WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology studies rats

  1. [Comparative study of absorption kinetics in intestines of rats on Xianlinggubao capsule prepared by different technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huichao; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang; Chen, Wen; Ma, Yong; Li, Pengyue

    2011-04-01

    To study the characteristics of intestinal absorption of psoralen and isopsoralen of Xianlinggubao capsule, and compare the absorption of Xianlinggubao capsule prepared by different technologies. Non everted gut sac method was applied to investigate the influence of absorption sites and drug concentration on psoralen and isopsoralen absorption, which were determined by HPLC. Although the absorption rate constants of psoralen and isopsoralen in duodenum were more than that in jejunum and ileum, there was no significance difference between them. The absorption rate constants of psoralen kept at the same level when the concentrations of drug solution were at middle and low level, while the absorption rate constant at high level was absolutely lower than them (P Intestinal absorption of psoralen and isopsoralen may be affected by the dissolution. The absorption rate constants of psoralen and isopsoralen in new Xianlinggubao capsules are higher. The absorptions of active components absorption has significant difference in different preparation processes of Xianlinggubao capsule.

  2. Rat Palatability Study for Taste Assessment of Caffeine Citrate Formulation Prepared via Hot-Melt Extrusion Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Roshan V; Polk, Ashley N; Patil, Hemlata; Ye, Xingyou; Pimparade, Manjeet B; Repka, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    Developing a pediatric oral formulation with an age-appropriate dosage form and taste masking of naturally bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are key challenges for formulation scientists. Several techniques are used for taste masking of bitter APIs to improve formulation palatability; however, not all the techniques are applicable to pediatric dosage forms because of the limitations on the kind and concentration of the excipients that can be used. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology is used successfully for taste masking of bitter APIs and overcomes some of the limitations of the existing taste-masking techniques. Likewise, analytical taste assessment is an important quality control parameter evaluated by several in vivo and in vitro methods, such as the human taste panel, electrophysiological methods, electronic sensor, and animal preference tests to aid in selecting a taste-masked formulation. However, the most appropriate in vivo method to assess the taste-masking efficacy of pediatric formulations remains unknown because it is not known to what extent the human taste panel/electronic tongue can predict the palatability in the pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to develop taste-masked caffeine citrate extrudates via HME and to demonstrate the wide applicability of a single bottle-test rat model to record and compare the volume consumed of the taste-masked solutions to that of the pure API. Thus, this rat model can be considered as a low-cost alternative taste-assessment method to the most commonly used expensive human taste panel/electronic tongue method for pediatric formulations.

  3. Rat Palatability Study for Taste Assessment of Caffeine Citrate Formulation Prepared via Hot-Melt Extrusion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Roshan V.; Polk, Ashley N.; Patil, Hemlata; Ye, Xingyou; Pimparade, Manjeet B.; Repka, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Developing a pediatric oral formulation with an age-appropriate dosage form and taste masking of naturally bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are key challenges for formulation scientists. Several techniques are used for taste masking of bitter APIs to improve formulation palatability; however, not all the techniques are applicable to pediatric dosage forms because of the limitations on the kind and concentration of the excipients that can be used. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology is used successfully for taste masking of bitter APIs, and overcomes some of the limitations of the existing taste masking techniques. Likewise, analytical taste assessment is an important quality control parameter evaluated by several in vivo and in vitro methods, such as the human taste panel, electrophysiological methods, electronic sensor, and animal preference tests to aid in selecting a taste-masked formulation. However, the most appropriate in-vivo method to assess the taste-masking efficacy of pediatric formulations remains unknown, because it is not known to what extent the human taste panel/electronic tongue can predict the palatability in the pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to develop taste-masked caffeine citrate extrudates via HME, and to demonstrate the wide applicability of a single bottle-test rat model to record and compare the volume consumed of the taste-masked solutions to that of the pure API. Thus, this rat model can be considered as a low-cost alternative taste-assessment method to the most commonly used expensive human taste panel/electronic tongue method for pediatric formulations. PMID:26573158

  4. A Study on Effect of Electroacupuncture on Gene Expression in Hypothalamus of Rats with Stress-Induced Prehypertension Based on Gene Chip Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on gene expression in the hypothalamus of rats with stress-induced prehypertension and try to reveal its biological mechanism with gene chip technology. Methods. The stress-induced hypertensive rat model was prepared by combining electric foot-shocks with generated noise. Molding cycle lasted for 14 days and EA intervention was applied on model + EA group during model preparation. Rat Gene 2.0 Array technology was used for the determination of gene expression profiles and the screened key genes were verified by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR method. Results. Compared with the blank group, 234 genes were upregulated and 73 were downregulated in the model group. Compared with the model group, 110 genes were upregulated and 273 genes were downregulated in model + EA group. The PCR results of the key genes including HSPB1, P2RX4, PPP1R14A, and TH are consistent with that of gene chip test. Conclusion. EA could significantly lower blood pressure of stress-induced prehypertension rats and affect its gene expression profile in hypothalamus. Genes and their signal transduction pathway that related to the contraction of vascular smooth muscle, concentration of Ca2+, and excitability of sympathetic nerve may be involved in EA’s antihypertensive mechanism.

  5. A STUDY OF CHANGES IN DEFORMATION AND METABOLISM IN LEFT VENTRICLE AS A FUNCTION OF HYPERTROPHY IN SPONTANEOUS HYPERTENSIVE RATS USING MICROPET TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grant, T; Huesman, Ronald, H; Reutter, Bryan, W; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Veress, Alexander, I; Weiss, Jeffrey, A; Yang, Yongfeng

    2017-06-13

    Problem: In the case of hypertrophy caused by pressure overload (hypertension) there is an increase in cardiac mass and modification cardiac metabolism. Aim: This study was designed to study the changes in glucose metabolism, ejection fraction, and deformation in the left ventricle with the progression of hypertrophy in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Dynamic PET data were acquired using the microPET II at UC Davis. Two rats were imaged at 10-week intervals for 18 months. Each time a dose of approximately 1- 1.5 mCi of F-18-FDG was injected into a normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the same dose was injected into a SHR rat. Each rat was imaged using a gated dynamic acquisition for 80 minutes acquiring list mode data with cardiac gating of approximately 600-900 million total counts. For the analysis of glucose of metabolism, the list mode data were histogrammed into a dynamic sequence (42 frames over 80 mins). For each time frame, projection data of 1203 140x210 sinograms of 0.582 mm bins were formed by summing the last three gates before and one after the R-wave trigger to correspond to the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Dynamic sequences of 128x128x83 matrices of 0.4x0.4x0.582 mm3 voxels in x, y, and z were reconstructed using an iterative MAP reconstruction which used a prior that penalized the high frequency components of the reconstruction using appropriate weighting between 26 nearest neighboring voxels. Time activity curves were generated from the dynamic reconstructed sequence for the blood and left ventricular tissue regions of interest which were fit to a 2-compartment model to obtain a least squares fit for the kinetic parameters. For the analysis of deformation, the list mode data were histogrammed into 8 gates of the cardiac cycle, each gate was the total sum of the later 60 mins of the 80 min acquisition. Images of 128x128x83 matrices for each gate were reconstructed using the same iterative MAP reconstruction used to

  6. Emerging Technologies Integrating Technology into Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    "Ready access to travel and to technology-enhanced social networking (e.g., Facebook or Skype) has changed the nature of study abroad to the point where today's experiences are fundamentally different from those of earlier eras" (Kinginger, 2013a, p. 345). In addition to more travel options and greater technology availability, study…

  7. Integrated optics technology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The materials and processes available for the fabrication of single mode integrated electrooptical components are described. Issues included in the study are: (1) host material and orientation, (2) waveguide formation, (3) optical loss mechanisms, (4) wavelength selection, (5) polarization effects and control, (6) laser to integrated optics coupling,(7) fiber optic waveguides to integrated optics coupling, (8) souces, (9) detectors. The best materials, technology and processes for fabrication of integrated optical components for communications and fiber gyro applications are recommended.

  8. Feasibility studies and technological innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The chapter offers a tool to conduct feasibility studies and focuses on how to make feasibility studies in a situation with environmental concerns, in which technological innovation and institutional chnages are among the objectives.......The chapter offers a tool to conduct feasibility studies and focuses on how to make feasibility studies in a situation with environmental concerns, in which technological innovation and institutional chnages are among the objectives....

  9. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  10. Nuclear medicine technology study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Dee

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Technology Study Guide presents a comprehensive review of nuclear medicine principles and concepts necessary for technologists to pass board examinations. The practice questions and content follow the guidelines of the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB) and American Registry of Radiological Technologists (ARRT), allowing test takers to maximize their success in passing the examinations. The book is organized by sections of increasing difficulty, with over 600 multiple-choice questions covering all areas of nuclear medicine, including radiation safety; radi

  11. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON HEPATOBILIARY TRANSPORT OF CATIONIC DRUGS - A STUDY IN THE ISOLATED-PERFUSED RAT-LIVER, RAT HEPATOCYTES AND RAT MITOCHONDRIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEEN, H; MEIJER, DKF; Merema, M.T.

    The effect of ethanol on the hepatic uptake of various cationic drugs was studied in isolated perfused rat livers, isolated rat hepatocytes and isolated rat liver mitochondria. In isolated rat hepatocytes and in isolated perfused rat livers, the uptake of the model organic cation

  12. Application of cell sheet technology to bone marrow stromal cell transplantation for rat brain infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masaki; Shichinohe, Hideo; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplantation enhances functional recovery after cerebral infarct, but the optimal delivery route is undetermined. This study was aimed to assess whether a novel cell-sheet technology non-invasively serves therapeutic benefits to ischemic stroke. First, the monolayered cell sheet was engineered by culturing rat BMSCs on a temperature-responsive dish. The cell sheet was analysed histologically and then transplanted onto the ipsilateral neocortex of rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion at 7 days after the insult. Their behaviours and histology were compared with those in the animals treated with direct injection of BMSCs or vehicle over 4 weeks post-transplantation. The cell sheet was 27.9 ± 8.0 μm thick and was composed of 9.8 ± 2.4 × 10 5 cells. Cell sheet transplantation significantly improved motor function when compared with the vehicle-injected animals. Histological analysis revealed that the BMSCs were densely distributed to the neocortex adjacent to the cerebral infarct and expressed neuronal phenotype in the cell sheet-transplanted animals. These findings were almost equal to those for the animals treated with direct BMSC injection. The attachment of the BMSC sheet to the brain surface did not induce reactive astrocytes in the adjacent neocortex, although direct injection of BMSCs profoundly induced reactive astrocytes around the injection site. These findings suggest that the BMSCs in cell sheets preserve their biological capacity of migration and neural differentiation. Cell-sheet technology may enhance functional recovery after ischaemic stroke, using a less invasive method. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. 2002 Industry Studies: Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    the transfer and dissemination of technology . The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) attempts to bring global harmony to IP rights...and improved opportunities for global peace. i Bibliography Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology , Harcourt, retrieved on March 13...Washington, D.C.: National Defense University, May 1998. Gutzman, Alexis “ Globalization of E-Commerce: Are You Ready?” Electronic Commerce Technology Advisor

  14. Methylphenidate (Ritalin): behavioral studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Erik P; Taber, Katherine H; Yang, Pamela B; Dafny, Nachum

    2007-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome with an onset in childhood characterized by an inability to remain focused or to concentrate for prolonged periods of time. Children suffering from this disease are many times described as either inattentive or as hyperactive-impulsive depending on what form of the disease they manifest. Methylphenidate is the preferred treatment for this behavioral disorder and is used for long term disease management. Much still remains unknown concerning this stimulant and its effects on behavior and future abuse potential are pertinent questions. Since animal models are used to study the mechanism of drug action and rats are used often in drug studies, the objective of this review is to summarize the research reports that mainly have used rats as the model to investigate the action of methylphenidate. Topics discussed in this review include: (1) What effect does a single dose of methylphenidate have on locomotion activity; (2) Does repeated administration of methylphenidate result in tolerance or sensitization; and (3) Does methylphenidate have rewarding properties as measured by the self-administration and condition placed preference paradigms.

  15. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using 14 C autoradiography to measure the uptake of 14 C 2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 14 C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-μm resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The 14 C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of 14 C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10 9 Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. NASA Earth Science Mission Control Center Enterprise Emerging Technology Study Study (MCC Technology Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan; Horan, Stephen; Royer, Don; Sullivan, Don; Moe, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of the study to identify technologies that could have a significant impact on Earth Science mission operations when looking out at the 5-15 year horizon (through 2025). The potential benefits of the new technologies will be discussed, as well as recommendations for early research and development, prototyping, or analysis for these technologies.

  18. SDI Large-Scale System Technology Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This coordination is addressed by the Battle Management function. The algorithms and technologies required to support Battle Management are the subject of the SDC Large Scale Systems Technology Study...

  19. RAT Selection and Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Networks - OPNET Modeler in Optimization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of optimal selection of Radio Access Technology (RAT) and assignment of resources in a multistandard wireless network scenario. It is shown how OPNET Modeler can be used to perform optimization studies using Integer Linear Programming (ILP) solvers. In this way...

  20. Histological Studies Of The Pancreas Of Wistar Rats Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to find the probable effect of Nicotiana tabacum (snuff) on the histological features of the pancreas of adult wistar rats. Nicotiana tabacum is a product of smokeless tobacco which contains many toxins and high levels of nicotine. Twenty male wistar rats weighing 200-210g were used for this study. The control ...

  1. Technology geography: studying the relationships between technology, location and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Operations management, international management, public policy and economic geography are scientific areas which come together in the study of international technology transfer. This study shows how each of these areas has its own central issues but also has specific parts that are relevant for

  2. Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary supplementation with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. ... Furthermore, high dietary supplementation of vitamin E showed no deleterious effects on rats and no pathological changes in the liver, kidney and heart tissues were observed in the ...

  3. Technological innovation in neurosurgery: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Kwasnicki, Richard M; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-07-01

    Technological innovation within health care may be defined as the introduction of a new technology that initiates a change in clinical practice. Neurosurgery is a particularly technology-intensive surgical discipline, and new technologies have preceded many of the major advances in operative neurosurgical techniques. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery using patents and peer-reviewed publications as metrics of technology development and clinical translation, respectively. The authors searched a patent database for articles published between 1960 and 2010 using the Boolean search term "neurosurgeon OR neurosurgical OR neurosurgery." The top 50 performing patent codes were then grouped into technology clusters. Patent and publication growth curves were then generated for these technology clusters. A top-performing technology cluster was then selected as an exemplar for a more detailed analysis of individual patents. In all, 11,672 patents and 208,203 publications related to neurosurgery were identified. The top-performing technology clusters during these 50 years were image-guidance devices, clinical neurophysiology devices, neuromodulation devices, operating microscopes, and endoscopes. In relation to image-guidance and neuromodulation devices, the authors found a highly correlated rapid rise in the numbers of patents and publications, which suggests that these are areas of technology expansion. An in-depth analysis of neuromodulation-device patents revealed that the majority of well-performing patents were related to deep brain stimulation. Patent and publication data may be used to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery.

  4. Somatostatin ontogenesis in the gastrointestinal and pancreatic tract: study in normal rats and during a induced diabetes in neonates rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The ontogenic studies of somatostatin of pancreas, ileum and duodenum of Wistar rats and the rats with induced diabetes were done. The radioimmunologic method to dose the somatostatin was used. (L.M.J.)

  5. Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats: A Comparison of Diagnoses by the RF Study Pathologist and a Recent NTP Review Team, summarized by George Cruzan and submitted to the Methanol Institute

  6. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.; Lee, J. H

    2007-02-15

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposals for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology R and D programs. To do this, environmental changes of international nuclear energy policy and trends of nuclear technology development were surveyed and analyzed. This Study analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategy in a viewpoint of analyzing the changes in the global policy environment associated with nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy.

  7. Technological advances for studying human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roske-Hofstrand, Renate J.

    1990-01-01

    Technological advances for studying human behavior are noted in viewgraph form. It is asserted that performance-aiding systems are proliferating without a fundamental understanding of how they would interact with the humans who must control them. Two views of automation research, the hardware view and the human-centered view, are listed. Other viewgraphs give information on vital elements for human-centered research, a continuum of the research process, available technologies, new technologies for persistent problems, a sample research infrastructure, the need for metrics, and examples of data-link technology.

  8. Communication Technology Use and Study Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Penny

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests a negative relationship between frequent use of communication technologies, such as text messaging and social network sites, and academic performance, but the nature of the relationship needs to be explored in greater detail. This study explored the relationship between use of communication technologies and self-reported study…

  9. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  10. New Technologies for Studying Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRANKLIN, MICHAEL J.; CHANG, CONNIE; AKIYAMA, TATSUYA; BOTHNER, BRIAN

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have traditionally been studied as single-cell organisms. In laboratory settings, aerobic bacteria are usually cultured in aerated flasks, where the cells are considered essentially homogenous. However, in many natural environments, bacteria and other microorganisms grow in mixed communities, often associated with surfaces. Biofilms are comprised of surface-associated microorganisms, their extracellular matrix material, and environmental chemicals that have adsorbed to the bacteria or their matrix material. While this definition of a biofilm is fairly simple, biofilms are complex and dynamic. Our understanding of the activities of individual biofilm cells and whole biofilm systems has developed rapidly, due in part to advances in molecular, analytical, and imaging tools and the miniaturization of tools designed to characterize biofilms at the enzyme level, cellular level, and systems level. PMID:26350329

  11. Radiation-induced cancers in the rat, an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis at low doses raises a major radiological protection problem; we have attempted to deal with it through animal investigations involving over 3,000 rats. For various radiation types, dose-effect relationships as well as possible synergies with endogenous or exogenous chemical factors were studied. The chief problem being the possibility of extrapolation to man, a comparison was made between man and rat with the only human data available from radon inhalation in uranium miners [fr

  12. Elisa technology consolidation study overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, E. D.; Brandt, N.; Johann, U.; Kemble, S.; Schulte, H.-R.; Weise, D.; Ziegler, T.

    2017-11-01

    The eLISA (evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) mission is an ESA L3 concept mission intended to detect and characterise gravitational radiation emitted from astrophysical sources [1]. Current designs for eLISA [2] are based on the ESA study conducted in 2011 to reformulate the original ESA/NASA LISA concept [3] into an ESA-only L1 candidate named NGO (New Gravitational Observatory) [4]. During this brief reformulation period, a number of significant changes were made to the baseline LISA design in order to create a more costeffective mission. Some of the key changes implemented during this reformulation were: • A reduction in the inter satellite distance (the arm length) from 5 Gm to 1 Gm. • A reduction in the diameter of the telescope from 40 cm to 20 cm. • A reduction in the required laser power by approximately 40%. • Implementation of only 2 laser arms instead of 3. Many further simplifications were then enabled by these main design changes including the elimination of payload items in the two spacecraft (S/C) with no laser-link between them (the daughter S/C), a reduction in the size and complexity of the optical bench and the elimination of the Point Ahead Angle Mechanism (PAAM), which corrects for variations in the pointing direction to the far S/C caused by orbital dynamics [4] [5]. In the run-up to an L3 mission definition phase later in the decade, it is desirable to review these design choices and analyse the inter-dependencies and scaling between the key mission parameters with the goal of better understanding the parameter space and ensuring that in the final selection of the eLISA mission parameters the optimal balance between cost, complexity and science return can be achieved.

  13. Biological Detection System Technologies Technology and Industrial Base Study. A Primer on Biological Detection Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    processes for manufacturers; pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries; trade associations; and government agencies supporting energy, the...microsatellite genotyping of DNA; gene expression studies; and analyses of gene mutations . Technology Development Two major research thrusts at the

  14. Creating Educational Technology Curricula for Advanced Studies in Learning Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Nakayama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Curriculum design and content are key factors in the area of human resource development. To examine the possibility of using a collaboration of Human Computer Interaction (HCI and Educational Technology (ET to develop innovative improvements to the education system, the curricula of these two areas of study were lexically analyzed and compared. As a further example, the curriculum of a joint course in HCI and ET was also lexically analyzed and the contents were examined. These analyses can be used as references in the development of human resources for use in advanced learning environments.

  15. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Jeong, I.; Lee, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, recent changes of international nuclear energy policy and trends of nuclear technology R and D was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed the trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) discussed the mid and long term strategy of nuclear energy R and D. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) analyzed the trends of nuclear technology policies - Trend and prospects of the international and domestic nuclear policies - Investigation of development of small and medium sized policies - International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies (2) discussed the mid and long term strategy of nuclear energy R and D - The long term development plan for future nuclear energy system - The facilitation of technology commercialization

  16. Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Abdou, M.A.; Bolta, C.C.

    1976-03-01

    A scoping study for a Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility (TETF) is presented. The TETF is a tokamak with R = 3 m and I/sub p/ = 1.4 MA based on the counterstreaming-ion torus mode of operation. The primary purpose of TETF is to demonstrate fusion technologies for the Experimental Power Reactor (EPR), but it will also serve as an engineering and radiation test facility. TETF has several technological systems (e.g., superconducting toroidal-field coil, tritium fuel cycle, impurity control, first wall) that are prototypical of EPR.

  17. Communication technologies in the study environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    will argue that the ways in which these technologies are used reflects two different perspectives on the interplay between communication technology and organisational structure: organisational structure as an anticipation of communication patterns implied in course management system’s design......In this article, I will analyse and discuss two qualitative case studies concerning ICT in the study environment at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. I will place special focus on the way in which organisational perspectives as well as technological affordances shape how communication...... technologies are integrated into organisational structures and practices on campus. This involves a comparison between course management systems on the one hand and students’ personal media (mobile phones, e-mails) on the other hand, with regard to how these are used on campus. On the basis of this analysis, I...

  18. Uniting information technologies with studying language

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanov, Jane; Kirova, Snezana

    2010-01-01

    Do modern technologies allow as to advance the teaching process in studying foreign languages? We can already say with assurance that these technologies allow us twice as fast a pace of teaching thematic units. The application of modern software solutions in our teaching guarantees this with compatible hardware support for the promotion of those same software packages. Modeling and imitating original situations additionally enable us to recapture the originality of a language environment, cul...

  19. Inhaled delivery of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to rats by e-cigarette vapor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jacques D; Aarde, Shawn M; Vandewater, Sophia A; Grant, Yanabel; Stouffer, David G; Parsons, Loren H; Cole, Maury; Taffe, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Most human Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use is via inhalation, and yet few animal studies of inhalation exposure are available. Popularization of non-combusted methods for the inhalation of psychoactive drugs (Volcano(®), e-cigarettes) further stimulates a need for rodent models of this route of administration. This study was designed to develop and validate a rodent chamber suitable for controlled exposure to vaporized THC in a propylene glycol vehicle, using an e-cigarette delivery system adapted to standard size, sealed rat housing chambers. The in vivo efficacy of inhaled THC was validated using radiotelemetry to assess body temperature and locomotor responses, a tail-flick assay for nociception and plasma analysis to verify exposure levels. Hypothermic responses to inhaled THC in male rats depended on the duration of exposure and the concentration of THC in the vehicle. The temperature nadir was reached after ∼40 min of exposure, was of comparable magnitude (∼3 °Celsius) to that produced by 20 mg/kg THC, i.p. and resolved within 3 h (compared with a 6 h time course following i.p. THC). Female rats were more sensitive to hypothermic effects of 30 min of lower-dose THC inhalation. Male rat tail-flick latency was increased by THC vapor inhalation; this effect was blocked by SR141716 pretreatment. The plasma THC concentration after 30 min of inhalation was similar to that produced by 10 mg/kg THC i.p. This approach is flexible, robust and effective for use in laboratory rats and will be of increasing utility as users continue to adopt "vaping" for the administration of cannabis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on intestinal copper and zinc absorption in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreicher, P.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to examine the interactions zinc and copper undergo at the absorptive level in the rat. In addition, the kinetics of zinc transport by rat intestinal basolateral membrane vesicles are described. The influence copper and zinc exert on each other's absorption was studied using the isolated, vascularly and luminally perfused rat intestine system. Rats were fed one of nine diets for one week, each with a different copper and zinc concentration representing low, adequate and high dietary concentrations (1-36 mg/kg Cu 2+ and 5-180 mg/kg Zn 2+ ). Experiments to describe zinc transport out of intestinal cells were carried out using a membrane fraction enriched with basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV). Initial rates of 65 Zn 2+ uptake (extravesicular Zn 2+ concentrations of 5 μM to 625 μM) with BLMV from zinc-adequate and zinc-deficient rats fit Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics indicating a carrier-mediated transport process. The Km and Jmax were not significantly changed by dietary zinc status. SDS-PAGE of BLMV from rats of different zinc status did not show differences in the number of abundance of protein bands. Na + did not alter 65 Zn 2+ uptake. ATP caused a reduction in 65 Zn 2+ uptake due to complex formation with zinc ions thereby decreasing the amount of zinc available for transport

  1. The handbook of science and technology studies

    CERN Document Server

    Fouché, Rayvon; Miller, Clark A; Smith-Doerr, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Science and Technology Studies (STS) is a flourishing interdisciplinary field that examines the transformative power of science and technology to arrange and rearrange contemporary societies. The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies provides a comprehensive and authoritative overview of the field, reviewing current research and major theoretical and methodological approaches in a way that is accessible to both new and established scholars from a range of disciplines. This new edition, sponsored by the Society for Social Studies of Science, is the fourth in a series of volumes that have defined the field of STS. It features 36 chapters, each written for the fourth edition, that capture the state of the art in a rich and rapidly growing field. One especially notable development is the increasing integration of feminist, gender, and postcolonial studies into the body of STS knowledge. The book covers methods and participatory practices in STS research; mechanisms by which knowledge, people, and societies ...

  2. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, changes of international nuclear energy policy environment and trends of nuclear technology development was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy environment surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) themes to analyze trends of nuclear policies: nuclear Renaissance and forecast for nuclear power plant, International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies in GIF, INPRO and I-NERI, The present situation and outlook for world uranium market (2) themes to develop of nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies: The mid-term strategy plan of the KAERI, The technological innovation case of the KAERI

  3. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Yang, M. H. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, changes of international nuclear energy policy environment and trends of nuclear technology development was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy environment surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) themes to analyze trends of nuclear policies: nuclear Renaissance and forecast for nuclear power plant, International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies in GIF, INPRO and I-NERI, The present situation and outlook for world uranium market (2) themes to develop of nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies: The mid-term strategy plan of the KAERI, The technological innovation case of the KAERI.

  4. Tools and Technologies Needed for Conducting Planetary Field Geology While On EVA: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kelsey; Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Bleisath, Scott; Buffington, Jesse; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  5. Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Luiza da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

  6. Subchronic oral toxicity studies with α-cyclodextrin in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), a cyclic polymer of six α-1,4-linked glucopyranosyl units with potential applications as a food ingredient, more specifically a water-soluble dietary fiber, was examined in a 4-week range finding study and a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. In the 4-week

  7. A study on nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. Acknowledging the importance of the relationship between the external environment and the national nuclear R and D strategic planning, this study focused on the two major subjects: (1) the international environmental and technological change attached to the development of nuclear power; (2) the direction and strategy of nuclear R and D to improve effectiveness through national R and D programs as role of electricity in the future society, strategic environment of nuclear use and R and D in the future society, energy environment and nuclear technology development scenario in the future, strategic study on future vision of KAERI and technological road-mapping of national nuclear R and D for enhancing competitiveness

  8. Study of Faculty and Information Technology, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Eden; Brooks, D. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In this inaugural year of the faculty technology study, EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research (ECAR) partnered with 151 college/university sites yielding responses from 17,451 faculty respondents across 13 countries. The findings are exploratory in nature, as they cover new ground to help us tell a more comprehensive story about technology…

  9. Soutien institutionnel à African Technology Policy Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au départ la division tanzanienne du Réseau d'études sur la politique technologique en Afrique (African Technology Policy Studies Network), et ce, depuis 1984, ATPS-Tanzania est devenu autonome à titre d'organisation non gouvernementale en 2001. Lorsque ATPS-Tanzania recevait un financement stable du siège de ...

  10. Developing technology pushed breakthroughs: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Sarja

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing a technology push product that brings real novelty to the market is difficult, risky and costly. This case study analyzes success factors defined by the literature. True industrial cases, representing Finnish ICT firms in their early phase after a successful market entry, were researched for the success factor analysis. The whole set of the previously introduced success factors were variably supported, and three new factors arose. Because the technology pushed development processes are risky with high failure rates, the validated success factors are valuable knowledge for the developments intensive firm’s management.

  11. AFCI Safeguards Enhancement Study: Technology Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Dougan, A.; Tobin, Stephen; Cipiti, B.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Bakel, A. J.; Bean, Robert; Grate, Jay W.; Santi, P.; Bryan, Steven; Kinlaw, M. T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Burr, Tom; Lehn, Scott A.; Tolk, K.; Chichester, David; Menlove, H.; Vo, D.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Merkle, P.; Wang, T. F.; Duran, F.; Nakae, L.; Warren, Glen A.; Friedrich, S.; Rabin, M.

    2008-12-31

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Safeguards Campaign aims to develop safeguards technologies and processes that will significantly reduce the risk of proliferation in the U.S. nuclear fuel cycle of tomorrow. The Safeguards Enhancement Study was chartered with identifying promising research and development (R&D) directions over timescales both near-term and long-term, and under safeguards oversight both domestic and international. This technology development roadmap documents recognized gaps and needs in the safeguarding of nuclear fuel cycles, and outlines corresponding performance targets for each of those needs. Drawing on the collective expertise of technologists and user-representatives, a list of over 30 technologies that have the potential to meet those needs was developed, along with brief summaries of each candidate technology. Each summary describes the potential impact of that technology, key research questions to be addressed, and prospective development milestones that could lead to a definitive viability or performance assessment. Important programmatic linkages between U.S. agencies and offices are also described, reflecting the emergence of several safeguards R&D programs in the U.S. and the reinvigoration of nuclear fuel cycles across the globe.

