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Sample records for technology telescope ntt

  1. 3D-NTT: A New Instrument for the NTT Based on Versatile Tunable Filter Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelin, M.

    The 3D-NTT will be a visitor instrument for the NTT, built by GEPI (Paris) and LAM (Marseille) with the collaboration of LAE (Montréal, Canada) and AAO (Australia). It is a spectro-imager offering two modes: a low resolution mode (100-5000) with a Tunable Filter, and a high resolution mode (5000 - 40 000) with a standard scanning Fabry-Perot. A large variety of programmes may be led with such an instrument as has been shown recently (1997-2003) with the Taurus Tunable Filter on the AAT and WHT. In the frame of a large scientific coollaboration, gathering European teams as well as collaborators from other countries, we propose a Large Programme (IOGA) dedicated to the study of ionized gas in galaxies, at low and high z, to be undertaken with the 3D-NTT. Nearby IR galaxies (IRGs) are the key to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, as they are believed to be the local counter-part of the numerous luminous starburst galaxies at high z. To understand the nature, origin and evolution of IRGs, we propose to map the star formation and kinematics in 500 galaxies and obtain dust extinction, metal abundances and electron density maps in 50 of them for obtaining a reference sample with high spectral and spatial resolution (sub-kpc) to be compared with distant objects being observed on the VLT (GIRAFFE, SINFONI). We will take advantage of both modes proposed by the instrument: high resolution mode with scanning Fabry Perot (FOV 5.5' or 11'), and low resolution mode with Tunable Filter and larger field (FOV 20'). This mode will be used at high z to look for star forming galaxies around quasars with a range of intrinsic UV luminosity. Star forming galaxies exist in significant numbers around low power quasars and we want to check if this remains true around more distant and luminous quasars. This may be the first evidence that powerful UV fields can suppress or delay widespread star formation in galaxies and, as such, may provide important constraints on

  2. Impact Goals of Research and Development Technology on the Business Strategy of NTT's Fiber-to-the-Home Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hideaki

    2013-03-01

    Huge investment is needed for introducing a fiber-to-the-home system, so research and development strategy is very important. Requirements for fiber-to-the-home systems have been increased because communication systems have been recognized as one of the lifelines along with water, electricity, and gas. Furthermore, low energy consumption and recyclable eco-friendliness are required for products. NTT has been challenged to reduce capital expenditure, reduce operational expenditure, and create new applications for expanding the number of fiber-to-the-home subscribers from the viewpoint of a technological approach, including access infrastructure, fiber, transmission, and wireless technologies. Due to continuous and strategic technological development, the number of NTT's fiber-to-the-home subscribers is now over 17 million.

  3. Composite telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    We report the development of optical mirrors based on polymer matrix composite materials. Advantages of this technology are low cost and versatility. By using appropriate combinations of polymers and various metallic and nonmetallic particles and fibers, the properties of the materials can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications. We report the fabrication and testing of flat and curved mirrors made with metal powders, multiple mirrors replicated with high degree of uniformity from the same mandrels, cryogenic testing, mirrors made of ferromagnetic materials that can be actively or adaptively controlled by non-contact actuation, optics with very smooth surfaces made by replication, and by spincasting. We discuss development of a new generation of ultra-compact, low power active optics and 3D printing of athermal telescopes.

  4. NTT follow-up observations of star cluster candidates from the FSR catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We are conducting a large program to classify newly discovered Milky Way star cluster candidates from the list of Froebrich et al. Here, we present deep near-infrared (NIR) follow-up observations from European Southern Observatory-New Technology Telescope (ESO/NTT) of 14 star cluster candidates. We show that the combined analysis of star density maps (SDMs) and colour-colour/magnitude diagrams derived from deep NIR imaging is a viable tool to reliably classify new stellar clusters. This allow...

  5. The NTT Susi Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Arnouts, S; Cristiani, S; Zaggia, S R; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E

    1999-01-01

    We present a deep BVrI multicolor catalog of galaxies in a 5.62 sq.arcmin field 80 arcsec south of the high redshift (z=4.7) quasar BR 1202-0725, derived from observations with the direct CCD camera SUSI at the ESO NTT. The formal 5$\\sigma$ magnitude limits (in 2 x FWHM apertures) are 26.9, 26.5, 25.9 and 25.3 in B, V, r and I respectively. Counts, colors for the star and galaxy samples are discussed and a comparison with a deep HST image in the I band is presented. The percentage of merged or blended galaxies in the SUSI data to this magnitude limit is estimated to be not higher than 1%. At the same galactic latitude of the HDF but pointing toward the galactic center, the star density in this field is found to be ~3 times higher, with ~20% of the objects with V-I > 3.0. Reliable colors have been measured for galaxies selected down to r = 26. The choice of the optical filters has been optimized to define a robust multicolor selection of galaxies at 3.8 <= z <= 4.4. Within this interval the surface densi...

  6. The new SOXS instrument for the ESO NTT

    CERN Document Server

    Schipani, P; Campana, S; Baruffolo, A; Basa, S; Basso, S; Cappellaro, E; Cascone, E; Cosentino, R; DAlessio, F; De Caprio, V; Della Valle, M; Postigo, A de Ugarte; DOrsi, S; Franzen, R; Fynbo, J; Gal-Yam, A; Gardiol, D; Giro, E; Hamuy, M; Iuzzolino, M; Loreggia, D; Mattila, S; Munari, M; Pignata, G; Riva, M; Savarese, S; Schmidt, B; Scuderi, S; Smartt, S; Vitali, F

    2016-01-01

    SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) will be a unique spectroscopic facility for the ESO-NTT 3.5-m telescope in La Silla (Chile), able to cover the optical/NIR band (350-1750 nm). The design foresees a high-efficiency spectrograph with a resolution-slit product of ~4,500, capable of simultaneously observing the complete spectral range 350 - 1750 nm with a good sensitivity, with light imaging capabilities in the visible band. This paper outlines the status of the project.

  7. NTT Observations Indicate that Brown Dwarfs Form Like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Dusty Disks Detected around Very Young Substellar Objects in the Orion Nebula Summary An international team of astronomers [2] is announcing today the discovery of dusty disks surrounding numerous very faint objects that are believed to be recently formed Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula [3]. This finding is based on detailed observations with SOFI, a specialised infrared-sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at the La Silla Observatory. It is of special interest because it sheds light on the origin and nature of substellar objects, known as "Brown Dwarfs" . In particular, these results suggest that Brown Dwarfs share a common origin with stars and that Brown Dwarfs are more similar in nature to stars than to planets and, like stars, have the potential to form with accompanying systems of planets. Moreover, the presence of dusty protoplanetary disks around the faintest objects in the Orion Nebula cluster confirms both the membership of these faint stars in the cluster and their nature as bona-fide substellar objects, making this the largest population of Brown Dwarf objects yet known . These important results are being reported today to the American Astronomical Society Meeting in Pasadena (California, USA). PR Photo 22a/01 : Infrared picture of the Orion Nebula (NTT + SOFI). PR Photo 22b/01 : "Finding Chart" for Very Young Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula. PR Photo 22c/01 : Animated GIF presentation of PR Photos 22a+b/01. Faint substellar objects in the Milky Way Over the past 5 years, several groups of astronomers have identified a type of very faint, substellar objects within our Milky Way galaxy. These gaseous objects have very low masses and will never shine like normal stars because they cannot achieve central temperatures high enough for sustained thermal nuclear reactions to occur in their cores. Such objects weigh less than about 7% of our Sun and have been variously called "Brown Dwarfs" , "Failed Stars" or "Super Planets

  8. Predictive Thermal Control Technology for Stable Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    Predictive Thermal Control (PTC) project is a multiyear effort to develop, demonstrate, mature towards TRL6, and assess the utility of model based Predictive Thermal Control technology to enable a thermally stable telescope. PTC demonstrates technology maturation by model validation and characterization testing of traceable components in a relevant environment. PTC's efforts are conducted in consultation with the Cosmic Origins Office and NASA Program Analysis Groups. To mature Thermally Stable Telescope technology, PTC has three objectives: • Validate models that predict thermal optical performance of real mirrors and structure based on their designs and constituent material properties, i.e. coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) distribution, thermal conductivity, thermal mass, etc. • Derive thermal system stability specifications from wavefront stability requirements. • Demonstrate utility of Predictive Thermal Control for achieving thermal stability. To achieve these objectives, PTC has five quantifiable milestones: 1. Develop a high-fidelity model of the AMTD-2 1.5 meter ULE® mirror, including 3D CTE distribution and reflective optical coating, that predicts its optical performance response to steady-state and dynamic thermal gradients under bang/bang and proportional thermal control. 2. Derive specifications for thermal control system as a function of wavefront stability. 3. Design and build a predictive Thermal Control System for a 1.5 meter ULE® mirror using new and existing commercial-off-the-shelf components that sense temperature changes at the 1mK level and actively controls the mirrors thermal environment at the 20mK level. 4. Validate the model by testing a 1.5-m class ULE® mirror in a relevant thermal vacuum environment in the MSFC X-ray and Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) test facility. 5. Use validated model to perform trade studies to optimize thermo-optical performance as a function of mirror design, material selection, mass, etc. PTC advances

  9. Telescopic Partial Dentures-Concealed Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Tushar Vitthalrao; Walke, Ashwini Nareshchandra

    2015-01-01

    The ideal goal of good dentist is to restore the missing part of oral structure, phonetics, his look and the most important is restored the normal health of the patient, which is hampered due to less or insufficient intake of food. Removable partial denture (RPD) treatment option is considered as a notion, which precludes the inevitability of “floating plastic” in edentulous mouth, that many times fail to fulfill the above essential of the patients. In modern dentistry, though the dental implants or fixed partial denture is the better options, but they have certain limitations. However, overdentures and particularly telescopic denture is the overlooked technology in dentistry that would be a boon for such needy patients. Telescopic denture is especially indicated in the distal edentulous area with minimum two teeth bilaterally present with a good amount of periodontal support. This treatment modality is sort of preventive prosthodontics remedy, which in a conservative manner preserve the remaining teeth and helps in conservation of alveolar bone ultimately. There are two tenets related to this option, one is constant conservation edentulous ridge around the retained tooth and the most important is the endless existence of periodontal sensory action that directs and monitor gnathodynamic task. In this option the primary coping or inner coping are cemented on the prepared tooth, and a similar removable outer or inner telescopic crown placed tightly by using a mechanism of tenso-friction, this is firmly attached to a removable RPD in place without moving or rocking of the prosthesis, which is the common compliant of almost all patients of RPD. Copings are also protecting the abutment from tooth decay and also offers stabilization and maintaining of the outer crown. The outer crown engages the inner coping and gives as an anchor for the remainder of the dentition. This work is the review of telescopic prosthesis which is well supported by the case discussion, and

  10. A 16-m Telescope for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D. R.; Polidan, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Future space observatories will require increasingly large telescopes to study the earliest stars and galaxies, as well as faint nearby objects. Technologies now under development will enable telescopes much larger than the 6.5-meter diameter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to be developed at comparable costs. Current segmented mirror and deployable optics technology enables the 6.5 meter JWST telescope to be folded for launch in the 5-meter diameter Ariane 5 payload fairing, and deployed autonomously after reaching orbit. Late in the next decade, when the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle payload fairing becomes operational, even larger telescope can be placed in orbit. In this paper we present our concept for a 16-meter JWST derivative, chord-fold telescope which could be stowed in the 10-m diameter Ares V fairing, plus a description of the new technologies that enable ATLAST to be developed at an affordable price.

  11. Technological Aspects of Creating Large-size Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of the telescope creation, first of all, depends both on a choice of the optical scheme to form optical radiation and images with minimum losses of energy and information and on a choice of design to meet requirements for strength, stiffness, and stabilization characteristics in real telescope operation conditions. Thus, the concept of creating large-size telescopes, certainly, involves the use of adaptive optics methods and means.The level of technological capabilities to realize scientific and engineering ideas define a successful development of large-size optical telescopes in many respects. All developers pursue the same aim that is to raise an amount of information by increasing a main mirror diameter of the telescope.The article analyses the adaptive telescope designs developed in our country. Using a domestic ACT-25 telescope as an example, it considers creation of large-size optical telescopes in terms of technological aspects. It also describes the telescope creation concept features, which allow reaching marginally possible characteristics to ensure maximum amount of information.The article compares a wide range of large-size telescopes projects. It shows that a domestic project to create the adaptive ACT-25 super-telescope surpasses its foreign counterparts, and there is no sense to implement Euro50 (50m and OWL (100m projects.The considered material gives clear understanding on a role of technological aspects in development of such complicated optic-electronic complexes as a large-size optical telescope. The technological criteria of an assessment offered in the article, namely specific informational content of the telescope, its specific mass, and specific cost allow us to reveal weaknesses in the project development and define a reserve regarding further improvement of the telescope.The analysis of results and their judgment have shown that improvement of optical largesize telescopes in terms of their maximum

  12. Overview of key technologies for TMT telescope structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Yutaka; Kato, Atsushi; Hattori, Tomoya; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Nakaoji, Toshitaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Takaki, Junji; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Haruna, Masaki; Tabata, Masaki; Hosokawa, Yoshihiro; Kusumoto, Hiroshi; Usuda, Tomonori

    2016-07-01

    For the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) that aims high-resolution and high-sensitivity observations for optical-infrared astronomy, detailed design is underway for Telescope Structure System (STR) including the mount control system and the segment handling system. The technical requirements for the STR system are very challenging on its performance and interface condition with telescope-mounted optics and observation instruments. The major challenging technical requirements include low flexure of mirror support structure and low optical path length variation due to gravitational deformation, high seismic performance against large earthquake, very accurate mount drive control for high tracking and guiding performance, and fast, safe and labor-saving segment exchange. To meet these technical requirements, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) has made a detailed design and technology development. In this paper, overview of major key technologies is introduced that is adopted for the TMT telescope structure in the detailed design and technology development.

  13. Future technologies for optical and infrared telescopes and instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Colin

    2009-08-01

    The theme of this conference is the evolution of telescopes over the last 400 years. I present my view on what the major leaps of technology have been, and attempt to predict what new technologies could come along in the next 50 years to change the way we do astronomy and help us make new discoveries. Are we approaching a peak of innovation and discovery, and will this be followed by a slow decline? Or are there prospects for even further technology leaps and consequent new discoveries? Will global resource and financial crises bring an end to our great ambitions, or will we continue with bigger telescopes and more ambitious space observatories?

  14. Telescope technology for space-borne submillimeter astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, David H.; Helou, George

    1990-01-01

    The Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) project which is developing telescope technology needed for future spaceborne submillimeter astronomy missions is described. Four major technical areas are under development. Lighweight composite mirrors and associated materials, precision structures and segmented reflector figure sensing and control are discussed. The objectives of the PSR project, approaches, and project technology status, are reported.

  15. Advanced manufacturing technologies for the BeCOAT telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael N.; Rajic, Slobodan; Seals, Roland D.

    1994-02-01

    The beryllium cryogenic off-axis telescope (BeCOAT) uses a two-mirror, non re-imaging, off- axis, Ritchey Chretian design with all-beryllium optics, structures and baffles. The purpose of this telescope is the system level demonstration of advanced manufacturing technologies for optics, optical benches, and baffle assemblies. The key issues that are addressed are single point diamond turning of beryllium optics, survivable fastening techniques, minimum beryllium utilization, and technologies leading to self-aligning, all-beryllium optical systems.

  16. A scientific assessment of a new technology orbital telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    As part of a program designed to test the Alpha chemical laser weapons system in space, the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) developed components of an agile, lightweight, 4-meter telescope, equipped with an advanced active-optics system. BMDO had proposed to make space available in the telescope's focal plane for instrumentation optimized for scientific applications in astrophysics and planetary astronomy for a potential flight mission. Such a flight mission could be undertaken if new or additional sponsorship can be found. Despite this uncertainty, BMDO requested assistance in defining the instrumentation and other design aspects necessary to enhance the scientific value of a pointing and tracking mission. In response to this request, the Space Studies Board established the Task Group on BMDO New Technology Orbital Observatory (TGBNTOO) and charged it to: (1) provide instrumentation, data management, and science-operations advice to BMDO to optimize the scientific value of a 4-meter mission; and (2) support a space studies board assessment of the relative scientific merit of the program. This report deals with the first of these tasks, assisting the Advanced Technology Demonstrator's (ATD's) program scientific potential. Given the potential scientific aspects of the 4-meter telescope, this project is referred to as the New Technology Orbital Telescope (NTOT), or as the ATD/NTOT, to emphasize its dual-use character. The task group's basic conclusion is that the ATD/NTOT mission does have the potential for contributing in a major way to astronomical goals.

  17. Facility level thermal systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka; Fraser, Mark; Climent, Tània

    2012-09-01

    The management and control of the local aero-thermal environment is critical for success of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). In addition to minimizing disturbances to local seeing, the facility thermal systems must meet stringent energy efficiency requirements to minimize impact on the surrounding environment and meet federal requirements along with operational budgetary constraints. This paper describes the major facility thermal equipment and systems to be implemented along with associated energy management features. The systems presented include the central plant, the climate control systems for the computer room and coudé laboratory, the carousel cooling system which actively controls the surface temperature of the rotating telescope enclosure, and the systems used for active and passive ventilation of the telescope chamber.

  18. Site survey instrumentation for the National New Technology Telescope (NNTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, F. F.; Morse, D. A.; Poczulp, G. A.

    1988-10-01

    The characterization of atmospheric turbulence at and above the two candidate sites for the 15 m National New Technology Telescope (NNTT) has required the development of specialized measurement techniques. The equipment used to measure astronomical seeing, microthermals, water vapor, and temperature is discussed, along with sample data and calibration results. By use of instruments with overlapping altitude coverage, it has been possible to 'bookkeep' qualitatively all of the sources of innate degradation, especially near the ground.

  19. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): A Technology Roadmap for the Next Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a set of mission concepts for the next generation of UVOIR space observatory with a primary aperture diameter in the 8-m to 16-m range that will allow us to perform some of the most challenging observations to answer some of our most compelling questions, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We have identified two different telescope architectures, but with similar optical designs, that span the range in viable technologies. The architectures are a telescope with a monolithic primary mirror and two variations of a telescope with a large segmented primary mirror. This approach provides us with several pathways to realizing the mission, which will be narrowed to one as our technology development progresses. The concepts invoke heritage from HST and JWST design, but also take significant departures from these designs to minimize complexity, mass, or both. Our report provides details on the mission concepts, shows the extraordinary s...

  20. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 μm ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakalā, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of

  1. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, F.; Tacchini, A.; Leto, G.; Martinetti, E.; Bruno, P.; Bellassai, G.; Conforti, V.; Gallozzi, S.; Mastropietro, M.; Tanci, C.; Malaguti, G.; Trifoglio, M.

    2016-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) represents the next generation of ground-based observatories for very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. The CTA will consist of two arrays at two different sites, one in the northern and one in the southern hemisphere. The current CTA design foresees, in the southern site, the installation of many tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes of three different classes, namely large, medium and small, so defined in relation to their mirror area; the northern hemisphere array would consist of few tens of the two larger telescope types. The Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) is developing the Cherenkov Small Size Telescope ASTRI SST- 2M end-to-end prototype telescope within the framework of the International Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project. The ASTRI prototype has been installed at the INAF observing station located in Serra La Nave on Mt. Etna, Italy. Furthermore a mini-array, composed of nine of ASTRI telescopes, has been proposed to be installed at the Southern CTA site. Among the several different infrastructures belonging the ASTRI project, the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment is dedicated to operations of computing and data storage, as well as the control of the entire telescope, and it is designed to achieve the maximum efficiency for all performance requirements. Thus a complete and stand-alone computer centre has been designed and implemented. The goal is to obtain optimal ICT equipment, with an adequate level of redundancy, that might be scaled up for the ASTRI mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. In this contribution we present the ICT equipment currently installed at the Serra La Nave observing station where the ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be operated. The computer centre and the control room are described with particular emphasis on the Local Area Network scheme, the computing and data storage system, and the

  2. NTT and NOT spectroscopy of SDSS-II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Ostman, L; Goobar, A; Amanullah, R; Smith, M; Sollerman, J; Stanishev, V; Stritzinger, M D; Bassett, B A; Davis, T M; Edmondson, E; Frieman, J A; Garnavich, P M; Lampeitl, H; Leloudas, G; Marriner, J; Nichol, R C; Romer, K; Sako, M; Schneider, D P; Zheng, C

    2010-01-01

    Context. The SDSS-II Supernova Survey, conducted between 2005 and 2007, was designed to detect a large number of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) around z~0.2, the redshift “gap” between low-z and high-z SN searches. The survey has provided multi-band photometric lightcurves for variable targets, and SN candidates were scheduled for spectroscopic observations, primarily to provide SN classification and accurate redshifts. We present SN spectra obtained in 2006 and 2007 using the NTT and the NOT. Aims. We provide an atlas of SN spectra in the range z =0.03-0.32 that complements the well-sampled lightcurves from SDSS-II in the forthcoming three-year SDSS SN cosmology analysis. The sample can, for example, be used for spectral studies of SNe Ia, which are critical for understanding potential systematic effects when SNe are used to determine cosmological distances. Methods. The spectra were reduced in a uniform manner, and special care was taken in estimating the uncertainties for the different processing st...

  3. Status of the technologies for the production of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Pareschi, G; Baba, H; Bähr, J; Bonardi, A; Bonnoli, G; Brun, P; Canestrari, R; Chadwick, P; Chikawa, M; Carton, P -H; de Souza, V; Dipold, J; Doro, M; Durand, D; Dyrda, M; Förster, A; Garczarczyk, M; Giro, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Hrabovski, M; Jeanney, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Lessio, L; Mandat, D; Mariotti, M; Medina, C; Michałowski, J; Micolon, P; Nakajima, D; Niemiec, J; Nozato, A; Palatka, M; Pech, M; Peyaud, B; Pühlhofer, G; Rataj, M; Rodeghiero, G; Rojas, G; Rousselle, J; Sakonaka, R; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Schultz, C; Shu, S; Stinzing, F; Stodulski, M; Teshima, M; Travniczek, P; van Eldik, C; Vassiliev, V; Wiśniewski, Ł; Wörnlein, A; Yoshida, T

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation very high-energy gamma-ray observatory, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than current instruments. CTA will comprise several tens of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) operated in array-mode and divided into three size classes: large, medium and small telescopes. The total reflective surface could be up to 10,000 m2 requiring unprecedented technological efforts. The properties of the reflector directly influence the telescope performance and thus constitute a fundamental ingredient to improve and maintain the sensitivity. The R&D status of lightweight, reliable and cost-effective mirror facets for the CTA telescope reflectors for the different classes of telescopes is reviewed in this paper.

  4. The space telescope: A study of NASA, science, technology, and politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert William

    1989-01-01

    Scientific, technological, economic, and political aspects of NASA efforts to orbit a large astronomical telescope are examined in a critical historical review based on extensive interviews with participants and analysis of published and unpublished sources. The scientific advantages of large space telescopes are explained; early plans for space observatories are summarized; the history of NASA and its major programs is surveyed; the redesign of the original Large Space Telescope for Shuttle deployability is discussed; the impact of the yearly funding negotiations with Congress on the development of the final Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described; and the implications of the HST story for the future of large space science projects are explored. Drawings, photographs, a description of the HST instruments and systems, and lists of the major contractors and institutions participating in the HST program are provided.

  5. ESO's Telescopes In memoriam Daniel Enard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    The contributions of ESO to the art of telescope-making have come a long way since the early years, placing it, by the turn of the millennium, among the acknowledged leaders in the field. In this article I will give a brief history of what are, in my view, the highlights among these developments, from the 3.6-metre telescope through the NTT and VLT/I to the E-ELT.

  6. Required Technologies for A 10-16 m UV-Visible-IR Telescope on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Wetzel, John P.

    1989-01-01

    A successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, incorporating a 10 to 16 meter mirror, and operating in the UV-Visible-IR is being considered for emplacement on the Moon in the 21st Century. To take advantage of the characteristics of the lunar environment, such a telescope requires appropriate advances in technology. These technologies are in the areas of contamination/interference control, test and evaluation, manufacturing, construction, autonomous operations and maintenance, power and heating/cooling, stable precision structures, optics, parabolic antennas, and communications/control. This telescope for the lunar surface needs to be engineered to operate for long periods with minimal intervention by humans or robots. What is essential for lunar observatory operation is enforcement of a systems engineering approach that makes compatible all lunar operations associated with habitation, resource development, and science.

  7. Required Technologies for A 10-16 m UV-Visible-IR Telescope on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Wetzel, John P.

    1989-01-01

    A successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, incorporating a 10 to 16 meter mirror, and operating in the UV-Visible-IR is being considered for emplacement on the Moon in the 21st Century. To take advantage of the characteristics of the lunar environment, such a telescope requires appropriate advances in technology. These technologies are in the areas of contamination/interference control, test and evaluation, manufacturing, construction, autonomous operations and maintenance, power and heating/cooling, stable precision structures, optics, parabolic antennas, and communications/control. This telescope for the lunar surface needs to be engineered to operate for long periods with minimal intervention by humans or robots. What is essential for lunar observatory operation is enforcement of a systems engineering approach that makes compatible all lunar operations associated with habitation, resource development, and science.

  8. Status of Technology Development to enable Large Stable UVOIR Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; MSFC AMTD Team

    2017-01-01

    NASA MSFC has two funded Strategic Astrophysics Technology projects to develop technology for potential future large missions: AMTD and PTC. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is developing technology to make mechanically stable mirrors for a 4-meter or larger UVOIR space telescope. AMTD is demonstrating this technology by making a 1.5 meter diameter x 200 mm thick ULE(C) mirror that is 1/3rd scale of a full size 4-m mirror. AMTD is characterizing the mechanical and thermal performance of this mirror and of a 1.2-meter Zerodur(R) mirror to validate integrate modeling tools. Additionally, AMTD has developed integrated modeling tools which are being used to evaluate primary mirror systems for a potential Habitable Exoplanet Mission and analyzed the interaction between optical telescope wavefront stability and coronagraph contrast leakage. Predictive Thermal Control (PTC) project is developing technology to enable high stability thermal wavefront performance by using integrated modeling tools to predict and actively control the thermal environment of a 4-m or larger UVOIR space telescope.

  9. The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE): Enabling technology for an early lunar surface payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nein, M. E.; Hilchey, J. D.

    1995-02-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture, fixed declination, optical telescope to be operated on the surface of the Moon. This autonomous science payload will provide an unprecedented ultraviolet stellar survey even before manned lunar missions are resumed. This paper very briefly summarizes the LUTE concept analyzed by the LUTE Task Team of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Scientific capabilities and the Reference Design Concept are identified, and the expected system characteristics are summarized. Technologies which will be required to enable the early development, deployment, and operation of the LUTE are identified, and the principle goals and approaches for their advancement are described.

  10. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Characterizing Habitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, M; Krist, J; Stapelfeldt, K; Brown, R; Oegerle, W; Lo, A; Clampin, M; Soummer, R; Wiseman, J; Mountain, M

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a set of mission concepts for the next generation UV-Optical-Near Infrared space telescope with an aperture size of 8 to 16 meters. ATLAST, using an internal coronagraph or an external occulter, can characterize the atmosphere and surface of an Earth-sized exoplanet in the Habitable Zone of long-lived stars at distances up to ~45 pc, including its rotation rate, climate, and habitability. ATLAST will also allow us to glean information on the nature of the dominant surface features, changes in cloud cover and climate, and, potentially, seasonal variations in surface vegetation. ATLAST will be able to visit up to 200 stars in 5 years, at least three times each, depending on the technique used for starlight suppression and the telescope aperture. More frequent visits can be made for interesting systems.

  11. SiC lightweight telescopes for advanced space applications. II - Structures technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anapol, Michael I.; Hadfield, Peter; Tucker, Theodore

    1992-01-01

    A critical technology area for lightweight SiC-based telescope systems is the structural integrity and thermal stability over spaceborne environmental launch and thermal operating conditions. Note, it is highly desirable to have an inherently athermal design of both SiC mirrors and structure. SSG has developed an 8 inch diameter SiC telescope system for brassboard level optical and thermal testing. The brassboard telescope has demonstrated less than 0.2 waves P-V in the visible wavefront change over +50 C to -200 C temperature range. SSG has also fabricated a SiC truss structural assembly and successfully qualified this hardware at environmental levels greater than 3 times higher than normal Delta, Titan, and ARIES launch loads. SSG is currently developing two SiC telescopes; an 20 cm diameter off-axis 3 mirror re-imaging and a 60 cm aperture on-axis 3 mirror re-imager. Both hardware developments will be tested to flight level environmental, optical, and thermal specifications.

  12. Thin Mirror Shaping Technology for High-Throughput X-ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    This proposal is submitted to the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences program (ROSES-2012) in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH12ZDA001N- APRA. It is targeted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Analysis (APRA) program element under the Supporting Technology category. Powerful x-ray telescope mirrors are critical components of a raft of small-to-large mission concepts under consideration by NASA. The science questions addressed by these missions have certainly never been more compelling and the need to fulfill NASA s core missions of exploring the universe and strengthening our nation s technology base has never been greater. Unfortunately, budgetary constraints are driving NASA to consider the cost/benefit and risk factors of new missions more carefully than ever. New technology for producing x-ray telescopes with increased resolution and collecting area, while holding down cost, are key to meeting these goals and sustaining a thriving high-energy astrophysics enterprise in the US. We propose to develop advanced technology which will lead to thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors rivaling the Chandra x-ray telescope in spatial resolution but with 10-100X larger area all at significantly reduced weight, risk and cost. The proposed effort builds on previous research at MIT and complements NASA-supported research at other institutions. We are currently pursuing two thin-mirror technology development tracks which we propose to extend and accelerate with NASA support. The first research track utilizes rapidly-maturing thermal glass slumping technology which uses porous ceramic air-bearing mandrels to shape glass mirrors without touching, thus avoiding surface-induced mid-range spatial frequency ripples. A second research track seeks to remove any remaining mid- to long-range errors in mirrors by using scanning ion-beam implant to impart small, highly deterministic and very stable amounts of stress into thin glass, utilizing local

  13. Developments of a new mirror technology for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high-energy gamma rays will consist of about a hundred of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) of different size with a total reflective area of about 10,000 m$^2$. Here we present a novel technology for the production of IACT mirrors that has been developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS in Krakow, Poland. The mirrors are made by cold-slumping of the front reflecting aluminium-coated panel and the rear panel interspaced with aluminium spacers. Each panel is built of two glass panels laminated with a layer of a fibreglass tissue in between for reinforcement of the structure against mechanical damage. The mirror structure is open and does not require a perfect sealing needed in closed-type designs. It prohibits water to be trapped inside and enables a proper ventilation of the mirror. Full-size hexagonal prototype mirrors produced for the medium-sized CTA telescopes will be presented together with the results of recent comprehensive ...

  14. Laboratory demonstration of a primary active mirror for space with the LATT: large aperture telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vettore, Christian; d'Amato, Francesco; Xompero, Marco; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Patauner, Christian; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; Duò, Fabrizio; Pucci, Mauro; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Maresi, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The LATT project is an ESA contract under TRP programme to demonstrate the scalability of the technology from ground-based adaptive mirrors to space active primary mirrors. A prototype spherical mirror based on a 40 cm diameter 1 mm thin glass shell with 19 contactless, voice-coil actuators and co-located position sensors have been manufactured and integrated into a final unit with an areal density lower than 20 kg/m2. Laboratory tests demonstrated the controllability with very low power budget and the survival of the fragile glass shell exposed to launch accelerations, thanks to an electrostatic locking mechanism; such achievements pushes the technology readiness level toward 5. With this prototype, the LATT project explored the feasibility of using an active and lightweight primary for space telescopes. The concept is attractive for large segmented telescopes, with surface active control to shape and co-phase them once in flight. In this paper we will describe the findings of the technological advances and the results of the environmental and optical tests.

  15. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  16. Novel technology for the the Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope and MeerKAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael; Kraus, Alex; Wieching, Gundolf

    2015-08-01

    The 100-m radio telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR) is a unique European astronomical facility that combines superb sensitivity and wide frequency coverage (300 MHz - 95 GHz) with distinct versatility, making the telescope not only a cutting edge instrument for front-line research but also a testbed for emerging and future technology.Even more than 40 years old, the telescope has been continuously modernized and is heavily involved in various kinds of astronomical research as stand-alone instrument as well as in several VLBI networks. Currently, a large upgrade of the receiver suite at the telescope is ongoing. Several new, state-of-the-are broad-band receivers have been installed recently or are under constructions. Along with the new receivers, modern digital backends are being designed. We report on the current status of these upgrades by presenting some „highlights" and giving an outlook on the activities planned for the future.The technology developed and tested during these upgrades also finds application in the MeerKAT observatory in South Africa. MeerKAT is a fully funded radio observatory under construction in the Northern Cape of South Africa. When complete, MeerKAT’s 64 13.5-m dishes will form the - by far - most sensitive telescope in the Southern hemisphere, being equivalent to a 110 m dish. Due to the dish design with an offset Gregorian feed it will be 60%more sensitive than large center feed single dishes of comparable size.MPIfR is designing and constructing a 1.75- 3.44 GHz Receiver system for MeerKAT. The receiver will allow observations at a frequency range at currently unavailable sensitivity and spatial resolution in the Southern hemisphere. Combined with its powerful MPIfR Pulsar search backend it is expected to detect more than 1600 normal and 270 millisecond pulsars. In addition MeerKat will open up science that stays for its own but also prepares future observations with SKA and complements future SKA

  17. Advanced technology optical telescopes IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Tucson, AZ, Feb. 12-16, 1990. Parts 1 & 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Lawrence D. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on the current status of large, advanced-technology optical telescope development and construction projects discusses topics on such factors as their novel optical system designs, the use of phased arrays, seeing and site performance factors, mirror fabrication and testing, pointing and tracking techniques, mirror thermal control, structural design strategies, mirror supports and coatings, and the control of segmented mirrors. Attention is given to the proposed implementation of the VLT Interferometer, the first diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics, a fiber-optic telescope using a large cross-section image-transmitting bundle, the design of wide-field arrays, Hartmann test data reductions, liquid mirrors, inertial drives for telescope pointing, temperature control of large honeycomb mirrors, evaporative coatings for very large telescope mirrors, and the W. M. Keck telescope's primary mirror active control system software.

  18. A development roadmap for critical technologies needed for TALC: a deployable 20m annular space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Marc; Amiaux, Jérome; Austin, James; Bello, Mara; Bianucci, Giovanni; Chesné, Simon; Citterio, Oberto; Collette, Christophe; Correia, Sébastien; Durand, Gilles A.; Molinari, Sergio; Pareschi, Giovanni; Penfornis, Yann; Sironi, Giorgia; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    Astronomy is driven by the quest for higher sensitivity and improved angular resolution in order to detect fainter or smaller objects. The far-infrared to submillimeter domain is a unique probe of the cold and obscured Universe, harboring for instance the precious signatures of key elements such as water. Space observations are mandatory given the blocking effect of our atmosphere. However the methods we have relied on so far to develop increasingly larger telescopes are now reaching a hard limit, with the JWST illustrating this in more than one way (e.g. it will be launched by one of the most powerful rocket, it requires the largest existing facility on Earth to be qualified). With the Thinned Aperture Light Collector (TALC) project, a concept of a deployable 20 m annular telescope, we propose to break out of this deadlock by developing novel technologies for space telescopes, which are disruptive in three aspects: • An innovative deployable mirror whose topology, based on stacking rather than folding, leads to an optimum ratio of collecting area over volume, and creates a telescope with an eight times larger collecting area and three times higher angular resolution compared to JWST from the same pre-deployed volume; • An ultra-light weight segmented primary mirror, based on electrodeposited Nickel, Composite and Honeycomb stacks, built with a replica process to control costs and mitigate the industrial risks; • An active optics control layer based on piezo-electric layers incorporated into the mirror rear shell allowing control of the shape by internal stress rather than by reaction on a structure. We present in this paper the roadmap we have built to bring these three disruptive technologies to technology readiness level 3. We will achieve this goal through design and realization of representative elements: segments of mirrors for optical quality verification, active optics implemented on representative mirror stacks to characterize the shape correction

  19. The Engineering Development Array: A Low Frequency Radio Telescope Utilising SKA Precursor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayth, Randall; Sokolowski, Marcin; Booler, Tom; Crosse, Brian; Emrich, David; Grootjans, Robert; Hall, Peter J.; Horsley, Luke; Juswardy, Budi; Kenney, David; Steele, Kim; Sutinjo, Adrian; Tingay, Steven J.; Ung, Daniel; Walker, Mia; Williams, Andrew; Beardsley, A.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Morales, M. F.; Pallot, D.; Trott, C. M.; Wu, C.

    2017-08-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array's receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.

  20. Software control of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure PLC hardware using COTS software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrowman, Alastair J.; de Bilbao, Lander; Ariño, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Goodrich, Bret; Hubbard, John R.; Greer, Alan; Mayer, Chris; Taylor, Philip

    2012-09-01

    As PLCs evolve from simple logic controllers into more capable Programmable Automation Controllers (PACs), observatories are increasingly using such devices to control complex mechanisms1, 2. This paper describes use of COTS software to control such hardware using the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Common Services Framework (CSF). We present the Enclosure Control System (ECS) under development in Spain and the UK. The paper details selection of the commercial PLC communication library PLCIO. Implemented in C and delivered with source code, the library separates the programmer from communication details through a simple API. Capable of communicating with many types of PLCs (including Allen-Bradley and Siemens) the API remains the same irrespective of PLC in use. The ECS is implemented in Java using the observatory's framework that provides common services for software components. We present a design following a connection-based approach where all components access the PLC through a single connection class. The link between Java and PLCIO C library is provided by a thin Java Native Interface (JNI) layer. Also presented is a software simulator of the PLC based upon the PLCIO Virtual PLC. This creates a simulator operating below the library's API and thus requires no change to ECS software. It also provides enhanced software testing capabilities prior to hardware becoming available. Results are presented in the form of communication timing test data, showing that the use of CSF, JNI and PLCIO provide a control system capable of controlling enclosure tracking mechanisms, that would be equally valid for telescope mount control.

  1. Preliminary design of the Visible Spectro-Polarimeter for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    de Wijn, Alfred G; Nelson, Peter G; Huang, Pei

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (ViSP) is one of the first light instruments for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). It is an echelle spectrograph designed to measure three different regions of the solar spectrum in three separate focal planes simultaneously between 380 and 900 nm. It will use the polarimetric capabilities of the ATST to measure the full Stokes parameters across the line profiles. By measuring the polarization in magnetically sensitive spectral lines the magnetic field vector as a function of height in the solar atmosphere can be obtained, along with the associated variation of the thermodynamic properties. The ViSP will have a spatial resolution of 0.04 arcsec over a 2 arcmin field of view (at 600 nm). The minimum spectral resolving power for all the focal planes is 180,000. The spectrograph supports up to 4 diffraction gratings and is fully automated to allow for rapid reconfiguration.

  2. Photometric redshifts and selection of high redshift galaxies in the NTT and Hubble Deep Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, A; Poli, F; Giallongo, E; Arnouts, S; Cristiani, S; Moorwood, A F M; Saracco, P

    2000-01-01

    We present and compare in this paper new photometric redshift catalogs of the galaxies in three public fields: the NTT Deep Field, the HDF-N and the HDF-S. Photometric redshifts have been obtained for thewhole sample, by adopting a $\\chi^2$ minimization technique on a spectral library drawn from the Bruzual and Charlot synthesis models, with the addition of dust and intergalactic absorption. The accuracy, determined from 125 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, is $\\sigma_z\\sim 0.08 (0.3)$ in the redshift intervals $z=0-1.5 (1.5-3.5)$. The global redshift distribution of I-selected galaxies shows a distinct peak at intermediate redshifts, z~0.6 at I_{AB}5 candidates in the HDF filter set and that the 4 brightest candidates at $z>5$ in the HDF-S are indeed most likely M stars. (ABRIDGED)

  3. The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, Carl; Balasubramanian, K.; Bolcar, M.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Hartman, K.; Mosier, C.; Quijada, M.; Rauscher, B.; Redding, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 40 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  4. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  5. WorldWide Telescope and Google Sky: New Technologies to Engage Students and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, R. H.; Subbarao, M. U.; Dettloff, L.

    2010-08-01

    New, visually rich, astronomical software environments coupled with large web-accessible data sets hold the promise of new and exciting ways to teach, collaborate, and explore the universe. These freeware tools provide contextual views of astronomical objects, real time access to multi-wavelength sky surveys, and, most importantly, the ability to incorporate new data and to produce user created content. This interactive panel examined the capabilities of Google Sky and WorldWide Telescope, and explored case studies of how these tools have been used to create compelling and participatory educational experiences in both formal (i.e., K-12 and undergraduate non-science majors classrooms), and informal (e.g., museum) settings. The overall goal of this session was to stimulate a discussion about future uses of these technologies. Substantial time was allotted for participants to create conceptual designs of learning experiences for use at their home institutions, with feedback provided by the panel members. Activities included technical discussions (e.g., mechanisms for incorporating new data and dissemination tools), exercises in narrative preparation, and a brainstorming session to identify potential future uses of these technologies.

  6. Research on Telescopic Wing Morphing Technology%伸缩机翼变形技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军府; 艾俊强; 李士途; 马泽孟

    2012-01-01

    Morphing aircraft can change its aerodynamic shape so as to gain optimal performance at different flight states and enhance its mission adaptability. Telescopic wing morphing technology has been explored for several decades overseas and become one of the main developing trends of morphing aircraft technology. In this paper the developing history and the research status both domestic and overseas with respect to telescopic wing technology are summerized, the morphing principle of telescopic wing and its relative merits are discussed, key technologies concerning the design of telescopic wing are extracted, and the applied prospect of telescopic wing technology on aircrafts, missiles, wing-in-ground effect vehicles, flying automobiles, etc is expected.%变体飞机可以根据需要改变气动外形,以便在不同的飞行状态都能获得最佳的气动性能,提高飞机的任务适应能力。伸缩机翼变形技术在国外已经过几十年的研究和探索,是变体飞机技术的主要发展方向之一。本文综述了伸缩机翼技术的发展历史及国内外研究情况,阐述了伸缩机翼变形原理及其优缺点,提炼了设计伸缩机翼所涉及的关键技术,展望了伸缩机翼技术在飞机、导弹、地效翼飞行器以及飞行汽车等方面的应用前景。

  7. PEPSI-feed: linking PEPSI to the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope using a 450m long fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablowski, D. P.; Weber, M.; Woche, M.; Ilyin, I.; Järvinen, A.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Gabor, P.

    2016-07-01

    Limited observing time at large telescopes equipped with the most powerful spectrographs makes it almost impossible to gain long and well-sampled time-series observations. Ditto, high-time-resolution observations of bright targets with high signal-to-noise are rare. By pulling an optical fibre of 450m length from the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) to the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) to connect the Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) to the VATT, allows for ultra-high resolution time-series measurements of bright targets. This article presents the fibre-link in detail from the technical point-of-view, demonstrates its performance from first observations, and sketches current applications.

  8. Back to the future: science and technology directions for radio telescopes of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, James M.

    2009-08-01

    The early days of radio astronomy showed incredibly diverse experimentation in ways to sample the electromagnetic spectrum at radio wavelengths. In addition to obtaining adequate sensitivity by building large collection areas, a primary goal also was to achieve sufficient angular resolution to localize radio sources for multi-wavelength identification. This led to many creative designs and the invention of aperture synthesis and VLBI. Some of the basic telescope types remain to the present day, now implemented across the entire radio spectrum from wavelengths of tens of meters to submillimeter wavelengths. In recent years, as always, there is still the drive for greater sensitivity but a primary goal is now to achieve very large fields of view to complement high resolution and frequency coverage, leading to a new phase of experimentation. This is the “back to the future” aspect of current research and development for next-generation radio telescopes. In this paper I summarize the scientific motivations for development of new technology and telescopes since about 1990 and going forward for the next decade and longer. Relevant elements include highly optimized telescope optics and feed antenna designs, innovative fabrication methods for large reflectors and dipole arrays, digital implementations, and hardware vs. software processing. The emphasis will be on meter and centimeter wavelength telescopes but I include a brief discussion of millimeter wavelengths to put the longer wavelength enterprises into perspective. I do not discuss submillimeter wavelengths because they are covered in other papers.

  9. Technology Development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a Candidate Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10?10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing & control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 µm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  10. New technology allows closer study of neutrinos; researchers credit specialized telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    Huang, N

    2002-01-01

    With the help of a newly designed telescope, University of California-Berkeley scientists and an international team of researchers have made a recent breakthrough in the study of neutrino emissions from the sun. The turning point is the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada. This telescope is the first of its kind to be sensitive enough to detect all types of neutrinos (1 page).

  11. Advances in Telescope and Detector Technologies - Impacts on the Study and Understanding of Binary Star and Exoplanet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott; Devinney, Edward J.

    2012-04-01

    Current and planned telescope systems (both on the ground and in space) as well as new technologies will be discussed with emphasis on their impact on the studies of binary star and exoplanet systems. Although no telescopes or space missions are primarily designed to study binary stars (what a pity!), several are available (or will be shortly) to study exoplanet systems. Nonetheless those telescopes and instruments can also be powerful tools for studying binary and variable stars. For example, early microlensing missions (mid-1990s) such as EROS, MACHO and OGLE were initially designed for probing dark matter in the halos of galaxies but, serendipitously, these programs turned out to be a bonanza for the studies of eclipsing binaries and variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds and in the Galactic Bulge. A more recent example of this kind of serendipity is the Kepler Mission. Although Kepler was designed to discover exoplanet transits (and so far has been very successful, returning many planetary candidates), Kepler is turning out to be a ``stealth'' stellar astrophysics mission returning fundamentally important and new information on eclipsing binaries, variable stars and, in particular, providing a treasure trove of data of all types of pulsating stars suitable for detailed Asteroseismology studies. With this in mind, current and planned telescopes and networks, new instruments and techniques (including interferometers) are discussed that can play important roles in our understanding of both binary star and exoplanet systems. Recent advances in detectors (e.g. laser frequency comb spectrographs), telescope networks (both small and large - e.g. Super-WASP, HAT-net, RoboNet, Las Combres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network), wide field (panoramic) telescope systems (e.g. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Pan-Starrs), huge telescopes (e.g. the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the Overwhelming Large Telescope (OWL) and the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT

  12. The Evolution of the Galaxy Sizes in the NTT Deep Field a Comparison with CDM Models

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, F; Menci, N; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A

    1999-01-01

    The sizes of the field galaxies with I<25 have been measured in the NTT Deep Field. Intrinsic sizes have been obtained after deconvolution of the PSF with a multigaussian method. The reliability of the method has been tested using both simulated data and HST observations of the same field. The distribution of the half light radii is peaked at r_{hl} 0.3 arcsec, in good agreement with that derived from HST images at the same magnitude. An approximate morphological classification has been obtained using the asymmetry and concentration parameters. The intrinsic sizes of the galaxies are shown as a function of their redshifts and absolute magnitudes using photometric redshifts derived from the multicolor catalog. While the brighter galaxies with morphological parameters typical of the normal spirals show a flat distribution in the range r_{d}=1-6 kpc, the fainter population at 0.4

  13. Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development for Very Large Space Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future UV/Optical telescopes will require increasingly large apertures to answer the questions raised by HST, JWST, Planck and Hershel, and to complement the = 30-m...

  14. The Space Telescope. A study of NASA, science, technology, and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. W.; Hanle, P. A.; Kargon, R. H.; Tatarewicz, J. N.

    Complete with a new Afterword detailing the project's problems since its 1990 launch, Robert Smith's "The Space Telescope" (for the first edition see 50.003.047) sets the fascinating and disturbing history of this massive venture within the context of "Big Science". Launched at a cost of more than $2 billion, the Space Telescope turned out to be seriously flawed by imperfections in the construction of its lenses and by solar panels that caused it to shudder when moving from daylight to darkness. Smith analyzes how the processes of Big Science, especially those involving the government's funding process for large-scale projects, contributed to those failures. He reveals the astonishingly complex interactions that took place among the scientific community, government, and industry and describes the great range of personalities and forces - scientific, technical, political, social, institutional, and economic - that played roles in the Space Telescope's history.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope - Scientific, Technological and Social Contributions to the Public Discourse on Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has unified the world with a sense of awe and wonder for 2 I years and is currently more scientifically powerful than ever. I will present highlights of discoveries made with the Hubble Space Telescope, including details of planetary weather, star formation, extra-solar planets, colliding galaxies, and a universe expanding with the acceleration of dark energy. I will also present the unique technical challenges and triumphs of this phenomenal observatory, and discuss how our discoveries in the cosmos affect our sense of human unity, significance, and wonder.

