics problem-solving skills (Punnett squares), and self-regulation. Additionally, participant reactions to the blended instruction model were surveyed. Results indicated that significant increases (pclasses.

  10. Electronic Repositories of Marked Student Work and their Contributions to Formative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heinrich

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The educational literature shows that formative assessment is highly conducive to learning. The tasks given to students in formative assessment generally require open-ended responses that can be given, for example, in essay-type format and that are assessed by a human marker. An essential component is the formative feedback provided by the marker that needs to assist the student in recognising knowledge gaps and in formulating steps to close these gaps. The concepts of ‘electronic repositories of marked student work’ introduced in this article suggests an approach to support learning from formative assessment. At the core of this concept lies the realisation that the artefacts submitted by students and assessed by markers are a valuable resource. This resource should not just be used by the submitting students but should be made accessible to future students studying the same concepts. These students can learn from the artefacts and the formative feedback attached to these artefacts. Self- and peer-assessment, important concepts closely linked to formative assessment, can be integrated with the repositories to develop the students’ subject knowledge, to enhance their critical thinking skills and to familiarise them with assessment procedures. This article develops the concepts of electronic repositories of marked student work. Special emphasis is put on reviewing the educational literature on formative assessment and on binding the concepts introduced into the literature findings.

  11. Web-Based Quiz-Game-Like Formative Assessment: Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to develop a multiple-choice Web-based quiz-game-like formative assessment system, named GAM-WATA. The unique design of "Ask-Hint Strategy" turns the Web-based formative assessment into an online quiz game. "Ask-Hint Strategy" is composed of "Prune Strategy" and "Call-in Strategy".…

  12. A formative evaluation of social media campaign to reduce adolescent dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Danielle N; Bishop, Lauren E; Guetig, Stephanie; Frew, Paula M

    2014-11-12

    The Emory Jane Fonda Center implemented the Start Strong Atlanta social marketing campaign, "Keep It Strong ATL", in 2007 to promote the development of healthy adolescent relationships and to foster the prevention of adolescent dating abuse among 11-14 year olds. A formative evaluation was conducted to understand whether messages directed at the target audience were relevant to the program's relationship promotion and violence prevention goals, and whether the "Web 2.0" social media channels of communication (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Tumblr, and Pinterest) were reaching the intended audience. Mixed methodologies included qualitative interviews and a key informant focus group, a cross-sectional survey, and web analytics. Qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparative methodology informed by grounded theory. Descriptive statistics were generated from survey data, and web analytics provided user information and traffic patterns. Results indicated that the Keep It Strong ATL social marketing campaign was a valuable community resource that had potential for broader scope and greater reach. The evaluation team learned the importance of reaching adolescents through Web 2.0 platforms, and the need for message dissemination via peers. Survey results indicated that Facebook (ranked 6.5 out of 8) was the highest rated social media outlet overall, and exhibited greatest appeal and most frequent visits, yet analytics revealed that only 3.5% of "likes" were from the target audience. These results indicate that the social media campaign is reaching predominantly women (76.5% of viewership) who are outside of the target age range of 11-14 years. While the social media campaign was successfully launched, the findings indicate the need for a more focused selection of communication channels, timing of media updates to maximize visibility, balancing message tone and delivery, and incorporating differentiated messaging for the target audiences. Collaboration with

  13. A Formative Evaluation of a Social Media Campaign to Reduce Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Danielle N; Bishop, Lauren E; Guetig, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Background The Emory Jane Fonda Center implemented the Start Strong Atlanta social marketing campaign, “Keep It Strong ATL”, in 2007 to promote the development of healthy adolescent relationships and to foster the prevention of adolescent dating abuse among 11-14 year olds. Objective A formative evaluation was conducted to understand whether messages directed at the target audience were relevant to the program’s relationship promotion and violence prevention goals, and whether the “Web 2.0” social media channels of communication (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Tumblr, and Pinterest) were reaching the intended audience. Methods Mixed methodologies included qualitative interviews and a key informant focus group, a cross-sectional survey, and web analytics. Qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparative methodology informed by grounded theory. Descriptive statistics were generated from survey data, and web analytics provided user information and traffic patterns. Results Results indicated that the Keep It Strong ATL social marketing campaign was a valuable community resource that had potential for broader scope and greater reach. The evaluation team learned the importance of reaching adolescents through Web 2.0 platforms, and the need for message dissemination via peers. Survey results indicated that Facebook (ranked 6.5 out of 8) was the highest rated social media outlet overall, and exhibited greatest appeal and most frequent visits, yet analytics revealed that only 3.5% of “likes” were from the target audience. These results indicate that the social media campaign is reaching predominantly women (76.5% of viewership) who are outside of the target age range of 11-14 years. Conclusions While the social media campaign was successfully launched, the findings indicate the need for a more focused selection of communication channels, timing of media updates to maximize visibility, balancing message tone and delivery, and incorporating

  14. Influence of microleakage, surface roughness and biofilm control on secondary caries formation around composite resin restorations: an in situ evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Garcia Lima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate in situ the influence of microleakage, surface roughness and biofilm control on caries formation around composite resin restorations. During 28 days, 12 volunteers wore palatal devices containing bovine enamel slabs restored with composite resin. Restorations were made without leakage, when the adhesive system was applied, or with leakage, when adhesive system was omitted. Half of the restorations in each group were finished and the remaining were finished and polished. In one side of the palatal device, biofilm was left to accumulate over the restored slabs, and in the other side dental slabs were brushed, to allow biofilm removal. There was an extraoral application of 20% sucrose solution (8x/day over the enamel slabs. The formation of caries lesions (white spots was evaluated by visual inspection under stereomicroscopy. Additionally, the dental slabs were sectioned and observed under polarized light microscopy. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's correlation test at 5% significance level. Polishing and bonding were not significant factors regarding white spot formation (p>0.05. Biofilm control (brushing was associated with reduction of caries formation close to the restorations (p<0.01. Polarized light microscopy confirmed the visual inspection findings. These results suggest that while microleakage and surface roughness did not influence caries lesion formation, biofilm control may prevent the enamel demineralization.

  15. Influence of microleakage, surface roughness and biofilm control on secondary caries formation around composite resin restorations: an in situ evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Fábio Garcia; Romano, Ana Regina; Correa, Marcos Britto; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate in situ the influence of microleakage, surface roughness and biofilm control on caries formation around composite resin restorations. During 28 days, 12 volunteers wore palatal devices containing bovine enamel slabs restored with composite resin. Restorations were made without leakage, when the adhesive system was applied, or with leakage, when adhesive system was omitted. Half of the restorations in each group were finished and the remaining were finished and polished. In one side of the palatal device, biofilm was left to accumulate over the restored slabs, and in the other side dental slabs were brushed, to allow biofilm removal. There was an extraoral application of 20% sucrose solution (8x/day) over the enamel slabs. The formation of caries lesions (white spots) was evaluated by visual inspection under stereomicroscopy. Additionally, the dental slabs were sectioned and observed under polarized light microscopy. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's correlation test at 5% significance level. Polishing and bonding were not significant factors regarding white spot formation (p>0.05). Biofilm control (brushing) was associated with reduction of caries formation close to the restorations (p<0.01). Polarized light microscopy confirmed the visual inspection findings. These results suggest that while microleakage and surface roughness did not influence caries lesion formation, biofilm control may prevent the enamel demineralization.

  16. Performance evaluation of modulation formats in 40×40-Gb/s WDM repeaterless transmission systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangshan Lu; Kun Xu; Jian Wu; Jintong Lin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Transmission performance of six modulation formats is numerically compared in 40 × 40-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) repeaterless systems. The results indicate that return-to-zero differential phase shift keying (RZ-DPSK) (33% duty cycle) demonstrates the best performance among all the formats when the accumulated amplified spontaneous emission power (AASEP) is small. But with the increasing of AASEP, the superiority of RZ-DPSK transmission performance over the other five modulation formats is vanished. AASEP is justified to be the major source for the deterioration of the superiority.

  17. Petrophysical Evaluation of the Sarvak Formation Based on Well Logs in Dezful Embayment, Zagros Fold Zone, South West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jooybari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dezful embayment in the south west of Iran is part of Zagros fold zone which despite the small area includes almost all of Iran oil production. Sarvak Formation with middle cretaceous (Albin-Turunin is the second biggest reservoir of Zagros basin, after the Asmari formation. In this study, with well logging data of two wells, by Geolog software, the petrophysical parameters of Sarvak Formation in the Dezful embayment was studied using the contingent Probabilistic method. Petrophysical parameters such as determination of porosity, water saturation, shale volume and lithology were calculated using this data and common cross plots. Based on this evaluation and utilizing cross plots result, the lithology of Sarvak formation in this zone was determined to be Limestone with traces of dolomite and shale. According to the calculated petrophysical properties of the reservoir, and for more accurate assessment, Sarvak Formation was divided to 6 sections. Findings of this research show that Sarvak Formation includes good reservoir parameters only in half its sections (sections 4, 2 and 6.

  18. Evaluation of Slope Assessment Systems for Predicting Landslides of Cut Slopes in Granitic and Meta-sediment Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimi Jamaludin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, slope assessment systems (SAS are widely used in assessing the instability of slope or the probability of occurrence and the likely severity of landslides. These SAS can be derived based on either one particular approach or combination of several approaches of landslide assessments and prediction. This study overviews four slope assessment systems (SAS developed in Malaysia for predicting landslide at a large-scale assessments. They are the Slope Maintenance System (SMS, Slope Priority Ranking System (SPRS, Slope Information Management System (SIMS and the Slope Management and Risk Tracking System (SMART. An attempt is made to evaluate the accuracy of the SAS in predicting landslides based on slope inventory data from 139 cut slopes in granitic formation and 47 cut slopes in meta-sediment formation, which are the two most common rock/soil formations found in Malaysia. Based on this study, it was found that none of existing SAS is satisfactory in predicting landslides of cut slopes in granitic formation, for various reasons such as the use of hazard score developed from another country, insufficient data base, oversimplified approach and use of data base derived from different rock/soil formations. However for the case of cut slope in meta-sediment, the Slope Management and Risk Tracking System (SMART was found to be satisfactory with 90% prediction accuracy. The current database of SMART is largely based on meta-sediment formation.

  19. Geochemical evaluation of Pabdeh Formation in Nosrat field, southeast Persian Gulf using Rock- Eval VI pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad sadeghi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed on 59 drillhole cuttings from Pabdeh Formation in Nosrat oil field using Rock- Eval VI pryrolysis. Geochemical analysis indicated that Pabdeh Formation possesses poor to good hydrocarbon potential. Plotting S1 against TOC suggests that samples were not affected by polluting substances such as crude oil and lubricants while drilling operation. Jones organic fancies diagram shows B-BC area indicating that Pabdeh Formation was deposited in marine anoxic to oxic environments. HI vesus Tmax shows that most samples initially have had type II kerogen and now reflecting a mixture of type II to III kerogen (capable of generating oil that have already entered oil generation window. In addition, S1+S2 versus TOC plot also suggests that Pabdeh Formation can be considered as a capable hydrocarbon generating source rock in the study area.

  20. Comparison and Evaluation of Current Animal Models for Perineural Scar Formation in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila O Zanjani

    2013-07-01

    Our study suggests that none of the applied animal models reproduce all essential features of clinical perineural scar formation. Therefore, more studies are needed to develop optimal animal models for translating preclinical investigations

  1. Evaluation of the Synergistic Effect Between Ethyl Formate and Phospine for Control of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Hye Min; Kim, Bong Soo; Yang, Jeong Oh; Moon, Young Mi; Ren, Yonglin

    2016-02-01

    Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is known as a quarantine pest that is hard to control with short periods of fumigation with phosphine (PH(3)) or low concentrations of ethyl formate. Moreover, low-temperature fumigation with ethyl formate can lead to phototoxic damage of some perishable commodities. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic effect of mixing ethyl formate and PH(3) for the treatment of adults and nymphs of A. gossypii. Combined toxicity was observed and compared with a single dose of eitherrethyl formate or PH(3). When insects were exposed to 0.5 g/m(3) of PH(3) combined with different levels of ethyl formate from 1.6 to 16.3 g/m(3) at 5 and 20C for 2 h, L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) values were greatly reduced in comparison with a single dose of either ethyl formate or PH(3). The synergistic ratio (SR) is described as L(Ct) of ethyl formate alone/L(Ct) of ethyl formate + PH(3). The SR values of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) for adult A. gossypii at 5C were 4.55 and 2.33, respectively. However, at 20C the SR levels of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) were 2.22 and 1.45, respectively, but still showed significant synergism (significant difference, P<0.5). This new technology could meet quarantine and preshipment requirements for shorter exposure times and less damage of perishable commodities, and could also be extended for controlling other quarantine pests and thereby be a useful alternative to methyl bromide for fruit and vegetable applications.

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacteriocins Activity Against Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anderson Carlos; de Paula, Otávio Almeida Lino; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to assess the activity of cell-free supernatant (CFS) containing bacteriocins on the formation and maintenance of biofilms developed by Listeria monocytogenes, and the associated effect of bacteriocins and ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on the formed biofilm. CFS from 9 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains was tested for inhibitory activity against 85 L. monocytogenes isolates and 21 LAB strains. Then, 12 L. monocytogenes strains were selected based on genetic profiles and sensitivity to CFS and were subjected to an in vitro assay to assess biofilm formation in microtiter plates, considering different culture media and incubation conditions. Based on these results, 6 L. monocytogenes strains were subjected to the same in vitro procedure to assess biofilm formation, being co-inoculated with CFS. In addition, these strains were subjected to the same in vitro procedure, modified by adding the CFS after biofilm formation. Relevant decrease in biofilm formation was observed in the first experiment, but CFS added after biofilm formation did not eliminate them. CFS from Lactobacillus curvatus ET31 were selected due to its anti-biofilm activity, being associated to EDTA at different concentrations and tested for biofilm control of three strains of L. monocytogenes, using the same in vitro procedure described previously. Concentrated bacteriocin presented poor performance in eliminating formed biofilms, and EDTA concentration presented no evident interference on biofilm elimination. Twelve selected L. monocytogenes strains were positive for investigated virulence makers and negative for luxS gene, recognized as being involved in biofilm formation. Selected L. monocytogenes strains were able to produce biofilms under different conditions. CFSs have the potential to prevent biofilm formation, but they were not able to destroy already formed biofilms. Nevertheless, low concentrations of CFS combined with EDTA caused a relevant reduction in

  3. Formative evaluation of traditional instruction and cooperative inquiry projects in undergraduate chemistry laboratory courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichas, Michael A.

    Reform agendas for practice in undergraduate chemistry are moving curriculum beyond traditional behaviorist teaching strategies to include constructivist approaches, for extending student learning beyond simple mastery of chemistry content (Bunce & Robinson, 1997; Lagowski, 1998; Herron & Nurrenburn, 1999). Yet implementing new strategies requires assessment of their benefit to learning. This study was undertaken to provide a formal and formative evaluation of the curricula in General and Organic chemistry laboratory courses, which are structured with both Traditional expository lab exercises, and a cooperative inquiry exercise called the Open Ended Project. Using a mixed-methodological case study framework, the primary goal of the research was to determine how the inclusion of these teaching strategies impacts student learning in the areas of Academic Achievement and Affective Learning from the perspective of the students enrolled in these lab classes. The findings suggest that the current curriculum structure of including both Traditional Instruction and the Open Ended Project does address students' Academic Achievement and Affective Learning. However, students perceived that these curriculum components each contributed differently to their learning. For Academic Achievement, Traditional Experiments and the Project had a positive impact on students' operational skills, such as how to use and choose lab techniques for performing or designing experiments, as well as their conceptual learning, such as understanding concepts, and relating those concepts during data analysis. Yet for Affective Learning, such as students' sense of confidence, accomplishment, and engagement, the Project, which has a cooperative learning element, had a positive impact on student learning, while Traditional Experiments, which do not have a cooperative learning element, had a moderate negative impact. The findings point to Cooperative Learning as the key element, which makes the positive

  4. Technology-enhanced instruction in learning world languages: The Middlebury interactive learning program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Lake

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Middlebury Interactive Language (MIL programs are designed to teach world language courses using blended and online learning for students in kindergarten through grade 12. Middlebury Interactive courses start with fundamental building blocks in four key areas of world-language study: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. As students progress through the course levels, they deepen their understanding of the target language, continuing to focus on the three modes of communication: interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational. The extensive use of authentic materials (video, audio, images, or texts is intended to provide a contextualized and interactive presentation of the vocabulary and the linguistic structures. In the present paper, we describe the MIL program and the results of a mixed-methods survey and case-study evaluation of its implementation in a broad sample of schools. Technology application is examined with regard to MIL instructional strategies and the present evaluation approach relative to those employed in the literature.

  5. Biofilm Formation by Clostridium ljungdahlii Is Induced by Sodium Chloride Stress: Experimental Evaluation and Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Jo; Rabaey, Korneel; Lovley, Derek R; Vargas, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    The acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii is capable of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilm formation could benefit both these applications, but was not yet reported for C. ljungdahlii. Biofilm formation does not occur under standard growth conditions, but attachment or aggregation could be induced by different stresses. The strongest biofilm formation was observed with the addition of sodium chloride. After 3 days of incubation, the biomass volume attached to a plastic surface was 20 times higher with than without the addition of 200 mM NaCl to the medium. The addition of NaCl also resulted in biofilm formation on glass, graphite and glassy carbon, the latter two being often used electrode materials for microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilms were composed of extracellular proteins, polysaccharides, as well as DNA, while pilus-like appendages were observed with, but not without, the addition of NaCl. A transcriptome analysis comparing planktonic (no NaCl) and biofilm (NaCl addition) cells showed that C. ljungdahlii coped with the salt stress by the upregulation of the general stress response, Na+ export and osmoprotectant accumulation. A potential role for poly-N-acetylglucosamines and D-alanine in biofilm formation was found. Flagellar motility was downregulated, while putative type IV pili biosynthesis genes were not expressed. Moreover, the gene expression analysis suggested the involvement of the transcriptional regulators LexA, Spo0A and CcpA in stress response and biofilm formation. This study showed that NaCl addition might be a valuable strategy to induce biofilm formation by C. ljungdahlii, which can improve the efficacy of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis applications.

  6. Factors predicting the use of technology: findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N; Rogers, Wendy A; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18-91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption.

  7. Technologically Enhanced Language Learning and Instruction: Подорожі.UA: Beginners’ Ukrainian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Sivachenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the development of a new blended-learning model for beginners’ Ukrainian language learning and instruction, an innovative approach in foreign language education. This model is a combination of face-to-face and online learning and is a response to new realities in education, and language learning in particular, in our fast-paced, technologically enhanced everyday life. The authors focuses on the design of their new blended-learning textbook Подорожі.UA (Travels.UA, which contains a considerable online component, closely interconnected with in-class, or face-to-face, learning and teaching materials. They discuss their approach to the pedagogical design of this new model, used in the textbook, and also address piloting challenges. The study concludes with a report on the overall success of this project and invites others who teach Ukrainian at postsecondary levels to pilot the project in their institutions.

  8. Early bedside care during preclinical medical education: can technology-enhanced patient simulation advance the Flexnerian ideal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James A; Hayden, Emily M; Ahmed, Rami A; Pawlowski, John B; Khoury, Kimberly N; Oriol, Nancy E

    2010-02-01

    Flexner wanted medical students to study at the patient bedside-a remarkable innovation in his time-so that they could apply science to clinical care under the watchful eye of senior physicians. Ever since his report, medical schools have reserved the latter years of their curricula for such an "advanced" apprenticeship, providing clinical clerkship experiences only after an initial period of instruction in basic medical sciences. Although Flexner codified the segregation of preclinical and clinical instruction, he was committed to ensuring that both domains were integrated into a modern medical education. The aspiration to fully integrate preclinical and clinical instruction continues to drive medical education reform even to this day. In this article, the authors revisit the original justification for sequential preclinical-clinical instruction and argue that modern, technology-enhanced patient simulation platforms are uniquely powerful for fostering simultaneous integration of preclinical-clinical content in a way that Flexner would have applauded. To date, medical educators tend to focus on using technology-enhanced medical simulation in clinical and postgraduate medical education; few have devoted significant attention to using immersive clinical simulation among preclinical students. The authors present an argument for the use of dynamic robot-mannequins in teaching basic medical science, and describe their experience with simulator-based preclinical instruction at Harvard Medical School. They discuss common misconceptions and barriers to the approach, describe their curricular responses to the technique, and articulate a unifying theory of cognitive and emotional learning that broadens the view of what is possible, feasible, and desirable with simulator-based medical education.

  9. Study and application on the evaluation method of porous formation for long-term waterflooding sand reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Changjiang; Jiang Hanqiao; Chen Minfeng; Geng Zhanli; Liu Pengfei

    2009-01-01

    Nine targets which stand both for the static characteristic of produced formations and the dynamic parameter of wells including the average permeability, variation coefficient of permeability, moving capability, remaining recoverable reserves, coefficient of flooding, daily oil production, increasing rate of water cut, cumulative liquid production per unit meter and efficiency index of oil production are selected as the evaluation indexes, a novel model to evaluate the porous formations in long-term waterflooding sand reservoir was established by using the support vector machine and clustering analysis. Data of 57 wefts from Shentuo 21 block Shengli oilfield was analyzed by using the model. Four kinds of forma-tion groups were gained. According to the analysis result, different adjustment solutions were put forward to develop the relevant formations. The Monthly oil production increased 7.6 % and the water cut decreased 8.9 % after the adjusted solutions. Good results indicate that the learning from this method gained will be valuable adding to other long-term wa-terflooding sand reservoirs in Shengli oilfield and other similar reservoirs worldwide.

  10. Evaluation of various metallic coatings on steel to mitigate biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Ikigai, Hajime; Yoshitake, Michiko

    2009-02-01

    In marine environments and water systems, it is easy for many structures to form biofilms on their surfaces and to be deteriorated due to the corrosion caused by biofilm formation by bacteria. The authors have investigated the antibacterial effects of metallic elements in practical steels so far to solve food-related problems, using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However, from the viewpoint of material deterioration caused by bacteria and their antifouling measures, we should consider the biofilm behavior as aggregate rather than individual bacterium. Therefore, we picked up Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudoalteromonas carageenovara in this study, since they easily form biofilms in estuarine and marine environments. We investigated what kind of metallic elements could inhibit the biofilm formation at first and then discussed how the thin films of those inhibitory elements on steels could affect biofilm formation. The information would lead to the establishment of effective antifouling measures against corrosion in estuarine and marine environments.

  11. Evaluation of Various Metallic Coatings on Steel to Mitigate Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Ikigai

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In marine environments and water systems, it is easy for many structures to form biofilms on their surfaces and to be deteriorated due to the corrosion caused by biofilm formation by bacteria. The authors have investigated the antibacterial effects of metallic elements in practical steels so far to solve food-related problems, using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However, from the viewpoint of material deterioration caused by bacteria and their antifouling measures, we should consider the biofilm behavior as aggregate rather than individual bacterium. Therefore, we picked up Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudoalteromonas carageenovara in this study, since they easily form biofilms in estuarine and marine environments. We investigated what kind of metallic elements could inhibit the biofilm formation at first and then discussed how the thin films of those inhibitory elements on steels could affect biofilm formation. The information would lead to the establishment of effective antifouling measures against corrosion in estuarine and marine environments.

  12. Evaluation of accelerated UV and thermal testing for benzene formation in beverages containing benzoate and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Patricia J; Wamer, Wayne G; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W; Perfetti, Gracia A

    2010-04-01

    Under certain conditions, benzene can form in beverages containing benzoic and ascorbic acids. The American Beverage Assn. (ABA) has published guidelines to help manufacturers mitigate benzene formation in beverages. These guidelines recommend accelerated testing conditions to test product formulations, because exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and elevated temperature over the shelf life of the beverage may result in benzene formation in products containing benzoic and ascorbic acids. In this study, the effects of UVA exposure on benzene formation were determined. Benzene formation was examined for samples contained in UV stabilized and non-UV stabilized packaging. Additionally, the usefulness of accelerated thermal testing to simulate end of shelf-life benzene formation was evaluated for samples containing either benzoic or ascorbic acid, or both. The 24 h studies showed that under intense UVA light benzene levels increased by as much as 53% in model solutions stored in non-UV stabilized bottles, whereas the use of UV stabilized polyethylene terephthalate bottles reduced benzene formation by about 13% relative to the non-UV stabilized bottles. Similar trends were observed for the 7 d study. Retail beverages and positive and negative controls were used to study the accelerated thermal testing conditions. The amount of benzene found in the positive controls and cranberry juice suggests that testing at 40 degrees C for 14 d may more reliably simulate end of shelf-life benzene formation in beverages. Except for cranberry juice, retail beverages were not found to contain detectable amounts of benzene (<0.05 ng/g) at the end of their shelf lives.