  12. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system

  14. Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of 3 H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease

  15. Educational Potential of Case-Study Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorinova, Zoya; Vorobeva, Victoria; Malyanova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of phenomenological and typological analysis of case-study technology educational potential. The definition “educational potential of case-study technology” is given, the main characteristics of which are changed in communication and collaborative activity quality, appearance of educational initiatives, change of participants’ position in learning process, formation of “collective subject” in collaborative activity, increase of learning (subject) results. Dep...

  16. [Study on new extraction technology and protective effect of hugan buzure granule on liver injury in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Jiang, Lan; Hajiakber, Aisa; Sun, Yuhua

    2011-02-01

    To study on the new preparation technology of Hugan Buzure granule and to compare protective effect on liver injury in rats by different extraction processes. Volatile oil extraction technology, inclusion condition and ethanol extraction condition were selected by orthogonal experiments. The experiment models of liver injury were induced by carbon tetrachloride, bacillus calmette-guerin (BCG) and plus lipolysaccharides (LPS) in rats, respectively. ALT, AST in serum, and MDA, SOD in liver were measured and the rats were killed to calculate the liver coefficient to evaluate the protective effect of Hugan Buzure granule on experimental injury in rats. The optimum conditions of volatile oil extraction were 1:12 of solid-liquid ratio, 2 h of soaking time, and 8 h of extracting time. The optimal beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex condition was as follows: the volatile oils formed complex with the beta-CD in a ratio of 1: 6 and stirring for 1 h at 40 degrees C. The optimum ethanol extraction was as follows: refluxing and extracting 3 times with 10-fold 50% ethanol, 2 h for each time. Compared with the model group, the new technology extraction of Hugan Buzure granule could obviously inhibite the elevation of serum ALT (P technology was feasible. The new extraction could protect the liver injury in rats, which was better than extraction of current preparation technology.

  17. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  18. Morphometric studies of thyroid gland of Wistar rats exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric studies of thyroid gland of Wistar rats exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation. JE Onu, BO Oke, PO Ozegbe, JO Oyewale. Abstract. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lactation results to some developmental defects such as microcephaly, impairment of central nervous system ...

  19. Nutritional and anthropometric studies on Wister rats by feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study seeks to determine the bioavailability of the nutrients using Wistar rats. Four composite samples were prepared in the ratios, Maize, 80: Fish, 15: Cowpea, 5 (A); Maize 80: ... that contained fish was significantly higher than those blends that contained shrimps. However, the opposite was observed with calcium.

  20. Four-week oral toxicity study with erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, H.P.; Modderman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Erythritol was orally administered to Wistar rats at dietary levels of 0, 5, and 10% for 4 weeks. Soft stools and diarrhea were observed in male and female animals of the 10% group and in female animals of the 5% group. These symptoms disappeared during the course of the study. Mean body weights of

  1. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Eom, T. Y.; Ham, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Lee, B. O.; Yun, S. W.

    1997-01-01

    Work scopes and major contents carried out by nuclear technology policy analysis project in 1996, are as follows: First, reviews and provisions of recommendations for the revision draft of Atomic Energy Act, the national long-tem plan of use and development of nuclear technologies forward the 21st century, and KAERI vision for the next 10 years have been undertaken as parts of division`s role to support the implementation and set-up of national nuclear policy. Second, the trends of nuclear policy, research and development activities of nuclear institutes and the nuclear industries of the major advanced countries, were analyzed. Nuclear development trends in the East-Asia region emerging as a new nuclear market in the near future, were also analyzed including China. Finally, as the research works for the development of nuclear technology policy, a comparative analyses of the forecasted future nuclear technologies of nuclear advanced countries and a study for the improvement of spin-off effectiveness of nuclear research and development activities were undertaken respectively. (author). 19 refs., 29 tabs., 19 figs.

  2. A Study of KHNP Nuclear Power Plant Technology Level Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Han; Lee, Sung Jin; Kim, Yo Han

    2016-01-01

    KHNP's 2030 mid and long term plan goal in technology field is securing global No. 1 NPP technology level. Quantifying technology level for this purpose, technology level at present should be surveyed. Technology level of South Korea has been surveyed by KISTEP (Korea Institute of S and T Evaluation and Planning) every two year but the technology level of KHNP has not been surveyed by any organization including KHNP itself. Also the size of technology surveyed by KISTEP was too broad to quantifying technology level of KHNP. In this paper, technology level of KHNP and South Korea are presented. In this study, NPP related technologies were divided into Level I and Level II technologies and conducted a survey for each Level II technologies using Delphi questionnaire survey that is widely used in technology level evaluation. The results of technology level and gap will be used from strategic point of view and also as a reference data for technology improvement planning

  3. In vivo studies of biotin absorption in distal rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have extended their previous studies of biotin absorption in rat proximal jejunum (PJ) to examine biotin absorptive capacity of rat ileum (I) and proximal colon (PC) using in vivo intestinal loop technique. Intestinal loops (2.5 cm) were filled with 0.3 ml of solution containing ( 3 H)-biotin and ( 14 C)-inulin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Biotin absorption was determined on the basis of luminal biotin disappearance after correction for inulin recovery and averaged (pmol/loop-10 min; X +/- SEM). In related experiments, 5-cm loops of PJ, distal I (DI), or PC were filled with 0.5 ml of solution of similar composition (1.0 μM biotin). The abdominal cavity was closed and the rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia, then sacrificed 3 hr after injection. Biotin absorption averaged 96.2% (PJ), 93.2% (DI), and 25.8% (PC) of the dose administered. These differences were reflected in the radioactive biotin content of plasma and intestinal loop, kidney, and liver. These data demonstrate significant biotin absorption in rat DI and PC, as required if the intestinal microflora are to be considered as a source of biotin for the host

  4. Study of Antiulcer Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the antiulcer effect of the dried fruit powder of the plant Bauhinia racemosa in Wistar albino rats. Thirty Wistar rats of either sex weighing between 150 - 200gm were selected and divided into five groups, each comprising of six rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups T1T2, T3, T4, and T5 and were given 0.5 ml normal saline, aqueous extract in the dose rate of100mg/kg body weight, 200mg/kg body weight, alcoholic extract @100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg body weight respectively. After one hour all the groups were administered Paracetamol at a dose rate of 200mg/kg body weight orally. After 24hrs, the number of ulcers, ulcer score, percent incidence, ulcer index and healing index were recorded. From the results obtained it was concluded that aqueous extract in the dose rate of 200mg/kg body weight and alcoholic extract (100mg/kg & 200mg/kg body weight could produce antiulcer activity. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 217-218

  5. Technology integration box beam failure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuart, M. J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, R. C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost-effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. The Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program has the goal to develop the technology to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures. As part of the ACT Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company completed the design and fabrication of the Technology Integration Box Beam (TIBB). The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the C-130 aircraft. Lockheed subjected the TIBB to downbending, upbending, torsion and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. The objective of this paper is to describe the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. The results of a comprehensive analytical and experimental study are presented. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from both a global analysis of the TIBB and a local analysis of the failure region. These analytical results are validated by experimental results from the TIBB tests. The analytical and experimental results from the TIBB tests are used to determine a sequence of events that resulted in failure of the TIBB. A potential cause of failure is high stresses in a stiffener runout region. Analytical and experimental results are also presented for a stiffener runout specimen that was used to simulate the TIBB failure mechanisms.

  6. Digital Learning Network Education Events for the Desert Research and Technology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Guillory, Erika R.

    2007-01-01

    NASA s Digital Learning Network (DLN) reaches out to thousands of students each year through video conferencing and webcasting. As part of NASA s Strategic Plan to reach the next generation of space explorers, the DLN develops and delivers educational programs that reinforce principles in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The DLN has created a series of live education videoconferences connecting the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) field test to students across the United States. The programs are also extended to students around the world via live webcasting. The primary focus of the events is the Vision for Space Exploration. During the programs, Desert RATS engineers and scientists inform and inspire students about the importance of exploration and share the importance of the field test as it correlates with plans to return to the Moon and explore Mars. This paper describes the events that took place in September 2006.

  7. Elementary Teachers' Experiences with Technology Professional Development and Using Technology in the Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzle, Pamela Lavon

    2016-01-01

    In order for educators to prepare students for technology-enhanced learning educators must first be prepared. The digital divide and technology professional development are two factors impacting the depth at which technology is integrated into the classroom. The local problem addressed in this study was that the impact of technology professional…

  8. Computer technology forecast study for general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seacord, C. L.; Vaughn, D.

    1976-01-01

    A multi-year, multi-faceted program is underway to investigate and develop potential improvements in airframes, engines, and avionics for general aviation aircraft. The objective of this study was to assemble information that will allow the government to assess the trends in computer and computer/operator interface technology that may have application to general aviation in the 1980's and beyond. The current state of the art of computer hardware is assessed, technical developments in computer hardware are predicted, and nonaviation large volume users of computer hardware are identified.

  9. Subchronic inhalation neurotoxicity study of amyl acetate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M W; Tyler, T R; Beyrouty, P C

    2000-01-01

    An inhalation toxicity study was conducted with rats to examine the potential for amyl acetate vapor to produce alterations in nervous system structure and function following repeated exposure. The study was performed as part of a USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Section 4e Enforceable Consent Agreement for amyl acetate. Rats (CD) were exposed to amyl acetate vapor at concentrations of 0, 300, 600 or 1200 ppm, 6 h per day, 4 or 5 days per week, for at least 65 exposures. Treatment groups consisted of 15 rats per gender for the control and 1200 ppm groups and 10 rats per gender for the 300 and 600 ppm groups. Evaluations included clinical observations before, during and after each exposure, weekly detailed clinical examinations, weekly body weight and food consumption measurements and monthly functional observational battery and motor activity measurements conducted on non-exposure days. Neuropathology examination of the central and peripheral nervous system was performed at the end of the study. Exposure to amyl acetate did not result in overt clinical signs of toxicity or changes in body weight or food consumption. Transient, subtle decreases in general activity level during the 6-h exposure period were noted for animals in the 600 and 1200 ppm groups during the first 2 weeks of the study. Functional observational battery evaluations, automated motor activity measurements and neuroanatomy were unaffected by exposure. The no observed-effect level for subchronic neurotoxicity for this study was at least 1200 ppm, which is greater than an order of magnitude above the occupational threshold limit value (8-h, time-weighted average) for amyl acetate (100 ppm). Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Laminin-521 Promotes Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets (rBMSC sheets are attractive for cell-based tissue engineering. However, methods of culturing rBMSC sheets are critically limited. In order to obtain intact rBMSC sheets, a light-induced cell sheet method was used in this study. TiO2 nanodot films were coated with (TL or without (TN laminin-521. We investigated the effects of laminin-521 on rBMSCs during cell sheet culturing. The fabricated rBMSC sheets were subsequently assessed to study cell sheet viability, reattachment ability, cell sheet thickness, collagen type I deposition, and multilineage potential. The results showed that laminin-521 could promote the formation of rBMSC sheets with good viability under hyperconfluent conditions. Cell sheet thickness increased from an initial 26.7 ± 1.5 μm (day 5 up to 47.7 ± 3.0 μm (day 10. Moreover, rBMSC sheets maintained their potential of osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. This study provides a new strategy to obtain rBMSC sheets using light-induced cell sheet technology.

  11. Dismantling boundaries in science and technology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Peter; Jasanoff, Sheila

    2010-12-01

    The boundaries between the history of science and science and technology studies (STS) can be misleadingly drawn, to the detriment of both fields. This essay stresses their commonalities and potential for valuable synergy. The evolution of the two fields has been characterized by lively interchange and boundary crossing, with leading scholars functioning easily on both sides of the past/present divide. Disciplines, it is argued, are best regarded as training grounds for asking particular kinds of questions, using particular clusters of methods. Viewed in this way, history of science and STS are notable for their shared approaches to disciplining. The essay concludes with a concrete example--regulatory science--showing how a topic such as this can be productively studied with methods that contradict any alleged disciplinary divide between historical and contemporary studies of science.

  12. Wholesomeness study of irradiated salted and dried mackerel in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anukarahanonta, T.; Temcharoen, P.; Nagara, B.N.; Chudhabuddhi, C.; Bhamarapravati, N.

    1981-01-01

    A long-term multigeneration study was performed of the wholesomeness of irradiated salted and dried mackerel fed to the rats of Wistar strain and revealed no significant evidence that would impose a hazard attributable to irradiation with respect to the longevity, carcinogenecity, teratogenicity, dominant lethal, reproductive function and biophysiological function. Some abnormalities that were noted could be explained on the basis of differences in food quality due to the addition of fish protein and minerals rather than the irradiation effect

  13. Part 1. Assessment of carcinogenicity and biologic responses in rats after lifetime inhalation of new-technology diesel exhaust in the ACES bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Seagrave, JeanClare; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Chow, Judith; Zielinska, Barbara; Mauderly, Joe L; Seilkop, Steven K; Miller, Rodney A

    2015-01-01

    The Health Effects Institute and its partners conceived and funded a program to characterize the emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines compliant with the 2007 and 2010 on-road emissions standards in the United States and to evaluate indicators of lung toxicity in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to 2007-compliant new-technology diesel exhaust (NTDE*). The a priori hypothesis of this Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was that 2007-compliant on-road diesel emissions "... will not cause an increase in tumor formation or substantial toxic effects in rats and mice at the highest concentration of exhaust that can be used ... although some biological effects may occur." This hypothesis was tested at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) by exposing rats by chronic inhalation as a carcinogenicity bioassay. Indicators of pulmonary toxicity in rats were measured after 1, 3, 12, 24, and 28-30 months of exposure. Similar indicators of pulmonary toxicity were measured in mice, as an interspecies comparison of the effects of subchronic exposure, after 1 and 3 months of exposure. A previous HEI report (Mauderly and McDonald 2012) described the operation of the engine and exposure systems and the characteristics of the exposure atmospheres during system commissioning. Another HEI report described the biologic responses in mice and rats after subchronic exposure to NTDE (McDonald et al. 2012). The primary motivation for the present chronic study was to evaluate the effects of NTDE in rats in the context of previous studies that had shown neoplastic lung lesions in rats exposed chronically to traditional technology diesel exhaust (TDE) (i.e., exhaust from diesel engines built before the 2007 U.S. requirements went into effect). The hypothesis was largely based on the marked reduction of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in NTDE compared with emissions from older diesel engine and fuel technologies, although other emissions were also reduced. The DPM

  14. Light microscopy study of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, M R; de Castro Brito, G A; de Carvalho, J V; Gomes, R M; Barreto Martins, M J; de Albuquerque Ribeiro, R

    2009-06-01

    Although most studies on animal ototoxicity employ scanning electron microscopy, all cochlear structures may be identified with light microscopy. This paper describes a simple method of histological assessment of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats, and relates morphological changes to functional changes in hearing detected by distortion product evoked otoacoustic emissions. Male Wistar rats were injected with 8 mg/kg/day cisplatin, or with an equivalent volume of saline solution, for three consecutive days. They underwent distortion product evoked otoacoustic emission testing at baseline and at 24 or 48 hours after the last administration. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and their cochleae were retrieved and prepared for haematoxylin and eosin staining. A four-point scoring system was used to grade injury to the external ciliated cells, as indicated by the number of cells absent from the basal turn of the cochlear duct. A four-point scoring system was also used to grade stria vascularis injury, as indicated by the degree of shrinkage of the intermediate cells. Scores were significantly higher in groups treated with cisplatin compared with controls. Morphological changes were confirmed by decreased distortion product evoked otoacoustic emission amplitudes in animals treated with cisplatin. This method is simple to perform with routine histology equipment and is appropriate for the study of acute, cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats.

  15. Comparative study of different fuel cell technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado-Flores, J.

    2013-01-01

    Fuel cells generate electricity and heat during electrochemical reaction which happens between the oxygen and hydrogen to form the water. Fuel cell technology is a promising way to provide energy for rural areas where there is no access to the public grid or where there is a huge cost of wiring and transferring electricity. In addition, applications with essential secure electrical energy requirement such as uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), power generation stations and distributed systems can employ fuel cells as their source of energy. The current paper includes a comparative study of basic design, working principle, applications, advantages and disadvantages of various technologies available for fuel cells. In addition, techno-economic features of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) are compared. The results indicate that fuel cell systems have simple design, high reliability, noiseless operation, high efficiency and less environmental impact. The aim of this paper is to serve as a convenient reference for fuel cell power generation reviews. (Author)

  16. A study on nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Kim, H. S.

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of institutional activities of KAERI. Major research area are as follows; Future directions and effects for national nuclear R and D to be resulted from restructuring of electricity industry are studied. Comparative study was carried out between nuclear energy and other energy sources from the point of views of environmental effects by introducing life cycle assessment(LCA) method. Japanese trends of reestablishment of nuclear policy such as restructuring of nuclear administration system and long-term plan of development and use of nuclear energy are also investigated, and Russian nuclear development program and Germany trends for phase-out of nuclear electricity generation are also investigated. And trends of the demand and supply of energy in eastern asian countries in from the point of view of energy security and tension in the south china sea are analyzed and investigation of policy trends of Vietnam and Egypt for the development and use of nuclear energy for the promotion of nuclear cooperation with these countries are also carried out. Due to the lack of energy resources and high dependence of imported energy, higher priority should be placed on the use of localized energy supply technology such as nuclear power. In this connection, technological development should be strengthened positively in order to improve economy and safety of nuclear energy and proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle and wide ranged use of radiation and radioisotopes and should be reflected in re-establishment of national comprehensive promotion plan of nuclear energy in progress

  17. New technologies for offshore wildlife risk studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Caleb

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Two research initiatives by Pandion Systems, funded by the US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE), are addressing the enormous challenges of conducting offshore wind-wildlife risk/impact studies by providing new wildlife sensing technologies that surmount some of the limitations of previous techniques. Both initiatives rest on the shoulders of pioneering European studies and experience. One entails the development of a remote-operating acoustic/thermographic detector. This device, designed with input from the Danish National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) and Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology (CLO), will provide species-specific occurrence data, as well as flight altitude estimation, for vocalizing flying wildlife that flies within a detection beam that corresponds roughly to the rotor swept zone of a single, commercial marine wind turbine. While the detection beam is small and limitations exist for silently flying animals, this device will be capable of providing information on bats and on federally-listed bird species that has been difficult or impossible to achieve with other methods. A preliminary version of this device was developed in 2009-2010 in a BOEMRE-funded pilot study, and a sea-worthy device is currently being developed, scheduled for initial deployment on the US Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (AOCS) in summer, 2011. A second initiative is targeted at developing a high-definition aerial survey protocol capable of providing a safe, cost-effective, reproducible snapshot of bird, marine mammal, and sea turtle distribution on the entire AOCS. This research, being conducted with a team of technologists and biologists including scientists from the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), entails conducting a series of pilot experiments in spring, 2011 with a variety of different aircraft, cameras, flight altitudes, and image resolutions, to determine optimum protocols for the large-scale surveys. Both of

  18. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Said Elshama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose.

  19. STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABULYAZID, I.; ABBAS, O.A.; FAYEZ, V.

    2008-01-01

    Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2 % curcumin , 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a

  20. Revolutionizing The Run: A Wearable Technology Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindamood Jr, Stephen Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in technology are reshaping and enhancing the role of the industrial designer. While industrial designers are already trained to be experts in process and possess a wide range of skills, there must be a higher level of fusion between design, science, and technology than ever before. This paradigm presents an opportunity in the emerging field of wearable technology; industrial design, engineering and computer science would be an optimal collaboration for the inevitable increase...

  1. STUDY & SURVEY ON WIRELESS CHARGING & TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Harshal Sharma*

    2016-01-01

    In the modern world, we have often heard a word- wireless charging technology. Actually what is it all about? So this paper is giving you the whole package about wireless charging technology. Wireless charging is a technology through which power is transmitted through an air gap to the electrical devices for the motive of replenishment of energy. At present wireless charging techniques and development of commercial products have provided a promise to address the energy bottleneck of portable ...

  2. The Danish Association for Science and Technology Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A presentation of the Danish Association for Science and Technology Studies (DASTS). Organization, experiences, challenges and future developments.......A presentation of the Danish Association for Science and Technology Studies (DASTS). Organization, experiences, challenges and future developments....

  3. Studying Innovation Technologies in Modern Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukalenko, Nina M.; Zhakhina, Bariya B.; Kukubaeva, Asiya K.; Smagulova, Nurgul K.; Kazhibaeva, Gulden K.

    2016-01-01

    In modern society, innovation technologies expand to almost every field of human activity, including such wide field as education. Due to integrating innovation technologies into the educational process practice, this phenomenon gained special significance within improvement and modernization of the established educational system. Currently, the…

  4. Leveraging Digital Technology in Social Studies Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Sarah Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Today's K-12 classrooms are increasingly comprised of students who accomplish much of their informal learning through digital media and technology. In response, a growing number of educators are considering how they might draw upon these informal learning experiences to support student engagement and learning in the classroom through technology.…

  5. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  6. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Kuilman-Wahls, M.E.M.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. NHDC was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5 to groups of 28 mated female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. At Cesarean section 25, 22, 23, and 23 rats were found to

  7. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    1991-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  8. Morphological studies on the healing process of extraction wound in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the extraction wound in irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone formation and resorption. 282 Wistar rats of about 100g body weight were used. The region of the left upper molars of experimental rats was exposed to 1000 rad or 2000 rad of 60 Co. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of from 1 day to 28 days after extraction. Control rats were sacrificed at same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was examined histologically, histometrically, histochemically and ultrastructurally. In irradiated rats, the healing process of extraction wound was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue and periosteal new bone formation was interfered. Histochemical examination revealed that the osteoblasts of irradiated rats reduced enzymatic activity compared with control rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblasts of irradiated rats and osteoid formation was reduced. In irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were more numerous and increased more rapidly as compared with control rats, whereas, histometrically, there was no significant difference in the amount of bone loss between control and irradiated rats. Histochemically, there was no distinct difference in the enzymatic activity in osteoclasts between control and irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of irradiated rats. The findings suggest that irradiation induced cytological changes in not only oseoblasts but also osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author)

  9. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  10. Networking and Information Technology Workforce Study: Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This report presents the results of a study of the global Networking and Information Technology NIT workforce undertaken for the Networking and Information...

  11. Bone repair after osteotomy with diamond burs and CVD ultrasonic tips – histological study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matuda, Fábio S.; Pagani, Clovis; Miranda, Carolina B.; Crema, Aline A. S.; Brentel, Aline S.; Carvalho, Yasmin R.

    2010-01-01

    This study histologically evaluated the behavior of bone tissue of rats submitted to osteotomy with conventional diamond burs in high speed and a new ultrasonic diamond tips system (CVD – Chemical Vapor Deposition), at different study periods. The study was conducted on 24 Wistar rats. Osteotomy was performed on the posterior paws of each rat, with utilization of diamond burs in high speed under thorough water cooling at the right paw, and CVD tips at the left paw. Animals were killed a...

  12. Antipiracy technology study on optical disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hexiong; Lu, Dajin; Xu, Duanyi; Pan, Longfa

    2001-02-01

    The software industry loses billions of dollars each year due to software piracy. And CD-ROM technology is one of the most successful and fast growing methods for quickly and economically distributing information. So it is an urgency to find a good method to protect CD-ROM from being pirated. In this chapter, we will discuss some new technologies of anti- piracy. According to these discussions, we will put forward our new anti-piracy method.

  13. Rat Genome and Model Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Mary; Smith, Jennifer R; Bryda, Elizabeth; Kuramoto, Takashi; Saba, Laura; Dwinell, Melinda

    2017-07-01

    Rats remain a major model for studying disease mechanisms and discovery, validation, and testing of new compounds to improve human health. The rat's value continues to grow as indicated by the more than 1.4 million publications (second to human) at PubMed documenting important discoveries using this model. Advanced sequencing technologies, genome modification techniques, and the development of embryonic stem cell protocols ensure the rat remains an important mammalian model for disease studies. The 2004 release of the reference genome has been followed by the production of complete genomes for more than two dozen individual strains utilizing NextGen sequencing technologies; their analyses have identified over 80 million variants. This explosion in genomic data has been accompanied by the ability to selectively edit the rat genome, leading to hundreds of new strains through multiple technologies. A number of resources have been developed to provide investigators with access to precision rat models, comprehensive datasets, and sophisticated software tools necessary for their research. Those profiled here include the Rat Genome Database, PhenoGen, Gene Editing Rat Resource Center, Rat Resource and Research Center, and the National BioResource Project for the Rat in Japan. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Study on Application of Static Magnetic Field for Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Taniguchi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the effectiveness of the application of static magnetic field (SMF on pain relief, we performed a study on rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA. Sixty female Sprague–Dawley (SD rats (age: 6 weeks, body weight: approximately 160 g were divided into three groups [SMF-treated AA rats (Group I, non-SMF-treated AA rats (Group II and control rats (Group III]. The SD rats were injected in the left hind leg with 0.6 mg/0.05 ml Mycobacterium butyrium to induce AA. The rats were bred for 6 months as chronic pain model. Thereafter, the AA rats were or were not exposed to SMF for 12 weeks. We assessed the changes in the tail surface temperature, locomotor activity, serum inflammatory marker and bone mineral density (BMD using thermography, a metabolism measuring system and the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method, respectively. The tail surface temperature, locomotor activity and femoral BMD of the SMF-exposed AA rats were significantly higher than those of the non-SMF-exposed AA rats, and the serum inflammatory marker was significantly lower. These findings suggest that the pain relief effects are primarily due to the increased blood circulation caused by the rise in the tail surface temperature. Moreover, the pain relief effects increased with activity and BMD of the AA rats.

  15. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Leticia Rodrigues; Moreira, Carla Ruffeil; Cestari, Tania Mary; Taga, Rumio; Damante, José Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG). MATERIAL AND METHODSs: Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group), 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv) and total volume (Vt) of intact (ia) and autolyzed (aa) acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p0.05), respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm³ at 0 h to 38.17 mm³ at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm³ to 0 mm³ between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning Vtaa were adjusted by two-variable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54+3.38x (r²=0.90). The Vtaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm³/h between 0-12 h. Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h.

  16. Application study of nuclear technologies for integration chemical, biological and radiological technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Kon; Han, M. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, J. E.; Jung, K. S.; Cha, H. K.; Moon, J.; La, K. H

    2001-02-01

    The projects are suggested the method to maximize the technology and research results which are being carried out by KAERI on the nuclear field. The study presents 1)the technology to rapidly and accurately determine and the nature of contamination, 2) the technology to predict the spread of contaminant and the magnitude of damage, and 3) the expert-aided decision making technology to identify the optimum counter-measures. And the solutions are also suggested the application to military technology in Chemical, Biological and Radiation field. In addition, I hope this kind of cooperation model come to be the good case of military civilian research harmony to improve the national competition capability.

  17. [Echocardiographic study of left ventricular geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Eduardo M; Pinilla, Oscar A; Carranza, Verónica B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze by echocardiogram left ventricular (LV) geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Echocardiographic study, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in 114 male, 4-month old rats, 73 SHR and 41 Wistar (W). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), stroke volume, and mid ventricular shortening were calculated with echocardiographic parameters. Normal LV was defined considering the mean plus 2 SD of LVMI and RWT in W. Patterns of abnormal LV geometry were: LV concentric remodeling, LVMI 0.71; eccentric, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), LVMI > 2.06 mg/g - RWT 2.06 mg/g - RWT > 0.71. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cardiac output (CO) were used to obtain total peripheral resistance (TPR). twelve % of SHR had normal LV geometry; 18% LV concentric remodeling; 33% concentric LVH and 37% eccentric LVH. LV concentric remodeling showed the smallest CO and highest TPR of any group. Eccentric LVH presented similar SBP as the other SHR groups and high CO with lower TPR. Our findings in SHR exhibit different patterns of LV geometry like in humans. These results strengthen the similarities between SHR and human essential hypertension.

  18. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, Adriana R.; Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 μm, GSD = 2.4 μm) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

  19. Transport Network TechnologiesStudy and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozorgebrahimi, K.; Channegowda, M.; Colmenero, A.

    Following on from the theoretical research into Carrier Class Transport Network Technologies (CCTNTs) documented in DJ1.1.1, this report describes the extensive testing performed by JRA1 Task 1. The tests covered EoMPLS, Ethernet OAM, Synchronous Ethernet, PBB-TE, MPLS-TP, OTN and GMPLS, and the ......Following on from the theoretical research into Carrier Class Transport Network Technologies (CCTNTs) documented in DJ1.1.1, this report describes the extensive testing performed by JRA1 Task 1. The tests covered EoMPLS, Ethernet OAM, Synchronous Ethernet, PBB-TE, MPLS-TP, OTN and GMPLS...