  16. The SOFIA Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Krabbe, A

    2000-01-01

    The SOFIA telescope as the heart of the observatory is a major technological challenge. I present an overview on the astro-nomical and scientific requirements for such a big airborne observatory and demonstrate the impact of these requirements on the layout of SOFIA, in particular on the telescope design as it is now. Selected components of the telescope will be de-scribed in their context and functionality. The current status of the telescope is presented.

  17. Production of the 4.26 m ZERODUR mirror blank for the Advanced Technology Solar telescope (ATST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Werner, Thomas; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope in the world. It is currently being built by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) in a height of 3000 m above sea level on the mountain Haleakala of Maui, Hawaii. The primary mirror blank of diameter 4.26 m is made of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® of SCHOTT AG Advanced Optics. The DKIST primary mirror design is extremely challenging. With a mirror thickness of only 78 to 85 mm it is the smallest thickness ever machined on a mirror of 4.26 m in diameter. Additionally the glassy ZERODUR® casting is one of the largest in size ever produced for a 4 m class ZERODUR® mirror blank. The off axis aspherical mirror surface required sophisticated grinding procedures to achieve the specified geometrical tolerance. The small thickness of about 80 mm required special measures during processing, lifting and transport. Additionally acid etch treatment was applied to the convex back-surface and the conical shaped outer diameter surface to improve the strength of the blank. This paper reports on the challenging tasks and the achievements on the material property and dimensional specification parameter during the production of the 4.26 m ZERODUR® primary mirror blank for AURA.

  18. The DAG project, a 4m class telescope: the telescope main structure performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marcuzzi, E.; Manfrin, C.; Battistel, C.; Pirnay, O.; Flebus, Carlo; Yeşilyaprak, C.; Keskin, O.; Yerli, S.

    2016-07-01

    Dogu Anatolu Gözlemevi (DAG-Eastern Anatolia Observatory) Project is a 4m class optical, near-infrared Telescope and suitable enclosure which will be located at an altitude of 3.170m in Erzurum, Turkey. The DAG telescope is a project fully funded by Turkish Ministry of Development and the Atatürk University of Astrophysics Research Telescope - ATASAM. The Project is being developed by the Belgian company AMOS (project leader), which is also the optics supplier and EIE GROUP, the Telescope Main Structure supplier and responsible for the final site integration. The design of the Telescope Main Structure fits in the EIE TBO Program which aims at developing a Dome/Telescope systemic optimization process for both performances and competitive costs based on previous project commitments like NTT, VLT, VST and ASTRI. The optical Configuration of the DAG Telescope is a Ritchey-Chretien with two Nasmyth foci and a 4m primary thin mirror controlled in shape and position by an Active Optic System. The main characteristics of the Telescope Main Structure are an Altitude-Azimuth light and rigid structure system with Direct Drive Systems for both axis, AZ Hydrostatic Bearing System and Altitude standard bearing system; both axes are equipped with Tape Encoder System. An innovative Control System characterizes the telescope performance.

  19. Ke Alahaka Program of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative Provides STEM Workshops for Native Hawaiian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, A.; Cie, D. K.; Naho`olewa, D.; Chirico, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative and the Kahikina O Ka Lā Program are NSF-funded projects at the University of Hawai`i Maui College. These projects will provide instruction and activities intended to increase diversity in STEM or STEM-related careers. Ke Alahaka, the 2012 summer bridge program, was offered to Native Hawaiian high-school students who indicated an interest in STEM areas. Three STEM-content workshops were offered including Marine Science, Sustainable Energy Technology, and Computer Science and Engineering. Students attended hands-on classes three days a week for a month concentrating on only one of the three topics. On the other days, students participated in a Hawaiian Studies course designed to provide a cultural context for the STEM instruction. Focus groups and other program assessments indicate that 50% of the 60 students attending the workshops intend to pursue a STEM major during their undergraduate studies.

  20. New technologies and new performances of the JCMT radio-telescope: a preliminary design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, S.; De Lorenzi, S.; Ghedin, L.; Rampini, F.; Marchiori, G.; Craig, S.

    2012-09-01

    With a diameter of 15m the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) is the largest astronomical telescope in the world designed specifically to operate in the submillimeter wavelength region of the spectrum. It is situated close to the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4092m. Its primary reflector currently consists of a steel geodesic supporting structure and pressed aluminium panels on a passive mount. The major issues of the present reflector are its thermal stability and its panels deterioration. A preliminary design study for the replacement of the JCMT antenna dish is here presented. The requested shape error for the new reflector is antenna performance in terms of both stiffness and thermal stability, so that the required surface accuracy of the primary can be achieved even by adopting a passive panels system. Moreover thanks to CFRP, a considerable weight reduction of the elevation structure can be attained. The performance of the proposed solution for the JCMT antenna has been investigated through FE analyses and the assessed deformation of the structure under different loading cases has been taken into account for subsequent error budgeting. Results show that the proposed solution is in line with the requested performance. With this new backing structure, the JCMT would have the largest CFRP reflector ever built.

  1. The human NTT gene: Identification of a novel 17-kb noncoding nuclear RNA expressed in activated CD4{sup +} T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, A.Y.; Torchia, B.S.; Migeon, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-01-15

    We describe the cloning and characterization of the NTT gene (noncoding transcript in T cells), identified by differential display RT-PCR based on the differential presence of its transcript in a subset of activated, human CD4{sup +} T-cell clones. The full-length cDNA and genomic sequences were cloned and found to produce a 17-kb transcript that is polyadenylated, but is not spliced. Consistent with the transcript`s nuclear predominance, NTT has no open reading frame larger than 270 bp. It is transcribed in a select subset of CD4{sup +} T-cell clones propagated in vitro. Its transcription can also be induced in freshly isolated T cells by in vitro activation with PHA or with PMA and ionomycin. In vivo, NTT transcripts are found only in activated, but not resting, T cells. Transcripts were absent in a variety of lymphoid cell lines and transformed lines from other tissues. NTT is a new member of the small group of genes including XIST (X{sub i}-specific transcript), H19, and IPW (imprinted gene in the Prader-Willi syndrome region), which are transcribed but not translated, and may have a role in the regulation of neighboring genes. XIST, H19, and IPW exhibit monoallelic expression, but both NTT alleles are expressed in CD4{sup +} T-cell clones. Southern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses show that NTT is a single-copy gene residing in chromosome 6q23-q24, near the interferon-{gamma} receptor gene (IFN-{gamma}R). Their proximity and shared expression pattern suggest a possible functional relationship. 57 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. 地基大口径望远镜系统结构技术综述%Overview of structure technologies of large aperture ground-based telescopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景旭

    2012-01-01

    The developing status of large aperture ground-based telescopes is reviewed in this paper.The significance of bigger apertures for telescopes and their main technological approaches are expatiated and the summary on appliance values of modern large aperture telescopes is given.Then,it introduces five kinds of modern typical large telescope systems,which represent the topmost technological level.The key structures and technologies of large telescopes about mount,telescope tubes,primary mirror supports and secondary mirror assemblies are disscussed.Finally,it summarizes the developing trends of the large aperture ground-based telescopes and points out that some of the optical systems in the telescopes have been changed from coaxial systems to off-axial systems,while they are better application prospects.%概述了地基大口径望远镜的发展状况,阐述了口径变大的意义及实现的关键技术途径。概括了当前大口径望远镜的应用价值。介绍了国外5种典型的大口径望远镜系统,它们代表了当前地基大口径望远镜发展的最高技术水平。从跟踪架、主望远镜筒、主镜支撑及次镜支撑调整几个方面论述了大口径望远镜的结构特点及关键技术。最后,总结了大口径望远镜系统的发展趋势,指出其光学系统已从同轴系统向离轴系统发展并极具应用前景。

  3. Developments in fiber-positioning technology for the WEAVE instrument at the William Herschel Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallig, Ellen; Lewis, Ian J.; Gilbert, James; Dalton, Gavin; Brock, Matthew; Abrams, Don Carlos; Middleton, Kevin; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Carrasco, Esperanza; Trager, Scott C.; Vallenari, Antonella

    2016-08-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field optical spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain. It is a multi-object "pick-and-place" fibre-fed spectrograph with a 1000 fibre multiplex behind a new dedicated 2° prime focus corrector. The WEAVE positioner concept uses two robots working in tandem in order to reconfigure a fully populated field within the expected 1 hour dwell-time for the instrument (a good match between the required exposure times and the limit of validity for a given configuration due to the effects of differential refraction). In this paper we describe some of the final design decisions arising from the prototyping phase of the instrument design and provide an update on the current manufacturing status of the fibre positioner system.

  4. Science drivers and requirements for an Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Implications for technology development and synergies with other future facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, Marc; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R Michael; Stahl, H Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Rémi; Hyde, Tupper; 10.1117/12.857044

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astronphysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers that define the main performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 {\\mu}m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 {\\mu}m to 2.4 {\\mu}m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We will also discuss the synergy between ATLAST and other anticipated future facilities (e.g., TMT, EELT, ALMA) and the priorities for technology development that will enable the construction for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions.

  5. Extremely Lightweight Segmented Membrane Optical Shell Fabrication Technology for Future IR to Optical Telescope Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose that the Membrane Optical Shell Technology (MOST) substrate fabrication approach be extended with a specific focus on advanced off-axis very light weight,...

  6. X-Ray Pore Optics Technologies and Their Application in Space Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Collon, Max; Beijersbergen, Marco; Wallace, Kotska; Wille, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) is a new X-ray optics technology under development in Europe, forming the ESA baseline technology for the International X-ray Observatory candidate mission studied jointly by ESA, NASA, and JAXA. With its matrix-like structure, made of monocrystalline-bonded Silicon mirrors, it can achieve the required angular resolution and low mass density required for future large X-ray observatories. Glass-based Micro Pore Optics (MPO) achieve modest angular resolution compared t...

  7. The great Melbourne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gillespie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Erected at Melbourne Observatory in 1869, the telescope was the second largest in the world, designed to explore the nature of the nebulae in the southern skies. Richard Gillespie, head of the History and Technology department at the Melbourne museum has written an entertaining account of the telescope's extraordinary history and tells the story through an amazing cast of characters whose lives intersected with the telescope.

  8. Re-Thinking Kebijakan Pembangunan dalam Perspektif Ekonomi Lokal: Studi Kasus Tambang Emas Batu Gosok – Labuan Bajo – NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Setiawan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a practical-theoretical study towards economic development policy. Unrealistic policy and planning approach, government management close and uncooperative system which considered intervening political interest rather than economic development are as one cause of stagnating economic development in several areas. Economic development that has been established by central government has not able to give velocity acceleration solution in economic development; it is the authority and power divergence that affecting local economic development. Economic policy through mining investment as one strategy development has been approved by district government and investors had affected long polemic. It needs further thought and study related to the policy so it could get the expected result and local economic development. This paper is purposed to give contributed thought of re-thinking policy economic development especially about gold mining investment decision in conservation area of Batu Gosok-Labuan Bajo-NTT

  9. Re-Thinking Kebijakan Pembangunan dalam Perspektif Ekonomi Lokal: Studi Kasus Tambang Emas Batu Gosok Labuan Bajo NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Setiawan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a practical-theoretical study towards economic development policy. Unrealistic policy and planning approach, government management close and uncooperative system which considered intervening political interest rather than economic development are as one cause of stagnating economic development in several areas. Economic development that has been established by central government has not able to give velocity acceleration solution in economic development; it is the authority and power divergence that affecting local economic development. Economic policy through mining investment as one strategy development has been approved by district government and investors had affected long polemic. It needs further thought and study related to the policy so it could get the expected result and local economic development. This paper is purposed to give contributed thought of re-thinking policy economic development especially about gold mining investment decision in conservation area of Batu Gosok-Labuan Bajo-NTT.

  10. Optical Space Telescope Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  11. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  12. Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  13. Technology Requirements for a Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Ramirez, J. Israel; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  14. Wide field of view adaptive optical system for lightweight deployable telescope technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Brian K.; Cermak, Michael A.; Friedman, Edward J.

    2003-02-01

    A NASA research contract (NAS1-00116) was awarded to Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. in January 2000 to study wide field-of-view adaptive optical systems. These systems will be required on future high resolution Earth remote sensing systems that employ large, flexible, lightweight, deployed primary mirrors. The deformations from these primary mirrors will introduce aberrations into the optical system, which must be removed by corrective optics. For economic reasons, these remote sensing systems must have a large field-of-view (a few degrees). Unlike ground-based adaptive optical systems, which have a negligible field-of-view, the adaptive optics on these space-based remote sensing systems will be required to correct for the deformations in the primary mirror over the entire field-of-view. A new error function, which is an enhancement to conventional adaptive optics, for wide field-of-view optical systems will be introduced. This paper will present the goals of the NASA research project and its progress. The initial phase of this research project is a demonstration of the wide field-of-view adaptive optics theory. A breadboard has been designed and built for this purpose. The design and assembly of the breadboard will be presented, along with the final results for this phase of the research project. Finally, this paper will show the applicability of wide field-of-view adaptive optics to space-based astronomical systems.

  15. Super-smooth processing x-ray telescope application research based on the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xianyun; Hou, Xi; Yang, Jinshan

    2016-09-01

    Nickel is the unique material in the X-ray telescopes. And it has the typical soft material characteristics with low hardness high surface damage and low stability of thermal. The traditional fabrication techniques are exposed to lots of problems, including great surface scratches, high sub-surface damage and poor surface roughness and so on. The current fabrication technology for the nickel aspheric mainly adopt the single point diamond turning(SPDT), which has lots of advantages such as high efficiency, ultra-precision surface figure, low sub-surface damage and so on. But the residual surface texture of SPDT will cause great scattering losses and fall far short from the requirement in the X-ray applications. This paper mainly investigates the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques for the super-smooth processing on the nickel optics. Through the study of the MRF polishing techniques, we obtained the ideal super-smooth polishing technique based on the self-controlled MRF-fluid NS-1, and finished the high-precision surface figure lower than RMS λ/80 (λ=632.8nm) and super-smooth roughness lower than Ra 0.3nm on the plane reflector and roughness lower than Ra 0.4nm on the convex cone. The studying of the MRF techniques makes a great effort to the state-of-the-art nickel material processing level for the X-ray optical systems applications.

  16. Neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, J

    2002-01-01

    This review presents the scientific objectives and status of Neutrino Telescope Projects. The science program of these projects covers: neutrino astronomy, dark matter searches and measurements of neutrino oscillations. The two neutrino telescopes in operation: AMANDA and BAIKAL will be described together with the ANTARES neutrino telescope being built in the Mediterranean. (18 refs).

  17. The novel Legionella pneumophila type II secretion substrate NttC contributes to infection of amoebae Hartmannella vermiformis and Willaertia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Jessica Y; Vargas, Paloma; Cianciotto, Nicholas P

    2014-12-01

    The type II protein secretion (T2S) system of Legionella pneumophila secretes over 25 proteins, including novel proteins that have no similarity to proteins of known function. T2S is also critical for the ability of L. pneumophila to grow within its natural amoebal hosts, including Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis and Naegleria lovaniensis. Thus, T2S has an important role in the natural history of legionnaires' disease. Our previous work demonstrated that the novel T2S substrate NttA promotes intracellular infection of A. castellanii, whereas the secreted RNase SrnA, acyltransferase PlaC, and metalloprotease ProA all promote infection of H. vermiformis and N. lovaniensis. In this study, we determined that another novel T2S substrate that is specific to Legionella, designated NttC, is unique in being required for intracellular infection of H. vermiformis but not for infection of N. lovaniensis or A. castellanii. Expanding our repertoire of amoebal hosts, we determined that Willaertia magna is susceptible to infection by L. pneumophila strains 130b, Philadelphia-1 and Paris. Furthermore, T2S and, more specifically, NttA, NttC and PlaC were required for infection of W. magna. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the T2S system of L. pneumophila is critical for infection of at least four types of aquatic amoebae and that the importance of the individual T2S substrates varies in a host cell-specific fashion. Finally, it is now clear that novel T2S-dependent proteins that are specific to the genus Legionella are particularly important for L. pneumophila infection of key, environmental hosts.

  18. Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 166 9. Space telescopes Figure 9.1: Paraboloid telescope. In the following sections, NI...planets nearby a brighter star. Normal-incidence telescopes One-mirror telescope The one-mirror telescope (mostly an off-axis paraboloid ; Figure 9.1) has...rotation of the whole instrument (see SUMER/SOHO, Wilhelm et al (1995) and EIS/Hinode, Culhane et al (2007)). The paraboloid field curvature (Petzval

  19. Hot slumping glass technology and integration process to manufacture a grazing incidence scaled prototype for the IXO telescope modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Canestrari, R.; Conconi, P.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Dell'Orto, E.; Gallieni, D.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.; Proserpio, L.; Spiga, D.

    2009-08-01

    As for all space missions, the limit imposed on the payload mass budget by the launcher is the main driver that forces the use of very lightweight optics. Considering the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) mission the present configuration has a mirror collecting area in the order of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV, 0.65 m2 at 6 keV, and 150 cm2 at 30 keV. These large collecting areas could be obtained with a mirror assembly composed of a large number of high quality glass segments each being able to deliver the required angular resolution better or equal to 5 arcsec. These segments will form a X-Ray Optical Unit (XOU), an optical subunit of the telescope, and the XOUs will be assembled to form the whole mirror system. Based on the INAF-OAB experience in the thermal slumping of thin glass optics, a possible approach for the realization of large size and lightweight X-ray mirrors is described in this paper. Moulds made in a suitable material (as for example Silicon Carbide or Fused Silica) and having the suitable (parabolic and hyperbolic) profile are used for the realization of thin glass Mirror Plates (MP), with dimensions in the range of 200- 400 mm. After a thermal cycle the slumped MPs are characterized for acceptation and handled by means of an active support using vacuum suction for the integration phase. In this phase an active optical feedback is used to ensure the correct alignment of the MPs within the XOU. The MPs are then glued in its proper position in the XOU using also suitable glass ribs for the stiffening of the whole module. An investigation in the problems and possible solutions to the slumping, measurement, integration and testing of the glass MPs into the XOU will be given, particularly with respect to a XOU scaled prototype that will be manufactured and used to assess the technology.

  20. Liverpool Telescope and Liverpool Telescope 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Jermak, H.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Piascik, A.; Smith, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic optical/near-infrared telescope with a 2-metre clear aperture, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University, with financial support from the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004 and is a common-user facility with time available through a variety of committees via an open, peer reviewed process. Seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient follow-up and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Development has also begun on a successor facility, with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2', to capitalise on the new era of time domain astronomy which will be brought about by the next generation of survey facilities such as LSST. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time. In this paper we provide an overview of the current status of both facilities.

  1. Grid Integration of Robotic Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Breitling, F; Enke, H

    2008-01-01

    Robotic telescopes and grid technology have made significant progress in recent years. Both innovations offer important advantages over conventional technologies, particularly in combination with one another. Here, we introduce robotic telescopes used by the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam as ideal instruments for building a robotic telescope network. We also discuss the grid architecture and protocols facilitating the network integration that is being developed by the German AstroGrid-D project. Finally, we present three user interfaces employed for this purpose.

  2. Modular assembled space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Budinoff, Jason; MacEwen, Howard; Matthews, Gary; Postman, Marc

    2013-09-01

    We present a new approach to building a modular segmented space telescope that greatly leverages the heritage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. The modular design in which mirror segments are assembled into identical panels allows for economies of scale and for efficient space assembly that make a 20-m aperture approach cost effective. This assembly approach can leverage NASA's future capabilities and has the power to excite the public's imagination. We discuss the science drivers, basic architecture, technology, and leveraged NASA infrastructure, concluding with a proposed plan for going forward.

  3. MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATION IN LANGUAGE TEACHING (A CASE STUDY OF MANAGING INNOVATION IN RURAL SCHOOLS IN NTT PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santri E. P. Djahimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is about management of innovation in language teaching and it is reflected by a case study of managing innovation in rural schools in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT Province, Indonesia. The content of this writing mostly discusses about how to manage innovation in language teaching. However, there are several minor parts describe about the case study conducted in rural schools in Nil Province. Innovation in education is not a totally new thing to be discussed. Many researchers as well as writers have given great attention to this topic for many years. Innovation in this study means a new way of doing something to make an improvement to someone or something. In this case, an innovation in the form of teaching methodology has been implemented to create a better atmosphere in the classroom and an improvement in the students1 performance in vocabulary acquisition in EFL classroom. It has been expected that through this innovation, the students' performance would be better in vocabulary acquisition and so a better output could be achieved. Through this writing, the writer would like to show that educational innovation needs to be applied, especially by those who want better changes in order to improve themselves and achieve better results in education. The success and failure of this kind of innovation will be determined by several essential factors included in the three big category, namely Knowledge and Skill factors; Resource and Support factors; and Human and Social factors, as well as characteristics and attributes. These factors determine whether or not an innovation in education can be adopted.

  4. Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

  5. SNAP telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  6. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  7. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  8. New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With its pure aperture up to 985mm, the New Vacuum Solar Telescope of China (NVST) has become the world's biggest vacuum solar telescope. The main science task of NVST is the high-resolution observation of photosphere and chromosphere including their fine structure of magnetic field on the sun. The NVST was equipped with many new technologies and powerful instruments, such as an adaptive optical system, a polarization analyzer, two vertical spectrographs, a high-resolution image system and a very narrow Ha filter (0.125A).

  9. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  10. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  11. Wideband pulse amplifier with 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology for the integrated camera of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascon, D; Sanuy, A; Ribo, M [Dept. AM i Dept.ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Delagnes, E; Glicenstein, J-F [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sieiro, X [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Feinstein, F; Vorobiov, S [LPTA, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Nayman, P; Toussenel, F; Tavernet, J-P; Vincent, P, E-mail: gascon@ecm.ub.es [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2010-12-15

    A fully differential wideband amplifier for the camera of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is presented. This amplifier would be part of a new ASIC, developed by the NECTAr collaboration, performing the digitization at 1 GS/s with a dynamic range of 16 bits. Input amplifiers must have a voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a bandwidth of 400 MHz. Being impossible to design a fully differential operational amplifier with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35{mu}m CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearised transconductors is explored. Test results show that the required GBW product is achieved, with a linearity error smaller than 1% for a differential output voltage range up to 1 Vpp, and smaller than 3% for 2 Vpp.

  12. InfoGin携手NexM Communications Inc.为NTT Resonant"goo"移动门户提供支持

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 香港2009年11月18日电/美通社亚洲/--亚洲移动通信大会(Mobile Asia Congress) 提供新一代移动浏览解决方案的先锋和市场领导者InfoGin及其战略合作伙伴NexM communications今天宣布已在NTT Resonant Inc.上成功部署hfoGin的Intelligent Mobile Platform(TM)(IMP(TM)).InfoGin的旗舰技术让运营商和内容供应商能够通过拓展服务组合、提高营收,同时降低成本和维持并建立用户忠诚度来保持对移动服务生态系统的全面管理.

  13. The Use of the Molecular Adsorber Coating Technology to Mitigate Vacuum Chamber Contamination During Pathfinder Testing for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This paper describes the recent use of the MAC technology during Pathfinder testing of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap persistent outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone based diffusion pump oil, from within JSC's cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This paper summarizes the sample fabrication, installation, laboratory testing, post-test chemical analysis results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination.

  14. APE: the Active Phasing Experiment to test new control system and phasing technology for a European Extremely Large Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Constanza, A.; Brast, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Esteves, R.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Koenig, E.; Kolb, J.; Nylund, M.; Noethe, L.; Surdej, I.; Courteville, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Montoya, L.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Dohlen, K.; Ferrari, M.; Langlois, M.

    2005-08-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope will be composed of one or two giant segmented mirrors (up to 100 m of diameter) and of several large monolithic mirrors (up to 8 m in diameter). To limit the aberrations due to misalignments and defective surface quality it is necessary to have a proper active optics system. This active optics system must include a phasing system to limit the degradation of the PSF due to misphasing of the segmented mirrors. We will present the lastest design and development of the Active Phasing Experiment that will be tested in laboratory and on-sky connected to a VLT at Paranal in Chile. It includes an active segmented mirror, a static piston plate to simulate a secondary segmented mirror and of four phasing wavefront sensors to measure the piston, tip and tilt of the segments and the aberrations of the VLT. The four phasing sensors are the Diffraction Image Phase Sensing Instrument developed by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Pyramid Phasing Sensor developed by Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, the Shack-Hartmann Phasing Sensor developed by the European Southern Observatory and the Zernike Unit for Segment phasing developed by Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. A reference measurement of the segmented mirror is made by an internal metrology developed by Fogale Nanotech. The control system of Active Phasing Experiment will perform the phasing of the segments, the guiding of the VLT and the active optics of the VLT. These activities are included in the Framework Programme 6 of the European Union.

  15. Technology Requirements For a Square-Meter, Arcsecond-Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William; Freeman, Mark; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; O'Dell, Steve; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first supermassive black holes. We have envisioned a mission based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, in order to achieve the required reduction of mass to collecting area for the mirrors. We are pursuing technology which effects this adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMARTX will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no more stringent requirements than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  16. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN)

    CERN Document Server

    Mattox, J R

    1999-01-01

    Because of the scheduled GLAST mission by NASA, there is strong scientific justification for preparation for very extensive blazar monitoring in the optical bands to exploit the opportunity to learn about blazars through the correlation of variability of the gamma-ray flux with flux at lower frequencies. Current optical facilities do not provide the required capability.Developments in technology have enabled astronomers to readily deploy automatic telescopes. The effort to create an Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) for blazar monitoring in the GLAST era is described. Other scientific applications of the networks of automatic telescopes are discussed. The potential of the ATN for science education is also discussed.

  17. Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, C. W.

    2001-05-01

    Since the discovery of gamma-ray bursts, a number of groups have attempted to detect correlated optical transients from these elusive objects. Following the flight of the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in 1991, a prompt burst coordinate alert service, BACODINE (now GCN) became available to ground-based telescopes. Several instruments were built to take advantage of this facility, culminating in the discovery of a bright optical flash associated with GRB990123. To date, that single observation remains unique - no other prompt flashes have been seen for a dozen or so other bursts observed with comparably short response times. Thus, GRB prompt optical luminosities may be considerably dimmer than observed for the GRB990123 event or even absent altogether. A new generation of instruments is prepared to explore these possibilties using burst coordinates provided by HETE-2, Swift, Ballerina, Agile and other satellite missions. These telescopes have response times as short as a few seconds and reach limiting magnitudes, m_v 20, guaranteeing a sensitivity sufficient to detect the afterglow many hours later. Results from these experiments should provide important new data about the dynamics and locale of GRBs.

  18. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. I will summarize the OST STDT, mission design and instruments, key science drivers, and the study plan over the next two years.

  19. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    telescope at La Silla on May 11, 1999, at 08:42 UT, under inferior observing conditions (seeing = 1.9 arcsec). The exposure time was 450 sec in a B(lue) filter. The optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510 is indicated with an arrow in the upper part of the field that measures about 8 x 16 arcmin 2. The original scale is 0.24 pix/arcsec and there are 2k x 4k pixels in the original frame. North is up and East is left. Caption to PR Photo 22b/99 : This is a (false-)colour composite of the area around the optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510, based on three near-infrared exposures with the SOFI multi-mode instrument at the 3.6-m ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla, obtained on May 10, 1999, between 23:15 and 23:45 UT. The exposure times were 10 min each in the J- (1.2 µm; here rendered in blue), H- (1.6 µm; green) and K-bands (2.2 µm; red); the image quality is excellent (0.6 arcsec). The field measures about 5 x 5 arcmin 2 ; the original pixel size is 0.29 arcsec. North is up and East is left. ESO PR Photo 22c/99 ESO PR Photo 22c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 235 pix - 81k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 469 pix - 244k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2732 x 1603 pix - 2.6M] ESO PR Photo 22d/99 ESO PR Photo 22d/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 441 pix - 154k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 887 pix - 561k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2300 x 2537 pix - 2.3M] Caption to PR Photo 22c/99 : To the left is a reproduction of a short (30 sec) centering exposure in the V-band (green-yellow light), obtained with VLT ANTU and the multi-mode FORS1 instrument on May 11, 1999, at 03:48 UT under mediocre observing conditions (image quality 1.0 arcsec).The optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510 is easily seen in the box, by comparison with an exposure of the same sky field before the explosion, made with the ESO Schmidt Telescope in 1986 (right).The exposure time was 120 min on IIIa-F emulsion behind a R(ed) filter. The field shown measures about 6.2 x 6.2 arcmin 2. North is up and East is left. Caption to PR

  20. Holographic telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhner, Jefferson E.

    2016-07-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) work on the principal of diffraction and can in some cases replace conventional optical elements that work on the principal of refraction. An HOE can be thinner, lighter, can have more functionality, and can be lower cost than conventional optics. An HOE can serve as a beam splitter, spectral filter, mirror, and lens all at the same time. For a single wavelength system, an HOE can be an ideal solution but they have not been widely accepted for multispectral systems because they suffer from severe chromatic aberration. A refractive optical system also suffers from chromatic aberration but it is generally not as severe. To color correct a conventional refractive optical system, a flint glass and a crown glass are placed together such that the color dispersion of the flint and the crown cancel each other out making an achromatic lens (achromat) and the wavelengths all focus to the same point. The color dispersion of refractive lenses and holographic lenses are opposite from each other. In a diffractive optical system, long wavelengths focus closer (remember for HOEs: RBM "red bends more") than nominal focus while shorter wavelengths focus further out. In a refractive optical system, it is just the opposite. For this reason, diffractives can be incorporated into a refractive system to do the color correction and often cut down on the number of optical elements used [1.]. Color correction can also be achieved with an all-diffractive system by combining a holographic optical element with its conjugate. In this way the color dispersion of the first holographic optical element can be cancelled by the color dispersion of the second holographic optic. It is this technique that will be exploited in this paper to design a telescope made entirely of holographic optical elements. This telescope could be more portable (for field operations) the same technique could be used to make optics light enough for incorporation into a UAV.

  1. Young Astronomers' Observe with ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Today, forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers are concluding a one-week, educational `working visit' to the ESO Headquarters in Garching (See ESO Press Release 14/95 of 8 November 1995). They are the winners of the Europe-wide contest `Europe Towards the Stars', organised by ESO with the support of the European Union, under the auspices of the Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. From November 14-20, they have worked with professional ESO astronomers in order to get insight into the methods and principles of modern astronomy and astrophysics, as carried out at one of the world's foremost international centres. This included very successful remote observations with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the 1.4-m Coude Auxiliary Telescope (CAT) via a satellite link between the ESO Headquarters and the La Silla observatory in Chile, 12,000 kilometres away. After a general introduction to modern astronomy on the first day of the visit, the participants divided into six teams, according to their interests. Some chose to observe distant galaxies, others prefered to have a closer look on binary stars, and one team decided to investigate a star which is thought to be surrounded by a proto-planetary system. Each team was supported by an experienced ESO astronomer. Then followed the observations at the remote consoles during three nights, the first at the NTT and the following at the CAT. Each team had access to the telescope during half a night. Although the work schedule - exactly as in `real' science - was quite hard, especially during the following data reduction and interpretative phase, all teams managed extremely well and in high spirits. The young astronomers' observations were favoured by excellent atmospheric conditions. At the NTT, the seeing was better than 0.5 arcsecond during several hours, an exceptional value that allows very good images to be obtained. All observations represent solid and interesting science, and

  2. PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 50 METER DI PANTAI BERPASIR LEBIH MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 100 METER DARIPADA PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 50 METER DI LAPANGAN PADA SISWA KELAS XSMK N KAKULUK MESAK NTT.

    OpenAIRE

    Benediktus Nahak; Alex Pangkahila; Susy Purnawati

    2014-01-01

    The speed is one of the biomotoriccomponents which dominantin the run race100 meters. 100 meters run is part of athletics which has a short duration, highintensity and anaerobic systems develop. The purpose of this study was todetermine the increasing of 100 meter run speed, therefore this research is anexperimental study was conducted in SMK N Kakulukmesak Belu regency NTT,for 6 months from March - May 2014, with the frequency of exercise 3 times aweek. This study uses two types of training,...

  3. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  4. Magellan Telescopes operations 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osip, David J.; Phillips, Mark M.; Palunas, Povilas; Perez, Frank; Leroy, M.

    2008-07-01

    The twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes have been in routine operations at the Las Campanas Observatory in the Chilean Andes since 2001 and 2002 respectively. The telescopes are owned and operated by Carnegie for the benefit of the Magellan consortium members (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Harvard University, the University of Arizona, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan). This paper provides an up to date review of the scientific, technical, and administrative structure of the 'Magellan Model' for observatory operations. With a modest operations budget and a reasonably small staff, the observatory is operated in the "classical" mode, wherein the visiting observer is a key member of the operations team. Under this model, all instrumentation is supplied entirely by the consortium members and the various instrument teams continue to play a critical support role beyond initial deployment and commissioning activities. Here, we present a critical analysis of the Magellan operations model and suggest lessons learned and changes implemented as we continue to evolve an organizational structure that can efficiently deliver a high scientific return for the investment of the partners.

  5. California Extremely Large Telescope : conceptual design for a thirty-meter telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following great success in the creation of the Keck Observatory, scientists at the California Institute of Technology and the University of California have begun to explore the scientific and technical prospects for a much larger telescope. The Keck telescopes will remain the largest telescopes in the world for a number of years, with many decades of forefront research ahead after that. Though these telescopes have produced dramatic discoveries, it is already clear that even larger telescopes must be built if we are to address some of the most profound questions about our universe. The time required to build a larger telescope is approximately ten years, and the California community is presently well-positioned to begin its design and construction. The same scientists who conceived, led the design, and guided the construction of the Keck Observatory have been intensely engaged in a study of the prospects for an extremely large telescope. Building on our experience with the Keck Observatory, we have concluded that the large telescope is feasible and is within the bounds set by present-day technology. Our reference telescope has a diameter of 30 meters, the largest size we believe can be built with acceptable risk. The project is currently designated the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT).

  6. PELATIHAN LARI SIRKUIT 2 X 10 MENIT DAN PELATIHAN LARI KONTINYU 2 X 10 MENIT DAPAT MENINGKATKAN VO2 MAX TAEKWONDOIN PUTRA KABUPATEN MANGGARAI - NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Sesilia Noy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available VO2 max is very important in everyday life, so as to facilitate any physicalactivity, specially for athletes in order to achieve maximum performance. In aneffort to increase VO2 max training should be carried out regularly, measured andplanned. This study aims to determine the increase in VO2 max through circuittraining run and run continuously. The sample is taekwondoin son Manggarai-NTTwith an average age of 15 years. This study is an experimental study with the studydesign used was Randomized Pre and Post Test Group desigen. With a totalsample of 7 people in each group. Samples were randomly selected. Treatmentgroup 1 (KP1 given training run circuit 2 x 10 minute and Treatment Group 2(KP2 are given continuous training run 2 x 10 minute. Training carried out for 6weeks with a frequency of four times a week starting at 17:00 to 18:00 pm locatedat Frans Sales Lega Airport Manggarai-NTT. The analysis showed an increase inVO2 max was significantly (p <0.05 against both groups fled. In both groups thecircuit run by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooper an increase in VO2 max with p<0.05, as well as a continuous run either by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooperwith an increase in VO2 max value of p <0.05. The results of this analysis meansthat either the training or circuit training run run continuously to improve VO2max. Based on a comparison of test data by an independent test after training inboth groups either by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooper in get p values > 0.05, orthere is no significant difference. Based on these results it can be concluded thatthe run circuit training and continuous training run together can increase VO2 maxand there was no significant difference. The results of this study are expected toincrease the knowledge of coaches, teachers and taekwondoin to perform trainingon a regular basis and are also expected to do similar research that examines VO2max with different training.

  7. Design concepts for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jerry E.

    2000-08-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope is a study currently underway by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology, to assess the feasibility of building a 30-m ground based telescope that will push the frontiers to observational astronomy. The telescope will be fully steerable, with a large field of view, and be able to work in both a seeing-limited arena and as a diffraction-limited telescope, with adaptive optics.

  8. High-Flying Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which operates the Hubble Space Telescope,have proposed a new telescope that would have twice the resolution of Hubble at about one-tenth the cost. It would hover seven miles above Earth,dangling below a football-field-size helium balloon

  9. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  10. The Cherenkov Telescope Array Large Size Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Baba, H; Bamba, A; Barceló, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bigas, O Blanch; Boix, J; Brunetti, L; Carmona, E; Chabanne, E; Chikawa, M; Colin, P; Conteras, J L; Cortina, J; Dazzi, F; Deangelis, A; Deleglise, G; Delgado, C; Díaz, C; Dubois, F; Fiasson, A; Fink, D; Fouque, N; Freixas, L; Fruck, C; Gadola, A; García, R; Gascon, D; Geffroy, N; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Grañena, F; Gunji, S; Hagiwara, R; Hamer, N; Hanabata, Y; Hassan, T; Hatanaka, K; Haubold, T; Hayashida, M; Hermel, R; Herranz, D; Hirotani, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y; Ioka, K; Jablonski, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Kishimoto, T; Kodani, K; Kohri, K; Konno, Y; Koyama, S; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; Lamanna, G; Flour, T Le; López-Moya, M; López, R; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Manalaysay, A; Mariotti, M; Martínez, G; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Monteiro, I; Moralejo, A; Murase, K; Nagataki, S; Nakajima, D; Nakamori, T; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nozato, A; Ohira, Y; Ohishi, M; Ohoka, H; Okumura, A; Orito, R; Panazol, J L; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pauletta, G; Podkladkin, S; Prast, J; Rando, R; Reimann, O; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Saito, K; Saito, T; Saito, Y; Sakaki, N; Sakonaka, R; Sanuy, A; Sasaki, H; Sawada, M; Scalzotto, V; Schultz, S; Schweizer, T; Shibata, T; Shu, S; Sieiro, J; Stamatescu, V; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Sugawara, R; Tajima, H; Takami, H; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, M; Tejedor, L A; Terada, Y; Teshima, M; Totani, T; Ueno, H; Umehara, K; Vollhardt, A; Wagner, R; Wetteskind, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamazaki, R; Yoshida, A; Yoshida, T; Yoshikoshi, T

    2013-01-01

    The two arrays of the Very High Energy gamma-ray observatory Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will include four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) each with a 23 m diameter dish and 28 m focal distance. These telescopes will enable CTA to achieve a low-energy threshold of 20 GeV, which is critical for important studies in astrophysics, astroparticle physics and cosmology. This work presents the key specifications and performance of the current LST design in the light of the CTA scientific objectives.

  11. The MuPix Telescope: A Thin, high Rate Tracking Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, H; Dittmeier, S; Grzesik, C; Hammerich, J; Huang, Q; Huth, L; Kiehn, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Meier, F; Perić, I; Perrevoort, A -K; Schöning, A; Bruch, D vom; Wauters, F; Wiedner, D

    2016-01-01

    The MuPix Telescope is a particle tracking telescope, optimized for tracking low momentum particles and high rates. It is based on the novel High-Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS), designed for the Mu3e tracking detector. The telescope represents a first application of the HV-MAPS technology and also serves as test bed of the Mu3e readout chain. The telescope consists of up to eight layers of the newest prototypes, the MuPix7 sensors, which send data self-triggered via fast serial links to FPGAs, where the data is time-ordered and sent to the PC. A particle hit rate of 1 MHz per layer could be processed. Online tracking is performed with a subset of the incoming data. The general concept of the telescope, chip architecture, readout concept and online reconstruction are described. The performance of the sensor and of the telescope during test beam measurements are presented.

  12. The Africa Millimetre Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, M.; Müller, C.; Conway, J. E.; Deane, R.; Evans, R.; Falcke, H.; Fraga-Encinas, R.; Goddi, C.; Klein Wolt, M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; MacLeod, G.; Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Roelofs, F.; Shen, Z. Q.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    It is believed that supermassive black holes are found in the centres of galaxies, including the Milky Way. Still, only indirect evidence has been gathered for the existence of these enigmatic objects that are predicted by the general theory of relativity. With the Event Horizon Telescope, a Very Long Baseline Interferometry network of millimetre-wave (radio) telescopes, it will be possible to directly image the 'shadow' of the event horizon of the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way, Sgr A*. Although the Event Horizon Telescope utilises an extensive network of telescopes, there is a huge gap in the coverage of the u-v-plane for these observations across Africa. We discuss the benefits of adding the Africa Millimetre Telescope to the Event Horizon Telescope and present Mt. Gamsberg in Namibia as the best site for this new and first mm-wave telescope in Africa.

  13. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G.; TMT Project

    2004-12-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project is engaged in a design and development phase. TMT is proposed as a private-public partnership of the California Institute of Technology and the University of California (partners in the earlier CELT design study), AURA (designers of the earlier GSMT concept), and the Canadian ACURA consortium (designers of the VLOT concept). The partners are developing a 30 meter diameter, finely segmented filled aperture telescope with seeing-limited and diffraction-limited capabilities to address the broad range of GSMT science goals. The paper will present the status of the project development and telescope and instrument design.

  14. Scientific Potential of Einstein Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyaprakash, B; Acernese, F; Andersson, P Amaro-Seoane N; Arun, K; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsuglia, M; Beveridge, M Beker N; Birindelli, S; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Bulik, T; Calloni, E; Cella, G; Mottin, E Chassande; Chelkowski, S; Chincarini, A; Clark, J; Coccia, E; Colacino, C; Colas, J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Danilishin, S; Danzmann, K; Salvo, R De; Dent, T; Rosa, R De; Fiore, L Di; Virgilio, A Di; Doets, M; Fafone, V; Falferi, P; Flaminio, R; Franc, J; Frasconi, F; Freise, A; Friedrich, D; Fulda, P; Gair, J; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Glampedakis, K; Gräf, C; Granata, M; Grote, H; Guidi, G; Gurkovsky, A; Hammond, G; Hannam, M; Harms, J; Heinert, D; Hendry, M; Heng, I; Hennes, E; Hild, S; Hough, J; Husa, S; Huttner, S; Jones, G; Khalili, F; Kokeyama, K; Kokkotas, K; Krishnan, B; Li, T G F; Lorenzini, M; Lück, H; Majorana, E; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Martin, I; Michel, C; Minenkov, Y; Morgado, N; Mosca, S; Mours, B; Müller--Ebhardt, H; Murray, P; Nawrodt, R; Nelson, J; Oshaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Palomba, C; Paoli, A; Parguez, G; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pinard, L; Plastino, W; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Prato, M; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Rabeling, D; Racz, I; Rapagnani, P; Read, J; Regimbau, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Rezzolla, L; Ricci, F; Richard, F; Rocchi, A; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Santamaría, L; Sassolas, B; Schnabe, R; Schwarz, C; Seidel, P; Sintes, A; Somiya, K; Speirits, F; Strain, K; Strigin, S; Sutton, P; Tarabrin, S; Thüring, A; Brand, J van den; Veggel, M van; Broeck, C van den; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Vyatchanin, S; Willke, B; Woan, G; Yamamoto, K

    2011-01-01

    Einstein gravitational-wave Telescope (ET) is a design study funded by the European Commission to explore the technological challenges of and scientific benefits from building a third generation gravitational wave detector. The three-year study, which concluded earlier this year, has formulated the conceptual design of an observatory that can support the implementation of new technology for the next two to three decades. The goal of this talk is to introduce the audience to the overall aims and objectives of the project and to enumerate ET's potential to influence our understanding of fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology.

  15. The Advanced Compton Telescope Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Boggs, S E; Ryan, J; Aprile, E; Gehrels, N; Kippen, M; Leising, M; Oberlack, U; Wunderer, C; Zych, A; Bloser, P; Harris, M; Hoover, A; Klimenk, A; Kocevski, D; McConnell, M; Milne, P; Novikova, E I; Phlips, B; Polsen, M; Sturner, S; Tournear, D; Weidenspointner, G; Wulf, E; Zoglauer, A; Baring, M; Beacom, J; Bildsten, L; Dermer, C; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Starrfield, S; Boggs, Steven E.; Kurfess, James; Ryan, James; Aprile, Elena; Gehrels, Neil; Kippen, Marc; Leising, Mark; Oberlack, Uwe; Wunderer, Cornelia; Zych, Allen; Bloser, Peter; Harris, Michael; Hoover, Andrew; Klimenk, Alexei; Kocevski, Dan; Connell, Mark Mc; Milne, Peter; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard; Polsen, Mark; Sturner, Steven; Tournear, Derek; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wulf, Eric; Zoglauer, Andreas; Baring, Matthew; Beacom, John; Bildsten, Lars; Dermer, Charles; Hartmann, Dieter; Hernanz, Margarita; Smith, David; Starrfield, Sumner

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the next major step in gamma-ray astronomy, will probe the fires where chemical elements are formed by enabling high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear emission from supernova explosions. During the past two years, our collaboration has been undertaking a NASA mission concept study for ACT. This study was designed to (1) transform the key scientific objectives into specific instrument requirements, (2) to identify the most promising technologies to meet those requirements, and (3) to design a viable mission concept for this instrument. We present the results of this study, including scientific goals and expected performance, mission design, and technology recommendations.

  16. Origins Space Telescope: Telescope Design and Instrument Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, Margaret; Carter, Ruth; Leisawitz, David; Dipirro, Mike; Flores, Anel; Staguhn, Johannes; Kellog, James; Roellig, Thomas L.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bradford, Charles; Wright, Edward L.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The renaming of the mission reflects Origins science goals that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, nearby galaxies and the Milky Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. This poster will show the preliminary telescope design that will be a large aperture (>8 m in diameter), cryogenically cooled telescope. We will also present the specifications for the spectrographs and imagers over a potential wavelength range of ~10 microns to 1 millimeter. We look forward to community input into this mission definition over the coming year as we work on the concept design for the mission. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  17. The Solar Telescope GREGOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmer, R.

    2008-09-01

    During the last years the new 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR was assembled at Izania on Tenerife, Spain. The telescope is designed for high-precision measurements of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere and chromosphere with a resolution of 70km on the Sun. The telescope concept offers also high resolution stellar spectroscopy. The telescope is build by a consortium of the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, the Astrophysikalische Institut Potsdam, the Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Max-Plank-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung and additional international Partners. The telescope is a complete open structure with active cooled main mirror. High performance post-focus instruments in the visible and near IR wavelength acquire high resolution spectra with 2 dimensional spatial resolution and polarimetric information. The commissioning of the telescope will start in 2008 to allow first science observations at the end of 2009.

  18. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  19. Pointing a solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    As far as pointing is concerned, a solar telescope is merely an ordinary astronomical telescope but with enhancements for observing solar and coronal features. The paper discusses the additional coordinate systems that need to be supported, shows how to generate the required solar ephemerides (both orbital and physical), and sets out a suitable application programming interface for the telescope control system to use when making solar observations.

  20. The First VERITAS Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, J; Badran, H M; Blaylock, G; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Byrum, K L; Carter-Lewis, D A; Celik, O; Chow, Y C K; Cogan, P; Cui, W; Daniel, M K; De la Calle-Perez, I; Dowdall, C; Dowkontt, P; Duke, C; Falcone, A D; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Fortin, P; Fortson, L F; Gibbs, K; Gillanders, G; Glidewell, O J; Grube, J; Gutíerrez, K J; Gyuk, G; Hall, J; Hanna, D; Hays, E; Horan, D; Hughes, S B; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Jung, I; Kaaret, Philip; Kenny, G E; Kieda, D; Kildea, J; Knapp, J; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Le Bohec, S; Linton, E; Little, E K; Maier, G; Manseri, H; Milovanovic, A; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Ogden, P A; Ong, R A; Perkins, J S; Pizlo, F; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E T; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Sleege, G A; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Syson, A; Toner, J A; Valcarcel, L; Vasilev, V V; Wagner, R; Wakely, S P; Weekes, T C; White, R J; Williams, D A

    2006-01-01

    The first atmospheric Cherenkov telescope of VERITAS (the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) has been in operation since February 2005. We present here a technical description of the instrument and a summary of its performance. The calibration methods are described, along with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the telescope and comparisons between real and simulated data. The analysis of TeV $\\gamma$-ray observations of the Crab Nebula, including the reconstructed energy spectrum, is shown to give results consistent with earlier measurements. The telescope is operating as expected and has met or exceeded all design specifications.