  13. Evaluating and elucidating the formation of nitrogen-contained disinfection by-products during pre-ozonation and chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chang, E-E; Chuang, Chao-Chin; Liang, Chung-Huei; Huang, Chin-Pao

    2010-06-01

    The effects of pre-ozonation on the formation of haloacetonitriles (HANs), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), and haloketones (HKs) during chlorination were evaluated. Ozone dose used in this study was 8.0, 10.0 and 25.0 mg O(3)/min. Results showed high UV(254) reduction (>80%) and relatively low dissolved organic carbon removal (40-70%) after ozonation, indicating that ozone might change significantly the chemical properties of natural organic matter presented in the raw water. Undesired ozonation by-products such as aldehydes and ketones were also formed during ozonation. At high ozone dose of 25.0 mg O(3)/min, the formation of dichloroacetonitrile and bromochloroacetonitrile were reduced significantly. Chlorination of the ozonated water formed high concentration of TCNM and HKs were 8-10 and 31-48 microg/L, respectively. It was also found that continuous hydrolysis at longer reaction time rapidly decreased the formation of HKs. Ozonation prior to chlorination practice exhibited a negative effect on TCNM and HKs reduction. A model based on the dissolved organic carbon and chlorine decay was developed not only for determining the reaction rate constants, e.g. formation and hydrolysis of HANs, HKs and TCNM, but also for interpreting the mechanisms of formation and hydrolysis for HANs, HKs and TCNM during the chlorination of natural organic matter.

  14. Technologically enhanced 210Pb and 210Po in iron and steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Ashraf E M; Bakr, Wafaa F

    2011-05-01

    Iron and steel manufacture has been ranked as the largest industrial source of environmental contamination in the USA; the wastes generated in their production processes contain heavy elements that can be a source of contamination, and natural radionuclides that can produce an occupational and/or public radiological impact. In this work the potential occupational effective dose rate (μSv/y) due to inhalation in four integrated steel-making factories from Egypt has been evaluated, by assuming a well defined scenario and with basis in the (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations determined in ore and wastes collected in the aforementioned factories. Activity concentrations, in Bq/kg, of (210)Pb and (210)Po, and leachable Pb and Fe were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe detector, alpha particle spectrometry based on PIPS detector, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Levels of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the range of evaluation.

  15. Evaluating design-based formative assessment practices in outdoor science teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Stevenson, Matthew Peter; Bentsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Research in formative assessment often pays close attention to the strategies which can be used by teachers. However, less emphasis in the literature seems to have been paid to study the application of formative assessment designs in practice. In this paper, we argue...... of the design, based on video-elicited focus group interviews with two groups of experienced science teachers. Both groups consisted of teachers who taught science outside the classroom on a regular basis. These groups watched identical video sequences which were recorded during lessons in which teachers...

  16. Evaluation of susceptibility of polymer and rubber materials intended into contact with drinking water on biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotko, Maciej; Stankiewicz, Agnieszka; Jamsheer-Bratkowska, Małgorzata

    Plumbing materials in water distribution networks and indoor installations are constantly evolving. The application of new, more economical solutions with plastic materials eliminates the corrosion problems, however, do not fully protect the consumer against secondary microbial contamination of water intended for human consumption caused by the presence of a biofilm on the inner surface of materials applied. National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene conducts research aimed at a comprehensive assessment of this type of materials, resulting their further marketing authorization in Poland. Evaluation and comparison of polymer and rubber materials intended to contact with water for the susceptibility to biofilm formation. Plastic materials (polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride) and rubber compounds (EPDM, NBR), from different manufacturers were evaluated. The study was carried out on 37 samples, which were divided into groups according to the material of which they were made. The testing was conducted according to the method based on conditions of dynamic flow of tap water. The level of bioluminescence in swabs taken from the surface of the tested materials was investigated with a luminometer. Evaluation of plastic materials does not show major objections in terms of hygienic assessment. All materials met the evaluation criteria established for methodology used. In case of rubber compounds, a substantial part clearly exceeded the limit values, which resulted in their negative assessment and elimination of these materials from domestic market. High susceptibility to the formation of biofilm in the group of products made of rubber compounds has been demonstrated. Examined plastic materials, except for several cases, do not revealed susceptibility to biofilm formation, but application of plastics for distribution of water intended for human consumption does not fully protect water from secondary, microbiological contamination. Complete

  17. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Svendsen, M.S.; Salado, J.

    2008-01-01

    thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation...... (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. RESULTS: Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P ....0035). No correlation between ETP and TTG was found (P = 0.65). CONCLUSION: The kinetics of thrombin generation, as evaluated by CAT, correlates with the thrombus generation, as evaluated by thrombelastography and this may in part explain the clinical utility of the TEG in identifying clinically relevant coagulopathies...

  18. On the respective contributions of awareness of unconditioned stimulus valence and unconditioned stimulus identity in attitude formation through evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Corneille, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) is a central mechanism for both classic and current theories of attitude formation. In contrast to Pavlovian conditioning, it is often conceptualized as a form of evaluative learning that occurs without awareness of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) contingencies. In the present research, the authors directly address this point by assessing the respective roles of US valence awareness and US identity awareness in attitude formation through EC. Across 4 experiments, EC was assessed with evaluative ratings as well as evaluative priming measures, and the impact of valence and identity awareness on EC was evaluated. EC effects on priming and rating measures occurred only for CSs for which participants could report the associated US valence, and US identity awareness did not further contribute to EC. This finding was obtained both for semantically meaningless (i.e., nonword letter sequences) and meaningful (i.e., consumer products) CSs. These results provide further support for the critical role of contingency awareness in EC, albeit valence awareness, not identity awareness.

  19. A Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Data from a Formative Usability Evaluation of an Augmented Reality Learning Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Daniel IORDACHE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of augmented reality (AR technologies creates opportunities for the devel-opment of new learning scenarios. More recently, the advances in the design and implementation of desktop AR systems make it possible the deployment of such scenarios in primary and secondary schools. Usability evaluation is a precondition for the pedagogical effectiveness of these new technologies and requires a systematic approach for finding and fixing usability problems. In this paper we present an approach to a formative usability evaluation based on heuristic evaluation and user testing. The basic idea is to compare and integrate quantitative and qualitative measures in order to increase confidence in results and enhance the descriptive power of the usability evaluation report.

  20. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krason, J.; Finley, P.

    1988-01-01

    The summaries of regional basin analyses document that potentially economic accumulations of gas hydrates can be formed in both active and passive margin settings. The principal requirement for gas hydrate formation in either setting is abundant methane. Passive margin sediments with high sedimentation rates and sufficient sedimentary organic carbon can generate large quantities of biogenic methane for hydrate formation. Similarly, active margin locations near a terrigenous sediment source can also have high methane generation potential due to rapid burial of adequate amounts of sedimentary organic matter. Many active margins with evidence of gas hydrate presence correspond to areas subject to upwelling. Upwelling currents can enhance methane generation by increasing primary productivity and thus sedimentary organic carbon. Structural deformation of the marginal sediments at both active and passive sites can enhance gas hydrate formation by providing pathways for migration of both biogenic and thermogenic gas to the shallow gas hydrate stability zone. Additionally, conventional hydrocarbon traps may initially concentrate sufficient amounts of hydrocarbons for subsequent gas hydrate formation.

  1. Caregiver Use of the Core Components of Technology-Enhanced Helping the Noncompliant Child: A Case Series Analysis of Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T; Jones, Deborah J; Cuellar, Jessica; Forehand, Rex; Gonzalez, Michelle; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Newey, Greg; Edwards, Alex; Jacobs, Mary; Pitmman, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Children from low-income families are more likely to develop early-onset disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) compared to their higher income counterparts. Low-income families of children with early-onset DBDs, however, are less likely to engage in the standard-of-care treatment, behavioral parent training (BPT), than families from other sociodemographic groups. Preliminary between-group findings suggested technology-enhanced BPT was associated with increased engagement and boosted treatment outcomes for low-income families relative to standard BPT. The current study used a case series design to take this research a step further by examining whether there was variability in use of, and reactions to, the smartphone enhancements within technology-enhanced BPT and the extent to which this variability paralleled treatment outcome. Findings provide a window into the uptake and use of technology-enhanced service delivery methods among low-income families, with implications for the broader field of children's mental health.

  2. Source-rock evaluation of the Dakhla Formation black shale in Gebel Duwi, Quseir area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kammar, M. M.

    2015-04-01

    A relatively thick Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary sedimentary succession is exposed in Gebel Duwi, Red Sea area, through an almost horizontal tunnel cutting the NE dipping strata from Quseir to Thebes formations. The black shale belonging to Dakhla Formation represents a real potential for future energy resource for Egypt. Dakhla Formation consists mainly of organic-rich calcareous shale to argillaceous limestone that can be considered as a good to excellent source rock potential. The total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges from 2.04% to 12.08%, and the Hydrogen Index (HI) values range from 382 to 1024 mg HC/g TOC. Samples of the Dakhla Formation contain mostly kerogen of types I and II that prone oil and oil-gas, indicating marine organic matter derived mainly from algae and phytoplankton organisms and proposing typical oil source kerogen. The average of the potential index (PI) value is 0.02 mg HC/g rock, which indicates the beginning of a considerable amount of oil generation from the Dakhla Formation. The Tmax values range from 427 to 435 °C. Based on the Tmax data and PI values, the studied black shale samples are immature to early mature for hydrocarbon generation in the Duwi area. The data reduction suggests four main factors covering about 91% of the total variances. The average of the calorific value (459 kcal/kg) indicates unworkable efficiency of such black shale for direct combustion use in power stations. However, selective operation of specific horizons having the highest calorific values may provide viable resources.

  3. Growth, inactivation and histamine formation of Morganella psychrotolerans and Morganella morganii - development and evaluation of predictive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-12-10

    Mathematical models for growth, heat inactivation and histamine formation by Morganella psychrotolerans and Morganella morganii were studied to evaluate the importance of these bacteria in seafood. Curves for growth and histamine formation by M. psychrotolerans in broth and seafood were generated at constant and changing storage temperatures (n=12). Observed and predicted times to formation of 100, 500 and 2000 ppm histamine were used for evaluation of an existing M. psychrotolerans histamine formation model [Emborg, J., Dalgaard, P., 2008-this issue-this issue. Modelling and predicting the growth and histamine formation by Morganella psychrotolerans. International Journal of Food Microbiology. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.08.016] Growth rates for M. psychrotolerans and M. morganii were determined at different constant temperatures from 0 degrees C to 42.5 degrees C whereas heat inactivation was studied between 37.5 degrees C and 60 degrees C. A M. morganii growth and histamine formation model was developed by combining these new data (growth rate model) and data from the existing literature (maximum population density and yield factor for histamine formation). The developed M. morganii model was evaluated by comparison of predicted growth and histamine formation with data from the existing literature. Observed and predicted growth rates for M. psychrotolerans, at constant temperatures, were similar with bias- and accuracy factor values of 1.15 and 1.45, respectively (n=11). On average times to formation of critical concentrations of histamine by M. psychrotolerans were acceptably predicted but the model was not highly accurate. Nevertheless, predictions seemed useful to support decisions concerning safe shelf-life in relation to formulation, storage and distribution of chilled seafood. Parameters for the effect of temperature on growth and inactivation of M. psychrotolerans and M. morganii differed markedly with Tmin of -8.3 to -5.9 degrees C vs. 0.3 to 2

  4. Genome-wide evaluation of the interplay between Caenorhabditis elegans and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis during in vivo biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, George W P; Atkinson, Steve; Goldstone, Robert J; Patrick, Hannah L; Stabler, Richard A; Purves, Joanne; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Wren, Brendan W

    2015-01-01

    The formation of an incapacitating biofilm on Caenorhabditis elegans by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis represents a tractable model for investigating the genetic basis for host-pathogen interplay during the biofilm-mediated infection of a living surface. Previously we established a role for quorum sensing (QS) and the master motility regulator, FlhDC, in biofilm formation by Y. pseudotuberculosis on C. elegans. To obtain further genome-wide insights, we used transcriptomic analysis to obtain comparative information on C. elegans in the presence and absence of biofilm and on wild-type Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pseudotuberculosis QS mutants. Infection of C. elegans with the wild-type Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in the differential regulation of numerous genes, including a distinct subset of nematode C-lectin (clec) and fatty acid desaturase (fat) genes. Evaluation of the corresponding C. elegans clec-49 and fat-3 deletion mutants showed delayed biofilm formation and abolished biofilm formation, respectively. Transcriptomic analysis of Y. pseudotuberculosis revealed that genes located in both of the histidine utilization (hut) operons were upregulated in both QS and flhDC mutants. In addition, mutation of the regulatory gene hutC resulted in the loss of biofilm, increased expression of flhDC, and enhanced swimming motility. These data are consistent with the existence of a regulatory cascade in which the Hut pathway links QS and flhDC. This work also indicates that biofilm formation by Y. pseudotuberculosis on C. elegans is an interactive process during which the initial attachment/recognition of Yersinia to/by C. elegans is followed by bacterial growth and biofilm formation.

  5. Evaluating Galactic Habitability Using High Resolution Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan; Cockell, Charles; Libeskind, Noam

    2015-01-01

    We present the first model that couples high-resolution simulations of the formation of Local Group galaxies with calculations of the galactic habitable zone (GHZ), a region of space which has sufficient metallicity to form terrestrial planets without being subject to hazardous radiation. These simulations allow us to make substantial progress in mapping out the asymmetric three-dimensional GHZ and its time evolution for the Milky Way (MW) and Triangulum (M33) galaxies, as opposed to works that generally assume an azimuthally symmetric GHZ. Applying typical habitability metrics to MW and M33, we find that while a large number of habitable planets exist as close as a few kiloparsecs from the galactic centre, the probability of individual planetary systems being habitable rises as one approaches the edge of the stellar disc. Tidal streams and satellite galaxies also appear to be fertile grounds for habitable planet formation. In short, we find that both galaxies arrive at similar GHZs by different evolutionary ...

  6. Evaluating formation fluid models and calibrations using clumped isotope paleothermometry on Bahamian dolomites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sean T.; Swart, Peter K.

    2017-06-01

    The use of stable oxygen isotopes to understand the mechanisms of dolomite formation has been hampered by the inability to precipitate well-ordered dolomite under normal Earth surface conditions. Several studies have attempted to address this problem, either by precipitating high-temperature ordered dolomites and extrapolating the data to low temperatures or by using more disordered very-high Mg-calcites as a proxy for low temperature dolomites. The result is eight equations that disagree significantly from each other (by as much as ∼3.6‰ in the δ18O value of the precipitating fluid at 25 °C), and produce differences which can greatly affect the interpretation of the formation mechanisms for low temperature dolomites. However, by combining the recently developed clumped-isotope paleothermometer, an independent isotopic measurement (∆47) that directly relates to the temperature of formation, to Late Miocene to Pleistocene aged dolomites from the Bahamas with a well-constrained thermal and fluid history, we have attempted to narrow down the viable equations used to interpret the δ18O values of dolomites. The clumped-isotope temperatures measured on the Bahamian dolomites (16-37 °C) agrees with the range of temperatures expected in the Bahamas. Pairing these temperatures with geological and mineralogical arguments, we favor the equation suggested by Matthews and Katz (1977), as it is the only one that produces realistic δ18O fluid values across the range of clumped-isotope temperatures. Both the clumped-isotope temperatures and δ18O values of the precipitating fluid show a strong positive covariance that we have interpreted as reflecting the mixing of surface brines that have undergone varying amounts of evaporation and normal seawater. The different mechanisms driving these fluids included formation by normal marine seawater driven by the compensatory flow of the mixing zone, bank wide Kohout convection, and evaporative brine reflux.

  7. FY 2010 Fourth Quarter Report: Evaluation of the Dependency of Drizzle Formation on Aerosol Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W; McGraw, R; Liu, Y; Wang, J; Vogelmann, A; Daum, PH

    2010-10-01

    Metric for Quarter 4: Report results of implementation of composite parameterization in single-column model (SCM) to explore the dependency of drizzle formation on aerosol properties. To better represent VOCALS conditions during a test flight, the Liu-Duam-McGraw (LDM) drizzle parameterization is implemented in the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, as well as in the single-column Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), to explore this dependency.

  8. Evaluation of the relationship between bulk organic precursors and disinfection byproduct formation for advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Daugherty, Erin; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-02-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are gaining traction as they offer mineralization potential rather than transferring contaminants between media. However, AOPs operated with limited energy and/or chemical inputs can exacerbate disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation, even as precursors such as dissolved organic carbon, UV254, and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) decrease. This study examined the relationship between DBP precursors and formation using TiO2 photocatalysis experiments, external AOP and non-AOP data, and predictive DBP models. The top-performing indicator, SUVA, generally correlated positively with trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids, but limited-energy photocatalysis yielded contrasting negative correlations. The accuracy of predicted DBP values from models based on bulk parameters was generally poor, regardless of use and extent of AOP treatment and type of source water. Though performance improved for scenarios bounded by conditions used in model development, only 0.5% of the model/dataset pairings satisfied all measured parameter boundary conditions, thereby introducing skepticism toward model usefulness. Study findings suggest that caution should be employed when using bulk indicators and/or models as a metric for AOP mitigation of DBP formation potential, particularly for limited-energy/chemical inputs.

  9. Experimental method for the evaluation of the susceptibility of materials to shear band formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tham R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize materials with respect to their susceptibility to shear band formation at high strain rates, a modified Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus and hat-shaped steel specimens with a shear zone having a width significantly larger than the typical width of adiabatic bands are used. The sample is directly impacted by the striker. The force acting on the sample is measured with a PVDF-gauge between the sample and the output bar. The displacement is recorded with an electro-optical extensometer. The energy absorbed by the shearing process up to failure can be used as a reference for the susceptibility of materials to shear band formation. The method is demonstrated comparing the shear behavior of two high-strength steels with similar metallic structure and strength. Differences were found in the transition region between quasi-static and fully adiabatic shearing conditions where the energy up to rupture differs by 40 %. For fully adiabatic shear band formation, the deformation process of both materials equals. At extreme rates, shear processes are mainly governed by the thermodynamic properties of the materials. On the other hand, strength and structural properties play a role for low and intermediate rates where global and localized shear mechanisms occur in parallel.

  10. Radiographic evaluation and unusual bone formations in different genetic patterns in synpolydactyly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yucel, Aylin; Acar, Murat [Afyon Kocatepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Afyon (Turkey); Kuru, Ilhami; Bozan, M. Eray [Afyon Kocatepe University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Afyon (Turkey); Solak, Mustafa [Afyon Kocatepe University School of Medicine, Department of Genetics, Afyon (Turkey)

    2005-08-01

    To compare the radiological findings of heterozygous and homozygous subjects with synpolydactyly (SPD) and to discuss their unusual bone formations. Families with hand and foot SPD were examined. Genetic analysis was performed with blood samples and the pedigree was constructed. The affected individuals, especially those with distinctive phenotypic features, were invited to our orthopaedics clinic for further diagnostic studies. All participants underwent detailed clinical and X-ray examinations. Of the invited patients, 16 (five female and 11 male; age range 4-37 years, mean age 10.75 years) were included in our study, and hand and foot radiographs were obtained. All subjects had bilateral hand radiographs (32 hands), and 14 had bilateral foot radiographs (28 feet). Genetic analysis revealed 12 heterozygote (75%) and four (25%) homozygote phenotypes. Among patients enrolled into the study nine (three homozygotes, six heterozygotes) had SPD of both hands and feet bilaterally (tetrasynpolydactyly). Six unusual bone formations were observed in the hands and feet: delta phalanx, delta metacarpal/metatarsal, kissing delta phalanx, true double epiphysis, pseudoepiphysis and cone-shaped epiphysis. There were major differences in radiological and clinical manifestations of homozygote and heterozygote phenotypes. The homozygous SPD presented with very distinctive unusual bone formations. The existence and variety of unusual bones may indicate the severity of penetrance and expressivity of SPD. (orig.)

  11. Action of silver nanoparticles towards biological systems: cytotoxicity evaluation using hen's egg test and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Priscila L L; Stamford, Thayza C M; Albuquerque, Allan J R; Sampaio, Fabio C; Cavalcante, Horacinna M M; Macedo, Rui O; Galembeck, André; Flores, Miguel A P; Rosenblatt, Aronita

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and bactericidal properties of four silver nanoparticle (AgNP) colloids and their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was evaluated based on signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane using the hen's egg test (HET-CAM). Bactericidal properties and inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation were determined using a parallel-flow cell system and a dichromatic fluorescent stain. The percentage of viable cells was calculated from regression data generated from a viability standard. AgNP colloids proved to be non-irritating, as they were unable to promote vasoconstriction, haemorrhage or coagulation. AgNP colloids inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel, and cell viability measured by fluorescence was 0% for samples S1, S2, S3 and S4 and 36.5% for the positive control (diluted 30% silver diamine fluoride). AgNPs are new products with a low production cost because they have a lower concentration of silver, with low toxicity and an effective bactericidal effect against a cariogenic oral bacterium. Moreover, they do not promote colour change in dental enamel, which is an aesthetic advantage compared with traditional silver products.

  12. User-driven Development of an Inquiry-Based Learning Platform: Qualitative Formative Evaluations in weSPOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Bedek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the formative evaluation activities that were designed and implemented during the development of the weSPOT1 inquiry based learning platform. With the ambition to provide a platform that supports a broad range of inquiry activities in accordance with end-users needs, an agile software development approach was followed as a process of co-design between practitioners, researchers and developers. The paper focuses on the design of end-user centric evaluation activities for fully exploiting the potential of agile development. A detailed overview of several case studies is presented to demonstrate how implementing a continuous evaluation cycle allowed to pinpoint and help resolve arising issues in a process of collaboration between technology development and pedagogy.

  13. EVALUATION FORMATIVE INITIALE DE LA COMPETENCE INTERCULTURELLE DES APPRENANTS DE FLE DANS LE CONTEXTE UNIVERSITAIRE

    OpenAIRE

    ORCHOWSKA, IZABELA

    2005-01-01

    The problem discussed in the article refers to a wider context of the empirical research realized within the doctoral dissertation. The research aims at proving the influence of the educational evaluation of the intercultural competence on the development of personal communicative competence of the first year students of French in the College of Foreign Language at the University of Adam Mickiewicz. The evaluation of the competence was conducted in the institutional conditions with the ...

  14. ENDF-102 data formats and procedures for the evaluated nuclear data file ENDF-6. Revision November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F. [eds.

    1995-11-01

    The ENDF formats and libraries are decided by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a cooperative effort of national laboratories, industry, and universities in the US and Canada, and are maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). Earlier versions of the ENDF format provided representations for neutron cross sections and distributions, photon production from neutron reactions, a limited amount of charged-particle production from neutron reactions, photo-atomic interaction data, thermal neutron scattering data, and radionuclide production and decay data (including fission products). Version 6 (ENDF-6) allows higher incident energies, adds more complete descriptions of the distributions of emitted particles, and provides for incident charged particles and photo-nuclear data by partitioning the ENDF library into sublibraries. Decay data, fission product yield data, thermal scattering data, and photo-atomic data have also been formally placed in sublibraries. In addition, this rewrite represents an extensive update to the Version V manual.

  15. Evaluation des systèmes existants pour le suivi à long terme des déformations des ponts

    OpenAIRE

    BURDET, Olivier; Muttoni, Aurelio

    2006-01-01

    Le projet de recherche Evaluation des systèmes existants pour le suivi à long terme des déformations des ponts a été initié dans le but de préparer sous forme condensée une présentation et une évaluation des systèmes de mesure existants pour le suivi à long terme des déformations de ponts ainsi que des recommandations en vue d’applications particulières. Ce sujet est d’actualité car d’une part il importe de gérer au mieux les ouvrages et les ressources et d’autre part parce que plusieurs cas ...

  16. Application of well log analysis for source rock evaluation in the Duwi Formation, Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sharawy, Mohamed S.; Gaafar, Gamal R.

    2012-05-01

    Several models were developed to use the conventional wireline logs for evaluating the thermal maturity of the source rock and calculating the total organic carbon (TOC) content. Application of these models for the Duwi Formation, southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt, is the main purpose of this paper. Gamma ray, density, sonic, resistivity and neutron are the commonly used wireline logs to identify and quantify source rock. The results, which compared with the results obtained from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis show that cautions must be taken into consideration when applied these models because most of the models are empirical and their validation takes place under certain conditions. It can be concluded that the Duwi Formation represents very good source rock capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbon of oil-prone type II. The kerogen is waxy sapropel related to marine plankton deposited under reduced condition.