  20. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  1. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Al-Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly, central nervous system activity tests (weekly, hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg. Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

  2. Breast cancer study in rats by using Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez E, J. C. [IPN, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria, Campus Guanajuato, Av. Mineral de Valenciana 200, Col. Fracc. Industrial Puerto Interior, 36275 Silao, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cordova F, T.; Roca Ch, J. M.; Hernandez R, A., E-mail: jcmartineze@ipn.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The use of Raman scattering to differentiate the biochemistry and hence distinguish between normal and abnormal samples of breast cancer with induced stress was investigated. Twelve different rat serum samples (5 control samples and 7 breast cancer samples) were measured. 25 spectra per sample were acquired in a region of 50 X 50 microns. Three hundred spectra were recorded and the spectral diagnostic models were constructed by using multivariate statistical analysis on the spectral matrix to carry out the discrimination between the control samples and cancers samples with induced stress. The spectral recording was performed with Raman microscopy system Thermo Scientific XRD in the range from 200 to 2000 cm{sup -1} with a laser source of 780 nm, 24 m W of power and 50 s and exposure time were used for each spectrum. It is shown that the serum samples from rats with breast cancer and the control group can be discriminate when the multivariate analysis methods are applied to their Raman data set. The ratios were significant and correspond to proteins and phospholipids. The preliminary results suggest that the Raman spectroscopy could be an alternative technique to study the breast cancer in humans in a near future. (Author)

  3. Oral two-generation reproduction toxicity study with NM-200 synthetic amorphous silica in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolterbeek, André; Oosterwijk, Thies; Schneider, Steffen; Landsiedel, Robert; de Groot, Didima; van Ee, Renz; Wouters, Mariëlle; van de Sandt, Han

    2015-08-15

    Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) like NM-200 is used in a wide variety of technological applications and consumer products. Although SAS has been widely investigated the available reproductive toxicity studies are old and do not cover all requirements of current OECD Guidelines. As part of a CEFIC-LRI project, NM-200 was tested in a two-generation reproduction toxicity study according to OECD guideline 416. Male and female rats were treated by oral gavage with NM-200 at dose levels of 0, 100, 300 and 1000mg/kg bw/day for two generations. Body weight and food consumption were measured throughout the study. Reproductive and developmental parameters were measured and at sacrifice (reproductive) organs and tissues were sampled for histopathological analysis. Oral administration of NM-200 up to 1000mg/kg bw/day had no adverse effects on the reproductive performance of rats or on the growth and development of the offspring into adulthood for two consecutive generations. The NOAEL was 1000mg/kg body weight per day. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Studies and the Language of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John K.; Bennett, Clifford

    1999-01-01

    Provides definitions of the following words and phrases that are related to technology and its use in the social sciences classroom: CD-ROM, database, discussion group, e-mail, hypertext and hypermedia, Internet, simulation, spreadsheets, virtual field trip, and World Wide Web. (AEF)

  5. Comparative analysis of methods for gene transcription profiling data derived from different microarray technologies in rat and mouse models of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihoreau Marie-Thérèse

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technologies are widely used to quantify the abundance of transcripts corresponding to thousands of genes. To maximise the robustness of transcriptome results, we have tested the performance and reproducibility of rat and mouse gene expression data obtained with Affymetrix, Illumina and Operon platforms. Results We present a thorough analysis of the degree of reproducibility provided by analysing the transcriptomic profile of the same animals of several experimental groups under different popular microarray technologies in different tissues. Concordant results from inter- and intra-platform comparisons were maximised by testing many popular computational methods for generating fold changes and significances and by only considering oligonucleotides giving high expression levels. The choice of Affymetrix signal extraction technique was shown to have the greatest effect on the concordance across platforms. In both species, when choosing optimal methods, the agreement between data generated on the Affymetrix and Illumina was excellent; this was verified using qRT-PCR on a selection of genes present on all platforms. Conclusion This study provides an extensive assessment of analytical methods best suited for processing data from different microarray technologies and can assist integration of technologically different gene expression datasets in biological systems.

  6. Study on teratogenicity of Nikean in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoqiu; Zhou Zewei; Shen Xiu; Wu Hongying; Wang Dezhi; Wang Qin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the teratogenicity of Nikean in Wistar rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups, three Nikean dosage groups (300, 200, 100 mg/kg) and one negative control group. Nikean or normal saline was given via caudal vein injection for 10 days from the 10 th day of gestation. Pregnant rats were killed at the 20th day of gestation, and parers and their fetuses were examined. Results: Compared to the control group, there was no difference in weight of pregnant rats in three Nikean dosage groups. No abnormality was observed in skeleton and internal organs of fetuses in three Nikean dosage groups. There were significant differences between three Nikean dosage groups and control group in fetal weight, trunk length and tail length in female and male rats. Conclusion: Nikean at the dose of 300, 200, 100 mg/kg showed a certain fetotoxicity but had no apparent teratogenesis in rats. (authors)

  7. Desert Research and Technology Study 2003 Trip Report/ICES Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Kosmo, Joseph J.; Janoiko, Barbara; Eppler, Dean

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Extra-vehicular Activity (EVA) team of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) participated in the Desert Research and Technology Study (RATS) in September 2003, at Meteor Crater, AZ. The Desert RATS is an integrated remote field site te t with team members from several NASA centers (Johnson Space Center; Glenn and Ames Research Centers) and universities (Bowling Green State University, University of Cincinnati, Massachusetts Institute of Technology) participating. Each week of the two-week field test had a primary focus. The primary test hardware for the first week was the I-Gravity Lunar Rover Training Vehicle, or Grover, which was on loan to NASA from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The 2003 Grover driving test results serve as a rover performance characterization baseline for the Science, Crew, Operation and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) project team, which will be designing and fabricating a next generation roving vehicle prototype in Fiscal Year (FY) 2004. The second week of testing focused on EVA geologic traverses that utilized a geologic sample field analysis science trailer and also focused on human-robotic interaction between the suited subjects and the EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA). This paper will review the Advanced EVA team's role in the context of the overall Desert RATS, as well as the EVA team results and lessons learned. For information regarding other test participants' results, the authors can refer interested parties to the test reports produced by those Desert RATS teams.

  8. Demonstrating and implementing innovative technologies: Case studies from the USDOE Office of Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Koegler, K.J.; Mamiya, L.S.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes elements of success for demonstration, evaluation, and transfer for deployment of innovative technologies for environmental restoration. They have been compiled from lessons learned through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development's Volatile Organic Compounds in Arid Soil Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The success of the VOC-Arid ID program was determined by the rapid development demonstration, and transfer for deployment of technologies to operational sites that improve on safety, cost, and/or schedule of performance over baseline technologies. The VOC-Arid ID successfully fielded more than 25 innovative technology field demonstrations; several of the technologies demonstrated have been successfully transferred for deployment Field demonstration is a critical element in the successful transfer of innovative technologies into environmental restoration operations. The measures of success for technology demonstrations include conducting the demonstration in a safe and controlled environment and generating the appropriate information by which to evaluate the technology. However, field demonstrations alone do not guarantee successful transfer for deployment There are many key elements throughout the development and demonstration process that have a significant impact on the success of a technology. This paper presents key elements for a successful technology demonstration and transfer for deployment identified through the experiences of the VOC-Arid ID. Also, several case studies are provided as examples

  9. Autoradiographic studies of oleilanilide-3H distribution in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro Alvarez, M.J.; Saez Angulo, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the possibility that oleilanilides are involved in the pathgenesis of ''toxic syndrome'' is studied. Oleilanilide- 3 H labelled in the anilidi aromatic ring has been used to determine the distribution, localization and incorporation of that compound in several tissues of rats. Liquid scintillation counting for quantitative evaluation of the total radioactivity accumulated in the tissues, as well as autoradiographic techniques have been employed as analytical procedures. Results obtained from measurement of total radioactivity have shown accumulation of oleilanilide or its metabolites in all the studied tissues, mainly in the liver. No specific radioactivity localization has been detected by autoradiographic techniques, being the labelled molecules distributed in cytaplasm and cell interstice. (Author)

  10. The rat: a laboratory model for studies of the diving response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qi; Juric, Rajko

    2010-01-01

    Underwater submersion in mammals induces apnea, parasympathetically mediated bradycardia, and sympathetically mediated peripheral vasoconstriction. These effects are collectively termed the diving response, potentially the most powerful autonomic reflex known. Although these physiological responses are directed by neurons in the brain, study of neural control of the diving response has been hampered since 1) it is difficult to study the brains of animals while they are underwater, 2) feral marine mammals are usually large and have brains of variable size, and 3) there are but few references on the brains of naturally diving species. Similar responses are elicited in anesthetized rodents after stimulation of their nasal mucosa, but this nasopharyngeal reflex has not been compared directly with natural diving behavior in the rat. In the present study, we compared hemodynamic responses elicited in awake rats during volitional underwater submersion with those of rats swimming on the water's surface, rats involuntarily submerged, and rats either anesthetized or decerebrate and stimulated nasally with ammonia vapors. We show that the hemodynamic changes to voluntary diving in the rat are similar to those of naturally diving marine mammals. We also show that the responses of voluntary diving rats are 1) significantly different from those seen during swimming, 2) generally similar to those elicited in trained rats involuntarily “dunked” underwater, and 3) generally different from those seen from dunking naive rats underwater. Nasal stimulation of anesthetized rats differed most from the hemodynamic variables of rats trained to dive voluntarily. We propose that the rat trained to dive underwater is an excellent laboratory model to study neural control of the mammalian diving response, and also suggest that some investigations may be done with nasal stimulation of decerebrate preparations to decipher such control. PMID:20093670

  11. Rat two-generation reproductive toxicity study of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, M; Fujii, S; Furukawa, M; Kiguchi, M; Ikka, T; Harazono, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the low-dose effects of bisphenol A (BPA) in a rat two-generation reproduction study. Groups of 25 male and 25 female Crj: CD (SD) IGS rats were given BPA at 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 microg/kg/day by gastric intubation throughout the study beginning at the onset of a 10- and 2-week premating period, in F0 males and females, respectively, and continuing through the mating, gestation, and lactation periods, for two generations. There were adult (F0, F1, F2) and postnatal day (PND) 22 (F1, F2) necropsies: the oldest F2 males and females being killed at postnatal weeks 7 and 14, respectively. No compound-related clinical signs or effects on body weight or food consumption were observed in any generation. There were no compound-related changes in surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis reflex, mid-air righting reflex, pinna detachment, incisor eruption, eye opening, testes descent, preputial separation, or vaginal opening in F1 and F2 generations, or behavior in the open field or water filled multiple T-maze in the F1 generation. No test compound-related changes in estrous cyclicity, copulation index, fertility index, number of implantations, gestation length, litter size, pup weight, pup sex ratio, pup viability, or other functional reproductive measures were noted in any generation. A few significant changes in the anogenital distance (AGD) per cube root of body weight ratio were found at 0.2 and 20 microg/kg in F1 males, at 2, 20, and 200 microg/kg in F1 females, and at 20 and 200 microg/kg in F2 females. However, the changes in the AGD were consistently small (within 5% of control values), and no continuous changes in the AGD or AGD/cube root of body weight ratio were detected. There were no compound-related changes in epididymal sperm counts or motility in F0 and F1 males. No compound-related necropsy findings or effects on organ weight including the reproductive organs were found in any generation. Histopathologic examinations

  12. The Presence Of Rat And House Sanitation Associated With Leptospira sp. Bacterial Infection In Rats (A Cross Sectional Study In Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyani, Endang; Martini, Martini; Saraswati, Lintang Dian

    2018-02-01

    The Gajah Mungkur sub-district in Semarang, Indonesia had highest leptospirosis cases (reported in human with seven infected and one dead) in 2015. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between house sanitation and density of rats with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The study design was cross sectional observational analytic. The number of 308 trapswere placed in study sites over three consecutive nights afterwards. Every houses were placed with four traps, inside and outside. Trapped rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight of rats continued with Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg body weight of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it. After that, identification of rats by species and gender then continues with surgery in which a kidney sample was taken to confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospirasp using PCR techniques. The trap installed in 77 houses which later had further observation on house sanitation which includes the existence of a pile of used goods, food storage, garbage can, and the presence of the ceiling, windows and other ventilation.Data was analyzed using distribution frequency and bivariate chi-square test. We had 100 rats captured with live traps as the samples.The proportion of Rattusnorvegicuswas 27% (14.8% positive Leptospira sp.infection) and Rattustanezumi 73% (11%positive Leptospira sp.infection). The proportion of male and female rats were almost equal. The statistic test result was significant between the density of rats (p = 0.0001, OR 12.833, 95%CI: 1.565-105.261) and sex of rats (p = 0.019, OR 0.095, 95%CI: 0.012-0.769) with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The number of rats may increase the infection of Leptospirasp., especially female rats and poor condition of house sanitation. It is recommended to improve house sanitation and regularly trapping rats.

  13. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 2: Technology assessment and technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative LDR system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume presents thirteen technology assessments and technology development plans, as well as an overview and summary of the LDR concepts. Twenty-two proposed augmentation projects are described (selected from more than 30 candidates). The five LDR technology areas most in need of supplementary support are: cryogenic cooling; astronaut assembly of the optically precise LDR in space; active segmented primary mirror; dynamic structural control; and primary mirror contamination control. Three broad, time-phased, five-year programs were synthesized from the 22 projects, scheduled, and funding requirements estimated.

  14. THE EFFECT OF EARLY MOVEMENT RESTRICTION - AN EMG STUDY IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERGA, J; GRAMSBERGEN, A

    1993-01-01

    The effect of early immobilization upon the adult locomotor pattern was studied. One hindlimb of neonatal rats was immobilized during 20 days and the EMG pattern was studied 3-8 weeks after termination of movement restriction. All rats showed a fluent locomotion pattern at these ages, but the EMG

  15. Neurogenic inflammation: a study of rat trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kim Anker; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is linked to neurogenic inflammation and to migraine. Activation of the trigeminovascular system plays a prominent role during migraine attacks with the release of CGRP. The trigeminal ganglion (TG) contains three main cell types: neurons, satellite glial...... cells (SGC) and Schwann cells; the first two have before been studied in vitro separately. Culture of rat TG provides a method to induce inflammation and the possibility to evaluate the different cell types in the TG simultaneously. We investigated expression levels of various inflammatory cytokines...... inhibitor SP600125. This method may be of value to examine local TG inflammation, putatively involved in the pathophysiology of some forms of primary headaches....

  16. Comparative studies on starvation - and indomethacin - induced ulcerations in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbe, R A

    1978-01-01

    Experimental models of chronic and acute peptic ulcerations were produced in the albino rats by means of prolonged starvation and indomethacin administration. In the case of acute indomethacin-induced peptic ulceration, the effects of anticholinergic drugs on the ulcers produced were also studied. Starving the rats for a period of seven days produced gastric ulceration in all the rats used while indomethacin produced gastric ulceration within five hours in all the rats used. Severe ulceration of the degree found in human peptic ulcer disease was produced only by chronic starvation. Anticholinergic drugs ameliorated indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, partly at least, by reducing intra-gastric acidity.

  17. Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by repetitive administration of local anaesthetics: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Alborghetti Nai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies regarding the effects of some local anaesthetics have suggested that these agents can cause genetic damage. However, they have not been tested for genotoxicity related to repetitive administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of local anaesthetics upon repetitive administration. METHODS: 80 male Wistar rats were divided into: group A - 16 rats intraperitoneally injected with lidocaine hydrochloride 2%; group B - 16 rats IP injected with mepivacaine 2%; group C - 16 rats intraperitoneally injected with articaine 4%; group D - 16 rats IP injected with prilocaine 3% (6.0 mg/kg; group E - 8 rats subcutaneously injected with a single dose of cyclophosphamide; and group F - 8 rats intraperitoneally injected with saline. Eight rats from groups A to D received a single dose of anaesthetic on Day 1 of the experiment; the remaining rats were dosed once a day for 5 days. RESULTS: The median number of micronuclei in the local anaesthetics groups exposed for 1 or 5 days ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group was 10.00, and the negative control group for 1 and 5 days was 1.00 and 0.00, respectively (p 0.05. CONCLUSION: No genotoxicity effect was observed upon repetitive exposure to any of the local anaesthetics evaluated.

  18. [Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by repetitive administration of local anaesthetics: an experimental study in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; de Oliveira, Mariliza Casanova; de Oliveira Tavares, Graziela; Pereira, Laís Fabrício Fonseca; Soares, Nádia Derli Salvador Lemes; Silva, Patrícia Gatti

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies regarding the effects of some local anaesthetics have suggested that these agents can cause genetic damage. However, they have not been tested for genotoxicity related to repetitive administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of local anaesthetics upon repetitive administration. 80 male Wistar rats were divided into: group A - 16 rats intraperitoneally injected with lidocaine hydrochloride 2%; group B - 16 rats IP injected with mepivacaine 2%; group C - 16 rats intraperitoneally injected with articaine 4%; group D - 16 rats IP injected with prilocaine 3% (6.0mg/kg); group E - 8 rats subcutaneously injected with a single dose of cyclophosphamide; and group F - 8 rats intraperitoneally injected with saline. Eight rats from groups A to D received a single dose of anaesthetic on Day 1 of the experiment; the remaining rats were dosed once a day for 5 days. The median number of micronuclei in the local anaesthetics groups exposed for 1 or 5 days ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group was 10.00, and the negative control group for 1 and 5 days was 1.00 and 0.00, respectively (plocal anaesthetic groups (p=0.0001), but not between the negative control group and the local anaesthetic groups (p>0.05). No genotoxicity effect was observed upon repetitive exposure to any of the local anaesthetics evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  20. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits- Prooije, A.E. van; Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Bär, A.

    1996-01-01

    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of erythritol, a low-calorie polyol sugar substitute, was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI) WU BR rats. Erythritol was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% to groups of 32 female rats from Day 0 to 21 of gestation. The treatment was generally well tolerated

  1. [Study on the method of two dimensional polycrylamide gel electrophoresis on rat condylar chondrocyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tuo-jiang; Li, Huang; Ma, Qiao-lin; Wang, Wen-mei

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the protein profile by two dimensional polycrylamide gel electrophoresis on the rat condylar chondrocyte in vitro. The third-passage chondrocytes were harvested from the mandibular condyles of 2-day-old rats in this study. The protein profile of the rat mandibular condylar chondrocytes was examined by two dimensional polycrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE-PAGE). The 2-DE gel maps on different pH gradients were obtained. The result of modified coomassi blue-sliver staining and sliver staining was compared using Pdquest 7.1 image analysis software. The results showed that the good protein profile of the condylar chondrocytes was obtained by standard Bio-Rad manual. The protein was mainly in the field from pH4 to pH7. The 1203±86 protein points were examined on 2-DE gel map by modified coomassi blue-sliver staining, and 1769±97 protein points was examined by sliver staining. The silver staining map showed more distinctly but higher background than modified coomassi blue-sliver staining. The protein profile of the condylar chondrocytes enriches the proteomic database and gives evidence to further proteomic research. The 2-DE map obtained by modified coomassi blue-sliver staining is more suitable for MALDI-TOF mass identification. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. C30700963), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(Grant No.20090461088), Jiangsu Provincial Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No.0802003C) and Nanjing City's Science and Technology Foundation (Grant No.200905011).

  2. A pharmacokinetic study of diclofenac sodium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Ma, He; Cen, Nannan; Zhou, Ai; Tao, Hengxun

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous injection (i.v.) and oral administration (p.o.) of diclofenac sodium (DIC) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Twelve male SD rats were divided into 2 groups (n=6 per group); one group was injected intravenously with 2 mg/kg DIC, whereas the other group was lavaged with 2 mg/kg DIC. Blood samples were collected prior to DIC delivery (0 h) and 0.033, 0.083, 0.167, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post-administration. Blood plasma samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following pretreatment to induce protein precipitation. Pharmacokinetics software was applied to calculate relevant pharmacokinetic parameters using a non-compartmental model. Following i.v. administration of DIC, the terminal elimination rate constant (λ z ), apparent terminal elimination half-life (t ½ ), area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity (AUC0 -∞ ), clearance (CL), apparent volume of distribution (V z ), mean residence time (MRT), and apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V ss ) were 0.57±0.05 l/h, 1.22±0.11 h, 3356±238 h × ng/ml, 0.60±0.04 l/h, 1.05±0.10 l, 1.05±0.07 h and 0.63±0.07 l, respectively. Following p.o. administration of DIC, the λ z , t ½ , C max , t max , AUC 0-∞ , CL, V z , MRT were: 0.63±0.12 l/h, 1.12±0.18 h, 1272±112 ng/ml, 0.19±0.04 h, 2501±303 h × ng/ml, 0.81±0.10 l/h, 1.29±0.12 l, and 2.70±0.18 h, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of i.v. and p.o. DIC in rats show that the drug is rapidly absorbed, distributed, and eliminated.

  3. A case study of technology transfer: Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, G.

    1974-01-01

    Research advancements in cardiology instrumentation and techniques are summarized. Emphasis is placed upon the following techniques: (1) development of electrodes which show good skin compatibility and wearer comfort; (2) contourography - a real time display system for showing the results of EKGs; (3) detection of arteriosclerosis by digital computer processing of X-ray photos; (4) automated, noninvasive systems for blood pressure measurement; (5) ultrasonoscope - a noninvasive device for use in diagnosis of aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve disease; and (6) rechargable cardiac pacemakers. The formation of a biomedical applications team which is an interdisciplinary team to bridge the gap between the developers and users of technology is described.

  4. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Institutional dynamics and technology legitimacy - A framework and a case study on biogas technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markard, Jochen; Wirth, Steffen; Truffer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Legitimacy is central for both novel and established technologies to mobilize the resources necessary for growth and survival. A loss of legitimacy, in turn, can have detrimental effects for an industry. In this paper, we study the rise and fall of technology legitimacy of agricultural biogas in

  6. Women and Technology: A case study of Famagusta, TRNC

    OpenAIRE

    Özad, Bahire Efe; Arsoy, Aysu

    2011-01-01

    It has been observed that men have always had more access to technology. Currently, increased educational opportunities for the women proved that women can be very successful not only in the use but also in the design of technology. The present study explores the attitude of a variety of forms of feminism to technology and presents the findings of a descriptive study carried out in Famagusta, TRNC about the domestic instruments owned, used, used with all the functions, and repaired by women.

  7. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Case study 1. Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, C. [Energy and Environment Division, International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    international collaboration by describing the globalisation of the economy and current efforts of technology collaboration and transfer. Finally, it considers various ways to strengthen international energy technology collaboration. This paper is one of six case-studies designed in an effort to provide practical insights on the role international technology collaboration could play to achieve the objectives of the UNFCCC. They will all consider the past achievements of international technology collaboration, and the role it could play in helping to develop and disseminate new technologies in the future: what worked, what did not work and why, and what lessons might be drawn from past experiences. Most case studies consider energy technologies that could help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A few others consider areas not directly related to greenhouse gas emissions but where international technology collaboration has proven particularly successful in the past. This case study reviews past and current experience in international collaboration in the field of concentrating solar technologies in order to identify lessons that may be relevant for more general climate-friendly technology collaboration. It presents concentrating solar technologies in their current status, recent achievements and development prospects. It analyses the present successes and failures of different forms of international collaboration in this field, and draws lessons for further elaboration of international technology collaboration in addressing climate change.

  8. Some toxicological studies of Momordica charantia L. on albino rats in normal and alloxan diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Sattar El Batran, Seham; El-Gengaihi, Souad E; El Shabrawy, Osama A

    2006-11-24

    Momordica charantia L. (MC) (Cucurbitaceae) commonly known as balsam pear, bitter gourd or karela, used in several purposes in traditional medicine is an important medicinal plant. Two sets of experiments were carried out, the first experiment indicated that the LD(50) for MC juice and alcoholic extracts were 91.9 and 362.34 mg/100g b.wt., respectively, of subcutaneously "s.c." injected mice. The toxic signs were recorded within the first 24 h post-injection. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of MC juice and alcoholic extracts on blood glucose and other biochemical parameters in normal and diabetic rats. Both extracts induced a significant decrease in serum glucose levels in normal and diabetic rats. The two extracts did not show any significant effect in urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and AP in normal rat, while in diabetic rats the two extracts caused a significant decrease in serum urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, AP, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Also, these results suggested that MC extracts possesses anti-diabetic, hepato-renal protective and hypolipidemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thus, MC is alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  9. Study in radiation tolerance of damaged liver induced by dimethylaminoazobenzene. Histological study using Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumiyama, Kazutaka; Kodama, Akihisa; Kono, Michio

    1997-01-01

    We studied to determine the tolerable dose of radiation in damaged liver using Wistar male rats aged 4 weeks. A damaged liver group fed on low-protein animal chow containing 0.07% dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB) ad libitum. Rats feeding on the chow without DAB served as the normal liver group. In both groups, two rats each underwent irradiation of the right half of the liver with doses of 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 15 Gy, or 20 Gy using a 15 MeV electron beam. The animals were sacrificed 2 or 4 weeks after irradiation, and the irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the liver were compared histologically with respect to hepatocellular necrosis, the extent of degeneration, and the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis in Glisson's capsule. Secondly, in the normal liver group, 6 rats were irradiated with dose of 20 Gy, and in the damaged liver group, 6 rats each were irradiated with doses of 10 Gy, 12 Gy, 15 Gy or 20 Gy, and the same study was performed. In the normal liver group, no histological differences were seen between the irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the liver even when irradiated with 20 Gy dose. In the damaged liver group, there were no differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the liver in animals given 15 Gy or 10 Gy. In the 12 Gy group, however, one out of three rats each showed more severe changes in the irradiated part at 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation. One out of six rats in the 15 Gy group and four out of six rats in the 20 Gy group died in the first week after irradiation. In the damaged liver group, a single irradiation of up to 10 Gy delivered to one half of the liver was tolerable. At doses of 12 Gy or higher, however, irreversible changes occurred in some animals, and deaths occurred at 15 Gy or 20 Gy. Since even 20 Gy was tolerated in the normal liver group, damaged liver showed a lower tolerance than normal liver. (author)

  10. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.zucchiatti@uam.es [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle de Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Climent Font, Aurelio [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle de Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Gutierrez Neira, Patricia Carolina; Perea, Alicia [Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, Calle Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Fernandez Esquivel, Patricia [Fundación Museos, Banco Central de Costa Rica, San José (Costa Rica); Rovira Llorens, Salvador [Museo Arqueológico Nacional, Calle Serrano 13, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexici DF 28006 (Mexico); Verde, Ana [Museo de América, Avda. de los Reyes Católicos 6, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called “Quimbaya’s treasure” (QT) and the “Costa Rica collection” (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice.

  11. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Climent Font, Aurelio; Gutierrez Neira, Patricia Carolina; Perea, Alicia; Fernandez Esquivel, Patricia; Rovira Llorens, Salvador; Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis; Verde, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called "Quimbaya's treasure" (QT) and the "Costa Rica collection" (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice.

  12. Technology and Disciplined Inquiry in the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Mark J.; Swan, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    More than 15 years ago, Martorella (1997) asked what has now become a seminal question in the field of social studies and technology; that is, "Which way to the sleeping giant?" (p. 511). He suggested a number of roles that technology can play in the social studies classroom. Although these roles are certainly relevant in 2014, the roles…

  13. Compartive study between the effects of human CD34 and rat bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells and rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have many advantages as grafts for cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of UCB cells and BM-MSCs on reversal of hepatic injury and revival of hepatic function in a rat model of carbon ...

  14. Prenatal developmental toxicity study with 7-hydroxymatairesinol potassium acetate (HMRlignan) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Roberts, A.; Korte, H.; Unkila, M.; Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Plant lignan 7-hydromatairesinol, a novel precursor of the mammalian lignan enterolactone was evaluated in a prenatal developmental toxicity study conducted in the Wistar rat. Mated female rats were fed diets containing 0, 0.25, 1, and 4% (w/w) of 7-hydroxymatairesinol in the form of potassium

  15. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and

  16. The In Vitro Permeability Study of Valsartan through Excised Rat Skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro permeability of valsartan through excised rat skin was investigated using Franz-type diffusion cells. The permeation was assessed by studying the effect of water, polysorbate-80 and eucalyptus oil on the permeability flux of valsartan through excised rat skin. The slope of linear portion of the graph obtained by ...

  17. Supervised and Unsupervised Learning Technology in the Study of Rodent Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsiaryna V. Gris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying behavior is a challenge for scientists studying neuroscience, ethology, psychology, pathology, etc. Until now, behavior was mostly considered as qualitative descriptions of postures or labor intensive counting of bouts of individual movements. Many prominent behavioral scientists conducted studies describing postures of mice and rats, depicting step by step eating, grooming, courting, and other behaviors. Automated video assessment technologies permit scientists to quantify daily behavioral patterns/routines, social interactions, and postural changes in an unbiased manner. Here, we extensively reviewed published research on the topic of the structural blocks of behavior and proposed a structure of behavior based on the latest publications. We discuss the importance of defining a clear structure of behavior to allow professionals to write viable algorithms. We presented a discussion of technologies that are used in automated video assessment of behavior in mice and rats. We considered advantages and limitations of supervised and unsupervised learning. We presented the latest scientific discoveries that were made using automated video assessment. In conclusion, we proposed that the automated quantitative approach to evaluating animal behavior is the future of understanding the effect of brain signaling, pathologies, genetic content, and environment on behavior.

  18. Supervised and Unsupervised Learning Technology in the Study of Rodent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gris, Katsiaryna V; Coutu, Jean-Philippe; Gris, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying behavior is a challenge for scientists studying neuroscience, ethology, psychology, pathology, etc. Until now, behavior was mostly considered as qualitative descriptions of postures or labor intensive counting of bouts of individual movements. Many prominent behavioral scientists conducted studies describing postures of mice and rats, depicting step by step eating, grooming, courting, and other behaviors. Automated video assessment technologies permit scientists to quantify daily behavioral patterns/routines, social interactions, and postural changes in an unbiased manner. Here, we extensively reviewed published research on the topic of the structural blocks of behavior and proposed a structure of behavior based on the latest publications. We discuss the importance of defining a clear structure of behavior to allow professionals to write viable algorithms. We presented a discussion of technologies that are used in automated video assessment of behavior in mice and rats. We considered advantages and limitations of supervised and unsupervised learning. We presented the latest scientific discoveries that were made using automated video assessment. In conclusion, we proposed that the automated quantitative approach to evaluating animal behavior is the future of understanding the effect of brain signaling, pathologies, genetic content, and environment on behavior.