  1. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  2. LUTE telescope structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE) Telescope Structural Design Study was to investigate the feasibility of designing an ultralightweight 1-m aperture system within optical performance requirements and mass budget constraints. This study uses the results from our previous studies on LUTE as a basis for further developing the LUTE structural architecture. After summarizing our results in Section 2, Section 3 begins with the overall logic we used to determine which telescope 'structural form' should be adopted for further analysis and weight estimates. Specific telescope component analysis showing calculated fundamental frequencies and how they compare with our derived requirements are included. 'First-order' component stress analyses to ensure telescope optical and structural component (i.e. mirrors & main bulkhead) weights are realistic are presented. Layouts of both the primary and tertiary mirrors showing dimensions that are consistent with both our weight and frequency calculations also form part of Section 3. Section 4 presents our calculated values for the predicted thermally induced primary-to-secondary mirror despace motion due to the large temperature range over which LUTE must operate. Two different telescope design approaches (one which utilizes fused quartz metering rods and one which assumes the entire telescope is fabricated from beryllium) are considered in this analysis. We bound the secondary mirror focus mechanism range (in despace) based on these two telescope configurations. In Section 5 we show our overall design of the UVTA (Ultraviolet Telescope Assembly) via an 'exploded view' of the sub-system. The 'exploded view' is annotated to help aid in the understanding of each sub-assembly. We also include a two view layout of the UVTA from which telescope and telescope component dimensions can be measured. We conclude our study with a set of recommendations not only with respect to the LUTE structural architecture

  3. Water-filled telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, E

    2014-01-01

    In this short note we discuss the case of the thought experiments on water-filled telescopes and their realizations during 18th and 19th century. The story of those instruments shows that the scientific progress occurs in a curious way, since there was no stringent reason for the construction of a water-filled telescope.

  4. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several

  5. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several o

  6. EDUCATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS ON REMOTE ACCESS TELESCOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Kriachko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the way of overcoming one of the major problems of astronomy teaching methods in upper secondary school – organization of educational astronomical observations. Nowadays it became possible to perform such observations on remote access telescopes. By using up-to-date informational and communicational technologies, having an opportunity to work with robotic telescopes allows us to organize a unique cognitive and research oriented activities for students while conducting their specialized astronomical studies. Below here is given a brief description of the most significant robotic telescopes and the way of the usage of open remote access telescopic network which was created by professors and scientists of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA.

  7. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  8. The AMANDA neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, E.C.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Bergstrom,L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson,M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad,J.; Costa, C.G.S.; Cowen, D.; Dalberg, E.; DeYoung, T.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstrom, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; Hart, S.; He, Y.; de, los, Heros,C.P.; Hill, G.; Hulth, PO.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Jones, A.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.C.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren,D.; Porrata, R.; Potter, D.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwarz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering, C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Taboada, I.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch,C.H.; Wischnewski, R.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.; AMANDACollaboration

    1999-04-01

    With an effective telescope area of order 10(4) m(2) for TeVneutrinos, a threshold near similar to 50 GeV and a pointing accuracy of2.5 degrees per muon track, the AMANDA detector represents the first of anew generation of high energy neutrino telescopes, reaching a scaleenvisaged over 25 years ago. We describe early results on the calibrationof natural deep ice as a particle detector as well as on AMANDA'sperformance as a neutrino telescope.

  9. The AMANDA neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, E.C.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Bergstroem, L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Costa, C.G.S.; Cowen, D.; Dalberg, E.; DeYoung, T.; Edsjoe, J.; Ekstroem, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; Hart, S.; He, Y.; Heros, C.P. de los; Hill, G.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Jones, A.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.C.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.; Porrata, R.; Potter, D.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriquez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwartz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering, C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Taboada, I.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wischnewski, R.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S

    1999-05-01

    With an effective telescope area of order 10{sup 4} m{sup 2} for TeV neutrinos, a threshold near {approx}50 GeV and a pointing accuracy of 2.5 degrees per muon track, the AMANDA detector represents the first of a new generation of high energy neutrino telescopes, reaching a scale envisaged over 25 years ago. We describe early results on the calibration of natural deep ice as a particle detector as well as on AMANDA's performance as a neutrino telescope.

  10. Mirror Development for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, A; Baba, H; Bähr, J; Bonardi, A; Bonnoli, G; Brun, P; Canestrari, R; Chadwick, P; Chikawa, M; Carton, P -H; De Souza, V; Dipold, J; Doro, M; Durand, D; Dyrda, M; Giro, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Hrabovski, M; Jeanney, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Lessio, L; MANDAT, D; Mariotti, M; Medina, C; Michałowski, J; Micolon, P; Nakajima, D; Niemiec, J; Nozato, A; Palatka, M; Pareschi, G; Pech, M; Peyaud, B; Pühlhofer, G; Rataj, M; Rodeghiero, G; Rojas, G; Rousselle, J; Sakonaka, R; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Schultz, C; Shu, S; Stinzing, F; Stodulski, M; Teshima, M; Travniczek, P; Van Eldik, C; Vassiliev, V; Wiśniewski, Ł; Wörnlein, A; Yoshida, T

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a planned observatory for very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy. It will consist of several tens of telescopes of different sizes, with a total mirror area of up to 10,000 square meters. Most mirrors of current installations are either polished glass mirrors or diamond-turned aluminium mirrors, both labour intensive technologies. For CTA, several new technologies for a fast and cost-efficient production of light-weight and reliable mirror substrates have been developed and industrial pre-production has started for most of them. In addition, new or improved aluminium-based and dielectric surface coatings have been developed to increase the reflectance over the lifetime of the mirrors compared to those of current Cherenkov telescope instruments.

  11. Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since it is not possible to predict when a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) occurs, the follow-up ground telescopes must be distributed as uniform as possible all over the...

  12. Parabolic Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Chadzitaskos, Goce

    2013-01-01

    We present a proposal of a new type of telescopes using a rotating parabolic strip as the primary mirror. It is the most principal modification of the design of telescopes from the times of Galileo and Newton. In order to demonstrate the basic idea, the image of an artificial constellation observed by this kind of telescope was reconstructed using the techniques described in this article. As a working model of this new telescope, we have used an assembly of the primary mirror---a strip of acrylic glass parabolic mirror 40 cm long and 10 cm wid shaped as a parabolic cylinder of focal length 1 m---and an artificial constellation, a set of 5 apertures in a distance of 5 m illuminated from behind. In order to reconstruct the image, we made a series of snaps, each after a rotation of the constellation by 15 degrees. Using Matlab we reconstructed the image of the artificial constellation.

  13. The Dark Matter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, J A; Angel, J R P; Wittman, David

    2001-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing enables direct reconstruction of dark matter maps over cosmologically significant volumes. This research is currently telescope-limited. The Dark Matter Telescope (DMT) is a proposed 8.4 m telescope with a 3 degree field of view, with an etendue of 260 $(m. degree)^2$, ten times greater than any other current or planned telescope. With its large etendue and dedicated observational mode, the DMT fills a nearly unexplored region of parameter space and enables projects that would take decades on current facilities. The DMT will be able to reach 10-sigma limiting magnitudes of 27-28 magnitude in the wavelength range .3 - 1 um over a 7 square degree field in 3 nights of dark time. Here we review its unique weak lensing cosmology capabilities and the design that enables those capabilities.

  14. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M.

    1997-03-01

    The large binocular telescope (LBT) project have evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 by 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson, Arizona. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train -- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in the fall of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1996 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia

  15. Engineering and science highlights of the KAT-7 radio telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foley, A. R.; Alberts, T.; Armstrong, R. P.; Barta, A.; Bauermeister, E. F.; Bester, H.; Blose, S.; Booth, R. S.; Botha, D. H.; Buchner, S. J.; Carignan, C.; Cheetham, T.; Cloete, K.; Coreejes, G.; Crida, R. C.; Cross, S. D.; Curtolo, F.; Dikgale, A.; de Villiers, M. S.; du Toit, L. J.; Esterhuyse, S. W. P.; Fanaroff, B.; Fender, R. P.; Fijalkowski, M.; Fourie, D.; Frank, B.; George, D.; Gibbs, P.; Goedhart, S.; Grobbelaar, J.; Gumede, S. C.; Herselman, P.; Hess, K. M.; Hoek, N.; Horrell, J.; Jonas, J. L.; Jordaan, J. D. B.; Julie, R.; Kapp, F.; Kotzé, P.; Kusel, T.; Langman, A.; Lehmensiek, R.; Liebenberg, D.; Liebenberg, I. J. V.; Loots, A.; Lord, R. T.; Lucero, D. M.; Ludick, J.; Macfarlane, P.; Madlavana, M.; Magnus, L.; Magozore, C.; Malan, J. A.; Manley, J. R.; Marais, L.; Marais, N.; Marais, S. J.; Maree, M.; Martens, A.; Mokone, O.; Moss, V.; Mthembu, S.; New, W.; Nicholson, G. D.; van Niekerk, P. C.; Oozeer, N.; Passmoor, S. S.; Peens-Hough, A.; Pińska, A. B.; Prozesky, P.; Rajan, S.; Ratcliffe, S.; Renil, R.; Richter, L. L.; Rosekrans, D.; Rust, A.; Schröder, A. C.; Schwardt, L. C.; Seranyane, S.; Serylak, M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Siebrits, R.; Sofeya, L.; Spann, R.; Springbok, R.; Swart, P. S.; Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L.; Theron, I. P.; Tiplady, A.; Toruvanda, O.; Tshongweni, S.; van den Heever, L.; van der Merwe, C.; van Rooyen, R.; Wakhaba, S.; Walker, A. L.; Welz, M.; Williams, L.; Wolleben, M.; Woudt, P. A.; Young, N. J.; Zwart, J. T. L.

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the seven-dish Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7) array in the Karoo region of the Northern Cape in South Africa was intended primarily as an engineering prototype for technologies and techniques applicable to the MeerKAT telescope. This paper looks at the main engineering and

  16. Engineering and science highlights of the KAT-7 radio telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foley, A. R.; Alberts, T.; Armstrong, R. P.; Barta, A.; Bauermeister, E. F.; Bester, H.; Blose, S.; Booth, R. S.; Botha, D. H.; Buchner, S. J.; Carignan, C.; Cheetham, T.; Cloete, K.; Coreejes, G.; Crida, R. C.; Cross, S. D.; Curtolo, F.; Dikgale, A.; de Villiers, M. S.; du Toit, L. J.; Esterhuyse, S. W. P.; Fanaroff, B.; Fender, R. P.; Fijalkowski, M.; Fourie, D.; Frank, B.; George, D.; Gibbs, P.; Goedhart, S.; Grobbelaar, J.; Gumede, S. C.; Herselman, P.; Hess, K. M.; Hoek, N.; Horrell, J.; Jonas, J. L.; Jordaan, J. D. B.; Julie, R.; Kapp, F.; Kotzé, P.; Kusel, T.; Langman, A.; Lehmensiek, R.; Liebenberg, D.; Liebenberg, I. J. V.; Loots, A.; Lord, R. T.; Lucero, D. M.; Ludick, J.; Macfarlane, P.; Madlavana, M.; Magnus, L.; Magozore, C.; Malan, J. A.; Manley, J. R.; Marais, L.; Marais, N.; Marais, S. J.; Maree, M.; Martens, A.; Mokone, O.; Moss, V.; Mthembu, S.; New, W.; Nicholson, G. D.; van Niekerk, P. C.; Oozeer, N.; Passmoor, S. S.; Peens-Hough, A.; Pińska, A. B.; Prozesky, P.; Rajan, S.; Ratcliffe, S.; Renil, R.; Richter, L. L.; Rosekrans, D.; Rust, A.; Schröder, A. C.; Schwardt, L. C.; Seranyane, S.; Serylak, M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Siebrits, R.; Sofeya, L.; Spann, R.; Springbok, R.; Swart, P. S.; Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L.; Theron, I. P.; Tiplady, A.; Toruvanda, O.; Tshongweni, S.; van den Heever, L.; van der Merwe, C.; van Rooyen, R.; Wakhaba, S.; Walker, A. L.; Welz, M.; Williams, L.; Wolleben, M.; Woudt, P. A.; Young, N. J.; Zwart, J. T. L.

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the seven-dish Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7) array in the Karoo region of the Northern Cape in South Africa was intended primarily as an engineering prototype for technologies and techniques applicable to the MeerKAT telescope. This paper looks at the main engineering and scienti

  17. The Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Hoffmann, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the basic design and principle of operating an optical-infrared telescope, the MMT. This third largest telescope in the world represents a new stage in telescope design; it uses a cluster of six reflecting telescopes, and relies on an automatic sensing and control system. (GA)

  18. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  19. The Travelling Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  20. The South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhl, J E; Carlstrom, J E; Cho, H M; Crawford, T; Dobbs, M; Greer, C H; Halverson, W; Holzapfel, W L; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leong, J; Leitch, E M; Lu, W; Lueker, M; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C L; Schwan, D; Sharp, M K; Runyan, M C; Spieler, H; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A

    2004-01-01

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency...

  1. A Trigger and Readout Scheme for future Cherenkov Telescope Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, G; Foehr, C; Hofmann, W; Kihm, T; Köck, F

    2008-01-01

    The next generation of ground-based gamma-ray observatories, such as e.g. CTA, will consist of about 50-100 telescopes, and cameras with in total ~100000 to ~200000 channels. The telescopes of the core array will cover and effective area of ~ 1 km2 and will be possibly accompanied by a large halo of smaller telescopes spread over about 10 km2 . In order to make maximum use of the stereoscopic approach, a very flexible inter-telescope trigger scheme is needed which allows to couple telescopes that located up to ~1 km apart. The development of a cost effective readout scheme for the camera signals exhibits a major technological challenge. Here we present ideas on a new asynchronous inter-telescope trigger scheme, and a very cost-effective, high-bandwidth frontend to backend data transfer system, both based on standard Ethernet components and an Ethernet front-end interface based on mass production standard FPGAs.

  2. Novel Materials for Mirror Substrate in Space Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Technology, Inc (AMTI) responds to the NASA solicitation S2 "Advanced Telescope Systems" under subtopic S2.05, "Optics Manufacturing and Metrology...

  3. LSST telescope modeling overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J.; Andrew, J.; Angeli, G.; Araujo, C.; Barr, J.; Callahan, S.; Cho, M.; Claver, C.; Daruich, F.; Gressler, W.; Hileman, E.; Liang, M.; Muller, G.; Neill, D.; Schoening, W.; Warner, M.; Wiecha, O.; Xin, B.; Orden Martinez, Alfredo; Perezagua Aguado, Manuel; García Marchena, Luis; Ruiz de Argandoña, Ismael

    2016-08-01

    During this early stage of construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), modeling has become a crucial system engineering process to ensure that the final detailed design of all the sub-systems that compose the telescope meet requirements and interfaces. Modeling includes multiple tools and types of analyses that are performed to address specific technical issues. Three-dimensional (3D) Computeraided Design (CAD) modeling has become central for controlling interfaces between subsystems and identifying potential interferences. The LSST Telescope dynamic requirements are challenging because of the nature of the LSST survey which requires a high cadence of rapid slews and short settling times. The combination of finite element methods (FEM), coupled with control system dynamic analysis, provides a method to validate these specifications. An overview of these modeling activities is reported in this paper including specific cases that illustrate its impact.

  4. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  5. Integrated Modeling of Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly complex and costly opto-mechanical systems, there is a growing need for reliable computer modeling and simulation. The field of integrated modeling, combining optics, mechanics, control engineering, and other disciplines, is the subject of this book. Although the book primarily focuses on ground-based optical telescopes, the techniques introduced are applicable also to other wavelengths and to other opto-mechanical applications on the ground or in space. Basic tools of integrated modeling are introduced together with concepts of ground-based telescopes. Modeling of optical systems, structures, wavefront control systems with emphasis on segmented mirror control, and active and adaptive optics are described together with a variety of noise sources; many examples are included in this book. Integrated Modeling of Telescopes is a text for physicists and engineers working in the field of opto-mechanical design and wavefront control, but it will also be valuable as a textbook for PhD students.

  6. PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 50 METER DI PANTAI BERPASIR LEBIH MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 100 METER DARIPADA PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 50 METER DI LAPANGAN PADA SISWA KELAS XSMK N KAKULUK MESAK NTT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benediktus Nahak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The speed is one of the biomotoriccomponents which dominantin the run race100 meters. 100 meters run is part of athletics which has a short duration, highintensity and anaerobic systems develop. The purpose of this study was todetermine the increasing of 100 meter run speed, therefore this research is anexperimental study was conducted in SMK N Kakulukmesak Belu regency NTT,for 6 months from March - May 2014, with the frequency of exercise 3 times aweek. This study uses two types of training, and were divided into two treatmentgroups, ie group one is the training of interval run 4 x 50 meter on the sandybeach 4 reps 3 sets andgroup twois the interval run 4 x 50 meter in the yard 4 reps3 sets, implemented in the afternoon at 15.30 to 17.00 pm in the yard of SMK NKakulukmesak and Atapupu Beach, Belu regency - NTT. Sample was 20 people,chosen simple randomly from a population of 53 people who meet therequirements of inclusion and exclusion. The number of samples for each group is10 people. The speed of 100 meter run was measured using stopwatch, while the100-meter dash speed data before and after training in both groups, were testedwith parametric statistical analysis. With a paired t-test of mean difference testsobtained the 100 meter dash speed after training on each group with p <0.05. Themean speed of 100 meters before training in the group one is 16.06 seconds and13.01 seconds after training. Means increased speed of 3:05 seconds, or at =19:02%. While the average running speed of 100 meters in group two beforetraining is 16.02 seconds and after training is 13.95 seconds, the increasing ofspeed is 12.91%. This shows that the average speed of 100 meters before and aftertraining on each group there is a significant difference, with value p<0.05. Thusthe training of group 1is interval run 4 x 50 meter on the sandy beach and intervaltraining run 4 x 50 meters in the yard, after training is equal to increase the speedof the 100 meterin 10th grade

  7. Pointing the SOFIA Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Michael A K; Moore, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    SOFIA is an airborne, gyroscopically stabilized 2.5m infrared telescope, mounted to a spherical bearing. Unlike its predecessors, SOFIA will work in absolute coordinates, despite its continually changing position and attitude. In order to manage this, SOFIA must relate equatorial and telescope coordinates using a combination of avionics data and star identification, manage field rotation and track sky images. We describe the algorithms and systems required to acquire and maintain the equatorial reference frame, relate it to tracking imagers and the science instrument, set up the oscillating secondary mirror, and aggregate pointings into relocatable nods and dithers.

  8. Reflecting telescope optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Raymond N

    2004-01-01

    R.N. Wilson's two-volume treatise on reflecting telescope optics has become a classic in its own right. It is intended to give a complete treatment of the subject, addressing professionals in research and industry as well as students of astronomy and amateur astronomers. This first volume, Basic Design Theory and its Historical Development, is devoted to the theory of reflecting telescope optics and systematically recounts the historical progress. The author's approach is morphological, with strong emphasis on the historical development. The book is richly illustrated including spot-diagrams a

  9. Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.

    2011-01-01

    NEAT (Nearby Exo ]Earths Astrometric Telescope) is a modest sized (1m diameter telescope) It will be capable of searching approx 100 nearby stars down to 1 Mearth planets in the habitable zone, and 200 @ 5 Mearth, 1AU. The concept addresses the major issues for ultra -precise astrometry: (1) Photon noise (0.5 deg dia field of view) (2) Optical errors (beam walk) with long focal length telescope (3) Focal plane errors , with laser metrology of the focal plane (4) PSF centroiding errors with measurement of the "True" PSF instead of using a "guess " of the true PSF, and correction for intra pixel QE non-uniformities. Technology "close" to complete. Focal plane geometry to 2e-5 pixels and centroiding to approx 4e -5 pixels.

  10. LOBSTER - New Space X-Ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Simon, V. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Sveda, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Inneman, A.; Semencova, V. [Center for Advanced X-ray Technologies, Reflex, Prague (Czech Republic); Skulinova, M. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

    2007-04-15

    We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. For example, the Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science.

  11. The Mercator telescope: relevance, status, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Gert; Pessemier, Wim; Merges, Florian; Pérez Padilla, Jesus; Prins, Saskia; Van Winckel, Hans

    2014-07-01

    In todays era of ever growing telescope apertures, there remains a specific niche for meter-class telescopes, provided they are equipped with efficient and dedicated instruments. In case these telescopes have permanent and long-term availability, they turn out very useful for intensive monitoring campaigns over a large range of time-scales. Flexible scheduling and time allocation allow small telescopes to rapidly seize new opportunities or provide immediate follow-up observations to complement data from large ground-based or space-borne facilities. The Mercator telescope, a 1.2-m telescope, installed at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), successfully targets this niche of intensive monitoring and flexible scheduling. Mercator is already in operation since 2001 and has seen several upgrades in the mean time. In this contribution we give an update about the actual telescope status and its performance. We also present the Mercator instrument suite that currently consists of two instruments. The workhorse instrument is HERMES, a very efficient and stable fibre-fed high-resolution spectrograph. Recently, the MAIA imager was commissioned. This is a three- channel photometric instrument that observes a large field simultaneously in the different color bands. The MAIA detectors are unique 6k x 2k frame transfer devices which also allow for fast and continuous monitoring of variable phenomena.We discuss two important upcoming upgrades: a long-awaited automatic mirror cover and, more importantly, an entirely new telescope control system (TCS). This TCS is based on modern PLC technology, and relies on OPC UA and EtherCAT communication. Only commercially off-the-shelve hardware will be used for controlling the telescope. As a test case and as a precursor of the full TCS, such PLC systems are already deployed at Mercator to steer the Nasmyth mirror mechanism and to control the MAIA instrument. Finally, we also give an overview of the

  12. Origins Space Telescope: Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean J.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. This poster will outline the ways in which the astronomical community can participate in the STDT activities and a summary of tools that are currently available or are planned for the community during the study. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  13. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  14. THE LARGE MILLIMETER TELESCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Hughes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between M xico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrof sica, ptica y Electr nica (INAOE and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50 m diameter millimeterwave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the LMT site, at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32 m diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain rst-light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the re ector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for nal commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, out ted with its initial complement of scienti c instruments, will be a world-leading scienti c research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  15. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  16. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  17. TeraHertz Space Telescope (TST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marina Madeline; Lesser, David; O'Dougherty, Stephan; Swift, Brandon; Pat, Terrance; Cortez, German; Smith, Steve; Goldsmith, Paul; Walker, Christopher K.

    2017-01-01

    The Terahertz Space Telescope (TST) utilizes breakthrough inflatable technology to create a ~25 m far-infrared observing system at a fraction of the cost of previous space telescopes. As a follow-on to JWST and Herschel, TST will probe the FIR/THz regime with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, answering fundamental questions concerning the origin and destiny of the cosmos. Prior and planned space telescopes have barely scratched the surface of what can be learned in this wavelength region. TST will pick up where JWST and Herschel leave off. At ~30µm TST will have ~10x the sensitivity and ~3x the angular resolution of JWST. At longer wavelengths it will have ~1000x the sensitivity of Herschel and ~7 times the angular resolution. TST can achieve this at low cost through the innovative use of inflatable technology. A recently-completed NIAC Phase II study (Large Balloon Reflector) validated, both analytically and experimentally, the concept of a large inflatable spherical reflector and demonstrated critical telescope functions. In our poster we will introduce the TST concept and compare its performance to past, present, and proposed far-infrared observatories.

  18. NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a wonder...

  19. Progress in Space Solar Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will summarize the progress in the development of the Chinese Space Solar Telescope (SST) during the past few years. The main scientific objective of SST is to observe the fundamental structure of solar magnetic field with its 1-m optical telescope. The success of 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope and Hinode underscores the importance of this 1-m space telescope. In addition, some key technical problems have been solved.

  20. Uzaybimer Radio Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbay, R.; Öz, G. K.; Arslan, Ö.; Özeren, F. F.; Küçük, İ.

    2016-12-01

    A 13 meters former NATO radar is being converted into a radio telescope. The radio telescope is controlled by a system which has been developed at UZAYBİMER. The Telescope Control System(TCS) has been designed using modern industrial systems. TCS has been developed in LabView platform in which works Windows embedded OS. The position feedback used on radio telescopes is an industrial EtherCAT standard. ASCOM library is used for astronomical calculations.

  1. Comparing NEO Search Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple terrestrial and space-based telescopes have been proposed for detecting and tracking near-Earth objects (NEOs). Detailed simulations of the search performance of these systems have used complex computer codes that are not widely available, which hinders accurate cross- comparison of the proposals and obscures whether they have consistent assumptions. Moreover, some proposed instruments would survey infrared (IR) bands, whereas others would operate in the visible band, and differences among asteroid thermal and visible light models used in the simulations further complicate like-to-like comparisons. I use simple physical principles to estimate basic performance metrics for the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and three space-based instruments - Sentinel, NEOCam, and a Cubesat constellation. The performance is measured against two different NEO distributions, the Bottke et al. distribution of general NEOs, and the Veres et al. distribution of earth impacting NEO. The results of the comparis...

  2. The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Perrina, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    At about 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France), anchored at 2475 m deep in the Mediterranean Sea, there is ANTARES: the first undersea neutrino telescope and the only one currently operating. The detector consists of 885 photomultiplier tubes arranged into 12 strings of 450-metres high, with the aim to detect the Cherenkov light induced by the charged superluminal interaction products of neutrinos. Its main scientific target is the search for high-energy (TeV and beyond) neutrinos from cosmic accelerators, as predicted by hadronic interaction models, and the measurement of the cosmic neutrino diffuse flux, focusing in particular on events coming from below the horizon (up-going events) in order to significantly reduce the atmospheric muons background. Thanks to the development of a strategy for the identification of neutrinos coming from above the horizon (down-going events) the field of view of the telescope will be extended.

  3. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  4. Everyday Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Pranshu; Kumar, Pratik; Yelikar, Anjali; Soni, Kanchan; T, Vineeth Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an affordable, portable college level radio telescope for amateur radio astronomy which can be used to provide hands-on experience with the fundamentals of a radio telescope and an insight into the realm of radio astronomy. With our set-up one can measure brightness temperature and flux of the Sun at 11.2 GHz and calculate the beam width of the antenna. The set-up uses commercially available satellite television receiving system and parabolic dish antenna. We report the detection of point sources like Saturn and extended sources like the galactic arm of the Milky way. We have also developed python pipeline, which are available for free download, for data acquisition and visualization.

  5. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Valerie

    2014-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a large collaborative effort dedicated to the design and operation of the next-generation ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will improve by about one order of magnitude the sensitivity with respect to the current major arrays (VERITAS, H.E.S.S., and MAGIC) in the core energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV, and will extend the viability of the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACT) down to tens of GeV and above 100 TeV. In order to achieve such improved performance at both a northern and southern CTA site, four 23m diameter Large Size Telescopes (LST) optimized for low energy gamma rays will be deployed close to the centre of the array. A larger number of Medium Size Telescopes (MST) will be optimized for the core IACT energy range. The southern site will include 25 12m single-mirror MSTs and a US contribution of up to 24 novel dual-mirror design Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) type MSTs with a primary mirror of 9.5m diameter, and will also include an array of Small Size Telescopes (SST) to observe the highest-energy gamma rays from galactic sources. The SSTs can be smaller and more widely separated because more energetic gamma rays produce a larger Cherenkov light pool with many photons. The SSTs achieve a large collection area by covering a wide (10 sq km) footprint on the ground. The CTA project is finishing its preparatory phase, and the pre-production phase will start this year. I will review the status and the expected performance of CTA as well as the main scientific goals for the observatory.

  6. [Galileo and his telescope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  7. Exploring the Universe with the Worldwide Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Microsoft Research WorldWide Telescope is a software platform for exploring the universe. Whether you are a researcher, student or just a casual explorer WorldWide Telescope uses cutting edge technology to take you anywhere in the universe and visualize data collected by science programs from across the globe, including NASA great observatories and planetary probes. WWT leverages technologies such as Virtual reality headsets, multi-channel full dome projection and HTML5/WebGL to bring the WWT experience to any device and any scale. We will discuss how to use WWT to browse previously curated data, as well as how to process and visualize your own data, using examples from NASA Mars missions.

  8. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore’s law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog⁡2N rather than N2) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  10. MROI Array telescopes: the relocatable enclosure domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Payne, I.

    2016-07-01

    The MROI - Magdalena Ridge Interferometer is a project which comprises an array of up to 10 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes arranged in a "Y" configuration. Each of these telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which are relocatable onto any of 28 stations. EIE GROUP Srl, Venice - Italy, was awarded the contract for the design, the construction and the erection on site of the MROI by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The close-pack array of the MROI - including all 10 telescopes, several of which are at a relative distance of less than 8m center to center from each other - necessitated an original design for the Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE). This innovative design enclosure incorporates a unique dome/observing aperture system to be able to operate in the harsh environmental conditions encountered at an altitude of 10,460ft (3,188m). The main characteristics of this Relocatable Enclosure Dome are: a Light insulated Steel Structure with a dome made of composites materials (e.g. glass/carbon fibers, sandwich panels etc.), an aperture motorized system for observation, a series of louvers for ventilation, a series of electrical and plants installations and relevant auxiliary equipment. The first Enclosure Dome is now under construction and the completion of the mounting on site id envisaged by the end of 2016. The relocation system utilizes a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) capable of maneuvering between and around the enclosures, capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (30tons), with minimal impacts due to vibrations.

  11. Progress in the ULTRA 1-m ground-based telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Robert C.; Martin, Robert N.; Twarog, Bruce; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Taghavi, Ray; Hale, Rick; Etzel, Paul; Fesen, Rob; Shawl, Steve

    2006-06-01

    We present the technical status of the Ultra Lightweight Telescope for Research in Astronomy (ULTRA) program. The program is a 3-year Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) program funded by NSF. The MRI is a collaborative effort involving Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. (CMA), University of Kansas, San Diego State University and Dartmouth College. Objectives are to demonstrate the feasibility of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite mirror technology for ground-based optical telescopes. CMA is spearheading the development of surface replication techniques to produce the optics, fabricating the 1m glass mandrel, and constructing the optical tube assembly (OTA). Presented will be an overview and status of the 1-m mandrel fabrication, optics development, telescope design and CFRP telescope fabrication by CMA for the ULTRA Telescope.

  12. Preliminary Multivariable Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. Previously, the authors published two single variable cost models based on 19 flight missions. The current paper presents the development of a multi-variable space telescopes cost model. The validity of previously published models are tested. Cost estimating relationships which are and are not significant cost drivers are identified. And, interrelationships between variables are explored

  13. The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope (CAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Lynch, Dana H.; Vassigh, Kenny K.; Young, Zion

    2016-07-01

    The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope, CAST, is a concept that provides access to a UV/visible-infrared wavelength sub-arcsecond imaging platform from space, something that will be in high demand after the retirement of the astronomy workhorse, the 2.4 meter diameter Hubble Space Telescope. CAST allows building large aperture telescopes based on small, compatible and low-cost segments mounted on autonomous cube-sized satellites. The concept merges existing technology (segmented telescope architecture) with emerging technology (smartly interconnected modular spacecraft, active optics, deployable structures). Requiring identical mirror segments, CAST's optical design is a spherical primary and secondary mirror telescope with modular multi-mirror correctors placed at the system focal plane. The design enables wide fields of view, up to as much as three degrees, while maintaining aperture growth and image performance requirements. We present a point design for the CAST concept based on a 0.6 meter diameter (3 x 3 segments) growing to a 2.6 meter diameter (13 x 13 segments) primary, with a fixed Rp=13,000 and Rs=8,750 mm curvature, f/22.4 and f/5.6, respectively. Its diffraction limited design uses a two arcminute field of view corrector with a 7.4 arcsec/mm platescale, and can support a range of platescales as fine as 0.01 arcsec/mm. Our paper summarizes CAST, presents a strawman optical design and requirements for the underlying modular spacecraft, highlights design flexibilities, and illustrates applications enabled by this new method in building space observatories.

  14. SOAR Telescope Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebring, T.; Cecil, G.; Krabbendam, V.

    1999-12-01

    The 4.3m SOAR telescope is fully funded and under construction. A partnership between the country of Brazil, NOAO, Michigan State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, SOAR is being designed for high-quality imaging and imaging spectroscopy in the optical and near-IR over a field of view up to 12' diameter. US astronomers outside MSU and UNC will access 30% of the observing time through the standard NOAO TAC process. The telescope is being designed to support remote and synoptic observations. First light is scheduled for July 2002 at Cerro Pachon in Chile, a site with median seeing of 2/3" at 500 nm. The telescope will be operated by CTIO. Corning Inc. has fused the mirror blanks from boules of ULE glass. RSI in Richardson, Texas and Raytheon Optical Systems Inc. in Danbury, Conn. are designing and will fabricate the mount and active optics systems, respectively. The mount supports an instrument payload in excess of 5000 kg, at 2 Nasmyth locations and 3 bent Cass. ports. The mount and facility building have space for a laser to generate an artificial AO guide star. LabVIEW running under the Linux OS on compactPCI hardware has been adopted to control all telescope, detector, and instrument systems. The primary mirror is 10 cm thick and will be mounted on 120 electro-mechanical actuators to maintain its ideal optical figure at all elevations. The position of the light-weighted secondary mirror is adjusted to maintain collimation through use of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The tertiary mirror feeds instruments and also jitters at up to 50 Hz to compensate for telescope shake and atmosphere wavefront tilt. The dome is a steel framework, with fiberglass panels. Air in the observing volume will be exchanged with that outside every few minutes by using large fans under computer control. All systems will be assembled and checked at the manufacturer's facility, then shipped to Chile. A short integration period is planned, and limited science

  15. Eight new luminous z ≥ 6 quasars discovered via SED model fitting of VISTA, WISE and Dark Energy Survey Year 1 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Martini, P.; Banerji, M.; Auger, M.; Hewett, P. C.; Koposov, S. E.; Gibbons, S. L. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Ostrovski, F.; Tie, S. S.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2017-07-01

    We present the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation with the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope (NTT) and Gemini South telescopes of eight new, and the rediscovery of two previously known, 6.0 VDES J0224-4711 has JAB = 19.75 and is the second most luminous quasar known with z ≥ 6.5.

  16. Feasibility of utilizing Cherenkov Telescope Array gamma-ray telescopes as free-space optical communication ground stations

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo; Cabrero, Juan Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The signals that will be received on Earth from deep-space probes in future implementations of free-space optical communication will be extremely weak, and new ground stations will have to be developed in order to support these links. This paper addresses the feasibility of using the technology developed in the gamma-ray telescopes that will make up the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory in the implementation of a new kind of ground station. Among the main advantages that these telescopes provide are the much larger apertures needed to overcome the power limitation that ground-based gamma-ray astronomy and optical communication both have. Also, the large number of big telescopes that will be built for CTA will make it possible to reduce costs by economy-scale production, enabling optical communications in the large telescopes that will be needed for future deep-space links.

  17. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, but also from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born and remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimetre wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. More information The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ESO is the European partner in ALMA. ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising an array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will start scientific observations in 2011. ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a

  18. Eyes on the Universe: The Legacy of the Hubble Space Telescope and Looking to the Future with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Hubble Space Telescope has revolutionized our understanding of the Universe. Most recently, the complete refurbishment of Hubble in 2009 has given new life to the telescope and the new science instruments have already produced groundbreaking science results, revealing some of the most distant galaxy candidates ever discovered. Despite the remarkable advances in astrophysics that Hubble has provided, the new questions that have arisen demand a new space telescope with new technologies and capabilities. I will present the exciting new technology development and science goals of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, which is currently being built and tested and will be launched this decade.

  19. PELAKSANAAN KEBIJAKSANAAN PELAYANAN KESEHATAN GRATIS BAGI KELUARGA MISKIN (GAKIN DI RUMAH SAKIT PEMERINTAHAN PROVINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR (NTT: Studi Kasus di RSUD Prof Dr WZ Johannes Kupang dan RSUD Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholis Bachroen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In accordance  to the prompt 100 days Program of the "Kabinet Bersatu" government as to improve the quantity and quality of medical staffs, to develop health insurance for poor families, and to improve basic health services; this study aimed to determme free health services for poor families at class 3 public hospitals. It was a survei conducted in 2 public hospitals, Province Hospital Prof. Dr WZ Johannes in Kupang District and District Hospital of Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District in SoE in Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT Province. Data were collected by interview to poor and non poor families who ever or bemg seeking treatment to and poor families who never seeking treatment to the public hospttals and also by depth interview to the director and staffs of the hospitals. Depth interview on health or poor cards were done in two health centers in Kupang and TTS Districts, respectively. Results showed that there were still lack of medical doctors, no difference satisfaction for class III patients either who used poor or non poor facilities in both public hospitals, budget for free services in the hospitals was largely deficit so the medic and paramedic staffs did not receive medical fees, and also presence poor families who did not know the advantages of healthy cards to receive free health services at class III public hospitals. For optimal services, it is a need to develop new policy on recruitment and placement of medic and paramedic staffs, including to determine district capabilities in providing insentives, and also community demands for health staffs. And it is a need to provide medical fees for service to poor families to maintain quality of health services in long period.   Keywords: hospital, health services, poor, families, satisfaction

  20. Roughness tolerances for Cherenkov telescope mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Tayabaly, K; Canestrari, R; Bonnoli, G; Lavagna, M; Pareschi, G

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a forthcoming international ground-based observatory for very high-energy gamma rays. Its goal is to reach sensitivity five to ten times better than existing Cherenkov telescopes such as VERITAS, H.E.S.S. or MAGIC and extend the range of observation to energies down to few tens of GeV and beyond 100 TeV. To achieve this goal, an array of about 100 telescopes is required, meaning a total reflective surface of several thousands of square meters. Thence, the optimal technology used for CTA mirrors manufacture should be both low-cost (~1000 euros/m2) and allow high optical performances over the 300-550 nm wavelength range. More exactly, a reflectivity higher than 85% and a PSF (Point Spread Function) diameter smaller than 1 mrad. Surface roughness can significantly contribute to PSF broadening and limit telescope performances. Fortunately, manufacturing techniques for mirrors are now available to keep the optical scattering well below the geometrically-predictable effect of ...

  1. Progress on the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jerry E.

    2003-01-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) is a joint project of the University of California and the California Institute of Technology to build and operate a 30-meter diameter telescope for research in astronomy at visible and infrared wavelengths. The current optical design calls for a primary, secondary, and tertiary mirror with Ritchey-Chretién foci at two Nasmyth platforms. The primary mirror is a mosaic of 1080 actively stabilized hexagonal segments. This paper summarizes the recent progress on the conceptual design of this telescope.

  2. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and implantable miniature telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal Pham

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions and importance: To our knowledge and confirmed by the manufacturer of the implantable miniature telescope this is the first case ever reported of a patient who has undergone femtosecond laser cataract surgery with corneal astigmatism correction and implantation of the implantable miniature telescope. This is also the first case report of the preoperative use of microperimetry and visual electrophysiology to evaluate a patient's postoperative potential visual acuity. The success of the procedure illustrated the importance of meticulous preoperative planning, the combined use of state-of-the-art technologies and the seamless teamwork in order to achieve the best clinical outcome for patients who undergo implantation of the implantable miniature telescope.

  3. The study on servo-control system in the large aperture telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhenchao, Zhang; Daxing, Wang

    2008-08-01

    Large astronomical telescope or extremely enormous astronomical telescope servo tracking technique will be one of crucial technology that must be solved in researching and manufacturing. To control technique feature of large astronomical telescope or extremely enormous astronomical telescope, this paper design a sort of large astronomical telescope servo tracking control system. This system composes a principal and subordinate distributed control system, host computer sends steering instruction and receive slave computer functional mode, slave computer accomplish control algorithm and execute real-time control. Large astronomical telescope servo control use direct drive machine, and adopt DSP technology to complete direct torque control algorithm, Such design can not only increase control system performance, but also greatly reduced volume and costs of control system, which has a significant occurrence. The system design scheme can be proved reasonably by calculating and simulating. This system can be applied to large astronomical telescope.

  4. LISA telescope assembly optical stability characterization for ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, A.L.; Hogenhuis, H.; Pijnenburg, J.A.C.M.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Lucarelli, S.; Scheulen, D.; Ende, D.

    2012-01-01

    The LISA Optical Stability Characterization project is part of the LISA CTP activities to achieve the required Technonlogy Readiness Level (TRL) for all of the LISA technologies used. This activity aims demonstration of the Telescope Assembly (TA), with a structure based on CFRP technology, that a C

  5. Cornell Caltech Atacama Telescope (CCAT): a 25 m aperture telescope above 5000 m altitude

    CERN Document Server

    Sebring, T A; Radford, S; Zmuidzinas, J; Sebring, Thomas A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Radford, Simon; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2006-01-01

    Cornell, California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) have joined together to study development of a 25 meter sub-millimeter telescope (CCAT) on a high peak in the Atacama region of northern Chile, where the atmosphere is so dry as to permit observation at wavelengths as short as 200 micron. The telescope is designed to deliver high efficiency images at that wavelength with a total 1/2 wavefront error of about 10 microns. With a 20 arc min field of view, CCAT will be able to accommodate large format bolometer arrays and will excel at carrying out surveys as well as resolving structures to the 2 arc sec. resolution level. The telescope will be an ideal complement to ALMA. Initial instrumentation will include both a wide field bolometer camera and a medium resolution spectrograph. Studies of the major telescope subsystems have been performed as part of an initial Feasibility Concept Study. Novel aspects of the telescope design include kinematic mounting and active positioning of pr...

  6. Revisiting the Effectiveness of Large Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To create large-size optical telescopes, various design concepts have been used. Each concept inevitably faced the challenge to optimize technical characteristics and parameters of the telescope. There was always a question: what concept to choose, how to estimate efficiency of such telescopes and by what criteria and how to estimate expediency of this or that project of the large-size telescope. It is, obviously, insufficient to make a resolution-based estimation. An estimate by the angular field size is inappropriate too. Well, it may be also an estimate by the stellar magnitude. All these criteria are related to each other. Improvement of one of these parameters inevitably leads to deterioration of the others. Obviously, the certain generalized criterion considering all parameters and features of the design concept of the large-size telescope is necessary here. As such can serve the criterion of informational content of the telescope.The article offers a complex criterion allowing not only to estimate efficiency of large-size optical telescopes, but also to compare their conceptual and technological level among themselves in terms of obtaining information.The article suggests a new term, i.e. the informational content invariant to characterize informative capacities of the chosen concept and of the realizing technology. It will allow us to avoid unjustified complications of technical solutions, wrong accents in designing and excess material inputs when developing the project.The informational content criterion-based analysis of the existing projects of large-size telescopes has been convincingly shown that, conceptually, there are three best telescopes, namely: GSMT, CELT, and ACT-25. And, in terms of informational content, the АCТ-25 is 10 times more than GSMT and CELT, and the existing Keck-telescope exceeds by 30 times. Hence, it is hard to escape a conclusion that it is more favourable to implement one ACT-25, than to do 10 GSMT or CELT

  7. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next generation ground based observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. Gamma-rays provide a powerful insight into the non-thermal universe and hopefully a unique probe for new physics. Imaging Cherenkov telescopes have already discovered more than 170 VHE gamma-ray emitters providing plentiful of valuable data and clearly demonstrating the power of this technique. In spite of the impressive results there are indications that the known sources represent only the tip of the iceberg. A major step in sensitivity is needed to increase the number of detected sources, observe short time-scale variability and improve morphological studies of extended sources. An extended energy coverage is advisable to observe far-away extragalactic objects and improve spectral analysis. CTA aims to increase the sensitivity by an order of magnitude compared to current facilities, to extend the accessible gamma-ray energies from a few tens of GeV to a hundred o...

  8. Large Size Telescope Report

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, D; Teshima, M

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be deployed over two sites in the two hemispheres. Both sites will be equipped with four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), which are crucial to achieve the science goals of CTA in the 20-200 GeV energy range. Each LST is equipped with a primary tessellated mirror dish of 23 m diameter, supported by a structure made mainly of carbon fibre reinforced plastic tubes and aluminum joints. This solution guarantees light weight (around 100 tons), essential for fast repositioning to any position in the sky in <20 seconds. The camera is composed of 1855 photomultiplier tubes and embeds the control, readout and trigger electronics. The detailed design is now complete and production of the first LST, which will serve as a prototype for the remaining seven, is ongoing. The installation of the first LST at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the Canary island of La Palma (Spain) started in July 2016. In this paper we will outline the technical solutions adopted to f...

  9. Large size telescope report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, D.; Cortina, J.; Teshima, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be deployed over two sites in the two hemispheres. Both sites will be equipped with four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), which are crucial to achieve the science goals of CTA in the 20-200 GeV energy range. Each LST is equipped with a primary tessellated mirror dish of 23 m diameter, supported by a structure made mainly of carbon fibre reinforced plastic tubes and aluminum joints. This solution guarantees light weight (around 100 tons), essential for fast repositioning to any position in the sky in <20 seconds. The camera is composed of 1855 photomultiplier tubes and embeds the control, readout and trigger electronics. The detailed design is now complete and production of the first LST, which will serve as a prototype for the remaining seven, is ongoing. The installation of the first LST at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the Canary island of La Palma (Spain) started in July 2016. In this paper we will outline the technical solutions adopted to fulfill the design requirements, present results of element prototyping and describe the installation and operation plans.

  10. Deep space telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo’s telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. Such information is there for the taking, from millimiter wavelengths to gamma rays. Forty years astronomy from space, covering now most of the e.m. spectrum, have thus given us a better understanding of our physical Universe then t...

  11. Upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, Daniel; Garczarczyk, Markus; Giavitto, Gianluca; Sitarek, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) located on the Canary island of La Palma. With 17m diameter mirror dishes and ultra-fast electronics, they provide an energy threshold as low as 50 GeV for observations at low zenith angles. The first MAGIC telescope was taken in operation in 2004 whereas the second one joined in 2009. In 2011 we started a major upgrade program to improve and to unify the stereoscopic system of the two similar but at that time different telescopes. Here we report on the upgrade of the readout electronics and digital trigger of the two telescopes, the upgrade of the camera of the MAGIC I telescope as well as the commissioning of the system after this major upgrade.

  12. Near Earth Object Survey Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Near Earth Object Survey Telescope (NEOST), located at the Xuyi station of the Purple Mountain Observatory, is a telescope with the most powerful detection capacity, the highest efficiency and the best performance in the fields of near Earth object survey and optical imaging in China. NEOST is an 171.8 Schmidt type telescope with a 1.20 meter primary mirror and a 1.04 meter corrector,

  13. Computerization of a telescope at secondary education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Santiago, A.; Martos Jumillas, J.

    2017-03-01

    The work we are presenting in this paper is the computerization of a refractor telescope on an EQ3 type equatorial mount through Arduino. The control of the mount is done via three different interfaces: Stellarium, an Android interface for mobile phones and a second interface for PC made with Processing. The aforementioned work was done by the authors with a double purpose: presenting the interest in astronomy in the Mathematics department, and the development of applications within the subject of Technology in 4th ESO. So, it is a collaborative project between both departments. Except for the telescope and the mount, all the resources we have used can be found in any high school: free software (Guadalinex v9), App Inventor and Processing.The project was carried out under the principle of reducing all possible costs given the economic possibilities of the institution.

  14. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Skidmore, Warren; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G C; Dickinson, Mark; Harrison, Fiona; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lu, Jessica R; Macintosh, Bruce; Malkan, Matt; Mao, Shude; Narita, Norio; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tian, Feng; A'Hearn, Michael; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ali, Babar; Aoki, Wako; Bagchi, Manjari; Barth, Aaron; Bhalerao, Varun; Bradac, Marusa; Bullock, James; Burgasser, Adam J; Chapman, Scott; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chiba, Masashi; Cooray, Asantha; Crossfield, Ian; Currie, Thayne; Das, Mousumi; Dewangan, G C; de Grijs, Richard; Do, Tuan; Dong, Subo; Evslin, Jarah; Fang, Taotao; Fang, Xuan; Fassnacht, Christopher; Fletcher, Leigh; Gaidos, Eric; Gal, Roy; Ghez, Andrea; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grady, Carol A; Greathouse, Thomas; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Ho, Luis; Hasan, Priya; Herczeg, Gregory J; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Imanishi, Masa; Inanmi, Hanae; Iye, Masanori; Kamath, U S; Kane, Stephen; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kasliwal, Mansi; Kirby, Vishal KasliwalEvan; Konopacky, Quinn M; Lepine, Sebastien; Li, Di; Li, Jianyang; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Michael C; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrigue; Lotz, Jennifer; Lubin, Philip; Macri, Lucas; Maeda, Keiichi; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Marscher, Alan; Martin, Crystal; Matsuo, Taro; Max, Claire; McConnachie, Alan; McGough, Stacy; Melis, Carl; Meyer, Leo; Mumma, Michael; Muto, Takayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Najita, Joan R; Navarro, Julio; Pierce, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X; Oguri, Masamune; Ojha, Devendra K; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Orton, Glenn; Otarola, Angel; Ouchi, Masami; Packham, Chris; Padgett, Deborah L; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Pilachowsky, Catherine; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Primack, Joel; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Reddy, Naveen; Rich, Michael; Richter, Matthew J; Schombert, James; Sen, Anjan Ananda; Shi, Jianrong; Sheth, Kartik; Srianand, R; Tan, Jonathan C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanner, Angelle; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tytler, David; U, Vivian; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yiping; Wilson, Gillian; Wright, Shelley; Wu, Chao; Wu, Xufeng; Xu, Renxin; Yamada, Toru; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Gongbo; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ),...