  17. A coverslip-based technique for evaluating Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N Walker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, to form biofilms is increasingly being viewed as an important contributor to chronic infections. In vitro methods for analyzing S. aureus biofilm formation have focused on bacterial attachment and accumulation on abiotic surfaces, such as in microtiter plate and flow cell assays. Microtiter plates provide a rapid measure of relative biomass levels, while flow cells have limited experimental throughput but are superior for confocal microscopy biofilm visualization. Although these assays have proven effective at identifying mechanisms involved in cell attachment and biofilm accumulation, the significance of these assays in vivo remains unclear. Studies have shown that when medical devices are implanted they are coated with host factors, such as matrix proteins, that facilitate S. aureus attachment and biofilm formation. To address the challenge of integrating existing biofilm assay features with a biotic surface, we have established an in vitro biofilm technique utilizing UV-sterilized coverslips coated with human plasma. The substratum more closely resembles the in vivo state and provides a platform for S. aureus to establish a robust biofilm. Importantly, these coverslips are amenable to confocal microscopy imaging to provide a visual reference of the biofilm growth stage, effectively merging the benefits of the microtiter and flow cell assays. We confirmed the approach using clinical S. aureus isolates and mutants with known biofilm phenotypes. Altogether, this new biofilm assay can be used to assess the function of S. aureus virulence factors associated with biofilm formation and for monitoring the efficacy of biofilm treatment modalities.

  18. Efficacy of a root conditioning agent on fibrin network formation in periodontal regeneration: A SEM evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajender Amireddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though numerous biomaterials have been devised and employed for periodontal regeneration, it should be well understood that the root surface receptiveness to clot formation and maintenance during initial periodontal wound healing, decides the nature of the connective tissue attachment. So this study was carried out with the prime objective of assessing the initial wound healing events occurring in vivo after the application of citric acid on to the root surfaces during periodontal regenerative therapy. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two human teeth were used for this in vitro study. Two dentin blocks each measuring 4 × 2 × 1 mm were made from each tooth. These dentin blocks were planed and treated differently with Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS, citric acid, PBS and fresh human blood, citric acid and fresh human blood and were segregated into eight groups. Finally all the dentin blocks were processed and subjected to a scanning electron microscope study. Results: In PBS-treated samples, the dentin surface was irregular corresponding to smear layer and the dentinal tubule openings were obscured. Whereas, in those treated with citric acid revealed a smooth dentin surface devoid of smear layer and the dentinal tubular openings were clear. Further samples that were treated with PBS plus blood showed little or no fibrin network formation whereas with those citric acid plus blood showed a fine thick fibrin network formation adhered to dentinal surface. Conclusion: The results of this present in vitro study suggests that use of citric acid as a root conditioning agent has a beneficial effect on initial wound healing events, which are critical for periodontal regenerative therapies.

  19. EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF PARKING SYSTEM FORMATION ON EXAMPLE OF KHARKIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kholodova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to use the known dependence of the change of indicators of transport traffic functioning, namely the total travel time, depending on the nature of placing the cars parked on the road network of the city to determine the effectiveness of the system of parking. The technique tested on example of Kharkiv allowed to establish that as a result of formation of car parks in cities the total travel time of all road users of the road network is reduced.

  20. Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

  1. Rapidly-deposited polydopamine coating via high temperature and vigorous stirring: formation, characterization and biofunctional evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    Full Text Available Polydopamine (PDA coating provides a promising approach for immobilization of biomolecules onto almost all kinds of solid substrates. However, the deposition kinetics of PDA coating as a function of temperature and reaction method is not well elucidated. Since dopamine self-polymerization usually takes a long time, therefore, rapid-formation of PDA film becomes imperative for surface modification of biomaterials and medical devices. In the present study, a practical method for preparation of rapidly-deposited PDA coating was developed using a uniquely designed device, and the kinetics of dopamine self-polymerization was investigated by QCM sensor system. It was found that high temperature and vigorous stirring could dramatically speed up the formation of PDA film on QCM chip surface. Surface characterization, BSA binding study, cell viability assay and antibacterial test demonstrates that the polydopamine coating after polymerization for 30 min by our approach exhibits similar properties to those of 24 h counterpart. The method has a great potential for rapid-deposition of polydopamine films to modify biomaterial surfaces.

  2. Rapidly-deposited polydopamine coating via high temperature and vigorous stirring: formation, characterization and biofunctional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Deng, Yi; Lyu, Beier; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Hai; Ma, Hongwei; Lyu, Yalin; Wei, Shicheng

    2014-01-01

    Polydopamine (PDA) coating provides a promising approach for immobilization of biomolecules onto almost all kinds of solid substrates. However, the deposition kinetics of PDA coating as a function of temperature and reaction method is not well elucidated. Since dopamine self-polymerization usually takes a long time, therefore, rapid-formation of PDA film becomes imperative for surface modification of biomaterials and medical devices. In the present study, a practical method for preparation of rapidly-deposited PDA coating was developed using a uniquely designed device, and the kinetics of dopamine self-polymerization was investigated by QCM sensor system. It was found that high temperature and vigorous stirring could dramatically speed up the formation of PDA film on QCM chip surface. Surface characterization, BSA binding study, cell viability assay and antibacterial test demonstrates that the polydopamine coating after polymerization for 30 min by our approach exhibits similar properties to those of 24 h counterpart. The method has a great potential for rapid-deposition of polydopamine films to modify biomaterial surfaces.

  3. Rapidly-Deposited Polydopamine Coating via High Temperature and Vigorous Stirring: Formation, Characterization and Biofunctional Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Deng, Yi; Lyu, Beier; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Hai; Ma, Hongwei; Lyu, Yalin; Wei, Shicheng

    2014-01-01

    Polydopamine (PDA) coating provides a promising approach for immobilization of biomolecules onto almost all kinds of solid substrates. However, the deposition kinetics of PDA coating as a function of temperature and reaction method is not well elucidated. Since dopamine self-polymerization usually takes a long time, therefore, rapid-formation of PDA film becomes imperative for surface modification of biomaterials and medical devices. In the present study, a practical method for preparation of rapidly-deposited PDA coating was developed using a uniquely designed device, and the kinetics of dopamine self-polymerization was investigated by QCM sensor system. It was found that high temperature and vigorous stirring could dramatically speed up the formation of PDA film on QCM chip surface. Surface characterization, BSA binding study, cell viability assay and antibacterial test demonstrates that the polydopamine coating after polymerization for 30 min by our approach exhibits similar properties to those of 24 h counterpart. The method has a great potential for rapid-deposition of polydopamine films to modify biomaterial surfaces. PMID:25415328

  4. Secondary organic aerosol formation in cloud and fog droplets: a literature evaluation of plausibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James D.; Turpin, Barbara J.

    This paper investigates the hypothesis that cloud and fog processes produce fine organic particulate matter in the atmosphere. The evidence provided suggests that cloud and fog processes could be important contributors to secondary organic aerosol formation, and the contribution of this formation pathway should be further investigated. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (1) many organic vapors present in the atmosphere are sorbed by suspended droplets and have been measured in cloud and fog water, (2) organics participate in aqueous-phase reactions, and (3) organic particulate matter is sometimes found in the size mode attributed to cloud processing (i.e. the droplet mode). Specific compounds identified as potential precursors include aldehydes (e.g. formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and propionaldehyde), acetone, alcohols (e.g. methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and phenol), monocarboxylic acids, and organic peroxides. Carboxylic acids (e.g. diacids and oxo-acids), glyoxal, esters, organosulfur compounds, polyols, amines and amino acids are potential products of cloud and fog processing.

  5. Using a Mixed Methods Research Design in a Study Investigating the "Heads of e-Learning" Perspective towards Technology Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almpanis, Timos

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines the research design, methodology and methods employed in research conducted in the context of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and focuses on the Heads of e-Learning (HeLs) perspective about Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) by campus-based UK institutions. This paper aims to expand on the research design and the research…

  6. A Critical Appraisal of Foreign Language Research in Content and Language Integrated Learning, Young Language Learners, and Technology-Enhanced Language Learning Published in Spain (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; Masats, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review provides a critical overview of research publications in Spain in the last ten years in three areas of teaching and learning foreign languages (especially English): context and language integrated learning (CLIL), young language learners (YLL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL). These three domains have…

  7. An Examination of the Changes in Science Teaching Orientations and Technology-Enhanced Tools for Student Learning in the Context of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Zuwallack, Rebecca; Longhurst, Max; Shelton, Brett E.; Wolf, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    This research examines how science teaching orientations and beliefs about technology-enhanced tools change over time in professional development (PD). The primary data sources for this study came from learning journals of 8 eighth grade science teachers at the beginning and conclusion of a year of PD. Based on the analysis completed, Information…

  8. Technology-Enhanced Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: What Is "Enhanced" and How Do We Know? A Critical Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The term technology-enhanced learning (TEL) is used to describe the application of information and communication technologies to teaching and learning. Explicit statements about what the term is understood to mean are rare and it is not evident that a shared understanding has been developed in higher education of what constitutes an…

  9. A Critical Appraisal of Foreign Language Research in Content and Language Integrated Learning, Young Language Learners, and Technology-Enhanced Language Learning Published in Spain (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; Masats, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review provides a critical overview of research publications in Spain in the last ten years in three areas of teaching and learning foreign languages (especially English): context and language integrated learning (CLIL), young language learners (YLL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL). These three domains have…

  10. Beneath Our Eyes: An Exploration of the Relationship between Technology Enhanced Learning and Socio-Ecological Sustainability in Art and Design Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclater, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    This article uses published research to explore how Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) can help to sustain learning communities to engage in creative exploration and open investigation. It then draws on this research to ask: how could we use TEL to support pedagogies of socio-ecological sustainability in the Art and Design education community?…

  11. Perceptions and difficulties in the use of participative methodologies and formative evaluation in science of physical activity degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Castejón Oliva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the process of adapting teaching skills within the framework of the European Higher Education Area, particularly with the introduction of Degree in Physical Activity and Sport Science from Universidad Autónoma of Madrid. The objective is to analyze the perceptions and difficulties of the teachers and students on participatory methodologies and formative evaluation systems. Data sources are from documentary analysis of the tutorials for the subjects, individual interviews with the teachers (n=4 and group interviews with the students (n=12. The results show inconsistencies between what is proposed and implemented by the teachers, and how students perceive.

  12. Nuclear logging apparatus and MWD-equipment for formation evaluation; Nukleart loggeapparat og MWD-verktoey til formasjonsevaluering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, C.A.; Daigle, G.A.; Rountree, S.P.; Talmadge, G.; Grunbeck, J.; Wassell, M

    1998-10-12

    An apparatus for nuclear logging is presented. In accordance with the present invention, nuclear detectors and electronic components are all mounted in chambers within the sub wall with covers being removably attached to the chambers. A single bus for delivering both power and signals extends through the sub wall between either end of the tool. This bus terminates at a modular ring connector positioned on each tool end. This tool construction (including sub wall mounted sensors and electronics, single power and signal bus, and ring connectors) is also well suited for other formation evaluation tools used in measurement-while-drilling applications. 28 refs.

  13. Technology Enhanced Learning Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Today’s tools and learning environments are often not designed for supporting situated, social, and mobile learning experiences and linking them to real world experiences. The talk will discuss some of the approaches for linking information space and real world space with new technology. By linking

  14. Evaluation of Computer Tools for Idea Generation and Team Formation in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaiz-Villanueva, Oscar; Nicuesa-Chacon, Xabier; Brene-Artazcoz, Oscar; Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, Maria Luisa; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to validate the effectiveness of Wikideas and Creativity Connector tools to stimulate the generation of ideas and originality by university students organized into groups according to their indexes of creativity and affinity. Another goal of the study was to evaluate the classroom climate created by these…

  15. Formation and Assessment of a Tool to Evaluate STEM Literacy in Service-Learning Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Barbara; Blomstrom, Sally; Mumpower, Lori

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the authors' research was to create a tool to evaluate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) literacy in service-learning projects. The researchers posited that components of service-learning, which in this case included the deliverable and reflections, are examples of fundamental STEM literacy and thus can be…

  16. Theory-Based Assessment in Environmental Education: A Tool for Formative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granit-Dgani, Dafna; Kaplan, Avi; Flum, Hanoch

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a theory-informed assessment instrument for use in evaluating environmental education programs. The instrument involves coding learners' brief reflective writing on five established educational and social psychological constructs that correspond to five important goals of environmental education:…

  17. Developing a Teacher Evaluation Instrument to Provide Formative Feedback Using Student Ratings of Teaching Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, Rikkert M.; van de Grift, Wim J.C.M.; van Veen, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the development of a teacher evaluation instrument, based on students’ observations, which exhibits cumulative ordering in terms of the complexity of teaching acts. The study integrates theory on teacher development with theory on teacher effectiveness and applies a cross-valid

  18. Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, S.; Garforth, C.; Rao, S. V. N.; Heffernan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings.…

  19. Theory-Based Assessment in Environmental Education: A Tool for Formative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granit-Dgani, Dafna; Kaplan, Avi; Flum, Hanoch

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a theory-informed assessment instrument for use in evaluating environmental education programs. The instrument involves coding learners' brief reflective writing on five established educational and social psychological constructs that correspond to five important goals of environmental education:…

  20. Evaluating galactic habitability using high-resolution cosmological simulations of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan; Dayal, Pratika; Cockell, Charles; Libeskind, Noam

    2017-01-01

    We present the first model that couples high-resolution simulations of the formation of local group galaxies with calculations of the galactic habitable zone (GHZ), a region of space which has sufficient metallicity to form terrestrial planets without being subject to hazardous radiation. These simulations allow us to make substantial progress in mapping out the asymmetric three-dimensional GHZ and its time evolution for the Milky Way (MW) and Triangulum (M33) galaxies, as opposed to works that generally assume an azimuthally symmetric GHZ. Applying typical habitability metrics to MW and M33, we find that while a large number of habitable planets exist as close as a few kiloparsecs from the galactic centre, the probability of individual planetary systems being habitable rises as one approaches the edge of the stellar disc. Tidal streams and satellite galaxies also appear to be fertile grounds for habitable planet formation. In short, we find that both galaxies arrive at similar GHZs by different evolutionary paths, as measured by the first and third quartiles of surviving biospheres. For the MW, this interquartile range begins as a narrow band at large radii, expanding to encompass much of the Galaxy at intermediate times before settling at a range of 2-13 kpc. In the case of M33, the opposite behaviour occurs - the initial and final interquartile ranges are quite similar, showing gradual evolution. This suggests that Galaxy assembly history strongly influences the time evolution of the GHZ, which will affect the relative time lag between biospheres in different galactic locations. We end by noting the caveats involved in such studies and demonstrate that high-resolution cosmological simulations will play a vital role in understanding habitability on galactic scales, provided that these simulations accurately resolve chemical evolution.

  1. Formative evaluation of a patient-specific clinical knowledge summarization tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Mostafa, Javed; Pu, Dongqiuye; Medlin, Richard; Slager, Stacey; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R; Weir, Charlene R

    2016-02-01

    To iteratively design a prototype of a computerized clinical knowledge summarization (CKS) tool aimed at helping clinicians finding answers to their clinical questions; and to conduct a formative assessment of the usability, usefulness, efficiency, and impact of the CKS prototype on physicians' perceived decision quality compared with standard search of UpToDate and PubMed. Mixed-methods observations of the interactions of 10 physicians with the CKS prototype vs. standard search in an effort to solve clinical problems posed as case vignettes. The CKS tool automatically summarizes patient-specific and actionable clinical recommendations from PubMed (high quality randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews) and UpToDate. Two thirds of the study participants completed 15 out of 17 usability tasks. The median time to task completion was less than 10s for 12 of the 17 tasks. The difference in search time between the CKS and standard search was not significant (median=4.9 vs. 4.5m in). Physician's perceived decision quality was significantly higher with the CKS than with manual search (mean=16.6 vs. 14.4; p=0.036). The CKS prototype was well-accepted by physicians both in terms of usability and usefulness. Physicians perceived better decision quality with the CKS prototype compared to standard search of PubMed and UpToDate within a similar search time. Due to the formative nature of this study and a small sample size, conclusions regarding efficiency and efficacy are exploratory. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Exploring Technology Supported Collaborative and Cooperative Group Formation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapina, Mia; Boticki, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the systematic literature review paper (in progress), which analyzes technology enhanced collaborative and cooperative learning in elementary education worldwide from 2004 to 2015, focusing on the exploration of technology mediated group formation. The review paper reports on only a few cases of technology supported methods…

  3. Culturable bacterial diversity from a feed water of a reverse osmosis system, evaluation of biofilm formation and biocontrol using phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgini, D R B; Dias, R S; Siqueira, V M; Valadares, L A B; Albanese, J M; Souza, R S; Torres, A P R; Sousa, M P; Silva, C C; De Paula, S O; Oliveira, V M

    2014-10-01

    Biofilm formation on reverse osmosis (RO) systems represents a drawback in the application of this technology by different industries, including oil refineries. In RO systems the feed water maybe a source of microbial contamination and thus contributes for the formation of biofilm and consequent biofouling. In this study the planktonic culturable bacterial community was characterized from a feed water of a RO system and their capacities were evaluated to form biofilm in vitro. Bacterial motility and biofilm control were also analysed using phages. As results, diverse Protobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were identified. Alphaproteobacteria was the predominant group and Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium the most abundant genera. Among the 30 isolates, 11 showed at least one type of motility and 11 were classified as good biofilm formers. Additionally, the influence of non-specific bacteriophage in the bacterial biofilms formed in vitro was investigated by action of phages enzymes or phage infection. The vB_AspP-UFV1 (Podoviridae) interfered in biofilm formation of most tested bacteria and may represent a good alternative in biofilm control. These findings provide important information about the bacterial community from the feed water of a RO system that may be used for the development of strategies for biofilm prevention and control in such systems.

  4. The marriage moments program for couples transitioning to parenthood: divergent conclusions from formative and outcome evaluation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Alan J; Fawcett, Elizabeth B; Carroll, Jason S; Gilliland, Tamara T

    2006-12-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study of the Marriage Moments program, designed to prevent relationship deterioration during the 1st year of parenthood. The self-guided, low-intensity program emphasizes strengthening marital virtues and partnership during this time of significant personal and family transition. One hundred fifty-five married couples participated in a randomized clinical trial with 2 psychoeducational treatment groups (a self-guided group and an instructor-encouraged group) and a comparable control group. Despite positive formative evaluation results from program participants, hierarchical linear modeling analyses failed to find significant Group x Time differences on spouses' reports of marital virtues and a set of relational outcome measures. This failure reinforces the need for psychoeducators to invest in outcome evaluation research before claiming program success.

  5. The Design, Prototyping, and Formative Evaluation of an Assistive Robotic Table (ART) for Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatt, Anthony L; Merino, Jessica; Brooks, Johnell O; Healy, Stan; Truesdail, Constance; Manganelli, Joseph; Walker, Ian; Green, Keith Evan

    2017-04-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study in which 14 healthcare subject matter experts (H-SMEs) in addition to four research and design subject matter experts (RD-SMEs) at a regional rehabilitation hospital engaged in a series of complementary, participatory activities in order to design an assistive robotic table (ART). As designers, human factor experts, and healthcare professionals continue to work to integrate assistive human-robot technologies in healthcare, it is imperative to understand how the technology affects patient care from clinicians' perspectives. Fourteen clinical H-SMEs rated a subset of conceptual ART design ideas; participated in the iterative design process of ART; and evaluated a final cardboard prototype, the rehabilitation hospital's current over-the-bed table (OBT), an ART built with true materials, and two therapy surface prototypes. Four RD-SMEs conducted a heuristic evaluation on the ART built with true materials. Data were analyzed by frequency and content analysis. The results include a design and prototype for the next generation ART and a pneumatically controlled therapy surface, a broadened list of specifications for the future design and implementation of assistive robotic furniture, and final observations. When compared to the rehabilitation hospital's current OBT, the developed ART in this study was successful. Designing novel features is dependent upon ensuring patient safety. The inclusion of clinicians in the participatory iterative design and evaluation process and the use of personas provided a broadened list of specifications for the successful implementation of assistive robotic furniture.

  6. Evaluation of heterotopic bone formation induced by squalane and bone morphogenetic protein composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, T; Kawai, T; Takei, N; Kise, T; Eda, S; Urist, M R

    1997-04-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein is an important molecule whose bioactivity depends on the carrier. Squalane is used in the formulation of various kinds of cosmetics because it is easily emulsified and has the property of spreading well. Thus, squalane might be effective as a bone morphogenetic protein delivery system. As a test for this possibility, gelatin capsules containing squalane and bone morphogenetic protein (bovine derived partially purified) composite were implanted under the hind-quarter perimuscular membrane of ddY mice. Control capsules containing only bone morphogenetic protein were used for controls. The implants were radiographically and histologically examined at 1 to 4 weeks after the operation. According to the radiographic analysis, squalane and bone morphogenetic protein composite and bone morphogenetic protein only control specimens formed widespread heterotopic bone tissues. The amount of heterotopic bone formation in the composite experimental specimens was approximately 40% greater than that in the controls. Histologic examination of experimental and control specimens revealed varying amounts of perichondral ossification by 2 weeks. By 3 and 4 weeks, the bone deposits were colonized by hematopoietic bone marrow. Squalane was effective for the slow local release of bone morphogenetic protein. Furthermore, the squalane and bone morphogenetic protein composite was a reliable osteoinductive biomaterial.

  7. Implementing and Evaluating a Blended Learning Format in the Communication Internship Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Smith

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of blended learning is well suited for classes that involve a high level of experiential inquiry such as internship courses. These courses allow students to combine applied, face-to-face fieldwork activities with a reflective academic component delivered online. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe the pedagogical design and implementation of a pilot blended learning format internship course. After implementation, the pilot class was assessed. Results of the survey and focus group revealed high levels of student satisfaction in the areas of course structure, faculty-student interaction, and application of theory to the “real-world” experience undertaken by students during the internship. Lower levels of satisfaction with the course’s academic rigor and a sense of community were also reported. Notably, students with experience in blended learning expressed lower levels of overall satisfaction, but reported higher levels of satisfaction with the course’s rigor and sense of community. The paper concludes by offering implications for instructors seeking to implement blended learning approaches.

  8. Evaluation of anti-Listeria meat borne Lactobacillus for biofilm formation on selected abiotic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ibarreche, Mariana; Castellano, Patricia; Vignolo, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    The ability of meat borne anti-Listeria Lactobacillus to form biofilms under different in vitro conditions and on abiotic surfaces was investigated. Biofilm formation by the adhesion to polystyrene microtiter plates was determined, this being higher for Lactobacillus curvatus CRL1532 and CRL705 and Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862. The physicochemical properties of the cell surface were relatively hydrophilic and acidic in character; L. sakei CRL1862 exhibiting the strongest autoaggregation. The adhesion of lactobacilli to stainless steel (SS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) supports at 10°C was found to be maximal for L. sakei CRL1862 on SS after 6 days. When biofilm architecture was characterized by epifluorescence and SEM, L. sakei CRL1862 homogeneously covered the SS surface while cell clusters were observed on PTFE; the extracellular polymeric substance matrix adapted to the topography and hydrophilic/hydrophobic characteristics of each material. The feasibility of L. sakei CRL1862 to form biofilm on materials used in meat processing highlights its potential as a control strategy for Listeria monocytogenes biofilms.

  9. Geochemical evaluation of upper cretaceous fruitland formation coals, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G.E.; Anders, D.E.; Law, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of coal samples from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado were used to determine thermal maturity, type of kerogen, and hydrocarbon generation potential. Mean random vitrinite reflectance (%Rm) of the Fruitland coal ranges from 0.42 to 1.54%. Rock-Eval pyrolysis data and saturated to aromatic hydrocarbon ratio indicate that the onset of thermal hydrocarbon generation begins at about 0.60% Rm and peak generation occurs at about 0.85% Rm. Several samples have hydrogen index values between 200 and 400, indicating some potential for liquid hydrocarbon generation and a mixed Type III and II kerogen. Pentacyclic and tricyclic terpanes, steranes, aromatic steroids and methylphenanthrene maturity parameters were observed through the complete range of thermal maturity in the Fruitland coals. Aromatic pentacyclic terpanes, similar to those found in brown coals of Australia, were observed in low maturity samples, but not found above 0.80% Rm. N-alkane depleted coal samples, which occur at a thermal maturity of approx. 0.90% Rm, paralleling peak hydrocarbon generation, are fairly widespread throughout the basin. Depletion of n-alkanes in these samples may be due to gas solution stripping and migration fromthe coal seams coincident with the development of pressure induced fracturing due to hydrocarbon generation; however, biodegradation may also effect these samples. ?? 1993.