  19. Study and application of construction technology of shielding concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chongming; Ding Dexin; Chen Liangzhu; Zhao Jingfa; Li Shilong

    2008-01-01

    Process and techniques such as mixing,transportation and pouring have been studied. The construction technology for the shielding concrete with different densities has been summarized. The technology for the common concrete is quite different from that of shielding concrete, especially when its density is more than 4000 kg/m3. Application and practices have shown that different construction technologies shall be used for shielding concretes with different densities, and thus to ensure its uniformity and construction quality. (authors)

  20. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of tetracycline and oxytetracycline in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, D D; Abdo, K M; Haseman, J K; Eustis, S L; Huff, J E

    1991-08-01

    Two-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and tetracycline hydrochloride, two structurally similar and widely used antibiotics, were performed in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Rats and mice were continuously exposed via their diet to the following levels of antibiotic: oxytetracycline HCl--rats 0, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm; mice 0,6,300, or 12,500 ppm; tetracycline HCl--rats and mice 0, 12,500, or 25,000 ppm. On a milligram per kilogram of body weight basis these exposures represent doses that are 20 to 140 times daily human therapeutic doses. Dose-related increased survival was noted among oxytetracycline-treated male rats and tetracycline-treated female rats and male mice, while treatment-related reduced body weight gain occurred in oxytetracycline- and tetracycline-treated mice. Microscopic changes included fatty metamorphosis and focal cellular change in livers of oxytetracycline-treated male rats and basophilic cytoplasmic and clear cell change in livers of tetracycline-treated male rats. The only neoplastic changes were a marginally increased trend in pheochromocytoma of the adrenal medulla (equivocal evidence only) among oxytetracycline-exposed male rats (12/50 controls, 19/50 low dose, 24/50 high dose) and an increased incidence of pituitary adenoma or adenocarcinoma among high-dose oxytetracycline-treated female rats (20/50 controls, 32/50 high dose). Although oxytetracycline and tetracycline appeared to increase the incidence of pituitary hyperplasia in high-dose male and female rats, respectively, the total incidence of proliferative changes (hyperplasia, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma) was not affected by antibiotic exposure. The results from these studies therefore support the notion that neither antibiotic is carcinogenic in rodents. There were several negative trends suggesting possible protective effects by both these tetracycline analogs against certain spontaneous neoplastic and non-neoplastic changes.

  1. Lymphatic Territories (Lymphosomes) in the Rat: An Anatomical Study for Future Lymphatic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suami, Hiroo; Scaglioni, Mario F

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the precise anatomy in experimental animals is crucial for correct design of research projects. Rats are commonly used for scientific research in plastic surgery because of their availability in academic institutions, moderate cost, and sizable vessels for microsurgical procedures. In past publications about rat anatomy, lymphatic mapping has been limited and incomplete. The aim of this study was to comprehensively map the superficial lymphatic system in the rat. Twenty-seven Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. Indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography was used to identify the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes. Under general anaesthesia, indocyanine green was injected intradermally at multiple spots along the dorsal and medial midlines, front and hind paws, ears, and tail. The course of the lymphatic vessels was traced on the skin with a marker pen and photographed. The superficial lymphatic vessels in each rat were sketched on a graphic template and all of the templates were superimposed using graphics software to define the relationship between the lymphatic vessel and sentinel node. Indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography was able to demonstrate the superficial lymphatic vessels in the rat. Six groups of regional lymph node/s were identified and lymphatic pathways to those nodes delineated. The authors' lymphosome concept was successfully applied to the rat, with six lymphosomes identified. The authors succeeded in performing superficial lymphatic mapping in the rat. The authors' anatomical findings can provide further information about the lymphatic system in the normal state and promote understanding of pathologic changes generated by surgical manipulation for future studies.

  2. Study on technology for minimizing radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Chun, Ki Chung.

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death to discriminate it from necrosis, is characterized by : chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, fragmentation of DNA into oligonucleosome sized pieces, swelling and progressive cell degradation. We examined morphological and biochemical changes of T-lymphocytes following gamma irradiation exposure. The results are followings. 1) Murine lymphocytes have several characteristics : The irradiated cells undergo morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis, causing growth delay. (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 Gy) 2) The onset of DNA fragmentation in cells occurs after one more cell divisions. 3) DNA fragmentation in cells occurs in all irradiated group (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 Gy, 24 hours following gamma radiation exposure) 4) Apoptotic bodies were detected by confocal microscope with ease when compared with electron microscope. For the developing technology for minimizing radiation damage, the following experimental works have been done. 1) Establishment of experimental system for pre-screening of radioprotectants - Screening of protective substances using TSH bioindicator - Efficacy test of some radioprotective materials 2) TSH bioindicator system can make a scientific role in screening unknown materials for their possible radioprotective effect. (author). 42 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  3. Fluoride ions vs removal technologies: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagvir Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Literature reported that drinking water is a precious and scarce resource and it has to be protected and kept free from any kind of contamination. Further, it has to be used carefully without wasting. Literature also reported that fluoride bearing rocks are abundant in India, as a result, fluoride leaches out and contaminates the adjacent water and soil resources. A high concentration of fluoride ions in ground water increases up to more than 30 mg/L. This high concentration of fluoride ions causes many harmful and dangerous effects on our datum. Fluoride ions in larger quantities i.e. 20–80 mg/day taken over a period of 10–20 years result in crippling and skeletal fluorosis, severely damaging the bone. In the present scenario, there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for the development of fluoride treatment technologies. Possibilities of reducing the high fluorine content in groundwater are by defluorination process/dilution with the surface water which is a very simple technique but the addition of Ca2+ ions to a solution in contact with fluorite when experimented in distilled water caused an appreciable decrease in fluoride concentration. In this review article, we emphasized the relationship between high concentrations of fluoride ions and their compounds and their health impact.

  4. Study on technology for minimizing radiation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Chun, Ki Chung

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death to discriminate it from necrosis, is characterized by : chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, fragmentation of DNA into oligonucleosome sized pieces, swelling and progressive cell degradation. We examined morphological and biochemical changes of T-lymphocytes following gamma irradiation exposure. The results are followings. (1) Murine lymphocytes have several characteristics : The irradiated cells undergo morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis, causing growth delay. (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 Gy) (2) The onset of DNA fragmentation in cells occurs after one more cell divisions. (3) DNA fragmentation in cells occurs in all irradiated group (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 Gy, 24 hours following gamma radiation exposure) (4) Apoptotic bodies were detected by confocal microscope with ease when compared with electron microscope. For the developing technology for minimizing radiation damage, the following experimental works have been done. (1) Establishment of experimental system for pre-screening of radioprotectants - Screening of protective substances using TSH bioindicator - Efficacy test of some radioprotective materials (2) TSH bioindicator system can make a scientific role in screening unknown materials for their possible radioprotective effect. (author). 42 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Impact of exercise on fecal and cecal metabolome over aging: a longitudinal study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Olga; Gika, Helen; Panagoulis, Theodoros; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Raikos, Nikolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise can reduce adverse conditions during aging, while both exercise and aging act as metabolism modifiers. The present study investigates rat fecal and cecal metabolome alterations derived from exercise during rats' lifespan. Groups of rats trained life-long or for a specific period of time were under study. The training protocol consisted of swimming, 15-18 min per day, 3-5 days per week, with load of 4-0% of rat's weight. Fecal samples and cecal extracts were analyzed by targeted and untargeted metabolic profiling methods (GC-MS and LC-MS/MS). Effects of exercise and aging on the rats' fecal and cecal metabolome were observed. Fecal and cecal metabolomics are a promising field to investigate exercise biochemistry and age-related alterations.

  6. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-11-01

    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Histomorphometric study of diazinon on growth plate of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiye Bazmi

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Diazinon leads to reduction in the Epiphyseal growth plate width of immature male rats. Therefore it could be a factor in the impairment of bone longitudinal growth and premature closure of the growth plate.

  9. Monosodium glutamate induced testicular lesions in rats (histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha D. Alalwani

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the testes of Wistar rats and by extension may contribute to the causes of male infertility. Thus, it is important to reconsider the usage of MSG as a flavor enhancer.

  10. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Security Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    incoming SSP Directors. Among other notables who have called Belmont home are Vannevar Bush, Winslow Homer, Talcott Parsons , the John Birch Society...Researchers 15 Affiliates 26 Seminar Series 33 Special Events 34 Field Trip 36 Publications 41 SSP Teaching 42 Courses 48 Professional Education 50 SSP...STUDIES PROGRAM MIT SECURITY STUDIES PROGRAM SECURITY STUDIES PROGRAM 1 he Security Studies Program (SSP) is a graduate level research and educational

  11. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins Filho, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. METHODS: Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glo...

  12. DOE technology information management system database study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widing, M.A.; Blodgett, D.W.; Braun, M.D.; Jusko, M.J.; Keisler, J.M.; Love, R.J.; Robinson, G.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.

    1994-11-01

    To support the missions of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Special Technologies Program, Argonne National Laboratory is defining the requirements for an automated software system that will search electronic databases on technology. This report examines the work done and results to date. Argonne studied existing commercial and government sources of technology databases in five general areas: on-line services, patent database sources, government sources, aerospace technology sources, and general technology sources. First, it conducted a preliminary investigation of these sources to obtain information on the content, cost, frequency of updates, and other aspects of their databases. The Laboratory then performed detailed examinations of at least one source in each area. On this basis, Argonne recommended which databases should be incorporated in DOE`s Technology Information Management System.

  13. In vitro study of proteolytic degradation of rat histidine decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, M T; Urdiales, J L; Pegg, A E; Medina, M A; Sánchez-Jiménez, F

    2000-03-01

    Mammalian ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a very unstable protein which is degraded in an ATP-dependent manner by proteasome 26S, after making contact with the regulatory protein antizyme. PEST regions are sequences described as signals for protein degradation. The C-terminal PEST region of mammalian ODC is essential for its degradation by proteasome 26S. Mammalian histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is also a short-lived protein. The full primary sequence of mammalian HDC contains PEST-regions at both the N- and C-termini. Rat ODC and different truncated and full versions of rat HDC were expressed in vitro. In vitro degradation of rat ODC and rat 1-512 HDC were compared. Like ODC, rat 1-512 HDC is degraded mainly by an ATP-dependent mechanism. However, antizyme has no effect on the degradation of 1-512 HDC. The use of the inhibitors MG-132 and lactacystine significantly inhibited the degradation of 1-512 HDC, suggesting that a ubiquitin-dependent, proteasome 26S proteolytic pathway is involved. Results obtained with the different modifications of rat HDC containing all three PEST regions (full version, 1-656 HDC), only the N-terminal PEST region (1-512 HDC), or no PEST region (69-512 HDC), indicate that the N-terminal (1-69) fragment, but not the C-terminal fragment, determines that the HDC protein is a proteasome substrate in vitro.

  14. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glom]) of the renal glomeruli and average glomerular volume (Vol[glom])) and also it was evaluated the renal function for the dosage of serum creatinine and urea. There was significant decrease of the renal function in the oldest rats. The renal volume presented gradual increase during the development of the rats with the biggest values registered in the group of animals at 12 months of age and significant progressive decrease in older animals. Vv[glom] presented statistically significant gradual reduction between the groups and the Nv[glom] also decreased significantly. The renal function proved to be inferior in senile rats when compared to the young rats. The morphometric and stereological analysis evidenced renal atrophy, gradual reduction of the volume density and numerical density of the renal glomeruli associated to the aging process.

  15. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong JS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeong-Sup Hong,1,2 Myeong-Kyu Park,1 Min-Seok Kim,1 Jeong-Hyeon Lim,1 Gil-Jong Park,1 Eun-Ho Maeng,1 Jae-Ho Shin,3 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Jayoung Jeong,5 Jin-A Park,2 Jong-Choon Kim,6 Ho-Chul Shin2 1Health Care Research Laboratory, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gimpo, South Korea; 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, South Korea; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 5Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea; 6College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea Abstract: This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnOSM20(+ NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(+ NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%; resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after

  16. Pharmacokinetic Study of Piracetam in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Pankaj; Dash, Debabrata; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2018-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h in male Wistar rats followed by reperfusion. After 24 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion or 22 h of reperfusion, piracetam was administered for pharmacokinetic, brain penetration, and pharmacological experiments. In pharmacokinetic study, blood samples were collected at different time points after 200-mg/kg (oral) and 75-mg/kg (intravenous) administration of piracetam through right external jugular vein cannulation. In brain penetration study, the cerebrospinal fluid, systemic blood, portal blood, and brain samples were collected at pre-designated time points after 200-mg/kg oral administration of piracetam. In a separate experiment, the pharmacological effect of the single oral dose of piracetam in middle cerebral artery occlusion was assessed at a dose of 200 mg/kg. All the pharmacokinetic parameters of piracetam including area under curve (AUC 0-24 ), maximum plasma concentration (C max ), time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t max ), elimination half-life (t 1/2 ), volume of distribution (V z ), total body clearance, mean residence time, and bioavailability were found to be similar in ischemic stroke condition except for brain penetration. Piracetam exposure (AUC 0-2 ) in brain and CSF were found to be 2.4- and 3.1-fold higher, respectively, in ischemic stroke compared to control rats. Piracetam significantly reduced infarct volume by 35.77% caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was no change in the pharmacokinetic parameters of piracetam in the ischemic stroke model except for

  17. Adoption Study Of Seed Priming Technology In Upland Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption study was carried out during 2003 cropping season on randomly selected 83 farmers out of the 300 that participated in the upland rice seed priming technology transfer between year 2000 – 2002 to determine the impact of the technology on upland rice production in five States of Nigeria, through the use of ...

  18. Project plan hydrogen energy systems technology. Phase 1: Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An overview of the potential need for hydrogen as a source of energy in the future was presented in order to identify and define the technology requirements for the most promising approaches to meet that need. The following study objectives were discussed: (1) determination of the future demand for hydrogen, based on current trends and anticipated new uses, (2) identification of the critical research and technology advances required to meet this need considering, to the extent possible, raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects, and (3) definition and recommendation of the scope and space of a National Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology Program and outline of a Program Development Plan.

  19. A novel device for studying weight supported, quadrupedal overground locomotion in spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Marvin; Traughber, Terence; Reinkensmeyer, David J; de Leon, Ray D

    2015-05-15

    Providing weight support facilitates locomotion in spinal cord injured animals. To control weight support, robotic systems have been developed for treadmill stepping and more recently for overground walking. We developed a novel device, the body weight supported ambulatory rodent trainer (i.e. BART). It has a small pneumatic cylinder that moves along a linear track above the rat. When air is supplied to the cylinder, the rats are lifted as they perform overground walking. We tested the BART device in rats that received a moderate spinal cord contusion injury and in normal rats. Locomotor training with the BART device was not performed. All of the rats learned to walk in the BART device. In the contused rats, significantly greater paw dragging and dorsal stepping occurred in the hindlimbs compared to normal. Providing weight support significantly raised hip position and significantly reduced locomotor deficits. Hindlimb stepping was tightly coupled to forelimb stepping but only when the contused rats stepped without weight support. Three weeks after the contused rats received a complete spinal cord transection, significantly fewer hindlimb steps were performed. Relative to rodent robotic systems, the BART device is a simpler system for studying overground locomotion. The BART device lacks sophisticated control and sensing capability, but it can be assembled relatively easily and cheaply. These findings suggest that the BART device is a useful tool for assessing quadrupedal, overground locomotion which is a more natural form of locomotion relative to treadmill locomotion. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rafael Arêas; Oliveira, Leonardo Pires; Frankenfeld, Stephan; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Favorito, Luciano Alves; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos

    2013-01-01

    Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a) control rats, with 105 days of age (C105) (n = 7); (b) control rats with 65 days of age (C65) (n = 9), injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil); (c) treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105) (n = 10) and (d) treated rats with 65 days of age (T65) (n = 13). The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105) and 121 days of age (C65 and T65) and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated) and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p anabolic androgenic steroids in rats promotes structural changes in the prostate. We observed structural changes in the weight, volume and epithelium height of the prostate ventral lobe and a predominance of collagen fibers.

  1. DDX4-EGFP transgenic rat model for the study of germline development and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassei, Kathrin; Sheng, Yi; Fayomi, Adetunji; Mital, Payal; Sukhwani, Meena; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Peters, Karen A; Althouse, Andrew; Valli, Hanna; Orwig, Kyle E

    2017-03-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) are essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility. In addition, these adult tissue stem cells can be used as vehicles for germline modification in animal models and may have application for treating male infertility. To facilitate the investigation of SSCs and germ lineage development in rats, we generated a DEAD-box helicase 4 (DDX4) (VASA) promoter-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter transgenic rat. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence confirmed that EGFP was expressed in the germ cells of the ovaries and testes and was absent in somatic cells and tissues. Germ cell transplantation demonstrated that the EGFP-positive germ cell population from DDX4-EGFP rat testes contained SSCs capable of establishing spermatogenesis in experimentally infertile mouse recipient testes. EGFP-positive germ cells could be easily isolated by fluorescence-activated cells sorting, while simultaneously removing testicular somatic cells from DDX4-EGFP rat pup testes. The EGFP-positive fraction provided an optimal cell suspension to establish rat SSC cultures that maintained long-term expression of zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (ZBTB16) and spalt-like transcription factor 4 (SALL4), two markers of mouse SSCs that are conserved in rats. The novel DDX4-EGFP germ cell reporter rat described here combined with previously described GCS-EGFP rats, rat SSC culture and gene editing tools will improve the utility of the rat model for studying stem cells and germ lineage development. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction.

  2. Study of Antipyretic Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to screen the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. as per the method discribed by Bhalla et.al, (1971. Thirty six healthy rats weighing between 200-250gms were divided into six groups of six animals each, with 50% sex ratio. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 3 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 15% of brewer’s yeast and 2% gum acacia in normal saline sub-cutaneously below the nape of neck @ 1ml/100gm of animal weight. The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The extract showed marked antipyretic activity in a dose dependent manner. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 215-216

  3. Research Note. Transcriptomic study of the rat pinworm Syphacia muris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Syphacia muris is a ubiquitous nematode parasite and common contaminant of laboratory rats. A lthough S. muris infection is considered symptomless, it has some effects on the host’s immunity and therefore can interfere with experimental settings and interrupt final results. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the alteration within the host’s immunity remain unclear because of the absence of information about mRNA expressed in this parasite. In this study we performed the transcriptome profiling of S. muris by next-generation sequencing. After de novo assembly and annotation, 14,821 contigs were found to have a sequence homology with any nematode sequence. Gene ontology analysis showed that the majority of the expressed genes are involved in cellular process, binding, and catalytic activity. Although the rate of expressed genes involved in the immune system was low, we found candidate genes that might be involved in the alteration within the host’s immunity by regulating the host’s innate immune response.

  4. "Omics" of High Altitude Biology: A Urinary Metabolomics Biomarker Study of Rats Under Hypobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundal, Sunil; Gandhi, Sonia; Kaur, Tanzeer; Mazumder, Avik; Khushu, Subash

    2015-12-01

    High altitude medicine is an emerging subspecialty that has crosscutting relevance for 21(st) century science and society: from sports medicine and aerospace industry to urban and rural communities living in high altitude. Recreational travel to high altitude has also become increasingly popular. Rarely has the biology of high altitude biology been studied using systems sciences and omics high-throughput technologies. In the present study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics, along with multivariate analyses, were employed in a preclinical rat model to characterize the urinary metabolome under hypobaric hypoxia stress. Rats were exposed to simulated altitude of 6700 m above the sea level. The urine samples were collected from pre- and post-exposure (1, 3, 7, and 14 days) of hypobaric hypoxia. Metabolomics urinalysis showed alterations in TCA cycle metabolites (citrate, α-ketoglutarate), cell membrane metabolism (choline), gut micro-flora metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine), and others (N-acetyl glutamate, creatine, taurine) in response to hypobaric hypoxia. Taurine, a potential biomarker of hepatic function, was elevated after 3 days of hypobaric hypoxia, which indicates altered liver functioning. Liver histopathology confirmed the damage to tissue architecture due to hypobaric hypoxia. The metabolic pathway analysis identified taurine metabolism and TCA as important pathways that might have contributed to hypobaric hypoxia-induced pathophysiology. This study demonstrates the use of metabolomics as a promising tool for discovery and understanding of novel biochemical responses to hypobaric hypoxia exposure, providing new insight in the field of high altitude medicine and the attendant health problems that occur in response to high altitude. The findings reported here also have potential relevance for sports medicine and aviation sciences.

  5. Reactive membrane technology: Two case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Luo, Jianquan; Pinelo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    investigated the effect of applied pressure, enzyme concentration, pH, and membrane properties on fouling-induced enzyme immobilization. In another study, the production of the human milk oligosaccharide 3’-sialyllactose by an engineered sialidase from Trypanosoma rangeli (Tr6) was significantly improved...

  6. Safety evaluation studies of Citrullus colocynthis for diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K Atole

    Full Text Available An experiment conducted in the department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur reported Citrullus colocynthis to posses antidiabetic effect in rats at the rate of 50 mg/kg b.w and 100mg/kg b.w. So it was decided to also evaluate the safety of Citrullus colocynthis in rats at its antidiabetic dose. The experiment was conducted for 28 days .18 wistar rats were divided into three groups containing six rats in each group. Group T1 was maintained as normal control, whereas groups T2 and T3 received aqueous extract of Citrullus colocynthis @ 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Haematological and Biochemical estimations were done at the end of experiment i.e. on 29th day by using standard kits. Rats were then sacrificed and histopathological examinations were done. The results obtained showed that Citrullus colocynthis is safe at its antidiabetic dose and is safe for use as an antidiabetic remedy. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 423-425

  7. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Acetonitrile in rats. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Boyd, P.J.; Hayden, B.K.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The potential for acetonitrile to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 100, 400, or 1200 ppM acetonitrile, 6 hours/day, 7 days/week. Exposure of rats to these concentrations of acetonitrile resulted in mortality in the 1200 ppM group (2/33 pregnant females; 1/10 non-pregnant females). However, there were no treatment-related effects upon body weights or reproduction indices at any exposure level, nor was there a significant increase in the incidence of fetal malformations or variations. The only effect observed in the fetuses was a slight, but not statiscally significant, exposure-correlated increase in the incidence of supernumerary ribs. Determination of acetonitrile and cyanide concentrations in maternal rat blood showed that acetonitrile concentration in the blood increased with exposure concentration for all exposed maternal rats. Detectable amounts of cyanide in the blood were found only in the rats exposed to 1200 ppM acetonitrile ({approximately}2 {mu}g cyanide/g of blood).

  8. Contribution to the study of calcium metabolism in rats treated with tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The tetracycline is one of the most used antibiotics. The interferences in the rats calcium metabolism were studied. Sixteen rats, R dutch type were treated with a 1 mg/100 g of corporal weight, of tetracycline twice a day, for 23 days. In the twentieth day of the treatment, a dose of Calcium 45 was administrated to verify thhe decay curve of the radionuclide plasmatic concentration. A control group of 16 rats was studied to compare the results. A significative decrease of the calcemy and of bone reabsorption in the group treated with tetracycline were observed. (L.M.J.)

  9. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Ham, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Lee, B. O.; Yun, S. W.; Choi, Y. M.; Eom, T. Y.

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzed the major issues as the research activities for the support of establishment and implementation of national policy. The analyses were focused on the recommendations of the responsive direction of national policy in positive and effective manners in accordance with the changes of international nuclear affairs. This study also analyzed the creation of environmental foundation for effective implementation of the national policy and national R and D investment such as securing national consensus and openings of policy information to the public. The major results of the role and position of nuclear policy, trends of nuclear policy and nuclear R and D activities of USA, France, Japan, Asian developing countries etc. and international trends of small- and medium-sized reactor as well as spin-offs of nuclear R and D activities, were analyzed. (author). 66 refs., 27 tabs., 15 figs

  10. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  11. Study of Terrestrial Radio Determination : Applications and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    The report describes the results of a study of terrestrial radio determination (TRD) applications and technology. Considerable emphasis has been placed on automatic automotive vehicle location or monitoring (AVL or AVM) systems because almost all of ...

  12. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph : technology and mission design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Virginia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) coronagraph study involves exploring the technologies that enable a coronagraph style instrument to image and characterize earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars. Testbeds have been developed to demonstrate the emerging technologies needed for this effort and an architecture study has resulted in designs of a facility that will provide the environment needed for the technology to function in this role. A broad community of participants is involved in this work through studies, analyses, fabrication of components, and participation in the design effort. The scope of activities - both on the technology side and in the architecture study side - will be presented in this paper. The status and the future plans of the activities will be reviewed.

  13. Study on commercial FBR concepts by combining innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kuroha, M.; Hida, T.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on future prospects of FBR commercialization. Targets of further improving safety and economy were set to make commercial power plants that would be superior to future LWRs. Promising innovative technologies studied domestically and overseas were extracted by evaluating prospects for commercialization, effect, and plant applicability. Several commercial plants were conceptualized by introducing such technology to large-scale and oxide-fuel reactors. Estimates of construction cost, etc., proved that the targets could be achieved. A concept of long-term technological development was synthesized. (author)

  14. Young Sprague Dawley rats infected by Plasmodium berghei: A relevant experimental model to study cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhna Keita Alassane

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria (CM is the most severe manifestation of human malaria yet is still poorly understood. Mouse models have been developed to address the subject. However, their relevance to mimic human pathogenesis is largely debated. Here we study an alternative cerebral malaria model with an experimental Plasmodium berghei Keyberg 173 (K173 infection in Sprague Dawley rats. As in Human, not all infected subjects showed cerebral malaria, with 45% of the rats exhibiting Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM symptoms while the majority (55% of the remaining rats developed severe anemia and hyperparasitemia (NoECM. These results allow, within the same population, a comparison of the noxious effects of the infection between ECM and severe malaria without ECM. Among the ECM rats, 77.8% died between day 5 and day 12 post-infection, while the remaining rats were spontaneously cured of neurological signs within 24-48 hours. The clinical ECM signs observed were paresis quickly evolving to limb paralysis, global paralysis associated with respiratory distress, and coma. The red blood cell (RBC count remained normal but a drastic decrease of platelet count and an increase of white blood cell numbers were noted. ECM rats also showed a decrease of glucose and total CO2 levels and an increase of creatinine levels compared to control rats or rats with no ECM. Assessment of the blood-brain barrier revealed loss of integrity, and interestingly histopathological analysis highlighted cyto-adherence and sequestration of infected RBCs in brain vessels from ECM rats only. Overall, this ECM rat model showed numerous clinical and histopathological features similar to Human CM and appears to be a promising model to achieve further understanding the CM pathophysiology in Humans and to evaluate the activity of specific antimalarial drugs in avoiding/limiting cerebral damages from malaria.

  15. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  16. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT and pressure driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (PDCMSOGT. Experiments were conducted under different temperatures, pressures of feed air and produced oxygen flow rates. On the basis of these experiments, the flow rate of feed air, electric power provided, oxygen recovery rate and concentration of produced oxygen are compared under each working condition. It is concluded that the EDCMSOGT is the oxygen generation means more suitable for onboard conditions.

  17. Safety assessment of genetically modified milk containing human beta-defensin-3 on rats by a 90-day feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Gao, Ming-Qing; Liang, Dong; Yin, Songna; Yao, Kezhen; Zhang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, transgenic technology has been widely applied in many fields. There is concern about the safety of genetically modified (GM) products with the increased prevalence of GM products. In order to prevent mastitis in dairy cows, our group produced transgenic cattle expressing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) in their mammary glands, which confers resistance to the bacteria that cause mastitis. The milk derived from these transgenic cattle thus contained HBD3. The objective of the present study was to analyze the nutritional composition of HBD3 milk and conduct a 90-day feeding study on rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups which consumed either an AIN93G diet (growth purified diet for rodents recommended by the American Institute of Nutrition) with the addition of 10% or 30% HBD3 milk, an AIN93G diet with the addition of 10% or 30% conventional milk, or an AIN93G diet alone. The results showed that there was no difference in the nutritional composition of HBD3 and conventional milk. Furthermore, body weight, food consumption, blood biochemistry, relative organ weight, and histopathology were normal in those rats that consumed diets containing HBD3. No adverse effects were observed between groups that could be attributed to varying diets or gender. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of oophorectomy on epidural fibrosis after laminectomy: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çirci, Esra; Özalay, Metin; Caylak, Berrin; Bacanli, Didem; Derincek, Alihan; Tuncay, I Cengiz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of oophorectomy in the formation of epidural fibrosis in a rat laminectomy model. Thirty-six 12-month-old adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Rats were evenly divided into two groups; oophorectomized and sham-operated. Bilateral oophorectomy was performed on the 18 rats in the oophorectomized group. Three weeks after oophorectomy, rats in both groups underwent complete bilateral laminectomy at the L2 and L3 vertebral levels. Rats were divided into 3 equal groups and sacrificed in groups of 4 at the 4th, 8t, and 12th weeks postoperatively and the lumbar spine excised en bloc, fixed and decalcified. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome were used to evaluate epidural fibrosis, acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, and vascular proliferation. The mean histological sum grade of the epidural fibrosis was greater in the oophorectomized group (p>0.05). Endogenous estrogen could have an effect on epidural fibrosis formation after lumbar laminectomy in rats.

  19. Lectin Histochemical Study of Vasculogenesis During Rat Pituitary Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s The aim of this study was to investigate glycoconjugates distribution patterns as well as their changes during the course of pituitary portal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.Materials and MethodsFormalin fixed paraffin sections of 10 to 20 days of Sprague Dawly rat fetuses were processed for histochemical studies using four different horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugated lectins. Orange peel fungus (OFA, Vicica villosa (VVA, Glycine max (SBA and Wistaria floribunda (WFA specific for α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc and D- GalNAc terminal sugars of glycoconjugates respectively.ResultsOur finding indicated that adenohypophysal cells reacted with OFA on gestational day 10 (E10 and increased progressively to E14. Staining intensity did not change from days 14 to17, then after increased following days to E20 significantly (P< 0.05. A few cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with VVA on E13, increased to E14 and decreased significantly afterward (P< 0.05. Reaction of some cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with SBA on E14. This visible reaction was the same as E18 and decreased later (P< 0.05. Many cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with WFA on E13 and increased on E 14 and E15 and decreased thereafter (P< 0.05.ConclusionReactions of OFA and other tested lectins with endothelial cells around Rathke’s pouch and developing pars distalis were different. These results suggest that embryonic origin of hypophiseal pituitary portal (HPP system endothelial cells are not the same and our finding also indicated that glycoconjugates with terminal sugars α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc may play critical role(s in cell interactions and tissue differentiations such as vasculogensis and angiogenesis as well as other developmental precursors in formation of the pituitary gland.