  15. Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

  16. South African Student Constructed Indlebe Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGruder, Charles H.; MacPherson, Stuart; Janse Van Vuuren, Gary Peter

    2017-01-01

    The Indlebe Radio Telescope (IRT) is a small transit telescope with a 5 m diameter parabolic reflector working at 21 cm. It was completely constructed by South African (SA) students from the Durban University of Technology (DUT), where it is located. First light occurred on 28 July 2008, when the galactic center, Sagittarius A, was detected. As a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, staff members in the Department of Electronic Engineering at DUT in 2006 decided to have their students create a fully functional radio telescope by 2009. The specific project aims are to provide a visible project that could generate interest in science and technology in high school students and to provide a real world system for research in radio astronomy in general and an optimization of low noise radio frequency receiver systems in particular. These aims must be understood in terms of the SA’s government interests in radio astronomy. SA is a partner in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project, has constructed the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT) and MeerKat, which is the largest and most sensitive radio telescope in the southern hemisphere. SA and its partners in Africa are investing in the construction of the African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN), an array of radio telescopes throughout Africa as an extension of the existing global Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (VLBI). These projects will allow SA to make significant contributions to astronomy and enable astronomy to contribute to the scientific education and development goals of the country. The IRT sees on a daily basis the transit of Sag A. The transit time is influenced by precession, nutation, polar motion, aberration, celestial pole offset, proper motion, length of the terrestrial day and variable ionospheric refraction. Of these eight factors six are either predictable or measureable. To date neither celestial pole offset nor variable ionospheric refraction are predicable

  17. Building Medium Size Telescope Structures for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, A; Oakes, L; Schlenstedt, S; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future instrument in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. Its sensitivity will surpass that of current generation experiments by a factor $\\sim$10, facilitated by telescopes of three sizes. The performance in the core energy regime will be dominated by Medium Size Telescopes (MST) with a reflector of 12 m diameter. A full-size mechanical prototype of the telescope structure has been constructed in Berlin. The performance of the prototype is being evaluated and optimisations, among others, facilitating the assembly procedure and mass production possibilities are being implemented. We present the current status of the developments from prototyping towards pre-production telescopes, which will be deployed at the final site.

  18. The neutrino telescope ANTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleixner Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ANTARES neutrino telescope is currently the largest neutrino detector in the Northern Hemisphere. The detector consists of a three-dimensional array of 885 photomultiplier tubes, distributed along 12 lines, located at a depth of 2500 m in the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of the experiment is the detection of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. The detection principle is based on the observation of Cherenkov-Light emitted by muons resulting from charged-current interactions of muon neutrinos in the vicinity of the detection volume. The main scientific targets of ANTARES include the search for astrophysical neutrino point sources, the measurement of the diffuse neutrino flux and the indirect search for dark matter.

  19. The ANTARES neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Zornoza, Juan de Dios

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration completed the installation of the first neutrino detector in the sea in 2008. It consists of a three dimensional array of 885 photomultipliers to gather the Cherenkov photons induced by relativistic muons produced in charged-current interactions of high energy neutrinos close to/in the detector. The scientific scope of neutrino telescopes is very broad: the origin of cosmic rays, the origin of the TeV photons observed in many astrophysical sources or the nature of dark matter. The data collected up to now have allowed us to produce a rich output of physics results, including the map of the neutrino sky of the Southern hemisphere, search for correlations with GRBs, flaring sources, gravitational waves, limits on the flux produced by dark matter self-annihilations, etc. In this paper a review of these results is presented.

  20. Spectroradiometry with Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Smith, Peter L; Colina, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Radiometry has been of fundamental importance in astronomy from the early beginnings. Initially, astronomers had their own radiometric system, based on extraterrestrial standards, namely the irradiance of stars expressed in visual magnitudes. Observing and comparing magnitudes in specific spectral bands then led to the astronomical spectrophotometry. The advent of astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy offered the possibility to interpret observations through physical models of stellar atmospheres. Such models had to be constructed based on physics-related units, and such units, rather than magnitudes, were then used for observational tests of the models. In this review, we provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration, and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. Recently, the quest for independent calibrations traceable to laboratory standards has become a well-supported aim, and has led to plans for now also launching ...

  1. Self-deployable structure designed for space telescope for microsatellite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Li, Chuang; Zhou, Nan; Liao, Hongqiang

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual development of micro-satellite technology and the extension of application field of earth observation technology, researchers show more concern and attention on how to obtain high-resolution images with microsatellite platform equipped with space telescope. Such microsatellites require the space telescopes with small volume, low mass, and low cost. Deployable telescope is a good choice to meet these requirements, and it has the same capabilities as the traditional space telescope. We investigate a space telescope with smart self-deployable structure. The telescope is folded before launch, the distance between primary mirror and secondary mirror becomes short and the volume of the telescope becomes small, and the telescope extends to its working configuration after it is in orbit. The deployable structure is one of the key techniques of deployable space telescope, and this paper focuses on the design of a self-deployable structure of the secondary mirror. There are mainly three parts in this paper. Firstly, the optics of the telescope is presented, and a Ritchey-Chretien (RC) type optical system is designed. Secondly, the self-deployable structure is designed and the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze dynamics of the extended telescope. Thirdly, an adjusting mechanism with six degrees of freedom to correct the misalignment of the secondary mirror is investigated, and the kinematics is discussed.

  2. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  3. European Solar Telescope: Progress status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collados, M.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Cavaller, L.; Ermolli, I.; Gelly, B.; Pérez, A.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the present status of the development of the design of the European Solar Telescope is described. The telescope is devised to have the best possible angular resolution and polarimetric performance, maximizing the throughput of the whole system. To that aim, adaptive optics and multi-c

  4. San Pedro Martir Telescope: Mexican design endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ramirez, Gengis K.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Uribe, Jorge; Lopez, Aldo; Tovar, Carlos; Caballero, Xochitl; Del-Llano, Luis; Martinez, Cesar; Macias, Eduardo; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; Richer, Michael; González, Jesús; Sanchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Segura, Jose; Rubio, Saul; Gonzalez, German; Hernandez, Obed; García, Mary; Lazaro, Jose; Rosales-Ortega, Fabian; Herrera, Joel; Sierra, Gerardo; Serrano, Hazael

    2016-08-01

    The Telescopio San Pedro Martir (TSPM) is a new ground-based optical telescope project, with a 6.5 meters honeycomb primary mirror, to be built in the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) located in Baja California, Mexico. The OAN-SPM has an altitude of 2830 meters above sea level; it is among the best location for astronomical observation in the world. It is located 1830 m higher than the atmospheric inversion layer with 70% of photometric nights, 80% of spectroscopic nights and a sky brightness up to 22 mag/arcsec2. The TSPM will be suitable for general science projects intended to improve the knowledge of the universe established on the Official Mexican Program for Science, Technology and Innovation 2014-2018. The telescope efforts are headed by two Mexican institutions in name of the Mexican astronomical community: the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica. The telescope has been financially supported mainly by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT). It is under development by Mexican scientists and engineers from the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development. This development is supported by a Mexican-American scientific cooperation, through a partnership with the University of Arizona (UA), and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation in charge of enclosure and building design. The TSPM will be designed to allow flexibility and possible upgrades in order to maximize resources. Its optical and mechanical designs are based upon those of the Magellan and MMT telescopes. The TSPM primary mirror and its cell will be provided by the INAOE and UA. The telescope will be optimized from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared wavelength range (0.35-2.5 m), but will allow observations up to 26μm. The TSPM will initially offer a f/5 Cassegrain focal station. Later, four folded Cassegrain and

  5. Bringing Perfect Vision to the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijevich, Russ; Johansson, Erik; Johnson, Luke; Cavaco, Jeff; National Solar Observatory

    2016-01-01

    The world's largest ground-based solar telescope is one step closer to operation with the acceptance of the deformable mirror engineered by AOA Xinetics, a Northrop Grumman Corporation company. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), currently under construction in Haleakala, Hawaii, will offer unprecedented high-resolution images of the sun using the latest adaptive optics technology to provide its distortion-free imaging.Led by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), the Inouye Solar Telescope will help scientists better understand how magnetic fields affect the physical properties of the Sun, what roles they play in our solar system and how they affect Earth.Ground-based telescopes, whether observing the sun or the night sky must contend with atmospheric turbulence that acts as a flexible lens, constantly reshaping observed images. This turbulence makes research on solar activity difficult and drives the need for the latest adaptive optics technology.To provide DKIST with the distortion-free imaging it requires, AOA Xinetics designed a deformable mirror with 1,600 actuators, four times the normal actuator density. This deformable mirror (DM) is instrumental in removing all of the atmospheric blurriness that would otherwise limit the telescope's performance. The mirror also has an internal thermal management system to handle the intense solar energy coming from DKIST's telescope. This poster provides the history behind this incredible success story.

  6. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2015-01-01

    Ahigh resolution(σ< 2 μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. EUDET was a coordinated detector R&D programme for the future International Linear Collider providing test beam infrastructure to detector R&D groups. The telescope consists of six sensor planes with a pixel pitch of either 18.4 μm or 10 μmand canbe operated insidea solenoidal magnetic fieldofupto1.2T.Ageneral purpose cooling, positioning, data acquisition (DAQ) and offine data analysis tools are available for the users. The excellent resolution, readout rate andDAQintegration capabilities made the telescopea primary beam tests tool also for several CERN based experiments. In this report the performance of the final telescope is presented. The plans for an even more flexible telescope with three differentpixel technologies(ATLASPixel, Mimosa,Timepix) withinthenew European detector infrastructure project AIDA are presented.

  7. Silicon Photomultiplier Camera for Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenbroucke, J

    2014-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an atmospheric Cherenkov observatory that will image the cosmos in very-high-energy gamma rays. CTA will study the highest-energy particle accelerators in the Universe and potentially confirm the particle nature of dark matter. We have designed an innovative Schwarzschild-Couder telescope which uses two mirrors to achieve excellent optical performance across a wide field of view. The small plate scale of the dual-mirror optics enables a compact camera which uses modern technology including silicon photomultipliers and the TARGET application-specific integrated circuit to read out a finely pixelated focal plane of 11,328 channels with modest weight, volume, cost, and power consumption. The camera design is hierarchical and modular at each level, enabling robust construction, operation, and maintenance. A prototype telescope is under construction and will be commissioned at the VERITAS site in Arizona. An array of such telescopes will provide excellent angular resolution a...

  8. Software design for the control system for Small-Size Telescopes with single-mirror of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Błocki, J; Bogacz, L; Borkowski, J; Bulik, T; Cadoux, F; Christov, A; Curyło, M; della Volpe, D; Dyrda, M; Favre, Y; Frankowski, A; Grudnik, Ł; Grudzińska, M; Heller, M; Idźkowski, B; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Kasperek, J; Lalik, K; Lyard, E; Mach, E; Mandat, D; Marszałek, A; Michałowski, J; Moderski, R; Rameez, M; Montaruli, T; Neronov, A; Niemiec, J; Ostrowski, M; Paśko, P; Pech, M; Porcelli, A; Prandini, E; Rajda, P; Schioppa, E jr; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Skowron, K; Sliusar, V; Sowiński, M; Stawarz, Ł; Stodulska, M; Stodulski, M; Pujadas, I Troyano; Toscano, S; Walter, R; Wiȩcek, M; Zagdański, A; Ziȩtara, K; Zychowski, P

    2015-01-01

    The Small-Size Telescope with single-mirror (SST-1M) is a 4 m Davies-Cotton telescope and is among the proposed telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). It is conceived to provide the high-energy ($>$ few TeV) coverage. The SST-1M contains proven technology for the telescope structure and innovative electronics and photosensors for the camera. Its design is meant to be simple, low-budget and easy-to-build industrially. Each device subsystem of an SST-1M telescope is made visible to CTA through a dedicated industrial standard server. The software is being developed in collaboration with the CTA Medium-Size Telescopes to ensure compatibility and uniformity of the array control. Early operations of the SST-1M prototype will be performed with a subset of the CTA central array control system based on the Alma Common Software (ACS). The triggered event data are time stamped, formatted and finally transmitted to the CTA data acquisition. The software system developed to control the devices of an SS...

  9. The ASTRI prototype and mini-array: precursor telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site on the slopes of Mount Etna, a large field of view (9.6 degrees) dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes. CTA plans to install about 70 small size telescopes in the southern site to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach, since it includes the entire system of structure, mirror's optics (primary and secondary mirrors), camera, and control/acquisition software. Although it is a technological prototype, the ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be able to perform systematic monitoring of bright TeV sources. A remarkable improvement in terms of performance could come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa) and with also a contribution by INFN. The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of at least nine ASTRI SST-2M units. It is proposed as one of the CTA mini-array of telescope precursors and initial seeds of CTA, to be installed at the final CTA southern site. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will extend and improve the sensitivity, similar to the H.E.S.S. one in the 1-10 TeV energy range, up to about 100 TeV.

  10. CAD/CAM generated all-ceramic primary telescopic prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbad, A; Ganz, S; Kurbad, S

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have proven effective not only for the manufacture of crown and bridge frameworks, inlays, onlays and veneers, but also for the generation of all-ceramic primary telescopic prostheses in more than 10 years of use in dental technology. The new InLab 4.0 software generation makes it possible to design and mill primary telescopic prostheses with CAD/CAM technology. The computer-generated raw crowns for these restorations require very little manual adaptation. The secondary crowns are manufactured by electroforming and bonded onto the tertiary structure or framework.

  11. Silicon Photomultiplier Research and Development Studies for the Large Size Telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Rando, Riccardo; Dazzi, Francesco; De Angelis, Alessandro; Dettlaff, Antonios; Dorner, Daniela; Fink, David; Fouque, Nadia; Grundner, Felix; Haberer, Werner; Hahn, Alexander; Hermel, Richard; Korpar, Samo; Mezek, Gašper Kukec; Maier, Ronald; Manea, Christian; Mariotti, Mosè; Mazin, Daniel; Mehrez, Fatima; Mirzoyan, Razmik; Podkladkin, Sergey; Reichardt, Ignasi; Rhode, Wolfgang; Rosier, Sylvie; Schultz, Cornelia; Stella, Carlo; Teshima, Masahiro; Wetteskind, Holger; Zavrtanik, Marko

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the the next generation facility of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes; two sites will cover both hemispheres. CTA will reach unprecedented sensitivity, energy and angular resolution in very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. Each CTA array will include four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), designed to cover the low-energy range of the CTA sensitivity ($\\sim$20 GeV to 200 GeV). In the baseline LST design, the focal-plane camera will be instrumented with 265 photodetector clusters; each will include seven photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with an entrance window of 1.5 inches in diameter. The PMT design is based on mature and reliable technology. Recently, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are emerging as a competitor. Currently, SiPMs have advantages (e.g. lower operating voltage and tolerance to high illumination levels) and disadvantages (e.g. higher capacitance and cross talk rates), but this technology is still young and rapidly evolving. SiPM technology has a strong pot...

  12. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  13. MINERVA: Small Planets from Small Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Johnson, John Asher; Wright, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Swift, Jonathan; Bottom, Michael; Plavchan, Peter; Riddle, Reed; Muirhead, Philip S.; Herzig, Erich; Myles, Justin; Blake, Cullen H.; Eastman, Jason; Beatty, Thomas G.; Lin, Brian; Zhao, Ming; Gardner, Paul; Falco, Emilio; Criswell, Stephen; Nava, Chantanelle; Robinson, Connor; Hedrick, Richard; Ivarsen, Kevin; Hjelstrom, Annie; Vera, Jon De; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    The Kepler mission has shown that small planets are extremely common. It is likely that nearly every star in the sky hosts at least one rocky planet. We just need to look hard enough-but this requires vast amounts of telescope time. MINERVA (MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array) is a dedicated exoplanet observatory with the primary goal of discovering rocky, Earth-like planets orbiting in the habitable zone of bright, nearby stars. The MINERVA team is a collaboration among UNSW Australia, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Penn State University, University of Montana, and the California Institute of Technology. The four-telescope MINERVA array will be sited at the F.L. Whipple Observatory on Mt Hopkins in Arizona, USA. Full science operations will begin in mid-2015 with all four telescopes and a stabilised spectrograph capable of high-precision Doppler velocity measurements. We will observe ~100 of the nearest, brightest, Sun-like stars every night for at least five years. Detailed simulations of the target list and survey strategy lead us to expect new low-mass planets.

  14. Sensivity studies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Tarek Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Since the creation of the first telescope in the 17th century, every major discovery in astrophysics has been the direct consequence of the development of novel observation techniques, opening new windows in the electromagnetic spectrum. After Karl Jansky discovered serendipitously the first radio source in 1933, Grote Reber built the first parabolic radio telescope in his backyard, planting the seed of a whole new field in astronomy. Similarly, new technologies in the 1950s allowed the establishment of other fields, such as the infrared, ultraviolet or the X-rays. The highest energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum, the γ-ray range, represents the last unexplored window for astronomers and should reveal the most extreme phenomena that take place in the Universe. Given the technical complexity of γ-ray detection and the extremely relative low fluxes, γ-ray astronomy has undergone a slower development compared to other wavelengths. Nowadays, the great success of consecutive space missions together with the development and refinement of new detection techniques from the ground, has allowed outstanding scientific results and has brought gamma-ray astronomy to a worthy level in par with other astronomy fields. This work is devoted to the study and improvement of the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next generation of ground based γ-ray detectors, designed to observe photons with the highest energies ever observed from cosmic sources.

  15. First results of the Test-Bed Telescopes (TBT) project: Cebreros telescope commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Francisco; Ibarra, Aitor; Racero, Elena; Montero, Ángel; Doubek, Jirí; Ruiz, Vicente

    2016-07-01

    The TBT project is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme (GSTP), and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario within the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The goal of the project is to provide two fully robotic telescopes, which will serve as prototypes for development of a future network. The system consists of two telescopes, one in Spain and the second one in the Southern Hemisphere. The telescope is a fast astrograph with a large Field of View (FoV) of 2.5 x 2.5 square-degrees and a plate scale of 2.2 arcsec/pixel. The tube is mounted on a fast direct-drive mount moving with speed up to 20 degrees per second. The focal plane hosts a 2-port 4K x 4K back-illuminated CCD with readout speeds up to 1MHz per port. All these characteristics ensure good survey performance for transients and fast moving objects. Detection software and hardware are optimised for the detection of NEOs and objects in high Earth orbits (objects moving from 0.1-40 arcsec/second). Nominal exposures are in the range from 2 to 30 seconds, depending on the observational strategy. Part of the validation scenario involves the scheduling concept integrated in the robotic operations for both sensors. Every night it takes all the input needed and prepares a schedule following predefined rules allocating tasks for the telescopes. Telescopes are managed by RTS2 control software, that performs the real-time scheduling of the observation and manages all the devices at the observatory.1 At the end of the night the observing systems report astrometric positions and photometry of the objects detected. The first telescope was installed in Cebreros Satellite Tracking Station in mid-2015. It is currently in the commissioning phase and we present here the first results of the telescope. We evaluate the site characteristics and the performance of the TBT Cebreros

  16. Operating a heterogeneous telescope network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Alasdair; Bischoff, Karsten; Burgdorf, Martin; Cavanagh, Brad; Christian, Damien; Clay, Neil; Dickens, Rob; Economou, Frossie; Fadavi, Mehri; Frazer, Stephen; Granzer, Thomas; Grosvenor, Sandy; Hessman, Frederic V.; Jenness, Tim; Koratkar, Anuradha; Lehner, Matthew; Mottram, Chris; Naylor, Tim; Saunders, Eric S.; Solomos, Nikolaos; Steele, Iain A.; Tuparev, Georg; Vestrand, W. Thomas; White, Robert R.; Yost, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    In the last few years the ubiquitous availability of high bandwidth networks has changed the way both robotic and non-robotic telescopes operate, with single isolated telescopes being integrated into expanding "smart" telescope networks that can span continents and respond to transient events in seconds. The Heterogeneous Telescope Networks (HTN)* Consortium represents a number of major research groups in the field of robotic telescopes, and together we are proposing a standards based approach to providing interoperability between the existing proprietary telescope networks. We further propose standards for interoperability, and integration with, the emerging Virtual Observatory. We present the results of the first interoperability meeting held last year and discuss the protocol and transport standards agreed at the meeting, which deals with the complex issue of how to optimally schedule observations on geographically distributed resources. We discuss a free market approach to this scheduling problem, which must initially be based on ad-hoc agreements between the participants in the network, but which may eventually expand into a electronic market for the exchange of telescope time.

  17. Astrobiology with Robotic Telescopes at CAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cuesta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The key objectives of RTRCAB are the identification of new exoplanets and especially the characterization of the known exoplanets by observing photometric and systematic monitoring of their transits. These telescopes, equipped with advanced technology, optimized control programs, and optical and technical characteristics adequate for this purpose, are ideal to make the observations that are required to carry out these programs. The achievement of these goals is ensured by the existence of three separated geographical stations. In this sense, there are several planned missions that have the same objectives among their scientific goals, like Kepler, CoRoT, GAIA, and PLATO.

  18. Why systems engineering on telescopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Meiring, Jacobus G.

    2003-02-01

    Although Systems Engineering has been widely applied to the defence industry, many other projects are unaware of its potential benefits when correctly applied, assuming that it is an expensive luxury. It seems that except in a few instances, telescope projects are no exception, prompting the writing of this paper. The authors postulate that classical Systems Engineering can and should be tailored, and then applied to telescope projects, leading to cost, schedule and technical benefits. This paper explores the essence of Systems Engineering and how it can be applied to any complex development project. The authors cite real-world Systems Engineering examples from the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The SALT project is the development and construction of a 10m-class telescope at the price of a 4m telescope. Although SALT resembles the groundbreaking Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in Texas, the project team are attempting several challenging changes to the original design, requiring a focussed engineering approach and discernment in the definition of the telescope requirements. Following a tailored Systems Engineering approach on this project has already enhanced the quality of decisions made, improved the fidelity of contractual specifications for subsystems, and established criteria testing their performance. Systems Engineering, as applied on SALT, is a structured development process, where requirements are formally defined before the award of subsystem developmental contracts. During this process conceptual design, modeling and prototyping are performed to ensure that the requirements were realistic and accurate. Design reviews are held where the designs are checked for compliance with the requirements. Supplier factory and on-site testing are followed by integrated telescope testing, to verify system performance against the specifications. Although the SALT project is still far from completion, the authors are confident that the present benefits from

  19. Formation flight astronomical survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Formation Flight Astronomical Survey Telescope (FFAST) is a project for hard X-ray observation. It consists of two small satellites; one (telescope satellite) has a super mirror covering the energy range up to 80 keV while the other (detector satellite) has an scintillator deposited CCD (SDCCD) having good spatial resolution and high efficiency up to 100 keV. Two satellites will be put into individual Kepler orbits forming an X-ray telescope with a focal length of 20 m. They will be not in pointing mode but in survey mode to cover a large sky region.

  20. Bhavnagar Telescope: the most widely travelled telescope in the country

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Kameswara; Vagiswari, A

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade of the 19th century Maharaja Takhtasingji Observatory was built at Poona (1888-1912) under the supervision of K.D.Naegamavala, with the grant from Maharaja of Bhavnagar (from where the name Bhavnagar Telescope must have originated. The story of this telescope from its inception to the current status is traced. IIA Archives has been extensively used to resource information for this note.

  1. Ice Middleware in the New Solar Telescope's Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumko, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is now in the process of assembling and aligning its 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST). There are many challenges controlling NST and one of them is establishing reliable and robust communications between different parts of the Telescope Control System (TCS). For our TCS we selected Ice (Internet communication engine) from ZeroC, Inc. In this paper we discuss advantages of the Ice middleware, details of implementation and problems we face implementing it.

  2. The small size telescope projects for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The small size telescopes (SSTs), spread over an area of several square km, dominate the CTA sensitivity in the photon energy range from a few TeV to over 100 TeV, enabling for the detailed exploration of the very high energy gamma-ray sky. The proposed telescopes are innovative designs providing a wide field of view. Two of them, the ASTRI (Astrophysics con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) and the GCT (Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope) telescopes, are based on dual mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optics, with primary mirror diameters of 4 m. The third, SST-1M, is a Davies-Cotton design with a 4 m diameter mirror. Progress with the construction and testing of prototypes of these telescopes is presented. The SST cameras use silicon photomultipliers, with preamplifier and readout/trigger electronics designed to optimize the performance of these sensors for (atmospheric) Cherenkov light. The status of the camera developments is discussed. The SST sub-array will consist of about 70 telescopes at the CTA souther...

  3. Lightweighted ZERODUR for telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, T.; Davis, M.; Hartmann, P.; Hull, T.; Jedamzik, R.

    2014-07-01

    The glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT has an excellent reputation as mirror blank material for earthbound and space telescope applications. It is known for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. Recent improvements in CNC machining at SCHOTT allow achieving extremely light weighted substrates up to 90% incorporating very thin ribs and face sheets. In 2012 new ZERODUR® grades EXPANSION CLASS 0 SPECIAL and EXTREME have been released that offer the tightest CTE grades ever. With ZERODUR® TAILORED it is even possible to offer ZERODUR® optimized for customer application temperature profiles. In 2013 SCHOTT started the development of a new dilatometer setup with the target to drive the industrial standard of high accuracy thermal expansion metrology to its limit. In recent years SCHOTT published several paper on improved bending strength of ZERODUR® and lifetime evaluation based on threshold values derived from 3 parameter Weibull distribution fitted to a multitude of stress data. ZERODUR® has been and is still being successfully used as mirror substrates for a large number of space missions. ZERODUR® was used for the secondary mirror in HST and for the Wolter mirrors in CHANDRA without any reported degradation of the optical image quality during the lifetime of the missions. Some years ago early studies on the compaction effects of electron radiation on ZERODUR® were re analyzed. Using a more relevant physical model based on a simplified bimetallic equation the expected deformation of samples exposed in laboratory and space could be predicted in a much more accurate way. The relevant ingredients for light weighted mirror substrates are discussed in this paper: substrate material with excellent homogeneity in its properties, sufficient bending strengths, space radiation hardness and CNC machining capabilities.

  4. Telescopic drilling rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, I.L.; Berezov, S.I.; Gavrilov, G.A.; Goykhman, Ya.A.; Makushkin, D.O.; Rachev, M.P.; Voynich, L.K.

    1981-09-07

    The telescopic drilling rod includes an inner section of the rod, in whose center cable has been passed and is attached a bearing assembly connecting it to the winch, outer section of rod along which there is pipeline connecting the working cavity formed by the inner section of rod and the housing, installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, with cavity formed by framework of the guide swivel and end piece and connected to the hydraulic system of the machine by pipeline, as well as clamping elements. In order to drill wells to a depth greater than the length of the outer sectrion of the rod, the latter jointly with the inner section of rod is lowered into the extreme lower position until swivel rests on the feed mechanism. With further slipping of cable and the absence of pressure in the hydraulic system, clamping elements do not have an effect on the inner section of rod. It has the opportunity to freely move along the outer section of rod downwards to the face. When pressure is supplied on pipeline into cavity and further through pipeline into working cavity, the inner section of rod is clamped with feed of the outer section in the process of drilling, both sections move jointly. Because of the link between working cavity of sleeve installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, and the hydraulic system of the machine through the swivel cavity, it is possible to fix the drilling rod in any mutual axial position of the section.

  5. BCK Network of Optical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Antoniuk, Krill; Carini, Michael T.; Gelderman, Richard; Hammond, Benjamin; Hicks, Stacy; Laney, David; Shakhovskoy, David; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Williams, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The BCK network consists of three research grade telescopes: 0.6m (B) at the Bell Observatory near Western Kentucky University (WKU), 1.3m (C) at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and a 1.3m (K) at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The Bell Telescope is operated remotely from WKU while the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak possesses an autonomous scheduler. The BCK telescopes are distributed longitudinally over 145º and can be used to observe continuously up to 21.2 hours/day. The network will be chiefly employed to observe variable stars, blazars and unpredictable celestial events.Because celestial objects with ground-based telescopes cannot be observed optically during the daytime, continuous ground-based astronomical observations are only possible via a network of longitudinally distributed telescopes. When the sun rises in Crimea after it sets at Bell, continuous observations are possible. This occurs for about six and ½ months per year - mid September to early April. A network is highly desirable for events that are not predictable for instance the appearance of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, or undiscovered exoplanetsVariable stars are really only known in significant numbers to about 14 mag. But, as the magnitude increases the number of stars in any field increases very sharply, so there are many variable stars to discover at faint magnitude (m > 14). Discovering new variables makes great undergraduate student projects, a major component of astronomical research at WKU. In addition, pinning down the periods of variable stars is greatly facilitated with a network of telescopes.The BCK telescope network will also be used for monitoring the optical variability of blazars. The network provides increased coverage on daily variability timescales by minimizing interruptions due to weather and or mechanical problems at any one observatory and is used for obtaining continuous (12+ hours) of observations of rapid variability in blazars which would

  6. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  7. The Large Binocular Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. M.

    1995-05-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project has evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 x 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train --- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in spring of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximicrons flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximicrons stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1995 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson) and ADS Italia

  8. The calculus of telescopic urbanism

    OpenAIRE

    Arabindoo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Developing Amin's invocation of a telescopic urbanism as more than a visual metaphor, this paper seeks to rethink its epistemological and methodological focus, resisting at the same time the tendency to oversimplify the relationship between the different optics he outlines. Threatened by a dominant meta-narrative of a numerically driven calculus, this paper identifies an opportunity in Amin's telescopic urbanism to reject the 'big-data' approach to the city. In this context, it challenges the...

  9. Demonstration Telescopes Using "Dollar Optics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    I propose a poster that illustrates the use of "dollar optics” for experimentation and for the creation of demonstration telescopes. Handling a variety of lenses and mirrors provides an opportunity for discovering practical optics. Some part of this path of exploration must have been traveled by Galileo as he experimented with spectacle lenses. "Dollar optics” include reading glasses (positive meniscus lenses), convex and concave mirrors, Fresnel sheets, magnifying lenses, and eye loupes. Unwanted distance spectacles (negative meniscus lenses) are available at second-hand stores. Galileo telescopes, "long” 17th century telescopes, and useful demonstration models of Newtonian reflectors can be made with "dollar” optics. The poster will illustrate practical information about "dollar optics” and telescopes: magnification, focal length, and "diopters” disassembling spectacles; creating cheap mounts for spectacle lenses; the importance of optical axes and alignment; eyepieces; and focusing. (A table would be useful with the poster to set out a hands-on display of "dollar optic” telescopes.) Educators, experimenters, and those concerned with astronomy outreach might be interested in this poster. Working with "dollar optics” requires facility with simple tools, interest in planning projects, patience, imagination, and the willingness to invest some time and effort. "Dollar optics” may help to foster creativity and hands-on enthusiasm - as did Galileo's work with simple lenses 400 years ago. "Oh! When will there be an end put to the new observations and discoveries of this admirable instrument?” - Galileo Galilei as quoted by Henry C. King, The History of the Telescope.

  10. The upgraded MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescaro, D., E-mail: dtescaro@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Dept. Astrofísica, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes underwent a major upgrade in 2011 and 2012. A new 1039-pixel camera and a larger area digital trigger system were installed in MAGIC-I, making it essentially identical to the newer MAGIC-II telescope. The readout systems of both telescopes were also upgraded, with fully programmable receiver boards and DRS4-chip-based digitization systems. The upgrade eased the operation and maintenance of the telescopes and also improved significantly their performance. The system has now an integral sensitivity as good as 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux (for E>400GeV), with an effective analysis threshold at 70 GeV. This allows MAGIC to secure one of the leading roles among the current major ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for the next 5–10 years. - Highlights: • In 2011 and 2012 the MAGIC telescopes underwent a two-stage major upgrade. • The new camera of MAGIC-I allows us to exploit a 1.4 larger trigger area. • The novel DRS4-based readout systems allow a cost-effective ultra-fast digitization. • The upgrade greatly improved the maintainability of the system. • MAGIC has now an optimal integral sensitivity of 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux.

  11. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  12. Concept Design for SOAR Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebring, T.; Cecil, G.; Krabbendam, V.; Moretto, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope is a \\$28M collaboration between Brazil, NOAO, Michigan State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. NOAO will operate the telescope for 20 years in exchange for 30 astronomers.) The project is now fully funded. This f/16 telescope is optimized for high-quality images across the isokinetic field (0."17 FWHM degradation from the telescope+facility over a field of 7.5' diameter.) It is being designed to take up to 2 Gemini-class (2100 kg) instruments, or a combination of lighter instruments at 7 Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain foci. The facility is now under construction atop Cerro Pachon, 400m from Gemini-S. First light is currently scheduled for early 2002. Corning Inc. is preparing to fabricate the 4.2m-diameter, 7.5-10 cm thick primary mirror from ULE glass. In early 1999 contacts will be awarded for 2 major subsystems: active optics (which includes optics polishing), and the alt.-az. telescope mount. We will outline the novel strategies that are being used to control project costs while optimizing telescope performance. Instrumentation plans will also be summarized.

  13. A New Observing Tool for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, Martin; Bridger, Alan; Dent, Bill; Kelly, Dennis; Adamson, Andy; Economou, Frossie; Hirst, Paul; Jenness, Tim

    A new Observing Tool (OT) has been developed at the UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Edinburgh, UK and the Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, Hawaii, USA. It is based on the Gemini Observing Tool and provides the first graphical observation preparation tool for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) as well as being the first use of the OT for a non-optical/IR telescope. The OT allows the observer to assemble high level Science Programs using graphical representations of observation components such as instrument, target, and filter. This is later translated into low level control sequences for telescope and instruments. The new OT is designed to work on multiple telescopes: currently the UK Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) and JCMT. Object-oriented design makes the inclusion of telescope and instrument specific packages easy. The OT is written in Java using GUI packages such as Swing and JSky. A new component for the JCMT OT is the graphical Frequency Editor for Heterodyne instruments. It can be used to specify parameters such as frequencies, bandwidths, and sidebands of multiple subsystems, while graphically displaying the front-end frequency, emission lines and atmospheric transmission. In addition, Flexible Scheduling support has been added to the OT. The observer can define scheduling constraints by arranging observations graphically. Science Programs can be saved as XML or sent directly from the OT to a database (via SOAP).

  14. Update on Multi-Variable Parametric Cost Models for Ground and Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Parametric cost models can be used by designers and project managers to perform relative cost comparisons between major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades; enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment; and, provide a basis for estimating total project cost between related concepts. This paper reports on recent revisions and improvements to our ground telescope cost model and refinements of our understanding of space telescope cost models. One interesting observation is that while space telescopes are 50X to 100X more expensive than ground telescopes, their respective scaling relationships are similar. Another interesting speculation is that the role of technology development may be different between ground and space telescopes. For ground telescopes, the data indicates that technology development tends to reduce cost by approximately 50% every 20 years. But for space telescopes, there appears to be no such cost reduction because we do not tend to re-fly similar systems. Thus, instead of reducing cost, 20 years of technology development may be required to enable a doubling of space telescope capability. Other findings include: mass should not be used to estimate cost; spacecraft and science instrument costs account for approximately 50% of total mission cost; and, integration and testing accounts for only about 10% of total mission cost.

  15. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Perrey, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    A high resolution ($\\sigma 2 \\sim \\mu$) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. The telescope consists of six sensor planes using Mimosa26 MAPS with a pixel pitch of $18.4 \\mu$ and thinned down to $50 \\mu$. The excellent resolution, readout rate and DAQ integration capabilities made the telescope a primary test beam tool for many groups including several CERN based experiments. Within the new European detector infrastructure project AIDA the test beam telescope will be further extended in terms of cooling infrastructure, readout speed and precision. In order to provide a system optimized for the different requirements by the user community, a combination of various pixel technologies is foreseen. In this report the design of this even more flexible telescope with three different pixel technologies (TimePix, Mimosa, ATLAS FE-I4) will be presented. First test beam results with the HitOR signal provided by the FE-I4 integrated into the trigger...

  16. Silicon pore optics for the ATHENA telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Barriere, Nicolas; Landgraf, Boris; Vervest, Mark; Chatbi, Abdelhakim; van der Hoeven, Roy; Beijersbergen, Marco W.; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Shortt, Brian; Haneveld, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Arenda; van Baren, Coen; Eigenraam, Alexander; Müller, Peter; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Conconi, Paolo; Massahi, Sonny; Christensen, Finn E.; Valsecchi, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Silicon Pore Optics is a high-energy optics technology, invented to enable the next generation of high-resolution, large area X-ray telescopes such as the ATHENA observatory, a European large (L) class mission with a launch date of 2028. The technology development is carried out by a consortium of industrial and academic partners and focuses on building an optics with a focal length of 12 m that shall achieve an angular resolution better than 5". So far we have built optics with a focal length of 50 m and 20 m. This paper presents details of the work carried out to build silicon stacks for a 12 m optics and to integrate them into mirror modules. It will also present results of x-ray tests taking place at PTB's XPBF with synchrotron radiation and the PANTER test facility.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope Primary Mirror Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul; Gallagher, B.; Chaney, D.; Brown, B.

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope has a segmented primary mirror consisting of 18 hexagonal beryllium primary mirror segment assemblies (PMSA) that have a total collecting area greater than 25 square meters. The PMSAs are designed to operate at cryogenic temperatures (39 K) and to be actively controlled to co-phase the segments. This paper discusses the processes and testing utilized in the manufacture of these mirrors including the critical cryogenic testing performed at the XRCF facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The manufacturing team is headed by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp (BATC) with support from Brush Wellman for beryllium blank fabrication, Axsys Technologies for the precision machining, L3-Tinsley for the mirror polishing, and QCI for the reflective coating application.

  18. The Research Productivity of Small Telescopes and Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, F A; Lovell, R L; Kays, S A; Torres, Y V A

    2003-01-01

    We present statistics on the research productivity of astronomical telescopes. These were compiled by finding papers in which new data were presented, noting which telescopes were used, and then counting the number of papers, number of pages, and other statistics. The journals used were the Astronomical Journal, the Astrophysical Journal (including the Letters and Supplements), and the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. We also compiled citations from the Science Citation Index. This work was designed to be similar to that of Trimble (1995), except that more recent journals (from 1995) and citations (from 1998) were used. We also did not restrict our sample to large telescopes only: we included all telescopes from which new data were presented, the smallest of which was a 0.1-m. The data were gathered by first-year work-study undergraduates, who were instructed to include data for all telescopes for which they found new data were included in the journals. A by-product of this research wa...

  19. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  20. Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Meagher, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next major ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy. With CTA gamma-ray sources will be studied in the very-high energy gamma-ray range of a few tens of GeV to 100 TeV with up to ten times better sensitivity than available with current generation instruments. We discuss the proposed US contribution to CTA that comprises imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope with Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optics. Key features of the SC telescope are a wide field of view of eight degrees, a finely pixelated camera with silicon photomultipliers as photon detectors, and a compact and power efficient 1 GS/s readout. The progress in both the optical system and camera development are discussed in this paper.

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), The First Light Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Scheduled to begin its 10 year mission after 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world s largest space telescope. This talk reviews science objectives for JWST and how they drive the JWST architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature. Additionally, the talk provides an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development and fabrication status.

  2. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  3. A Low Cost Light Weight Polymer Derived Ceramic Telescope Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary purpose of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate a new technology for manufacturing an ultra-low-cost precision optical telescope mirror which can...

  4. Feature-based telescope scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghib, Elahesadat; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Feature-based Scheduler offers a sequencing strategy for ground-based telescopes. This scheduler is designed in the framework of Markovian Decision Process (MDP), and consists of a sub-linear online controller, and an offline supervisory control-optimizer. Online control law is computed at the moment of decision for the next visit, and the supervisory optimizer trains the controller by simulation data. Choice of the Differential Evolution (DE) optimizer, and introducing a reduced state space of the telescope system, offer an efficient and parallelizable optimization algorithm. In this study, we applied the proposed scheduler to the problem of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Preliminary results for a simplified model of LSST is promising in terms of both optimality, and computational cost.

  5. Scientific management of Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A historical summay is given on the science management of the Space Telescope, the inception of which began in 1962, when scientists and engineers first recommended the development of a nearly diffraction limited substantial-size optical telescope. Phase A, the feasibility requirements generation phase, began in 1971 and consisted largely of NASA scientists and a NASA design. Phase B, the preliminary design phase, established a tiered structure of scientists, led by the Large Space Telescope operations and Management Work Group. A Mission Operations Working Group headed six instrument definition teams to develop the essential instrument definitions. Many changes took place during Phase B, before design and development, which began in 1978 and still continues today.

  6. FAMOUS. The fluorescence telescope prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Johannes; Bretz, Thomas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Lauscher, Markus; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Peters, Christine; Sommer, Dominik; Stephan, Maurice [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Auffenberg, Jan; Schaufel, Merlin [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    One of the most successful techniques for the detection of air showers produced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are fluorescence telescopes. The light produced by de-exciting nitrogen in the atmosphere is typically detected by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This technique has been successfully used by the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina for many years. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) promise higher photon detection efficiencies than PMTs. This and other advantages motivate the construction of the fluorescence telescope prototype FAMOUS (First Auger Multi-pixel photon counter camera for the Observation of Ultra-high-energy air Showers) which makes use of SiPMs. In this talk we discuss the FAMOUS telescope with a new 64-pixel camera including power supply and DAQ.

  7. LSST telescope and site status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressler, William J.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project1 received its construction authorization from the National Science Foundation in August 2014. The Telescope and Site (T and S) group has made considerable progress towards completion in subsystems required to support the scope of the LSST science mission. The LSST goal is to conduct a wide, fast, deep survey via a 3-mirror wide field of view optical design, a 3.2-Gpixel camera, and an automated data processing system. The summit facility is currently under construction on Cerro Pachón in Chile, with major vendor subsystem deliveries and integration planned over the next several years. This paper summarizes the status of the activities of the T and S group, tasked with design, analysis, and construction of the summit and base facilities and infrastructure necessary to control the survey, capture the light, and calibrate the data. All major telescope work package procurements have been awarded to vendors and are in varying stages of design and fabrication maturity and completion. The unique M1M3 primary/tertiary mirror polishing effort is completed and the mirror now resides in storage waiting future testing. Significant progress has been achieved on all the major telescope subsystems including the summit facility, telescope mount assembly, dome, hexapod and rotator systems, coating plant, base facility, and the calibration telescope. In parallel, in-house efforts including the software needed to control the observatory such as the scheduler and the active optics control, have also seen substantial advancement. The progress and status of these subsystems and future LSST plans during this construction phase are presented.

  8. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  9. LISA telescope spacer design investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan, Josep; Mueller, Guido; Livas, Jeffrey; Preston, Alix; Arsenovic, Petar; Castellucci, Kevin; Generie, Joseph; Howard, Joseph; Stebbins, Robin

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-based gravitational wave observa-tory with the goal of observing Gravitational Waves (GWs) from astronomical sources in a frequency range from 30 µHz to 0.1 Hz. The detection of GWs at such low frequency requires measurements of distances at the pico-meter level between bodies separated by 5 million kilo-meters. The LISA mission consists of three identical spacecraft (SC) separated by 5 × 106 km forming an equilateral triangle. Each SC contains two optical assemblies and two vacuum en-closures housing one proof mass (PM) in geodesic (free fall) motion each. The two assemblies on one SC are each pointing towards an identical assembly on each of the other two SC to form a non-equal arm interferometer. The measurement of the GW strain is done by measuring the change in the length of the optical path between the PMs of one arm relative to the other arms caused by the pass of a GW. An important element of the Interferometric Measurement System (IMS) is the telescope which, on one hand, gathers the light coming from the far SC (˜100 pW) and, on the other hand, expands and collimates the small outgoing beam ( 1 W) and sends it to the far SC. Due to the very demanding sensitivity requirements care must be taken in the design and validation of the telescope not to degrade the IMS performance. For instance, the diameter of the telescope sets the the shot noise of the IMS and depends critically on the diameter of the primary and the divergence angle of the outgoing beam. As the telescope is rather fast telescope, the divergence angle is a critical function of the overall separation between the primary and secondary. Any long term changes of the distance of more than a a few micro-meter would be detrimental to the LISA mission. Similarly challenging are the requirements on the in-band path-length noise for the telescope which has to be kept below 1 pm Hz-1/2 in the LISA band. Different configurations (on-axis/off axis

  10. The network of INTA telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, L.

    2008-06-01

    The Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial has a network of three telescopes located at some of the best places for astronomy in mainland Spain. The first is at the Observatorio de Calar Alto in Almeria, at an altitude of more than 2100 m. The second is near Calatayud in Zaragoza, at the summit of a 1400-m high mountain. The last is on the campus of the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospatial (INTA), in Madrid. The three telescopes are either 40 or 50 cm in diameter and will be available for communications and educational projects.

  11. Wide field of view telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  12. Apollo Telescope Mount Spar Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard the Skylab. The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image shows the ATM spar assembly. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the 10-foot long canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into the rack, a complex frame, and was protected by the solar shield.

  13. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  14. Highlights from the Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. N.

    2016-11-01

    The Telescope Array measures the properties of ultra high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We do this using a variety of techniques including an array of scintillator detectors to sample the footprint of the air shower when it reaches the Earth's surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light of the air shower. From this we determine the energy spectrum and chemical composition of the primary particles. We also search for sources of cosmic rays and anisotropy. We have found evidence of a possible source of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the northern sky. The experiment and its most recent measurements will be discussed.

  15. Autonomous Dome for Robotic Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Akash; Ganesh, Shashikiran

    2016-01-01

    Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu. This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  16. First results of the Test-Bed Telescopes (TBT) project: Cebreros telescope commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Ocaña, Francisco; Racero, Elena; Montero, Ángel; Doubek, Jirí; Ruiz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The TBT project is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme (GSTP), and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario within the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The goal of the project is to provide two fully robotic telescopes, which will serve as prototypes for development of a future network. The system consists of two telescopes, one in Spain and the second one in the Southern Hemisphere. The telescope is a fast astrograph with a large Field of View of 2.5 x 2.5 square-degrees and a plate scale of 2.2 arcsec/pixel. The tube is mounted on a fast direct-drive mount moving with speed up to 20 degrees per second. The focal plane hosts a 2-port 4K x 4K back-illuminated CCD with readout speeds up to 1MHz per port. Detection software and hardware are optimised for the detection of NEOs and objects in high Earth orbits (objects moving from 0.1-40 arcsec/second). Every night...

  17. Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Brian; Conti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The "Search for Life" via imaging of exoplanets is a mission that requires extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. The High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) envisioned for this mission would have an aperture >10 m, which is a larger payload than what can be delivered to space using a single launch vehicle. Building and assembling the mirror segments enabling large telescopes will likely require multiple launches and assembly in space. Space-based telescopes with large apertures will require major changes to system architectures.The Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) for HDST is a primary mission cost driver. Enabling and affordable solutions for this next generation of large aperture space-based telescope are needed.This paper reports on the concept for the Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST), which demonstrates on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of a precision optical telescope in space. It will also facilitate demonstration of active correction of phase and mirror shape. MODEST is proposed to be delivered to the ISS using standard Express Logistics Carriers (ELCs) and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets. Post-assembly value includes space, ground, and environmental studies, and a testbed for new instruments. This demonstration program for next generation mirror technology provides significant risk reduction and demonstrates the technology in a six-mirror phased telescope. Other key features of the demonstration include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control that allows on-orbit optimization and demonstration of precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high modulus, high thermal

  18. Ultra-Stable Segmented Telescope Sensing and Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matthew; Knight, Scott; Redding, David

    2017-01-01

    The LUVOIR team is conducting two full architecture studies Architecture A 15 meter telescope that folds up in an 8.4m SLS Block 2 shroud is nearly complete. Architecture B 9.2 meter that uses an existing fairing size will begin study this Fall. This talk will summarize the ultra-stable architecture of the 15m segmented telescope including the basic requirements, the basic rationale for the architecture, the technologies employed, and the expected performance. This work builds on several dynamics and thermal studies performed for ATLAST segmented telescope configurations. The most important new element was an approach to actively control segments for segment to segment motions which will be discussed later.

  19. New Control System Software for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, T.; Cornell, M. E.; Taylor, C., III; Moreira, W.

    2011-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope at the McDonald Observatory is undergoing a major upgrade to support the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and to facilitate large field systematic emission-line surveys of the universe. An integral part of this upgrade will be the development of a new software control system. Designed using modern object oriented programming techniques and tools, the new software system uses a component architecture that closely models the telescope hardware and instruments, and provides a high degree of configuration, automation and scalability. Here we cover the overall architecture of the new system, plus details some of the key design patterns and technologies used. This includes the utilization of an embedded Python scripting engine, the use of the factory method pattern and interfacing for easy run-time configuration, a flexible communication scheme, the design and use of a centralized logging system, and the distributed GUI architecture.