  10. It's Not My Place: Formative Evaluation Research to Design a Bystander Intervention Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Sundstrom, Beth; Grzejdziak, Maja; Booth, Kathleen; Adams, Helen; Gabel, Colby; Cabot, Jeri

    2015-10-07

    Sexual misconduct remains a problem on college campuses despite years of documentation and research, and program development and implementation. The purpose of this study was to conduct systematic theory-based formative audience research to understand how college women and men make meaning of sexual assault and bystander intervention. A total of 69 men and women aged 18 to 24 years participated in eight gender-specific focus group discussions. A grounded theory approach was used to identify patterns and themes across the data. Themes emerging from the data included the following: (a) female participants' experiences of sexism and misogyny, (b) the myth that rape is falsely reported, (c) complex understandings of consent and entitlement, (d) the reluctance to stop someone from having a "good time," (e) the role of alcohol as a moderating factor in sexual misconduct and bystander intervention, and (f) preference for direct and impactful messaging. This study informs researchers and practitioners about college students' perceptions of, and experiences with, bystander intervention and sexual assault. Practitioners can use this information to develop effective mixed media, campus-wide social marketing campaigns.

  11. A statistical evaluation of formation disturbance produced by well- casing installation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, R.H.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Teasdale, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Water-resources investigations concerned with contaminant transport through aquifers comprised of very loose, unconsolidated sediments have shown that small-scale variations in aquifer characteristics can significantly affect solute transport and dispersion. Commonly, measurement accuracy and resolution have been limited by a borehole environment consisting of an annulus of disturbed sediments produced by the casing-installation method. In an attempt to quantify this disturbance and recognize its impact on the characterization of unconsolidated deposits, three installation methods were examined and compared in a sand-and-gravel outwash at a test site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. These installation methods were: 1) casing installed in a mud-rotary hole; 2) casing installed in an augered hole; and 3) flush-joint steel casing hammer-driven from land surface. Fifteen wells were logged with epithermal neutron and natural gamma tools. Concludes that augering is the most disruptive of the three casing-installation methods and that driving casing directly, though typically a more time-consuming operation, transmits the least amount of disturbance into the surrounding formation. -from Authors

  12. Formative and summative evaluation efforts for the Teacher Enhancement Institute conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center, summer 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Randal D.

    1994-01-01

    The Teacher Enhancement Institute (TEI) at NASA Langley Research Center was developed in response to Executive Order 12821 which mandates national laboratories to 'assist in the mathematics and science education of our Nation's students, teachers, parents, and the public by establishing programs at their agency to provide for training elementary and secondary school teachers to improve their knowledge of mathematics and science. Such programs, to the maximum extent possible, shall involve partnerships with universities, state and local elementary and secondary school authorities, corporations and community based organizations'. The faculty worked closely with one another and the invited speakers to insure that the sessions supported the objectives. Speakers were informed of the objectives and given guidance concerning form and function for the session. Faculty members monitored sessions to assist speakers and to provide a quality control function. Faculty provided feedback to speakers concerning general objective accomplishment. Participant comments were also provided when applicable. Post TEI surveys asked for specific comments about each TEI session. During the second of the two, two week institutes, daily critiques were provided to the participants for their reflection. This seemed to provide much improved feedback to speakers and faculty because the sessions were fresh in each participant's mind. Between sessions one and two, some changes were made to the program as a result of the formative evaluation process. Those changes, though, were minor in nature and comprised what may be called 'fine tuning' a well conceived and implemented program. After the objectives were written, an assessment instrument was developed to test the accomplishment of the objectives. This instrument was actually two surveys, one given before the TEI and one given after the TEI. In using such a series, it was expected that changes in the participants induced by attendance at TEI may be

  13. Evaluation of Injection Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Using an Integrated Injection Well and Geologic Formation Numerical Simulation Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM

    2011-12-01

    A series of integrated injection well and geologic formation numerical simulations was performed to evaluate the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide using a multiphase thermo-hydrological numerical model. The numerical simulation results show that groundwater flow, carbon dioxide flow, and heat transport in both injection well and sandstone formation can be simultaneously analyzed, and thus the injection efficiency (i.e., injection rate and injectivity) of carbon dioxide can be quantitatively evaluated using the integrated injection well and geologic formation numerical simulation scheme. The injection rate and injectivity of carbon dioxide increase rapidly during the early period of time (about 10 days) and then increase slightly up to about 2.07 kg/s (equivalent to 0.065 Mton/year) and about 2.84 × 10-7 kg/s/Pa, respectively, until 10 years for the base case. The sensitivity test results show that the injection pressure and temperature of carbon dioxide at the wellhead have significant impacts on its injection rate and injectivity. The vertical profile of the fluid pressure in the injection well becomes almost a hydrostatical equilibrium state within 1 month for all the cases. The vertical profile of the fluid temperature in the injection well becomes a monotonously increasing profile with the depth due to isenthalpic or adiabatic compression within 6 months for all the cases. The injection rate of carbon dioxide increases linearly with the fluid pressure difference between the well bottom and the sandstone formation far from the injection well. In contrast, the injectivity of carbon dioxide varies unsystematically with the fluid pressure difference. On the other hand, the reciprocal of the kinematic viscosity of carbon dioxide at the well bottom has an excellent linear relationship with the injectivity of carbon dioxide. It indicates that the above-mentioned variation of the injectivity of carbon dioxide can be corrected using this linear relationship. The

  14. Evaluation of Potential Effects of NaCl and Sorbic Acid on Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Zeaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA is recognized as the main cause of staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP, a common foodborne intoxication disease, caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Studies on the production of SEA suggest that activation of the SOS response and subsequent prophage induction affect the regulation of the sea gene and the SEA produced, increasing the risk for SFP. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of NaCl and sorbic acid, in concentrations relevant to food production, on SOS response activation, prophage induction and SEA production. The impact of stress was initially evaluated on steady state cells for a homogenous cell response. NaCl 2% was found to activate the SOS response, i.e., recA expression, and trigger prophage induction, in a similar way as the phage-inducer mitomycin C. In contrast, sorbic acid decreased the pH of the culture to a level where prophage induction was probably suppressed, even when combined with NaCl stress. The impact of previous physiological state of the bacteria was also addressed on cells pre-exposed to NaCl, and was found to potentially affect cell response upon exposure to further stress. The results obtained highlight the possible SFP-related risks arising from the use of preservatives during food processing.

  15. Medium Format Camera Evaluation Based on the Latest Phase One Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölg, T.; Kemper, G.; Kalinski, D.

    2016-06-01

    In early 2016, Phase One Industrial launched a new high resolution camera with a 100 MP CMOS sensor. CCD sensors excel at ISOs up to 200, but in lower light conditions, exposure time must be increased and Forward Motion Compensation (FMC) has to be employed to avoid smearing the images. The CMOS sensor has an ISO range of up to 6400, which enables short exposures instead of using FMC. This paper aims to evaluate the strengths of each of the sensor types based on real missions over a test field in Speyer, Germany, used for airborne camera calibration. The test field area has about 30 Ground Control Points (GCPs), which enable a perfect scenario for a proper geometric evaluation of the cameras. The test field includes both a Siemen star and scale bars to show any blurring caused by forward motion. The result of the comparison showed that both cameras offer high accuracy photogrammetric results with post processing, including triangulation, calibration, orthophoto and DEM generation. The forward motion effect can be compensated by a fast shutter speed and a higher ISO range of the CMOS-based camera. The results showed no significant differences between cameras.

  16. MEDIUM FORMAT CAMERA EVALUATION BASED ON THE LATEST PHASE ONE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tölg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In early 2016, Phase One Industrial launched a new high resolution camera with a 100 MP CMOS sensor. CCD sensors excel at ISOs up to 200, but in lower light conditions, exposure time must be increased and Forward Motion Compensation (FMC has to be employed to avoid smearing the images. The CMOS sensor has an ISO range of up to 6400, which enables short exposures instead of using FMC. This paper aims to evaluate the strengths of each of the sensor types based on real missions over a test field in Speyer, Germany, used for airborne camera calibration. The test field area has about 30 Ground Control Points (GCPs, which enable a perfect scenario for a proper geometric evaluation of the cameras. The test field includes both a Siemen star and scale bars to show any blurring caused by forward motion. The result of the comparison showed that both cameras offer high accuracy photogrammetric results with post processing, including triangulation, calibration, orthophoto and DEM generation. The forward motion effect can be compensated by a fast shutter speed and a higher ISO range of the CMOS-based camera. The results showed no significant differences between cameras.

  17. Evaluating Different Scenarios for the Formation and Early Evolution of the Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, David P.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2014-11-01

    The asteroid belt is dynamically excited, depleted in mass relative to the surface mass density of the rest of the Solar System, and contains numerous diverse taxonomic classes of asteroids that are partly, but not completely, radially mixed. In the 'classical' scenario of Solar System formation, the excitation, depletion and radial mixing of the asteroid belt is best explained by the effect of planetary embryos that are initially present in the primordial asteroid belt region [1-3]. In the more recent 'Grand Tack' scenario proposed by Walsh et al. [4], the early inward-then-outward migration of Jupiter in the gas disk initially depletes, then repopulates the asteroid belt with material scattered from both interior and exterior to Jupiter. Here we will examine in detail the model asteroid distributions resulting from these two scenarios for a range of parameters, and compare them to observational constraints on the current distribution of asteroids in the Solar System. We will also address the possible effects that late-stage planetesimal-driven migration and resonance-crossing of Jupiter and Saturn in the Nice Model [eg. 5,6] may have on the final asteroid distribution.[1] G.W. Wetherill, Icarus 100, 307-325 (1992)[2] J.-M. Petit et al., Icarus 153, 338-347 (2001)[3] D.P. O'Brien t al., Icarus 191, 434-452 (2007)[4] K.J. Walsh et al., Nature 475, 206-209 (2011)[5] K. Tsiganis et al., Nature 435, 459-461 (2005)[6] A. Morbidelli et al., AJ 140, 1391-1401 (2010)

  18. Evaluation of the pathways of tropospheric nitrophenol formation from benzene and phenol using a multiphase model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. J. Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are a major class of volatile organic compounds (VOC whose reaction within, and partitioning between, the gas and liquid phases affects their lifetime within the atmosphere, the local oxidising capacity, and the extent of production of nitrophenols, which are toxic chemicals. In this work, a zero-dimension box model was constructed to quantify the relative importance of different nitration pathways, and partitioning into the liquid phase, of mono-aromatic compounds in order to help elucidate the formation pathways of 2- and 4-nitrophenol in the troposphere. The liquid phase contributed significantly to the production of nitrophenols for liquid water content (Lc values exceeding 3x10-9, and for a range of assumed liquid droplet diameter, even though the resultant equilibrium partitioning to the liquid phase was much lower. For example, in a 'typical' model scenario, with Lc=3x10-7, 58% of nitrophenol production occurred in the liquid phase but only 2% of nitrophenol remained there, i.e. a significant proportion of nitrophenol observed in the gas phase may actually be produced via the liquid phase. The importance of the liquid phase was enhanced at lower temperatures, by a factor ~1.5-2 at 278K c.f. 298K. The model showed that nitrophenol production was particularly sensitive to the values of the rate coefficients for the liquid phase reactions between phenol and OH or NO3 reactions, but insensitive to the rate coefficient for the reaction between benzene and OH, thus identifying where further experimental data are required.

  19. Evaluation of the pathways of tropospheric nitrophenol formation using a multiphase model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. J. Harrison

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are a major class of volatile organic compounds (VOC whose reaction within, and partitioning between, the gas and liquid phases affects their lifetime within the atmosphere, the local oxidising capacity, and the extent of production of nitrophenols, which are toxic chemicals. In this work, a zero-dimension box model was constructed to quantify the relative nitration pathways, and partitioning into the liquid phase, of mono-aromatic compounds in order to help elucidate the formation pathways of 2- and 4-nitrophenol in the troposphere. The liquid phase contributed significantly to the production of nitrophenols for liquid water content (Lc values exceeding 3×10-9, and for a range of assumed liquid droplet diameter, even though the resultant equilibrium partitioning to the liquid phase was much lower. For example, in a ''typical'' model scenario, with Lc=3×10-7, 58% of nitrophenol production occurred in the liquid phase but only 2% of nitrophenol remained there, i.e. a significant proportion of nitrophenol observed in the gas phase may actually be produced via the liquid phase. The importance of the liquid phase was enhanced at lower temperatures, by a factor ~1.5–2 at 278 K cf. 298 K. The model showed that nitrophenol production was particularly sensitive to the values of the rate coefficients for the liquid phase reactions between phenol and OH or NO3 reactions, but insensitive to the rate coefficient for the reaction between benzene and OH, thus identifying where further experimental data are required.

  20. Formation of gold decorated porphyrin nanoparticles and evaluation of their photothermal and photodynamic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruey-Juen; Chen, Po-Chung; Prasannan, Adhimoorthy; Vinayagam, Jayaraman; Huang, Chun-Chiang; Chou, Peng-Yi; Weng, Cheng-Chih; Tsai, Hsieh Chih; Lin, Shuian-Yin

    2016-06-01

    A core-shell gold (Au) nanoparticle with improved photosensitization have been successfully fabricated using Au nanoparticles and 5,10,15,20 tetrakis pentafluorophenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (PF6) dye, forming a dyad through molecular self-assembly. Au nanoparticles were decorated on the shell and PF6 was placed in the core of the nanoparticles. Highly stable Au nanoparticles were achieved using PF6 with poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-N-vinylimidazole)-g-poly(D,L-lactide) graft copolymer hybridization. This was compared with hybridization using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and polyethylene glycol-b-poly(D,L-lactide) for shell formation with PF6-Au. The resulting PF6-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-N-vinylimidazole)-g-poly(D,L-lactide)-Au core-shell nanoparticle were utilized for photothermal and photodynamic activities. The spectroscopic analysis and zeta potential values of micelles revealed the presence of a thin Au layer coated on the PF6 nanoparticle surface, which generally enhanced the thermal stability of the gold nanoparticles and the photothermal effect of the shell. The core-shell PF6-Au nanoparticles were avidly taken up by cells and demonstrated cellular phototoxicity upon irradiation with 300W halogen lamps. The structural arrangement of PF6 dyes in the core-shell particles assures the effectiveness of singlet oxygen production. The study verifies that PF6 particles when companied with Au nanoparticles as PF6-Au have possible combinational applications in photodynamic and photothermal therapies for cancer cells because of their high production of singlet oxygen and heat.

  1. Five Years of Research Into Technology-Enhanced Learning at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetský, Štefan; Moravčík, Oliver; Rusková, Dagmar; Balog, Karol; Sakál, Peter; Tanuška, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    The article describes a five-year period of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) implementation at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology (MTF) in Trnava. It is a part of the challenges put forward by the 7th Framework Programme (ICT research in FP7) focused on "how information and communication technologies can be used to support learning and teaching". The empirical research during the years 2006-2008 was focused on technology-driven support of teaching, i. e. the development of VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) and the development of database applications such as instruments developed simultaneously with the information support of the project, and tested and applied directly in the teaching of bachelor students. During this period, the MTF also participated in the administration of the FP7 KEPLER project proposal in the international consortium of 20 participants. In the following period of 2009-2010, the concept of educational activities automation systematically began to develop. Within this concept, the idea originated to develop a universal multi-purpose system BIKE based on the batch processing knowledge paradigm. This allowed to focus more on educational approach, i.e. TEL educational-driven and to finish the programming of the Internet application - network for feedback (communication between teachers and students). Thanks to this specialization, the results of applications in the teaching at MTF could gradually be presented at the international conferences focused on computer-enhanced engineering education. TEL was implemented at a detached workplace and four institutes involving more than 600 students-bachelors and teachers of technical subjects. Four study programmes were supported, including technical English language. Altogether, the results have been presented via 16 articles in five countries, including the EU level (IGIP-SEFI).

  2. Formation of gold decorated porphyrin nanoparticles and evaluation of their photothermal and photodynamic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ruey-Juen; Chen, Po-Chung [Division of Family Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital, Taiwan, ROC (China); Prasannan, Adhimoorthy; Vinayagam, Jayaraman; Huang, Chun-Chiang; Chou, Peng-Yi; Weng, Cheng-Chih [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Hsieh Chih, E-mail: h.c.tsai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Shuian-Yin [National Applied Research Laboratories, Instrument Technology Research Center, Hsinchu 300 (China)

    2016-06-01

    A core-shell gold (Au) nanoparticle with improved photosensitization have been successfully fabricated using Au nanoparticles and 5,10,15,20 tetrakis pentafluorophenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (PF6) dye, forming a dyad through molecular self-assembly. Au nanoparticles were decorated on the shell and PF6 was placed in the core of the nanoparticles. Highly stable Au nanoparticles were achieved using PF6 with poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-N-vinylimidazole)-g-poly(D,L-lactide) graft copolymer hybridization. This was compared with hybridization using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and polyethylene glycol-b-poly(D,L-lactide) for shell formation with PF6–Au. The resulting PF6-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-N-vinylimidazole)-g-poly(D,L-lactide)-Au core–shell nanoparticle were utilized for photothermal and photodynamic activities. The spectroscopic analysis and zeta potential values of micelles revealed the presence of a thin Au layer coated on the PF6 nanoparticle surface, which generally enhanced the thermal stability of the gold nanoparticles and the photothermal effect of the shell. The core–shell PF6–Au nanoparticles were avidly taken up by cells and demonstrated cellular phototoxicity upon irradiation with 300 W halogen lamps. The structural arrangement of PF6 dyes in the core–shell particles assures the effectiveness of singlet oxygen production. The study verifies that PF6 particles when companied with Au nanoparticles as PF6–Au have possible combinational applications in photodynamic and photothermal therapies for cancer cells because of their high production of singlet oxygen and heat. - Highlights: • Core-shell PF6-Au nanoparticles were prepared through a graft-copolymer-based micelle with photosensitization and photothermic behavior. • PF6 was placed in the core of the nanoparticles through molecular self-assembly. Au nanoparticles were decorated on this 60-nm-diameter shell. • Core-shell PF6-Au nanoparticles demonstrated effective singlet oxygen production

  3. Shaly sand formation evaluation in tight gas sands using electrochemical potential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M. M.; Jin, M.

    1991-08-01

    Equations are developed that directly relate the shaly conductivity to the electrochemical (membrane) potential (EP). The model is applied to both fully and partially saturated sands. The relationship between the resistivity index and the water saturation is also expressed in terms of a single membrane potential measurement. The Ep measured at different salinities are compared with model prediction using a single membrane potential measurement. Sigma (sub 0) versus Sigma (sub w) curves are then generated using the model equations and compared with measured curves. Experimental results are presented for electrochemical potential measurement made in the lab on 50 tight gs sand samples. It is shown that the measurements can be correlated with CEC although the CEC measured by grinding up the samples was always higher than that estimated from Ep measurements. The Ep measurements are combined with the equations for partial saturation developed in the report to obtain water saturations in a tight gas sand well. Through the example it is shown that it is possible to determine the water saturation in Shaly sands from one membrane potential measurement at a known salinity together with a set of resistivity logs. The results clearly demonstrate the applicability of the method as a practical procedure for Shaly sand information evaluation.

  4. An evaluation of artifact SO 42- formation on nylon filters under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Walter H.; Orr, Daniel B.; Chung, David H. S.

    The extent of SO 2 conversion on Membrana (Ghia) Nylasorb nylon filters under field conditions has been evaluated and found to be quite variable. The S-SO 42- loading on the nylon filters is higher at higher SO 2 concentrations, and on a long term basis approaches a saturatio limit of 2.5 μg S-SO 42- on a 47mm disc, at a dosage of 230 μg SO 2 approximately. The % conversion decreases as the SO 2 concentration increases. On a long term basis, at an SO 2 concentration range of 1.0-7.7 μg m -3, the conversion ranges from 8.2% to 2.1%. The dependence of SO 2 conversion on nylon filters on relative humidity displays a diurnal pattern. An expression has been derived to explain the observed % SO 2 conversion on nylon filters as a combined effect of the ambient SO 2 concentration and relative humidity.

  5. Formation of a 6FDA-based ring polyimide with nanoscale cavity evaluated by DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Takao, Yoshimi; Tamai, Yoshinori

    2005-04-01

    The computer-aided molecular design of a rigid ring molecule has been performed. As a candidate molecule, the polyimide derived from 2,2-bis(3,4-carboxylphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) with m-phenylenediamine (MDA) has been used. The optimized structures of the 6FDA-MDA model compounds including a precursor type amic acid model were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level. Using the optimized structures of the model compounds, the probable combinations to form a flat ring polyimide are considered by taking the spatial angles between the respective aromatic groups into consideration. We selected several combinations with different conformations and the number of monomer units. We showed that the dimer, trimer and tetramer of not only the 6FDA-based ring imide but also the corresponding ring amic acid can have a stable geometry. Each of them contains a cavity of sub-nanometer size and characteristic shape. Among them, the interaction energy with some guest molecules are evaluated for the smallest ring imide constructed from two units of 6FDA-MDA using the DFT calculations.

  6. Evaluation of tritiated water diffusion through the Toarcian clayey formation of the Tournemire experimental site (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motellier, S; Devol-Brown, I; Savoye, S; Thoby, D; Alberto, J-C

    2007-10-30

    Through-diffusion experiments with tritiated water were performed on argillaceous samples from various zones of the Tournemire test site. It was intended to evaluate the homogeneity of the transport property of unfracturated samples and the influence of the orientation and the nature of the samples (presence of an opened fracture or a pre-existing tectonic fracture filled with calcite and pyrite). Homogeneous values of the tritiated water (HTO) effective diffusion coefficients were deduced from experiments carried out when diffusion occurred parallel to the stratigraphic bedding, with an apparent sensitivity to experimental conditions. Anisotropy was significant, De(HTO) perpendicular to the bedding being 1/3 lower than that parallel to the bedding. The observed fractures of the samples created by mechanical stress and partial dehydration during sawing and the presence of a pre-existing opened fracture did not affect the effective diffusion coefficients of tritiated water, which is probably due to the healing ability of the clayey medium during the re-saturation phases of the equilibrium steps performed prior to the diffusion experiments. On the contrary, a significant decrease of this transport parameter was induced by the occurrence of a pre-existing tectonic fracture, which was assigned to the dense structure of the filling phases.

  7. Application of fullbore formation microimager logging in the evaluation of anisotropic resistivity in a thin interbed reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Bian, Hui-yuan; Gao, Xu-hua; Pan, Bao-zhi

    2016-08-01

    Oil and gas reserves in sand-shale thin interbeds are extensive, but it is a challenge to achieve satisfactory precision in the identification of these interbeds using traditional logging data. Phasor induction and three-component induction logging are appropriate tools for the identification of sand-shale interbeds. Unfortunately, phasor induction data are expensive and three-component induction logging is rarely used in major domestic oil fields. As a result, evaluation of sand-shale thin interbeds heavily depends on a traditional logging suite, general image logging, array lateral logging and array induction logging, and so on. In this paper, we investigate the sand-shale thin interbed region in the northern part of the Sulige field. We propose a comprehensive method of anisotropic evaluation which is based on the combination of wellbore microresistivity image logging (fullbore formation microimage (FMI)) and high-resolution array induction logging (HRLA), where HRLA can be used instead of a traditional logging suite or high-resolution array lateral logging. The proposed method works well in the evaluation of thin interbeds in the northern part of the Sulige field. In this paper, the combination of FMI and deep resistivity of HRLA is used. It should be noted that it is possible to use deep resistivity of conventional laterolog or array induction log instead of HRLA.

  8. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Leptin Expression in Wound Healing: A Clue to Exuberant Scar Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleit, Iman; Bakry, Ola A; Samaka, Rehab M; Tawfik, Amira S

    2016-04-01

    Leptin has been recognized as an important factor for promoting normal cutaneous wound healing. The aim of this work was to explore leptin expression in keloid and hypertrophic scars (HS) compared with surgical scars and normal skin. The relationship of this expression with clinicopathologic parameters of studied cases was also evaluated. Using immunohistochemical techniques, leptin was analyzed in skin biopsies of 60 nonobese subjects without metabolic syndrome who presented with keloids (20), HS (20), and surgical scars (20). Twenty normal skin samples, from age-matched, sex-matched, and body mass index-matched subjects, were enrolled as a control group. Leptin showed positive immunoreactivity in epidermis in all cases of surgical scars and keloids and in 75% of HS cases. Dermal expression in fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, and endothelial cells was positive in all cases of surgical scars and keloids and in 70% of HS cases. Leptin was overexpressed in keloids and HS compared with normal skin in epidermis (P<0.001 for both) and dermis (P<0.001 for both) and to surgical scars both in epidermis (P=0.0006, P=0.01, respectively) and dermis (P=0.0001, P=0.001, respectively). Higher leptin H score was significantly associated with older age (P=0.02) and positive family history (P=0.002) in keloid cases and with axial site in keloid and HS cases (P=0.001, P=0.02, respectively). Significant positive correlation was noted between epidermal and dermal leptin H scores in keloids (r=+0.37, P=0.04) and HS (r=+0.39, P=0.02). This may be due to epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in scar pathogenesis. In conclusion, in situ leptin overexpression may increase the possibility of keloid and HS occurrence through altered cytokine production and prolonged healing phases with excessive deposition and delayed collagen degradation. This may open an avenue for research for new therapeutic modalities based on its inhibition.