  20. Cosmetology Studies. Guide to Standards and Implementation. Career & Technology Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This Alberta curriculum guide defines competencies that help students build daily living skills, investigate career options in cosmetology, use technology in the cosmetology field effectively and efficiently, and prepare for entry into the workplace or related postsecondary programs in the field. The first section provides a program rationale and…

  1. Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of scutellarin in rat plasma, urine, and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jian-feng; You, Hai-sheng; Dong, Ya-lin; Lu, Jun; Chen, Si-ying; Zhu, Hui-fang; Dong, Qian; Wang, Mao-yi; Dong, Wei-hua

    2011-05-01

    To study the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of scutellarin, an active component from the medical plant Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the low bioavailability of scutellarin though oral or intravenous administration in rats. HPLC method was developed for simultaneous detection of scutellarin and scutellarein (the aglycone of scutellarin) in rat plasma, urine and feces. The in vitro metabolic stability study was carried out in rat liver microsomes from different genders. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the plasma concentrations of scutellarin and scutellarein in female rats were significantly higher than in male ones. Between the female and male rats, significant differences in AUC, t(max2) and C(max2) for scutellarin were found. The pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin in the urine also showed significant gender differences. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the total percentage excretion of scutellarein in male and female rats was 16.5% and 8.61%, respectively. The total percentage excretion of scutellarin and scutellarein in the feces was higher with oral administration than with intravenous administration. The in vitro t(1/2) and CL(int) value for scutellarin in male rats was significantly higher than that in female rats. The results suggest that a large amount of ingested scutellarin was metabolized into scutellarein in the gastrointestinal tract and then excreted with the feces, leading to the extremely low oral bioavailability of scutellarin. The gender differences of pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin and scutellarein are due to the higher CL(int) and lower absorption in male rats.

  2. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have ver...

  3. Toxicity studies in rats fed nature cure bitters | Aniagu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded doses of Nature Cure Bitters (NCB) were administered daily (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o) to rats for 28 days and the effects on body weight, organ weight, clinical signs, gross pathology, haematology, histology and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. The relative weights of the heart, liver and testes of ...

  4. Studies on growth, nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O

    1982-01-01

    Feed intake, growth, nitrogen retention and energy metabolism were measured in 12 male Wistar rats fed ad lib. for 14 weeks with non-purified diets. The feed intake increased rapidly in 4 weeks time from 16 g/d to 25 g/d, and then it was constant in the following 10 weeks. In relation to metabolic...

  5. Impact of Ganogerma applanatum extraction on haematological profiles of laboratory rats: a preliminary study in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpera MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extracts of Ganoderma species have been widely used as herbal medicines in the treatment of several infections. This study was carried out to ascertain the haematological properties of aqueous Ganoderma applanatum (G. applanatum. Methods: Sixty albino rats grouped into six equal groups (10 each of A to F consisting of tests and controls. Laboratory albino rats in groups A, B and C were infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. brucei brucei while groups A and B (test were treated with aqueous G. applanatum extract; other groups served as control. Microscopy and haematological profiles from the albino rats were monitored on daily basis for blood parasites, packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin concentration (HC, total red blood cell count (RBC, mean cell haemoglobin (MCH, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, and total white blood cell count (WBC. Results: Albino rats in groups A, B and C infected with T. brucei brucei and treated with various concentrations of aqueous G. applanatum showed a progressive reduction in PCV, HC, RBC, MCH and MCHC compared to the controls (P<0.05. All the infected rats died by day 14 of the experiment from parasitaemia. Conclusions: G. applanatum lacks ability to boost haematological profiles of anaemic laboratory rats and also of no use in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis. Higher doses of the fungal extract may be required to test on laboratory rats with less lethal biological stimulants of anaemia before proving or otherwise its true haematological properties.

  6. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w. of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ, to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV. The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction.

  7. Multidimensional study of orofacial chronic neuropathic pain: An experimental study in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daniela Montes-Angeles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orofacial neuropathic chronic pain (NCP is frequently attributed to lesions caused by orofacial surgeries and dental treatments. There are many experimental models available to study orofacial NCP, however, many are extremely painful for the animal due to the amplitude of the innervated region. A previously proposed mental nerve constriction model, mNC, was used in this project. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: one group included rats with mNC (n=20, and another rats with sham lesions (n=20. Through the use of the fixed ratio program and the progressive program, a decrease of motivation for a sweet substance, caused by the lesion, was evaluated. The possibility of alterations in cognitive learning and adaptation abilities was also assessed using the go/no-go behavioral task. The mNC group showed low induced and spontaneously evoked pain responses, as well as a decrease in the motivation for sucrose, a sign of anhedonia. This decrease does not depend on taste processing. Finally, although no alterations in the learning-memory process were observed, the mNC group did show alterations when adapting to a new rule.

  8. Basic Studies on Electro-Energetic Physics (EEP) Weapons Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0029 BASIC STUDIES ON ELECTRO-ENGERGETIC PHYSICS (EEP) WEAPONS TECHNOLOGIES John Tiller JOHN TILLER SOFTWARE INC. MADISON AL ...34’ are. 142 Sarah llughcs Dr. Madison. AL 35758 REPORT NUMBER University of Alabama at Huntsvilk:. 301 Sparkman Dr. Huntsville. AI. 35899 9. SPONSORING...representation ofLEP \\\\Caponi) and its potential use in future ww-fare. Physics-based modeling was created for each of the \\\\ Capon technologies High

  9. Study habits and technology use in Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscia, Andrea; Frisicale, Emanuela Maria; Parente, Paolo; de Waure, Chiara; La Milia, Daniele Ignazio; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability of learning is influenced by study habits. Among these, the use of technologies has assumed a controversial role. The aim of this paper is to analyse studying approach, the use of technologies and how they affect study habits in a population of university students addressed by the "Sportello Salute Giovani" ("Youth Health Information Desk") questionnaire. 16 questions referred to the approach to studying and the use of technologies (number 77-93) were analyzed. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Stratification for sex, age and socio-economic status were performed and Chi square test was used to test the difference between sex, age class and socio-economic groups. 99.7% of students declared to have at least one mobile phone and 68.7% to use smartphones, i-phones and i-pads. Males (20.9% vs 14.9% female, p students (31.7% among 25-30 years old students vs 21.3% among 18-21 years old, p students with the highest socio-economic level (87.8% vs 54.2% of the lowest) seem more likely to use digital technologies/Internet for educational purposes. Our survey revealed that most college students still prefer approach the study using books instead of digital tools, but this attitude is conflicting with how many hours they use computers and surf Internet per weeks. Therefore, further studies are needed to understand better technology influence on study habits and its implication on health.

  10. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of dipropylene glycol in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooth, Michelle J; Herbert, Ronald A; Haseman, Joseph K; Orzech, Denise P; Johnson, Jerry D; Bucher, John R

    2004-11-15

    Dipropylene glycol (DPG) is a component of many commercial products such as antifreeze, air fresheners, cosmetic products, solvents, and plastics. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to DPG in the drinking water for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years. In the 2-week and 3-month studies, rats and mice were exposed to 0, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, or 80,000 ppm DPG. There was no mortality in the 2-week studies. In the 3-month rat study, all animals survived to the end of the study. Liver weights of rats exposed to 10,000 ppm or greater and kidney weights of rats exposed to 40,000 and 80,000 ppm were greater than those of the controls. The incidences of liver and kidney lesions were significantly increased in males exposed to 20,000 ppm or greater and females exposed to 80,000 ppm. Focal olfactory epithelial degeneration was present in all rats exposed to 80,000 ppm. In males, the incidences of testicular atrophy, epididymal hypospermia, and preputial gland atrophy were significantly increased in the 80,000 ppm group. In the 3-month mouse study, three males and one female exposed to 80,000 ppm died. Liver weights were increased, as was the incidence of centrilobular hypertrophy in males exposed to 40,000 ppm and males and females exposed to 80,000 ppm. In the 2-year studies, exposure groups were 0, 2500 (rats only), 10,000, 20,000 (mice only) or 40,000 ppm DPG. Survival of male rats exposed to 40,000 ppm and mean body weights of males and females exposed to 40,000 ppm were significantly less than controls. In male rats, exposure to DPG resulted in increased incidences and severities of nephropathy and secondary lesions in the parathyroid and forestomach. Increased incidences of focal histiocytic and focal granulomatous inflammation of the liver were also observed. In male and female rats, there were increased incidences of bile duct hyperplasia and changes in the olfactory epithelium of the nose. In mice, survival of males and females was similar to

  11. The study of technological prevention method of road accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of technological prevention method of road accident related to driver and vehicle. ... road accident prevention method based on the factors studied. The study of this paper can provide forceful data analysis support for the road traffic safety related research. Keywords: road accident; accident prevention; road safety.

  12. The Presence Of Rat And House Sanitation Associated With Leptospira sp. Bacterial Infection In Rats (A Cross Sectional Study In Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyani Endang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gajah Mungkur sub-district in Semarang, Indonesia had highest leptospirosis cases (reported in human with seven infected and one dead in 2015. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between house sanitation and density of rats with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The study design was cross sectional observational analytic. The number of 308 trapswere placed in study sites over three consecutive nights afterwards. Every houses were placed with four traps, inside and outside. Trapped rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight of rats continued with Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg body weight of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it. After that, identification of rats by species and gender then continues with surgery in which a kidney sample was taken to confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospirasp using PCR techniques. The trap installed in 77 houses which later had further observation on house sanitation which includes the existence of a pile of used goods, food storage, garbage can, and the presence of the ceiling, windows and other ventilation.Data was analyzed using distribution frequency and bivariate chi-square test. We had 100 rats captured with live traps as the samples.The proportion of Rattusnorvegicuswas 27% (14.8% positive Leptospira sp.infection and Rattustanezumi 73% (11%positive Leptospira sp.infection. The proportion of male and female rats were almost equal. The statistic test result was significant between the density of rats (p = 0.0001, OR 12.833, 95%CI: 1.565-105.261 and sex of rats (p = 0.019, OR 0.095, 95%CI: 0.012–0.769 with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The number of rats may increase the infection of Leptospirasp., especially female rats and poor condition of house sanitation. It is recommended to improve house sanitation and regularly trapping rats.

  13. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Modlinska

    Full Text Available Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  14. Part 3. Assessment of genotoxicity and oxidative damage in rats after chronic exposure to new-technology diesel exhaust in the ACES bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Lance M; Ward, Jonathan B; Hernandez, Caterina; Ameredes, Bill T; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K

    2015-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted new standards for diesel fuel and emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. By 2007, diesel engines were required to meet these new standards for particulate matter (PM), with other standards to follow. Through a combination of advanced compression-ignition engine technology, development of exhaust aftertreatment systems, and reformulated fuels, stringent standards were introduced. Before the 2007 standards were put in place by the EPA, human health effects linked to diesel exhaust (DE) exposure had been associated with diesel-fuel solvent and combustion components. In earlier research, diesel engine exhaust components were, in turn, linked to increased mutagenicity in cultures of Salmonella typhimurium and mammalian cells (Tokiwa and Ohnishi 1986). In addition, DE was shown to increase both the incidence of tumors and the induction of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) adducts in rodents (Ichinose et al. 1997) and total DNA adducts in rats (Bond et al. 1990). Furthermore, DE is composed of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulates. One such PAH, 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), is also found in urban air. 3-NBA has been observed to induce micronucleus formation in the DNA of human hepatoma cells (Lamy et al. 2004). The current study is part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), a multidisciplinary program carried out by the Health Effects Institute and the Coordinating Research Council. Its purpose was to determine whether recent improvements in the engineering of heavy-duty diesel engines reduce the toxicity associated with exposure to DE components. To this end, we evaluated potential genotoxicity and induction of oxidative stress in bioassays of serum and tissues from Wistar Han rats chronically exposed--for up to 24 months--to DE from a 2007-compliant diesel engine (new-technology diesel exhaust, or NTDE

  15. Immunohistochemical study on the fetal rat pituitary in hyperthermia-induced exencephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Yuichi G.; 渡辺, 勇一

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia of fetal rats is known to cause malformations of various organs including brain. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of the hyperthermia-induced brain damages on the development of the adenohypophysis. Mother rats of Day 9.5 of pregnancy were anesthetized and immersed in hot water (43℃) for 15 min. At Day 21.5 of gestation, fetuses were removed by caesarian section and examined for exencephaly. Hyperthermal stress induced varying degrees of exencephaly in ...

  16. Immunohistochemical Study on the Fetal Rat Pituitary in Hyperthermia-lnduced Exencephaly(Endocrinology)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi G., Watanabe; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia of fetal rats is known to cause malformations of various organs including brain. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of the hyperthermia-induced brain damages on the development of the adenohypophysis. Mother rats of Day 9.5 of pregnancy were anesthetized and immersed in hot water (43℃) for 15 min. At Day 21.5 of gestation, fetuses were removed by caesarian section and examined for exencephaly. Hyperthermal stress induced varying degrees of exencephaly in ...

  17. Studies on the synaptic function in muscle after nerve cursh in normal and diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siliprandi, R.; Consolo, S.; Di Gregorio, F.; Ladinsky, H.; Scozzesi, C.; Zanoni, R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors study whether the regenerative capacity of the neuron is affected by diabetes. Male rats with induced diabeties were used. Radioenzymatic assay was carried out to measure the recovery of ACh content in reinnervating extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. The results are presented which show that ACh content fell sharply in both groups to about 20% of control levels within 10 days after crush. Polyinnervation and repression (% of fibers polyinnervared) in alloxan treated and non-diabetic rats are sown

  18. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerselvam, Saranya; Arumugam, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) in male albino wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with HAEAP (100,200,500mg/kg b. wt for 30 days) and then gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, aspirin, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress models. Ulcer score was determined in all the ulcer models. pH, gastric volume, titrable acidity, pepsin, mucin, myeloperoxidase, H +...

  19. Acute Inhalation Toxicity Study of 1, 4-Dioxane in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) Guideline 870. 1300 Acute Inhalation Toxicity (1998) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development...follow-on 13-week subchronic drinking water study (640 to 25000 ppm) resulted in increased plasma levels of liver function markers in both rats and...exposure group rats developed nasal squamous cell carcinomas, hepatocellular adenomas and peritoneal mesotheliomas. Incidences of renal cell

  20. Studies on estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat brain and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, C.N.

    1985-03-01

    A sensitive and specific radio-enzymatic assay was used to study estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat liver microsomes and in microsomes obtained from 6 discrete brain areas of the rat. Kinetic parameters were determined for these enzyme activities. The effects of different P-450 inhibitors on estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in brain and liver microsomes were also studied. In both organs these enzyme activities were found to be located mainly in the microsomal fraction and were inhibited by the 3 P-450 inhibitors tested. The hepatic estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in adult male rats was significantly higher than that of females, but the enzyme activity in the brain did not exhibit a similar sex difference. Furthermore, estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat liver was strongly induced by phenobarbitone treatment, but not in the brain. The phenobarbitone-induced activity in male and female rats exhibited significant kinetic differences. In female rats sexual maturation was associated with significant changes in the apparent Km of estradiol-2/4-hydroxylases in the liver and hypothalamus. Evidence was found that the in vitro estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat brain and liver is due to more than one form of microsomal P-450. Kinetic studies showed important differences between the estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activities in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Significant differences in estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activities were observed in the 6 brain areas studied, with the hippocampus showing the highest, and the hypothalamus the lowest activity at all developmental stages in both male and female rats

  1. Effect of Sodium Cyclamate on the Rat Fetal Exocrine Pancreas: a Karyometric and Stereological Study

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, Alex Tadeu; SANTOS, Fabiano de Sant`Ana dos; SCANNAVINO, Fabio Luiz Ferreira; PIRES, Juliana Rico; ZUZA, Elizangela Partata; PADOVANI JUNIOR, Joao Armando; AZOUBEL, Reinaldo; MATEO, Miguel Angel Sala Di; LOPES, Ruberval Armando

    2010-01-01

    The cyclamate, a sweetner substance derived from N-cyclo-hexyl-sulfamic acid, is largely utilized as a non-caloric artificial edulcorant in foods and beverages as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate karyometric and stereological alterations in the rat fetal pancreas resulting from the intraperitoneal administration of sodium cyclamate. The exocrine pancreas of ten fetuses of rats were evaluated, five treated and five controls chosen at random, i...

  2. Learning to make technology work - a study of learning in technology demonstration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutherland Olsen, Dorothy; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2014-01-01

    participants, including users. The aim of the project is usually to test the technology and promote changes in users habits, while learning is frequently cited as the main outcome. In this paper we review existing studies of demonstration projects and try to gain an overview of the main aims and effects......Building working demonstrations of new technologies within sustainable energy and transport has become an important activity in the move towards a more energy efficient society. The work involved in building these demonstrations is usually organised in a project with a variety of different...

  3. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants: Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-Guerrero, Gil Alfonso; Santiago-Mejía, Jacinto; Carrasco, Omar F

    2017-01-01

    Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L., Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg ., Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl . and Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring., have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat hypertension. The objective of this study was to further characterize the cardiovascular effects of the methanol extracts of such plants. The medicinal plants were collected and taxonomically identified; the methanol extract of each explored plant were administrated to conscious and unconscious male Wistar rats with and without glucose-induced hypertension. The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated before and after the extract administration. Vascular reactivity experiments were conducted in rat aortic rings obtained from rats with and without sugar-induced hypertension, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. After oral administration in normotensive conscious rats all tested extracts decreased the HR, such effect was only observed in hypertensive conscious rats after the administration of B. simaruba ; only A. mexicana and B. simaruba decreased the BP after oral administration. All extracts administrated by intravenous injection diminished the mean arterial pressure. Dose-response curves to cumulative concentrations of all the extracts promote vascular relaxation in precontracted aortas from rats with and without sugar-induced hypertension. The present study indicated that B. simaruba is worthy of further investigation as a potential phytotherapeutic agent for treating hypertension.

  4. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants. Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Alfonso Magos-Guerrero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L., Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L. Sarg., Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl. and Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev. Spring., have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat hypertension. The objective of this study was to further characterize the cardiovascular effects of the methanol extracts of such plants. Methods: The medicinal plants were collected and taxonomically identified; the methanol extract of each explored plant were administrated to conscious and unconscious male Wistar rats with and without glucose induced hypertension. The blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated before and after the extract administration. Vascular reactivity experiments were conducted in rat aortic rings obtained from rats with and without sugar induced hypertension, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. Results: After oral administration in normotensive conscious rats all tested extracts decreased the heart rate, such effect was only observed in hypertensive conscious rats after the administration of B. simaruba; only A. mexicana and B. simaruba decreased the blood pressure after oral administration. All extracts administrated by intravenous injection diminished the mean arterial pressure. Dose response curves to cumulative concentrations of all the extracts promote vascular relaxation in precontracted aortas from rats with and without sugar induced hypertension. Conclusions: The present study indicated that B. simaruba is worthy of further investigation as a potential phytotherapeutic agent for treating hypertension. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 274-279

  5. Modeling CICR in rat ventricular myocytes: voltage clamp studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palade Philip T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past thirty-five years have seen an intense search for the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR in cardiac myocytes, with voltage clamp (VC studies being the leading tool employed. Several VC protocols including lowering of extracellular calcium to affect Ca2+ loading of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR, and administration of blockers caffeine and thapsigargin have been utilized to probe the phenomena surrounding SR Ca2+ release. Here, we develop a deterministic mathematical model of a rat ventricular myocyte under VC conditions, to better understand mechanisms underlying the response of an isolated cell to calcium perturbation. Motivation for the study was to pinpoint key control variables influencing CICR and examine the role of CICR in the context of a physiological control system regulating cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]myo. Methods The cell model consists of an electrical-equivalent model for the cell membrane and a fluid-compartment model describing the flux of ionic species between the extracellular and several intracellular compartments (cell cytosol, SR and the dyadic coupling unit (DCU, in which resides the mechanistic basis of CICR. The DCU is described as a controller-actuator mechanism, internally stabilized by negative feedback control of the unit's two diametrically-opposed Ca2+ channels (trigger-channel and release-channel. It releases Ca2+ flux into the cyto-plasm and is in turn enclosed within a negative feedback loop involving the SERCA pump, regulating[Ca2+]myo. Results Our model reproduces measured VC data published by several laboratories, and generates graded Ca2+ release at high Ca2+ gain in a homeostatically-controlled environment where [Ca2+]myo is precisely regulated. We elucidate the importance of the DCU elements in this process, particularly the role of the ryanodine receptor in controlling SR Ca2+ release, its activation by trigger Ca2+, and its

  6. Histometric study of socket healing after tooth extraction in rats treated with diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugoshi Luciana Ibara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate if diclofenac administration interferes with the time course of alveolar wound healing in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were used, 21 rats received 10 mg/kg/day of diclofenac one day before and 4 days after extraction of the right maxillary incisors and 21 rats received saline. The animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days after tooth extraction. Progressive new bone formation and a decrease in the volume fraction of blood clot and connective tissue from 1 to 3 weeks after tooth extraction was quantified using the histometric point-counting method. Diclofenac treatment caused a significant delay in new bone formation in association with an impairment of blood clot remission/organization.

  7. Studies of Anorectic N-acylethanolamines in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai

    in the small intestine and the effects of dietary fat consumption on intestinal NAE levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet for varying length and with varying energy percentages of fat in the diet. The intestinal NAE levels were extracted and measured by liquid chromatography mass...... spectrometry. Levels of PEA, linoleoylethanolamide (LEA) and partially OEA were reduced followed the high fat diet regime. After one day of high fat diet (45 energy percentage (E%) from fat) these NAE levels were significantly reduced, a reduction which persisted throughout the 7 days of experimetally feeding...... the rats. Less energy-dense diets were also able to reduce the levels of the anorectic NAEs (OEA, PEA and LEA), however longer exposure time was needed to elicit a reduction. The physiological implications of the reduced anorectic NAE levels were investigated by using the MANIFeed system, which carefully...

  8. Microinjection study on potassium transport of rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Makoto

    1978-01-01

    Wister rate were divided into the following four groups. (A) control group (B) high-potassium diet group (C) low-potassium diet group (D) nephron population reduction (N.P.R.) group. Microinjection of the artificial solutions containing both 86 Rb and 3 H-inulin were performed into the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as cortical peritubular capillaries in rats undergoing mannitol diuresis. Excretory patterns of these substances were analyzed in successive urine samples. 3 H-inulin is entirely recovered in the urine of the experimental kidney following the injection into the proximal and distal tubules. 86 Rb is an adequate tracer for potassium and is absorbed into the potassium pool from either proximal tubular injections or peritubular capillaries. 86 Rb excreted with a time course similar to that of 3 H-inulin is termed as 'direct recovery' and that excreted more slowly, 'delayed recovery'. The 86 Rb recoveries which were obtained after proximal injections were independent of the injection site and averaged 9%. Secretion of 86 Rb into the urine was stimulate during enhanced K secretion and decreased during reduced K secretion along the distal nephron. Distal tubular injections gave 100% direct recovery in control, high-K diet, and N.P.R. rats. It was apparent that the 86 Rb recovery was significantly reduced, although not delayed, in animals deprived of dietary potassium for several weeks. At the collecting duct, the extensive net potassium reabsorption is observed in potassium depleted rats, whereas K absorption might be reduced or even secretion is seemingly taking place in potassium loading rats. In conclution, distal convolution and collecting duct play the major role in the regulation of urinary potassium excretion. (auth.)

  9. Studies On Some Fetal Rat Organs Following Maternal Hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    El Shabaka, H. A. [حمزة احمد الشبكة

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to determine the histological changes in brain, liver and kidneys of rat fetuses maternally heatstressed at early stage of pregnancy to either high "spiking" temperature of short duration or low temperature of long duration. The number of viable fetuses as well as the fetal weight of the heatstressed groups was significantly reduced compared with corresponding controls. Edema and microphthalmia are the only malformations detected among the viable 18 d...

  10. Integrating Educational Technologies into Teacher Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Peter; Kehrwald, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This article is a case study of an integrated, experiential approach to improving pre-service teachers' understanding and use of educational technologies in one New Zealand teacher education programme. The study examines the context, design and implementation of a learning activity which integrated student-centred approaches, experiential…

  11. Technology Integration in the Schools of Guyana: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Gregory; MacKinnon, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The following study examines the implementation of learning technologies in Guyana, South America. Specifically, the study addresses the impact of using interactive radio instruction for teaching mathematics and SuccessMaker software for enhancing literacy skills. The research results were based on surveys, interviews, classroom observations, and…

  12. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between dopamine D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats. Methods: Hemi-Parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, apomorphine (Apo) which could induce the successful model rat to rotate toward the intact side was used to select the rat models, 125 I-IBZM in vivo autoradiography and 99 Tc m -HMPAO regional cerebral biodistribution analysis were used to study D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD was used to measure striatum DA and its metabolite content . Results: the lesioned side striatum DA and its metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) 3,4-dihyroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated group, striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-Parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (P 0.05). Conclusions: the 6-OH-DA lesioned side DA content decreased significantly and thus induced a compensative up-regulation of striatum D 2 receptor binding sites in hemi-Parkinsonism rats, which show good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Comparing with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-Parkinsonism

  13. Study on 41Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang; Pang, Yijun; Yang, Xianlin; Ruan, Xiangdong; Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo

    2015-10-01

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30-40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of 41Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl2 solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi 41Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for 41Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of 41Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that 41Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  14. Antioxidants as recipes for efavirenz-induced liver damage: A study in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Adikwu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatotoxicity is a clinical challenge associated with the use of efavirenz (EFV. This study investigated the effects of n-acetylcysteine (NAC, vitamins C and E on EFV-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Methods: Rats were divided into groups and administered with NAC (20mg/kg, Vit C (50mg/kg, Vit  E (50mg/kg, Vit C+ E and 60mg/kg of EFV respectively. Rats were also divided into groups and pretreated with NAC, Vit C, E, and combined doses of Vit C+E prior to treatment with EFV for 15 days respectively. After drug administration rats were sacrificed and serum was collected and evaluated for liver function parameters. Rats were dissected, liver was collected weighed and evaluated for alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (AST, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, malondialdehyde (MDA, super oxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, gluthatione peroxidase (GPX levels and pathological damage. Results: Effects were not significant (p>0.05 on body and liver weights, however, the levels of AST, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, CB, TB and MDA were increased significantly (p<0.05 whereas SOD, CAT, SOD, GSH and GPX were decreased significantly (p<0.05 in EFV-treated rats in comparison to control. The liver of EFV-treated rats showed necrosis of hepatocytes. Nevertheless, EFV-induced alterations in the above parameters were significantly (p<0.05 ameliorated in antioxidants pretreated rats.  The combined doses of Vit C and E produced the best and significant (p<0.05 ameliorative effects in comparison to their individual doses. Conclusion: This study shows the prospects of antioxidants as candidates for the treatments of efavirenz-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Olfactory toxicity in rats following manganese chloride nasal instillation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Melanie L; Rao, Deepa B; Francher, Taylor; Traver, Samantha; Dorman, David C

    2018-01-01

    Following inhalation, manganese travels along the olfactory nerve from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the olfactory bulb (OB). Occupational exposure to inhaled manganese is associated with changes in olfactory function. This pilot study evaluated two related hypotheses: (a) intranasal manganese administration increases OE and OB manganese concentrations; and (b) intranasal manganese exposure impairs performance of previously trained rats on a go-no-go olfactory discrimination (OD) task. Male Fischer 344 rats were trained to either lever press ("go") in response to a positive conditioned stimulus (CS+: vanillin) or to do nothing ("no go") when a negative conditioned stimulus (CS-: amyl acetate) was present. Following odor training, rats were randomly assigned to either a manganese (200mM MnCl 2 ) or 0.9% saline treatment group (n=4-5 rats/group). Administration of either saline or manganese was performed on isoflurane-anesthetized rats as 40μL bilateral intranasal instillations. Rats were retested 48h later using the vanillin/amyl acetate OD task, then euthanized, followed by collection of the OE and OB. Manganese concentrations in tissue samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. An additional cohort of rats (n=3-4/group) was instilled similarly with saline or manganese and nasal and OB pathology assessed 48h later. Manganese-exposed rats had increased manganese levels in both the OE and OB and decreased performance in the OD task when compared with control animals. Histopathological evaluation of the caudal nasal cavity showed moderate, acute to subacute suppurative inflammation of the olfactory epithelium and submucosa of the ethmoid turbinates and mild suppurative exudate in the nasal sinuses in animals given manganese. No histologic changes were evident in the OB. The nasal instillation and OD procedures developed in this study are useful methods to assess manganese - induced olfactory deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hurdling barriers through market uncertainty: Case studies ininnovative technology adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher T.; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Payne, Jack

    2002-08-18

    The crisis atmosphere surrounding electricity availability in California during the summer of 2001 produced two distinct phenomena in commercial energy consumption decision-making: desires to guarantee energy availability while blackouts were still widely anticipated, and desires to avoid or mitigate significant price increases when higher commercial electricity tariffs took effect. The climate of increased consideration of these factors seems to have led, in some cases, to greater willingness on the part of business decision-makers to consider highly innovative technologies. This paper examines three case studies of innovative technology adoption: retrofit of time-and-temperature signs on an office building; installation of fuel cells to supply power, heating, and cooling to the same building; and installation of a gas-fired heat pump at a microbrewery. We examine the decision process that led to adoption of these technologies. In each case, specific constraints had made more conventional energy-efficient technologies inapplicable. We examine how these barriers to technology adoption developed over time, how the California energy decision-making climate combined with the characteristics of these innovative technologies to overcome the barriers, and what the implications of hurdling these barriers are for future energy decisions within the firms.