  20. Segment handling system prototype progress for Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuku, Satoru; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nakaoji, Toshitaka; Takaki, Junji; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Haruna, Masaki; Kim, Ieyoung; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Domae, Yukiyasu; Hatta, Toshiyuki; Yoshitake, Shinya; Hoshino, Hayato

    2016-07-01

    Segment Handling System (SHS) is the subsystem that is planned to be permanently implemented on Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) telescope structure that enables fast, efficient, semi-automatic exchange of M1 segments. TMT plans challenging segment exchange (10 segments per 10 hours a day). To achieve these, MELCO develops innovative SHS by accommodating Factory Automation (FA) technology such as force control system and machine vision system into the system. Force control system used for install operation, achieves soft handling by detecting force exerted to mirror segment and automatically compensating the position error between handling segments and primary mirror. Machine vision system used for removal operation, achieves semi-automatic positioning between SHS and mirror segments to be handled. Prototype experience proves soft (extraneous force 300N) and fast ( 3 minutes) segment handling. The SHS will provide upcoming segmented large telescopes for cost-efficient, effortless, and safe segment exchange operation.

  1. The major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garczarczyk, Markus; MAGIC Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    MAGIC is a system of two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) for ground-based γ-ray astronomy. During many years, starting with the design phase of the first telescope in 2003, the upgrade of the second telescope in 2008 up to now, novel technologies have been developed, commissioned and continuously improved. Most components and subsystems represent nowadays state of the art techniques and are under consideration to be used in future detectors. The large reflector area, together with small diameter, high quantum efficiency (QE) photomultipliers (PMTs) in combination with an improved trigger and readout system permits an analysis threshold of 25 GeV, the lowest among current IACTs. MAGIC overlaps in energy with the upper end of current satellite experiments and gives the unique opportunity, for the first time, to cross-calibrate ground based versus satellite born detectors. Some selected techniques used in MAGIC, which are in context with this conference, are presented.

  2. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  3. The Discovery Channel Telescope, Progress and Status 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bida, T. A.; Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, in northern Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope will have Ritchey-Chretien and Nasmyth configurations for optical/IR imaging and spectroscopy. The ultra-low-expansion (ULE) meniscus primary mirror in fabrication at Corning Glass has been recently slump-formed to the prescribed radius-of-curvature. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology, and e2v Technologies have completed in-depth conceptual designs of the optics, mount, facility, and mosaic focal plane, respectively, the results of which were subjected to a formal review in July, 2004. The telescope facility has moved into the detailed design phase by Lowell Observatory and M3. An extended site-testing campaign of the astronomical and environmental qualities at the Happy Jack site was conducted from January 2003-October 2004 . Differential image motion observations on 117 nights gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, with a first-quartile average of 0.62 arcsec FWHM. The use permit securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest was issued in November 2004, and site preparation for the access road was initiated before winter 2004. Formal ground breaking is planned for June 2005, and construction of major facility elements are expected to commence in earnest at that time. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. Lowell Observatory is actively seeking an additional partner for the project. Interested parties should contact R. L. Millis, Director, at Lowell

  4. Power supply system design and build for Antarctica telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fujia; Li, Hao; Li, Aiai

    2016-07-01

    Currently, more and more telescopes were built and installed in Dome A of Antarctic. The telescopes are remote controlled, unattended operation due to Dome A's environment. These telescopes must be work successfully at least one year without any failure. According to past experience, the power supply system is the weakest point in whole system. The telescopes have to stop if the power system have a problem, even a minor problem. So the high requirement for power supply system are presented. The requirement include high reliability, the self-diagnosis and perfect monitor system. Furthermore, the optic telescope only can work at night. The power source mainly relay on diesel engine. To protect the Antarctic environment and increase the life of engines. The power capacity is limited during observation. So it need the power supply system must be high power factor, high efficient. To meet these requirement, one power supply system was design and built for Antarctic telescope. The power supply system have the following features. First, we give priority to achieve high reliability. The reliability of power system was calculated and the redundant system is designed to make sure that the spare one can be work immediately when some parts have problems. Second, the perfect monitor system was designed to monitor the voltage, current, power and power factor for each power channel. The status of power supply system can be acquired by internet continuously. All the status will be logged in main computer for future analysis. Third, the PFC (Power Factor Correction) technology was used in power supply system. This technology can dramatically increase the power factor, especially in high power situation. The DC-DC inverter instead of AC-DC inverter was used for different voltage level to increase the efficient of power supply.

  5. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  6. Optical synoptic telescopes: new science frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, J. Anthony

    2010-07-01

    Over the past decade, sky surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) have proven the power of large data sets for answering fundamental astrophysical questions. This observational progress, based on a synergy of advances in telescope construction, detectors, and information technology, has had a dramatic impact on nearly all fields of astronomy, and areas of fundamental physics. The next-generation instruments, and the surveys that will be made with them, will maintain this revolutionary progress. The hardware and computational technical challenges and the exciting science opportunities are attracting scientists and engineers from astronomy, optics, low-light-level detectors, high-energy physics, statistics, and computer science. The history of astronomy has taught us repeatedly that there are surprises whenever we view the sky in a new way. This will be particularly true of discoveries emerging from a new generation of sky surveys. Imaging data from large ground-based active optics telescopes with sufficient étendue can address many scientific missions simultaneously. These new investigations will rely on the statistical precision obtainable with billions of objects. For the first time, the full sky will be surveyed deep and fast, opening a new window on a universe of faint moving and distant exploding objects as well as unraveling the mystery of dark energy.

  7. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guainazzi, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    Athena (the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) is a next generation X-ray observatory currently under study by ESA for launch in 2028. Athena is designed to address the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme, which addresses two key questions: 1) How did ordinary matter evolve into the large scale structures we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe. To address these topics Athena employs an innovative X-ray telescope based on Silicon Pore Optics technology to deliver extremely light weight and high throughput, while retaining excellent angular resolution. The mirror can be adjusted to focus onto one of two focal place instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) which provides spatially-resolved, high resolution spectroscopy, and the Wide Field Imager (WFI) which provides spectral imaging over a large field of view, as well as high time resolution and count rate tolerance. Athena is currently in Phase A and the study status will be reviewed, along with the scientific motivations behind the mission.

  8. DESTINY, the Dark Energy Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, T. R.; Morse, J. A.; Destiny Science Team

    2003-12-01

    We describe a mission concept for a 1.8-meter near-infrared (NIR) grism-mode space telescope optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SNe) over the redshift range 0.5 the Universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of dark energy. The central concept for our proposed Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR survey camera. SNe will be discovered by repeated imaging of an area located at the north ecliptic pole. Grism spectra with resolving power l/Dl = R * 100 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SNe classification, as well as valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. Our approach features only a single mode of operation, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared to SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of observing a large field-of-view over a full octave in wavelength simultaneously makes this approach highly competitive.

  9. Origins Space Telescope: Solar System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.In the Solar System, OST will provide km/sec resolution on lines from planet, moons and comets. OST will measure molecular abundances and isotope ratios in planets and comets. OST will be able to do continuum surveys for faint moving sources such as Kuiper Belt Objects, enabling a census of smaller objects in the Kuiper Belt. If the putative Planet IX is massive enough to be self-luminous, then OST will be able to detect it out to thousands of AU from the Sun.

  10. Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN; Rendong

    2006-01-01

    Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST) will be the largest radio telescope in the world. The innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realizing a huge single dish in the most effective way. Three outstanding features of the telescope are the unique karst depressions as the sites, the active main reflector which corrects spherical aberration on the ground to achieve full polarization and a wide band without involving a complex feed system, and the light focus cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as secondary adjustable system to carry the most precise parts of the receivers. Being the most sensitive radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jumpstart many of the science goals, for example, the neutral hydrogen line surveying in distant galaxies out to very large redshifts, looking for the first shining star, detecting thousands of new pulsars, etc. Extremely interesting and exotic objects may yet await discovery by FAST. As a multi-science platform, the telescope will provide treasures to astronomers, as well as bring prosperity to other research, e.g. space weather study, deep space exploration and national security. The construction of FAST itself is expected to promote the development in high technology of relevant fields.

  11. Results from the AMANDA telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Ekstroem, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Ganupati, R.; Gaug, M.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, Ph.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Koepke, L.; Kuehn, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Mandli, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Messarius, T.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schinarakis, K.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sudoff, P.; Sudoff, K.-H.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yodh, G.; Young, S

    2003-06-30

    We present results from the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole. They include measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux, search for UHE point sources, and diffuse sources producing electromagnetic/hadronic showers at the detector or close to it.

  12. The Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Yutaro; Kawabe, Ryohei; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo

    1999-10-01

    We have a plan to operate a new 10 m telescope at Pampa la Bola (4800 m) in Chile as one of Japanese R&D activities for Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. Technical and scientific purposes in this experiment are to develop and evaluate a high precision 10 m antenna under exposed conditions at the site, to develop and test low-noise submillimeter receivers and new SIS photon detectors, to test various techniques for submillimeter observations, and to explore the southern hemisphere in the submillimeter band: Galactic Center, Magellanic Clouds, and so on. The SIS mixer receivers at the Cassegrain focus covers 100, 230, 350, 500, 670, and 810 GHz bands for spectral line observations. A digital autocorrelator consisted of four modules with 500 MHz bandwidth is mounted in a container near the telescope. Two power generators with a capability of 200 kW are installed at the site. The telescope will be operated remotely from Japan via a commercial satellite communication system. After a test operation at Nobeyama for one and a half years, the telescope will be transported to Pampa la Bola in August 2001.

  13. Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Solar Axion Telescope, CAST, aims to shed light on a 30-year-old riddle of particle physics by detecting axions originating from the 15 million degree plasma in the Sun 's core. Axions were proposed as an extension to the Standard Model of particle physics to explain why CP violation is observed in weak but not strong interactions.

  14. Monster telescope hunts blue planets

    CERN Multimedia

    Leake, J

    2003-01-01

    BRITAIN is to back a project to build the world's biggest telescope - so powerful that it could see life-bearing planets in other solar systems. It will need the largest mirror ever built at about 100 metres in diameter (1/2 page).

  15. Push-To Telescope Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Two coordinate systems are related here, one defined by the earth's equator and north pole, the other by the orientation of a telescope at some location on the surface of the earth. Applying an interesting though somewhat obscure property of orthogonal matrices and using the cross-product simplifies this relationship, revealing that a surprisingly…

  16. Results from the AMANDA telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhali, O

    2003-01-01

    We present results from the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole. They include measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux, search for UHE point sources, and diffuse sources producing electromagnetic/hadronic showers at the detector or close to it. (4 refs).

  17. NESTOR Neutrino Telescope Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, P. K. F.; NESTOR Collaboration; Aloupis, A.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Arvanitis, N.; Babalis, A.; Ball, A.; Bourlis, G.; Butkevich, A. V.; Chinowsky, W.; Christopoulos, P. E.; Darsaklis, A.; Dedenko, L. G.; Elistrup, D.; Fahrun, E.; Gialis, J.; Goudis, Ch.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Karaevsky, S. K.; Katrivanos, P.; Keussen, U.; Kiskiras, J.; Knutz, Th.; Kolostelov, D.; Komlev, K.; Kontaxis, J.; Koske, P.; Learned, J. G.; Ledenev, V. V.; Leisos, A.; Limberopoulos, G.; Ludvig, J.; Makris, J.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Markopoulos, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mielke, J.; Mihos, Th.; Minkowski, P.; Mironovich, A. A.; Mitiguy, R.; Nounos, S.; Nygren, D. R.; Papageorgiou, K.; Passera, M.; Politis, C.; Preve, P.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rathlev, J.; Resvanis, L. K.; Rosen, M.; Schmidt, N.; Schmidt, Th.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris, T.; Stavrakakis, G.; Stokstad, R.; Surin, N. M.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tsirmpas, J.; Tzamarias, S.; Vasiliev, O.; Vaskine, O.; Voigt, W.; Vougioukas, A.; Voulgaris, G.; Zacharov, L. M.; Zheleznykh, I. M.; Zhukov, A.

    2003-07-01

    The first so-called flo or with 12 detector modules of the NESTOR deep sea high energy muon and neutrino telescope had been deployed successfully this March (2003) together with its electronics system. Since that data the system and the associated environmental monitoring units are operating properly and data

  18. Overdenture dengan Pegangan Telescopic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pambudi Santoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaitan presisi merupakan alat retensi mekanis yang menghubungkan antara satu atau lebih pegangan gigi tiruan, yang bertujuan untuk menambah retensi dan/atau stabilisasi. Kaitan presisi dapat digunakan secara luas pada gigi tiruan cekat, gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan, overdenture, implant untuk retensi overdenture, dan protesa maksilo fasial. Overdenture dengan kaitan presisi dapat membantu dalam pembagian beban kunyah, meminimalkan trauma pada gigi pegangan dan jaringan lunak, meminimalkan resorbsi tulang, dan meningkatkan estetik dan pengucapan suara. Salah satu jenis dari kaitan presisi adalah telescopic crown, terdiri dari 2 macam mahkota, yaitu mahkota primer yang melekat secara permanen pada gigi penyangga, dan mahkota sekunder yang melekat pada gigi tiruan. Tujuan pemaparan kasus ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang rehabilitasi pasien edentulous sebagian rahang atas dengan telescopic crown..  Pasien wanita berusia 45 tahun datang ke klinik prostodonsia RSGM Prof.Soedomo dengan keluhan ingin dibuatkan gigi tiruan. Pasien kehilangan gigi 11 12 15 16 17 21 22 24 25 26 dan 27 yang diindikasikan untuk pembuatan overdenture gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan (GTS kerangka logam dengan pegangan telescopic crown pada gigi 13 dan 14 dengan sistem parallel-sided crown. Tahap-tahap pembuatan telescopic crown yaitu mencetak model study dengan catatan gigit pendahuluan. Perawatan saluran dilakukan pada akar gigi 13, dilanjutkan pemasangan pasak fiber serta rewalling dinding bukal. Gigi 13 dan 14 dilakukan preparasi mahkota penuh, dilanjutkan dengan pencetakan model kerja untuk coping primer dan kerangka logam dengan metode double impression. Coping primer disementasi pada gigi penyangga, dilanjutkan pasang coba coping sekunder beserta kerangka logam. Selanjutnya dilakukan pencatatan gigit, pencetakan model kerja, penyusunan gigi dan pasang coba penyusunan gigi pada pasien. Prosedur dilanjutkan dengan proses di laboratorium, serta insersi pada

  19. Maintaining the Telescope Bibliography at Gemini Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2010-10-01

    The library profession benefits tremendously from ever-changing web technologies. In maintaining a telescope bibliography, web-publishing revolutionized the way librarians track relevant publications. Thanks to the search abilities provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System, arXiv, publishers, as well as Google Scholar, and other such resources, online searching for Gemini-based publications has replaced the tedious perusing of print journals. However, we should keep in mind that online searching is neither flawless nor simple — different content providers require different search strategies. Sometimes the retrievals are not as complete as one expects. Information providers should be constantly improving their searching abilities in order to make the task of electronic publication tracking more reliable and efficient.

  20. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  1. The Thirty-Meter Telescope project design and development phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Larry M.; Strom, Stephen E.

    2004-07-01

    The U.S. National Observatories have responded to the call of the astronomy decadal survey committee to develop a Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope by forming the AURA New Initiatives Office. Drawing on the engineering and scientific staffs of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory and the Gemini Observatory, NIO has for the past 30 months carried out studies aimed at: understanding the key science drivers for a thirty-meter telescope; developing a feasible point design that is responsive to the science goals; and identifying key technical issues that must be solved in order to successfully build such a telescope. In parallel, NIO has followed the charge of the decadal survey to identify potential private and international partners to fulfill the committee vision of a public-private partnership to build and operate this facility. NIO has now joined with two other groups -- the CELT Development Corporation (a partnership between the University of California and the California Institute of Technology) and the Association of Canadian Unviersities for Research In Astronomy (ACURA) -- to initiate the next step, the design & development (D & D) phase of a joint project that is being called the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) Project. This paper reviews the plans for the TMT D & D phase, including the organizational structure, science requirements, and plans for conceptual design studies, technology development, and site selection.

  2. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): An International Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gary H. Sanders

    2013-06-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be the first truly global ground-based optical/infrared observatory. It will initiate the era of extremely large (30-meter class) telescopes with diffraction limited performance from its vantage point in the northern hemisphere on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA. The astronomy communities of India, Canada, China, Japan and the USA are shaping its science goals, suite of instrumentation and the system design of the TMT observatory. With large and open Nasmyth-focus platforms for generations of science instruments, TMT will have the versatility and flexibility for its envisioned 50 years of forefront astronomy. The TMT design employs the filled-aperture finely-segmented primary mirror technology pioneered with the W.M. Keck 10-meter telescopes. With TMT’s 492 segments optically phased, and by employing laser guide star assisted multi-conjugate adaptive optics, TMT will achieve the full diffraction limited performance of its 30-meter aperture, enabling unprecedented wide field imaging and multi-object spectroscopy. The TMT project is a global effort of its partners with all partners contributing to the design, technology development, construction and scientific use of the observatory. TMT will extend astronomy with extremely large telescopes to all of its global communities.

  3. Multivariable parametric cost model for space and ground telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd

    2016-09-01

    Parametric cost models can be used by designers and project managers to perform relative cost comparisons between major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades; enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment; and, provide a basis for estimating total project cost between related concepts. This paper hypothesizes a single model, based on published models and engineering intuition, for both ground and space telescopes: OTA Cost (X) D (1.75 +/- 0.05) λ (-0.5 +/- 0.25) T-0.25 e (-0.04) Y Specific findings include: space telescopes cost 50X to 100X more ground telescopes; diameter is the most important CER; cost is reduced by approximately 50% every 20 years (presumably because of technology advance and process improvements); and, for space telescopes, cost associated with wavelength performance is balanced by cost associated with operating temperature. Finally, duplication only reduces cost for the manufacture of identical systems (i.e. multiple aperture sparse arrays or interferometers). And, while duplication does reduce the cost of manufacturing the mirrors of segmented primary mirror, this cost savings does not appear to manifest itself in the final primary mirror assembly (presumably because the structure for a segmented mirror is more complicated than for a monolithic mirror).

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PS1 z>5.6 quasars follow-up (Banados+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banados, E.; Venemans, B. P.; Decarli, R.; Farina, E. P.; Mazzucchelli, C.; Walter, F.; Fan, X.; Stern, D.; Schlafly, E.; Chambers, K. C.; Rix, H.-W.; Jiang, L.; McGreer, I.; Simcoe, R.; Wang, F.; Yang, J.; Morganson, E.; De Rosa, G.; Greiner, J.; Balokovic, M.; Burgett, W. S.; Cooper, T.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Jun, H. D.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Miller, D.; Schindler, J.-T.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Yang, Q.

    2017-01-01

    The photometric follow-up observations were carried out over different observing runs and different instruments. We obtained optical and near-infrared images with the MPG 2.2m/GROND, New Technology Telescope (NTT)/EFOSC2, NTT/SofI, Calar Alto (CAHA) 3.5m/Omega2000, CAHA 2.2m/CAFOS21, MMT/SWIRC), and du Pont/Retrocam; see Table 1 for details of the observations and filters used. A spectroscopic campaign was carried out using several instruments at different telescopes: EFOSC2 at the NTT telescope in La Silla, the Focal Reducer / Low-Dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), the Folded-Port Infrared Echellette (FIRE) spectrometer and the Low-Dispersion Survey Spectrograph (LDSS3) at the Baade and Clay Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) at the Keck I 10m Telescope on Mauna Kea, the Double Spectrograph (DBSP) on the 200 inch (5m) Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory (P200), the Red-Channel Spectrograph on the 6.5m MMT Telescope, the Cassegrain TWIN Spectrograph at the 3.5m Calar Alto Telescope (CAHA 3.5m), and the Multi-object Double Spectrograph (MODS) and LUCI spectrograph at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The details of the spectroscopic observations of the PS1-discovered quasars are shown in Table 5. (10 data files).

  5. The automated Palomar 60 inch telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Cenko, S Bradley; Fox, Derek B.; Moon, Dae-Sik; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kulkarni, S.R.; Henning, John R.; Guzman, C. Dani; Bonati, Marco; Smith, Roger M.; Thicksten, Robert P.; Doyle, Michael W.; Petrie, Hal L.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Anagnostou, Nathaniel L.

    2006-01-01

    We have converted the Palomar 60-inch telescope (P60) from a classical night assistant-operated telescope to a fully robotic facility. The automated system, which has been operational since September 2004, is designed for moderately fast (t

  6. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Levi, Joshua; Liepmann, Till; Hahn, Walter; Bisson, Gary; Porpora, Dan; Hadjimichael, Theo

    2016-07-01

    The optical telescope element (OTE) of the James Webb Space Telescope has now been integrated and aligned. The OTE comprises the flight mirrors and the structure that supports them - 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine steering mirrors (both housed in the aft optics subsystem). The primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror have actuators to actively control their positions during operations. This allows the requirements for aligning the OTE subsystems to be in the range of microns rather than nanometers. During OTE integration, the alignment of the major subsystems of the OTE structure and optics were controlled to ensure that, when the telescope is on orbit and at cryogenic temperatures, the active mirrors will be within the adjustment range of the actuators. Though the alignment of this flagship mission was complex and intricate, the key to a successful integration process turned out to be very basic: a clear, concise series of steps employing advanced planning, backup measurements, and cross checks that this multi-organizational team executed with a careful and methodical approach. This approach was not only critical to our own success but has implications for future space observatories.

  7. The Medium Size Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the planned next-generation instrument for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, covering a photon energy range of ~20 GeV to above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of the order of 100 telescopes of three sizes, installed at two sites in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. This contribution deals with the 12 meter Medium Size Telescopes (MST) having a single mirror (modified Davies-Cotton, DC) design. In the baseline design of the CTA arrays, 25 MSTs in the South and 15 MSTs in the North provide the necessary sensitivity for CTA in the core energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. DC-MSTs will be equipped with photomultiplier (PMT)-based cameras. Two options are available for these focal plane instruments, that will be provided by the FlashCam and the NectarCAM sub-consortia. In this contribution, a short introduction to the projects and their status is given.

  8. A Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Alberto; Arenberg, Jonathan; Baldauf, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The “Search for Life” (direct imaging of earth-like planets) will require extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. Such apertures are larger than what can be delivered to space using current or planned future launch vehicles. Building and assembling large telescopes in space is therefore likely to require not only multiple launches but importantly assembly in spce. As a result, space-based telescopes with large apertures will require major changes to our conventional telescope design and architecture.Here we report on the concept for the Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST) to demonstrates the on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of an optical telescope in space. MODEST is a proposed International Space Station (ISS demonstration that will make use of the standard Express Logistics Carriers (ELCs) and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets.MODEST will provides significant risk reduction for the next generation of space observatories, and demonstrates the technology needed to assemble a six-mirror phased telescope. Key modest features include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control to allow on-orbit optimization, and the precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high modulus, high thermal conductivity, and low thermal expansion. Mirrors built from these materials can be rapidly replicated in a highly cost effective manner, making them an excellent candidate for a low cost, high performance Optical Telescope Assembly paving the way for enabling affordable solutions for the next generation of large aperture space-based telescope.MODEST post-assembly value includes space, ground, and

  9. The Principles of Astronomical Telescope Design

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Jingquan

    2009-01-01

    Presents a summary of the author's twenty five years of experience in telescope design. This work provides a general introduction to various aspects of telescope design. It discusses the theory behind telescope design. It covers Radio, Infrared, Optical, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray wavelengths

  10. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  11. CFRP lightweight structures for extremely large telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J.

    2008-01-01

    Telescope structures are traditionally built out of steel. To improve the possibility of realizing the ambitious extremely large telescopes, materials with a higher specific stiffness and a lower coefficient of thermal expansion are needed. An important possibility is Carbon Fibre Reinforced...... Plastic (CFRP). The advantages of using CFRP for the secondary mirror support structure of the European overwhelmingly large telescope are discussed....

  12. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  13. The Ortega Telescope Andor CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, M.; Batcheldor, D.

    2012-07-01

    We present a preliminary instrument report for an Andor iKon-L 936 charge-couple device (CCD) being operated at Florida Tech's 0.8 m Ortega Telescope. This camera will replace the current Finger Lakes Instrumentation (FLI) Proline CCD. Details of the custom mount produced for this camera are presented, as is a quantitative and qualitative comparison of the new and old cameras. We find that the Andor camera has 50 times less noise than the FLI, has no significant dark current over 30 seconds, and has a smooth, regular flat field. The Andor camera will provide significantly better sensitivity for direct imaging programs and, once it can be satisfactorily tested on-sky, will become the standard imaging device on the Ortega Telescope.

  14. Telescoping phenomenon in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Mooney, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    The course of pathological gambling (PG) in women has been described as having a later age of initiation but a shorter time to problematic gambling ("telescoped"). This study examined evidence for telescoping and its relationship with comorbidities. Seventy-one treatment-seeking individuals with PG...... underwent a diagnostic interview to examine gambling behaviors, age at initiation of gambling, and time from initiation to meeting criteria for PG. The women had a higher mean age at gambling initiation compared with that of the men (mean [SD] age, 31.3 [13.0] years, compared with 22.4 [7.9] years; p = 0...... and suggests a need for greater clinical focus on the gender differences of gambling behavior....

  15. Cherenkov Telescope Array Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Lamanna, G; Contreras, J L; Knödlseder, J; Kosack, K; Neyroud, N; Aboudan, A; Arrabito, L; Barbier, C; Bastieri, D; Boisson, C; Brau-Nogué, S; Bregeon, J; Bulgarelli, A; Carosi, A; Costa, A; De Cesare, G; Reyes, R de los; Fioretti, V; Gallozzi, S; Jacquemier, J; Khelifi, B; Kocot, J; Lombardi, S; Lucarelli, F; Lyard, E; Maier, G; Massimino, P; Osborne, J P; Perri, M; Rico, J; Sanchez, D A; Satalecka, K; Siejkowski, H; Stolarczyk, T; Szepieniec, T; Testa, V; Walter, R; Ward, J E; Zoli, A

    2015-01-01

    Very High Energy gamma-ray astronomy with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is evolving towards the model of a public observatory. Handling, processing and archiving the large amount of data generated by the CTA instruments and delivering scientific products are some of the challenges in designing the CTA Data Management. The participation of scientists from within CTA Consortium and from the greater worldwide scientific community necessitates a sophisticated scientific analysis system capable of providing unified and efficient user access to data, software and computing resources. Data Management is designed to respond to three main issues: (i) the treatment and flow of data from remote telescopes; (ii) "big-data" archiving and processing; (iii) and open data access. In this communication the overall technical design of the CTA Data Management, current major developments and prototypes are presented.

  16. Highlights from the Telescope Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Telescope Array measures the properties of ultra high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We do this using a variety of techniques including an array of scintillator detectors to sample the footprint of the air shower when it reaches the Earth’s surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light of the air shower. From this we determine the energy spectrum and chemical composition of the primary particles. We also search for sources of cosmic rays and anisotropy. We have found evidence of a possible source of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the northern sky. The experiment and its most recent measurements will be discussed.

  17. The LWA1 Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingson, S W; Craig, J; Hartman, J; Dowell, J; Wolfe, C N; Clarke, T E; Hicks, B C; Kassim, N E; Ray, P S; Rickard, L J; Schinzel, F K; Weiler, K W

    2012-01-01

    LWA1 is a new radio telescope operating in the frequency range 10-88 MHz, located in central New Mexico. The telescope consists of 258 pairs of dipole-type antennas whose outputs are individually digitized and formed into beams. Simultaneously, signals from all dipoles can be recorded using one of the instrument's "all dipoles" modes, facilitating all-sky imaging. Notable features of the instrument include high intrinsic sensitivity (about 6 kJy zenith system equivalent flux density), large instantaneous bandwidth (up to 78 MHz), and 4 independently-steerable beams utilizing digital "true time delay" beamforming. This paper summarizes the design of LWA1 and its performance as determined in commissioning experiments. We describe the method currently in use for array calibration, and report on measurements of sensitivity and beamwidth.

  18. The James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  19. The Antares Undersea Neutrino Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghinolfi, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Neutrino astronomy is a very promising field of investigation representing a complementary source of information with respect to photon-astronomy. ANTARES, operating off the French Mediterranean coast, is the worlds largest operational underwater neutrino telescope. In these proceedings, in addition to a short detector description, the results of recent analysis will be discussed. The ANTARES project is an important physics experiment but also represents a bench mark for a future large detector of the km3 scale.

  20. A large fiber sensor network for an acoustic neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buis Ernst-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific prospects of detecting neutrinos with an energy close or even higher than the GKZ cut-off energy has been discussed extensively in literature. It is clear that due to their expected low flux, the detection of these ultra-high energy neutrinos (Ev > 1018 eV requires a telescope larger than 100 km3. Acoustic detection may provide a way to observe these ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos, as sound that they induce in the deep sea when neutrinos lose their energy travels undisturbed for many kilometers. To realize a large scale acoustic neutrino telescope, dedicated technology must be developed that allows for a deep sea sensor network. Fiber optic hydrophone technology provides a promising means to establish a large scale sensor network [1] with the proper sensitivity to detect the small signals from the neutrino interactions.

  1. Building the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous presentation, I reported on how the freak collapse of the NRAO 300-ft transit radio telescope led to the inclusion of $75 million for a new radio telescope in the 1989 Congressional Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act. But, this was only the beginning. NRAO was faced with challenging specifications and an unworkable schedule, but there was no design and no project team. Only one bid was even close to the Congressional appropriation. In an attempt to meet the unrealistic antenna delivery date, the contractor started construction of the foundation and fabrication of antenna members before the design was finished, leading to retrofits, redesign, and multiple delays. The antenna contractor was twice sold to other companies leading to further delays and cost escalation. In order to recoup their mounting losses, the new owners sued NRAO for $29 million for claimed design changes, and NRAO countersued demanding to be reimbursed for added project management costs and lost scientific data resulting from the seven-year delay in the completion of the telescope. Legal fees and a small net award in favor of the contractor left NRAO and the NSF with a nine million dollar bill which NSF handled by an innovative accounting adjustment.

  2. Academic Training: Deep Space Telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 February from 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber on 20, 21, 23, 24 February, TH Auditorium, bldg 4 - 3-006, on 22 February Deep Space Telescopes G. BIGNAMI / CNRS, Toulouse, F & Univ. di Pavia, I The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo's telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics thro...

  3. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  4. QUIJOTE telescope design and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Alberto; Murga, Gaizka; Etxeita, Borja; Sanquirce, Rubén; Rebolo, Rafael; Rubiño-Martin, Jose Alberto; Herreros, José-Miguel; Hoyland, Roger; Gomez, Francisca; Génova-Santos, Ricardo T.; Piccirillo, Lucio; Maffei, Bruno; Watson, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The QUIJOTE CMB experiment aims to characterize the polarization of the CMB in the frequency range 10-30 GHz and large angular scales. It will be installed in the Teide Observatory, following the projects that the Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background group has developed in the past (Tenerife experiment, IAC-Bartol experiment...) and is running at the present time (VSA, Cosmosomas). The QUIJOTE CMB experiment will consist of two telescopes which will be installed inside a unique enclosure, which is already constructed. The layout of both telescopes is based on an altazimuth mount supporting a primary and a secondary mirror disposed in a offset Gregorian Dragon scheme. The use of industrial-like fabrication techniques, such as sand-mould casting, CNC machining, and laser tracker measuring for alignment, provided the required performances for microwave observation. A fast-track construction scheme, altogether with the use of these fabrication techniques allowed designing and manufacturing the opto-mechanics of the telescope in 14 months prior to delivery for final start-up in December 2008.

  5. Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fangjun

    2011-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) will be China's first astronomical satellite. On board HXMT there are three kinds of slat-collimated telescopes, the High Energy X-ray Telescope (HE, 20-250 keV, 5000 cm^2), the Medium Energy X-ray Telescope (ME, 5-30 keV, 952 cm^2), and the Low Energy X-ray Telescope (LE, 1-15 keV, 384 cm^2).

  6. Educational activities with the Faulkes Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Roche, P.; Ross, R.

    2008-06-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN) will eventually provide access to a global network of robotic telescopes for research-based science education. Here we present the educational projects that have been undertaken using the 2-m Faulkes Telescopes in Hawaii and Australia in both the UK and Europe. These include themed observing days in which schools collaborate in their telescope sessions, the development of science portals where schools can upload and share their telescope data, and other innovative projects. Public access to these facilities will increase as IYA2009 approaches.

  7. FPGA applications for single dish activity at Medicina radio telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolin, M.; Nald, G.; Mattan, A.; Maccaferr, A.; De Biagg, M.

    FPGA technologies are gaining major attention in the recent years in the field of radio astronomy. At Medicina radio telescopes, FPGAs have been used in the last ten years for a number of purposes and in this article we will take into exam the applications developed and installed for the Medicina Single Dish 32m Antenna: these range from high performance digital signal processing to instrument control developed on top of smaller FPGAs.

  8. Observing Exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin Mark

    2011-01-01

    The search for exoplanets and characterization of their properties has seen increasing success over the last few years. In excess of 500 exoplanets are known and Kepler has approx. 1000 additional candidates. Recently, progress has been made in direct imaging planets, both from the ground and in space. This presentation will discuss the history and current state of technology used for such discoveries, and highlight the new capabilities that will be enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  9. RECENT PROGRESS IN THE PROJECT OF SPACE SOLAR TELESCOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce some process of the project of Space Solar Telescope in recent two years. The astronomic requirements have been further identified,the mission and operation requirements have been assessed, and some critical technologies have been performed. According to the time schedule, it is esti mated that the engineering model of the spacecraft would be completed and put into test operation in the end of 2004 and the spacecraft would be launched in about 2007.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  11. Herschel SPIRE FTS telescope model correction

    CERN Document Server

    Hopwood, Rosalind; Polehampton, Edward T; Valtchanov, Ivan; Benielli, Dominique; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Marchili, Nicola; Pearson, Chris P; Swinyard, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Emission from the Herschel telescope is the dominant source of radiation for the majority of SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations, despite the exceptionally low emissivity of the primary and secondary mirrors. Accurate modelling and removal of the telescope contribution is, therefore, an important and challenging aspect of FTS calibration and data reduction pipeline. A dust-contaminated telescope model with time invariant mirror emissivity was adopted before the Herschel launch. However, measured FTS spectra show a clear evolution of the telescope contribution over the mission and strong need for a correction to the standard telescope model in order to reduce residual background (of up to 7 Jy) in the final data products. Systematic changes in observations of dark sky, taken over the course of the mission, provide a measure of the evolution between observed telescope emission and the telescope model. These dark sky observations have been used to derive a time dependent correction to the tel...

  12. Aligning Astronomical Telescopes via Identification of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A proposed method of automated, precise alignment of a ground-based astronomical telescope would eliminate the need for initial manual alignment. The method, based on automated identification of known stars and other celestial objects in the telescope field of view, would also eliminate the need for an initial estimate of the aiming direction. The method does not require any equipment other than a digital imaging device such as a charge-coupled-device digital imaging camera and control computers of the telescope and camera, all of which are standard components in professional astronomical telescope systems and in high-end amateur astronomical telescope systems. The method could be implemented in software running in the telescope or camera control computer or in an external computer communicating with the telescope pointing mount and camera control computers.

  13. CFRP composite optical telescope assembly for the 1 m ULTRA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert N.; Romeo, Robert C.

    2006-06-01

    The focus of the ULTRA Project is to develop and test Ultra-Lightweight Technology for Research applications in Astronomy. The ULTRA project is a collaborative effort involving the private firm Composite Mirror Applications, Inc (CMA) and 3 universities: University of Kansas, San Diego State University, and Dartmouth College. Funding for ULTRA is predominately from a NSF three year MRI program grant to CMA and KU with additional support from CMA, KU and SDSU. The goal of the ULTRA program is to demonstrate that a viable alternative exists to traditional glass mirror and steel telescope technology by designing, fabricating and testing a research telescope constructed from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials. In particular, a 1m diameter, Cassegrain telescope optics set and optical tube assembly (OTA) are being designed and fabricated by CMA. The completed telescope will be deployed at SDSU's Mt Laguna Observatory in a refurbished structure (new dome and mount provided via KU and SDSU). We expect that a successful completion and testing of this project will lead to future use of CFRP technology in larger telescopes and segmented telescopes. This paper describes the OTA (optical tube assembly) that has been developed for the ULTRA project. The mirror technology is described in another paper in this conference. A poster describes the ULTRA project overview in more detail.

  14. Origins Space Telescope: Cosmology and Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joaquin D.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.A core science goal of the OST mission is to study the the cosmological history of star, galaxy, and structure formation into the epoch of reionization (EoR). OST will probe the birth of galaxies through warm molecular hydrogen emission during the cosmic dark ages. Utilizing the unique power of the infrared fine-structure emission lines, OST will trace the rise of metals from the first galaxies until today. It will quantify the dust enrichment history of the Universe, uncover its composition and physical conditions, reveal the first cosmic sources of dust, and probe the properties of the earliest star formation. OST will provide a detailed astrophysical probe into the condition of the intergalactic medium at z > 6 and the galaxies which dominate the epoch of reionization.

  15. Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Brian

    2016-06-01

    The key driver for a telescope's sensitivityis directly related to the size of t he mirror area that collects light from the objects being observed.The "Search for Life" via imaging of exoplanets is a mission that requires extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. The HDST envisioned for this mission would have an aperture >10 m, which is a larger payload than can be delivered to space using a single launch vehicle. Building and assembling the mirror segments enabling large telescopes will likely require multiple launches and assembly in space. The Optical Telescope Assembly for HDST is a primary mission cost driver. Enabling affordable solutions for this next generation of large aperture space-based telescope are needed.This reports on the concept for the MODEST, which demonstrates on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of a precision optical telescope in space. It will facilitate demonstration of active correction of phase and mirror shape. MODEST is proposed to be delivered to the ISS using standard Express Logistics Carriers and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets. Post-assembly value includes space, ground, and environmental studies, a testbed for new instruments, and a tool for student's exploration of space. This demonstration program for next generation mirror technology provides significant risk reduction and demonstrates the technology in a six-mirror phased telescope. Key features of the demonstration include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control that allows on-orbit optimization and demonstration of precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Ceramic Matrix Composite that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high thermal conductivity, and low thermal expansion. It has been demonstrated

  16. ESO Telescope Designer Raymond Wilson Wins Prestigious Kavli Award for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Raymond Wilson, whose pioneering optics research at ESO made today's giant telescopes possible thanks to "active optics" technology, has been awarded the 2010 Kavli Prize in astrophysics. The founder and original leader of the Optics and Telescopes Group at ESO, Wilson shares the million-dollar prize with two American scientists, Jerry Nelson and Roger Angel. The biennial prize, presented by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, the Kavli Foundation, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, was instituted in 2008 and is given to researchers who significantly advance knowledge in the fields of nanoscience, neuroscience, and astrophysics, acting as a complement to the Nobel Prize. The award is named for and funded by Fred Kavli, the Norwegian entrepreneur and phi­lanthropist who later founded the Kavlico Corpora­tion in the US - today one of the world's largest suppliers of sensors for aeronautic, automotive and industrial applications. Wilson, who joined ESO in 1972, strived to achieve optical perfection, developing the concept of active optics as a way to enhance the size of telescopic primary mirrors. It is the size of these mirrors that determines the ability of a telescope to gather light and study faint and distant objects. Before active optics, mirrors over six metres in diameter were impossible, being too heavy, costly, and likely to bend from gravity and temperature changes. The use of active optics, which preserves optimal image quality by continually adjusting the mirror's shape during observations, made lighter, thinner so-called "meniscus mirrors" possible. Wilson first led the implementation of active optics in the revolutionary New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory, and continued to develop and improve the technology until his retirement in 1993. Since then, active optics have become a standard part of modern astronomy, applied in every big telescope including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), a telescope array

  17. AST\\/RO A Small Submillimeter Telescope at the South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, A A

    2001-01-01

    Understanding of star formation in the Universe is advancing through submillimeter-wave observations of the Milky Way and other galaxies. Technological constraints on such observations require a mixture of telescope sizes and observational techniques. For some purposes, small submillimeter-wave telescopes are more sensitive than large ones. The Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO) is a small, wide-field instrument located at an excellent observatory site. By observing the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds at arcminute resolution, it provides a context for interpreting observations of distant galaxies made by large interferometric telescopes. AST/RO also provides hands-on training in submillimeter technology and allows testing of novel detector systems.

  18. Origins Space Telescope: Planet-forming disks and exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoppidan, Klaus; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the science case related to planet formation and exoplanets. Leveraging orders of magnitude of improvements in sensitivity, the Origins Telescope will reveal the path of water from the interstellar medium to the inner regions of planet-forming disks, and determine the total masses of disks around stars across the stellar mass range out to distances of 500 pc. It will measure the temperatures and search for basic chemical ingredients for life on rocky planets. Beyond this, the Origins Telescope will open a vast discovery space in the general areas of star formation, protoplanetary and debris disks, and cool exoplanets in habitable zones.

  19. Engineering and science highlights of the KAT-7 radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A. R.; Alberts, T.; Armstrong, R. P.; Barta, A.; Bauermeister, E. F.; Bester, H.; Blose, S.; Booth, R. S.; Botha, D. H.; Buchner, S. J.; Carignan, C.; Cheetham, T.; Cloete, K.; Coreejes, G.; Crida, R. C.; Cross, S. D.; Curtolo, F.; Dikgale, A.; de Villiers, M. S.; du Toit, L. J.; Esterhuyse, S. W. P.; Fanaroff, B.; Fender, R. P.; Fijalkowski, M.; Fourie, D.; Frank, B.; George, D.; Gibbs, P.; Goedhart, S.; Grobbelaar, J.; Gumede, S. C.; Herselman, P.; Hess, K. M.; Hoek, N.; Horrell, J.; Jonas, J. L.; Jordaan, J. D. B.; Julie, R.; Kapp, F.; Kotzé, P.; Kusel, T.; Langman, A.; Lehmensiek, R.; Liebenberg, D.; Liebenberg, I. J. V.; Loots, A.; Lord, R. T.; Lucero, D. M.; Ludick, J.; Macfarlane, P.; Madlavana, M.; Magnus, L.; Magozore, C.; Malan, J. A.; Manley, J. R.; Marais, L.; Marais, N.; Marais, S. J.; Maree, M.; Martens, A.; Mokone, O.; Moss, V.; Mthembu, S.; New, W.; Nicholson, G. D.; van Niekerk, P. C.; Oozeer, N.; Passmoor, S. S.; Peens-Hough, A.; Pińska, A. B.; Prozesky, P.; Rajan, S.; Ratcliffe, S.; Renil, R.; Richter, L. L.; Rosekrans, D.; Rust, A.; Schröder, A. C.; Schwardt, L. C.; Seranyane, S.; Serylak, M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Siebrits, R.; Sofeya, L.; Spann, R.; Springbok, R.; Swart, P. S.; Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L.; Theron, I. P.; Tiplady, A.; Toruvanda, O.; Tshongweni, S.; van den Heever, L.; van der Merwe, C.; van Rooyen, R.; Wakhaba, S.; Walker, A. L.; Welz, M.; Williams, L.; Wolleben, M.; Woudt, P. A.; Young, N. J.; Zwart, J. T. L.

    2016-08-01

    The construction of the seven-dish Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7) array in the Karoo region of the Northern Cape in South Africa was intended primarily as an engineering prototype for technologies and techniques applicable to the MeerKAT telescope. This paper looks at the main engineering and scientific highlights from this effort, and discusses their applicability to both MeerKAT and other next-generation radio telescopes. In particular, we found that the composite dish surface works well, but it becomes complicated to fabricate for a dish lacking circular symmetry; the Stirling cycle cryogenic system with ion pump to achieve vacuum works but demands much higher maintenance than an equivalent Gifford-McMahon cycle system; the ROACH (Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware)-based correlator with SPEAD (Streaming Protocol for Exchanging Astronomical Data) protocol data transfer works very well and KATCP (Karoo Array Telescope Control Protocol) control protocol has proven very flexible and convenient. KAT-7 has also been used for scientific observations where it has a niche in mapping low surface-brightness continuum sources, some extended H I haloes and OH masers in star-forming regions. It can also be used to monitor continuum source variability, observe pulsars, and make Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations.

  20. An outdoor test facility for the Cherenkov Telescope Array mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Medina, M C; Maya, J; Mancilla, A; Larrarte, J J; Rasztocky, E; Benitez, M; Dipold, J; Platino, M

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescopes Array (CTA) is planned to be an Observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy and will consist of several tens of telescopes which account for a reflective surface of more than 10000 m$^2$. The mirrors of these telescopes will be formed by a set of facets. Different technological solutions, for a fast and cost efficient production of light-weight mirror facets are under test inside the CTA Consortium. Most of them involve composite structures whose behavior under real observing conditions is not yet fully tested. An outdoor test facility has been built in one of the candidate sites for CTA, in Argentina (San Antonio de los Cobres [SAC], 3600m a.s.l) in order to monitor the optical and mechanical properties of these facets exposed to the local atmospheric conditions for a given period of time. In this work we present the preliminary results of the first Middle Size Telescope (MST) mirror-monitoring campaign, started in 2013.

  1. Real-time vibration compensation for large telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, M.; Pott, J.-U.; Sawodny, O.; Herbst, T.; Kürster, M.

    2014-08-01

    We compare different strategies for minimizing the effects of telescope vibrations to the differential piston (optical pathway difference) for the Near-InfraRed/Visible Adaptive Camera and INterferometer for Astronomy (LINC-NIRVANA) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) using an accelerometer feedforward compensation approach. We summarize, why this technology is important for LINC-NIRVANA, and also for future telescopes and already existing instruments. The main objective is outlining a solution for the estimation problem in general and its specifics at the LBT. Emphasis is put on realistic evaluation of the used algorithms in the laboratory, such that predictions for the expected performance at the LBT can be made. Model-based estimation and broad-band filtering techniques can be used to solve the estimation task, and the differences are discussed. Simulation results and measurements are shown to motivate our choice of the estimation algorithm for LINC-NIRVANA. The laboratory setup is aimed at imitating the vibration behaviour at the LBT in general, and the M2 as main contributor in particular. For our measurements, we introduce a disturbance time series which has a frequency spectrum comparable to what can be measured at the LBT on a typical night. The controllers' ability to suppress vibrations in the critical frequency range of 8-60 Hz is demonstrated. The experimental results are promising, indicating the ability to suppress differential piston induced by telescope vibrations by a factor of about 5 (rms), which is significantly better than any currently commissioned system.

  2. The control software for the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlati, A.; Buttu, M.; Melis, A.; Migoni, C.; Poppi, S.; Righini, S.

    2012-09-01

    The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a new 64-meter shaped antenna designed to carry out observations up to 100 GHz. This large instrument has been built in Sardinia, 35 km north of Cagliari, and is now facing the technical commissioning phase. This paper describes the architecture, the implementation solutions and the development status of NURAGHE, the SRT control software. Aim of the project was to produce a software which is reliable, easy to keep up to date and flexible against other telescopes. The most ambitious goal will be to install NURAGHE at all the three italian radio telescopes, allowing the astronomers to access these facilities through a common interface with very limited extra effort. We give a description of all the control software subsystems (servo systems, backends, receivers, etc.) focusing on the resulting design, which is based on the ACS (Alma Common Software) patterns and comes from linux-based, LGPL, Object-Oriented development technologies. We also illustrate how NURAGHE deals with higher level requirements, coming from the telescope management or from the system users.

  3. Analysis of wavefront reconstruction in 8 meter ring solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yichun; Jin, Zhenyu

    2016-07-01

    Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) is the next generation infrared and optical solar telescope of China, which is proposed and pushed by the solar astronomy community of China and listed into the National Plans of Major Science and Technology Infrastructures. CGST is currently proposed to be an 8 meter Ring Solar Telescope (RST) with width of 1 meter, the hollow and symmetric structure of such an annular aperture facilitates the thermal control and high precision magnetic field measurement for a solar telescope. Adaptive optics (AO) is an indispensable tool of RST to obtain diffraction limited observations. How to realize AO involved wavefront sensing and correcting, and the degree of compensating in a narrow annular aperture is the primary problem of AO implementation of RST. Wavefront reconstruction involved problems of RST are first investigated and discussed in this paper using end to end simulation based on Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing (SHWFS). The simulation results show that performance of zonal reconstruction with measurement noise no more than 0.05 arc sec can meets the requirement of RST for diffraction-limited imaging at wavelength of 1μm, which satisfies most science cases of RST in near infrared waveband.