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in children: Focusing on abscess formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Hee; Kang, Byung Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To analyze the US findings of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in children and define the US features of drainable abscess. We retrospectively evaluated the US findings od suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in 22 children (age: 40 days-14 years). Among them, eighteen were confirmed by drainage or needle aspiration, and four diagnosed on the basis of typical findings of abscess on enhanced CT. Echogenicity, shape (ratio of long/short diameter) of suppurative lymph nodes, and the changes of adjacent soft tissues on US were assessed, and color signal patterns of 17 suppurative lymph nodes on color Doppler imaging were also recorded. We compared the US with CT findings (n=14). Eight of 22 were abscess of typical US pattern, showing the characteristic anechoic central cores. Fourteen demonstrated low echogenicity with mottled anechoic portions, atypical US pattern. Ratio of long/short diameter measured more than 2 in 16 of 22 and less than 2 in 6. Adjacent subcutaneous tissue was the thickened and increased in echogenicity with hypoechoic irregular lines in all lines. On color Doppler imaging, only peripheral pattern was seen in four of 5 suppurative lymph of typical pattern. In 12 suppurative lymph nodes of atypical pattern, there were 4 peripheral pattern, 2 central patterns and 6 mixed patterns. Compared the US findings with CT, all three suppurative lymph nodes of typical US pattern showed peripheral rim enhancement. Peripheral rim enhancement containing low attenuated internal portion (n=8) and inhomogeneous enhancement (n=3) were observed in 11 suppurative lymph nodes of atypical pattern. Any lymph node with complex echogenicity containing mottled anechoic portions with adjacent edematous subcutaneous tissue as well as central anechoic core could be regarded as the findings of drainable abscess in US diagnosis of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in children.

  10. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock evaluation in the Subathu Formation of Marhighat, Sirmaur district, Himachal Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O P Thakur; N N Dogra

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the hydrocarbon source rock evaluation of the Subathu Formation exposed at Marhighat on Sarahan–Narag road in Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh. Hydrocarbon potential of these sediments is estimated on the basis of palynofacies analysis and thermal alteration index (TAI) values based on the fossil spores/pollen colouration. The analyses are based on the classification and hydrocarbon generation potential of plant derived dispersed organic matter present in the sediments. The palynofacies analysis of Subathu Formation in the area reveal moderate to rich organic matter, with amorphous organic matter constituting the bulk of the total organic matter, followed by charcoal, biodegraded organic matter, fungal remains, spores/pollen and structured terrestrial organic matter. The TAI value for the organic matter in these sediments has been ascertained as 3.00. A dominance of the sapropelic facies (amorphous organic matter) and the measured TAI values for the Subathu sediments in the Marhighat area suggests a good source-rock potential for the hydrocarbon generation.

  11. An evaluation of water quality in private drinking water wells near natural gas extraction sites in the Barnett Shale formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Brian E; Hunt, Laura R; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Oka, Hyppolite; Walton, Jayme L; Hopkins, Dan; Osorio, Alexandra; Bjorndal, Bryan; Hu, Qinhong H; Schug, Kevin A

    2013-09-03

    Natural gas has become a leading source of alternative energy with the advent of techniques to economically extract gas reserves from deep shale formations. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in aquifers overlying the Barnett Shale formation of North Texas. We evaluated samples from 100 private drinking water wells using analytical chemistry techniques. Analyses revealed that arsenic, selenium, strontium and total dissolved solids (TDS) exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) in some samples from private water wells located within 3 km of active natural gas wells. Lower levels of arsenic, selenium, strontium, and barium were detected at reference sites outside the Barnett Shale region as well as sites within the Barnett Shale region located more than 3 km from active natural gas wells. Methanol and ethanol were also detected in 29% of samples. Samples exceeding MCL levels were randomly distributed within areas of active natural gas extraction, and the spatial patterns in our data suggest that elevated constituent levels could be due to a variety of factors including mobilization of natural constituents, hydrogeochemical changes from lowering of the water table, or industrial accidents such as faulty gas well casings.

  12. Transfusion packages for massively bleeding patients: the effect on clot formation and stability as evaluated by Thrombelastograph (TEG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Bochsen, L.; Stensballe, J.

    2008-01-01

    was obtained before and after administering the transfusion packages. Six patients were hypocoagulable before administration of the transfusion package, whereas none of the patients were hypocoagulable after transfusion of up to 7 transfusion packages (p=0.01). In 8 patients damage control surgery......We investigated the effect of administering a transfusion package encompassing 5 red blood cells (RBC), 5 fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and 2 platelet concentrates (PC) on clot formation and stability as evaluated by Thrombelastograph (TEG) in 10 patients presenting with massive bleeding. Blood...... was successful and 6 of these patients survived. The result indicates that an early balanced transfusion strategy maintains haemostatic competence in massively bleeding patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  13. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part I: Utility, technical performance and service provider perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Patricia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formative evaluation is conducted in the early stages of system implementation to assess how it works in practice and to identify opportunities for improving technical and process performance. A formative evaluation of a teleneurophysiology service was conducted to examine its technical and sociological dimensions. Methods A teleneurophysiology service providing routine EEG investigation was established. Service use, technical performance and satisfaction of clinical neurophysiology personnel were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. These were contrasted with a previously reported analysis of the need for teleneurophysiology, and examination of expectation and satisfaction with clinical neurophysiology services in Ireland. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis was also conducted. Results Over the course of 40 clinical sessions during 20 weeks, 142 EEG investigations were recorded and stored on a file server at a satellite centre which was 130 miles away from the host clinical neurophysiology department. Using a virtual private network, the EEGs were accessed by a consultant neurophysiologist at the host centre for interpretation. The model resulted in a 5-fold increase in access to EEG services as well as reducing average waiting times for investigation by a half. Technically the model worked well, although a temporary loss of virtual private network connectivity highlighted the need for clarity in terms of responsibility for troubleshooting and repair of equipment problems. Referral quality, communication between host and satellite centres, quality of EEG recordings, and ease of EEG review and reporting indicated that appropriate organisational processes were adopted by the service. Compared to traditional CN service delivery, the teleneurophysiology model resulted in a comparable unit cost per EEG. Conclusion Observations suggest that when traditional organisational boundaries are crossed challenges associated with the

  14. Evaluation of adhesion formation and host tissue response to intra-abdominal polytetrafluoroethylene mesh and composite prosthetic mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brent D; Mostafa, Gamal; Carbonell, Alfredo M; Joels, Charles S; Kercher, Kent W; Austin, Catherine; Norton, H James; Heniford, B Todd

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the extent of adhesion formation to ePTFE mesh (DualMesh, W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc, Flagstaff, AZ) and two composite prosthetic materials, ePTFE and polypropylene (Bard Composix, C.R. Bard, Inc, Murray Hill, NJ) and hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose and polypropylene (Sepramesh, Genzyme Corp, Cambridge, MA) after their intra-abdominal placement on an intact peritoneum, simulating laparoscopic ventral hernia repair, and to evaluate host tissue response to the prosthetic biomaterials. Through a midline laparotomy, a 2 x 2 cm piece of mesh (n = 60) was sewn to an intact peritoneum on each side of a midline incision in 30 New Zealand white rabbits. Mesh adhesions were scored using a modified Diamond scale (0 = 0%, 1 = 1-25%, 2 = 26-50%, 3 >50%) at 1, 3, 9, and 16 weeks by serial microlaparoscopy (2 mm). All laparoscopic evaluations were videotaped for blinded scoring by three surgeons. Host tissue response was graded (1-4) for inflammation, tissue ingrowth, and mesothelialization. The predominant cell type (polymorphonuclear leukocytes versus foreign body giant cell) was recorded. Statistical differences (P value DualMesh) intra-abdominal against an intact peritoneum results in significantly fewer adhesions than the composite prosthetic meshes during a 4-month follow-up. The host tissue response is equivalent for the three prosthetic biomaterials. The long-term consequences of increased adhesion formation to the composite meshes and the ultimate biocompatibility of the nonabsorbable and absorbable barriers on the polypropylene mesh are to be determined.

  15. Quality Computer Assisted Mobile Learning (CAML) and Distance Education Leadership in Managing Technology Enhanced Learning Management System (TELMS) in the Malaysian Public Tertiary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Tan Luck

    2009-01-01

    Abstract - The success in the implementation of a quality computer assisted mobile learning and distance education in a Technology Enhanced Learning Management System is highly rely on the academic leadership in managing and application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the tertiary level. The effectiveness of its leadership, knowledge, application and management of ICT and learning management system is of utmost important. Successful application and management includes qua...

  16. Automated Formative Evaluations for Reading Comprehension in an English as a Foreign Language Course: Benefits on Performance, User Satisfaction, and Monitoring of Higher Education Students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Santos; Cabezas, Ximena; Ojeda, Luis; Leiva, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    We assess the effect of automated formative evaluations on reading comprehension skills in a course of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in the area of kinesiology at the Universidad Austral de Chile-Valdivia (UACh). The evaluations were implemented using Questionmark's Perception (QMP) (Questionmark-Corporation, 2015). We investigate: (1) Do…

  17. Comparative evaluation of particle properties, formation of reactive oxygen species and genotoxic potential of tungsten carbide based nanoparticles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnel, Dana, E-mail: dana.kuehnel@ufz.de [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Scheffler, Katja [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Wellner, Peggy [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Meissner, Tobias; Potthoff, Annegret [Fraunhofer-Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS), Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Busch, Wibke [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Springer, Armin [Centre for Translational Bone, Cartilage and Soft Tissue Research, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Schirmer, Kristin [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); EPF Lausanne, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); ETH Zuerich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of toxic potential of tungsten carbide-based nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of ROS and micronuclei induction of three hard metal nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dependency of observed toxic effects on the materials physical-chemical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences in several particle properties seem to modulate the biological response. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide (WC) and cobalt (Co) are constituents of hard metals and are used for the production of extremely hard tools. Previous studies have identified greater cytotoxic potential of WC-based nanoparticles if particles contained Co. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and micronuclei would help explain the impact on cultured mammalian cells by three different tungsten-based nanoparticles (WC{sub S}, WC{sub L}, WC{sub L}-Co (S: small; L: large)). The selection of particles allowed us to study the influence of particle properties, e.g. surface area, and the presence of Co on the toxicological results. WC{sub S} and WC{sub L}/WC{sub L}-Co differed in their crystalline structure and surface area, whereas WC{sub S}/WC{sub L} and WC{sub L}-Co differed in their cobalt content. WC{sub L} and WC{sub L}-Co showed neither a genotoxic potential nor ROS induction. Contrary to that, WC{sub S} nanoparticles induced the formation of both ROS and micronuclei. CoCl{sub 2} was tested in relevant concentrations and induced no ROS formation, but increased the rate of micronuclei at concentrations exceeding those present in WC{sub L}-Co. In conclusion, ROS and micronuclei formation could not be associated with the presence of Co in the WC-based particles. The contrasting responses elicited by WC{sub S} vs. WC{sub L} appear to be due to large differences in crystalline structure.

  18. Characterization of shale gas enrichment in the Wufeng Formation–Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin of China and evaluation of its geological construction–transformation evolution sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas in Upper Ordovician Wufeng Formation–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin is one of the key strata being explored and developed in China, where shale gas reservoirs have been found in Fuling, Weiyuan, Changning and Zhaotong. Characteristics of shale gas enrichment in the formation shown by detailed profiling and analysis are summarized as “high, handsome and rich”. “High” mainly refers to the high quality of original materials for the formation of shale with excellent key parameters, including the good type and high abundance of organic matters, high content of brittle minerals and moderate thermal evolution. “Handsome” means late and weak deformation, favorable deformation mode and structure, and appropriate uplift and current burial depth. “Rich” includes high gas content, high formation pressure coefficient, good reservoir property, favorable reservoir scale transformation and high initial and final output, with relative ease of development and obvious economic benefit. For shale gas enrichment and high yield, it is important that the combination of shale was deposited and formed in excellent conditions (geological construction, and then underwent appropriate tectonic deformation, uplift, and erosion (geological transformation. Evaluation based on geological construction (evolution sequence from formation to the reservoir includes sequence stratigraphy and sediment, hydrocarbon generation and formation of reservoir pores. Based on geological transformation (evolution sequence from the reservoir to preservation, the strata should be evaluated for structural deformation, the formation of reservoir fracture and preservation of shale gas. The evaluation of the “construction - transformation” sequence is to cover the whole process of shale gas formation and preservation. This way, both positive and negative effects of the formation-transformation sequence on shale gas are assessed. The evaluation

  19. Formative evaluation of AARP's Active for Life campaign to improve walking and bicycling environments in two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, James; Crump, Carolyn; Hawkins, Margaret

    2007-10-01

    AARP conducted a 2.5-year social-marketing campaign to improve physical activity levels among older adults in Richmond, Virginia and Madison, Wisconsin. This article presents formative evaluation findings from the campaign's policy/environmental change component. Evaluation data were abstracted from technical-assistance documentation and telephone interviews. Results include 11 policy and 14 environmental changes attained or in-process by campaign closure. Differences between the cities' results are explained through differences in program implementation (e.g., types of changes planned, formalization of partnerships). Project teams took less time deciding to pursue policy change than environmental change; however, planning the policy activities took longer than planning environmental-change activities. Recommendations for future policy/environmental change interventions focus on the selection of strategies; planning for administrative resources; formalizing partnerships to ensure sustainability of impact; ensuring training and technical assistance; and documenting progress. Similar intervention results may be attainable with a multi-year timeframe, adequate part-time coordination, and committed volunteers.

  20. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, S K; Pawloski, G A; Raschke, K

    2007-04-26

    This report describes evaluation of collapse evolution for selected LLNL underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The work is being done at the request of NSTec and supports the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Association Nevada Site Office Borehole Management Program (BMP). The primary objective of this program is to close (plug) weapons program legacy boreholes that are deemed no longer useful. Safety decisions must be made before a crater area, or potential crater area, can be reentered for any work. Our statements on cavity collapse and crater formation are input into their safety decisions. The BMP is an on-going program to address hundreds of boreholes at the NTS. Each year NSTec establishes a list of holes to be addressed. They request the assistance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory Containment Programs to provide information related to the evolution of collapse history and make statements on completeness of collapse as relates to surface crater stability. These statements do not include the effects of erosion that may modify the collapse craters over time. They also do not address possible radiation dangers that may be present. Subject matter experts from the LLNL Containment Program and the Chemical Sciences Division who had been active in weapons testing activities performed these evaluations. Information used included drilling and hole construction, emplacement and stemming, timing and sequence of the selected test and nearby tests, geology, yield, depth of burial, collapse times, surface crater sizes, cavity and crater volume estimations, and ground motion. Both classified and unclassified data were reviewed. Various amounts of information are available for these tests, depending on their age and other associated activities. Lack of data can hamper evaluations and introduce uncertainty. We make no attempt to quantify this uncertainty. The following unclassified summary

  1. Evaluation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydride from the Salado Formation: Sensitivity analysis and data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, R.L.; Kalbus, J.S. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Howarth, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report documents, demonstrates, evaluates, and provides theoretical justification for methods used to convert experimental data into relative permeability relationships. The report facilities accurate determination of relative permeabilities of anhydride rock samples from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Relative permeability characteristic curves are necessary for WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) predictions of the potential for flow of waste-generated gas from the repository and brine flow into repository. This report follows Christiansen and Howarth (1995), a comprehensive literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability. It focuses on unsteady-state experiments and describes five methods for obtaining relative permeability relationships from unsteady-state experiments. Unsteady-state experimental methods were recommended for relative permeability measurements of low-permeability anhydrite rock samples form the Salado Formation because these tests produce accurate relative permeability information and take significantly less time to complete than steady-state tests. Five methods for obtaining relative permeability relationships from unsteady-state experiments are described: the Welge method, the Johnson-Bossler-Naumann method, the Jones-Roszelle method, the Ramakrishnan-Cappiello method, and the Hagoort method. A summary, an example of the calculations, and a theoretical justification are provided for each of the five methods. Displacements in porous media are numerically simulated for the calculation examples. The simulated product data were processed using the methods, and the relative permeabilities obtained were compared with those input to the numerical model. A variety of operating conditions were simulated to show sensitivity of production behavior to rock-fluid properties.

  2. Evaluation of a High-Throughput Peptide Reactivity Format Assay for Assessment of the Skin Sensitization Potential of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin Lin; Lam, Ai-Leen; Smith, Maree T.; Ghassabian, Sussan

    2016-01-01

    The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate, and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium, and high concentrations) and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme, and non-sensitizers) with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF), cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA), and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA) containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7%) and glass (47.3%) vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further highlight

  3. Pictorial Format Display Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    34 Launch mode symbology Countermeasures effectiveness cuding Ribbon-in-the-sky Altitude terrain coding Geographic and cultural features Waypoint/target...Monochrome Tractor beam Missile position Bogie number and type Bogie altitude information Altitude terrain coding Geographic and cultural featuresj - Figure...Abbreviated pitch and roll, indices could als.M be considered for low altitude segements where terrain portrayed in the HUD field-of-view may not

  4. Hydrocarbon potential evaluation of the source rocks from the Abu Gabra Formation in the Sufyan Sag, Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jinqi; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Ying; Wu, Kangjun; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2016-06-01

    The Sufyan Sag is one of the low-exploration areas in the Muglad Basin (Sudan), and hydrocarbon potential evaluation of source rocks is the basis for its further exploration. The Abu Gabra Formation consisting of three members (AG3, AG2 and AG1 from bottom to top) was thought to be the main source rock formation, but detailed studies on its petroleum geology and geochemical characteristics are still insufficient. Through systematic analysis on distribution, organic matter abundance, organic matter type, organic matter maturity and characteristics of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion of the source rocks from the Abu Gabra Formation, the main source rock members were determined and the petroleum resource extent was estimated in the study area. The results show that dark mudstones are the thickest in the AG2 member while the thinnest in the AG1 member, and the thickness of the AG3 dark mudstone is not small either. The AG3 member have developed good-excellent source rock mainly with Type I kerogen. In the Southern Sub-sag, the AG3 source rock began to generate hydrocarbons in the middle period of Bentiu. In the early period of Darfur, it reached the hydrocarbon generation and expulsion peak. It is in late mature stage currently. The AG2 member developed good-excellent source rock mainly with Types II1 and I kerogen, and has lower organic matter abundance than the AG3 member. In the Southern Sub-sag, the AG2 source rock began to generate hydrocarbons in the late period of Bentiu. In the late period of Darfur, it reached the peak of hydrocarbon generation and its expulsion. It is in middle mature stage currently. The AG1 member developed fair-good source rock mainly with Types II and III kerogen. Throughout the geological evolution history, the AG1 source rock has no effective hydrocarbon generation or expulsion processes. Combined with basin modeling results, we have concluded that the AG3 and AG2 members are the main source rock layers and the Southern Sub-sag is

  5. Evaluation of CO2 migration and formation storage capacity in the Dalders formations, Baltic Sea - Preliminary analysis by means of models of increasing complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Auli; Yang, Zhibing; Tian, Liang; Jung, Byeongju; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Joodaki, Saba; Pasquali, Riccardo; O'Neill, Nick; Vernon, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary data analysis and modeling of CO2 injection into selected parts of the Dalders Monocline and Dalders Structure, formations situated under the Baltic Sea and of potential interest for CO2 geological storage. The approach taken is to use models of increasing complexity successively, thereby increasing the confidence and reliability of the predictions. The objective is to get order-of-magnitude estimates of the behavior of the formations during potential industrial scale CO2 injection and subsequent storage periods. The focus has been in regions with best cap-rock characteristics, according to the present knowledge. Data has been compiled from various sources available, such as boreholes within the region. As the first approximation we use analytical solutions, in order to get an initial estimate the CO2 injection rates that can be used without causing unacceptable pressure increases. These preliminary values are then used as basis for more detailed numerical analyses with TOUGH2/TOUGH2-MP (e.g. Zhang et al, 2008) simulator and vertical equilibrium based (e.g. Gasda et al, 2009) models. With the numerical models the variations in material properties, formation thickness etc., as well as more processes such as CO2 dissolution can also be taken into account. The presentation discusses results from these preliminary analyses in terms of estimated storage capacity, CO2 and pressure plume extent caused by various injection scenarios, as well as CO2 travel time after the end of the injection. The effect of factors such as number of injection wells and the positioning of these, the effect of formation properties and the boundary conditions are discussed as are the benefits and disadvantages of the various modeling approaches used. References: Gasda S.E. et al, 2009. Computational Geosciences 13, 469-481. Zhang et al, 2008. Report LBNL-315E, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  6. Delivering the WISE (Whole Systems Informing Self-Management Engagement training package in primary care: learning from formative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protheroe Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WISE (Whole System Informing Self-management Engagement approach encompasses creating, finding, and implementing appropriate self-care support for people with long-term conditions. A training package for primary care to introduce the approach was developed and underwent formative evaluation. This entailed exploring the acceptability of the WISE approach and its effectiveness in changing communication within consultations. The study aimed to refine the patient, practitioner, and patient level components of the WISE approach and translate the principles of WISE into an operational intervention deliverable through National Health Service training methods. Methods Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for development of the intervention. Practices were recruited from an inner city Primary Care Trust in NW England. All practice staff were expected to attend two afternoon training sessions. The training sessions were observed by members of the training team. Post-training audio recordings of consultations from each general practitioner and nurse in the practices were transcribed and read to provide a narrative overview of the incorporation of WISE skills and tools into consultations. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff post-training. Results Two practices out of 14 deemed eligible agreed to take part. Each practice attended two sessions, although a third session on consultation skills training was needed for one practice. Fifty-four post-training consultations were recorded from 15 clinicians. Two members of staff were interviewed at each practice. Significant elements of the training form and methods of delivery fitted contemporary practice. There were logistical problems in getting a whole practice to attend both sessions, and administrative staff founds some sections irrelevant. Clinicians reported problems incorporating some of the tools developed for WISE, and this was confirmed in

  7. On the Application of Formative Evaluation to College English Teaching%形成性评估在大学英语教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳斌; 高霞

    2013-01-01

    教学评估一般分为形成性评估和终结性评估两种。一直以来,以期末考试和英语水平考试为主体的终结性评估,是中国高校英语教学采用的主要测试、评估方法,但是,终结性评估忽略了学习的过程,本文主要对形成性评估在大学英语教学中的应用进行探讨,帮助教师更有效地把形成性评估引入大学英语教学中。%Teaching evaluation can generally be divided into for-mative evaluation and summative evaluation. For a long time, the summative evaluation with final examinations and English knowledge tests as the main parts has been the major way of test-ing and evaluation in China's college English teaching, but sum-mative evaluation neglects the learning process. The application of formative evaluation to college English teaching is mainly dis-cussed in this paper, aiming to help teachers introduce formative evaluation into college English teaching more effectively.

  8. Formative Evaluation of a Text Messaging Intervention to Promote Varenicline Adherence Among Tobacco-Dependent Persons with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Paul; Tseng, Tuo-Yen; Pham, Hieu; Wong, Selena; Sherman, Scott E; Shelley, Donna; Furberg, Robert D; Wolfe, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Few published studies describe processes in the development of mobile health interventions. This study reports data from a formative evaluation of a text messaging intervention being developed to increase adherence to smoking cessation medication (varenicline) among tobacco-dependent persons with HIV/AIDS. Four focus groups were conducted (N = 29) using a mixed-methods approach to assess: (a) beliefs and preferences regarding the use of varenicline, (b) preferences for receiving tobacco-related texts, and (c) the acceptability of draft text messages. Themes that emerged from the focus groups were that (a) participants were cautious and wanted to discuss varenicline carefully with health care providers, (b) participants preferred simple messages that were positive and encouraging, (c) messages should emphasize tobacco cessation and not varenicline adherence, and (d) texts would serve as a reminder about goals and foster support and connectedness with the health care team. Overall, 47 out of the 100 messages received a grade of C or less (rated on a 5-point grade scale: A, B, C, D, or F), the majority of which focused on medication adherence. All participants reported that they were likely to read the messages. The majority (64%) indicated that they preferred receiving 2 or more messages per day. Gathering systematic participant feedback provides critical input in intervention planning.