  17. A feasibility study for a manufacturing technology deployment center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-31

    The Automation & Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) and the Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to determine the feasibility of a regional industrial technology institute to be located at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Facility in Waxahachie, Texas. In response to this opportunity, ARRI and TEEX teamed with the DOE Kansas City Plant (managed by Allied Signal, Inc.), Los Alamos National Laboratory (managed by the University of California), Vought Aircraft Company, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), SSC Laboratory, KPMG Peat Marwick, Dallas County Community College, Navarro Community College, Texas Department of Commerce (TDOC), Texas Manufacturing Assistance Center (TMAC), Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology, Arkansas Science and Technology Authority, Louisiana Productivity Center, and the NASA Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) to develop a series of options, perform the feasibility analysis and secure industrial reviews of the selected concepts. The final report for this study is presented in three sections: Executive Summary, Business Plan, and Technical Plan. The results from the analysis of the proposed concept support the recommendation of creating a regional technology alliance formed by the states of Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana through the conversion of the SSC Central facility into a Manufacturing Technology Deployment Center (MTDC).

  18. A comparative study of the anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex on male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, R; Carlini, E A

    1996-08-01

    The anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex (Fenp, 10 mg/kg, ip) and methamphetamine (Met, 2.5 mg/kg, ip), a prototypical example of an amphetamine-like drug, were studied in male and female Wistar rats (5 and 3 months of age, respectively, at the beginning of the experiments) after acute (immediately after a single dose) or chronic treatment (after 60 days of administration). For the evaluation of the experimental parameters six groups of eight rats each were utilized for food intake and stereotyped behavior and six groups of nine rats each for body weight and motor activity. Similar anorectic effects (decreased food intake in grams: saline (Sal): 12.8 +/- 2.5, Met: 4.7 +/- 4.0, and Fenp: 4.4 +/- 20; decreased weight gain: Sal: 38 +/- 10, Met: 25 +/- 1.0, and Fenp: 27 +/- 3.0) were induced by both drugs in male rats. Female rats, however, required larger doses (20 mg/kg Fenp and 5.0 mg/kg Met) for a complete blockade of food intake. The behavioral tests were carried out 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300 min after drug administration and on day 1 and day 60 immediately after the treatment, for stereotypy and motor activity, respectively (male rats: Met: 3.8 +/- 0.3, Fenp: 6.0 +/- 0.9, and female rats: Met: 15.4 +/- 1.9, Fenp: 9.7 +/- 1.3). Though stereotyped behavior such as sniffing, continuous licking, and false bites was observed in all animals, this was more evident and prolonged in female rats. Both drugs also increased motor activity (male rats, acute treatment: Met: 608 +/- 419, Fenp: 677 +/- 354; chronic treatment: Met: 701 +/- 423, Fenp: 908 +/- 479; female rats, acute treatment: Met: 817 +/- 350, Fenp: 1177 +/- 282; chronic treatment: Met: 623 +/- 274, Fenp: 1511 +/- 573) with female rats once again showing greater sensitivity both after acute and chronic treatment. Our data indicate that fenproporex, like methamphetamine, has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system, indicating an action on the dopaminergic systems. These data further suggest

  19. Influence of corticoids on healing of the rotator cuff of rats – biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dau

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare healing strength of the infraspinatus tendon of rats with corticoid inoculation, regarding maximum tension, maximum force and rupture force, after injury and experimental repair.Methods:A total of 60 Wistar rats were subjected to tenotomy of the infraspinatus tendon, which was then sutured. Before the surgery, they were divided into a control group (C inoculated with serum and a study group (S inoculated with corticoids over the tendon. After repair, the rats were sacrificed in groups of 10 individuals in the control group and 10 in the study group at the times of one week (C1 and S1, three weeks (C3 and S3 and five weeks (C5 and S5. The rats were dissected, separating out the infraspinatus tendon with the humerus. The study specimens were subjected to a traction test, with evaluation of the maximum tension (kgf/cm2, maximum force (kgf and rupture force (kgf, comparing the study group with the respective control groups.Results:Among the rats sacrificed one week after the procedure, we observed greater maximum tension in group C1 than in group S1. The variables of maximum force (kgf and rupture force did not differ statistically between the groups investigated. In the same way, among the rats sacrificed three weeks after the procedure, group C3 only showed greater maximum tension than group S3 (p = 0.007, and the other variables did not present differences. Among the rats sacrificed five weeks after the procedure (C5 and S5, none of the parameters studied presented statistical differences.Conclusion:We concluded that corticoid diminished the resistance to maximum tension in the groups sacrificed one and three weeks after the procedure, in comparison with the respective control groups. The other parameters did not show differences between the study and control groups.

  20. Foresight Study on Advanced Conversion Technologies of Fossil Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claver, A.; Cabrera, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Observatorio de Prospectiva Tecnologica Industrial (OPTI) is a Foundation supported by the Ministry of Industry and Energy, (MINER) and has as main objective to provide a basic information and knowledge on technology evolution. This information will be accessible to the Administration and to the Companies and can be taking into account in planning and decision making of technology policies. Ciemat is member of OPTI and is the organism in charge of the actions in the Energy sector. CIEMAT has the responsibility on the realisation of the sector studies to get in three years (1998 to 2001) a foresight vision of the critical technology topics. The OPTI integrated strategic plan undertake the analysis of other seven technology sectors, with the same criteria on methodological aspects. Delphi method was used for the realization of the studies. It consisted of a survey conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire to check the experts opinion. The time frame of the studies was defined from 1999 to 2015. The study presented in this document has been performed by CIEMAT in the second stage of the OPTI activities. The main goal behind this study is to identify the advanced clean and efficient technologies for the conversion of fossil fuels to promote in our country. The questionnaire was addressed to 250 experts and the response rate was about the 37%, ratifying the final results. The spanish position and the barriers for the development of each technology has been determined and also the recommended measures to facilitate their performance in the future. This basic information is consider of main interest, taking in account the actual energetic situation with a foreseeable demand increase and fossil fuels dependence. (Author) 17 refs

  1. Low-level inhaled-239PuO2 life-span studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; McDonald, K.E.; Killand, B.W.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Cannon, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This study determined the dose-response curve for lung tumor incidence in rats after inhalation of high-fired 239 PuO 2 , which gave radiation doses to the lung of from ∼5 to >1000 rads. Exposed rats were given a single, nose-only, inhalation exposure to 169 Yb- 239 PuO 2 aerosol (AMAD, 1.6 +- 0.11 μm). The effective half-time for 169 Yb in the lung was 14 days, whereas ∼76% of 239 Pu was cleared with a half-time of 20 days and 24%, with a half-time of 180 days. Whole-body counting for 169 Yb at 14 days after exposure was an accurate method for determining 239 Pu IAD in individual rats, even at IAD's as low as 0.60 nCi of 239 Pu. The 239 Pu lung-clearance curve and an equation describing changes in lung weight with body weight and age were used to determine lung radiation doses. The IAD's of exposure groups were 0.60 +- 0.15 nCi of 239 Pu (1000 rats), 0.98 +- 0.25 (531 rats), 2.4 +- 0.69 (209 rats), 5.7 +- 1.2 (98 rats), and 7.5 +- 2.0 to 150 +- 37 nCi (300 rats); corresponding radiation doses to the lung estimated at 3 years after exposure were 8.3, 14, 33, 79, and 100 to 2100 rads, respectively. 71 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  2. [Study on the oxidative stress in the ovaries of a rat model of polycystic ovary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jin; Wu, Dong-bo; Zhang, Lan-lan; Li, Jia; Zhao, Xing; Zhang, Dan

    2015-03-01

    with the control group. In a rat model of PCO achieved via letrozole, it was found that the levels of TOS, MDA, oxidative stress index (OSI) and intracellular ROS were significantly increased, while the TAS level, SOD content were significantly decreased in the ovary homogenates (Pmodel successfully induced via letrozole, and it is a suitable model for study of ovarian lesions. Oxidative stress also contributes to the PCO rat model, the protective effect of antioxidant might provide a new insight into the potential therapeutic solution to PCOS.

  3. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and brain perfusion in hemi-parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between dopamine D 2 receptors and brain perfusion in hemi-parkinsonism rats was studied. Hemi-parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), apomorphine (Apo) which could induced the successful model rat rotates toward the intact side was used to select the rats, 125 I-IBZM ex-vivo autoradiography analysis and 99m Tc-HM-PAO regional cerebral biodistribution were used to evaluate D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD were used to measure striatum DA and its metabolites content. The lesioned side striatum DA and its metabolites HVA DOPAC reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated group, striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (p 0.05). These results indicated that in the 6-OH-DA lesioned side DA content decreased significantly and an up-regulation of striatum D 2 receptor binding sites was induced in hemi-parkinsonism rats, which showed good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Comparing with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  4. Technology spin-offs generation – a multicase study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Mendes Constante

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to understand how small businesses can innovate through the generation of technological spin-offs, identifying motivations, influences and barriers to achieving this phenomenon. Through a qualitative and exploratory study, we analyzed four cases of technological spin-offs in Santa Catarina State. We collected data through field observations, historical data and semi-structured interviews. The main reasons found for spin-offs creation were: diversification and to complement the value chain of the parent company and to ensure greater focus for a specific technology. The main barrier was lack of capital. Government initiatives to support the creation of new businesses, coupled with the organizational culture open to entrepreneurship and investment in R&D, contributed to the development of spin-offs analyzed. This work contributes to the understanding that small and medium-sized technology-based companies are a source of technological spin-offs and can benefit from the occurrence of this process.

  5. Studying the Technology of Creating Cortical Electrode Instruments using the Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ablyaz T. R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of studying the technology of manufacturing cortical electrode-instruments (EI with the use of indirect methods of the Rapid Prototyping technology. Functional EI prototypes were made by layered synthesis of the photopolymer material with the use of the stereolithography technology (SLA - Stereo Lithography Apparatus. The article is focused on two methods of indirect EI manufacturing. One of the EI prototypes was used for making a molded wax model for hot investment casting, followed by applying copper coating. The second prototype was used for applying copper plating to a prepared current-conductive layer. As a result of EDMing a steel workpiece, both EIs reached the desired depth, which is 1 mm. The copper plating applied to the EI preserves its integrity. Through the use of the casting technology, there is a possibility to cut the economic costs by 35%. Using a prototype with preliminarily applied conductive coating makes it possible to make geometrically-complex EIs.

  6. INL - NNL an International Technology Collaboration Case Study - Advanced Fogging Technologies for Decommissioning - 13463

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banford, Anthony; Edwards, Jeremy; Demmer, Rick; Rankin, Richard; Hastings, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    International collaboration and partnerships have become a reality as markets continue to globalize. This is the case in nuclear sector where over recent years partnerships commonly form to bid for capital projects internationally in the increasingly contractorized world and international consortia regularly bid and lead Management and Operations (M and O) / Parent Body Organization (PBO) site management contracts. International collaboration can also benefit research and technology development. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) are internationally recognized organizations delivering leading science and technology development programmes both nationally and internationally. The Laboratories are actively collaborating in several areas with benefits to both the laboratories and their customers. Recent collaborations have focused on fuel cycle separations, systems engineering supporting waste management and decommissioning, the use of misting for decontamination and in-situ waste characterisation. This paper focuses on a case study illustrating how integration of two technologies developed on different sides of the Atlantic are being integrated through international collaboration to address real decommissioning challenges using fogging technology. (authors)

  7. Australian studies: A vehicle for scientific and technological literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Beverley L.

    1990-01-01

    In Victoria, schools are adopting one common certificate, the VCE (Victorian Certificate of Education) which encompasses two years of study (Years 11 and 12) and comprises 44 subject areas or Studies, each of one semester duration. Amongst the compulsory subjects is Australian Studies (Units 1 and 2) with its focus on Work in Australian society. This paper discusses concerns about the teaching of the compulsory subject Australian Studies in the new VCE. The purpose is to consider whether the science and technology component in the Australian Studies course can raise the students’ level of scientific and technological literacy. The discussion is based on one semester’s teaching experience of Year 11 Australian Studies and consequent reflections on practice.

  8. Study habits and technology use in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Poscia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Students' ability of learning is influenced by study habits. Among these, the use of technologies has assumed a controversial role. The aim of this paper is to analyse studying approach, the use of technologies and how they affect study habits in a population of university students addressed by the "Sportello Salute Giovani" ("Youth Health Information Desk" questionnaire. METHODS: 16 questions referred to the approach to studying and the use of technologies (number 77-93 were analyzed. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Stratification for sex, age and socio-economic status were performed and Chi square test was used to test the difference between sex, age class and socio-economic groups. RESULTS: 99.7% of students declared to have at least one mobile phone and 68.7% to use smartphones, i-phones and i-pads. Males (20.9% vs 14.9% female, p < 0.05, older students (31.7% among 25-30 years old students vs 21.3% among 18-21 years old, p < 0.05 and students with the highest socio-economic level (87.8% vs 54.2% of the lowest seem more likely to use digital technologies/Internet for educational purposes. CONCLUSION: Our survey revealed that most college students still prefer approach the study using books instead of digital tools, but this attitude is conflicting with how many hours they use computers and surf Internet per weeks. Therefore, further studies are needed to understand better technology influence on study habits and its implication on health.

  9. Comparison of Goto-Kakizaki rats and high fat diet-induced obese rats: Are they reliable models to study Type 2 Diabetes mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mitsuo Tatagiba Kuwabara

    Full Text Available Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM is an evident growing disease that affects different cultures throughout the world. T2DM occurs under the influence of three main factors: the genetic background, environmental and behavioral components. Obesity is strongly associated to the development of T2DM in the occident, while in the orient most of the diabetic patients are considered lean. Genetics may be a key factor in the development of T2DM in societies where obesity is not a recurrent public health problem. Herein, two different models of rats were used to understand their differences and reliability as experimental models to study the pathophysiology of T2DM, in two different approaches: the genetic (GK rats and the environmental (HFD-induced obese rats influences. GK rats were resistant to weight gain even though food/energy consumption (relative to body weight was higher in this group. HFD, on the other hand, induced obesity in Wistar rats. White adipose tissue (WAT expansion in this group was accompanied by immune cells infiltration, inflammation and insulin resistance. GK rats also presented WAT inflammation and insulin resistance; however, no immune cells infiltration was observed in the WAT of this group. Liver of HFD group presented fat accumulation without differences in inflammatory cytokines content, while liver of GK rats didn't present fat accumulation, but showed an increase of IL-6 and IL-10 content and glycogen. Also, GK rats showed increased plasma GOT and GPT. Soleus muscle of HFD presented normal insulin signaling, contrary to GK rats, which presented higher content of basal phosphorylation of GSK-3β. Our results demonstrated that HFD developed a mild insulin resistance in Wistar rats, but was not sufficient to develop T2DM. In contrast, GK rats presented all the typical hallmarks of T2DM, such as insulin resistance, defective insulin production, fasting hyperglycemia/hyperinsulinemia and lipid plasma alteration. Thus, on the given

  10. Advanced Technology Subsonic Transport Study: N+3 Technologies and Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Daniel P.; Wilson, Jack; Perkins, H. Douglas; Rizzi, Arthur; Zhang, Mengmeng; RamirezPuentes, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Research Corporation, the Science of the Possible, has completed a two-year study of concepts and technologies for future airliners in the 180-passenger class. This NASA-funded contract was primarily focused on the ambitious goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption versus the market-dominating Boeing 737-800. The study is related to the N+3 contracts awarded in 2008 by NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to teams led by Boeing, GE Aviation, MIT, and Northrop Grumman, but with more modest goals and funding. CRC s contract featured a predominant emphasis on propulsion and fuel consumption, but since fuel consumption depends upon air vehicle design as much as on propulsion technology, the study included notional vehicle design, analysis, and parametric studies. Other NASA goals including NOx and noise reduction are of long-standing interest but were not highlighted in this study, other than their inclusion in the propulsion system provided to CRC by NASA. The B-737-800 was used as a benchmark, parametric tool, and design point of departure. It was modeled in the RDS-Professional aircraft design software then subjected to extensive parametric variations of parasitic drag, drag-due-to-lift, specific fuel consumption, and unsized empty weight. These studies indicated that the goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption could be attained with roughly a 30 percent improvement in all four parameters. The results were then fit to a Response Surface and coded for ease of use in subsequent trade studies. Potential technologies to obtain such savings were identified and discussed. More than 16 advanced concept designs were then prepared, attempting to investigate almost every possible emerging concept for application to this class airliner. A preliminary assessment of these concepts was done based on their total wetted area after design normalization of trimmed maximum lift. This assessment points towards a Tailless Airliner concept which

  11. Studies of Anorectic N-acylethanolamines in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai

    -inflammatory agent, being upregulated during inflammation and shown to be protective in the brain followed ischemic events. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has shown to be involved in energy homeostasis regulating food intake, gastric motility and lipolysis. In this Ph.D. dissertation focus has been on NAE levels...... of anorectic NAEs indicating the presence of a fat sensor, regulating the intestinal NAE levels. Furthermore, the ability of LEA to induce anorexia in rats was assessed by injection of LEA (10-90mg/kg) intraperitoneally, and carefully measuring the food intake the following 24 hours. LEA acutely reduced food...

  12. Technological Revolutions: Some Implications for the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Paul W.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages of a social studies program, centered on the various technological revolutions -- human, agricultural, urban, industrial, and humanizing -- are a multi-disciplinary approach, the use of inquiry skills, wide coverage of history and nations through a framework of concepts, and discussion of ethnocentrism. (JH)

  13. Indicators of creativity in a technology class: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers seem to lack the skills and knowledge needed to recognise when creativity is taking place. In this study we investigated how learners demonstrate creativity whilst engaging in the technological process employing a qualitative research strategy, with observation and focus group interviews as the methods of data ...

  14. Learning Technologies: Tweeting in a High School Social Studies Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Prince Hycy; Adams, Shayla

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the perceptions of 46 high school students on the integration of Twitter as a learning technology. Twitter was introduced and used to supplement instruction in the course for the first six weeks of the 2010/2011 academic year. The integration included designing twitter pages, communication, reflections, use of twitpics…

  15. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-09

    Apr 9, 2013 ... Plastination technology for anatomical studies in. Nigeria: Opinion of ... Today, modern techniques used to preserve the human body for didactic purposes are built on methods that began in ... of new techniques and computer science, alternative methods of teaching anatomy have come. Dr. Gunther von ...

  16. Conditions for Successful Use of Technology in Social Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debele, Meskerem; Plevyak, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the authors in this review is to examine how teacher-related, context-related, and project-related conditions interact in successful cases of technology integration projects in social studies classrooms. A close examination of different dimensions of these conditions in the implementation of 33 successful cases of…

  17. Project-Based Learning in Electronic Technology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    A case study of project-based learning (PBL) implemented in Tianjin University of Technology and Education is presented. This multidiscipline project is innovated to meet the novel requirements of industry while keeping its traditional effectiveness in driving students to apply knowledge to practice and problem-solving. The implementation of PBL…

  18. Den Ontologiske Vending i Antropologi og Science and Technology Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med artiklen er at afsøge, hvad videnskabs- og teknologi- studier eller Science and Technology Studies (STS) tilbyder humaniora og samfundsvidenskaberne med det nybrud, der er blevet kaldt den ontologiske vending. Med udgangspunkt i en beskrivelse af den onto- logiske vending i antropologi...

  19. You and Technology, A High School Case Study Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaskos, Nickander J., Ed.; Smyth, Michael P., Ed.

    This second draft of a manuscript for a high school engineering and technology course uses case studies as its format. The principles associated with various engineering problems are presented along with their effects on daily life. Topics include the computer, the automotive power system, satellite communications, the petroleum industry, water…

  20. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  1. Advanced supersonic technology concept study: Hydrogen fueled configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of hydrogen fueled supersonic transport configurations for the 1990 time period were developed and compared with equivalent technology Jet A-1 fueled vehicles to determine the economic and performance potential of liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel. Parametric evaluations of supersonic cruise vehicles with varying design and transport mission characteristics established the basis for selecting a preferred configuration which was then studied in greater detail. An assessment was made of the general viability of the selected concept including an evaluation of costs and environmental considerations, i.e., exhaust emissions and sonic boom characteristics. Technology development requirements and suggested implementation schedules are presented.

  2. UK Health and Social Care Case Studies: Iterative Technology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Adie; Gilbert, Laura; Dawson, Tom

    2017-01-01

    As a result of increasing demand in the face of reducing resources, technology has been implemented in many social and health care services to improve service efficiency. This paper outlines the experiences of deploying a 'Software as a Service' application in the UK social and health care sectors. The case studies demonstrate that every implementation is different, and unique to each organisation. Technology design and integration can be facilitated by ongoing engagement and collaboration with all stakeholders, flexible design, and attention to interoperability to suit services and their workflows.

  3. The BERG faculty students readiness for information technologies study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horovèák Pavel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the reconnaissance of our students’ readiness to study information technologies, its interpretation, comparison with some published data as well as with a completion and evaluation of the reconnaissance. It specifies methods and processes of evaluation, structure, sections and questions of the reconnaissance. The reconnaissance was oriented particularly to the evaluation of knowledge in the information technologies area acquired at secondary schools. It was completed in a classical paper form as a preparation for the realization and utilization of questionnaire in the electronic form. The following is constructed using modern internet and database technologies and presents extensive possibilities of evaluation answers respondents. The results of the reconnaissance are presented in the form distribution (sex, domicile, secondary school, secondary school influence, work with a computer, operating and exploitation of internet technologies, familiarity with operating systems and typical applications software and programming languages as well as the interest in information technologies of respondents. The results are compared with some other published data and future perspectives of completion and its evaluation of completion are outlined.

  4. Study on modeling technology in digital reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoping; Luo Yuetong; Tong Lili

    2004-01-01

    Modeling is the kernel part of a digital reactor system. As an extensible platform for reactor conceptual design, it is very important to study modeling technology and develop some kind of tools to speed up preparation of all classical computing models. This paper introduces the background of the project and basic conception of digital reactor. MCAM is taken as an example for modeling and its related technologies used are given. It is an interface program for MCNP geometry model developed by FDS team (ASIPP and HUT), and designed to run on windows system. MCAM aims at utilizing CAD technology to facilitate creation of MCNP geometry model. There have been two ways for MCAM to utilize CAD technology: (1) Making use of user interface technology in aid of generation of MCNP geometry model; (2) Making use of existing 3D CAD model to accelerate creation of MCNP geometry model. This paper gives an overview of MCAM's major function. At last, several examples are given to demonstrate MCAM's various capabilities. (authors)

  5. [Study on absorption kinetics of betulic acid in rat's intestines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huijun; Ren, Xiaohua; Du, Yingfeng; Zhang, Lantong; Li, Tao; Ge, Ying; Wang, Huijie

    2012-02-01

    To establish a HPLC-DAD method for determining concentrations of betulic acid and phenol red in intestinal circulation liquid, and probe into the absorption kinetic characteristics of betulic acid at different intestine segments in rats and the effect of different drug concentrations on absorption. The rat intestinal absorption model was established to detect the impact of absorption site, drug concentration and pH value on drug absorption. Within the range from 75-125 mg x L(-1), the absorption rate and the quality concentration of betulic acid had a linear relation, with Ka value keeping unchanged. The absorption rate for each intestinal segment showed no remarkable difference, with Ka values in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon being (0.151 +/- 0.0049), (0.159 +/- 0.0056), (0.156 +/- 6.0083), (0.149 +/- 0.0041) h(-1), respectively. Betulic acid is proved to be well absorbed in intestines marked by no specific absorption site in the intestine. The absorption mechanism of the drug conforms to passive transport mechanism and first-order kinetics. The bioavailability of betulic acid preparation can be increased by enhancing the dissolution rate and the solubility.

  6. Biokinetic studies on 14C-chitosan in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Minghong; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yukawa, M.

    1998-05-01

    The absorption and the basic metabolism of chitosan in rats are investigated. The results indicated that 14 C-chitosan from gastrointestinal tract was absorbed, metabolized and excreted quickly without re-bioavailability. The radioactive compounds perhaps with specifically chemical forms in serum, liver and the contents of small intestines were separated on GPC column and measured by radioactivity counting. A big pile of peaks with the retention volume almost same as that of standard 14 C-chitosan and another sharp one with the retention volume in the range of higher molecular weight same as that of BSA were discovered in analysis respectively for contents of intestine and serum or liver. The sharp peak would disappear if the proteins contained in the serum or liver were removed. In addition, and interesting tail peak, followed with the pile ones and eluted with the retention volume of lower molecular weight range same as that of chitooligosaccharides was also found in each of the 3 samples, ignoring the protein removal or not. These results suggested that most of 14 C-chitosan was not to be digested in intestine. On the other hand, a small amount of 14 C-chitosan was likely to be absorbed directly or after degraded to small molecular compounds into blood, liver and other tissues, and then connected with the proteins. Perhaps it is these trace materials that were playing important roles in reduction of the bioavailability of radiostrontium in rats

  7. Chronic dietary toxicity and carcinogenicity study with ammonium perfluorooctanoate in Sprague–Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butenhoff, John L.; Kennedy, Gerald L.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Olsen, Geary W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A 2-year dietary toxicity and cancer bioassay was conducted with APFO in rats. ► Non-neoplastic effects were observed in liver in rats fed 300 ppm. ► The predominant liver effect was diffuse hepatocellular hypertrophy. ► Leydig cell tumors of the testes were increased in males fed 300 ppm. ► No other increases in benign or metastatic tumors were observed. -- Abstract: In order to assess the potential chronic toxicity and tumorigenicity of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO), a 2-year dietary study was conducted with male and female rats fed 30 ppm or 300 ppm (approximately 1.5 and 15 mg/kg). In males fed 300 ppm, mean body weights were lower across most of the test period and survival in these rats was greater than that seen either in the 30 ppm or the control group. Non-neoplastic effects were observed in liver in rats fed 300 ppm and included elevated liver weight, an increase in the incidence of diffuse hepatocellular hypertrophy, portal mononuclear cell infiltration, and mild hepatocellular vacuolation without an increase in hepatocellular necrosis. Mean serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were elevated up to three times the control means, primarily at the 300 ppm dose. A significant increase in Leydig cell tumors of the testes was seen in the males fed 300 ppm, and tumors of the liver and acinar pancreas, which are often observed in rats from chronic exposure to peroxisome proliferating agents, were not observed in this study. All other tumor types were those seen spontaneously in rats of this stock and age and were not associated with feeding of APFO.

  8. Integrating Science and Technology: Using Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge as a Framework to Study the Practices of Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Rose M.; Dawson, Kara; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined how teachers involved in a yearlong technology integration initiative planned to enact technological, pedagogical, and content practices in science lessons. These science teachers, engaged in an initiative to integrate educational technology in inquiry-based science lessons, provided a total of 525 lesson plans for this…

  9. Cola beverage consumption delays alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mazzonetto Teófilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that cola beverage consumption may affect bone metabolism and increase bone fracture risk. Experimental evidence linking cola beverage consumption to deleterious effects on bone is lacking. Herein, we investigated whether cola beverage consumption from weaning to early puberty delays the rate of reparative bone formation inside the socket of an extracted tooth in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats received cola beverage (cola group or tap water (control group ad libitum from the age of 23 days until tooth extraction at 42 days and euthanasia 2 and 3 weeks later. The neoformed bone volume inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semi-serial longitudinal sections using a quantitative differential point-counting method. Histological examination suggested a decrease in the osteogenic process within the tooth sockets of rats from both cola groups, which had thinner and sparser new bone trabeculae. Histometric data confirmed that alveolar bone healing was significantly delayed in cola-fed rats at three weeks after tooth extraction (ANOVA, p = 0.0006, followed by Tukey's test, p < 0.01. Although the results of studies in rats cannot be extrapolated directly to human clinical dentistry, the present study provides evidence that cola beverage consumption negatively affect maxillary bone formation.

  10. Brown coal derived humate inhibits contact hypersensitivity; An efficacy, toxicity and teratogenicity study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Snyman, J.R.; Mokoele, T.; Cromarty, A.D. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Faculty of Health Science

    2007-10-15

    The effects of two humate products were compared to that of prednisolone on a contact hypersensitivity rat model. Rats, sensitized with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), were placed on a daily oral treatment of 61 mg/kg BW of humate derived from either leonardite or bituminous coal or on prednisolone at one mg/kg BW and challenged 6 days later with a topical application of DNFB to the right ear. The inflamed ears were measured daily. In a toxicity study rats were exposed to daily oral treatment of leonardite humate at 1,000 mg/kg BW for 1 month. A teratogenicity study was done where pregnant rats were treated with 500 mg/kg BW on days 5 to 17 of pregnancy. Only the leonardite humate compared favourably with prednisolone in suppressing contact hypersensitivity. No signs of toxicity were observed and weight gain was normal during the 6-day and 1 month treatments and during the teratogenicity study with the leonardite humate. However, the rats on the other two products experienced slower weight gain. The identification of a naturally occurring nontoxic compound with anti-inflammatory activity is exciting and merits further evaluation in the treatment of patients suffering from inflammatory conditions.

  11. Application of multitracer technology to petroleum reservoir studies. [Perfluorocarbon tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senum, G.I.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: Improve the assessment of the character of petroleum reservoirs using tracer technology for the monitoring and improvement of EOR techniques, specifically, (a) to apply the presently available multitracer perfluorocarbon tracer (PFI) technology to the study of petroleum reservoirs in characterizing reservoir bulk subsurface flow transport and dispersion rates; and (b) to demonstrate that PFTs with differing physical properties will interact with differing rates of adsorption and dispersion within such reservoirs, from which may be inferred difference in the character and/or extent of petroleum in those reservoirs. Develop additional tracers, and tracer injection, sampling and analyses methodologies for use in petroleum reservoir characterization experiments. Develop a data base of petroleum transport and dispersion properties from tracer experiments for use by modellers for developing, validating and extending petroleum reservoirs models used for characterizing petroleum reservoirs. Technical progress is discussed according to the three ongoing field experiments at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC).