  4. The LATT way towards large active primaries for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Biasi, Roberto; Patauner, Christian; Gallieni, Daniele; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; d'Amato, Francesco; Pucci, Mauro; Duò, Fabrizio; Vettore, Christian; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The Large Aperture Telescope Technology (LATT) goes beyond the current paradigm of future space telescopes, based on a deformable mirror in the pupil relay. Through the LATT project we demonstrated the concept of a low-weight active primary mirror, whose working principle and control strategy benefit from two decades of advances in adaptive optics for ground-based telescopes. We developed a forty centimeter spherical mirror prototype, with an areal density lower than 17 kg/m2, controlled through contactless voice coil actuators with co-located capacitive position sensors. The prototype was subjected to thermo-vacuum, vibration and optical tests, to push its technical readiness toward level 5. In this paper we present the background and the outcomes of the LATT activities under ESA contract (TRP programme), exploring the concept of a lightweight active primary mirror for space telescopes. Active primaries will open the way to very large segmented apertures, actively shaped, which can be lightweight, deployable and accurately phased once in flight.

  5. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2015-01-01

    A high resolution (σ∼2μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. The telescope consists of six monolithic active pixel sensor planes (Mimosa26) with a pixel pitch of 18.4 \\mu m and thinned down to 50 \\mu m. The excellent resolution, readout rate and DAQ integration capabilities made the telescope a primary test beam tool for many groups including several CERN based experiments. Within the European detector infrastructure project AIDA the test beam telescope is being further extended in terms of cooling and powering infrastructure, read-out speed, area of acceptance, and precision. In order to provide a system optimized for the different requirements by the user community a combination of various state-of-the-art pixel technologies is foreseen. Furthermore, new central dead-time-free trigger logic unit (TLU) has been developed to provide LHC-speed response with one-trigger-per-particle operating mode and a synchronous clock for all conn...

  6. Lunar-based optical telescopes: Planning astronomical tools of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchey, J. D.; Nein, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    A succession of optical telescopes, ranging in aperture from 1 to 16 m or more, can be deployed and operated on the lunar surface over the next half-century. These candidates to succeed NASA's Great Observatories would capitalize on the unique observational advantages offered by the Moon. The Lunar Telescope Working Group and the LUTE Task Team of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have assessed the feasibility of developing and deploying these facilities. Studies include the 16-m Large Lunar Telescope (LLT); the Lunar Cluster Telescope Experiment (LCTE), a 4-m precursor to the LLT; the 2-m Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT); and its precursor, the 1-m Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE). The feasibility of developing and deploying each telescope was assessed and system requirements and options for supporting technologies, subsystems, transportation, and operations were detailed. Influences of lunar environment factors and site selection on telescope design and operation were evaluated, and design approaches and key tradeoffs were established. This paper provides an overview of the study results. Design concepts and brief system descriptions are provided, including subsystem and mission options selected for the concepts.

  7. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-07-30

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  8. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Schüler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1, the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  9. Status of the Cherenkov Telescope Array's Large Size Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Cortina, J

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory, will be deployed over two sites in the two hemispheres. Both sites will be equipped with four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), which are crucial to achieve the science goals of CTA in the 20-200 GeV energy range. Each LST is equipped with a primary tessellated mirror dish of 23 m diameter, supported by a structure made mainly of carbon fibre reinforced plastic tubes and aluminum joints. This solution guarantees light weight (around 100 tons), essential for fast repositioning to any position in the sky in <20 seconds. The camera is composed of 1855 PMTs and embeds the control, readout and trigger electronics. The detailed design is now complete and production of the first LST, which will serve as a prototype for the remaining seven, is well underway. In 2016 the first LST will be installed at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the Canary island of La Palma (Spain). In this talk we will outline the technical solutions adopted to fulfill the design requirem...

  10. Chinese Large Optic/IR Telescope (LOT): planning for the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiang-qun; Zhu, Yong-tian

    2016-08-01

    Chinese astronomical community has suggested to construct a high resolution precision and wide field survey of universal optical / infrared telescope, suitable for a wide range of cutting-edge scientific research subject. The telescope diameter is 12 meters, and it is composed of 84 pieces of hexagonal mirrors. After the completion, it could be a world's largest telescope. Its wide field survey function will be work together with the 30 meters telescope in the near future on the observation of complementary. The telescope optical system adopted innovative design ideas, its multiple focuses can achieve rapid switching; its atmospheric dispersion corrector lens-prism can correct aberration also, and with the advantage of simple structure; two layers of Nasmyth platform can be placed more scientific instruments. LAMOST, a Chinese large spectrum survey telescope has been built and put into operation many years, it has successfully developed the two segmented optical mirrors and one of them is with deformation of thin mirror active optical technology, as well as the batch grinding hexagonal off-axis mirror technology developed in recent years, for construction of the 12 meters telescope laid a good technical foundation.

  11. Prototyping the graphical user interface for the operator of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, I.; Oya, I.; Schwarz, J.; Pietriga, E.

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a planned gamma-ray observatory. CTA will incorporate about 100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at a Southern site, and about 20 in the North. Previous IACT experiments have used up to five telescopes. Subsequently, the design of a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operator of CTA involves new challenges. We present a GUI prototype, the concept for which is being developed in collaboration with experts from the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). The prototype is based on Web technology; it incorporates a Python web server, Web Sockets and graphics generated with the d3.js Javascript library.

  12. Prototyping the graphical user interface for the operator of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeh, Iftach; Schwarz, Joseph; Pietriga, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a planned gamma-ray observatory. CTA will incorporate about 100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at a Southern site, and about 20 in the North. Previous IACT experiments have used up to five telescopes. Subsequently, the design of a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operator of CTA involves new challenges. We present a GUI prototype, the concept for which is being developed in collaboration with experts from the field of Human-Computer Interaction. The prototype is based on Web technology; it incorporates a Python web server, Web Sockets and graphics generated with the d3.js Javascript library.

  13. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matt; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark,Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance.

  14. The ASTRI Project: a mini-array of dual-mirror small Cherenkov telescopes for CTA

    CERN Document Server

    La Palombara, N; Antonelli, L A; Bastieri, D; Bellassai, G; Belluso, M; Bigongiari, C; Billotta, S; Biondo, B; Bonanno, G; Bonnoli, G; Bruno, P; Bulgarelli, A; Canestrari, R; Capalbi, M; Caraveo, P; Carosi, A; Cascone, E; Catalano, O; Cereda, M; Conconi, P; Conforti, V; Cusumano, G; De Caprio, V; De Luca, A; Di Paola, A; Di Pierro, F; Fantinel, D; Fiorini, M; Fugazza, D; Gardiol, D; Ghigo, M; Gianotti, F; Giarrusso, S; Giro, E; Grillo, A; Impiombato, D; Incorvaia, S; La Barbera, A; La Parola, V; La Rosa, G; Lessio, L; Leto, G; Lombardi, S; Lucarelli, F; Maccarone, M C; Malaguti, G; Malaspina, G; Mangano, V; Marano, D; Martinetti, E; Millul, R; Mineo, T; Mistó, A; Morello, C; Morlino, G; Panzera, M R; Pareschi, G; Rodeghiero, G; Romano, P; Russo, F; Sacco, B; Sartore, N; Schwarz, J; Segreto, A; Sironi, G; Sottile, G; Stamerra, A; Strazzeri, E; Stringhetti, L; Tagliaferri, G; Testa, V; Timpanaro, M C; Toso, G; Tosti, G; Trifoglio, M; Vallania, P; Vercellone, S; Zitelli, V

    2013-01-01

    ASTRI is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, which aims to develop an end-to-end prototype of the CTA small-size telescope. The proposed design is characterized by a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder configuration and a camera based on Silicon photo-multipliers, two challenging but innovative technological solutions which will be adopted for the first time on a Cherenkov telescope. Here we describe the current status of the project, the expected performance and the possibility to realize a mini-array composed by a few small-size telescopes, which shall be placed at the final CTA Southern Site.

  15. Simulating x-ray telescopes with McXtrace: a case study of ATHENA's optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Desiree D. M.; Knudsen, Erik B.; Westergaard, Niels J.; Christensen, Finn E.; Massahi, Sonny; Shortt, Brian; Spiga, Daniele; Solstad, Mathias; Lefmann, Kim

    2016-07-01

    We use the X-ray ray-tracing package McXtrace to simulate the performance of X-ray telescopes based on Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) technologies. We use as reference the design of the optics of the planned X-ray mission Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA) which is designed as a single X-ray telescope populated with stacked SPO substrates forming mirror modules to focus X-ray photons. We show that is possible to simulate in detail the SPO pores and qualify the use of McXtrace for in-depth analysis of in-orbit performance and laboratory X-ray test results.

  16. Detectors for the space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, T.

    1978-01-01

    This review of Space Telescope (ST) detectors is divided into two parts. The first part gives short summaries of detector programs carried out during the final planning stage (Phase B) of the ST and discusses such detectors as Photicon, the MAMA detectors, the CODACON, the University of Maryland ICCD, the Goddard Space Flight Center ICCD, and the 70 mm SEC TV sensor. The second part describes the detectors selected for the first ST flight, including the wide field/planetary camera, the faint object and high resolution spectrographs, and the high speed photometer.

  17. Cosmography with the Einstein Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyaprakash, B S; Broeck, Chris Van Den

    2009-01-01

    Einstein Telescope (ET) is a 3rd generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector that is currently undergoing a design study. ET can detect millions of compact binary mergers up to redshifts 2-8. A small fraction of mergers might be observed in coincidence as gamma-ray bursts, helping to measure both the luminosity distance and red-shift to the source. By fitting these measured values to a cosmological model, it should be possible to accurately infer the dark energy equation-of-state, dark matter and dark energy density parameters. ET could, therefore, herald a new era in cosmology.

  18. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    General, speeches were delivered by the President of the ESO Council and the President of Chile. The speakers praised the great achievement of bringing the very complex, high-technology VLT project this far so successfully and also the wonderful new opportunities for front-line research with this new facility. This would not have been possible without excellent cooperation between the many parties to this project, individuals as well as research institutes, companies and governments, all working towards a common goal. The ceremony was concluded with a discourse on "Understanding the Universe" by Physics Nobel Prize winner, Professor Carlo Rubbia, former Director of CERN. At the end of the day, the President of the ESO Council, the ESO Director General and the Heads of Delegations had the opportunity to witness an observing session with the UT1 from the VLT Control Room. The 300 other guests followed this event via internal video broadcast. Mapuche names for the Unit Telescopes It had long been ESO's intention to provide "real" names to the four VLT Unit Telescopes, to replace the current, somewhat dry and technical designations as UT1 to UT4. Four meaningful names of objects in the sky in the Mapuche language were chosen. This indigeneous people lives mostly in the area south of Santiago de Chile. An essay contest was arranged in this connection among schoolchildren of the Chilean II Region of which Antofagasta is the capital to write about the implications of these names. It drew many excellent entries dealing with the rich cultural heritage of ESO's host country. The jury was unanimous in its choice of the winning essay. This was submitted by 17-year old Jorssy Albanez Castilla from Chuquicamata near the city of Calama. She received the prize, an amateur telescope, during the Paranal Inauguration. Henceforth, the four Unit Telescopes will be known as ANTU (UT1; pronounced an-too ; The Sun), KUEYEN (UT2; qua-yen , like in "quake"; The Moon), MELIPAL (UT3; me-li-pal ; The

  19. Dynamic Model and Analysis of Asymmetric Telescopic Wing for Morphing Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Morphing aircraft has been the research hot topics of new concept aircrafts in aerospace engineering. Telescopic wing is an important morphing technology for morphing aircraft. This paper describes the dynamic equations and kinematic equations based on theorem of momentum and theorem of moment of momentum, which are available for all morphing aircrafts. Meanwhile,as simplified , dynamic equations for rectangular telescopic wing are presented. In order to avoid the complexity using aileron to ...

  20. The telescope control of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov telescope Array: hardware and software design architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, Elisa; Cascone, Enrico; Schwarz, Joseph; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Aisa, Damiano; Aisa, Simone; Bagaglia, Marco; Busatta, Andrea; Campeggi, Carlo; Cefala, Marco; Farnesini, Lucio; Giacomel, Stefano; Marchiori, Gianpiero; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Piluso, Antonfranco

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF). One of its aims is to develop, within the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) framework, an end-to-end small-sized telescope prototype in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) in order to investigate the energy range E ~ 1-100 TeV. A long-term goal of the ASTRI program is the production of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array composed of seven SST-2M telescopes. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, is seen as a standalone system that needs only network and power connections to work. The software system that is being developed to control the prototype is the base for the Mini-Array Software System (MASS), which has the task to make possible the operation of both the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and the ASTRI/CTA mini-array. The scope of this contribution is to give an overview of the hardware and software architecture adopted for the ASTRI SST- 2M prototype, showing how to apply state of the art industrial technologies to telescope control and monitoring systems.

  1. Development of a SiPM Camera for a Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Otte, A N; Dickinson, H.; Funk, S.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, C.A.; Karn, P.; Meagher, K.; Naoya, H.; Nguyen, T.; Okumura, A.; Santander, M.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Stier, A.; Tajima, H.; Tibaldo, L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wakely, S.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the development of a novel 11328 pixel silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) camera for use with a ground-based Cherenkov telescope with Schwarzschild-Couder optics as a possible medium-sized telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The finely pixelated camera samples air-shower images with more than twice the optical resolution of cameras that are used in current Cherenkov telescopes. Advantages of the higher resolution will be a better event reconstruction yielding improved background suppression and angular resolution of the reconstructed gamma-ray events, which is crucial in morphology studies of, for example, Galactic particle accelerators and the search for gamma-ray halos around extragalactic sources. Packing such a large number of pixels into an area of only half a square meter and having a fast readout directly attached to the back of the sensors is a challenging task. For the prototype camera development, SiPMs from Hamamatsu with through silicon via (TSV) technology are used. We give ...

  2. Corrector systems for cassegrain telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R N

    1968-02-01

    Most modern reflecting telescopes have relative apertures of about f/3 and f/8 for the primary and first secondary foci in accordance with the suggestions of Bowen. The angular field which can be used at the first secondary focus is limited by the size of available plates for large instruments but can approach +/-1 degrees for smaller systems. The factors influencing the choice of the field corrector system in the first secondary focus are discussed. It is an important point whether the Ritchey-Chrétien form of the mirrors is strictly maintained-giving an optimum field without the corrector-or whether the aspheric constants are allowed to vary as free parameters. The differences are small but significant. The performance of a number of secondary focus correctors consisting of one, two, and three elements is discussed, spot diagrams being given in each case. Systems with fixed Ritchey-Chrétien mirror constants are inferior to those with free mirror constants. Test methods for the manufacture of the mirrors of telescopes of this type are compared. A doublet type corrector is suitable for compensation testing of primary mirrors or for secondaries tested from the back, but the testing of the latter from the front is more difficult. Several possible techniques are discussed.

  3. Far Ultraviolot Space Telescope (FAUST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope is a compact, wide field-of-view, far ultraviolet instrument designed for observations of extended and point sources of astronomical interest. It was originally used in sounding rocket work by both French and American investigators. The instrument was modified for flight on the space shuttle and flew on the Spacelab 1 mission as a joint effort between the Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale and the University of California, Berkeley. The prime experiment objective of this telescope on the Atmospheric Laboratory Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission is to observe faint astronomical sources in the far ultraviolet with sensitivities far higher than previously available. The experiment will cover the 1300 to 1800 A band, which is inaccessible to observers on earth. The observing program during the mission consists of obtaining deep sky images during spacecraft nighttime. The targets will include hot stars and nebulae in our own galaxy, faint diffuse galactic features similar to the cirrus clouds seen by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), large nearby galaxies, nearby clusters of galaxies, and objects of cosmological interest such as quasars and the diffuse far ultraviolet background.

  4. ANTARES: An Undersea Neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and ${Abyss}$ environmental RESearch) deep-sea neutrino telescope is designed to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. Neutrinos are unique probes of the high energy universe; being neutral they are not deflected by magnetic fields and interacting weakly they can readily escape from the densest regions of the universe. Potential sources of neutrino are galactic (e.g supernova remnants, micro-quasars) and extra-galactic (e.g active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursters). Annihilation of dark matter particles in the Sun or Galactic Centre is another well motivated potential source of extra terrestrial neutrinos. The ANTARES detector is located 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475m in the Mediterranean Sea. Being located in the Northern hemisphere it studies the Southern sky and in particular has the Galactic Centre in its field of view. Since 2006, the detector has operated continuously in a partial configuration. The detector was compl...

  5. Merz telescopes a global heritage worth preserving

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises a fascinating collection of contributions on the Merz telescopes in Italy that collectively offer the first survey on historical large refracting telescopes in the country, drawing on original documents and photographs. It opens with a general introduction on the importance of Merz telescopes in the history of astronomy and analyses of the local and international contexts in which the telescopes were made. After examination of an example of the interaction between the maker and the astronomer in the construction and maintenance of these refractors, the history of the Merz telescopes at the main Italian observatories in the nineteenth century is described in detail. Expert testimony is also provided on how these telescopes were successfully used until the second half of the twentieth century for research purposes, thus proving their excellent optical qualities.

  6. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  7. Parameterized Telescoping Proves Algebraic Independence of Sums

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Usually creative telescoping is used to derive recurrences for sums. In this article we show that the non-existence of a creative telescoping solution, and more generally, of a parameterized telescoping solution, proves algebraic independence of certain types of sums. Combining this fact with summation-theory shows transcendence of whole classes of sums. Moreover, this result throws new light on the question why, e.g., Zeilberger's algorithm fails to find a recurrence with minimal order.

  8. Advanced Mirror Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project matures critical technologies required to enable ultra-stable 4-m-or-larger monolithic or segmented ultraviolet, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) space telescope primary-mirror assemblies for general astrophysics and ultra-high-contrast observations of exoplanets.

  9. Resolution studies with the DATURA beam telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We present resolution studies carried out with the DATURA beam telescope, which belongs to the family of EUDET-type beam telescopes. The EUDET-type beam telescopes make use of CMOS MIMOSA 26 pixel detectors for particle tracking allowing for precise characterisation of particle sensing devices. A profound understanding of the performance of the beam telescope as a whole is obtained by a detailed characterisation of the sensors themselves. We extract the differential intrinsic resolution as measured in a MIMOSA 26 sensor using an iterative pull method and show various clustersize dependent quantities as the residual distribution, the intra-pixel residual width distribution and the intra-pixel frequency distribution.

  10. Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Span`o, P; Norrie, C J; Cunningham, C R; Strassmeier, K G; Bianco, A; Blanche, P A; Bougoin, M; Ghigo, M; Hartmann, P; Zago, L; Atad-Ettedgui, E; Delabre, B; Dekker, H; Melozzi, M; Snyders, B; Takke, R; Walker, D D

    2006-01-01

    We describe and summarize the optical challenges for future instrumentation for Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). Knowing the complex instrumental requirements is crucial for the successful design of 30-60m aperture telescopes. After all, the success of ELTs will heavily rely on its instrumentation and this, in turn, will depend on the ability to produce large and ultra-precise optical components like light-weight mirrors, aspheric lenses, segmented filters, and large gratings. New materials and manufacturing processes are currently under study, both at research institutes and in industry. In the present paper, we report on its progress with particular emphasize on volume-phase-holographic gratings, photochromic materials, sintered silicon-carbide mirrors, ion-beam figuring, ultra-precision surfaces, and free-form optics. All are promising technologies opening new degrees of freedom to optical designers. New optronic-mechanical systems will enable efficient use of the very large focal planes. We also provide...

  11. Dark Matter on small scales; Telescopes on large scales

    CERN Document Server

    Gilmore, G

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent progress in observational determination of the properties of dark matter on small astrophysical scales, and progress towards the European Extremely Large Telescope. Current results suggest some surprises: the central DM density profile is typically cored, not cusped, with scale sizes never less than a few hundred pc; the central densities are typically 10-20GeV/cc; no galaxy is found with a dark mass halo less massive than $\\sim5.10^7M_{\\odot}$. We are discovering many more dSphs, which we are analysing to test the generality of these results. The European Extremely Large Telescope Design Study is going forward well, supported by an outstanding scientific case, and founded on detailed industrial studies of the technological requirements.

  12. The refurbished 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope at Kitt Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; Mattox, J. R.; McGruder, C. H.; Walter, D. K.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.

    2003-05-01

    In 1999, the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) announced the opportunity to "assume responsibility for operation of the Kitt Peak 1.3-m telescope." A group of astronomers/educators from institutions across the USA successfully proposed to refurbish and automate the observatory and operate it as the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT). The RCT Consortium has been established between Francis Marion University, the Planetary Science Institute, South Carolina State University, Villanova University, and Western Kentucky University to oversee the refurbishment and automation, and operate the telescope to successfully achieve its research and education goals. The RCT was commissioned in 1964 as the Remotely Controlled Telescope and utilized that epoch's computing and communication technology to provide unattended operation from NOAO headquarters in Tucson, about 90 km distant. The original incarnation of the RCT allowed astronomers to gain experience in the remote operation of observatories in order to both develop techniques for operating space-based telescopes and to increase the productivity of ground-based telescopes (Maran 1967 Science 158, 867). While these tests worked as well as could be expected given the technology of the time, the telescope and observatory were refitted in 1969 for classical, attended operations. The second life of the 1.3-m was as a heavily subscribed KPNO visitor facility, first with photoelectric photometers and later as an important testbed for the newest infrared instrumentation. In 1996 the telescope was removed from the list of available KPNO facilities and stood idle until the RCT Consortium hired EOS Technologies, Inc. to refurbish and automate the observatory. In winter 2003 most of the observatory systems have been refurbished and the commissioning has begun. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG58762.

  13. Discovery Channel Telescope, Progress and Status, September 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bida, T. A.; Millis, R. L.; Smith, B. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Wiecha, O. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope being built at a new site near Happy Jack, in northern Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time- variable targets. The telescope will have Ritchey-Chretien and Nasmyth configurations for optical/IR imaging and spectroscopy. Formal groundbreaking for the DCT at the Happy Jack site occurred on 12 July 2005. Construction of major facility elements will commence in earnest in September 2005. An extended site-testing campaign of the astronomical and environmental qualities at the Happy Jack site was conducted from January 2003-October 2004. Differential image motion observations on 117 nights gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, with a first-quartile average of 0.62 arcsec FWHM. The use permit securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest was issued in November 2004, and site preparation including construction of the access road was completed in June 2005. The ultra-low-expansion (ULE) meniscus primary mirror in fabrication at Corning Glass has been recently slump-formed to the prescribed radius-of-curvature. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology, and e2v Technologies have completed in-depth conceptual designs of the optics, mount, facility, and mosaic focal plane, respectively, the results of which were subjected to a formal review in July, 2004. The detailed design of the telescope facility was recently completed by Lowell Observatory and M3 in preparation for the initial construction phase in fall 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. An additional partner can be accomodated

  14. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  15. COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, N Z; Blain, A W; Calzetti, D; Comastri, A; Capak, P; Carilli, C; Carlstrom, J E; Carollo, C M; Colbert, J; Daddi, E; Ellis, Richard S; Elvis, M; Ewald, S P; Fall, M; Franceschini, A; Giavalisco, M; Green, W; Griffiths, R E; Guzzo, L; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Kneib, J P; Koda, J; Koekemoer, A; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S; Liu, C T; McCracken, H J; Massey, R; Mellier, Y; Miyazaki, S; Mobasher, B; Mould, J; Norman, C; Réfrégier, A; Renzini, A; Rhodes, J; Rich, M; Sanders, D B; Schiminovich, D; Schinnerer, E; Scodeggio, M; Sheth, K; Shopbell, P L; Taniguchi, Y; Tyson, N; Urry, C M; Van Waerbeke, L; Vettolani, P; White, S D M; Yan, L

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) was initiated with an extensive allocation (590 orbits in Cycles 12-13) using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for high resolution imaging. Here we review the characteristics of the HST imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and parallel observations with NICMOS and WFPC2. A square field (1.8$\\sq$\\deg) has been imaged with single-orbit ACS I-F814W exposures with 50% completeness for sources 0.5\\arcsec in diameter at I$_{AB} $ = 26.0 mag. The ACS imaging is a key part of the COSMOS survey, providing very high sensitivity and high resolution (0.09\\arcsec FWHM, 0.05\\arcsec pixels) imaging and detecting a million objects. These images yield resolved morphologies for several hundred thousand galaxies. The small HST PSF also provides greatly enhanced sensitivity for weak lensing investigations of the dark matter distribution.

  16. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  17. The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Montaruli, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    ANTARES is the first undersea neutrino telescope. It is in its complete configuration since May 2008 at about 2.5 km below the sea surface close to Marseille. Data from 12 lines are being analyzed and are producing first results. Here we discuss first analysis results for 5 lines and 10 lines, and we also comment on the performance of the full detector. We show that the detector has capabilities for discriminating upgoing neutrino events from the much larger amount of downgoing atmospheric muons and that data and simulation are in good agreement. We then discuss the physics reach of the detector for what concerns point-like source and dark matter searches.

  18. Can Radio Telescopes Find Axions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    axions. Now scientists Katharine Kelley and Peter Quinn at ICRAR, University of Western Australia, have explored how we might use next-generation radio telescopes to search for photons that were created by axions interacting with the magnetic fields of our galaxy.Hope for Next-Gen TelescopesPotential axion coupling strengths vs. mass (click for a closer look). The axion mass is thought to lie between a eV and a meV; two theoretical models are shown with dashed lines. The plot shows the sensitivity of the upcoming SKA and its precursors, ASKAP and MEERKAT. [KelleyQuinn 2017]By using a simple galactic halo model and reasonable assumptions for the central galactic magnetic field even taking into account the time dependence of the field Kelley and Quinn estimate the radio-frequency power density that we would observe at Earth from axions being converted to photons within the Milky Ways magnetic field.The authors then compare this signature to the detection capabilities of upcoming radio telescope arrays. They show that the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and its precursors should have the capability to detect signs of axions across large parts of parameter space.Kelley and Quinn conclude that theres good cause for optimism about future radio telescopes ability to detect axions. And if we did succeed in making a detection, it would be a triumph for both particle physics and astrophysics, finally providing an explanation for the universes dark matter.CitationKatharine Kelley and P. J. Quinn 2017 ApJL 845 L4. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa808d

  19. Recent Results from Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, M

    2015-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is an experiment to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). TA's recent results, the energy spectrum and anisotropy based on the 6-year surface array data, and the primary composition obtained from the shower maximum Xmax are reported. The spectrum demonstrates a clear dip and cutoff. The shape of the spectrum is well described by the energy loss of extra-galactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Above the cutoff, a medium-scale (20 degrees radius) flux enhancement was observed near the Ursa-Major. A chance probability of creating this hotspot from the isotropic flux is 4.0 sigma. The measured Xmax is consistent with the primary being proton or light nuclei for energies 10^18.2 eV - 10^19.2 eV.

  20. Cosmography with the Einstein Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyaprakash, B S [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Schutz, B F [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, The Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, Golm, D-14476 (Germany); Van Den Broeck, C, E-mail: B.Sathyaprakash@astro.cf.ac.u, E-mail: B.F.Schutz@aei.mpg.d, E-mail: vdbroeck@nikhef.n [Nikhef - National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-11-07

    The Einstein Telescope, a third-generation gravitational-wave detector under a design study, could detect millions of binary neutron star inspirals each year. A small fraction of these events might be observed as gamma-ray bursts, helping to measure both the luminosity distance D{sub L} to and redshift z of the source. By fitting these measured values of D{sub L} and z to a cosmological model, it would be possible to infer the dark energy equation of state to within 1.5% without the need to correct for errors in D{sub L} caused by weak lensing. This compares favourably with 0.3-10% accuracy that can be achieved with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (where weak lensing will need to be dealt with) as well as with dedicated dark energy missions that have been proposed, where 3.5-11% uncertainty is expected.

  1. NESTOR Deep Sea Neutrino Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    NESTOR Collaboration; Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Bourlis, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Leisos, A.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris-Polikalas, A.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-01-01

    One module of NESTOR, the Mediterranean deep-sea neutrino telescope, was deployed at a depth of 4000m, 14km off the Sapienza Island, off the South West coast of Greece. The deployment site provides excellent environmental characteristics. The deployed NESTOR module is constructed as a hexagonal star like latticed titanium star with 12 Optical Modules and an one-meter diameter titanium sphere which houses the electronics. Power and data were transferred through a 30km electro-optical cable to the shore laboratory. In this report we describe briefly the detector and the detector electronics and discuss the first physics data acquired and give the zenith angular distribution of the reconstructed muons.

  2. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  3. Diffractive X-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted space- time in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  4. Zero CTE Glass in the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John

    2008-01-01

    Orbiting high above the turbulence of the Earth's atmosphere, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided breathtaking views of astronomical objects never before seen in such detail. The steady diffraction-limited images allow this medium-size telescope to reach faint galaxies fainter than 30th stellar magnitude. Some of these galaxies are seen as early as 2 billion years after the Big Bang in a 13.7 billion year old universe. Up until recently, astronomers assumed that all of the laws of physics and astronomy applied back then as they do today. Now, using the discovery that certain supernovae are "standard candles," astronomers have found that the universe is expanding faster today than it was back then: the universe is accelerating in its expansion. The Hubble Space Telescope is a two-mirror Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 2.4m aperture in low earth orbit. The mirrors are made of Ultra Low Expansion (ULE) glass by Corning Glass Works. This material allows rapid figuring and outstanding performance in space astronomy applications. The paper describes how the primary mirror was mis-figured in manufacturing and later corrected in orbit. Outstanding astronomical images taken over the last 17 years show how the application of this new technology has advanced our knowledge of the universe. Not only has the acceleration of the expansion been discovered, the excellent imaging capability of HST has allowed gravitational lensing to become a tool to study the distribution of dark matter and dark energy in distant clusters of galaxies. The HST has touched practically every field of astronomy enabling astronomers to solve many long-standing puzzles. It will be a long time until the end of the universe when the density is near zero and all of the stars have long since evaporated. It is remarkable that humankind has found the technology and developed the ability to interpret the measurements in order to understand this dramatic age we live in.

  5. The Brazilian Tunable Filter Imager for the SOAR telescope

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Cláudia Mendes; Quint, Bruno; Andrade, Denis; Ferrari, Fabricio; Laporte, Rene; Ramos, Giseli de A; Guzman, Christian Dani; Cavalcanti, Luiz; de Calasans, Alvaro; Fernandez, Javier Ramirez; Castañeda, Edna Carolina Gutierrez; Jones, Damien; Fontes, Fernando Luis; Molina, Ana Maria; Fialho, Fábio; Plana, Henri; Jablonski, Francisco J; Reitano, Luiz; Daigle, Olivier; Scarano, Sergio; Amram, Philippe; Balard, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Carignan, Claude

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new Tunable Filter Instrument for the SOAR telescope. The Brazilian Tunable Filter Imager (BTFI) is a versatile, new technology, tunable optical imager to be used in seeing-limited mode and at higher spatial fidelity using the SAM Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics facility at the SOAR telescope. The instrument opens important new science capabilities for the SOAR community, from studies of the centers of nearby galaxies and the insterstellar medium to statistical cosmological investigations. The BTFI takes advantage of three new technologies. The imaging Bragg Tunable Filter concept utilizes Volume Phase Holographic Gratings in a double-pass configuration, as a tunable filter, while a new Fabry-Perot (FP) concept involves technologies which allow a single FP etalon to act over a large range of interference orders and spectral resolutions. Both technologies will be in the same instrument. Spectral resolutions spanning the range between 25 and 30,000 can be achieved through the use of iBTF at l...

  6. Spherical primary optical telescope (SPOT) segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher; Hagopian, John; DeMarco, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The spherical primary optical telescope (SPOT) project is an internal research and development program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The goals of the program are to develop a robust and cost effective way to manufacture spherical mirror segments and demonstrate a new wavefront sensing approach for continuous phasing across the segmented primary. This paper focuses on the fabrication of the mirror segments. Significant cost savings were achieved through the design, since it allowed the mirror segments to be cast rather than machined from a glass blank. Casting was followed by conventional figuring at Goddard Space Flight Center. After polishing, the mirror segments were mounted to their composite assemblies. QED Technologies used magnetorheological finishing (MRF®) for the final figuring. The MRF process polished the mirrors while they were mounted to their composite assemblies. Each assembly included several magnetic invar plugs that extended to within an inch of the face of the mirror. As part of this project, the interaction between the MRF magnetic field and invar plugs was evaluated. By properly selecting the polishing conditions, MRF was able to significantly improve the figure of the mounted segments. The final MRF figuring demonstrates that mirrors, in the mounted configuration, can be polished and tested to specification. There are significant process capability advantes due to polishing and testing the optics in their final, end-use assembled state.

  7. VSiPMT for underwater neutrino telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbarino, Giancarlo [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); Asmundis, Riccardo de [Istituto Nazionale di fisica Nucleare, sezione di Napoli, Complesso di Monte S. Angelo Ed. 6, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); De Rosa, Gianfranca [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); Maximiliano Mollo, Carlos [Istituto Nazionale di fisica Nucleare, sezione di Napoli, Complesso di Monte S. Angelo Ed. 6, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); Vivolo, Daniele, E-mail: vivolo@na.infn.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di fisica Nucleare, sezione di Napoli, Complesso di Monte S. Angelo Ed. 6, via Cintia 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-10-11

    Underwater neutrino telescopes are nowadays considered among the most important aims in the field of astroparticle physics. Their structure consists of a cubic-kilometer three-dimensional array of photosensitive devices aimed at the detection of the Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles produced by high energy neutrino interactions with the Earth. To date, a crucial role in this kind of experiments has been played by PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs), however they suffer from many drawbacks such as linearity-to-gain relationship and difficulty in single photon counting. The next generation of experiments will require further improvements in photon detectors performances, therefore alternatives to PMTs are currently under study. In particular the most promising development in this field is represented by the rapidly emerging CMOS p-n Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode technology (G-APD or SiPM), that will allow the detection of high-speed single photons with high gain and linearity. In order to overcome the limit of small sensitive surfaces we suggest an innovative design for a modern hybrid, high gain, silicon based Vacuum Silicon Photomultiplier Tube (VSiPMT) based on the combination of a SiPM with a hemispherical vacuum glass PMT standard envelope. In this work we describe the full SiPM characterization realized by our group and we present the results of our Geant4-based simulations of electron backscattering over the SiPM surface.

  8. VSiPMT for underwater neutrino telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarino, Giancarlo; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Rosa, Gianfranca; Maximiliano Mollo, Carlos; Vivolo, Daniele

    2013-10-01

    Underwater neutrino telescopes are nowadays considered among the most important aims in the field of astroparticle physics. Their structure consists of a cubic-kilometer three-dimensional array of photosensitive devices aimed at the detection of the Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles produced by high energy neutrino interactions with the Earth. To date, a crucial role in this kind of experiments has been played by PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs), however they suffer from many drawbacks such as linearity-to-gain relationship and difficulty in single photon counting. The next generation of experiments will require further improvements in photon detectors performances, therefore alternatives to PMTs are currently under study. In particular the most promising development in this field is represented by the rapidly emerging CMOS p-n Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode technology (G-APD or SiPM), that will allow the detection of high-speed single photons with high gain and linearity. In order to overcome the limit of small sensitive surfaces we suggest an innovative design for a modern hybrid, high gain, silicon based Vacuum Silicon Photomultiplier Tube (VSiPMT) based on the combination of a SiPM with a hemispherical vacuum glass PMT standard envelope. In this work we describe the full SiPM characterization realized by our group and we present the results of our Geant4-based simulations of electron backscattering over the SiPM surface.

  9. DESTINY: The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, T. R.; Destiny Science Team

    2005-08-01

    The Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR 1.8-m survey camera optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SN) over the redshift range 0.5 the Universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of the so-called ``dark energy" component of the Universe. SN will be discovered by repeated imaging of a 7.5-sq.-deg. area located at the north ecliptic poles. Grism spectra with resolving power λ/Δλ = R˜75 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SN classification, and valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. This methodology features only a single mode of operation with no time-critical interactions, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared with SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of being able to observe a large field of view simultaneously over a full octave in wavelength makes this approach highly competitive.

  10. Telescopes in Education: the Little Thompson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, A. E.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2003-12-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is the first community-built observatory that is part of a high school and accessible to other schools remotely, via the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction of the building was done completely by volunteer labor, and first light occurred in May 1999. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. We are grateful to have received an IDEAS grant to provide teacher training workshops for K-12 schools to make use of the observatory, including remote observing from classrooms. Students connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images back on their local computers. A committee of teachers and administrators from the Thompson School District selected these workshops to count towards Incentive Credits (movement on the salary schedule) because the course meets the criteria: "Learning must be directly transferable to the classroom with students and relate to standards, assessment and/or technology." Our program is also accredited by Colorado State University.

  11. IR spectrometer project for the BTA telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, V. L.; Emelianov, E. V.; Murzin, V. A.; Vdovin, V. F.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce a project of new cooled infrared spectrometer-photometer for 6-m telescope BTA (Special Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Science Academy). The device would extend the wavelength range accessible for observations on the 6-m BTA telescope toward near infrared (0.8-2.5 um).

  12. A Mechanical Analogue of the Refracting Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Molesini, Giuseppe; Sordini, Andrea; Straulino, Samuele

    2011-01-01

    The recent celebration of the discoveries made by Galileo four centuries ago has attracted new attention to the refracting telescope and to its use as an instrument for the observation of the night sky. This has offered the opportunity for addressing in the classroom the basic principles explaining the operation of the telescope. When doing so, a…

  13. Solar Magnetometry with the dutch open telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Zalm, E.B.J. van der

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) has become op- erational at the Roque de los Muchachos Observa- tory on La Palma. The rst image sequences taken with this innovative telescope demonstrate its capa- bility for tomographic high-resolution imaging of the magnetic topology of the solar atmosphere up to th

  14. ANTARES : The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, Ph; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J. -J.; Di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J. -L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J. -F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galata, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J-C; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; LeVanSuu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Leveque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Patioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J. -F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; van Wijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design

  15. Lijiang 2.4m Optical Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 2.4m optical telescope of Yunnan Observatory was installed at Lijiang Observatory in the northwest of the Yunnan Province in 2007, which became operational since May 2008. At present, it is the largest general-use optical telescope in East Asia.

  16. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...

  17. IR Spectrometer Project for the BTA Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasiev, V. L.; Emelianov, E. V.; Murzin, V. A.; Vdovin, V. F.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a project of new cooled infrared spectrometer-photometer for 6-m telescope BTA (Special Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Science Academy). The device would extend the wavelength range accessible for observations on the 6-m BTA telescope toward near infrared (0.8-2.5 um).

  18. Radio Telescopes "Save the Day," Produce Data on Titan's Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    eventually provide a three-dimensional record of motion for the Huygens Probe during its mission at Titan. Huygens was built by the European Space Agency. The radio astronomy support of the Huygens mission is coordinated by JIVE and JPL and involves the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (Green Bank, WV and Socorro, NM), the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (ASTRON, The Netherlands), the University of Bonn (Germany), Helsinki University of Technology (Espoo, Finland), the MERLIN National Facility (Jodrell Bank, UK), the Onsala Space Observatory (Sweden), the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, CA), the CSIRO Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF, Sydney, Australia), the University of Tasmania (Hobart, Australia), the National Astronomical Observatories of China, the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (Shanghai and Urumqi, China) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technologies (Kashima Space Research Center, Japan). The Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe is hosted by ASTRON and funded by the national research councils, national facilities and institutes of The Netherlands (NOW), the United Kingdom (PPARC), Italy (CNR), Sweden (Onsala Space Observatory, National Facility), Spain (IGN) and Germany (MPIfR). The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperation between NASA, ESA and ASI, the Italian space agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, is managing the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter while ESA operated the Huygens atmospheric probe. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  19. Novel optical designs for consumer astronomical telescopes and their application to professional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Peter; Hodgson, Alan

    2006-06-01

    Since the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope there has been widespread popular interest in astronomy. A further series of events, most notably the recent Deep Impact mission and Mars oppositions have served to fuel further interest. As a result more and more amateurs are coming into astronomy as a practical hobby. At the same time more sophisticated optical equipment is becoming available as the price to performance ratio become more favourable. As a result larger and better optical telescopes are now in use by amateurs. We also have the explosive growth in digital imaging technologies. In addition to displacing photographic film as the preferred image capture modality it has made the capture of high quality astronomical imagery more accessible to a wider segment of the astronomy community. However, this customer requirement has also had an impact on telescope design. There has become a greater imperative for wide flat image fields in these telescopes to take advantage of the ongoing advances in CCD imaging technology. As a result of these market drivers designers of consumer astronomical telescopes are now producing state of the art designs that result in wide, flat fields with optimal spatial and chromatic aberrations. Whilst some of these designs are not scalable to the larger apertures required for professional ground and airborne telescope use there are some that are eminently suited to make this transition.

  20. LUNASKA simultaneous neutrino searches with multiple telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, J D; James, C W; Roberts, P; Brown, A; Phillips, C J; Protheroe, R J; Reynolds, J E; McFadden, R A; Aartsen, M

    2011-01-01

    The most sensitive method for detecting neutrinos at the very highest energies is the lunar Cherenkov technique, which employs the Moon as a target volume, using conventional radio telescopes to monitor it for nanosecond-scale pulses of Cherenkov radiation from particle cascades in its regolith. Multiple-antenna radio telescopes are difficult to effectively combine into a single detector for this purpose, while single antennas are more susceptible to false events from radio interference, which must be reliably excluded for a credible detection to be made. We describe our progress in excluding such interference in our observations with the single-antenna Parkes radio telescope, and our most recent experiment (taking place the week before the ICRC) using it in conjunction with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, exploiting the advantages of both types of telescope.

  1. Calibration of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Reyes, Raquel de los; Doro, Michele; Foerster, Andreas; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Parsons, Dan; van Eldik, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The construction of the Cherenkov Telescope Array is expected to start soon. We will present the baseline methods and their extensions currently foreseen to calibrate the observatory. These are bound to achieve the strong requirements on allowed systematic uncertainties for the reconstructed gamma-ray energy and flux scales, as well as on the pointing resolution, and on the overall duty cycle of the observatory. Onsite calibration activities are designed to include a robust and efficient calibration of the telescope cameras, and various methods and instruments to achieve calibration of the overall optical throughput of each telescope, leading to both inter-telescope calibration and an absolute calibration of the entire observatory. One important aspect of the onsite calibration is a correct understanding of the atmosphere above the telescopes, which constitutes the calorimeter of this detection technique. It is planned to be constantly monitored with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and...

  2. A telescope with augmented reality functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qichao; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    This study introduces a telescope with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) functions. In this telescope, information on the micro-display screen is integrated to the reticule of telescope through a beam splitter and is then received by the observer. The design and analysis of telescope optical system with AR and VR ability is accomplished and the opto-mechanical structure is designed. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype is fabricated and demonstrated. The telescope has an exit pupil diameter of 6 mm at an eye relief of 19 mm, 6° field of view, 5 to 8 times visual magnification , and a 30° field of view of the virtual image.

  3. Optical design of a rotating eyepiece telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, M.; Nasim, F.; Khan, A. N.; Gul, A.

    2016-08-01

    Flexible eyepiece telescope has been designed and verified. The rotating eyepiece of telescope will facilitate viewing of objects in a remote or out of sight target. Eyepiece arm of telescope can be rotated upto 360o keeping objective and reticule unchanged and ensuring zero deviation in reticule inclination. Main application of this scope is off axis viewing of objects. Image inversion has been carried out by using pair of mirrors and length of telescope is controlled by using relay lenses. The optical design, simulation and image analysis has been carried out by using ZEMAX®. Magnification of telescope is between 10∼⃒12 times with FOV of 60. Experiment has been carried out using uncoated Edmund Optics and optical tool box of Micro Series Kit, NEWPORT.

  4. Radio Telescopes Will Add to Cassini-Huygens Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    telescopes in Parkes, Mopra, and Ceduna, Australia; Hobart, Tasmania; Urumqi and Shanghai, China; and Kashima, Japan. The positional measurements are a project led by JIVE and involving ESA, the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy, the University of Bonn, Helsinki University of Technology, JPL, the Australia Telescope National Facility, the National Astronomical Observatories of China, the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, and the National Institute for Communication Technologies in Kashima, Japan. The Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe is funded by the national research councils, national facilities and institutes of The Netherlands (NWO and ASTRON), the United Kingdom (PPARC), Italy (CNR), Sweden (Onsala Space Observatory, National Facility), Spain (IGN) and Germany (MPIfR). The European VLBI Network is a joint facility of European, Chinese, South African and other radio astronomy institutes funded by their national research councils. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  5. Performance of the SST-1M telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Moderski, R; Błocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; Chruślińska, M.; Curyło, M.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Favre, Y.; Frankowski, A.; Grudnik, Ł.; Grudzińska, M.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Marszałek, A.; Michałowski, J.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Pueschel, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Rozwadowski, P.; Schioppa, E. jr; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Sowiński, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Pujadas, I. Troyano; Walter, R.; Wiȩcek, M.; Zagdański, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Żychowski, P.

    2015-01-01

    The single mirror small-size telescope (SST-1M) is one of the telescope projects being proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory by a sub-consortium of Polish and Swiss institutions. The SST-1M prototype structure is currently being constructed at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow, Poland, while the camera will be assembled at the University of Geneva, Switzerland. This prototype enables measurements of parameters having a decisive influence on the telescope performance. We present results of numerical simulations of the SST-1M performance based on such measurements. The telescope effective area, the expected trigger rates and the optical point spread function are calculated.

  6. Design of the STAR-X Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2017-01-01

    Top-level science goals of the Survey and Time-domain Astrophysical Research eXplorer (STAR-X) include: investigations of most violent explosions in the universe, study of growth of black holes across cosmic time and mass scale, and measure how structure formation heats majority of baryons in the universe. To meet these goals, the field-of-view of the telescope should be about 1 square-degree, the angular resolution should be 5 arc-seconds or below across large part of the field-of-view. The on-axis effective area at 1 KeV should be about 2,000 sq cm. Payload cost and launch considerations limit the outer diameter, focal length, and mass to 1.3 meters, 5 meters, and 250 kilograms, respectively. Telescope design is based on a segmented meta-shell approach we have developed at Goddard Space Flight Center for the STAR-X telescope. The telescope shells are divided into 30-degree segments. Individual telescopes and meta-shells are nested inside each other to meet the effective area requirements in 0.5 - 6.0 KeV range. We consider Wolter-Schwarzschild, and Modified-Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks of the nested STAR-X telescope. These designs offer an excellent resolution over a large field of views. Nested telescopes are vulnerable to stray light problems. We have designed a multi-component baffle system to eliminate direct and single-reflection light paths inside the telescopes. Large number of internal and external baffle vane structures are required to prevent stray rays from reaching the focal plane. We have developed a simple ray-trace based tool to determine the dimensions and locations of the baffles. In this paper, we present the results of our trade studies, baffle design studies, and optical performance analyses of the STAR-X telescope.

  7. WFIRST-AFTA Overview Technology needs summary Mirror Technology Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Catherine (Editor); Content, David; Zhao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Presentation covers the overview of the science and hardware of the WFIRST-AFTA (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope) (Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets) mission. It includes an overview of the technology, with an emphasis on optics technology. It also introduces the WFIRST talks that come later, one on the Wide Field Instrument filters and the other on the CoronaGraph Instrument.

  8. Dynamic Model and Analysis of Asymmetric Telescopic Wing for Morphing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphing aircraft has been the research hot topics of new concept aircrafts in aerospace engineering. Telescopic wing is an important morphing technology for morphing aircraft. This paper describes the dynamic equations and kinematic equations based on theorem of momentum and theorem of moment of momentum, which are available for all morphing aircrafts. Meanwhile,as simplified , dynamic equations for rectangular telescopic wing are presented. In order to avoid the complexity using aileron to generate rolling moment , an new idea that asymmetry of wings can generate roll moment is introduced. Finally, roll performance comparison of asymmetric wing and aileron deflection shows that asymmetric telescopic wing can provide the required roll control moment as aileron, and in some cases, telescopic wing has the superior roll performance.

  9. Design and Operation of FACT -- The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Anderhub, H; Biland, A; Boccone, V; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Buß, J; Cadoux, F; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Dorner, D; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Gendotti, A; Grimm, O; von Gunten, H; Haller, C; Hildebrand, D; Horisberger, U; Huber, B; Kim, K -S; Knoetig, M L; K"ohne, J H; Kr"ahenb"uhl, T; Krumm, B; Lee, M; Lorenz, E; Lustermann, W; Lyard, E; Mannheim, K; Meharga, M; Meier, K; Montaruli, T; Neise, D; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Renker, D; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; R"oser, U; Stucki, J -P; Schneider, J; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Tobler, S; Viertel, G; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Warda, K; Weitzel, Q; Z"anglein, M

    2013-01-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) is designed to detect cosmic gamma-rays with energies from several hundred GeV up to about 10 TeV using the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique. In contrast to former or existing telescopes, the camera of the FACT telescope is comprised of solid-state Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (G-APD) instead of photomultiplier tubes for photo detection. It is the first full-scale device of its kind employing this new technology. The telescope is operated at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) since fall 2011. This paper describes in detail the design, construction and operation of the system, including hardware and software aspects. Technical experiences gained after one year of operation are discussed and conclusions with regard to future projects are drawn.