  9. Formative evaluation of Hospital Information System According to ISO 9241-10: A case study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Mirabootalebi1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, different information systems are operated in hospitals in Iran to manage the admission,discharge, radiology, pharmacy, accounting and other procedures. Inappropriate HIS system causes wasting of time,consumption of more energy and increasing the costs.Methodology: This study was conducted in Dr. Ali Shariati Hospital in Iran. We employed Isometric FormativeEvaluation questionnaire to analyze the hospital information system. Also, interviewing method was applied tocomplete information from departments' officials.Results: From 101 people under investigation in this study, it was agreed on 27 people (26.7% suitability for taskcriteria, 46 people (45.5% by controllability criteria, 27 people (26.7% to suitability for individualization criteria,69 people (68.3% to suitability for learning criteria, 41 people (40.6% by error tolerant criteria, 46 people (45.5%by self description criteria, 53 people (52.5% by conformity whit user expectation of Hospital Information Systemin Dr. Ali Shariati Hospital.Conclusion: Findings indicate Hospital Information System criteria are not efficient. It is necessary either to usenationally applicable software in information system of Medical Sciences Universities across the country ordifferent software having international standards of medical information should be used.

  10. The Effect of Formative Program Evaluation on Continuous Program Improvement: A Case Study of a Clinical Training Program in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun Bae; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kim, Do-Hwan; Hwang, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun Jung; Bouphavanh, Ketsomsouk

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the formative program evaluation on the continuous improvement of a clinical training program for Lao health professionals. The training program was conducted 4 times consecutively for total 48 health professionals, and the formative program evaluation was carried out during the whole process. To evaluate the satisfaction and the transfer of the trainees, the questionnaire survey, the focus group interview, and the trainees' medical records were used. After the end of each batch of the program, the evaluation data were analyzed, and its results were shared with the training management committee and the trainers, who, based on the results, reached a consensus on how to improve the program. The evaluation results and the comparison of them among the four batches of the program showed that there was a continuous increase of the satisfaction and the transfer of the trainees, especially in the early period of the program. The formative program evaluation which was conducted during the whole process of the clinical training program had a positive effect on the improvement of the program, especially in the early phase, by increasing the satisfaction and transfer of the trainees.

  11. National implementation of acute stroke care centers in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA): formative evaluation of the field response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damush, Teresa M; Miller, Kristine K; Plue, Laurie; Schmid, Arlene A; Myers, Laura; Graham, Glenn; Williams, Linda S

    2014-12-01

    In 2011, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) released the Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) Directive, which mandated reorganization of acute stroke care, including self-designation of stroke centers as Primary (P), Limited Hours (LH), or Supporting (S). In partnership with the VHA Offices of Emergency Medicine and Specialty Care Services, the VA Stroke QUERI conducted a formative evaluation in a national sample of three levels of stroke centers in order to understand barriers and facilitators. The evaluation consisted of a mixed-methods assessment that included a qualitative assessment of data from semi-structured interviews with key informants and a quantitative assessment of stroke quality-of-care data reporting practices by facility characteristics. The final sample included 38 facilities (84 % participation rate): nine P, 24 LH, and five S facilities. In total, we interviewed 107 clinicians and 16 regional Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) leaders. Across all three levels of stroke centers, stroke teams identified the specific need for systematic nurse training to triage and initiate stroke protocols. The most frequently reported barriers centered around quality-of-care data collection. A low number of eligible veterans arriving at the VAMC in a timely manner was another major impediment. The LH and S facilities reported some unique barriers: access to radiology and neurology services; EMS diverting stroke patients to nearby stroke centers, maintaining staff competency, and a lack of stroke clinical champions. Solutions that were applied included developing stroke order sets and templates to provide systematic decision support, implementing a stroke code in the facility for a coordinated response to stroke, and staff resource allocation and training. Data reporting by facility evaluation demonstrated that categorizing site volume did indicate a lower likelihood of reporting among VAMCs with 25-49 acute stroke admissions per year. The AIS Directive

  12. Heterotopic bone formation in the musculus latissimus dorsi of sheep using β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: evaluation of an extended prefabrication time on bone formation and matrix degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalthoff, S; Jehn, P; Zimmerer, R; Möllmann, U; Gellrich, N-C; Kokemueller, H

    2015-06-01

    We previously generated viable heterotopic bone in living animals and found that 3 months of intrinsic vascularization improved bone formation and matrix degeneration. In this study, we varied the pre-vascularization time to determine its effects on the kinetics of bone formation and ceramic degradation. Two 25-mm-long cylindrical β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were filled intraoperatively with autogenous iliac crest bone marrow and implanted in the latissimus dorsi muscle in six sheep. To examine the effect of axial perfusion, one scaffold was surgically implanted with (group C) or without (group D) a central vascular bundle. All animals were sacrificed 6 months postoperatively and histomorphometric measurements were compared to previous results. All implanted scaffolds exhibited ectopic bone growth. However, bone growth was not significantly different between the 3-month (group A, 0.191±0.097 vs. group C, 0.237±0.075; P=0.345) and 6-month (group B, 0.303±0.105 vs. group D, 0.365±0.258; P=0.549) pre-vascularization durations, regardless of vessel supply; early differences between surgically and extrinsically vascularized constructs disappeared after 6 months. Here, we describe a reliable procedure for generating ectopic bone in vivo. A 3-month pre-vascularization duration appears sufficient and ceramic degradation proceeds in accordance with bone generation, supporting the hypothesis of cell-mediated resorption.

  13. Evaluation of a high-throughput peptide reactivity format assay for assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium and high concentrations and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme and non-sensitizers with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF, cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7% and glass (47.3% vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further

  14. Automated Writing Evaluation for Formative Assessment of Second Language Writing: Investigating the Accuracy and Usefulness of Feedback as Part of Argument-Based Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, Jim; Link, Stephanie; Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies on the use of tools for automated writing evaluation (AWE) in writing classrooms suggest growing interest in their potential for formative assessment. As with all assessments, these applications should be validated in terms of their intended interpretations and uses. A recent argument-based validation framework…

  15. Analysis of the implementation of administrative reform in the context of formation of the system of evaluation of efficiency and effectiveness activities of civil servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pshenichnykh Iuliia Alekseevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Settle the problem of formation and implementation in practice of the public service performance and productivity of professional performance of public servants. The analysis of the administrative practices aimed at improving the efficiency of government authorities, considered regulations governing the public service, identify problems in establishing a system of evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of public servants.

  16. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart: A Strategically Timed Formative Evaluation of a Community-Based Nutrition and Food Safety Program for Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Angela; Chao, Morgan G.; Amella, Elaine J.; Mueller, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The use of focus groups to formatively evaluate community-based curricula after development and before pilot testing is not highlighted in the literature. In the study discussed in this article, research with four focus groups, composed of 46 women aged 65 years and older and belonging to eight South Carolina Family and Community Leaders clubs,…

  17. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart: A Strategically Timed Formative Evaluation of a Community-Based Nutrition and Food Safety Program for Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Angela; Chao, Morgan G.; Amella, Elaine J.; Mueller, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The use of focus groups to formatively evaluate community-based curricula after development and before pilot testing is not highlighted in the literature. In the study discussed in this article, research with four focus groups, composed of 46 women aged 65 years and older and belonging to eight South Carolina Family and Community Leaders clubs,…

  18. Assessing the Impact of Computer-Based Formative Evaluations in a Course of English as a Foreign Language for Undergraduate Kinesiology Students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Santos; Cabezas, Ximena; Ojeda, Luis; Leiva, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of computer-based formative evaluations in an undergraduate English course for second semester kinesiology students at the Universidad Austral de Chile-Valdivia (UACh). The target of the course is to improve the students' online reading comprehension skills in their field. A preliminary study was carried out in order…

  19. Applying an expanded set of cognitive design principles to formatting the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, José Luis; Fleming, Erik; Gannon, Monica R; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Vassalotti, Joseph A; Norris, Keith C

    2008-04-01

    The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is a free community-based health-screening program targeting populations at greatest risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), those with high rates of diabetes and hypertension, and a high proportion of racial/ethnic minorities. The KEEP Longitudinal Survey will adopt methods similar to those used in KEEP to gather follow-up data to measure CKD-related heath status and gauge program effectiveness for repeated KEEP participants with evidence of CKD stages 3 to 5. KEEP has defined objectives to enhance follow-up survey response rates and target vulnerable populations who bear the greatest CKD risk-factor burdens. The KEEP Follow-up Form was assessed for adherence to 6 cognitive design principles (simplicity, consistency, organization, natural order, clarity, and attractiveness) considered to summate the techniques guiding good survey development and for the additional cognitive design principles of readability and variation of readability across survey items. The KEEP Follow-up Form was found to include violations of each cognitive design principle and readability principle, possibly contributing to item nonresponse and low follow-up rates in KEEP. It was revised according to empirically substantiated formatting techniques guided by these principles and found during qualitative assessment to be more user friendly, simpler, better organized, more attractive, and easier to read. Subsequent development of the KEEP Longitudinal Survey form also was guided by these principles. To ensure ease of use by populations with limited literacy skills, poor health literacy, and limited survey literacy, survey researchers must apply cognitive design principles to survey development to improve participation and response rates.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF THE FORMATION OF PROFESSIONALLY SIGNIFICANT LEADERSHIP QUALITIES AMONG STUDENTS OF PEDAGOGICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kubarkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to give a theoretical justification of the criteria, indicators and measuring instruments for diagnostics of professionally significant leadership qualities of a teacher.Methods. Research material is presented from positions of the system and activity approaches. The first one allowed to develop the structure of professionally significant leadership qualities of a teacher, which includes twelve individual abilities and traits. The second one, abilities and individual features, their manifestation and development are considered from the standpoint of systemogenesis of professional activity. From these positions defined criteria basis for the diagnosis of professionally significant leadership qualities of a teacher. Methods of content analysis and content-logical intersections are used while defining the concept of «professionally significant leadership qualities of a teacher» and elaboration of its component composition. The method of concept analysis is used to determine criteria and indicators for diagnostics of professionally significant leadership qualities of a teacher.Results. The criteria and indicators, diagnostic tools for the detection of the formation of professionally significant leadership qualities of students of pedagogical college; the characteristic of used methods are given. Scientific novelty. The article provides a definition of the concept «professionally significant qualities of leadership of the teacher» is defined by the author; essence of such qualities is revealed.Practical significance. Described in this article approaches to definition of criteria and indicators may be of interest to researchers, graduate students, undergraduates. Listed diagnostic tools can be used in the performance appraisal of teachers for evaluating their leadership qualities.

  1. A formative evaluation of problem-based learning as an instructional strategy in a medical laboratory technician course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane Patricia

    2002-09-01

    This study is a formative evaluation of problem-based learning as an effective course delivery strategy in a second year introductory Medical Laboratory Technician discipline-specific hematology course. This strategy can serve two purposes in this type of course: discipline specific content knowledge and process skills learning. A needs study identified that students required additional workplace skills as they entered the clinical internship. Students tested well on the national registry examinations, discipline-specific content knowledge, but group process skills needed improvement in the areas of collaboration, communication, and critical reasoning. Problem-based learning was identified as an change intervention to help provide these skills. A search of the literature revealed that the Baker College cultural and physical environment would support this intervention. Twelve cases were written, situated in a clinical laboratory environment, addressing learning issues identified in a modified Delphi survey of laboratory personnel e.g. fiscal responsibility, turn-around time, invasiveness of laboratory techniques, and holistic view of healthcare environment. A hematology class of 13 students received the intervention. The cases were structured to proceed from instructor-centered (guided) learning issues to learner-centered learning issues. Observations of the in-group collaboration processes were documented, as well as oral presentations and critical reasoning, with students given periodic feedback on these skills. Student surveys provided data about satisfaction, attitude to PBL process, and self-efficacy. Multiple choice discipline-specific content examinations were given and compared with classes from the previous four years. The study found that students receiving the PBL treatment scored as well as or better than students from previous years on traditional multiple choice exams. Recall questions showed positive significance and application/analysis questions

  2. Neutron cross section evaluations of europium isotopes in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range. Format - validation - comparison; Evaluation de sections efficaces pour des neutrons incidents sur des isotopes d'europium aux energies 1 keV - 30 MeV. Format - validation - comparaison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Le Luel, C.; Bauge, E. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents neutron cross section evaluations of Europium isotopes. The cross sections are evaluated in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range for the isotopes {sup 146}Eu, {sup 147}Eu, {sup 148}Eu, {sup 149}Eu, {sup 150}Eu, {sup 151}Eu, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 154}Eu in their ground state. This evaluation includes cross section productions of the long life isomeric states. Special attention is put on the options used for the description of the files written in ENDF-6 format. The final issue is a proposal of a new breed of ENDF-6 formatted neutron activation file. (authors)

  3. The influence of Coalition Formation on Idea Selection in Dispersed Teams: A Game Theoretic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory

    2009-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L. (2009). The influence of coalition formation on idea selection in dispersed teams: a game theoretic approach. Poster presentation at the Fourth European conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France.

  4. Visual system of recovering and combination of information for ENDF (Evaluated Nuclear Data File) format libraries; Sistema visual de recuperacao e combinacao de informacoes para bibliotecas no formato ENDF (Evaluated Nuclear Data File)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.S. Velloso [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Corcuera, Raquel A. Paviotti [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    1997-04-01

    This report presents a data information retrieval and merger system for ENDF (Evaluated Nuclear Data File) format libraries, which can be run on personal computers under the Windows {sup TM} environment. The input is the name of an ENDF/B library, which can be chosen in a proper window. The system has a display function which allows the user to visualize the reaction data of a specific nuclide and to produce a printed copy of these data. The system allows the user to retrieve and/or combine evaluated data to create a single file of data in ENDF format, from a number of different files, each of which is in the ENDF format. The user can also create a mini-library from an ENDF/B library. This interactive and easy-to-handle system is a useful tool for Nuclear Data Centers and it is also of interest to nuclear and reactor physics researchers. (author)

  5. Evaluation of potential reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of coniferyl alcohol α-linkages in lignin: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heath D; Mohamed, Mohamed Naseer Ali; Kubicki, James D

    2011-12-21

    Five potential reaction mechanisms, each leading to the formation of an α-O-4-linked coniferyl alcohol dimer, and one scheme leading to the formation of a recently proposed free-radical coniferyl alcohol trimer were assessed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These potential reaction mechanisms were evaluated using both the calculated Gibbs free energies, to predict the spontaneity of the constituent reactions, and the electron-density mapped Fukui function, to determine the most reactive sites of each intermediate species. The results indicate that each reaction in one of the six mechanisms is thermodynamically favorable to those in the other mechanisms; what is more, the Fukui function for each free radical intermediate corroborates with the thermochemical results for this mechanism. This mechanism proceeds via the formation of two distinct free-radical intermediates, which then react to produce the four α-O-4 stereoisomers.

  6. Evaluation of the Role of Water in the H2 Bond Formation by Ni(II)-Based Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Hsun; Raugei, Simone; Rousseau, Roger; Dupuis, Michel; Bullock, R Morris

    2013-08-13

    We investigate the role of water in the H-H bond formation by a family of nickel molecular catalysts that exhibit high rates for H2 production in acetonitrile solvent. A key feature leading to the high reactivity is the Lewis acidity of the Ni(II) center and pendant amines in the diphosphine ligand that function as Lewis bases, facilitating H-H bond formation or cleavage. Significant increases in the rate of H2 production have been reported in the presence of added water. Our calculations show that molecular water can displace an acetonitrile solvent molecule in the first solvation shell of the metal. One or two water molecules can also participate in shuttling a proton that can combine with a metal hydride to form the H-H bond. However the participation of the water molecules does not lower the barrier to H-H bond formation. Thus these calculations suggest that the rate increase due to water in these electrocatalysts is not associated with the elementary step of H-H bond formation or cleavage but rather with the proton delivery steps. We attribute the higher barrier in the H-H bond formation in the presence of water to a decrease in direct interaction between the protic and hydridic hydrogen atoms forced by the water molecules.

  7. Initial development and performance evaluation of a process for formation of dense carbon by pyrolysis of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, G. P.; Cusick, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The three steps in pyrolytic carbon formation are: (1) gaseous hydrocarbon polymerization and aromatic formation; (2) gas-phase condensation and surface adsorption/impingement of polyaromatic hydrocarbon; and (3) final dehydration to carbon. The structure of the carbon in the various stages of formation is examined. The apparatuses and experimental procedures for the pyrolysis of methane in a 60 cm long quartz reactor tube at temperatures ranging from 1400-1600 K are described. The percentage of carbon converted and its density are calculated and tabularly presented. The results reveal that dense carbon formation is maximized and soot eliminated by this procedure. It is observed that conversion efficiency depends on the composition of the inlet gas and conversion increases with increasing temperature. Based on the experimental data a three-man carbon reactor subsystem (CRS) is developed; the functions of the Sabatier Methanation Reactor, two carbon formation reactors and fluid handling components of the CRS are analyzed. The CRS forms 16 kg of carbon at a rate of 0.8 kg/day for 20 days in a two percent volume density quartz wool packing at temperature of 1500-1600 K.

  8. Energetic Properties of Rocket Propellants Evaluated through the Computational Determination of Heats of Formation of Nitrogen-Rich Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquet, Valérian; Miró Sabaté, Carles; Chermette, Henry; Jacob, Guy; Labarthe, Émilie; Delalu, Henri; Darwich, Chaza

    2016-03-01

    The use of ab initio and DFT methods to calculate the enthalpies of formation of solid ionic compounds is described. The results obtained from the calculations are then compared with those from experimental measurements on nitrogen-rich salts of the 2,2-dimethyltriazanium cation (DMTZ) synthesized in our laboratory and on other nitrogen-rich ionic compounds. The importance of calculating accurate volumes and lattice enthalpies for the determination of heats of formation is also discussed. Furthermore, the crystal structure and hydrogen-bonding networks of the nitroformate salt of the DMTZ cation is described in detail. Lastly, the theoretical heats of formation were used to calculate the specific impulses (Isp ) of the salts of the DMTZ cation in view of a prospective application in propellant formulations.

  9. Automated Writing Evaluation for Non-Native Speaker English Academic Writing: The Case of IADE and Its Formative Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotos, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents an innovative approach to the development and empirical evaluation of Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE) technology used for teaching and learning. It introduces IADE (Intelligent Academic Discourse Evaluator), a new web-based AWE program that analyzes research article Introduction sections and generates immediate,…

  10. Technical cooperation front line. JICA technology cooperation project in Indonesia and Vietnam (Coal mining technology enhancement project in Indonesia); (Coal Mine Firedamp Gas Management Center in Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, K. [Japan Coal Energy Center (Japan). Technical Service Group, Engineering Dept.

    2002-09-01

    In April 2001, two coal mining technical cooperation projects of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) started. The first project is 'Coal Mining Technology Enhancement Project in Indonesia'. The second project is 'Coal Mine Firedamp Gas Management Center in Vietnam'. Both are project-type technical cooperation for the technology transfer centering in advanced Japanese underground coal mine technologies for a five years project period from April 1 2001 to 31 March 2006. Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL) have carried out indirect supporting function for the planning and the execution of the project from the preparation phase of the project start-up as a supporting agency based on the business agreement with JICA. This paper reports the projects development. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Quality assurance in welded structures. Part 3. ; NDT technology enhanced by computer. Yosetsu kozobutsu no hinshitsu hosho. 3. ; Computer riyo ni yoru hihakai shiken no kodoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, H.; Ogata, T. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan))

    1993-09-05

    The basic theory of nondestructive testing (NDT) technology enhanced by computer and its practical example are outlined. Higher reliability of the products, reduction in production cost by automation, countermeasures for dirty, hard and dangerous works, technical communication by skilled workers, and higher efficiency of the products are the principles of enhancement of nondestructive testing. The fields of application of computer to the NDT specially handy, light and cheap micro-computer are numerical analysis, drawings, image processing, automation, artificial intelligence, measurement/control, data reserve and so forth. As for the trend of NTD advancement, radiation penetrating test, automation of probe in ultrasonic flow detection or real time measurement of inspection, three dimensional graphic expression of defect results and so forth are advanced. Future topics are the normalization of appropriate thinking of quality level and improvement and clarification of reliability of NDT. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A Study of Students' Learning Styles, Discipline Attitudes and Knowledge Acquisition in Technology-Enhanced Probability and Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Nicolas; Dinov, Ivo D.

    2011-01-01

    Many modern technological advances have direct impact on the format, style and efficacy of delivery and consumption of educational content. For example, various novel communication and information technology tools and resources enable efficient, timely, interactive and graphical demonstrations of diverse scientific concepts. In this manuscript, we report on a meta-study of 3 controlled experiments of using the Statistics Online Computational Resources in probability and statistics courses. Web-accessible SOCR applets, demonstrations, simulations and virtual experiments were used in different courses as treatment and compared to matched control classes utilizing traditional pedagogical approaches. Qualitative and quantitative data we collected for all courses included Felder-Silverman-Soloman index of learning styles, background assessment, pre and post surveys of attitude towards the subject, end-point satisfaction survey, and varieties of quiz, laboratory and test scores. Our findings indicate that students' learning styles and attitudes towards a discipline may be important confounds of their final quantitative performance. The observed positive effects of integrating information technology with established pedagogical techniques may be valid across disciplines within the broader spectrum courses in the science education curriculum. The two critical components of improving science education via blended instruction include instructor training, and development of appropriate activities, simulations and interactive resources. PMID:21603097

  13. A Study of Students' Learning Styles, Discipline Attitudes and Knowledge Acquisition in Technology-Enhanced Probability and Statistics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Nicolas; Dinov, Ivo D

    2010-09-01

    Many modern technological advances have direct impact on the format, style and efficacy of delivery and consumption of educational content. For example, various novel communication and information technology tools and resources enable efficient, timely, interactive and graphical demonstrations of diverse scientific concepts. In this manuscript, we report on a meta-study of 3 controlled experiments of using the Statistics Online Computational Resources in probability and statistics courses. Web-accessible SOCR applets, demonstrations, simulations and virtual experiments were used in different courses as treatment and compared to matched control classes utilizing traditional pedagogical approaches. Qualitative and quantitative data we collected for all courses included Felder-Silverman-Soloman index of learning styles, background assessment, pre and post surveys of attitude towards the subject, end-point satisfaction survey, and varieties of quiz, laboratory and test scores. Our findings indicate that students' learning styles and attitudes towards a discipline may be important confounds of their final quantitative performance. The observed positive effects of integrating information technology with established pedagogical techniques may be valid across disciplines within the broader spectrum courses in the science education curriculum. The two critical components of improving science education via blended instruction include instructor training, and development of appropriate activities, simulations and interactive resources.

  14. 天然气水合物生成技术评价方法%The Evaluation Method for the Natural Gas Hydrate Formation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辉; 粟科华; 李伟

    2016-01-01

    Because hydrate can store natural gas under the condition close to normal pressure and temperature, and the energy density is similar to CNG, it is considered as a safe and economical method of gas storage and transportation. And how to produce hydrate fast and efficiently with high gas capacity is the promise of that this method is widely used. In de-cades, dozens of hydrate formation methods were studied. However, there remains a need for an evaluation method to evaluate those formation methods comprehensively.The existing evaluation method mostly focused on single factor such as gas storage capacity or hydrate for-mation rate, and the comprehensive properties of each formation method could not be mea-sured.To solve this problem,a systematic evaluate method that was based on analytic hierar-chy process had been built.The factors that influenced the hydrate formation were taken into consideration in this evaluate method. After that, 43 kinds of hydrate formation methods were evaluated, and some formation methods that were balanced among the gas storage ca-pacity, the formation rate and the lower cost were chosen. Besides, the effects of several typical enhanced means and additives were also evaluated, the spray method and the porous media additive could improve the comprehensive performance score observably.%水合物可以在接近常温、常压条件下储存天然气,储气密度与CNG相似,是一种经济、安全、有效的气体储运技术,而如何快速、高效地生产具有高储气密度的水合物则成为水合物储运技术得到实际应用的前提。近年来,国内外研究人员已经开发出了多样化的水合物生成技术,但还缺乏一种综合性的评价手段,现有的评价手段多是针对储气密度或者生成速度等单一因素的比较,不能综合反映各种生成技术之间的优缺点。针对这一问题,利用层次分析的思路,通过对水合物生成过程影响因素的分析,建立

  15. Formative evaluation for promoting adoption of the DGA, 2005 among African American parents and children in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formative research was conducted to increase adherence to the healthful food and physical activity patterns set forth in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 (DGA, 2005) and thereby reduce weight gain and risk factors for obesity-related chronic diseases in African American parents and their c...