  12. Practice Theory and Pragmatism in Science & Technology Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Science & Technology Studies (STS) and social science has made a turn, a ‘practice turn’, and the notion ‘practice theory’ has made its way into the field of STS. But it is notable that proponents of this turn and theory rarely mention American pragmatism as a source of inspiration or refer...... and technology, or to some of these studies. It is impossible to cover all STS studies inspired by practice theory, and I probably have not found all the studies drawing on pragmatism. It is in the spirit of both practice theory and pragmatism to reach out, to try to bridge ideas by talking to other traditions...... begin by an introduction to some of the proponents of practice theory and of pragmatism. Regarding the latter, I primarily present work by Dewey because this is what I am most familiar with. Although I recognize that practice theory and pragmatism differ on fundamental philosophical issues in relation...

  13. Iron bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with fortified rice by Ultra Rice technology with or without addition of yacon flour (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Vaz Tostes, Maria das Graças; Silveira, Carlos Mário M; Bordalo, Lívia A; Rodrigues, Fabiana C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia S D; Costa, Neuza Maria B

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate iron (Fe) bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with rice fortified with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (FP) by Ultra Rice (UR) technology with or without addition of yacon flour as a source of 7.5% of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Diets were supplied with 12 mg iron/kg from the following sources: ferrous sulfate (FS - control diet), fortified rice with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (Ultra Rice) (UR diet), ferrous sulfate + yacon flour (FS + Y diet) or Ultra Rice + yacon flour (UR + Y diet). Blood samples were collected at the end of depletion and repletion stages for determination of hemoglobin concentration and calculation of the relative biological value (RBV). Also, the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) (acetic, propionic and butyric acids) from animals' stools and caecum weight were determined. The UR diet showed high iron bioavailability (RBV = 84.7%). However, the addition of yacon flour in the diet containing fortified rice (UR + Y diet) decreased RBV (63.1%) significantly below the other three groups (p flour showed higher acetic acid values compared to those who did not. In conclusion, fortified UR with micronized ferric pyrophosphate showed high iron bioavailability but the addition of yacon flour at 7.5% FOS reduced iron bioavailability despite increased caecum weight and SCFA concentration.

  14. Methods of synthesizing qualitative research studies for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Nicola; Jepson, Ruth; Ritchie, Karen

    2011-10-01

    Synthesizing qualitative research is an important means of ensuring the needs, preferences, and experiences of patients are taken into account by service providers and policy makers, but the range of methods available can appear confusing. This study presents the methods for synthesizing qualitative research most used in health research to-date and, specifically those with a potential role in health technology assessment. To identify reviews conducted using the eight main methods for synthesizing qualitative studies, nine electronic databases were searched using key terms including meta-ethnography and synthesis. A summary table groups the identified reviews by their use of the eight methods, highlighting the methods used most generally and specifically in relation to health technology assessment topics. Although there is debate about how best to identify and quality appraise qualitative research for synthesis, 107 reviews were identified using one of the eight main methods. Four methods (meta-ethnography, meta-study, meta-summary, and thematic synthesis) have been most widely used and have a role within health technology assessment. Meta-ethnography is the leading method for synthesizing qualitative health research. Thematic synthesis is also useful for integrating qualitative and quantitative findings. Four other methods (critical interpretive synthesis, grounded theory synthesis, meta-interpretation, and cross-case analysis) have been under-used in health research and their potential in health technology assessments is currently under-developed. Synthesizing individual qualitative studies has becoming increasingly common in recent years. Although this is still an emerging research discipline such an approach is one means of promoting the patient-centeredness of health technology assessments.

  15. Using Internet Technologies in Legal Practices and Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Vernigorova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the agenda of using computer and Internet technologies in legal practices and studies in Russia. Despite the obvious necessity for professionals to learn English, many graduates in Russia still demonstrate a very poor command of this universal language. And it has become quite impossible for a lawyer (or for any other specialist to work effectively without using the Internet and for a student – to study and to practice a foreign language.

  16. The study of the HTGR technology and its industry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingzhong; Wang Dazhong; Zhong Daxin

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress and main results of R and D on High Temperature Reactor technology in INET of Tsinghua University. Several HTR design studies have been carried out and briefly introduced in this paper. While the primary study of the modular HTR process steam application in heavy oil recovery is discussed. A lot of experiments and developmental work, e.g., some HTR component experiments, fuel and material developments have been done, and the major progresses are briefed. (author)

  17. Subacute inhalation toxicity study of synthetic amorphous silica nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Hoon; Jeon, KiSoo; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Younghun; Jo, Mi Seong; Lee, Jong Seong; Baek, Jin Ee; Park, Hye Seon; An, Hyo Jin; Park, Jung Duck; Ahn, Kangho; Oh, Seung Min; Yu, Il Je

    Synthetic amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) are one of the most applied nanomaterials and are widely used in a broad variety of industrial and biomedical fields. However, no recent long-term inhalation studies evaluating the toxicity of SiNPs are available and results of acute studies are limited. Thus, we conducted a subacute inhalation toxicity study of SiNPs in Sprague-Dawley rats using a nose-only inhalation system. Rats were separated into four groups and target concentrations selected in this study were as follows: control (fresh air), low- (0.407 ± 0.066 mg/m 3 ), middle- (1.439 ± 0.177 mg/m 3 ) and high-concentration group (5.386 ± 0.729 mg/m 3 ), respectively. The rats were exposed to SiNPs for four consecutive weeks (6 hr/day, 5 days/week) except for control group of rats which received filtered fresh air. After 28-days of inhalation exposure to SiNPs, rats were sacrificed after recovery periods of one, seven and 28 days. Although there were minimal toxic changes such as temporary decrease of body weight after exposure, increased levels of red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, the lung histopathological findings and inflammatory markers in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid including polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), albumin and protein did not show significant changes at any recovery period. The results of this study suggest that the subacute inhalation of SiNPs had no toxic effects on the lung of rats at the concentrations and selected time points used in this study.

  18. biochemical studies o the effect of gonadotropin hormones on the growth of six organs of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, K.A.; Abd-ElGhaney, I.Y.; El-kolaly, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    a major share of the control of sexual functions in both the male and female begins with secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus. this hormone simulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete two other hormones called gonadotropin hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). in this present study five groups of young rats (two weeks old ) were arranged, each group consisted of 8 rats and subdivided into two subgroups, subgroup one consisted of four male and subgroup two consisted of four female rats. the first group was the non-injected control group , while the other groups were injected intravenous with variable doses of FSH and LH at time intervals of one week for five weeks. After injection of FSH and LH hormones, blood samples were obtained from each rat and FSH and LH hormones were measured using immunoradiometric assay technique.at the end of the injection schedule of FSH and LH the male sex assay technique.At the end of the injection schedule of FSH and LH the male sex organs (testes) and the female organs (ovaries) were dissected, isolated and weighted for each rat . Comparing the sex organs of the injected groups with that of non - injected group , significant variations in weight , morphology and size were observed according to the dose of FSH and LH injected. From this study the effect of gonadotropin hormones therapy on the growth of sex organs was observed

  19. Pathophysiological studies of overactive bladder and bladder motor dysfunction in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Chia; Chuang, Yao-Chi; Chiang, Po-Hui; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2011-07-01

    We studied bladder motor dysfunction and searched for markers of neurogenic and myogenic alterations among fructose fed rats with or without abnormal voiding behavior. Female Wistar rats were fed with a fructose rich diet (60%) or a normal diet for 6 months. Based on cystometry and voiding behavior the fructose fed rats were divided into 3 groups, including a group with normal detrusor function with normal micturition frequency, a group with detrusor overactivity with increased micturition frequency and a group with acontractile detrusor with increased micturition frequency. Denuded bladder tissues were obtained to assess in vitro detrusor contractility, postsynaptic receptors, smoothelin, nitrosative products and the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Fructose fed rats with abnormal voiding behavior had obvious neurogenic and myogenic alterations, including increased expression of postsynaptic receptors, dysregulation of smoothelin and decreased expression of Bcl-2 with a subsequent increase in apoptotic cells in the bladder stroma, causing decreased carbachol induced contractility. Rats with detrusor overactivity were also insulted by nitrosative stress associated with nitrotyrosine up-regulation in the bladder tissue. Up-regulation of M(2) and M(3)-muscarinic receptors, and P2X(1) receptors appeared to be generalized alterations of fructose fed rats and not exclusive to those with detrusor overactivity. Up-regulation of postsynaptic receptors and dysregulation of smoothelin contribute to overactive bladder symptoms in rats with metabolic syndrome. Nitrosative stress and decreased Bcl-2 expression lead to bladder muscle cell loss via the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, which may further deteriorate bladder function. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative immunohistochemical study on amylase localization in the rat and human exocrine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughsteen, Adib A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective was to localize amylase enzyme immunohistochemically in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using polyclonal sheep anti-human amylase antibody, and to compare between the intensities of their amylase-immunostaining. Indirect immunofluorescence method was applied on formaldehyde-fixed, and paraffin-embedded pancreatic sections obtained from adult male Wistar rats and autopsied human samples. Primary incubation was performed using sheep anti-amylase antibody followed by secondary incubation with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit anti-sheep IgG serum. Control tests of amylase immunospecificity were also undertaken either by incubation with primary antibodies previously pre-adsorbed with an excess of human pancreatic amylase, or only with secondary antibodies. The amylase immunofluorescence was positively and homogenously detected in all acinar cells of both rat and human pancreatic stained sections. The immunostaining was clearly demonstrated in the cell apices and peri-nuclear areas, but it was consistently brighter and more intense in the human acinar cells compared with that of the rat pancreas. Control tests of amylase immunofluorescence revealed the specificity of the antibodies applied for amylase localization in rat and human pancreas. Although many previous immunohisto- and cytochemical reports have successfully localized amylase in the pancreas of different mammalian species, but all of them have used locally prepared anti-amylase antibodies. The present report successfully illustrates immuno-localization of amylase in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using commercial polyclonal sheep anti-human pancreatic amylase antibodies, and also suggests their useful application in the immunochemical studies on various mammalian species. Additionally, the results indicate a structural similarity between the human and rat pancreatic amylases, a concept required further exploration. (author)

  1. Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonali eBlanco Ayala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenic acid (KYNA, an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and excitatory amino acid receptors, regulates glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in several regions of the rodent brain. Synthesis of KYNA in the brain and elsewhere is generally attributed to the enzymatic conversion of L-kynurenine (L-KYN by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs. However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO and the direct transformation of kynurenine to KYNA by reactive oxygen species (ROS, have been demonstrated in the rat brain. Using the rat cerebellum, a region of low KAT activity and high DAAO activity, the present experiments were designed to examine KYNA production from L-KYN or D-KYN by KAT and DAAO, respectively, and to investigate the effect of ROS on KYNA synthesis. In chemical combinatorial systems, both L-KYN and D-KYN interacted directly with peroxynitrite (ONOO- and hydroxyl radicals (OH•, resulting in the formation of KYNA. In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D-KYN by 85.1 ± 1.7% and 27.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 µM each attenuated KYNA formation from L-KYN and D-KYN by ~35% and ~66%, respectively. ONOO- (25 µM potentiated KYNA production from both L-KYN and D-KYN, and these effects were reduced by DAAO inhibition. AOAA attenuated KYNA production from L-KYN + ONOO- but not from D-KYN + ONOO-. In vivo, extracellular KYNA levels increased rapidly after perfusion of ONOO- and, more prominently, after subsequent perfusion with L-KYN or D-KYN (100 µM. Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative routes

  2. [Study on acute toxicity of outlet water of new technology from a sewage treatment plant in Zhengzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Li, Bo; Xu, Xueqin; Pei, Lanying; Sun, Chunyang; Van, Guoli

    2015-07-01

    To study the acute toxicity of outlet water of new technology from a sewage treatment plant in Zhengzhou City, and provide scientific basis for safety evaluation of municipal sewage reuse. Based on procedures and tests for toxicological evaluations of chemicals (GBZ/T 240-2011), the acute oral toxicity test, the acute dermal toxicity test, the acute eye irritation test, the skin irritation and sensitization tests were conducted on advanced treatment outlet water. The LD50 of outlet water of new technology in female mice and male mice were 6810 and 4220 mg/kg BW in the acute oral toxicity test respectively, and the former was actually no grade toxicity, the latter was low grade toxicity. The LD50 in female rats and male rats were 6810 and 5620 mg/kg BW in the acute dermal toxicity test respectively, and both were no grade toxicity. Advanced treatment outlet water could damage the rabbit cornea and conjunctiva differently, IAOI was 28, and MIOI was less than 20 after seven days, so advanced treatment outlet water had middle irritation for the rabbit cornea and conjunctiva. The mean value of skin irritation was 0, so it had no irritation for guinea pigs. The mean value of skin sensitization was 0, so it had no sensitization for guinea pigs. Outlet water of new technology is reused by reducing the chances of contracting it with the mouth and eyes, and has no skin irritation and skin sensitization.

  3. Simulation Studies for the evaluation of health information technologies:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammenwerth, Elske; Hackl, Werner O; Binzer, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    It is essential for new health information technologies (IT) to undergo rigorous evaluations to ensure they are effective and safe for use in real-world situations. However, evaluation of new health IT is challenging, as field studies are often not feasible when the technology being evaluated...... of participants before using unfamiliar applications; consideration of time, effort and costs of conducting the simulation; technical maturity of the evaluated system; and allowing adequate preparation of simulation scenarios and simulation setting. Simulation studies are an interesting but time......-consuming approach, which can be used to evaluate newly developed health IT systems, particularly those systems that are not yet suffi ciently mature to undergo field evaluation studies....

  4. ISPMER: Integrated system for combined PET, MRI, and electrophysiological recording in somatosensory studies in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Y.-Y. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-Y. [Department of Electrical and Control Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-C. [Faculty of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang Chen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jaw, F.-S. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jaw@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-10-01

    The present study developed an integrated system for use in combined PET, MRI, and electrophysiological recording in somatosensory studies in rats, called ISPMER. A stereotaxic frame was designed for animal positioning that could be used in all three measurement modalities, and its dimensions complied with the gold standard of the Paxinos and Watson rat brain atlas. A graphical user interface was developed for analyzing the data using several signal processing algorithms. This integrated system provides a novel interface for the recording and processing of three-dimensional neuronal signals in three modalities.

  5. STUDY ON A HIGH PERFORMANCE INTEGRATED BEEKEEPING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to make an economic evaluation of a high performance modern beekeeping technology leading to an increased bee family capacity. The new technology removes the disadvantages of the traditional one utilising just natural picking based on Robinia, Lime, sunflower and wild flora, most of times deeply affected by unfavourable climate conditions (drought, rainfalls and conducting to important bee losses during the winter season and mainly during the critical period till the next picking. The modern technology assures 75 % more bees per family, an increased queen laying capacity by 33 %,, a 50 % reduction of bee loss in winter season, by 20 % more honey , by 50 % more propolis, by 33 % more pollen, by 50 % more swarms, by 60 % more royal jelly and by 50 % more bee venom. The modern technology is based on a scientific feeding management applying a stimulating, completing and proteinic feeding (pollen cake and/or pollen substitutes such as: degreased powder milk 30 % and soya bean cake, involving peculiar costs ranking between USD 9.73-10.06 per family/year. The total bee rearing costs have been estimated at USD 17.83 in average per family/year, of which: 55.5 % feeding costs, 6.8 % queen replacement cost, 3.2 % treatments cost, 13.5 % costs for supplying new frames and combs,17.4 % transportation costs for moving of bee families and the remaining of 3.6 % labour costs. Taking into account a standard apiary (100 bee families of an increased power, a beekeeper can obtain an USD 12,100.4 annual income, by 55.9 % higher than in case of the traditional beekeeping technology. As a conclusion, the new technology assures a higher biological and economical efficiency, USD 3,350 profit gain that is a profit by 48 % higher than in case of the classic technology. For this reason, we recommend this modern technology to be implemented by beekeepers if they would like to transform their apiaries into high performance commercial farms.

  6. New information technologies in social studies: postnonclassical paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Ya. Menshikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses topical issues of virtual reality technologies in social research, particularly when studying the processes of ethnic cultural identity, development of ethnic and racial attitudes using «virtual avatars» for managing ethnic conflicts, development of communication skills in representatives of different cultures using virtual collaboration and video conferencing. One of the key issues of the paper to discuss the necessity of post-non-classical paradigm as a conceptual framework for social research. Contemporary social studies require developing new methods, technologies and techniques at all levels of the research: from task setting to the development of new methods and result analysis. One of the most promising methods rapidly developed in recent years is virtual reality technology. The paper presents the analysis of more than 40 experimental studies performed using CAVE and HMD virtual reality systems. Their application is considered hereunder for the studies of verbal and nonverbal cues in communication, social skills training, treatment of social anxiety disorders and the development of new methods of cognitive behavioural therapy. Studies on interpersonal communication with virtual partners (i.e. «avatars» are considered. Factors affecting the communication quality of avatars, its visual and behavioural realism, problems of seeing virtual human as real partners for social interaction are discussed. Special attention is paid to the studies of racial and ethnic attitudes performed using virtual reality systems. The possibilities of practical applications of the VR technologies for shaping positive attitudes and development of communication skills in a sociocultural context are emphasized.

  7. An experimental study on barium peritonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Barium sulfate is universally used contrast media in gastrointestinal roentgenology, and spillage of barium into peritoneal cavity can occur. The references on effect of barium sulfate in the peritoneal cavity have been scattered and the results are varied. In 80 rats, body weight of 130 gm to 150 gm, sterile pure barium, sterile commercial barium, intestinal content, and mixed pure barium and intestinal content were experimentally injected into the peritoneal cavity. Consecutive weekly laparotomy and microscopic examination were done for 4 weeks. The results are as followings: 1. Mind inflammatory reaction and mild adhesion after sterile pure barium injection. 2. Mild inflammatory reaction and moderate adhesion after sterile commercial barium injection. 3. Acute peritonitis and abscess formation after intestinal content injection. 4. High mortality due to severe acute peritonitis, and severe adhesion in survivors after injection of both pure barium and intestinal content.

  8. [Pharmacokinetic study of various fluoride compounds in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, G; Kertész, P; Ritlop, B; Bánóczy, J

    1992-02-01

    The fluoride excretion of 40 rats has been monitored after the consumption of drinking water containing NaF, CaF2 and CaF2 + alum (KRl/SO4/2. The fluoride excretion of the animals containing NaF and CaF2 + alum increased in a significant extent. No significant difference could be found in the fluoride excretion of the two groups. Statistically no significant increase has been observed in the fluoride ion excretion after the consumption of CaF2. These results suggest that by systemic intake of CaF2, no CaF2 absorbtion can be observed. So those undesirable gastric mucosa side effects that can be observed or presumed by the intake of NaF and CaF2 + alum are presumably neglibile.

  9. Reference genes for normalization: A study of rat brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Birgit; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2008-01-01

    Norm software applets. Additionally, we have applied four different normalization approaches for normalization of the three target genes. We found using the NormFinder software that Ywhaz is the most stably expressed gene among the eight tested HKGs. However, the results of the analysis of the target genes...... are warranted. With the overall aim to inspect the gene expression of three target genes, NMDAR1, SORT, and CREB, in rat hippocampus, we tested a panel of eight HKGs, 18s rRNA, ActB, CycA, Gapd, Hmbs, Hprt1, Rpl13A, and Ywhaz in order to select the most stably expressed gene, using the NormFinder and ge...

  10. Anatomical studies on the spinal cord of the greater cane rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field of neuroanatomy and the knowledge of spinal cord, in particular, requires an accurate base on which data can be mapped. Lately, researchers have taken into consideration studies on Greater cane rat (GCR) because of its large body size and African origin. This study was designed to elucidate the ...

  11. Inhalation toxicity studies with 1,3-butadiene. 2. 3 month toxicity study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouch, C.N.; Pullinger, D.H.; Gaunt, I.F.

    1979-09-01

    The available toxicological data for 1,3-butadiene are limited and contradictory. Three month toxicity and two year carcinogenicity studies have therefore been initiated to identify any potential hazard to occupationally exposed personnel. The results of the 3 month study are reported in this paper. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1,3-butadiene gas at atmospheric concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 ppM v/v respectively, 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No untoward effects attributable to exposure were observed, except a moderately increased salivation, particularly in female animals during the last 5 to 8 weeks of exposure, at higher concentrations of butadiene.

  12. A study of the impact of technology in early education

    OpenAIRE

    Wajszczyk, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the current state of the use of Information and communication technology (ICT) and its impact on pupils in their early stages of education. The aim is to find out how, when and in what context ICT is used in the work with students. The overall objective is to study teachers views on ICT and their opinion on how ICT does affects pupils - positively or negatively. The results of this study are based on both a literature review and a qualitative study. The...

  13. Metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates rotenone induced oxidative stress: a study in different rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Joshi, Neeraj; Raju, Kunumuri Sivarama; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Rama Kant; Singh, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Piracetam is clinically being used nootropic drug but the details of its neuroprotective mechanism are not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of piracetam on rotenone induced oxidative stress by using both ex vivo and in vivo test systems. Rats were treated with piracetam (600 mg/kg b.w. oral) for seven constitutive days prior to rotenone administration (intracerebroventricular, 12 µg) in rat brain. Rotenone induced oxidative stress was assessed after 1 h and 24 h of rotenone administration. Ex vivo estimations were performed by using two experimental designs. In one experimental design the rat brain homogenate was treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4 mM) and rotenone+piracetam (10 mM) for 1 h. While in second experimental design the rats were pretreated with piracetam for seven consecutive days. On eighth day the rats were sacrificed, brain homogenate was prepared and treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4mM) for 1h. After treatment the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in brain homogenate. In vivo study showed that pretreatment of piracetam offered significant protection against rotenone induced decreased GSH and increased MDA level though the protection was region specific. But the co-treatment of piracetam with rotenone did not offer significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress in ex vivo study. Whereas ex vivo experiments in rat brain homogenate of piracetam pretreated rats, showed the significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress. Findings indicated that pretreatment of piracetam significantly attenuated the rotenone induced oxidative stress though the protection was region specific. Piracetam treatment to rats led to its absorption and accumulation in different brain regions as assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, study indicates the piracetam is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity in brain cells

  14. Politicizing science: conceptions of politics in science and technology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    This essay examines five ideal-typical conceptions of politics in science and technology studies. Rather than evaluating these conceptions with reference to a single standard, the essay shows how different conceptions of politics serve distinct purposes: normative critique, two approaches to empirical description, and two views of democracy. I discuss each conception of politics with respect to how well it fulfills its apparent primary purpose, as well as its implications for the purpose of studying a key issue in contemporary democratic societies: the politicization of science. In this respect, the essay goes beyond classifying different conceptions of politics and also recommends the fifth conception as especially conducive to understanding and shaping the processes whereby science becomes a site or object of political activity. The essay also employs several analytical distinctions to help clarify the differences among conceptions of politics: between science as 'political' (adjective) and science as a site of 'politics' (noun), between spatial-conceptions and activity-conceptions of politics, between latent conflicts and actual conflicts, and between politics and power. The essay also makes the methodological argument that the politics of science and technology is best studied with concepts and methods that facilitate dialogue between actors and analysts. The main goal, however, is not to defend a particular view of politics, but to promote conversation on the conceptions of politics that animate research in social studies of science and technology.

  15. Chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies of FD & C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzelleca, J F; Hallagan, J B

    1988-03-01

    FD & C Yellow No. 5 was fed to Charles River CD rats as a dietary admixture in two long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity studies. The studies were conducted with an in utero phase in which the compound was administered to the F0 generation rats (60/sex/group) at levels of 0.0, 0.0, 0.1, 1.0 or 2.0% ('original study') and 0.0 or 5.0% ('high-dose study'). The concurrent control groups received the basal diet. After random selection of the F1 animals, the long-term phase was initiated using the same dietary levels with 70 rats of each sex/group, including the three control groups. The maximum exposure to the colouring was 113 and 114 wk for males and females, respectively, in the 'original' study and 122 and 125 wk for males and females, respectively, in the 'high-dose' study. No compound-related effects were noted. The no-adverse-effect level found in this study was 5.0% in the diet providing an average intake of 2641 and 3348 mg/kg/day for male and female rats, respectively.

  16. An experimental study on intracerebroventricular transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinxin; Song, Lu; Wu, Na; Liu, Zhenguo; Xue, Shouru; Hui, Guozhen

    2010-12-01

    Human amniotic epithelial (HAE) cells are formed from amnioblasts, separated from the epiblast at about the eighth day after fertilization. In the present study, we attempt to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular transplantation of HAE cells on Parkinson's disease (PD) rats. A PD rat model was induced by 6-OHDA injections. Then the rats were transplanted intracerebroventricularly with HAE cells. Apomorphin-induced turns were used to assess the neurobehavioral deficit in rats. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry was used to track the survival of HAE cells. Tyrosinehydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry was used to determine the density of TH-positive cells in rat substantia nigra and the differentiation of HAE cells. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure the levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in rat striatum. HVA levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats were also determined by HPLC. The results showed that transplanted HAE cells can survive for at least 10 weeks and differentiate into TH-positive cells in PD rats. The grafts significantly ameliorated apomorphine-induced turns in PD rats. TH immunohistochemistry showed that HAE cells attenuated the loss of TH-positive cells in rat substantia nigra. In addition, HAE cells prevented the fall of DA and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA in PD rats. Increased HVA levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of PD rats were also observed. These results demonstrate that HAE cells have beneficial effect on 6-OHDA-induced PD rats, which may be due to the neurotrophic factors secrete by HAE cells.

  17. Histomorphological study of parotid gland from young rats (Holtzman) submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslindo, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed on rats to verify v the effects of ionizing radiation on the structure of the parotid glands of young rats. Thirty twenty five-day old rats - Rattus norvegicus, albinus, Holtzman - with a medium body weight of 54,20 g were equally distributed in two experimental groups: group I - irradiated; group II - control. After intraperitoneal anesthetics with sodium Pentobarbital in 3% gad been applied, the group I - rats were immobilized in a dorsal position on special surgery tables. The region of the parotid glands were irradiated with a dose of 300 R, this procedure was repeated every 48 hours up to an exposition of 1200 R. The Group II - animals received a simulated treatment as control. The following conclusions may be drawn through the methodology used: the group I - rats gained body weight uniformly after the 13th day, this was not equivalent to the control group; the critical phase of glandular disorganization determined by irradiation corresponded to the experimental period of 8 days, decreasing in the subsequent days; the serous acini and the streated ducts showed to be more radium sensitive even under the use of low fractionated doses; the parotid gland showed indications of gradual morphological recovery after the last exposition to X-rays. (author)

  18. [Studies on transdermal delivery of ferulic acid through rat skin treated by microneedle arrays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Du, Shou-ying; Bai, Jie; Shang, Ke-xin; Lu, Yang; Li, Peng-yue

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of transdermal delivery of ferulic acid under the treated of microneedle arrays and the influence on permeability of rat skin capillaries, improved Franz-cells were used in the transdermal delivery experiment with the rat skin of abdominal wall and the length of microneedle arrays, different insertion forces, retention time were studied in the influence of characteristics of transdermal delivery of FA. The amount of FA was determined by HPLC system. Intravenous injection Evans blue and FA was added after microneedle arrays treated. Established inflammation model was built by daubing dimethylbenzene. The amount of Evans blue in the rat skin was read at 590 nm wavelength with a Multiskan Go microplate reader. Compared with passive diffusion group the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport (P Microneedle arrays with different length had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport, but was not related to the increase of the length. The research of FA on the reduce of permeability of rat skin capillaries indicated that the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays could reduce the content of Evans blue in the skins of rat significantly compared with the untreated group. The permeation rate of ferulic acid transdermal delivery had remarkable increase under the treated of microneedle arrays and the length of microneedle arrays ,the retention time so as to the insertion force were important to the transdermal delivery of ferulic acid.

  19. Study on chromium speciation in rats by the isotope tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiyue; Qian Qinfang; Ding Wenjun; Chai Zhifang

    1999-01-01

    The chromium speciation in the liver cytosol fraction, serum and urine of both normal and diabetic rats are studied by the enriched stable isotope tracer technique combined with the get chromatography and the neutron activating analysis (NAA). The results are as follows: (1) When Cr(III) enters the animal body, it is most likely to be combined with serum proteins. The chromium-protein compound acts as a carrier to transport Cr to the whole body. In the liver cytosol fraction, Cr (III) is also mainly combined with the high molecular weight protein and retains as chromium-protein substance in the liver. (2) A low molecular weight chromium-containing compound is found in all the liver cell cytosol fraction, serum and urine of the two group rats. (3) The diabetic rats lose more amount of low molecular weight of chromium compound in urine than the normal rats do. This might be a main reason to explain why the diabetic rats retain lower Cr in their bodies than the normal group

  20. A three generation reproduction study with Sprague-Dawley rats consuming high-amylose transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing Hua; Dong, Ying; Zhao, Yan Sheng; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Yun; He, Yuan Qing; Liu, Qiao Quan

    2014-12-01

    The transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched with amylose and resistant starch (RS) was developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch-branching enzymes. Cereal starch with high amylose has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch. In order to evaluate the effect of transgenic rice on rats, the rats were fed diets containing 70% TRS rice flour, its near-isogenic rice flour or the standard diet as the control through three generations. In the present study, clinical performance, reproductive capacity and pathological responses including body weight, food consumption, reproductive data, hematological parameters, serum chemistry components, organ relative weights and histopathology were examined. Some statistically significant differences were observed in rats consuming the high amylose rice diet when compared to rats fed the near-isogenic control rice diet or the conventional (non-rice) standard diet. These differences were generally of small magnitude, appeared to be random in nature, and were within normal limits for the strain of rat used, and were therefore not considered to be biologically meaningful or treatment related. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E; Anwar, M.M.; El-bostany, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  2. [Mechanism study on leptin resistance in lung cancer cachexia rats treated by Xiaoyan Decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Chao; Jia, Ying-Jie; Yang, Pei-Ying; Zhang, Xing; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jin-Li; Sun, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jun; Duan, Hao-Guo; Guo, Hua; Li, Chao

    2014-12-01

    To study the leptin resistance mechanism of Xiaoyan Decoction (XD) in lung cancer cachexia (LCC) rats. An LCC rat model was established. Totally 40 rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the LCC model group, the XD group, and the positive control group, 10 in each group. After LCC model was set up, rats in the LCC model group were administered with normal saline, 2 mL each time. Rats in the XD group were administered with XD at the daily dose of 2 mL. Those in the positive control group were administered with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate suspension (20 mg/kg) by gastrogavage at the daily dose of 2 mL. All medication lasted for 14 days. The general condition and tumor growth were observed. Serum levels of leptin and leptin receptor in the hypothalamus were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Contents of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexia for genomic POMC were detected using real-time PCR technique. Serum leptin levels were lower in the LCC model group than in the normal control group with statistical significance (P hypothalamus increased significantly in the LCC model group (P 0.05). There was statistical difference in POMC between the normal control group and the LCC model group (P hypothalamus. LCC could be improved by elevating NPY contents in the hypothalamus and reducing POMC contents, promoting the appetite, and increasing food intake from the periphery pathway and the central pathway.