  10. Design and operation of FACT - the first G-APD Cherenkov telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderhub, H.; Backes, M.; Biland, A.; Boccone, V.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Buß, J.; Cadoux, F.; Commichau, V.; Djambazov, L.; Dorner, D.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Gendotti, A.; Grimm, O.; von Gunten, H.; Haller, C.; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U.; Huber, B.; Kim, K.-S.; Knoetig, M. L.; Köhne, J.-H.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krumm, B.; Lee, M.; Lorenz, E.; Lustermann, W.; Lyard, E.; Mannheim, K.; Meharga, M.; Meier, K.; Montaruli, T.; Neise, D.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Overkemping, A.-K.; Paravac, A.; Pauss, F.; Renker, D.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Röser, U.; Stucki, J.-P.; Schneider, J.; Steinbring, T.; Temme, F.; Thaele, J.; Tobler, S.; Viertel, G.; Vogler, P.; Walter, R.; Warda, K.; Weitzel, Q.; Zänglein, M.

    2013-06-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) is designed to detect cosmic gamma-rays with energies from several hundred GeV up to about 10 TeV using the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique. In contrast to former or existing telescopes, the camera of the FACT telescope is comprised of solid-state Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (G-APD) instead of photomultiplier tubes for photo detection. It is the first full-scale device of its kind employing this new technology. The telescope is operated at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) since fall 2011. This paper describes in detail the design, construction and operation of the system, including hardware and software aspects. Technical experiences gained after one year of operation are discussed and conclusions with regard to future projects are drawn.

  11. Dirt, Gravity, and Lunar-Based Telescopes: The Value Proposition for Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Lester, D

    2007-01-01

    The lunar surface has historically been considered an optimal site for a broad range of astronomical telescopes. That assumption, which has come to be somewhat reflexive, is critically examined in this paper and found to be poorly substantiated. The value of the lunar surface for astronomy may be broadly compelling only in comparison to terrestrial sites. It is suggested here that the development and successful operation of the Hubble Space Telescope marked a turning point in the perception of value for free-space siting of astronomical telescopes, and for telescopes on the Moon. As the astronomical community considers the scientific potential of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and the return to the Moon in particular, it should construct a value proposition that includes the tools, technology, and architecture being developed for this return, as these can well be seen as being more astronomically enabling than the lunar surface itself - a destination that offers little more than rocks and gravity. Whi...

  12. Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope: Early Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W.; Patrick McCray, W.

    In this paper we investigate the early history of what was at first called the Next Generation Space Telescope, later to be renamed the James Webb Space Telescope. We argue that the initial ideas for such a Next Generation Space Telescope were developed in the context of the planning for a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Much the most important group of astronomers and engineers examining such a successor was based at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. By the late 1980s, they had fashioned concepts for a successor that would work in optical, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, concepts that would later be regarded as politically unrealistic given the costs associated with them. We also explore how the fortunes of the planned Next Generation Space Telescope were intimately linked to that of its "parent," the Hubble Space Telescope.

  13. Monte Carlo Studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M; Dumm, J; Funk, S

    2015-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters repre...

  14. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. S.; Carrasco, L.; Schloerb, F. P.

    2002-05-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project is a collaboration between the University of Massachusetts (UMass) in the USA and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico to build a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave antenna which will operate with good efficiency at wavelengths as short as 1 mm. The LMT is being built at an altitude of 4600 m atop Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcanic peak in the state of Puebla, Mexico, approximately 100 km east of the city of Puebla. At 18 degrees 59' N latitude, the site offers an excellent view of the Galactic Center and good sky coverage of both hemispheres. Construction of the telescope is now well underway, and it is expected to be completed in late 2004. The LMT specifications call for an overall effective surface accuracy of 75 microns rms and a pointing accuracy of 1" rms. The strategy for meeting these performance goals supplements conventional antenna designs with various "active" systems to bring the final performance within the requirements. For surface accuracy, the LMT will rely on an open loop active surface which includes 180 moveable surface segments. For pointing accuracy, we will use traditional approaches supplemented by measurements to characterize the behavior of the structure, including inclinometers and temperature sensors which may be used with finite element models to determine structural deformations and predict pointing behavior. The initial complement of instruments will include a 32 element, heterodyne focal plane array at 3mm; a large format, focal plane bolometer array; a unique wide band receiver and spectrometer to determine the redshifts of primordial galaxies; and a 4 element receiver for the 1mm band. With its excellent sensitivity and angular resolution, the LMT will enable unique studies of the early universe and galaxy evolution, the interstellar medium and star formation in galaxies, and planetary science. In particular, with nearly 2000 m2 of collecting

  15. LLCD operations using the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Wright, Malcolm W.; Roberts, William T.; Cheng, Michael K.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera; Shaw, Matthew D.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.

    2014-03-01

    The Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) located on Table Mountain near Wrightwood, CA served as an alternate ground terminal to the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), the first free-space laser communication demonstration from lunar distances. The Lunar Lasercom OCTL Terminal (LLOT) Project utilized the existing 1m diameter OCTL telescope by retrofitting: (i) a multi-beam 1568 nm laser beacon transmitter; (ii) a tungsten silicide (WSi) superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) receiver for 1550 nm downlink; (iii) a telescope control system with the functionality required for laser communication operations; and (iv) a secure network connection to the Lunar Lasercom Operations Center (LLOC) located at the Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (LL-MIT). The laser beacon transmitted from Table Mountain was acquired by the Lunar Lasercom Space Terminal (LLST) on-board the Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and a 1550 nm downlink at 39 and 78 Mb/s was returned to LLOT. Link operations were coordinated by LLOC. During October and November of 2013, twenty successful links were accomplished under diverse conditions. In this paper, a brief system level description of LLOT along with the concept of operations and selected results are presented.

  16. Engineering and Science Highlights of the KAT-7 Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, A R; Armstrong, R P; Barta, A; Bauermeister, E F; Bester, H; Blose, S; Booth, R S; Botha, D H; Buchner, S J; Carignan, C; Cheetham, T; Cloete, K; Coreejes, G; Crida, R C; Cross, S D; Curtolo, F; Dikgale, A; de Villiers, M S; Toit, L J du; Esterhuyse, S W P; Fanaroff, B; Fender, R P; Fijalkowski, M; Fourie, D; Frank, B; George, D; Gibbs, P; Goedhart, S; Grobbelaar, J; Gumede, S C; Herselman, P; Hess, K M; Hoek, N; Horrell, J; Jonas, J L; Jordaan, J D B; Julie, R; Kapp, F; Kotzé, P; Kusel, T; Langman, A; Lehmensiek, R; Liebenberg, D; Liebenberg, I J V; Loots, A; Lord, R T; Lucero, D M; Ludick, J; Macfarlane, P; Madlavana, M; Magnus, L; Magozore, C; Malan, J A; Manley, J R; Marais, L; Marais, N; Marais, S J; Maree, M; Martens, A; Mokone, O; Moss, V; Mthembu, S; New, W; Nicholson, G D; van Niekerk, P C; Oozeer, N; Passmoor, S S; Peens-Hough, A; Pińska, A B; Prozesky, P; Rajan, S; Ratcliffe, S; Renil, R; Richter, L L; Rosekrans, D; Rust, A; Schröder, A C; Schwardt, L C; Seranyane, S; Serylak, M; Shepherd, D S; Siebrits, R; Sofeya, L; Spann, R; Springbok, R; Swart, P S; Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L; Theron, I P; Tiplady, A; Toruvanda, O; Tshongweni, S; Heever, L van den; van der Merwe, C; van Rooyen, R; Wakhaba, S; Walker, A L; Welz, M; Williams, L; Wolleben, M; Woudt, P A; Young, N J; Zwart, J T L

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the KAT-7 array in the Karoo region of the Northern Cape in South Africa was intended primarily as an engineering prototype for technologies and techniques applicable to the MeerKAT telescope. This paper looks at the main engineering and scien- tific highlights from this effort, and discusses their applicability to both MeerKAT and other next-generation radio telescopes. In particular we found that the composite dish surface works well, but it becomes complicated to fabricate for a dish lacking circular symmetry; the Stir- ling cycle cryogenic system with ion pump to achieve vacuum works but demands much higher maintenance than an equivalent Gifford-McMahon cycle system; the ROACH (Recon- figurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware)-based correlator with SPEAD (Stream- ing Protocol for Exchanging Astronomical Data) protocol data transfer works very well and KATCP (Karoo Array Telescope Control Protocol) control protocol has proven very flexible and convenient. KAT-7 has also been used f...

  17. Instruments on large optical telescopes -- A case study

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, S R

    2016-01-01

    In the distant past, telescopes were known, first and foremost, for the sizes of their apertures. Advances in technology (not merely those related to astronomical detectors) are now enabling astronomers to build extremely powerful instruments to the extent that instruments have now achieved importance comparable or even exceeding the usual importance accorded to the apertures of the telescopes. However, the cost of successive generations of instruments has risen at a rate far above that of the rate of inflation. Here, given the vast sums of money now being expended on optical telescopes and their instrumentation, I argue that astronomers must undertake "cost-benefit" analysis for future planning. I use the scientific output of the first two decades of the W. M. Keck Observatory as a laboratory for this purpose. I find, in the absence of upgrades, that the time to reach peak paper production for an instrument is about six years. The prime lifetime of instruments (sans upgrades), as measured by citations return...

  18. Feedback loops from the Hubble Space Telescope data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Arquilla, Richard; Ellis, Tracy; Hamilton, Forrest C.; Holm, Albert; Kochte, Mark

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the history and technology by which tools placed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data processing pipeline were used to feedback information on observation execution to the scheduling system and observers. Because the HST is in a relatively low orbit, which imposes a number of constraints upon its observations, it operates in a carefully planned, fully automated mode. To substitute for direct observer involvement available at most ground-based observatories and to provide rapid feedback on failures that might affect future visits, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) gradually evolved a system for screening science and engineering products during pipeline processing. The highly flexible HST data processing system (OPUS) allows tools to be introduced to use the content of FITS keywords to alert production staff to potential telescope and instrument performance failures. Staff members review the flagged data and, if appropriate, notify the observer and the scheduling staff so that they can resolve the problems and possibly repeat the failed observations. This kind of feedback loop represents a case study for other automated data collection systems where rapid response to certain quantifiable events in the data is required. Observatory operations staff can install processes to look for these events either in the production pipeline or in an associated pipeline into which the appropriate data are piped. That process can then be used to notify scientists to evaluate the data and decide upon a response or to automatically initiate a response.

  19. The Timepix Telescope for High Performance Particle Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Akiba, Kazuyoshi; van Beuzekom, Martin; van Beveren, Vincent; Borghi, Silvia; Boterenbrood, Henk; Buytaert, Jan; Collins, Paula; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dumps, Raphael; Eklund, Lars; Esperante, Daniel; Gallas, Abraham; Gordon, Hamish; van der Heijden, Bas; Hombach, Christoph; Hynds, Daniel; John, Malcolm; Leflat, Alexander; Li, Yi Ming; Longstaff, Ian; Morton, Alexander; Nakatsuka, Noritsugu; Nomerotski, Andre; Parkes, Chris; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Plackett, Richard; Reid, Matthew M; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Schindler, Heinrich; Szumlak, Tomasz; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Velthuis, Jaap; Wysokinski, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix particle tracking telescope has been developed as part of the LHCb VELO Upgrade project, supported by the Medipix Collaboration and the AIDA framework. It is a primary piece of infrastructure for the VELO Upgrade project and is being used for the development of new sensors and front end technologies for several upcoming LHC trackers and vertexing systems. The telescope is designed around the dual capability of the Timepix ASICs to provide information about either the deposited charge or the timing information from tracks traversing the 14 x 14mm matrix of 55 x 55 um pixels. The rate of reconstructed tracks available is optimised by taking advantage of the shutter driven readout architecture of the Timepix chip, operated with existing readout systems. Results of tests conducted in the SPS North Area beam facility at CERN show that the telescope typically provides reconstructed track rates during the beam spills of between 3.5 and 7.5 kHz, depending on beam conditions. The tracks are time stamped wi...

  20. Spitzer Space Telescope proposal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, S.; Silbermann, N. A.; Rebull, L. M.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2006-06-01

    This paper discusses the Spitzer Space Telescope General Observer proposal process. Proposals, consisting of the scientific justification, basic contact information for the observer, and observation requests, are submitted electronically using a client-server Java package called Spot. The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) uses a one-phase proposal submission process, meaning that fully-planned observations are submitted for most proposals at the time of submission, not months after acceptance. Ample documentation and tools are available to the observers on SSC web pages to support the preparation of proposals, including an email-based Helpdesk. Upon submission proposals are immediately ingested into a database which can be queried at the SSC for program information, statistics, etc. at any time. Large proposals are checked for technical feasibility and all proposals are checked against duplicates of already approved observations. Output from these tasks is made available to the Time Allocation Committee (TAC) members. At the review meeting, web-based software is used to record reviewer comments and keep track of the voted scores. After the meeting, another Java-based web tool, Griffin, is used to track the approved programs as they go through technical reviews, duplication checks and minor modifications before the observations are released for scheduling. In addition to detailing the proposal process, lessons learned from the first two General Observer proposal calls are discussed.

  1. Telescopes for the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.

    In the last decades, astronomy has been changed in a number of significant ways. The number of large optical telescopes with diameters on the order of or larger than 2.3 m has increased from 3 shortly after World War II to about 20 at the present time. Whereas prewar astronomy was largely devoted to the visual wavelengths (0.3-0.8 μm), astronomical observations currently span the range from γ ray wavelengths to the longest radio wavelengths. Most significantly, astronomy outside conventional optical astronomy has developed into sophisticated disciplines rather than experimental explorations. Many of the observational advances at the forefront of astronomy now come from other than visual observations. Along with these changes have come fundamental changes in visual astronomy itself. Observations with photographic plates are the exception rather than the rule at most large observatories. Instead, electronic cameras are in common use. A second change, especially in the United States, is that the funding has gone from largely private funding (e.g., the Carnegie Institution of Washington) to funding with the government providing a main share of the support. Indeed, the government has provided the total funding for those disciplines, like X ray astronomy, which use space-borne platforms. These changes have also affected the character of doing astronomy, and astronomers have become much more politically active on the national science scene.

  2. Proposed National Large Solar Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagdev Singh

    2008-03-01

    Sun’s atmosphere is an ideal place to study and test many magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes controlling turbulent plasma. We wish to resolve some of the finest solar features (which remain unresolved presently) and study their dynamics. Indian Institute of Astrophysics has proposed to design, fabricate and install a 2-meter class solar telescope at a suitable site in India to resolve features on the Sun of the size of about 0.1 arcsec. The focal plane instruments will include a high resolution polarimeteric package to measure polarization with an accuracy of 0.01 per cent; a high spectral resolution spectrograph to obtain spectra in 5 widely separated absorption lines simultaneously and high spatial resolution narrow band imagers in various lines. The Himalayan region appears to be a good choice keeping in view the prevailing dry and clear weather conditions. We have started detailed analysis of the weather conditions in the area and at some other locations in India. The site characterization will be done using the Sun-photometer, S-DIMM and SHABAR techniques to determine the seeing conditions.

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, J P; Clampin, M; Doyon, R; Greenhouse, M A; Hammel, H B; Hutchings, J B; Jakobsen, P; Lilly, S J; Long, K S; Lunine, J I; McCaughrean, M J; Mountain, M; Nella, J; Rieke, G H; Rieke, M J; Rix, H W; Smith, E P; Sonneborn, G; Stiavelli, M; Stockman, H S; Windhorst, R A; Wright, G S; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mather, John C.; Clampin, Mark; Doyon, Rene; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Hutchings, John B.; Jakobsen, Peter; Lilly, Simon J.; Long, Knox S.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Caughrean, Mark J. Mc; Mountain, Matt; Nella, John; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Smith, Eric P.; Sonneborn, George; Stiavelli, Massimo; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Wright, Gillian S.

    2006-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6m), cold (50K), infrared-optimized space observatory that will be launched early in the next decade. The observatory will have four instruments: a near-infrared camera, a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph, and a tunable filter imager will cover the wavelength range, 0.6 to 5.0 microns, while the mid-infrared instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5.0 to 29 microns. The JWST science goals are divided into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the early universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present day. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall on to dust-e...

  4. Very large Arecibo-type telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Frank D.

    1988-03-01

    The Arecibo-type radio telescope, based on a fixed spherical reflector, is a very effective design for a large radio telescope on the Moon. In such telescopes, major structural members are provided by the ground on which they are built, and thus are provided at no cost in materials or transportation. The strong compression members, the tall towers which support the suspended platform, are an expensive part of the Arecibo telescope. The need for such towers can be eliminated if a suitable valley or crater can be found wherein the rim of the depression can be used as the support point for the cables which support the suspended platform. With an Arecibo-type radio telescope on the Moon, there are no changing gravity loads because of the design and no changing wind loads because of the location; therefore, the only source of time variation in the telescope geometry is thermal changes. Calculations show that with conventional materials, such as steel, it should be possible to construct an Arecibo-type telescope with a reflector diameter of some 30 km on the Moon, and with a reflector diameter of some 60 to 90 km if materials of high specific strength are used.

  5. Innovative focal plane design for large space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Wilfried; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Future large drift-scan space telescopes, providing high angular resolution and sensitive observations, require long linear focal planes covering large fields of view. In order to reach higher on-earth spatial resolution while keeping a large field of view, the use of homothetic imaging systems is prohibitive for VIS/IR applications. Based on Integral Field Unit technology developed for ground based instrumentation, we present an innovative optical system reorganizing a 1D field of view on a 2D detector array. Such a solution presents a high gain in terms of volume and weight, allowing compact cryogenic systems for IR observations.

  6. The Baikal neutrino telescope-Results and plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, A.; Aynutdinov, V.; Balkanov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Belolaptikov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D.; Budnev, N. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.; Domogatsky, G.; Doroshenko, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh.-A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S. [Nizhni Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Golubkov, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gress, O.; Gress, T.; Grishin, O. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Klabukov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Klimov, A. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kochanov, A. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-21

    The Neutrino Telescope NT200 is operated since 1998 and was upgraded to the 10 Mton detector NT200+ in 2005. The preparation towards a km{sup 3}-scale (Gigaton Volume) detector in Lake Baikal is currently a central activity. As an important milestone, a km{sup 3}-prototype string, based on completely new technology, has been installed and was operating together with NT200+ since April 2008. Also selected astroparticle physics results from the long-term operation of NT200 are presented.

  7. Progress on Space Solar Telescope in 2004 - 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Guoxiang; YAN Yihua; YANG Shimo; JIN Shengzhen

    2006-01-01

    The progress on Chinese Space Solar Telescope (SST) in 2004-2006 is introduced. The scientific objectives are further clarified and the ground operation system has been planned. The 7 key technical problems of SST satellite platform and payloads have been tackled, which lay solid scientific and technological foundations for engineering prototype phase of the SST project. At present the SST project undergoes evaluation by CNSA and CAS so as to enter the engineering prototype phase of the SST project if it is finally approved.

  8. Calvin-Rehoboth Robotic Twin Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, D. B.; Molnar, L. A.; VanBaak, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The astronomy program at Calvin College, like many small colleges, is limited by poor weather and light pollution at its midwestern campus and by limited free time on the part of its astronomy faculty. Nonetheless we believe direct access to the physical universe is key to the science education both of science majors and nonmajors. Recent advances in hardware and software for modest robotic telescopes have made it possible for colleges like ours to incorporate the use of a remote bservatory into our curriculum within typical financial and time constraints. In this poster we make our first report on the installation of two robotic telescopes (one on campus and one at a remote site in New Mexico) using largely off-the-shelf components. Students learn first with the local telescope in order to understand the equipment and procedures, but obtain the majority of their data with the remote telescope. Equipment development is done first with the local telescope, and then implemented on the remote telescope (where time spent in development is difficult). We received an NSF CCLI grant and matching college funds in the summer of 2002. The local telescope was installed in the spring of 2003, and the New Mexico telescope was ready for remote operation in January 2004. Our poster will describe our equipment choices, including a few components (such as an equipment rack for the back end of the telescope) which we designed ourselves. It will also detail classroom use of the equipment in its first two semesters by students at a range of levels. A copy of the poster and many additional details of the project are available on the Calvin observatory website, http://www.calvin.edu/observatory/.

  9. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    ESO Video Newsreel 15, released on March 14, 2005. It provides an introduction to the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the two Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) now installed at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 07a/05 shows the impressive ensemble at the summit of Paranal. From left to right, the enclosure of VLT Antu, Kueyen and Melipal, AT1, the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) in the background, AT2 and VLT Yepun. Located at the summit of the 2,600-m high Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert (Chile), ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) is at the forefront of astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. The VLT is composed of four 8.2-m Unit Telescope (Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun). They have been progressively put into service together with a vast suite of the most advanced astronomical instruments and are operated every night in the year. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. The href="/instruments/vlti">VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two 8.2- VLT Unit Telescopes, dramatically increasing the spatial resolution and showing fine details of a large variety of celestial objects. The VLTI is arguably the world's most advanced optical device of this type. It has already demonstrated its powerful capabilities by addressing several key scientific issues, such as determining the size and the shape of a variety of stars (ESO PR 22/02, PR 14/03 and PR 31/03), measuring distances to stars (ESO PR 25/04), probing the innermost regions of the proto-planetary discs around young stars (ESO PR 27/04) or making the first detection by infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object (ESO PR 17/03). "Little Brothers" ESO PR Photo 07b/05 ESO PR Photo 07b/05 [Preview - JPEG: 597 x 400 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 1193 x 800 pix - 330k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 3354 pix - 10.0M] ESO PR Photo 07c/05 ESO PR Photo 07c/05

  10. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  11. The GREGOR solar telescope on Tenerife

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Wolfgang; Volkmer, Reiner; Denker, Carsten; Solanki, Sami; Balthasar, Horst; Gonzalez, Nazaret Bello; Berkefeld, Thomas; Collados, Manuel; Hofmann, Axel; Kneer, Franz; Lagg, Andreas; Puschmann, Klaus; Schmidt, Dirk; Sobotka, Michal; Soltau, Dirk; Strassmeier, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    2011 was a successful year for the GREGOR project. The telescope was finally completed in May with the installation of the 1.5-meter primary mirror. The installation of the first-light focal plane instruments was completed by the end of the year. At the same time, the preparations for the installation of the high-order adaptive optics were finished, its integration to the telescope is scheduled for early 2012. This paper describes the telescope and its instrumentation in their present first light configuration, and provides a brief overview of the science goals of GREGOR.

  12. The ALMA Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, A.; Marson, Ralph; Kern, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between North America, Europe and Japan. ALMA is an aperture synthesis radio telescope consisting of 50 12-meter antennas located at an elevation of 5,000 meters in Llano de Chajnantor, Chile. These antennas will operate at frequencies ranging from 31.3 GHz to 950 GHz. The antennas can be moved and placed in different configurations, with baselines between the antennas varying from 150 meters to 20 km. The 50 antennas are supplemented by sixteen additional ones, known as the ALMA Compact Array (ACA): 12 7-meter antennas and 4 12-meter antennas. The ALMA control system will consist of over 70 computers separated by distances of over 20 km. Two aspects of the system are apparent: its distributed nature and its need to accurately synchronize events across many computers separated by large distances. In this paper we describe key features of the architecture of the ALMA Control System, focusing on its properties as a distributed system and on the mechanisms employed to achieve its time synchronization goals. This control system is a distributed system that uses the ALMA Common Software (ACS) as a middleware system layered on top of CORBA. The architecture of the control system extensively employs the component/container model in ACS. In addition, the use of CORBA allows us to employ Java in the higher levels of the control system, leaving C++ to the lower time-critical levels. Python as a scripting language is used by astronomers, to craft standard observing programs, and engineers, in a testing and debugging mode. Key to the concept of an aperture synthesis telescope is a special purpose hardware system known as a correlator, responsible for making various delay model corrections and correlating the signals from the antennas. There are two correlators in ALMA, one for the array of 50 antennas and one for the ACA. This entire system operates under a control system that must synchronize events across the

  13. End-to-end assessment of a large aperture segmented ultraviolet optical infrared (UVOIR) telescope architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield exo-earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an exo-earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and exo-earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling these missions.

  14. A cryogenic liquid-mirror telescope on the moon to study the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Angel, Roger; Borra, Ermanno F; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Foing, Bernard; Hickson, Paul; Josset, Jean-Luc; Ma, Ki Bui; Seddiki, Omar; Sivanandam, Suresh; Thibault, Simon; van Susante, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the feasibility and scientific potential of zenith observing liquid mirror telescopes having 20 to 100 m diameters located on the moon. They would carry out deep infrared surveys to study the distant universe and follow up discoveries made with the 6 m James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), with more detailed images and spectroscopic studies. They could detect objects 100 times fainter than JWST, observing the first, high-red shift stars in the early universe and their assembly into galaxies. We explored the scientific opportunities, key technologies and optimum location of such telescopes. We have demonstrated critical technologies. For example, the primary mirror would necessitate a high-reflectivity liquid that does not evaporate in the lunar vacuum and remains liquid at less than 100K: We have made a crucial demonstration by successfully coating an ionic liquid that has negligible vapor pressure. We also successfully experimented with a liquid mirror spinning on a superconducting bearing, as w...

  15. Lightweight composite mirrors for telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, steady and stiff mirrors are necessary to decrease cost of telescopes such as IXO and GenX used in special NASA missions. Low-density materials are...

  16. Introduction to the Solar Space Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Ai; S. Jin; S. Wang; B. Ye; S. Yang

    2000-09-01

    The design of the space solar telescope (SST) (phase B) has been completed. The manufacturing is under development. At the end of 2000, it will be assembled. The basic aspect will be introduced in this paper.

  17. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stellar Imager, an ultraviolet, sparse-aperture telescope, was one of the fifteen Vision Missions chosen for a study completed last year. Stellar Imager will...

  18. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  19. Atmospheric Monitoring for the MAGIC Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaug, M; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Font, Ll; Fruck, C; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido, D; Hrupec, D; Hose, J; López-Oramas, A; Maneva, G; Martinez, M; Mirzoyan, R; Temnikov, P; Zanin, R

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of the atmosphere is very relevant for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Adverse weather conditions (strong wind, high humidity, etc.) may damage the telescopes and must therefore be monitored continuously to guarantee a safe operation, and the presence of clouds and aerosols affects the transmission of the Cherenkov light and consequently the performance of the telescopes. The ATmospheric CAlibration (ATCA) technical working group of the MAGIC collaboration aims to cover all aspects related to atmosphere monitoring and calibration. In this paper we give an overview of the ATCA goals and activities, which include the set-up and maintenance of appropriate instrumentation, proper analysis of its data, the realization of MC studies, and the correction of real data taken under non-optimal atmospheric conditions. The final goal is to reduce the systematic uncertainties in the determination of the $\\gamma$-ray flux and energy, and to increase the duty cycle of the telescopes by establishing o...

  20. a New Concept of Agile Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Valasek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the description of a new concept for a spherical mechanism for agile telescopes. It is based on redundantly actuated parallel kinematical structure. Due to the three times overactuated structure and application of several further innovative concepts, the Hexasphere achieves the movability of ±100 degrees. This enables the use of a Hexasphere as the basis for mounts of telescopes. Such telescopes can be optimized for minimum weight or for maximum dynamics. The proposed mechanism is expected to play a role in novel robotic telescopes nowadays used in many fields of astronomy and astrophysics, with emphasis on automated systems for alert observations of celestial gamma-ray bursts.

  1. The misalignment induced aberrations of TMA telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin P; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P

    2008-12-08

    The next major space-borne observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, will be a 6.6M field-biased, obscured, three-mirror anastigmat (TMA). Over the used field of view, the performance of TMA telescopes is dominated by 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations. Here it is shown that two dominant 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations arise for any TMA telescope. One aberration, field constant 3(rd) order coma is a well known misalignment aberration commonly seen in two-mirror Ritchey Chretien telescopes. The second aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear, 3(rd) order astigmatism is a new and unique image orientation dependence with field derived here for the first time using nodal aberration theory.

  2. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for funding to continue development of an alternative beam combiner for Stellar Imager (SI), a 30-aperture, interferometric telescope chosen as one...

  3. TALON - The Telescope Alert Operation Network System: Intelligent Linking of Distributed Autonomous Robotic Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    White, R R; Davis, H; Galassi, M; Starr, D; Vestrand, W T; Wozniak, P

    2004-01-01

    The internet has brought about great change in the astronomical community, but this interconnectivity is just starting to be exploited for use in instrumentation. Utilizing the internet for communicating between distributed astronomical systems is still in its infancy, but it already shows great potential. Here we present an example of a distributed network of telescopes that performs more efficiently in synchronous operation than as individual instruments. RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) is a system of telescopes at LANL that has intelligent intercommunication, combined with wide-field optics, temporal monitoring software, and deep-field follow-up capability all working in closed-loop real-time operation. The Telescope ALert Operations Network (TALON) is a network server that allows intercommunication of alert triggers from external and internal resources and controls the distribution of these to each of the telescopes on the network. TALON is designed to grow, allowing any number of telescope...

  4. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  5. The Automated Palomar 60 Inch Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Fox, Derek B.; Moon, Dae-Sik; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Henning, John R.; Guzman, C. Dani; Bonati, Marco; Smith, Roger M.; Thicksten, Robert P.; Doyle, Michael W.; Petrie, Hal L.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Anagnostou, Nathaniel L.; Laity, Anastasia C.

    2006-10-01

    We have converted the Palomar 60 inch (1.52 m) telescope from a classic night-assistant-operated telescope to a fully robotic facility. The automated system, which has been operational since 2004 September, is designed for moderately fast (tdesign requirements, hardware and software upgrades, and lessons learned from roboticization. We present an overview of the current system performance as well as plans for future upgrades.

  6. CLIC Telescope optimization with ALLPIX simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Wu

    2015-01-01

    A simulation study of CLIC-EUDET telescope resolution with MIMOSA 26 as reference sensors under DESY (5.6 GeV electron beam) and CERN-SPS (120-180 GeV pion^{-} beam) conditions. During the study, a virtual DUT sensor with cylindrical sensing area was defined and used with ALLPIX software. By changing the configuration of telescope, some results for DESY's setup were found agreeing with the theoretical calculation.

  7. Indirect Dark Matter Searches with MAGIC Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Satalecka, Konstancja; MAGIC Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years the indirect dark matter (DM) searches became a hot topic, with several experimental results showing hints of DM signal. The Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes are two $17$\\,m diameter Cherenkov telescopes, located on the Canary island La Palma (Spain). MAGIC carries out a broad DM search program, including observations of dwarf galaxies, galaxy clusters and other DM dominated objects. In these proceedings recent MAGIC results from this field ar...

  8. The Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (ASCOT) balloon project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloser, Peter F.; Sharma, Tejaswita; Legere, Jason S.; Bancroft, Christopher M.; McConnell, Mark L.; Ryan, James M.; Wright, Alex M.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a project to develop new medium-energy gamma-ray instrumentation by constructing and flying a balloon-borne Compton telescope using advanced scintillator materials combined with silicon photomultiplier readouts. There is a need in high-energy astronomy for a medium-energy gamma-ray mission covering the energy range from approximately 0.4 - 20 MeV to follow the success of the COMPTEL instrument on CGRO. We believe that directly building on the legacy of COMPTEL, using relatively robust, low-cost, off-the-shelf technologies, is the most promising path for such a mission. Fortunately, high-performance scintillators, such as Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), Cerium Bromide (CeBr3), and p-terphenyl, and compact readout devices, such as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), are already commercially available and capable of meeting this need. We have conducted two balloon flights of prototype instruments to test these technologies. The first, in 2011, demonstrated that a Compton telescope consisting of an liquid organic scintillator scattering layer and a LaBr3 calorimeter effectively rejects background under balloon-flight conditions, using time-of-flight (ToF) discrimination. The second, in 2014, showed that a telescope using an organic stilbene crystal scattering element and a LaBr3 calorimeter with SiPM readouts can achieve similar ToF performance. We are now constructing a much larger balloon instrument, an Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (ASCOT) with SiPM readout, with the goal of imaging the Crab Nebula at MeV energies in a one-day flight. We expect a 4σ detection up to 1 MeV in a single transit. We present calibration results of the first detector modules, and updated simulations of the balloon instrument sensitivity. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the energy, timing, and position resolution of this technology are sufficient to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity in the mediumenergy gamma-ray band, were it to be

  9. PILOT—a Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, M. C. B.; Burton, M. G.; Lawrence, J. S.; Storey, J. W. V.

    2006-08-01

    PILOT is a proposed 2.4 metre optical/IR telescope, designed to take advantage of the extraordinarily good observing conditions on the high plateau of Antarctica. The superb seeing and low infrared backgrounds will allow PILOT to outperform telescopes of 2-3 times the diameter at a mid-latitude site. PILOT is large enough to undertake important science, while small enough to act as a low-cost low-risk technology demonstrator for the next generation of large optical/IR telescopes in Antarctica. Future facilities could include the proposed 8.4 metre off-axis LAPCAT telescope, that would be competitive with ELTs in its ability to directly image extra-solar planets. PILOT is envisaged as an international collaboration. It is hoped that Australia will fund the telescope, with instruments, logistics and other aspects of the project contributed by international partners. A detailed science case for PILOT has been published, and a number of design studies for the telescope have been completed or are under way.

  10. Large Binocular Telescope Adaptive Optics System: New achievements and perspectives in adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Agapito, Guido; Busoni, Lorenzo; Fini, Luca; Argomedo, Javier; Gherardi, Alessandro; Brusa, Guido; Miller, Douglas; Guerra, Juan Carlos; Stefanini, Paolo; Salinari, Piero; 10.1117/12.898641

    2012-01-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is a unique telescope featuring two co-mounted optical trains with 8.4m primary mirrors. The telescope Adaptive Optics (AO) system uses two innovative key components, namely an adaptive secondary mirror with 672 actuators and a high-order pyramid wave-front sensor. During the on-sky commissioning such a system reached performances never achieved before on large ground-based optical telescopes. Images with 40mas resolution and Strehl Ratios higher than 80% have been acquired in H band (1.6 micron). Such images showed a contrast as high as 10e-4. Based on these results, we compare the performances offered by a Natural Guide Star (NGS) system upgraded with the state-of-the-art technology and those delivered by existing Laser Guide Star (LGS) systems. The comparison, in terms of sky coverage and performances, suggests rethinking the current role ascribed to NGS and LGS in the next generation of AO systems for the 8-10 meter class telescopes and Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs)...

  11. The Next Generation UV-Visible-IR Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Garth D.

    1990-01-01

    A large 10-16 m passively-cooled, diffraction-limited, filled-aperture space telescope would have unprecedented power for tackling a wide range of the most fundamental astrophysical problems, from the detection of earth-like planets to the structure of galaxies and protogalaxies at redshifts z > 1. The telescope would have a lightweight, segmented primary with active wavefront sensing and control for diffraction-limited performance into the UV. The structure and optics would be passively-cooled to 100 K, lowering the background in the 3-4 micron zodiacal "window" to less than 10-6 of that from the ground. State-of-the-art mosaics of detectors would give diffraction-limited imaging and spectroscopy over a field of > 2 arcmin from 0.3 microns to beyond 10 microns, and nearly 1 arcmin in the UV. The observatory would combine remarkable imaging performance, with resolutions ranging from a few mas in the UV to some 40-60 mas in the zodiacal "window" at 3 microns, and with even greater capability for spectrographic observations of faint and/or low surface brightness objects at the highest spatial resolution. The rationale for such an observatory is discussed in the light of HST and the other Great Observatories, and of expected gains in ground-based telescopes and computing capability. The importance of moving into concept development, and to technology development and evaluation programs, is highlighted within the context of the very long lead times for such missions to come to fruition. The importance of the new optics and structures technologies in breaking away from our current cost curve for large missions, and the potential gains from an enhanced national commitment to space are noted.

  12. High Precision Assembly of Thin Mirror X-ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    Lightweight high resolution x-ray telescope optics are one of the key technologies under development for next-generation x-ray telescopes. The ultimate goal of this effort is to realize optics with spatial resolution rivaling Chandra (spindle structure. While very light weight, this process resulted in ~1 arc min resolution. We want to achieve ~100 times better with similar mass. A group at NASA GSFC has recently demonstrated an alternative thin-glass assembly procedure that has achieved ~7 arc sec resolution with x-ray tests. Further progress towards 1 arc-sec will require mirrors with improved figure, lower stress coatings, improved alignment, better metrology, and low stress bonding. Many of the difficulties with current mirror assembly practice stem from the use of epoxy as a bonding agent. Epoxy has many disadvantages, including high shrinkage, large CTE and creep, resin aging effects, water absorption, outgassing, low tensile strength, exothermicity, and requiring large amounts of time and/or heat to cure. These effects can cause errors that become â€oefrozen in― to the bond with no possibility of correction. We propose to investigate replacing epoxy with low temperature, low shrinkage solder alloys. We use these solders in conjunction with high power, millisec-long pulses from a fiber IR laser to deliver controlled amounts of heat into the bond area. We have demonstrated that laser pulses can be used to actuate carefully designed bonds by permanently compressing or expanding a very thin and brief surface melt in the solder by amounts controlled in the nanoscale range, allowing post assembly correction of the mirror mount points. We believe this technology will be one of the keys to realize a sub-1 arc-sec thin-glass x-ray telescope.

  13. A Pointing Solution for the Medium Size Telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Tiziani, D; Oakes, L; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of the calibration of the Cherenkov Telescope Array is the pointing, which enables an exact alignment of each telescope and therefore allows to transform a position in the sky to a point in the plane of the Cherenkov camera and vice versa. The favoured approach for the pointing calibration of the medium size telescopes (MST) is the installation of an optical CCD-camera in the dish of the telescope that captures the position of the Cherenkov camera and of the stars in the night sky simultaneously during data taking. The adaption of this approach is presented in this proceeding.

  14. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.

  15. Extremely Large Telescope Project Selected in ESFRI Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    In its first Roadmap, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) choose the European Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), for which ESO is presently developing a Reference Design, as one of the large scale projects to be conducted in astronomy, and the only one in optical astronomy. The aim of the ELT project is to build before the end of the next decade an optical/near-infrared telescope with a diameter in the 30-60m range. ESO PR Photo 40/06 The ESFRI Roadmap states: "Extremely Large Telescopes are seen world-wide as one of the highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. They will vastly advance astrophysical knowledge allowing detailed studies of inter alia planets around other stars, the first objects in the Universe, super-massive Black Holes, and the nature and distribution of the Dark Matter and Dark Energy which dominate the Universe. The European Extremely Large Telescope project will maintain and reinforce Europe's position at the forefront of astrophysical research." Said Catherine Cesarsky, Director General of ESO: "In 2004, the ESO Council mandated ESO to play a leading role in the development of an ELT for Europe's astronomers. To that end, ESO has undertaken conceptual studies for ELTs and is currently also leading a consortium of European institutes engaged in studying enabling technologies for such a telescope. The inclusion of the ELT in the ESFRI roadmap, together with the comprehensive preparatory work already done, paves the way for the next phase of this exciting project, the design phase." ESO is currently working, in close collaboration with the European astronomical community and the industry, on a baseline design for an Extremely Large Telescope. The plan is a telescope with a primary mirror between 30 and 60 metres in diameter and a financial envelope of about 750 m Euros. It aims at more than a factor ten improvement in overall performance compared to the current leader in ground based astronomy: the ESO Very Large

  16. Overview of segmented glass optics development for the Constellation-X hard X-ray telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailey, C.J; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.;

    2002-01-01

    We report recent work on segmented glass optics for the Constellation-H hard x-ray telescope. This effort seeks to both improve the figure of the free-standing glass substrates, and to refine a newly-developed mounting technology for the substrates. We discuss metrology on recently characterized...

  17. Modelling, simulation and testing of an optomechatronics design of a large radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, B. Y.; Qiu, Y. Y.; Su, Y. X.; Wang, W. L.; Nan, R. D.; Peng, B.

    An innovative design for a feed support structure for the next generation large radio telescope, based on the idea of integrating mechanical, electronic and optical technologies (OPTOMECHATRONICS), is considered. Theoretical analyses and simulations are carried out. A 5 m experimental model is built to demonstrate the idea.

  18. "Amazing Space": Creating Educational Resources from Current Scientific Research Results from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, C. A.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, Jonathan; Teays, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Amazing Space program which is designed to enhance student mathematics, science, and technology skills using recent data and results from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Hubble Space Telescope mission. Explains the process of designing multi-media resources in a five-week summer workshop that partners…

  19. Thermal forming of glass microsheets for x-ray telescope mirror segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Hailey, C.J.; Craig, W.W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a technology to mass-produce ultrathin mirror substrates for x-ray telescopes of near Wolter-I geometry. Thermal glass forming is a low-cost method to produce high-throughput, spaceborne x-ray mirrors for the 0.1-200-keV energy band. These substrates can provide the collecting area...

  20. Application of an EMCCD camera for calibration of hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Pivovaro, Michael J.; Craig, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological innovations make it feasible to construct effcient hard x-ray telescopes for space-based astronomical missions. Focusing optics are capable of improving the sensitivity in the energy range above 10 keV by orders of magnitude compared to previously used instruments. The last d...

  1. Open-structure composite mirrors for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Dyrda, Michal; Niemiec, Jacek; Stodulski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy will comprise several tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) of different size with a total reflective area of about 10,000 m$^2$. Here we present a new technology for the production of IACT mirrors that has been developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS in Krakow, Poland. An open-structure composite mirror consists of a rigid flat sandwich support structure and cast-in-mould spherical epoxy resin layer. To this layer a thin glass sheet complete with optical coating is cold-slumped to provide the spherical reflective layer of the mirror. The main components of the sandwich support structure are two flat float glass panels inter spaced with V-shape aluminum spacers of equal length. The sandwich support structure is open, thus enabling good cooling and ventilation of the mirror. A special arrangement of the aluminum spacers also prohibits water being trapped inside. The open-structure technology thus re...

  2. Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, P.; Zerbi, F. M.; Norrie, C. J.; Cunningham, C. R.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Bianco, A.; Blanche, P. A.; Bougoin, M.; Ghigo, M.; Hartmann, P.; Zago, L.; Atad-Ettedgui, E.; Delabre, B.; Dekker, H.; Melozzi, M.; Snÿders, B.; Takke, R.

    2006-08-01

    We describe and summarize the optical challenges for future instrumentation for Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). Knowing the complex instrumental requirements is crucial for the successful design of 30-60 m aperture telescopes. After all, the success of ELTs will heavily rely on its instrumentation and this, in turn, will depend on the ability to produce large and ultra-precise optical components like light-weight mirrors, aspheric lenses, segmented filters, and large gratings. New materials and manufacturing processes are currently under study, both at research institutes and in industry. In the present paper, we report on its progress with particular emphasize on volume-phase-holographic gratings, photochromic materials, sintered silicon-carbide mirrors, ion-beam figuring, ultra-precision surfaces, and free-form optics. All are promising technologies opening new degrees of freedom to optical designers. New optronic-mechanical systems will enable efficient use of the very large focal planes. We also provide exploratory descriptions of ``old'' and ``new'' optical technologies together with suggestions to instrument designers to overcome some of the challenges placed by ELT instrumentation.

  3. New Control Software of the 188cm Telescope of Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Etsuji; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Uraguchi, Fumihiro

    2002-12-01

    We developed the telescope control software for the 188cm telescope of Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO) based on Java technology. Basically, the software consists of two processes running on separate Java virtual machines; one of which is the "Command Dispatcher (CD)" and the other is the "User Interface (UI)". Among the two, CD is the main engine/server of the telescope control, whereas UI is just a client. The "standard" UI we provide is a graphical user interface written in Java/Swing. CD communicates with the local control units (LCUs) of the telescope through RS232C. CD is a Java multi-thread program, in which a number of threads run simultaneously. The threads running in CD are the follows: UNIX socket servers for external communications, socket opener for on-demand open/close of a socket port, socket client manager, auto-guider and dome watcher, internal command dispatcher, status manager, status collector, RS232C writer and reader, logger, and control units. The above "control units" are software models ("objects") of the telescope system. We introduced four control units- "Telescope", "Dome", "Weather-Monitor", and "Pointing"- for telescope control. The first three units are simple software models of the real-worlds devices. The last one, "Pointing", is a unit which abstracts pointing procedure of the telescope. CD and UI communicate with each other using UNIX socket. The command protocol of this communication is fairly simple, and observation instruments, auto guider, or additional UI for remote observation are also able to communicate with CD through socket using this protocol. CD opens and closes socket ports for communication on demand according to the request of client process (UI, instruments etc.), so that any clients can be connected to CD dynamically.

  4. Customized overhead cranes for installation of India's largest 3.6m optical telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangia, Tarun; Yadava, Shobhit; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghanti, A. S.; Hardikar, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    India's largest 3.6 m aperture optical telescope facility has been recently established at Devasthal site by Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observation Sciences (ARIES), an autonomous Institute under Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. The telescope is equipped with active optics and it is designed to be used for seeinglimited observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. A steel building with rotating cylindrical steel Dome was erected to house 3.6m telescope and its accessories at hilltop of Devasthal site. Customized cranes were essentially required inside the building as there were space constraints around the telescope building for operating big external heavy duty cranes from outside, transportation constraints in route for bringing heavy weight cranes, altitude of observatory, and sharp bends etc. to site. To meet the challenge of telescope installation from inside the telescope building by lifting components through its hatch, two Single Girder cranes and two Under Slung cranes of 10 MT capacity each were specifically designed and developed. All the four overhead cranes were custom built to achieve the goal of handling telescope mirror and its various components during installation and assembly. Overhead cranes were installed in limited available space inside the building and tested as per IS 3177. Cranes were equipped with many features like VVVFD compatibility, provision for tandem operation, digital load display, anti-collision mechanism, electrical interlocks, radio remote, low hook height and compact carriage etc. for telescope integration at site.

  5. AMTD: Update of Engineering Specifications Derived from Science Requirements for Future UVOIR Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Mosier, Gary; Smith, W. Scott; Blaurock, Carl; Ha, Kong; Stark, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort, initiated in FY12, to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 meter or larger UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND provide a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To give the science community options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. A key task is deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicles and their mass and volume constraints. A key finding of this effort is that the science requires an 8 meter or larger aperture telescope

  6. Deep UV to NIR Space Telescopes and Exoplanet Coronagraphs: A Trade Study on Throughput, Polarization, Mirror Coating Options and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Shaklan, Stuart; Give'on, Amir; Cady, Eric; Marchen, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Exoplanet program and the Cosmic Origins program are exploring technical options to combine the visible to NIR performance requirements of a space coronagraph with the general astrophysics requirements of a space telescope covering the deep UV spectrum. Are there compatible options in terms of mirror coatings and telescope architecture to satisfy both goals? In this paper, we address some of the main concerns, particularly relating to polarization in the visible and throughput in the UV. Telescope architectures employing different coating options compatible with current technology are considered in this trade study.

  7. Hosting the Student Telescope Network First Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M.; Bisque, S. T. M. D.; Stencel, R. E.

    2002-05-01

    The demonstration site for the Student Telescope Network, and for the first practical public-use Internet observatory, as powered by iBisque software, is at New Mexico Skies in southern New Mexico (www.nmskies.com). The observatory site, located approximately 14 miles northeast of the Apache Point Observatory and the Sunspot National Solar Observatory, is at 2,225 meters elevation in the southern Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. It has very dark transparent skies, excellent weather conditions, good seeing and a high proportion of clear photometric nights. The Internet observatory pod concept includes placing multiple telescopes (as many as twelve), in each of several 32-foot roll-off roof observatories. The 14 to 16 inch aperture telescopes, mounted on accurately pointing and tracking Bisque "Paramounts" (www.bisque.com), plus KAF-1001E CCD cameras, are controlled with a browser-based sky-map GUI (patent pending) control system also developed by Software Bisque. We provide detail on the concept and its implementation. As of mid-March, 2002, the first demonstration telescope has been operating nightly for about 60 days. Over 420 users have registered on the telescope server, more than 2,000 images have been taken and their FITS files downloaded to users' computers all over the world. In this and the companion poster, we report our experiences over the period of the February-May (2002) trial period, including technical challenges and performance measures on the Internet observatory's operations. We further detail lessons learned for future development of browser-based Internet observatories for high school/college level instructional use, and lessons applicable to the use of Internet-based telescopes for serious astronomical research as well. We thank the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom for a grant to the University of Denver in support of this Internet telescope services pilot project.