  16. Constructed-Response DIF Evaluations for Mixed-Format Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-13-33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; Liu, Jinghua; Tan, Adele; Deng, Weiling; Dorans, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, differential item functioning (DIF) methods utilizing 14 different matching variables were applied to assess DIF in the constructed-response (CR) items from 6 forms of 3 mixed-format tests. Results suggested that the methods might produce distinct patterns of DIF results for different tests and testing programs, in that the DIF…

  17. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Progress report, June 16--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krason, J.; Finley, P.

    1988-12-31

    The summaries of regional basin analyses document that potentially economic accumulations of gas hydrates can be formed in both active and passive margin settings. The principal requirement for gas hydrate formation in either setting is abundant methane. Passive margin sediments with high sedimentation rates and sufficient sedimentary organic carbon can generate large quantities of biogenic methane for hydrate formation. Similarly, active margin locations near a terrigenous sediment source can also have high methane generation potential due to rapid burial of adequate amounts of sedimentary organic matter. Many active margins with evidence of gas hydrate presence correspond to areas subject to upwelling. Upwelling currents can enhance methane generation by increasing primary productivity and thus sedimentary organic carbon. Structural deformation of the marginal sediments at both active and passive sites can enhance gas hydrate formation by providing pathways for migration of both biogenic and thermogenic gas to the shallow gas hydrate stability zone. Additionally, conventional hydrocarbon traps may initially concentrate sufficient amounts of hydrocarbons for subsequent gas hydrate formation.

  18. A Comprehensive Evaluation of H2SO4 formation from OH and sCI pathways in high BVOC environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Seco, R.; Park, J. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Smith, J. N.; Kuang, C.; Bustillos, J. O. V.; Tota, J.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The recently highlighted importance of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) as an oxidant for atmospheric SO2 triggered a number of studies to assess the atmospheric implications of H2SO4 formation from the sCI reaction pathway. In addition, it has not been clear why new particle formation events are not observed in the Amazon rain forest. The mostly widely speculated reason has been a very low H2SO4 level. We will present quantitative assessments of SO2 oxidation by sCI leading to the H2SO4 production using a comprehensive observational dataset from a tropical rainforest study during the GOAmazon field campaign at the T3 site in Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil. To our best knowledge, this is the first observation of H2SO4 and OH in Amazon and is unique for all tropical sites due to the accompanying comprehensive gas and aerosol observations such as CO, NOX, SO2, VOCs, and physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols. We will discuss observed H2SO4 levels during the GOAmazon field campaigns to demonstrate 1) H2SO4 formation potential from OH and sCI oxidation pathways by contrasting extremely clean and relatively polluted air masses and 2) the Implications of the observed H2SO4 levels in new particle formation and particle growth events.

  19. How Do Consumers Evaluate Explainer Videos? An Empirical Study on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Different Explainer Video Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Andreas; Böhrs, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    There is a significant rise in the use of videos. More and more people use videos not only as a source of information but also as learning tool. This article explores the future potential of explainer videos, a format that conveys complex facts to a target group within a very short time. The findings are based on an empirical study representative…

  20. Developing alternative over-the-counter medicine label formats: How do they compare when evaluated by consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vivien; Raynor, David K; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-03-09

    In recent years, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has proposed implementing a standardized over-the-counter (OTC) medicine label. However, there were mixed consumer opinions regarding a label proposed in 2012 and limited evidence demonstrating the usability of the revised (2014) format. To develop and examine the usability of alternative OTC medicine label formats for standardization, and explore consumer perspectives on the labels. Four alternative labels were developed for the exemplar medicine diclofenac. One was based on the Medicine Information label proposed by the TGA ('Medicine Information'), one was based on the U.S. Drug Facts label ('Drug Facts'), and two were based on suggestions proposed by consumers in the earlier needs analysis phase of this research (referred to as the 'Medicine Facts' and 'Consumer Desires' label formats). Five cohorts of 10 participants were recruited. Each cohort was assigned to user test one of the alternative labels or an existing label for a proprietary diclofenac product (which acted as a comparator) for diagnostic purposes. Each participant then provided feedback on all 5 labels. Each interview consisted of the administration of a user testing questionnaire, measuring consumers' ability to find and understand key points of information, and a semi-structured interview exploring consumer perspectives. Overall, all 4 alternative label formats supported consumers' ability to find and understand key points. The existing comparator label was the poorer label with respect to participants' ability to find and understand key points. Factors such as perceived usability, color, design, content, and/or content ordering impacted consumer preferences. The 'Consumer Desires' or 'Drug Facts' label formats were most often preferred by consumers for use as the standardized OTC label over the TGA proposed format. All alternative label formats demonstrated satisfactory usability and could be considered for use in OTC label

  1. Nitrite reductase activity of rat and human xanthine oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase: evaluation of their contribution to NO formation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Luisa B; Pereira, Vânia; Mira, Lurdes; Moura, José J G

    2015-01-27

    Nitrite is presently considered a NO "storage form" that can be made available, through its one-electron reduction, to maintain NO formation under hypoxia/anoxia. The molybdoenzymes xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase (XO/XD) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) are two of the most promising mammalian nitrite reductases, and in this work, we characterized NO formation by rat and human XO/XD and AO. This is the first characterization of human enzymes, and our results support the employment of rat liver enzymes as suitable models of the human counterparts. A comprehensive kinetic characterization of the effect of pH on XO and AO-catalyzed nitrite reduction showed that the enzyme's specificity constant for nitrite increase 8-fold, while the Km(NO2(-)) decrease 6-fold, when the pH decreases from 7.4 to 6.3. These results demonstrate that the ability of XO/AO to trigger NO formation would be greatly enhanced under the acidic conditions characteristic of ischemia. The dioxygen inhibition was quantified, and the Ki(O2) values found (24.3-48.8 μM) suggest that in vivo NO formation would be fine-tuned by dioxygen availability. The potential in vivo relative physiological relevance of XO/XD/AO-dependent pathways of NO formation was evaluated using HepG2 and HMEC cell lines subjected to hypoxia. NO formation by the cells was found to be pH-, nitrite-, and dioxygen-dependent, and the relative contribution of XO/XD plus AO was found to be as high as 50%. Collectively, our results supported the possibility that XO/XD and AO can contribute to NO generation under hypoxia inside a living human cell. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of XO/AO-catalyzed nitrite reduction was revised.

  2. L’EVALUATION FORMATIVE: QUELS ATOUTS POUR L’ENSEIGNEMENT/APPRENTISSAGE DE LA COMMUNICATION PROFESSIONNELLE EN FRANÇAIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliana VASILIU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Concepts such as “ lifelong learning ” and “ autonomous learning ” lie at the centre of the methodology used by the multilingual and multicultural education to which teachers, students and professionals are invited today in Europe. Although within the last decade the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages CEFR has led to a radical positive change in teaching languages and cultures, I believe that there are also other resources to promote quality L2 or L3 teaching and learning processes, i.e., a better use of formative assessment in language class. Trying to find a good balance between harmonization and contextualization is equally necessary. But too often, stakeholders in the process of teaching and learning languages in Europe tend to equate assessment with rankings and creating hierarchies. The present paper proposes to approach several methodological opportunities for using the formative assessment adapted to teaching languages to specialists in other fields in a European Economic University.

  3. Programs for the work with ENSDF format files: Evaluator's editor EVE, Viewer for the nuclear level schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Shulyak, G I

    2010-01-01

    Tools for the regular work of the nuclear data evaluator are presented: the context-dependent editor EVE and the viewer for the level schemes of nuclei from ENSDF datasets. These programs may be used by everybody who works with the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File and for the educational purposed.

  4. A Science Lesson Plan Analysis Instrument for Formative and Summative Program Evaluation of a Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christina L.; Martin, Sonya N.; Otieno, Tracey C.

    2008-01-01

    In evaluating the success of teacher development programs, valid and scalable measures of teaching practice are needed. We have developed and validated the Science Lesson Plan Analysis Instrument (SLPAI) for quantitative evaluation of teacher-generated multiday lesson plans. This paper presents the SLPAI as a complement to surveys and classroom…

  5. Formative process evaluation for implementing a social marketing intervention to increase walking among African Americans in the Positive Action for Today's Health trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Griffin, Sarah; St George, Sara M; Alia, Kassandra A; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N; Wandersman, Abraham K; Forthofer, Melinda; Robinson, Shamika; Gadson, Barney

    2012-12-01

    Evaluating programs targeting physical activity may help to reduce disparate rates of obesity among African Americans. We report formative process evaluation methods and implementation dose, fidelity, and reach in the Positive Action for Today's Health trial. We applied evaluation methods based on an ecological framework in 2 community-based police-patrolled walking programs targeting access and safety in underserved African American communities. One program also targeted social connectedness and motivation to walk using a social marketing approach. Process data were systematically collected from baseline to 12 months. Adequate implementation dose was achieved, with fidelity achieved but less stable in both programs. Monthly walkers increased to 424 in the walking-plus-social marketing program, indicating expanding program reach, in contrast to no increase in the walking-only program. Increased reach was correlated with peer-led Pride Strides (r = .92; P social marketing component, and program social interaction was the primary reason for which walkers reported participating. Formative process evaluation demonstrated that the walking programs were effectively implemented and that social marketing increased walking and perceived social connectedness in African American communities.

  6. Formative Process Evaluation for Implementing a Social Marketing Intervention to Increase Walking Among African Americans in the Positive Action for Today’s Health Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; St. George, Sara M.; Alia, Kassandra A.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Wandersman, Abraham K.; Forthofer, Melinda; Robinson, Shamika; Gadson, Barney

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Evaluating programs targeting physical activity may help to reduce disparate rates of obesity among African Americans. We report formative process evaluation methods and implementation dose, fidelity, and reach in the Positive Action for Today’s Health trial. Methods: We applied evaluation methods based on an ecological framework in 2 community-based police-patrolled walking programs targeting access and safety in underserved African American communities. One program also targeted social connectedness and motivation to walk using a social marketing approach. Process data were systematically collected from baseline to 12 months. Results: Adequate implementation dose was achieved, with fidelity achieved but less stable in both programs. Monthly walkers increased to 424 in the walking-plus-social marketing program, indicating expanding program reach, in contrast to no increase in the walking-only program. Increased reach was correlated with peer-led Pride Strides (r = .92; P social marketing component, and program social interaction was the primary reason for which walkers reported participating. Conclusions: Formative process evaluation demonstrated that the walking programs were effectively implemented and that social marketing increased walking and perceived social connectedness in African American communities. PMID:23078486

  7. Evaluation of Dentin Defect Formation during Retreatment with Hand and Rotary Instruments: A Micro-CT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Yilmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and longitudinal propagation of dentin defects after gutta-percha removal with hand and rotary instruments using microcomputed tomography. Twenty mandibular incisors were prepared using the balanced-force technique and scanned in a 19.9 μm resolution. Following filling with the lateral compaction technique, gutta-percha was removed with ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTUR or hand instruments. After rescanning, a total of 24,120 cross-sectional images were analyzed. The numbers, types, and longitudinal length changes of defects were recorded. Defects were observed in 36.90% of the cross sections. A total of 73 defects were comprised of 87.67% craze lines, 2.73% partial cracks, and 9.58% fractures. No significant difference in terms of new defect formation was detected between the retreatment groups. The apical and middle portions of the roots had more dentin defects than the coronal portions. Defects in three roots of the PTUR instrument group increased in length. Under the conditions of this in vitro study, gutta-percha removal seemed to not increase the incidence of dentin defect formation, but the longitudinal defect propagation finding suggests possible cumulative dentinal damage due to additional endodontic procedures. Hand and rotary instrumentation techniques caused similar dentin defect formation during root canal retreatment.

  8. The Efficacy of Massage in Reducing Nodule Formation After Poly-L-Lactic Acid Administration for Facial Volume Loss: A Randomized, Evaluator-Blinded Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2016-11-01

    The risk of nodule formation following poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) injections for facial volume loss is well known. Traditionally, post-treatment massage according to the 5-5-5 rule (5 times per day for 5 minutes for 5 days) has been applied to mitigate this risk. However, such a regimen may be onerous for patient compliance. Using currently accepted injection technique and product dilution, the efficacy of massage for nodule prevention has never been formally evaluated. To evaluate the efficacy of massage in reducing the incidence of nodule formation post-PLLA injection. After obtaining informed consent, 20 subjects with facial lipoatrophy were enrolled in this randomized, evaluator-blinded clinical trial. Each subject was treated with 1 vial of PLLA each month for 3 months. Vials were diluted with 1 mL of 1% lidocaine and 7 ml of bacteriostatic water, shaken with a vortex and refrigerated for 24 to 48 hours before injection. Ten subjects were instructed to massage the treated areas according to the 5-5-5 rule and 10 subjects did not perform any massage post-treatment. Six-month follow-up data were collected for treatment efficacy and adverse events. No nodules were reported by subjects or detected by the blinded evaluator regardless of massage status. Significant improvements in facial lipoatrophy were detected 1, 3, and 6 months after the final treatment session and were not statistically different between the 2 groups. Using currently recommended guidelines for product preparation and injection, the application of massage post-PLLA facial treatment does not have a significant impact on nodule formation or treatment efficacy.

  9. Pre injection characterisation and evaluation of CO{sub 2} sequestration potential in the Haizume formation, Niigata basin, Japan; Caracterisation avant injection et evaluation du potentiel de sequestration de CO{sub 2} dans la formation de Haizume, bassin de Niigata, Japon. Modelisation geochimique des interactions eau-mineraux-CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwingmann, N. [CSIRO Petroleum, ARRC, Bentley, WA (Australia); Mito, S.; Sorai, M.; Ohsumi, T. [RITE, Kyoto (Japan); Zwingmann, N. [Western, Univ. (Australia); Sorai, M. [Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. (Japan)

    2005-03-15

    The Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) is carrying out a small-scale CO{sub 2} injection field experiment to investigate the feasibility of geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas in the south-west of Nagaoka City, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Prior to the injection geochemical reactions caused by CO{sub 2} injections were investigated using the geochemical modelling code (EQ3/6). The injection formation is the sedimentary marine Haizume Formation (Pleistocene) in the Uonuma Group, which is covered by a mud-stone seal. The formation is mainly composed of quartz, plagioclase, feldspar, pyroxene, and clays (smectite, chlorite). The sandstone shows minor consolidation and grain size is medium to coarse sand. The total dissolved solid (TDS) of the formation water is approximately 6100 mg/l and the water contains a high Ca{sup 2+} ({>=} 20% of Na{sup +} concentration). The geochemical model was used for an initial adjustment of the formation water chemistry to the formation conditions and a modelling of the formation water-mineral-CO{sub 2} reactions. The modelling results showed a high reactivity of the minerals in the CO{sub 2} rich environment and high mineral conversion rate within the formation. At the final state, approximately 23 mol of CO{sub 2} were taken into 1 kg of formation water and more than 90% of this was stored within carbonate minerals. In this simulation, some uncertainty is associated with the time scale and a more detailed investigation is planned and will address accurate evaluation. (authors)

  10. Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Tanya L; van Baaren, Rick B; Bargh, John A

    2006-02-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person's mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment influences affect is automatic evaluation, the nonconscious evaluation of environmental stimuli as good or bad. A first experiment demonstrated that repeated brief exposure to positive or negative stimuli (which leads to automatic evaluation) induces a corresponding mood in participants. In 3 additional studies, the authors showed that automatic evaluation affects information processing style. Experiment 4 showed that participants' mood mediates the effect of valenced brief primes on information processing. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: a randomized-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgmeier Ingrid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Front of pack food labels or signpost labels are currently widely discussed as means to help consumers to make informed food choices. It is hoped that more informed food choices will result in an overall healthier diet. There is only limited evidence, as to which format of a food label is best understood by consumers, helps them best to differentiate between more or less healthy food and whether these changes in perceived healthiness result in changes of food choice. Methods In a randomised experimental study in Hamburg/Germany 420 adult subjects were exposed to one of five experimental conditions: (1 a simple "healthy choice" tick, (2 a multiple traffic light label, (3 a monochrome Guideline Daily Amount (GDA label, (4 a coloured GDA label and (5 a "no label" condition. In the first task they had to identify the healthier food items in 28 pair-wise comparisons of foods from different food groups. In the second task they were asked to select food portions from a range of foods to compose a one-day's consumption. Differences between means were analysed using ANOVAs. Results Task I: Experimental conditions differed significantly in the number of correct decisions (p Conclusion Different food label formats differ in the understanding of consumers. The current study shows, that German adults profit most from the multiple traffic light labels. Perceived healthiness of foods is influenced by this label format most often. Nevertheless, such changes in perceived healthiness are unlikely to influence food choice and consumption. Attempts to establish the informed consumer with the hope that informed choices will be healthier choices are unlikely to change consumer behaviour and will not result in the desired contribution to the prevention of obesity and diet related diseases.

  12. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  13. Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: a randomized-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmeier, Ingrid; Westenhoefer, Joachim

    2009-06-12

    Front of pack food labels or signpost labels are currently widely discussed as means to help consumers to make informed food choices. It is hoped that more informed food choices will result in an overall healthier diet. There is only limited evidence, as to which format of a food label is best understood by consumers, helps them best to differentiate between more or less healthy food and whether these changes in perceived healthiness result in changes of food choice. In a randomised experimental study in Hamburg/Germany 420 adult subjects were exposed to one of five experimental conditions: (1) a simple "healthy choice" tick, (2) a multiple traffic light label, (3) a monochrome Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) label, (4) a coloured GDA label and (5) a "no label" condition. In the first task they had to identify the healthier food items in 28 pair-wise comparisons of foods from different food groups. In the second task they were asked to select food portions from a range of foods to compose a one-day's consumption. Differences between means were analysed using ANOVAs. Task I: Experimental conditions differed significantly in the number of correct decisions (p food consumption did not differ significantly between the experimental conditions. Different food label formats differ in the understanding of consumers. The current study shows, that German adults profit most from the multiple traffic light labels. Perceived healthiness of foods is influenced by this label format most often. Nevertheless, such changes in perceived healthiness are unlikely to influence food choice and consumption. Attempts to establish the informed consumer with the hope that informed choices will be healthier choices are unlikely to change consumer behaviour and will not result in the desired contribution to the prevention of obesity and diet related diseases.

  14. A novel high throughput biochemical assay to evaluate the HuR protein-RNA complex formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito G D'Agostino

    Full Text Available The RNA binding protein HuR/ELAVL1 binds to AU-rich elements (AREs promoting the stabilization and translation of a number of mRNAs into the cytoplasm, dictating their fate. We applied the AlphaScreen technology using purified human HuR protein, expressed in a mammalian cell-based system, to characterize in vitro its binding performance towards a ssRNA probe whose sequence corresponds to the are present in TNFα 3' untranslated region. We optimized the method to titrate ligands and analyzed the kinetic in saturation binding and time course experiments, including competition assays. The method revealed to be a successful tool for determination of HuR binding kinetic parameters in the nanomolar range, with calculated Kd of 2.5±0.60 nM, k on of 2.76±0.56*10(6 M(-1 min(-1, and k off of 0.007±0.005 min(-1. We also tested the HuR-RNA complex formation by fluorescent probe-based RNA-EMSA. Moreover, in a 384-well plate format we obtained a Z-factor of 0.84 and an averaged coefficient of variation between controls of 8%, indicating that this biochemical assay fulfills criteria of robustness for a targeted screening approach. After a screening with 2000 small molecules and secondary verification with RNA-EMSA we identified mitoxantrone as an interfering compound with rHuR and TNFα probe complex formation. Notably, this tool has a large versatility and could be applied to other RNA Binding Proteins recognizing different RNA, DNA, or protein species. In addition, it opens new perspectives in the identification of small-molecule modulators of RNA binding proteins activity.

  15. Relevance of PCDD/PCDF formation for the evaluation of POPs destruction technologies. PCB destruction by super critical water oxidation (SCWO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is one technology listed from United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) as ''Emerging and Innovative Technologies'' and from United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) as ''Commercialized Technology with Considerable Experience''. In laboratory experiments and pilot plants it has been shown that PCBs can be destroyed by sub- and super-critical water oxidation. In these studies it was not examined or reported if the formation of PCDFs occured during the PCB destruction. PCBs exhibit a special challenge because they are PCDF precursors and can be easily oxidized into the more toxic PCDFs. Therefore, during thermal treatment of PCBs, the formation of PCDFs has to be considered, in particular for oxidative destruction technologies. Only Hatakeda et al. reported the detection of toxicologically non-relevant monochlorinated dibenzofurans as byproducts during SCWO of 3-monochlorobiphenyl. However, during all thermal treatments of PCBs, the formation of PCDFs, especially the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners (TEQ), has to be considered as an important parameter and closely evaluated when establishing a treatment method for PCB destruction. It has been shown that the oxidation of PCB to PCDF occurs in the presence of air already at temperature as low as 300 C. Increasing the temperature to 550 C under short term pyrolysis conditions, conversion rates of PCB to PCDF were found to increase up to 25%. The present study evaluated the relevance of PCDF formation during SCWO of PCBs and demonstrates the importance of PCDD/PCDF monitoring for the assessment of a PCB/POP destruction technology during pilot and full-scale operations.

  16. Evaluating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Evaluating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Evaluating Infertility Page ... Evaluating Infertility FAQ136, June 2012 PDF Format Evaluating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is an infertility evaluation? When ...

  17. Evaluating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Evaluating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Evaluating Infertility Page ... Evaluating Infertility FAQ136, June 2012 PDF Format Evaluating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is an infertility evaluation? When ...

  18. Moralized Rationality: Relying on Logic and Evidence in the Formation and Evaluation of Belief Can Be Seen as a Moral Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Tomas; Zaal, Maarten P; Skitka, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    In the present article we demonstrate stable individual differences in the extent to which a reliance on logic and evidence in the formation and evaluation of beliefs is perceived as a moral virtue, and a reliance on less rational processes is perceived as a vice. We refer to this individual difference variable as moralized rationality. Eight studies are reported in which an instrument to measure individual differences in moralized rationality is validated. Results show that the Moralized Rationality Scale (MRS) is internally consistent, and captures something distinct from the personal importance people attach to being rational (Studies 1-3). Furthermore, the MRS has high test-retest reliability (Study 4), is conceptually distinct from frequently used measures of individual differences in moral values, and it is negatively related to common beliefs that are not supported by scientific evidence (Study 5). We further demonstrate that the MRS predicts morally laden reactions, such as a desire for punishment, of people who rely on irrational (vs. rational) ways of forming and evaluating beliefs (Studies 6 and 7). Finally, we show that the MRS uniquely predicts motivation to contribute to a charity that works to prevent the spread of irrational beliefs (Study 8). We conclude that (1) there are stable individual differences in the extent to which people moralize a reliance on rationality in the formation and evaluation of beliefs, (2) that these individual differences do not reduce to the personal importance attached to rationality, and (3) that individual differences in moralized rationality have important motivational and interpersonal consequences.

  19. Formative Evaluation for a Healthy Corner Store Initiative in Pitt County, North Carolina: Engaging Stakeholders for a Healthy Corner Store Initiative, Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine K. Lawton, MPH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We examined the feasibility of increasing access to healthful food in corner stores to inform a Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW initiative by engaging stakeholders (corner store owners and customers in a formative evaluation. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with corner store owners and managers (n = 11. Customer intercept surveys (n = 179 were also conducted with customers of 9 stores. Corner stores were located in rural food deserts (municipalities without a chain supermarket and in low-income, urban municipalities in eastern North Carolina. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and double-coded. Qualitative themes related to feasibility of increasing access to healthful foods were extracted. Shopping patterns of rural and urban customers were compared by using t tests. Results Corner store owners were willing to stock more healthful foods, but they perceived that customer demand for these foods was low. Rural customers reported more frequently shopping at corner stores than urban customers and more frequently stated that the reason they do not eat more fruits and vegetables is that the stores in which they shop do not sell them. Most customers reported they would be very or somewhat likely to purchase fresh produce at a corner store. Conclusion Corner stores may be an important source of food for rural and low-income residents and thus a good place in which to intervene. The results of this formative evaluation were used to plan and evaluate a CPPW healthy corner store initiative.