  8. New Radio Telescope Makes First Scientific Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The world's two largest radio telescopes have combined to make detailed radar images of the cloud-shrouded surface of Venus and of a tiny asteroid that passed near the Earth. The images mark the first scientific contributions from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) new Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia, which worked with the NSF's recently-upgraded Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico. The project used the radar transmitter on the Arecibo telescope and the huge collecting areas of both telescopes to receive the echoes. GBT-Arecibo Radar Image of Maxwell Montes on Venus "These images are the first of many scientific contributions to come from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and a great way for it to begin its scientific career," said Paul Vanden Bout, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Our congratulations go to the scientists involved in this project as well as to the hard-working staffs at Green Bank and Arecibo who made this accomplishment possible," Vanden Bout added. To the eye, Venus hides behind a veil of brilliant white clouds, but these clouds can be penetrated by radar waves, revealing the planet's surface. The combination of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), the world's largest fully-steerable radio telescope, and the Arecibo telescope, the world's most powerful radar, makes an unmatched tool for studying Venus and other solar-system bodies. "Having a really big telescope like the new Green Bank Telescope to receive the radar echoes from small asteroids that are really close to the Earth and from very distant objects like Titan, the large moon of Saturn, will be a real boon to radar studies of the solar system." said Cornell University professor Donald Campbell, leader of the research team. Ten years ago, the radar system on NASA's Magellan spacecraft probed though the clouds of Venus to reveal in amazing detail the surface of the Earth's twin planet. These new studies using the GBT and Arecibo, the

  9. Floating sphere telescope: a new design for a 40-m Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco

    2006-06-01

    This paper work reports the results of the Preliminary Design Phase of the Floating Sphere Telescope that has been presented during the AOMATT in Xi'an, China, November 2005. The FST represents a new design for the realization of an ELT with a 40-metre primary mirror. The innovative concept of the structure and the sub-systems that constitute it as well as the use of new materials and technologies allow to obtain an instrument able to comply with very extreme specifications for structure such as ELTs. The structure allows to improve the stiffness to weight ratio of the structure, to introduce higher damping while maintaining under control the construction and maintenance costs. In comparison with the previous study, the following steps have been implemented: • Refining and optimizing the structural design and the FEA model, in particular we have included a realistic model of the constraint provided by the fluid used for flotation by characterization of its viscous and elastic properties in order to estimate the additional modal damping introduced by the flotation as function of fluid properties and geometry. • Designed (and introduced in the FEA model) various types of drives such as friction drives, tensioned ropes in "hexapod" configuration, "gravity" drives (moving ballast) and combinations of them to evaluate potential tracking performances • Designed the necessary connections for various types of utilities (power, data, cooling) • Included in the structural design a more elaborate optical design to satisfy specific science requirements (e.g. multiconjugate AO)

  10. First Steps Toward K-12 Teacher Professional Development Using Internet-based Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Gershun, D.; Slater, T. F.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    How can science teachers become more familiar with emerging technology, excite their students and give students a taste of astronomy research? Astronomy teachers do not always have research experience, so it is difficult for them to convey to students how researchers use telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier to providing teachers with insight into the process. Robotic telescopes (operated automatically with queued observing schedules) and remotely controlled telescopes (controlled by the user via the Internet) allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), and middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005). However, teachers need to be trained to use these resources. Responding to this need, graduate students and faculty at the University of Wyoming and CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are developing teacher professional development programs using Internet-based telescopes. We conducted an online course in the science education graduate program at the University of Wyoming. This course was designed to sample different types of Internet-based telescopes to evaluate them as resources for teacher professional development. The 10 participants were surveyed at the end of the course to assess their experiences with each activity. In addition, pre-test/post-test data were collected focusing specifically on one of the telescopes (Gershun, Berryhill and Slater 2012). Throughout the course, the participants learned to use a variety of robotic and remote telescopes including SLOOH Space Camera (www.slooh.com), Sky Titan Observatory (www

  11. Updated Starshade Technology Gap List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crill, Brendan P.; Siegler, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) guides the development of technology that enables the direct imaging and characterization of exo-Earths in the habitable zone of their stars, for future space observatories. Here we present the Starshade portion of the 2017 ExEP Enabling Technology Gap List, an annual update to ExEP's list of of technology to be advanced in the next 1-5 years. A Starshade is an external occulter on an independent spacecraft, allowing a space telescope to achieve exo-Earth imaging contrast requirements by blocking starlight before it enters the telescope. Building and operating a Starshade requires new technology: the occulter is a structure tens of meters in diameter that must be positioned precisely at a distance of tens of thousands of kilometers from the telescope. We review the current state-of-the-art performance and the performance level that must be achieved for a Starshade.

  12. Knowledge-based engineering of a PLC controlled telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, Wim; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans; Deconinck, Geert

    2016-08-01

    As the new control system of the Mercator Telescope is being finalized, we can review some technologies and design methodologies that are advantageous, despite their relative uncommonness in astronomical instrumentation. Particular for the Mercator Telescope is that it is controlled by a single high-end soft-PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). Using off-the-shelf components only, our distributed embedded system controls all subsystems of the telescope such as the pneumatic primary mirror support, the hydrostatic bearing, the telescope axes, the dome, the safety system, and so on. We show how real-time application logic can be written conveniently in typical PLC languages (IEC 61131-3) and in C++ (to implement the pointing kernel) using the commercial TwinCAT 3 programming environment. This software processes the inputs and outputs of the distributed system in real-time via an observatory-wide EtherCAT network, which is synchronized with high precision to an IEEE 1588 (PTP, Precision Time Protocol) time reference clock. Taking full advantage of the ability of soft-PLCs to run both real-time and non real-time software, the same device also hosts the most important user interfaces (HMIs or Human Machine Interfaces) and communication servers (OPC UA for process data, FTP for XML configuration data, and VNC for remote control). To manage the complexity of the system and to streamline the development process, we show how most of the software, electronics and systems engineering aspects of the control system have been modeled as a set of scripts written in a Domain Specific Language (DSL). When executed, these scripts populate a Knowledge Base (KB) which can be queried to retrieve specific information. By feeding the results of those queries to a template system, we were able to generate very detailed "browsable" web-based documentation about the system, but also PLC software code, Python client code, model verification reports, etc. The aim of this paper is to

  13. Undergraduate Research with a Small Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, P. L.; Williams, G. J.

    2001-11-01

    We describe the construction of a small radio telescope system at ULM and the role of radio astronomy in undergraduate education. The heart of the system is the Small Radio Telescope (SRT), which is a modified satellite TV antenna and custom receiver purchased from MIT Haystack Observatory. This telescope measures the brightness of many celestial objects at wavelengths near 21 cm. The system consists of various components to control dish movement, as well as perform analog to digital conversions allowing analysis of collected data. Undergraduate students have participated in the construction of the hardware and the task of interfacing the hardware to software on two GNU/Linux computer systems. The construction of the telescope and analysis of data allow the students to employ key concepts from mechanics, optics, electrodynamics, and thermodynamics, as well as computer and electronics skills. We will report preliminary results of solar observations conducted with this instrument and with the MIT Haystack Observatory 37m radio telescope. This work was supported by Louisiana Board of Regents grant LEQSF-ENH-UG-16, NASA/LaSPACE LURA R109139 and ULM Development Foundation Grant 97317.

  14. Simulation and track reconstruction for beam telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Beam telescopes are used for testing new detectors under development. Sensors are placed and a particle beam is passed through them. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, it’s predicted hits on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them don’t account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framew...

  15. Control challenges for extremely large telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2003-08-01

    The next generation of large ground-based optical telescopes are likely to involve a highly segmented primary mirror that must be controlled in the presence of wind and other disturbances, resulting in a new set of challenges for control. The current design concept for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) includes 1080 segments in the primary mirror, with the out-of-plane degrees of freedom actively controlled. In addition to the 3240 primary mirror actuators, the secondary mirror of the telescope will also require at least 5 degree of freedom control. The bandwidth of both control systems will be limited by coupling to structural modes. I discuss three control issues for extremely large telescopes in the context of the CELT design, describing both the status and remaining challenges. First, with many actuators and sensors, the cost and reliability of the control hardware is critical; the hardware requirements and current actuator design are discussed. Second, wind buffeting due to turbulence inside the telescope enclosure is likely to drive the control bandwidth higher, and hence limitations resulting from control-structure-interaction must be understood. Finally, the impact on the control architecture is briefly discussed.

  16. Introduction to the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Ji, H.

    2012-12-01

    In order to detect the fine structures of solar magnetic field and dynamic field, an 8 meter solar telescope has been proposed by Chinese solar community. Due to the advantages of ring structure in polarization detection and thermal control, the current design of CGST (Chinese Giant Solar Telescope) is an 8 meter ring solar telescope. The spatial resolution of CGST is equivalent to an 8 meter diameter telescope, and the light-gathering power equivalent to a 5 meter full aperture telescope. The integrated simulation of optical system and imaging ability such as optical design, MCAO, active maintenance of primary mirror were carried out in this paper. Mechanical system was analyzed by finite element method too. The results of simulation and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demand of most science cases not only in infrared band but also in near infrared band and even in visible band. CGST was proposed by all solar observatories in Chinese Academy of Sciences and several overseas scientists. It is supported by CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  17. Habitable Exoplanet Imager Optical Telescope Concept Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is one of four missions under study for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Its goal is to directly image and spectroscopically characterize planetary systems in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Additionally, HabEx will perform a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by 100 to 2500 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. Critical to achieving the HabEx science goals is a large, ultra-stable UV/Optical/Near-IR (UVOIR) telescope. The baseline HabEx telescope is a 4-meter off-axis unobscured three-mirror-anastigmatic, diffraction limited at 400 nm with wavefront stability on the order of a few 10s of picometers. This paper summarizes the opto-mechanical design of the HabEx baseline optical telescope assembly, including a discussion of how science requirements drive the telescope's specifications, and presents analysis that the baseline telescope structure meets its specified tolerances.

  18. The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchi, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

  19. Schwarzschild-Couder telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: Development of the Optical System

    CERN Document Server

    Rousselle, Julien; Errando, Manel; Humensky, Brian; Mukherjee, Reshmi; Nieto, Daniel; Okumura, Akira; Vassiliev, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is the next generation ground-based experiment for very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations. It will integrate several tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) with different apertures into a single astronomical instrument. The US part of the CTA collaboration has proposed and is developing a novel IACT design with a Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) aplanatic two mirror optical system. In comparison with the traditional single mirror Davies-Cotton IACT the SC telescope, by design, can accommodate a wide field-of-view, with significantly improved imaging resolution. In addition, the reduced plate scale of an SC telescope makes it compatible with highly integrated cameras assembled from silicon photo multipliers. In this submission we report on the status of the development of the SC optical system, which is part of the effort to construct a full-scale prototype telescope of this type at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona.

  20. Single-Mirror Small-Size Telescope structure for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Niemiec, Jacek; Dyrda, Michał; Kochański, Wojciech; Ludwin, Jaromir; Stodulski, Marek; Ziółkowski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    A single-mirror small-size (1M-SST) Davies-Cotton telescope has been proposed for the southern observatory of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) by a consortium of scientific institutions from Poland, Switzerland, and Germany. The telescope has a 4 m diameter reflector and will be equipped with a fully digital camera based on Geiger avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Such a design is particularly interesting for CTA because it represents a very simple, reliable, and cheap solution for a SST. Here we present the design and the characteristics of the mechanical structure of the 1M-SST telescope and its drive system. We also discuss the results of a finite element method analysis in order to demonstrate the conformance of the design with the CTA specifications and scientific objectives. In addition, we report on the current status of the construction of a prototype telescope structure at the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS in Krakow.

  1. The Cherenkov Telescope Array single-mirror small size telescope project: status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszalek, A.; Michalowski, J.; Rameez, M.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowskai, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Winiarski, K.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Źychowski, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory, will consist of three types of telescopes: large (LST), medium (MST) and small (SST) size telescopes. The small size telescopes are dedicated to the observation of gamma-rays with energy between a few TeV and few hundreds of TeV. The single-mirror small size telescope (SST-1M) is one of several SST designs. It will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented mirror dish and a fully digital camera based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Currently, the first prototype of the mechanical structure is under assembly in Poland. In 2014 it will be equipped with 18 mirror facets and a prototype of the camera.

  2. Status of the Schwarzchild-Couder Medium-Sized Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Benbow, W

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next-generation very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray observatory. It is anticipated that CTA will improve upon the sensitivity of the current generation of VHE experiments, such as VERITAS, HESS and MAGIC, by an order of magnitude. CTA is planned to consist of two graded arrays of Cherenkov telescopes with three primary-mirror sizes. A proof-of-concept telescope, based on the dual-mirror Schwarzchild-Couder design, is being constructed on the VERITAS site at the F.L. Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, USA, and is a candidate design for the medium-sized telescopes. The construction of the telescope will be completed in early 2017, and the status of this project is presented here.

  3. The Allen Telescope Array: The First Widefield, Panchromatic, Snapshot Radio Camera for Radio Astronomy and SETI

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Jack; Blitz, Leo; Bock, Douglas; Bower, Geoffrey C; Cheng, Calvin; Croft, Steve; Dexter, Matt; Engargiola, Greg; Fields, Ed; Forster, James; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Heiles, Carl; Helfer, Tamara; Jorgensen, Susanne; Keating, Garrett; Lugten, John; MacMahon, Dave; Milgrome, Oren; Thornton, Douglas; Urry, Lynn; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Werthimer, Dan; Williams, Peter H; Tarter, Melvin Wright Jill; Ackermann, Robert; Atkinson, Shannon; Backus, Peter; Barott, William; Bradford, Tucker; Davis, Michael; DeBoer, Dave; Dreher, John; Harp, Gerry; Jordan, Jane; Kilsdonk, Tom; Pierson, Tom; Randall, Karen; Ross, John; Fleming, Seth Shostak Matt; Cork, Chris; Wadefalk, Artyom Vitouchkine Niklas; Weinreb, Sander

    2009-01-01

    The first 42 elements of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA-42) are beginning to deliver data at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in Northern California. Scientists and engineers are actively exploiting all of the flexibility designed into this innovative instrument for simultaneously conducting surveys of the astrophysical sky and conducting searches for distant technological civilizations. This paper summarizes the design elements of the ATA, the cost savings made possible by the use of COTS components, and the cost/performance trades that eventually enabled this first snapshot radio camera. The fundamental scientific program of this new telescope is varied and exciting; some of the first astronomical results will be discussed.

  4. High Stability Low Scatter Telescope for a Space-based Gravitational Wave Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey; Sankar, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    A laser interferometer space-based gravitational wave observatory requires an optical telescope to efficiently transfer laser light between pairs of widely-separated sciencecraft. The application is precision interferometric metrology, and therefore requires the telescope to have high optical pathlength stability, and low scattered light performance. We discuss the expected on-orbit environment and present the latest design, including materials choice trades, surface roughness and cleanliness requirements, and an optical prescription optimized to reduce scattered light. We will also discuss some of the remaining system-level trades. This work is supported by NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant 14-SAT14-0014.

  5. CIRPASS on the William Herschel Telescope: Measuring the Global Star Formation Rate Over Most of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, A.; Sharp, R.; Doherty, M.; Parry, I.

    2005-12-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) has long been established in the optical, but is still in its infancy at infrared wavelengths. We are still a generation away from IR-MOS instruments on the 8-m class telescopes, but this technology has already been successfully demonstrated on the William Herschel Telescope with the visiting instrument, CIRPASS. This is the "Cambridge Infra-Red Panoramic Survey Spectrograph", built by the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge with the support of PPARC and the Sackler Foundation. CIRPASS works in the J- and H-bands, at wavelengths 1-1.8mm.

  6. An innovative telescope control system architecture for SST-GATE telescopes at the CTA Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasola, Gilles; Mignot, Shan; Laporte, Philippe; Abchiche, Abdel; Buchholtz, Gilles; Jégouzo, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) is a 4-metre telescope designed as a prototype for the Small Size Telescopes (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a major facility for the very high energy gamma-ray astronomy of the next three decades. In this 100-telescope array there will be 70 SSTs, involving a design with an industrial view aiming at long-term service, low maintenance effort and reduced costs. More than a prototype, SST-GATE is also a fully functional telescope that shall be usable by scientists and students at the Observatoire de Meudon for 30 years. The Telescope Control System (TCS) is designed to work either as an element of a large array driven by an array controller or in a stand-alone mode with a remote workstation. Hence it is built to be autonomous with versatile interfacing; as an example, pointing and tracking —the main functions of the telescope— are managed onboard, including astronomical transformations, geometrical transformations (e.g. telescope bending model) and drive control. The core hardware is a CompactRIO (cRIO) featuring a real-time operating system and an FPGA. In this paper, we present an overview of the current status of the TCS. We especially focus on three items: the pointing computation implemented in the FPGA of the cRIO —using CORDIC algorithms— since it enables an optimisation of the hardware resources; data flow management based on OPCUA with its specific implementation on the cRIO; and the use of an EtherCAT field-bus for its ability to provide real-time data exchanges with the sensors and actuators distributed throughout the telescope.

  7. The University of Iowa Automated Telescope Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, E. C.; Mutel, R. L.

    We describe a CCD-based automated telescope system in operation at the University of Iowa. Observers initiate observing programs using a simple free-format scripting language for preparing observing requests. The schedule file describes sources, durations, filters and other observing parameters. A telescope scheduling program generates an ordered master observing list for a given night based on priority telescope control daemon then reads the sorted schedule file and issues commands to the hardware control daemons. All CCD images are calibrated (bias, thermal, flat) by default and pattern matched to the Guide Star Catalog, with accurate WCS coordinates written to the FITS header. Additional post-processing tools include an interactive image display and analysis program which supports photometry and astrometry, batch tools to automate supernova searches and time-sequenced photometry, and a stand-alone world coordinate calibration tool. Additional details are available {http://inferno.physics.uiowa.edu} on the WWW.

  8. Accurate Telescope Mount Positioning with MEMS Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Jaskó, A.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the advantages and challenges of applying microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (MEMS accelerometers) in order to attain precise, accurate and stateless positioning of telescope mounts. This provides a completely independent method from other forms of electronic, optical, mechanical or magnetic feedback or real-time astrometry. Our goal is to reach the sub-arcminute range which is well smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. Here we present how this sub-arcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors and we also detail how our procedures can be extended in order to attain even finer measurements. In addition, our paper discusses how can a complete system design be implemented in order to be a part of a telescope control system.

  9. Adaptive Real Time Imaging Synthesis Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Melvyn

    2012-01-01

    The digital revolution is transforming astronomy from a data-starved to a data-submerged science. Instruments such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will measure their accumulated data in petabytes. The capacity to produce enormous volumes of data must be matched with the computing power to process that data and produce meaningful results. In addition to handling huge data rates, we need adaptive calibration and beamforming to handle atmospheric fluctuations and radio frequency interference, and to provide a user environment which makes the full power of large telescope arrays accessible to both expert and non-expert users. Delayed calibration and analysis limit the science which can be done. To make the best use of both telescope and human resources we must reduce the burden of data reduction. Our instrumentation comprises of a flexible correlator, beam former and imager with digital signal processing closely coupled...

  10. New Concept of Hungarian Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, T.; Kiss, Z.; Biro, B.; Jager, Z.

    As the result of a longer innovation of a few Hungarian opto-mechanical and electronic small companies, a concept of fully robotic mounts has been formed some years ago. There are lots of Hungarian Automated Telescopes over the world (in Arizona, South Korea, Izrael and atop Mauna Kea, just below the famous Keck domes). These are cited as HAT telescopes (Bakos et al. 2002), and served thousands of large-frame time-series CCD images since 2004, and the working team found already 6 exoplanets, and a number of new variable stars, etc... The newest idea was to build a more robust robotic mount, hosting larger optics (D > 50 cm) for achieving much fainter celestial objects, than the HAT series (they are operating with Nikon teleobjective lenses) on a still relatively wide celestial area. The very first sample model is the BART-1, a 50cm f/6 telescope.

  11. GREGOR: the New German Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Balthasar, H; Kneer, F; Staude, J; Volkmer, R; Berkefeld, T; Caligari, P; Collados, M; Halbgewachs, C; Heidecke, F; Hofmann, A; Klvana, M; Nicklas, H; Popow, E; Puschmann, K; Schmidt, W; Sobotka, M; Soltau, D; Strassmeier, K; Wittmann, A

    2007-01-01

    GREGOR is a new open solar telescope with an aperture of 1.5m. It replaces the former 45-cm Gregory Coude telescope on the Canary island Tenerife. The optical concept is that of a double Gregory system. The main and the elliptical mirrors are made from a silicon-carbide material with high thermal conductivity. This is important to keep the mirrors on the ambient temperature avoiding local turbulence. GREGOR will be equipped with an adaptive optics system. The new telescope will be ready for operation in 2008. Post-focus instruments in the first stage will be a spectrograph for polarimetry in the near infrared and a 2-dimensional spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot interferometers for the visible.

  12. Telescopic nanotube device for hot nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia M

    2014-12-30

    A device for maintaining a constant tip-surface distance for producing nanolithography patterns on a surface using a telescopic nanotube for hot nanolithography. An outer nanotube is attached to an AFM cantilever opposite a support end. An inner nanotube is telescopically disposed within the outer nanotube. The tip of the inner nanotube is heated to a sufficiently high temperature and brought in the vicinity of the surface. Heat is transmitted to the surface for thermal imprinting. Because the inner tube moves telescopically along the outer nanotube axis, a tip-surface distance is maintained constant due to the vdW force interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  13. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: six years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences-from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface and educational philosophy, summarises achievements and lessons learned and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  14. Evaluating SLOOH Robotic Telescopes for Formal Educational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershun, D.; Berryhill, K. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    The past several years has seen a gradual shift from telescopes being used only by top researchers to a case where educators across the STEM spectrum now have access to quality telescopes. This has been made possible by equipping telescopes to be controlled over the internet, either robotically which requires no human interaction during observation, or remotely which retain full user controllability. Education researchers around the world have recently focused on applications in elementary and secondary education (McKinnon & Geissinger 2002, Sadler et al. 2007). Responding to this paradigm shift, graduate students and faculty at the University of Wyoming and Center for Physic & Astronomy Education Research (www.caperteam.com) are dedicating time to explore this further at the undergraduate level, in order to better advise STEM educators of the most effective technological resources and curriculum development. Current research focuses on evaluating the academic merit of using SLOOH Space Camera in a summer online course offered by the University of Wyoming Outreach Program. SLOOH has robotic telescopes in the Canary Islands and La Dehesa, Chile. This evaluation will provide valuable data on an emerging technology as well as serve to advise future introductory astronomy sections at the University of Wyoming on the use of similar internet-controlled telescopes. The eight-week course exposed nine graduate science education students to basic night sky observing knowledge as well as provided hands-on experience using several robotic and remote observatories1,2,3,4. This mixed-methods case study collected data in the forms of six focus-group recordings, pre- and post-tests from all participants, a post-class survey, and general observations by the lead researcher. Transcripts and comments are coded to determine the most important features of SLOOH, and testing measures are analyzed to gauge the incoming and outgoing knowledge of participants. Analysis of testing measures

  15. The Breadboard Model of the LISA Telescope Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, Stefano; Scheulen, Dietmar; Kemper, Daniel; Sippel, Rudolf; Ende, David

    2012-07-01

    The primary goal of the LISA mission is the detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources in a frequency range of 10-4 to 1 Hz. This requires operational stabilities in the picometer range as well as highly predictable mechanical distortions upon cooling down, outgassing in space, and gravity release. In March 2011 ESA announced a new way forward for the L-class candidate missions, including LISA. ESA and the scientific community are now studying options for European-only missions that offer a significant reduction of the costs, while maintaining their core science objectives. In the context of this reformulation exercise LISA has become the New Gravitational wave Observatory (NGO) [1]. Despite this reformulation, the need for dimensional stability in the picometer range remains valid, and ESA have continued the corresponding LISA Technology Development Activities (TDA’s) also in view of NGO. In such frame Astrium GmbH and xperion (Immenstaad/Friedrichshafen, Germany) have designed and manufactured an ultra-stable CFRP breadboard of the LISA telescope in order to experimentally demonstrate that the structure and the M1 & M2 mirror mounts are fulfilling the LISA requirements in the mission operational thermal environment. Suitable techniques to mount the telescope mirrors and to support the M1 & M2 mirrors have been developed, with the aim of measuring a system CTE of less than 10-7 K-1 during cooling down to -80 °C. Additionally to the stringent mass and stiffness specifications, the required offset design makes the control of relative tilts and lateral displacements between the M1 and M2 mirrors particularly demanding. The thermo-elastic performance of the telescope assembly is going to be experimentally verified by TNO (Delft, The Netherlands) starting from the second half of 2012. This paper addresses challenges faced in the design phase, and shows the resulting hardware.

  16. The ANTARES telescope neutrino alert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-03-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated for special events, such as two or more neutrinos, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos of very high energy.

  17. The ANTARES Telescope Neutrino Alert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ageron, M; Samarai, I Al; Albert, A; André, M; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; Jesus, A C Assis; Astraatmadja, T; Aubert, J-J; Baret, B; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bigi, A; Bigongiari, C; Bogazzi, C; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouhou, B; Bouwhuis, M C; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Camarena, F; Capone, A; Cârloganu, C; Carminati, G; Carr, J; Cecchini, S; Charif, Z; Charvis, Ph; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Curtil, C; Decowski, M P; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti, Q; Drouhin, D; Eberl, T; Emanuele, U; Enzenöfer, A; Ernenwein, J-P; Escoffier, S; Fermani, P; Ferri, M; Flaminio, V; Folger, F; Fritsch, U; Fuda, J-L; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Giacomelli, G; Giordano, V; Gòmez-González, J; Graf, K; Guillard, G; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G; van Haren, H; Hartman, J; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Hößl, J; Hsu, C C; de Jong, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kavatsyuk, O; Kooijman, P; Kopper, C; Kouchner, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lamar, P; Larosa, G; Lattuada, D; Lefèvre, D; Lim, G; Presti, D Lo; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Meli, A; Montaruli, T; Moscoso, L; Motz, H; Neff, M; Nezri, E; Palioselitis, D; Păvălaş, G E; Payet, K; Payre, P; Petrovic, J; Piattelli, P; Picot-Clemente, N; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Presani, E; Racca, C; Reed, C; Richardt, C; Richter, R; Rivière, C; Robert, A; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Ruiz-Rivas, J; Rujoiu, M; Russo, G V; Salesa, F; Sapienza, P; Schöck, F; Schuller, J-P; Schüssler, F; Shanidze, R; Simeone, F; Spies, A; Spuriol, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Sànchez-Losa, A; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Toscano, S; Vallage, B; Van Elewyck, V; Vannoni, G; Vecchi, M; Vernin, P; Wijnker, G; Wilms, J; de Wolf, E; Yepes, H; Zaborov, D; Zornoza, J D; Zùñiga, J

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated for special events, such as two or more neutrinos, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos of very high energy.

  18. The 10 Meter South Pole Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Carlstrom, J. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Busetti, S.; Chang, C. L.; Chauvin, E; Cho, H. -M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Halverson, N. W.; Heimsath, S.; Holzapfel, W. L.

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, multi-color, millimeter-wave, bolometer camera. It is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Antarctica. The design of the SPT emphasizes careful control of spillover and scattering, to minimize noise and false signals due to ground pickup. The key initial project is a large-area survey at wavelengths of 3, 2 and 1.3 mm, to detect clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zeldov...

  19. Autonomous Dome for a Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Sengupta, A.; Ganesh, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50 cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu (Rajsthan, India). This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of the Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5 m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  20. SOAR Telescope seismic performance II: seismic mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Jonathan H.; Muñoz, Freddy; Warner, Michael; Rivera, Rossano; Martínez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    We describe design modifications to the SOAR telescope intended to reduce the impact of future major earthquakes, based on the facility's experience during recent events, most notably the September 2015 Illapel earthquake. Specific modifications include a redesign of the encoder systems for both azimuth and elevation, seismic trigger for the emergency stop system, and additional protections for the telescope secondary mirror system. The secondary mirror protection may combine measures to reduce amplification of seismic vibration and "fail-safe" components within the assembly. The status of these upgrades is presented.

  1. Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (WFAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Guy; Ofek, Eran Oded; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Manulis, Ilan; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Diner, Oz; Rappaport, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (W-FAST) is an experiment designed to explore variability on sub-second time scales. When completed it will consist of two robotic 55-cm f/2 Schmidt telescopes. The optics is capable of providing $\\sim0.5$" image quality over 23 deg$^2$. The focal plane will be equipped with fast readout, low read-noise sCMOS detectors. The first generation focal plane is expected to have 6.2 deg$^2$ field of view. WFAST is designed to study occultations by solar system objects (KBOs and Oort cloud objects), short time scale stellar variability, and high resolution imaging via proper coaddition.

  2. Recent Results from the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope is located in the Mediterranean Sea about 40 km from Toulon at a depth of 2475 m. In its 12 line configuration it has almost 900 photomultipliers in 295 floors. The performance of the detector is discussed and several results are presented, including the measurements of downgoing muons, atmospheric neutrinos, search for a diffuse flux of high energy muon neutrinos, search for cosmic point sources of neutrinos, multi messenger astronomy, searches for fast magnetic monopoles and slow nuclearites. A short discussion is also made on Earth and Sea Science studies with a neutrino telescope.

  3. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritschler, Alexandra; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Berukoff, Steven

    2016-05-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is a versatile high resolution ground-based solar telescope designed to explore the dynamic Sun and its magnetism throughout the solar atmosphere from the photosphere to the faint corona. The DKIST is currently under construction on Haleakala, Maui, Hawai'i, and expected to commence with science operations in 2019. In this contribution we provide an overview of the high-level science operations concepts from proposal preparation and submission to the flexible and dynamic planning and execution of observations.

  4. Telescope Bernard Lyot: operation, instrumentation, perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanac, R.

    2016-12-01

    This talk is the TBL director report at the 3rd French national telescopes Users Meeting of 2016. Telescope Bernard Lyot, the 2-m at Pic du midi (2870m), is dedicated to spectro-polarimetric studies since 2007 with the instrument Narval. This paper presents TBL operation, science highlights and statistics of the past 10 years of operation. It also opens perspectives for the coming 10 years with the funding of Neo-Narval (Narval stabilized to v_r Pic du midi (aka SPIP) for the study of the young exoplanetary systems.

  5. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, R. O.; Frazier, J.; Nein, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture telescope for imaging the stellar ultraviolet spectrum from the lunar surface. The aspects of Lute's educational value and the information it can provide on designing for the long-term exposure to the lunar environment are important considerations. This paper briefly summarizes the status of the phase A study by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) LUTE Task Team. The primary focus will be a discussion of the merits of LUTE as a small and relatively inexpensive project that benefits a wide spectrum of interests and could be operating on the lunar surface by the turn of the century.

  6. Global TIE Observatories: Real Time Observational Astronomy Through a Robotic Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G.; Mayo, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomy in grades K-12 is traditionally taught (if at all) using textbooks and a few simple hands-on activities. Teachers are generally not trained in observational astronomy techniques and are unfamiliar with the most basic astronomical concepts. In addition, most students, by High School graduation, will never have even looked through the eyepiece of a telescope. The problem becomes even more challenging in inner cities, remote rural areas and low socioeconomic communities where educational emphasis on topics in astronomy as well as access to observing facilities is limited or non existent. Access to most optical telescope facilities is limited to monthly observing nights that cater to a small percentage of the general public living near the observatory. Even here, the observing experience is a one-time event detached from the process of scientific enquiry and sustained educational application. Additionally, a number of large, "research grade" observatory facilities are largely unused, partially due to the slow creep of light pollution around the facilities as well as the development of newer, more capable telescopes. Though cutting edge science is often no longer possible at these sights, real research opportunities in astronomy remain numerous for these facilities as educational tools. The possibility now exists to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible through classrooms, after school, and community based programs all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. The NASA sponsored Telescopes In Education project has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy

  7. The camera of the fifth H.E.S.S. telescope. Part I: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolmont, J., E-mail: bolmont@in2p3.fr [LPNHE, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Université Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Corona, P.; Gauron, P.; Ghislain, P.; Goffin, C.; Guevara Riveros, L.; Huppert, J.-F.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Nayman, P.; Parraud, J.-M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, D.; Vincent, P. [LPNHE, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Université Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Bertoli, W.; Espigat, P.; Punch, M. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Besin, D.; Delagnes, E.; Glicenstein, J.-F. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2014-10-11

    In July 2012, as the four ground-based gamma-ray telescopes of the H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) array reached their tenth year of operation in Khomas Highlands, Namibia, a fifth telescope took its first data as part of the system. This new Cherenkov detector, comprising a 614.5 m{sup 2} reflector with a highly pixelized camera in its focal plane, improves the sensitivity of the current array by a factor two and extends its energy domain down to a few tens of GeV. The present part I of the paper gives a detailed description of the fifth H.E.S.S. telescope's camera, presenting the details of both the hardware and the software, emphasizing the main improvements as compared to previous H.E.S.S. camera technology.

  8. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  9. A secure and reliable monitor and control system for remote observing with the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gary; Souccar, Kamal; Malin, Daniella

    2004-09-01

    Remote access to telescope monitor and control capabilities necessitates strict security mechanisms to protect the telescope and instruments from malicious or unauthorized use, and to prevent data from being stolen, altered, or corrupted. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) monitor and control system (LMTMC) utilizes the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) middleware technology to connect remote software components. The LMTMC provides reliable and secure remote observing by automatically generating SSLIOP enabled CORBA objects. TAO, the ACE open source Object Request Broker (ORB), now supports secure communications by implementing the Secure Socket Layer Inter-ORB Protocol (SSLIOP) as a pluggable protocol. This capability supplies the LMTMC with client and server authentication, data integrity, and encryption. Our system takes advantage of the hooks provided by TAO SSLIOP to implement X.509 certificate based authorization. This access control scheme includes multiple authorization levels to enable granular access control.

  10. The camera of the fifth H.E.S.S. telescope. Part I: System description

    CERN Document Server

    Bolmont, J; Gauron, P; Ghislain, P; Goffin, C; Riveros, L Guevara; Huppert, J -F; Martineau-Huynh, O; Nayman, P; Parraud, J -M; Tavernet, J -P; Toussenel, F; Vincent, D; Vincent, P; Bertoli, W; Espigat, P; Punch, M; Besin, D; Delagnes, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Moudden, Y; Venault, P; Zaghia, H; Brunetti, L; Dubois, J-M; Fiasson, A; Geffroy, N; Monteiro, I Gomes; Journet, L; Krayzel, F; Lamanna, G; Flour, T Le; Lees, S; Lieunard, B; Maurin, G; Mugnier, P; Panazol, J-L; Prast, J; Chounet, L -M; Edy, E; Fontaine, G; Giebels, B; Hormigos, S; Khélifi, B; Manigot, P; Maritaz, P; de Naurois, M; Compin, M; Feinstein, F; Fernandez, D; Mehault, J; Rivoire, S; Royer, S; Sanguillon, M; Vasileiadis, G

    2013-01-01

    In July 2012, as the four ground-based gamma-ray telescopes of the H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) array reached their tenth year of operation in Khomas Highlands, Namibia, a fifth telescope took its first data as part of the system. This new Cherenkov detector, comprising a 614.5 m$^2$ reflector with a highly pixellized camera in its focal plane, improves the sensitivity of the current array by a factor two and extends its energy domain down to a few tens of GeV. The present part I of the paper gives a detailed description of the fifth H.E.S.S. telescope's camera, presenting the details of both the hardware and the software, emphasizing the main improvements as compared to previous H.E.S.S. camera technology.

  11. The field stabilization and adaptive optics mirrors for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernet, Elise; Jochum, Lieselotte; La Penna, Paolo; Hubin, Norbert; Muradore, Riccardo; Casalta, Joan Manel; Kjelberg, Ivar; Sinquin, Jean-Christophe; Locre, Frédéric; Morin, Pierre; Cousty, Raphaël; Lurçon, Jean-Marie; Roland, Jean-Jacques; Crepy, Bruno; Gabriel, Eric; Biasi, Roberto; Andrighettoni, Mario; Angerer, Gerald; Gallieni, Daniele; Mantegazza, Marco; Tintori, Matteo; Molinari, Emilio; Tresoldi, Daniela; Toso, Giorgio; Spanó, Paolo; Riva, Marco; Crimi, Giuseppe; Riccardi, Armando; Marque, Gilles; Carel, Jean-Louis; Ruch, Eric

    2008-07-01

    A 42 meters telescope does require adaptive optics to provide few milli arcseconds resolution images. In the current design of the E-ELT, M4 provides adaptive correction while M5 is the field stabilization mirror. Both mirrors have an essential role in the E-ELT telescope strategy since they do not only correct for atmospheric turbulence but have also to cancel part of telescope wind shaking and static aberrations. Both mirrors specifications have been defined to avoid requesting over constrained requirements in term of stroke, speed and guide stars magnitude. Technical specifications and technological issues are discussed in this article. Critical aspects and roadmap to assess the feasibility of such mirrors are outlined.

  12. NPT: a large-aperture telescope for high dynamic range astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Robert D.; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Coulter, Roy; Ftaclas, Christo; Graves, J. Elon; Hull, Charles L.; Jewitt, D.; Mickey, Donald L.; Moretto, Gilberto; Neill, Doug; Northcott, Malcolm J.; Roddier, Claude A.; Roddier, Francois J.; Siegmund, Walter A.; Owen, Tobias C.

    2000-06-01

    All existing night-time astronomical telescopes, regardless of aperture, are blind to an important part of the universe - the region around bright objects. Technology now exist to build an unobscured 6.5 m aperture telescope which will attain coronagraphic sensitivity heretofore unachieved. A working group hosted by the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy has developed plans for a New Planetary Telescope which will permit astronomical observations which have never before ben possible. In its narrow-field mode the off-axis optical design, combined with adaptive optics, provides superb coronagraphic capabilities, and a very low thermal IR background. These make it ideal for studies of extra-solar planets and circumstellar discs, as well as for general IR astronomy. In its wide-field mode the NPT provides a 2 degree diameter field for surveys of Kuiper Belt Objects and Near-Earth Objects, surveys central to current intellectual interests in solar system astronomy.

  13. B-Machine Polarimeter: A Telescope to Measure the Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    The B-Machine Telescope is the culmination of several years of development, construction, characterization and observation. The telescope is a departure from standard polarization chopping of correlation receivers to a half wave plate technique. Typical polarimeters use a correlation receiver to chop the polarization signal to overcome the $1/f$ noise inherent in HEMT amplifiers. B-Machine uses a room temperature half wave plate technology to chop between polarization states and measure the polarization signature of the CMB. The telescope has a demodulated $1/f$ knee of 5 mHz and an average sensitivity of 1.6 $\\mathrm{mK}\\sqrt{\\mathrm{s}}$. This document examines the construction, characterization, observation of astronomical sources, and data set analysis of B-Machine. Preliminary power spectra and sky maps with large sky coverage for the first year data set are included.

  14. B-machine polarimeter: A telescope to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian Dean

    The B-Machine Telescope is the culmination of several years of development, construction, characterization and observation. The telescope is a departure from standard polarization chopping of correlation receivers to a half wave plate technique. Typical polarimeters use a correlation receiver to chop the polarization signal to overcome the 1/f noise inherent in HEMT amplifiers. B-Machine uses a room temperature half wave plate technology to chop between polarization states and measure the polarization signature of the CMB. The telescope has a demodulated 1/f knee of 5 mHz and an average sensitivity of 1.6 mK s . This document examines the construction, characterization, observation of astronomical sources, and data set analysis of B-Machine. Preliminary power spectra and sky maps with large sky coverage for the first year data set are included.

  15. 4 m Davies-Cotton telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Moderski, R; Barnacka, A; Basili, A; Boccone, V; Bogacz, L; Cadoux, F; Christov, A; Della Volpe, M; Dyrda, M; Frankowski, A; Grudzińska, M; Janiak, M; Karczewski, M; Kasperek, J; Kochański, W; Korohoda, P; Kozioł, J; Lubiński, P; Ludwin, J; Lyard, E; Marszałek, A; Michałowski, J; Montaruli, T; Nicolau-Kukliński, J; Niemiec, J; Ostrowski, M; Płatos, Ł; Rajda, P J; Rameez, M; Romaszkan, W; Rupiński, M; Seweryn, K; Stodulska, M; Stodulski, M; Walter, R; Winiarski, K; Wiśniewski, Ł; Zagdański, A; Zietara, K; Ziółkowski, P; Żychowski, P

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory. It will consist of three classes of telescopes, of large, medium and small sizes. The small telescopes, of 4 m diameter, will be dedicated to the observations of the highest energy gamma-rays, above several TeV. We present the technical characteristics of a single mirror, 4 m diameter, Davies-Cotton telescope for the CTA and the performance of the sub-array consisting of the telescopes of this type. The telescope will be equipped with a fully digital camera based on custom made, hexagonal Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. The development of cameras based on such devices is an RnD since traditionally photomultipliers are used. The photodiodes are now being characterized at various institutions of the CTA Consortium. Glass mirrors will be used, although an alternative is being considered: composite mirrors that could be adopted if they meet the project requirements. We present a design of the telescope structure,...

  16. Research on modern test system for resolution of white-light sighting telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ru-guang; Xiao, Zuo-jiang; An, Zhi-yong; Wen, Pei-pei; Zhang, Xin-ting

    2013-12-01

    Resolution is one of the important indexes of examining optical sighting telescope performance. Traditional and subjective test methods generally adopted auxiliary visual instrument reading to achieve resolution test, which was greatly affected by subjective factors, and easy fatigue affected test precision, and it didn't objectively and quantitatively reflect the resolution of measured sighting telescope. Taking aim at the test requirements, on the basis of overcoming the shortcomings of traditional and subjective test methods, and this paper designed a set of modern test system for resolution of white-light sighting telescope, which employed automatic focusing technology, CCD imaging technology, precision machinery technology, automatic control technology and computer image acquisition technology. Through automatic focusing of zoom lens and man-computer interaction, computer displayed and saved results automatically, which eliminated subjective error of the traditional and subjective test method. The experimental results showed that the test precision of resolution was 0.24″, which achieved the technical specification less than 0.5″, and the test accuracy was ensured.

  17. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    only observed relatively near celestial objects, like the planets in our solar system, but also looked thousands of millions of light years into space, taking images of the most distant galaxies ever seen. "The observations and spectral measurements taken with Hubble have improved our understanding of the origin and age of the universe. In some cases, the Hubble Space Telescope has already changed our thinking about the evolution of planetary systems, stars and galaxies," points out Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. Astronomers throughout the world are using the telescope. European astronomers have a significant share in the scientific utilisation of Hubble. The Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, USA, coordinates and schedules the various observations. Europe's centre for coordinating observations from Hubble, the Space Telescope European Coordination Facility, is located at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) at Garching, near Munich, Germany. The Hubble Space Telescope is the first spacecraft ever built that has been designed for extensive in-orbit maintenance and refurbishment by astronauts. Unlike other satellites launched on unmanned rockets, Hubble is accessible by astronauts in orbit. It has numerous grapple fixtures and handholds for ease of access and the safety of astronauts. Hence the telescope's planned 15-year continuous operating time, despite the harsh environmental conditions, and the ability to upgrade it with more powerful instruments as technology progresses. At regular intervals of 3 to 4 years, the US Space Shuttle visits the telescope in orbit to replace components which have failed or reached the nominal end of their operational lifetime and to replace and upgrade instruments with newer, better ones. STS-104 will be the third Hubble servicing mission, after STS-61 in December 1993 and STS-82 in February 1997. To increase Hubble's scientific capability, Nicollier and his fellow crew members from NASA

  18. On-site mirror facet condensation measurements for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipold, J., E-mail: jessica.dipold@gmail.com [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medina, M.C. [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía, CCT La Plata-CONICET (Argentina); García, B. [Instituto en Tecnologías de Detección y Astropartículas, CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM (Argentina); Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, FR-Mendoza (Argentina); Rasztocky, E. [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía, CCT La Plata-CONICET (Argentina); Mancilla, A.; Maya, J. [Instituto en Tecnologías de Detección y Astropartículas, CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM (Argentina); Larrarte, J.J. [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía, CCT La Plata-CONICET (Argentina); Souza, V. de [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-09-11

    The Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique (IACT) has provided very important discoveries in Very High Energy (VHE) γ-ray astronomy for the last two decades, being exploited mainly by experiments such as H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. The same technique will be used by the next generation of γ-ray telescopes, Cherenkov Telescope Array – CTA, which is conceived to be an Observatory composed by two arrays strategically placed in both hemispheres, one in the Northern and one in the Southern. Each site will consist of several tens of Cherenkov telescopes of different sizes and will be equipped with about 10000 m{sup 2} of reflective surface. Because of its large size, the reflector of a Cherenkov telescope is composed of many individual mirror facets. Cherenkov telescopes operate without any protective system from weather conditions therefore it is important to understand how the reflective surfaces behave under different environmental conditions. This paper describes a study of the behavior of the mirrors in the presence of water vapor condensation. The operational time of a telescope is reduced by the presence of condensation on the mirror surface, therefore, to control and to monitor the formation of condensation is an important issue for IACT observatories. We developed a method based on pictures of the mirrors to identify the areas with water vapor condensation. The method is presented here and we use it to estimate the time and area two mirrors had condensation when exposed to the environmental conditions in the Argentinean site. The study presented here shows important guidelines in the selection procedure of mirror technologies and shows an innovative monitoring tool to be used in future Cherenkov telescopes.

  19. AsteroidFinder - The Space-Borne Telescope to Search for NEO Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, M.; Mosebach, H.; Schubert, J.; Michaelis, H.; Mottola, S.; Kührt, E.; Schindler, K.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the mission profile as well as the optical configuration of the space-borne AsteroidFinder telescope. Its main objective is to retrieve asteroids with orbits interior to the earth's orbit. The instrument requires high sensitivity to detect asteroids with a limiting magnitude of equal or larger than 18.5mag (V-Band) and astrometric accuracy of 1arcsec (1σ). This requires a telescope aperture greater than 400cm2, high image stability, detector with high quantum efficiency (peak > 90%) and very low noise, which is only limited by zodiacal background. The telescope will observe the sky between 30° and 60° in solar elongation. The telescope optics is based on a Cook type TMA. An effective 2°×2° field of view (FOV) is achieved by a fast F/3.4 telescope with near diffraction-limited performance. The absence of centre obscuration or spiders in combination with an accessible intermediate field plane and exit pupil allow for efficient stray light mitigation. Design drivers for the telescope are the required point spread function (PSF) values, an extremely efficient stray light suppression (due to the magnitude requirement mentioned above), the detector performance, and the overall optical and mechanical stability for all orientations of the satellite. To accommodate the passive thermal stabilization scheme and the necessary structural stability, the materials selection for the telescope main structure and the mirrors are of vital importance. A focal plane with four EMCCD detectors is envisaged. The EMCCD technology features shorter integration times, which is in favor regarding the pointing performance of the satellite. The launch of the mission is foreseen for the year 2013 with a subsequent mission lifetime of at least 1 year.

  20. On-site mirror facet condensation measurements for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipold, J.; Medina, M. C.; García, B.; Rasztocky, E.; Mancilla, A.; Maya, J.; Larrarte, J. J.; de Souza, V.

    2016-09-01

    The Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique (IACT) has provided very important discoveries in Very High Energy (VHE) γ-ray astronomy for the last two decades, being exploited mainly by experiments such as H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. The same technique will be used by the next generation of γ-ray telescopes, Cherenkov Telescope Array - CTA, which is conceived to be an Observatory composed by two arrays strategically placed in both hemispheres, one in the Northern and one in the Southern. Each site will consist of several tens of Cherenkov telescopes of different sizes and will be equipped with about 10000 m2 of reflective surface. Because of its large size, the reflector of a Cherenkov telescope is composed of many individual mirror facets. Cherenkov telescopes operate without any protective system from weather conditions therefore it is important to understand how the reflective surfaces behave under different environmental conditions. This paper describes a study of the behavior of the mirrors in the presence of water vapor condensation. The operational time of a telescope is reduced by the presence of condensation on the mirror surface, therefore, to control and to monitor the formation of condensation is an important issue for IACT observatories. We developed a method based on pictures of the mirrors to identify the areas with water vapor condensation. The method is presented here and we use it to estimate the time and area two mirrors had condensation when exposed to the environmental conditions in the Argentinean site. The study presented here shows important guidelines in the selection procedure of mirror technologies and shows an innovative monitoring tool to be used in future Cherenkov telescopes.