  20. Generation of a Skeleton Corpus of Digital Objects for the Validation and Evaluation of Format Identification Tools and Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To preserve digital information it is vital that the format of that information can be identified, in-perpetuity. This is the major focus of research within the field of Digital Preservation. The National Archives of the UK called for the Digital Preservation and Digital Curation communities to develop a test corpus of digital objects to help further develop tools to aid this purpose. Following that call, an attempt has been made to develop the suite.This paper initially outlines a methodology to generate a skeleton corpus using simple user-generated digital objects. It then explores the lessons learnt in the generation of a corpus using scripting language techniques from the file format signatures described in The National Archives PRONOM technical registry. It will also discuss the use of the digital signature for this purpose, the benefits of developing a test corpus using this technique. Finally, this paper will outline a methodology for future research before exploring how the community can best make use of the output of this project and how this project needs to be taken forward to completion.

  1. DEFL/DALF: L'evaluation au service de la formation (DELF/DALF: Evaluation in the Service of Teacher Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freynet, Alain; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A recent experiment in French second language teacher training in Indonesia, where French culture has little or no historical place, uses teacher evaluation to improve teacher training. The project has also succeeded in bringing together professionals and organizations that generally have had little contact. (MSE)

  2. Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC: Experimental evaluation by the PHENIX collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Adcox, K; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Aphecetche, L; Arai, Y; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Barrette, J; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S V; Bellaiche, F G; Belyaev, S T; Bennett, M J; Berdnikov, Yu A; Botelho, S S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N L; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V A; Bunce, G M; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Carey, T A; Chand, P; Chang, J; Chang, W C; Chavez, L L; Chernichenko, S K; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choudhury, R K; Christ, T; Chujo, T; Chung, M S; Chung, P; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; D'Enterria, D G; Dávid, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dinesh, B V; Drees, A; Durum, A A; Dutta, D; Ebisu, K; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Chenawi, K F; Enyo, H; Esumi, S C; Ewell, L A; Ferdousi, T; Fields, D E; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Zeev; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Godoi, A L; Goto, Y; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Sen-Gupta, S K; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hara, H; Hartouni, E P; Hayano, R S; Hayashi, N; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hill, J C; Ho, D S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Ippolitov, M S; Ishihara, M; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jia, J; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Kametani, S; Kang, J H; Kann, M; Kapoor, S S; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B A; Khanzadeev, A V; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, H J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kistenev, E P; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Bösing, C; Klinksiek, S A; Kochenda, L M; Kochetkov, D; Kochetkov, V; Köhler, D; Kohama, T; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R A; Lajoie, J G; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Li, Z; Lim, D J; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Liu Zu Ping; Maguire, C F; Mahon, J R; Makdisi, Y I; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Mark, S K; Markacs, S; Martínez, G; Marx, M D; Masaike, A; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E A; Merschmeyer, M; Messer, F; Messer, M; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A M; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Muhlbacher, F; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nagle, J L; Nakada, Y; Nandi, B K; Newby, J; Nikkinen, L; Nilsson, P O; Nishimura, S; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Ono, M; Onuchin, V A; Oskarsson, A; Österman, L; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Paffrath, L; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, Thomas; Petridis, A; Pinkenburg, C H; Pisani, R P; Pitukhin, P; Plasil, F; Pollack, M E; Pope, K; Purschke, M L; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rosati, M; Rose, A A; Ryu, S S; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, A; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Sakuma, T; Samsonov, V; Sangster, T C; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schlei, B R; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R K; Shea, T K; Shein, I V; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Shin, Y H; Sibiryak, Yu; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Simon-Gillo, J; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sørensen, S; Stankus, P W; Starinsky, N; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugioka, M; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Sun, Z; Suzuki, M; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, E; Tannenbaum, M J; Thomas, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, T L; Tian, W; Tojo, J; Torii, H A; Towell, R S; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuruoka, H; Tsvetkov, A A; Tuli, S K; Tydesjo, H; Tyurin, N; Ushiroda, T; van Hecke, H; Velissaris, C; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vorobyov, A A; Vznuzdaev, E A; Wang, H; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Witzig, C; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yagi, K; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, Z; Zhou, S

    2004-01-01

    Extensive experimental data from high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions were recorded using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The comprehensive set of measurements from the first three years of RHIC operation includes charged particle multiplicities, transverse energy, yield ratios and spectra of identified hadrons in a wide range of transverse momenta (p_T), elliptic flow, two-particle correlations, non-statistical fluctuations, and suppression of particle production at high p_T. The results are examined with an emphasis on implications for the formation of a new state of dense matter. We find that the state of matter created at RHIC cannot be described in terms of ordinary color neutral hadrons.

  3. Simulation development and evaluation of an improved longitudinal velocity vector control wheel steering mode and electronic display format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    Using simulation, an improved longitudinal velocity vector control wheel steering mode and an improved electronic display format for an advanced flight system were developed and tested. Guidelines for the development phase were provided by test pilot critique summaries of the previous system. The results include performances from computer generated step column inputs across the full airplane speed and configuration envelope, as well as piloted performance results taken from a reference line tracking task and an approach to landing task conducted under various environmental conditions. The analysis of the results for the reference line tracking and approach to landing tasks indicates clearly detectable improvement in pilot tracking accuracy with a reduction in physical workload. The original objectives of upgrading the longitudinal axis of the velocity vector control wheel steering mode were successfully met when measured against the test pilot critique summaries and the original purpose outlined for this type of augment control mode.

  4. Content, Preparation, and Formative Evaluation of an Interactive Videodisc System to Enhance Communication Skills in Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Michael W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The process of developing and evaluating an interactive videodisc system to teach communication skills for community and institutional pharmacy practice settings is described. An interdisciplinary team was used to integrate therapeutics, communication theory, media design, video production, and computer programing in the software development…

  5. Evaluation of shale gas potential based on organic matter characteristics and gas concentration in the Devonian Horn River Formation, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Hong, Sung Kyung; Lee, Hyun Suk

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate organic matter characteristics from the analysis of Rock-Eval6 and biomarker, and estimate methane concentration from headspace method in the Devonian Horn River Formation, which is one of the largest shale reservoir in western Canada. The Horn River Formation consists of the Evie, Otterpark and Muskwa members in ascending stratigraphic order. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) ranges from 0.34 to 7.57 wt%, with an average of 2.78 wt%. The Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members have an average TOC of more than 3%, whereas those of the lower and upper Otterpark Member are less than 2%. Based on Pristane/n-C17 (0.2 0.6) and Phytane/n-C18 (0.3 0.9) ratios, the organic matter in the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members mainly consists of type II kerogen which are formed in reducing marine environment. Thermal maturity were examined through the use of the distributions of Phenanthrene (P) and Methylphenantrenes (MP) based on m/z 178 and 192 mass chromatograms, respectively (Radke et al., 1982). The methylphenanthrene index (MPI-1) are calculated as follows : MPI-1 = 1.5 × (2MP+3MP)/(P+1MP+9MP), and Ro are calculated as follows : Ro = -0.6 × MPI-1 + 2.3. Estimated Ro ranges between 1.88 and 1.93%, which indicates the last stage of wet gas generation. The methane concentrations in headspace range from 15 to 914 ppmv, with an average of 73.5 ppmv. The methane concentrations in the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members (up to 914 ppmv) are higher than those of the lower and upper Otterpark Member (up to 75 ppmv). Considering the organic geochemical characteristics and gas concentrations, the shale gas potentials of the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members are higher than those of other members.

  6. A Black Swan in a Sea of White Noise: Using Technology-Enhanced Learning to Afford Educational Inclusivity for Learners with Asperger’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James McDowell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of increasingly vocation-focussed course provision within higher education, of widening participation initiatives intended to promote greater inclusion for learners affected by learning difficulties, and of moves towards greater use of social and collaborative forms of learning, this paper discusses the case of an undergraduate Computing student affected by Asperger’s Syndrome (AS.While there is recognition in the literature of problems associated with face-to-face dialogue for persons affected by AS, there is a paucity of research both into the experience of students in higher education, and around the issue of participation in group-work activities increasingly found in creative aspects of computing. This paper highlights a tension between moves towards collaborative learning and UK disabilities legislation in relation to learners with AS. Employing a qualitative case-study methodology, the investigation revealed how a technology-enhanced learning intervention afforded an AS-diagnosed learner greater opportunities to participate in group-work in a higher education context. The findings suggest that not only can computer-mediated communications afford AS-diagnosed learners opportunities to participate meaningfully in group-work, but also that the learner demonstrated higher levels of collective-inclusive versus individual-exclusive phraseology than neurotypical peers, thereby challenging assumptions around participation in collaborative learning activities and assimilation of peer-feedback.

  7. Radioactivity and radiological risk associated with effluent sediment containing technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials in amang (tin tailings) processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Ismail; Mohsen, Nasirian; Abdullah, Pauzi

    2007-01-01

    The processing of amang, or tin tailings, for valuable minerals has been shown to technologically enhance NORM and this has stirred significant radiological safety and health concerns among Malaysia's regulatory authority. A growing radiological concern is now focused on the amang effluent containing NORM in recycling ponds, since these ponds may be reclaimed for future residential developments. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk associated with amang processing and the accumulated effluent in the recycling ponds. Twenty-six sediment samples from the recycling ponds of two amang plants in the states of Selangor and Perak, Malaysia, were collected and analyzed. The maximum activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K recorded in sediments from these ponds were higher than Malaysia's and the world's natural highest. Correspondingly, the mean radium equivalent activity concentration indices, Ra(eq), and gamma radiation representative level index, I(gammar), were higher than the world's average. The enhancement of NORM in effluent sediments as a consequence of amang processing, and the use of a closed water management recycling system created Effective Dose Rates, E (nSv h(-1)), that signal potential environmental radiological risks in these ponds, should they be reclaimed for future land use.

  8. Evaluation of the probe dihydrocalcein acetoxymethylester as an indicator of reactive oxygen species formation and comparison with oxidative DNA base modification determined by modified alkaline elution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohnstock, A; Lehmann, L

    2007-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a predominant role in various diseases and the development of fast and easy methods for the quantification of intracellular ROS represents an important goal. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the fluorogenic probe dihydrocalcein acetoxymethylester (AM) for the detection of intracellular ROS. A flow cytometric method was developed using MCF-7 cells and the kinetics of ester hydrolysis and the cellular distribution and stability of calcein were characterized using calcein AM. Then, MCF-7 cells were challenged with model agents for the generation of singlet oxygen (illumination with visible light), peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals (tert-butylhydroperoxide, tBHP), superoxide anion radicals (potassium dioxide), and the intracellular formation of superoxide anion radicals by redox cycling (menadione) and the formation of calcein was compared with the induction of oxidative DNA base modifications assessed by modified alkaline elution technique. Every model agent significantly induced formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites (i.e. oxidative DNA base modifications) and most also induced DNA strand breaks. In contrast, exclusively tBHP and illumination with visible light induced the intracellular formation of calcein. In conclusion, though intracellular oxidation of dihydrocalcein represents a fast screening method, it detects a limited spectrum of ROS.

  9. [Evaluation of mixed biofilm formation between Candida albicans and a variety of bacterial species isolated from peripheral catheters at Tlemcen CHU. First study in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghir, A; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Boucherit, K; Sari-Belkharroubi, L; Anselme-Bertrand, I

    2015-06-01

    Mixed-species biofilms constitute a reservoir of infection for a group of bacteria and yeasts that coexist on the same support. Peripheral venous catheters make up a good surface for the attachment of microorganisms that promote biofilm formation and this requires complex strategies for antimicrobial treatments. No such studies on formation mixed biofilms have ever been conducted in Algeria. Therefore, we evaluated the potential for the formation of mixed-species biofilms by Candida albicans and some bacterial species isolated from peripheral vascular catheters at the University Hospital of Tlemcen, in Algeria. The results obtained showed that C. albicans have the potential to form mixed biofilms with three bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae, Bordetella spp. and Serratia liquefaciens) isolated from the same catheter as the yeasts. The amount of biofilms produced varies depending on the species and the composition of the growth medium. Observations by scanning electron microscopy showed that the structure of the mixed biofilm depends on the surface support the biofilm was formed on, and varies with the species. A competition was noted between bacteria and yeasts; it depends on the composition of the medium and its pH, which both play an important role in promoting the dominance of one over the other. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Technological Enhancements for Personal Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    scenarios that represent some of what can be accomplished % ith personal computers. 20 D!STRIBUTION/ AVAILABILTY OF ABSTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY...not just the immediate usages . With few exceptions all of the options discussed here are available under the Desktop III contract. The new Desktop IV...Many users found them to be slow and unwieldy and consequentially they did not get the expected usage nor did they provide the advantages we find in

  11. Theoretical and methodological basis for the formation and evaluation of the level of the economic system's strategic economic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljushin Vladislav Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current level of business activity of socio-economic systems of different scale and insufficient to increase their overall potential. To solve this problem, the first priority is the effective management of their strategic and economic potential. Managerial decision-making about the use of economic resources strategic socio-economic systems requires the development of a methodology to identify and evaluate strategic and economic potential.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of yeast's requirement for glycerol formation in very high ethanol performance fed-batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevoigt Elke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycerol is the major by-product accounting for up to 5% of the carbon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation. Decreasing glycerol formation may redirect part of the carbon toward ethanol production. However, abolishment of glycerol formation strongly affects yeast's robustness towards different types of stress occurring in an industrial process. In order to assess whether glycerol production can be reduced to a certain extent without jeopardising growth and stress tolerance, the yeast's capacity to synthesize glycerol was adjusted by fine-tuning the activity of the rate-controlling enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH. Two engineered strains whose specific GPDH activity was significantly reduced by two different degrees were comprehensively characterized in a previously developed Very High Ethanol Performance (VHEP fed-batch process. Results The prototrophic strain CEN.PK113-7D was chosen for decreasing glycerol formation capacity. The fine-tuned reduction of specific GPDH activity was achieved by replacing the native GPD1 promoter in the yeast genome by previously generated well-characterized TEF promoter mutant versions in a gpd2Δ background. Two TEF promoter mutant versions were selected for this study, resulting in a residual GPDH activity of 55 and 6%, respectively. The corresponding strains were referred to here as TEFmut7 and TEFmut2. The genetic modifications were accompanied to a strong reduction in glycerol yield on glucose; the level of reduction compared to the wild-type was 61% in TEFmut7 and 88% in TEFmut2. The overall ethanol production yield on glucose was improved from 0.43 g g-1 in the wild type to 0.44 g g-1 measured in TEFmut7 and 0.45 g g-1 in TEFmut2. Although maximal growth rate in the engineered strains was reduced by 20 and 30%, for TEFmut7 and TEFmut2 respectively, strains' ethanol stress robustness was hardly affected; i.e. values for final ethanol concentration (117 ± 4 g

  13. Evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) during chlorination of two algae species--Blue-green Microcystis aeruginosa and diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaobin; Liu, Jinjin; Yang, Mingli; Ma, Hongfang; Yuan, Baoling; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa (blue-green alga) commonly blooms in summer and Cyclotella meneghiniana (diatom) outbreaks in fall in the reservoirs that serve as drinking water sources in Southeast China. Herein, an evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) from them during chlorination should be conducted. Five DBPs including trichloromethane (TCM), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) were monitored. The formation potential of TCM and TCNM was enhanced with the increase of reaction time and chlorine dosage, whereas that of DCAN, 1,1-DCP and 1,1,1-TCP increased first and then fell with continuing reaction time. M. aeruginosa showed higher DBPFP than C. meneghiniana, the yield of DBPs varied with components of algal cells. The DBPFP order from components of M. aeruginosa was cell suspension (CS) ≈ intracellular organic matter (IOM) > extracellular organic matter (EOM) > cell debris (CD), which indicated that IOM was the main DBP precursors for M. aeruginosa. The yields of DBPs from components of C. meneghiniana were in the order of CS>IOM≈ CD ≈ EOM, suggesting that three components made similar contributions to the total DBP formation. The amount of IOM with higher DBPFP leaked from both algae species increased with the chlorine dosage, indicating that chlorine dosage should be considered carefully in the treatment of eutrophic water for less destroying of the cell integrity. Though fluorescence substances contained in both algae species varied significantly, the soluble microbial products (SMPs) and aromatic protein-like substances were the main cellular components that contributed to DBP formation for both algae.

  14. Tomographic Evaluation of Reparative Dentin Formation after Direct Pulp Capping with Ca(OH)2, MTA, Biodentine, and Dentin Bonding System in Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Alicja; Wilk, Grażyna; Lipski, Mariusz; Kołecki, Janusz; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2015-08-01

    New materials can increase the efficiency of pulp capping through the formation of a complete reparative dentin bridge with no toxic effects. The present study involved tomographic evaluations of reparative dentin bridge formation after direct pulp capping with calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fossés, France), and Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) in human teeth. Forty-four caries-free, intact, human third molars scheduled for extraction were subjected to mechanical pulp exposure and assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups depending on the pulp capping agent used: calcium hydroxide, MTA, Biodentine, or Single Bond Universal. After 6 weeks, the teeth were extracted and processed for cone-beam computed tomographic imaging and histologic examination. Tomographic data, including the density and volume of formed reparative dentin bridges, were evaluated using a scoring system. The reparative dentin formed in the calcium hydroxide, MTA, and Biodentine groups was significantly superior to that formed in the Single Bond Universal group in terms of thickness and volume. The dentin bridges in the Biodentine group showed the highest average and maximum volumes. The mean density of dentin bridges was the highest in the MTA group and the lowest in the Single Bond Universal group. The volume of reparative dentin bridges formed after direct pulp capping is dependent on the material used. Biodentine and MTA resulted in the formation of bridges with a significantly higher average volume compared with Single Bond Universal, and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging allowed for the identification of the location of dentin bridges. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A prospective study on evaluation of pathogenesis, biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility of microbial community in urinary catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to isolate, detect biofilm formation ability and antibiotic susceptibility of urinary catheter adherent microorganisms from elderly hospitalized patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. Microorganisms were isolated from three samples of urinary catheters (UC) surface; one of the acute vascular rejection patient (UCB) and two from benign prostate hyperplasia patients (UCC and UCD). A total of 100 isolates was isolated with 35 from UCB, 38 (UCC) and 28 (UCD). Ninety six were identified as Gram-negative bacilli, one Gram-positive bacilli and three yeasts. Results of biofilm forming on sterile foley catheter showed that all the isolates can form biofilm at different degrees; strong biofilm forming: 32% from the 35 isolates (UCB), 25% out of 38 isolates (UCC), 26% out of 28 isolates (UCD). As for moderate biofilm forming; 3% from UCB, 10% from UCC and 2% from UCD. Weak biofilm forming in UCC (3%). The antibiotic susceptibility for (UCB) isolates showed highly resistant to ampicillin, novobiocin and penicillin 100 (%), kanamycin (97%), tetracycline (94%), chloramphenicol (91%), streptomycin (77%) and showed low level of resistance to gentamycin (17%), while all the isolates from (UCC-D) showed high resistant towards ampicillin and penicillin, novobiocin (94%), tetracycline (61%), streptomycin (53%), gentamycin (50%) and low level of resistance to kanamycin (48%), chloramphenicol (47%). The findings indicate that these isolates can spread within the community on urinary catheters surface and produce strong biofilm, therefore, monitoring antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated in the aggregation is recommended.

  16. Evaluation of Zosteric Acid for Mitigating Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas putida Isolated from a Membrane Bioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides data to define an efficient biocide-free strategy based on zosteric acid to counteract biofilm formation on the membranes of submerged bioreactor system plants. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that gammaproteobacteria was the prevalent taxa on fouled membranes of an Italian wastewater plant. Pseudomonas was the prevalent genus among the cultivable membrane-fouler bacteria and Pseudomonas putida was selected as the target microorganism to test the efficacy of the antifoulant. Zosteric acid was not a source of carbon and energy for P. putida cells and, at 200 mg/L, it caused a reduction of bacterial coverage by 80%. Biofilm experiments confirmed the compound caused a significant decrease in biomass (−97% and thickness (−50%, and it induced a migration activity of the peritrichous flagellated P. putida over the polycarbonate surface not amenable to a biofilm phenotype. The low octanol-water partitioning coefficient and the high water solubility suggested a low bioaccumulation potential and the water compartment as its main environmental recipient and capacitor. Preliminary ecotoxicological tests did not highlight direct toxicity effects toward Daphnia magna. For green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata an effect was observed at concentrations above 100 mg/L with a significant growth of protozoa that may be connected to a concurrent algal growth inhibition.

  17. Evaluation of Zosteric Acid for Mitigating Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas putida Isolated from a Membrane Bioreactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Andrea; Foladori, Paola; Ponti, Benedetta; Bettinetti, Roberta; Gambino, Michela; Villa, Federica; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This study provides data to define an efficient biocide-free strategy based on zosteric acid to counteract biofilm formation on the membranes of submerged bioreactor system plants. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that gammaproteobacteria was the prevalent taxa on fouled membranes of an Italian wastewater plant. Pseudomonas was the prevalent genus among the cultivable membrane-fouler bacteria and Pseudomonas putida was selected as the target microorganism to test the efficacy of the antifoulant. Zosteric acid was not a source of carbon and energy for P. putida cells and, at 200 mg/L, it caused a reduction of bacterial coverage by 80%. Biofilm experiments confirmed the compound caused a significant decrease in biomass (−97%) and thickness (−50%), and it induced a migration activity of the peritrichous flagellated P. putida over the polycarbonate surface not amenable to a biofilm phenotype. The low octanol-water partitioning coefficient and the high water solubility suggested a low bioaccumulation potential and the water compartment as its main environmental recipient and capacitor. Preliminary ecotoxicological tests did not highlight direct toxicity effects toward Daphnia magna. For green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata an effect was observed at concentrations above 100 mg/L with a significant growth of protozoa that may be connected to a concurrent algal growth inhibition. PMID:24879523

  18. Evaluation of intraspecies interactions in biofilm formation by Methylobacterium species isolated from pink-pigmented household biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-Fang; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Wang, Wen-Zhao; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Liang, Yan; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Concern regarding household biofilms has grown due to their widespread existence and potential to threaten human health by serving as pathogen reservoirs. Previous studies identified Methylobacterium as one of the dominant genera found in household biofilms. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation by using the bacterial consortium found in household pink slime. A clone library analysis revealed that Methylobacterium was the predominant genus in household pink slime. In addition, 16 out of 21 pink-pigmented bacterial isolates were assigned to the genus Methylobacterium. Although all of the Methylobacterium isolates formed low-level biofilms, the amount of the biofilms formed by Methylobacterium sp. P-1M and P-18S was significantly increased by co-culturing with other Methylobacterium strains that belonged to a specific phylogenetic group. The single-species biofilm was easily washed from the glass surface, whereas the dual-species biofilm strongly adhered after washing. A confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that the dual-species biofilms were significantly thicker and tighter than the single-species biofilms.

  19. The formation of the development model of the innovative industrial cluster and methods for evaluating its economic effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorova L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cluster approach is considered by the authors as the tool to ensure the accelerated development of the country’s industrial complex. In the article the authors examine the problem of forming the model of the cluster development in high-tech sectors of industry and the methods for evaluating its economic effectiveness. Unlike traditional approaches, the authors of the article identify a cluster unit as the main structural element of the development model of the innovative industrial cluster. They think that a cluster unit is one member of the cluster (i.e.one enterprise. This point of view is differed from modern scientists` opinion, who view a cluster unit as the complex of enterprises operating within cluster units. The purpose of the study was the development and the economic evaluation of the model of the cluster development. In this research the authors examined the cluster of industrial biotechnologies. They have developed and proposed the model of the development of the cluster of industrial biotechnologies: the Non-commercial partnership (NP “The biotechnology cluster of the Kirov region”. This model takes into account the peculiarities of the innovative production. The authors have calculated the absolute and relative effect from clustering taking into account the effectiveness and profitability indicators of the cluster units activities within the cluster in question and the evaluation of the project activity of the cluster. Thus the authors have proved the economic effectiveness of the proposed model of the cluster development. The received research results allow us to conclude that the designed model of the development of the NP “The biotechnology cluster of the Kirov region” provides a steady growth trend of positive economic effect from the corporate activities of the enterprises within the cluster and increase in the region’s competitiveness in the production of high-tech industrial products.

  20. Clinical evaluation of a novel herbal dental cream in plaque formation: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Patki, Pralhad; Amruthesh ,Sunita; Tandur,Prakash; Tandur,AP; Malini

    2010-01-01

    Sunita Amrutesh1, J Malini2, Prakash S Tandur3, Pralhad S Patki41Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, K.L.E. College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Bangalore, India; 4Medical Services and Clinical Trials, R&D Center, The Himalaya Drug Company, Bangalore, IndiaBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal dental cream in comparison to fluoride dental cream.Objective...