  3. A Study of the Effects of Electromagnetic Field on Islets of Langerhans and Insulin Release in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaki Amir Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nowadays, modern technologies are increasingly used in domestic industries, home appliances, and cell phones. This has highlighted the necessity of protecting human beings from the impacts of electromagnetic fields (EMFs as a new challenge. Therefore, the present study aimed to find out what impacts EMFs have on the structure of Langerhans Islets and the insulin secretion levels in rat. Materials and Methods: Fourteen 12-week-old male rats were selected randomly: 5 as a control group and 9 as an experimental group. The experimental group was exposed to an EMF produced by an electromagnetic device, with a frequency of 50 Hz and intensity of 3 mT 4 h a day for 6 weeks. At the end of the 6 weeks, blood and pancreas tissue samples were taken for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test and preparation for microscopic studies. Results: Results showed that in EMF exposed group insulin level was decreased (P < 0.05, which was associated with decreased area and perimeter of pancreatic islets (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Exposure to EMF impacts insulin secretion by influencing the size of pancreatic islets.

  4. A wireless beta-microprobe based on pixelated silicon for in vivo brain studies in freely moving rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märk, J.; Benoit, D.; Balasse, L.; Benoit, M.; Clémens, J. C.; Fieux, S.; Fougeron, D.; Graber-Bolis, J.; Janvier, B.; Jevaud, M.; Genoux, A.; Gisquet-Verrier, P.; Menouni, M.; Pain, F.; Pinot, L.; Tourvielle, C.; Zimmer, L.; Morel, C.; Laniece, P.

    2013-07-01

    The investigation of neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the functional specificity of brain regions requires the development of technologies that are well adjusted to in vivo studies in small animals. An exciting challenge remains the combination of brain imaging and behavioural studies, which associates molecular processes of neuronal communications to their related actions. A pixelated intracerebral probe (PIXSIC) presents a novel strategy using a submillimetric probe for beta+ radiotracer detection based on a pixelated silicon diode that can be stereotaxically implanted in the brain region of interest. This fully autonomous detection system permits time-resolved high sensitivity measurements of radiotracers with additional imaging features in freely moving rats. An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) allows for parallel signal processing of each pixel and enables the wireless operation. All components of the detector were tested and characterized. The beta+ sensitivity of the system was determined with the probe dipped into radiotracer solutions. Monte Carlo simulations served to validate the experimental values and assess the contribution of gamma noise. Preliminary implantation tests on anaesthetized rats proved PIXSIC's functionality in brain tissue. High spatial resolution allows for the visualization of radiotracer concentration in different brain regions with high temporal resolution.

  5. A Study on the Revitalizing of technology commercialization in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. I.; Jang, S. K.; Hong, G. P.; Lee, E. S.

    2009-02-01

    The TEC training program should be implemented for researches who want to commercialize their own technologies. To build creative organization culture is essential for technology commercialization. Collaboration strategy is related to analyze how KAERI is catching up their technological capabilities in nuclear technology, and what the success factors of KAERI in technology commercialization are.

  6. Study of Smart Campus Development Using Internet of Things Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widya Sari, Marti; Wahyu Ciptadi, Prahenusa; Hafid Hardyanto, R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the development of smart campus using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Through smart campus, it is possible that a campus is connected via online by the outside entity, so that the teaching approach based on technology can be conducted in real time. This research was conducted in smart education, smart parking and smart room. Observation and literature studies were applied as the research method with the related theme for the sake of system design of smart campus. The result of this research is the design of smart campus system that includes smart education development, smart parking and smart room with the sake of Universitas PGRI Yogyakarta as the case study.

  7. Single-cell technologies to study the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Valentina; Mahata, Bidesh

    2016-02-01

    The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act in a coordinated fashion to protect the organism against a multitude of different pathogens. The great variability of existing pathogens corresponds to a similar high heterogeneity of the immune cells. The study of individual immune cells, the fundamental unit of immunity, has recently transformed from a qualitative microscopic imaging to a nearly complete quantitative transcriptomic analysis. This shift has been driven by the rapid development of multiple single-cell technologies. These new advances are expected to boost the detection of less frequent cell types and transient or intermediate cell states. They will highlight the individuality of each single cell and greatly expand the resolution of current available classifications and differentiation trajectories. In this review we discuss the recent advancement and application of single-cell technologies, their limitations and future applications to study the immune system. © 2015 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Global change technology initiative architecture trade study plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the trade study is to define the architectural mix of missions, spacecraft/platforms, and sensors to meet the science requirements of the Mission to Planet Earth/Global Change Technology Initiative (MPE/GCTI) beyond the early Earth Observing System (Eos) and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) spacecraft missions. Within the overall objective, the study includes the following specific objectives: (1) Substantiate the selected mix of Low Earth Orbit (LEO), GEO, or intermediate orbit spacecraft/platforms; (2) Define the required number and size of spacecraft related to objective (1); (3) Define a generic sensor complement for the spacecraft/platforms; (4) Evaluate current spacecraft capabilities to meet the mission requirements and develop conceptual designs of spacecraft/platforms as required. (5) Identify advanced or new technology needed to most efficiently accomplish the MPE/GCTI Program.

  9. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Lin, X.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between dopamine (DA) D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemiparkinsonism rats. Hemi-parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, apomorphine (Apo) which could induce the successful model rat rotates toward the intact side was used to screen that rats, 125 I-IBZM in vivo autoradiography and 99m Tc-HM-PAO regional brain biodistribution were used to study D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD were used to measure the concentration of DA and it metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-dehydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) in bilateral striatum (ST). The lesioned side ST DA and its metabolites HVA DOPAC reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated control group, ST/cerebellum (CB) 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 ±0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (p 99m Tc 30.1±4.53% enhancement as compared to the intact side, and also show good correlation with 30 min Apo induced rotation numbers (r=0.98), the regional cerebral blood flow study didn't show significant difference between bilateral brain cortex area (p>0.05). The DA content decreased significantly and induced an up-regulation of ST D 2 receptor binding sites in 6-OH-DA lesioned side in hemi-parkinsonism rats, the increased percentage of lesioned-intact side ST/CB 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio showed good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Compare with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  10. Studi Model Penerimaan Tehnologi (Technology Acceptance Model) Novice Accountant

    OpenAIRE

    Rustiana, Rustiana

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates adoption or application of behavior information technologyacceptance. Davis' Technology Acceptance Model is employed to explain perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and intention to use in information systems. The respondents were 228 accounting students in management information system. Data was collected by questionnaire and then analyzed by using linear regression analysis and independent t-test. The results are in line with most of the hypotheses, only hypo...

  11. Feasibility study on the development of advanced LWR fuel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Youn Ho; Sohn, D. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Song, K. W.; Song, K. N.; Chun, T. H.; Bang, J. G.; Bae, K. K.; Kim, D. H. and others

    1997-07-01

    Worldwide R and D trends related to core technology of LWR fuels and status of patents have been surveyed for the feasibility study. In addition, various fuel cycle schemes have been studied to establish the target performance parameters. For the development of cladding material, establishment of long-term research plan for alloy development and optimization of melting process and manufacturing technology were conducted. A work which could characterize the effect of sintering additives on the microstructure of UO{sub 2} pellet has been experimentally undertaken, and major sintering variables and their ranges have been found in the sintering process of UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} burnable absorber pellet. The analysis of state of the art technology related to flow mixing device for spacer grid and debris filtering device for bottom nozzle and the investigation of the physical phenomena related to CHF enhancement and the establishment of the data base for thermal-hydraulic performance tests has been done in this study. In addition, survey on the documents of the up-to-date PWR fuel assemblies developed by foreign vendors have been carried out to understand their R and D trends and establish the direction of R and D for these structural components. And, to set the performance target of the new fuel, to be developed, fuel burnup and economy under the extended fuel cycle length scheme were estimated. A preliminary study on the failure mechanism of CANDU fuel, key technology and advanced coating has been performed. (author). 190 refs., 31 tabs., 129 figs.

  12. Technology Approach: DoD Versus Boeing (A Comparative Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    BOEING (A Comparative Study) A. Lee Battershell This is an analysis of different approaches in the use of technology by Boeing and DoD to determine how...they may have affected development time for the C-17 and the Boeing 777. Boeing’s focus on cost, schedule, performance, and market competition is...military cargo plane, Boeing 777 passenger plane, Air Force tactical plane, strategic airlift capability, management structure 29Defense ARJ, January

  13. Comparative in vivo dissociation of gadolinium chelates in renally impaired rats: a relaxometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretellier, Nathalie; Idée, Jean-Marc; Dencausse, Anne; Karroum, Oussama; Guerret, Sylviane; Poveda, Nicolas; Jestin, Gaëlle; Factor, Cécile; Raynal, Isabelle; Zamia, Philippe; Port, Marc; Corot, Claire

    2011-05-01

    Investigation of dissociated versus chelated gadolinium (Gd) in plasma, skin, and bone of rats with impaired renal function after administration of ionic macrocyclic (gadoterate or Dotarem) or nonionic linear (gadodiamide or Omniscan) Gd chelates. Subtotally nephrectomized Wistar rats were subjected to receive daily injections of 2.5 mmol/kg of Omniscan, gadodiamide without excess ligand caldiamide, Dotarem, or saline (n = 7-10 rats/group) for 5 consecutive days. The Gd concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in skin, femur epiphysis, and plasma on completion of the study (day 11), and dissociated Gd(3+) was measured in the plasma at day 11 (liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The r(1) relaxivity constant was measured in skin (at day 4 and day 11) and bone (day 11) to investigate the dissociated or chelated form of Gd found in tissue samples. Clinical and skin histopathologic studies were performed. Subtotal nephrectomy decreased creatinine clearance by 60%. No macroscopic skin lesions were observed in the Dotarem and Omniscan groups in contrast with the gadodiamide group (2 rats survived the study period and 4 of 10 rats showed skin ulcerations and scabs). Skin histopathologic lesions were in the range gadodiamide > Omniscan > Dotarem (similar to control rats). At day 11, the skin Gd concentration was lower in the Dotarem group (161.0 ± 85.5 nmol/g) as compared with the Omniscan (490.5 ± 223.2 nmol/g) and gadodiamide groups (mean value, 776.1 nmol/g; n = 2 survivors). The total Gd concentration in the femur was significantly higher in the Omniscan group than in the Dotarem group. At day 11, the dissociated Gd(3+) concentration in plasma was below the limit of detection in the Dotarem group and was 1.5 ± 0.7 μmol/L in the Omniscan group corresponding to 62% ± 15% of the total Gd concentration. The dissociated Gd(3+) concentration was 1.1 μmol/L in gadodiamide rats (n = 2 survivors). In the

  14. Preliminary EEG study of protective effects of Tebonin in transient global cerebral ischemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagrean, L; Vatasescu, R; Munteanu, A M

    2000-01-01

    and metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of preventive treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761--Tebonin) in cerebral global ischemia and reperfusion in rats using computerized EEG analysis. Ginkgo biloba extract, known to be, in vitro, a free radicals scavanger and a PAF......--antagonist, was administrated in dose of 100 mg/kg over 24 hours, for 5 days before and 5 days after cerebral ischemia--reperfusion. The apparition of isoelectric EEG (flat-line) following 4-vessel occlusion was observed after a mean time of 25 sec. in Ginkgo biloba treated rats and after 18 sec. in control rats (p ....0015). Computerized spectral analysis of EEG has shown that the percentage of slow waves at 10 minutes after reperfusion was 117% higher in control group than in Ginkgo biloba group (p Ginkgo...

  15. Studies of toxocariasis in tissues of rats infected with irradiated toxocara canis eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Maguid, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the level of the resistance of rats when infected with two doses of irradiated infective eggs of Toxocara canis and challenged with normal non-irradiated Toxocara canis eggs. The level of resistance was assessed in comparison with control group by the histopathological changes in liver, kidney, lung and spleen of these rats. Thirty rats were divided into three groups, the first and the second groups were infected with the infective stage of Toxocara canis irradiated at 40 and 80 Gy respectively. The third group was infected with non irradiated eggs of Toxocara canis representing the control group. The histopathological changes in the tissues of the infected liver, kidney, lung and spleen were examined. The histopathological changes caused by infection with Toxocara canis decreased by increasing the dose of irradiation of the infected stage. Radiation exposure attenuated the larval migration from the gastrointestinal tract to liver and from liver to other organs.

  16. Experimental study of 『PERSICAE SEMEN』 on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Keun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effects of 「Persicae Semen」(PS on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. The blood was induced by Endotoxin injection into the caudal vein of rats and PS group taken a measurement of RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC, ESR, CRP. The results were obtained as follows: 1. RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC were increased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. 2. ESR, CRP were decreased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. It is concluded that PS group has significant effects on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. Therefore, PS group seems to be applicable to the diseases related to Endotoxin in clinics.

  17. The effect of azathioprine on anastomotic healing: an experimental study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg, Tilo; Ljungmann, Ken; Christensen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The cytotoxic and immunosuppressive effects of azathioprine, which mitigate the disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, may compromise the healing of intestinal anastomoses leading to an increased risk of anastomotic leakage. The effect of azathioprine treatment on intestinal...... healing was tested. METHODS: In an experimental study, rats were randomly given one oral dose of azathioprine (5 mg or 20 mg/kg body weight per day) or placebo. After 28 days of treatment, a left colonic anastomosis was performed. After three days of healing, the breaking strengths of the anastomoses were...... azathioprine doses has no inhibitory effect on colonic healing in rats. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  18. [Study of the possibility of hyperparathyroidism development in rats exposed to internal irradiation by iodine radioisotope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagov, R S; Chureeva, L N; Chibisova, O F; Barbarykina, G S; Petrov, V N; Podgorodnichenko, V K; Belorukova, N V

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of hyperparathyroidism development secondary to earlier internal irradiation with radioactive iodine was studied experimentally in Wistar rats. This report describes the parathyroid morphology and biochemical findings for animals irradiated with 131I at the doses of 4.5, 40, or 80 Gy. The interval between the radiation exposure of two-month-old rats and their examination for thyroid and parathyroid pathology was 14 months. Neither hypercalcemia nor hypophosphatemia was found. Moreover, the level of calcium in serum slightly decreased following 40 and 80 Gy irradiation. The increased incidence of parathyroid fibrosis and hypofunctional structure transformation were revealed.

  19. Radioisotopic study of calcium metabolism in rat during chronic poisoning by cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauran-Clavel, M.J.; Oustrin, J.

    1978-01-01

    The radioisotopic study of calcium metabolism during chronic poisoning by cadmium in the rat (8 mg/kg/day) has shown an important decrease of intestinal absorption of calcium after 6 weeks. After 13 weeks, this impairement is associated to a decrease of rapidly and slow exchangeable calcium compartments as well exchange rates. The decrease of osteogenesis is confirmed by an important drop of serum alkaline phosphatases which reflect the decrease of osteoblastic activity. These results suggest that the disorders observed in rat are similar to those elicited in osteoporosis [fr

  20. In vivo imaging of brain androgen receptors in rats: a [18F]FDHT PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayum, M.A.; Doorduin, J.; Antunes, I.F.; Kwizera, C.; Zijlma, R.; Boer, J.A. den; Dierckx, R.A.J.O.; Vries, E.F.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Steroid hormones like androgens play an important role in the development and maintenance of several brain functions. Androgens can act through androgen receptors (AR) in the brain. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of positron emission tomography (PET) with 16β-[ 18 F]fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone ([ 18 F]FDHT) to image AR expression in the brain. Methods: Male Wistar rats were either orchiectomized to inhibit endogenous androgen production or underwent sham-surgery. Fifteen days after surgery, rats were subjected to a 90-min dynamic [ 18 F]FDHT PET scan with arterial blood sampling. In a subset of orchiectomized rats, 1 mg/kg dihydrotestosterone was co-injected with the tracer in order to saturate the AR. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of radioactive metabolites by radio-TLC. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed to quantify brain kinetics of the tracer. After the PET scan, the animals were terminated for ex-vivo biodistribution. Results: PET imaging and ex vivo biodistribution studies showed low [ 18 F]FDHT uptake in all brain regions, except pituitary. [ 18 F]FDHT uptake in the surrounding cranial bones was high and increased over time. [ 18 F]FDHT was rapidly metabolized in rats. Metabolism was significantly faster in orchiectomized rats than in sham-orchiectomized rats. Quantitative analysis of PET data indicated substantial spill-over of activity from cranial bones into peripheral brain regions, which prevented further analysis of peripheral brain regions. Logan graphical analysis and kinetic modeling using 1- and 2-tissue compartment models showed reversible and homogenously distributed tracer uptake in central brain regions. [ 18 F]FDHT uptake in the brain could not be blocked by endogenous androgens or administration of dihydrotestosterone. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that imaging of AR availability in rat brain with [ 18 F]FDHT PET is not feasible. The low AR expression in the brain, the

  1. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats of a hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, A G; Merkel, D J; Glaza, S M; Sorenson, S R

    2007-02-01

    Two acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted in rats to evaluate safety of a patented preparation of hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage (BioCell Collagen II) containing collagen type II, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. In the acute oral toxicity study, five males and five females of Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single dose of 5000 mg of the test product per kg body weight and observed for 14 days. All animals survived and exhibited normal body weight gain throughout the study. Macroscopic necropsy examination conducted on day 15 revealed no gross pathological lesions in any of the animals. In the subchronic study, Sprague-Dawley rats (40 males, 40 females) were divided into four same-sex groups (10 animals/group). Animals in each group were administered daily either 0, 30, 300 or 1000 mg of the test product per kg of body weight for over 90 days. All animals survived and showed no significant changes in their body weights and histopathology. Although some differences were observed between the treated and control animals in several parameters, they were generally not dose-related or considered to be of toxicological significance. In conclusion, the results from the two oral toxicity studies with male and female young adult rats indicated that the test preparation from hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage collagen (BioCell Collagen II) was well tolerated at all four doses tested.

  2. Study on The Effect of Royal Jelly on Reproductive Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghanbari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus has a variety of structural and functional effects on the male reproductive system. Diabetes results in reduced sperm parameters and libido. The present study aims to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ on reproductive parameters of testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA production in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on adult male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups (n=8 per group: control, RJ, diabetic and diabetic treated with RJ. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg body weight (BW of streptozotocin (STZ. RJ, at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW was given by gavage. The duration of treatment was six weeks. After the treatment period the rats were sacrificed. The testes were weighed and changes in sperm count, motility, viability, deformity, DNA integrity and chromatin quality were analyzed. Serum testosterone and MDA concentrations of testicular tissue were determined. Data were analyzed by oneway ANOVA with p<0.05 as the significant level. Results: STZ-induced diabetes decreased numerous reproductive parameters in rats. Testicular weight, sperm count, motility, viability and serum testosterone levels increased in the diabetic group treated with RJ. There was a significant decrease observed in sperm deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, and tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats treated with RJ compared to the diabetic group (p<0.05. Conclusion: RJ improved reproductive parameters such as testicular weight, sperm count, viability, motility, deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, serum testosterone and testicular tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats.

  3. Motor System Development Depends on Experience: A Microgravity Study of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kerry D.; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Kalb, Robert; Hillman, Dean; DeFelipe, Javier; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Animals move about their environment by sensing their surroundings and making adjustments according to need. All animals take the force of gravity into account when the brain and spinal cord undertake the planning and execution of movements. To what extent must animals learn to factor in the force of gravity when making neural calculations about movement? Are animals born knowing how to respond to gravity, or must the young nervous system learn to enter gravity into the equation? To study this issue, young rats were reared in two different gravitational environments (the one-G of Earth and the microgravity of low Earth orbit) that necessitated two different types of motor operations (movements) for optimal behavior. We inquired whether those portions of the young nervous system involved in movement, the motor system, can adapt to different gravitational levels and, if so, the cellular basis for this phenomenon. We studied two groups of rats that had been raised for 16 days in microgravity (eight or 14 days old at launch) and compared their walking and righting (ability to go from upside down to upright) and brain structure to those of control rats that developed on Earth. Flight rats were easily distinguished from the age-matched ground control rats in terms of both motor function and central nervous system structure. Mature surface righting predominated in control rats on the day of landing (R+O), while immature righting predominated in the flight rats on landing day and 30 days after landing. Some of these changes appear to be permanent. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: (1) Many aspects of motor behavior are preprogrammed into the young nervous system. In addition, several aspects of motor behavior are acquired as a function of the interaction of the developing organism and the rearing environment; (2) Widespread neuroanatomical differences between one-G- and microgravity-reared rats indicate that there is a structural basis for the adaptation

  4. Usage Concepts of Augmented Reality Technology in Islamic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norabeerah Saforrudin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The augmented reality (AR has been identified to be suitable for use in education. However, studies that particularly identify this concept are still rare. Therefore, this qualitative study was conducted with objectives to determine the perception of teacher educators from the Islamic Study Department, Teacher Training Institute in Central Zone of Malaysia towards AR, and to develop a usage concept that can be implemented when teaching and learning Islamic Study. Explorative case study method involving three teacher educators was used. They were interviewed by using an in-depth semi-structured interview schedule. From the interview, all responses provided by the informants are very positive and admitted that AR technology is suitable to be used in the Islamic Study. The usage concepts discussed in this paper can be used as guidelines to those who are interested in developing or using the AR application based on Islamic Study topics.

  5. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  6. Technological aspects of hospital communication challenges: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Ilinca; Morita, Plinio P; Doran, Diane; Lapinsky, Stephen; Morra, Dante; Shier, Ashleigh; Wu, Robert; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    To gain insights into how technological communication tools impact effective communication among clinicians, which is critical for patient safety. This multi-site observational study analyzes inter-clinician communication and interaction with information technology, with a focus on the critical process of patient transfer from the Emergency Department to General Internal Medicine. Mount Sinai Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and Toronto General Hospital. At least five ED and general internal medicine nurses and physicians directly involved in patient transfers were observed on separate occasions at each institution. N/A. N/A. The study provides insight into clinician workflow, evaluates current hospital communication systems and identifies key issues affecting communication: interruptions, issues with numeric pagers, lack of integrated communication tools, lack of awareness of consultation status, inefficiencies related to the paper chart, unintuitive user interfaces, mixed use of electronic and paper systems and lack of up-to-date contact information. It also identifies design trade-offs to be negotiated: synchronous communication vs. reducing interruptions, notification of patient status vs. reducing interruptions and speed vs. quality of handovers. The issues listed should be considered in the design of new technology for hospital communications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  7. The NASA Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology study - A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    This study is concerned with: hydrogen use, alternatives and comparisons, hydrogen production, factors affecting application, and technology requirements. Two scenarios for future use are explained. One is called the reference hydrogen use scenario and assumes continued historic uses of hydrogen along with additional use for coal gasification and liquefaction, consistent with the Ford technical fix baseline (1974) projection. The expanded scenario relies on the nuclear electric economy (1973) energy projection and assumes the addition of limited new uses such as experimental hydrogen-fueled aircraft, some mixing with natural gas, and energy storage by utilities. Current uses and supply of hydrogen are described, and the technological requirements for developing new methods of hydrogen production are discussed.

  8. Pathological and MRI study on experimental heroin-induced brain damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Yu; Kong Xiangquan; Xu Haibo; Liu Dingxi; Yuan Ren; Yu Qun; Xiong Yin; Deng Xianbo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological characteristics of the heroin-induced brain damage in rats, and to assess the diagnostic value of MRI. Methods: A total of 40 adult Wistar rats were studied, 32 rats were used for injecting heroin as heroin group and 8 were used for injecting saline as control group. The heroin dependent rat model was established by administering heroin (ip) in the ascending dosage schedule (0.5 mg/kg), three times a day (at 8:00, 12:00, and 18:00). The control group was established by the same way by injection with saline. The withdrawal scores were evaluated with imp roved criterion in order to estimate the degree of addiction after administering naloxone. Based on the rat model of heroin dependence, the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established by the same way with increasing heroin dosage everyday. Two groups were examined by using MRI, light microscope, and electron microscope, respectively in different heroin accumulated dosage (918, 1580, 2686, 3064, 4336, and 4336 mg/kg withdrawal after 2 weeks). Results: There was statistically significant difference (t=9.737, P<0.01) of the withdrawal scores between the heroin dependent group and the saline group (23.0 ± 4.4 and 1.4 ± 0.5, respectively). It suggested that the heroin dependent rat model be established successfully. In different accumulated dosage ( from 1580 mg/kg to 4336 mg/kg), there were degeneration and death of nerve cells in cerebrum and cerebellum of heroin intoxicated rats, and it suggested that the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established successfully. The light microscope and electron microscope features of heroin-induced brain damage in rats included: (1) The nerve cells of cerebral cortex degenerated and died. According to the heroin accumulated dosage, there were statistically significant difference of the nerve cell deaths between 4336 mg/kg group and 1580 mg/kg group or control group (P=0.024 and P=0.032, respectively); (2) The main

  9. Morphology and function of preserved microvascular arterial grafts: an experimental study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vischjager, M.; van Gulik, T. M.; Kromhout, J. G.; van Marle, J.; Pfaffendorf, M.; Klopper, P. J.; Jacobs, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the morphology and function and small-caliber, arterial grafts after preservation in the University of Wisconsin solution (UW). Rat carotid arteries were stored in UW (n = 10) or in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (n = 10) for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days and were

  10. Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats Supplemented with Three. Sources of Vegetable Oils. 1K.E. Imafidon and *2L.O. Okunrobo. 1Biochemistry Department, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State. 2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City ...

  11. Synthesis of [11C]citalopram and brain distribution studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, S.; Krishnan, K.R.R.; Bissette, G.; Knight, D.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The study of serotonin uptake sites in the living human brain by PET with [ 11 C]citalopram may be valuable in investigating the anatomic locus and the therapeutic role of depression and prevention of suicide. For this purpose, the authors have synthesized [ 11 C]citalopram. In vivo biodistribution in rats has been determined

  12. Ninety-day oral toxicity study of lycopene from Blakeslea trispora in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, D.; Kuper, C.F.; Fraile, N.; Estrella, A.; Rodríguez Otero, C.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene, as a suspension in sunflower oil (20% w/w), was tested for subchronic toxicity by administration at dietary concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0% to groups of 20 male and 20 female Wistar rats for a period of 90 days. The lycopene examined in this study was derived from a fungal

  13. Studies on the postnatal development of the rat liver plasma membrane following maternal ethanol ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovinski, B.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the developing rat liver and on the structure and function of the postnatal rat liver plasma membrane were carried out following maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy and lactation. A developmental study of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) indicated that both the activity and certain kinetic properties of the enzyme from the progeny of alcohol-fed and pair-fed mothers were similar. Fatty liver, however, developed in the alcoholic progeny only after ADH appeared on a day 19 of gestation. Further studies on structural and functional changes were then undertaken on the postnatal development of the rat liver plasma membrane. Radioligand binding studies performed using the hapatic alpha{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor as a plasma membrane probe demonstrated a significant decrease in receptor density in the alcoholic progeny, but no changes in binding affinity. Finally, the fatty acid composition of constituent phospholipids and the cholesterol content of rat liver plasma membranes were determined. All these observations suggest that membrane alterations in the newborn may be partially responsible for the deleterious action(s) of maternal alcoholism at the molecular level.

  14. One-generation reproductive toxicity study of DHA-rich oil in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, R.; Kiy, T.; Waalkens-Berendsen, I.; Wong, A.W.; Roberts, A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The reproductive toxicity of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a one-generation study. Rats were provided diets

  15. Comparative study of radiopharmaceuticals as radiodiagnostic agent of cardiac damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil V, M.C.; Mena T, P. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones de los Isotopos y Radiaciones); Gallego H, R.; Mendoza A, J. (Chile Univ., Santiago. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Veterinarias y Forestales)

    1984-04-01

    Cardiac uptake studies with six radiopharmaceuticals have been performed at different time intervals, after to induce cardiac damage in rats as biological model. Phosphorous radiopharmaceuticals sup((99m) Tc-MDP and sup(113m) In-EDTMP) and /sup 197/Hg-MPG possessed the higher cardiac uptake compared with sup(99m) Tc-GH and sup(99m) Tc-DMSA.

  16. Microangiographic study of the normal anatomy of the cerebral venous system in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, M.

    1984-01-01

    Microangiographic serial cuts were performed in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats for a systematic study of the normal anatomy of the cerebral veins. The draining pathways of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, hippocampus and the midbrain are described and discussed with regard to their different functions. (orig.)

  17. Fate of cadmium in rat renal tubules: a microinjection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felley-Bosco, E.; Diezi, J.

    1987-01-01

    109 Cd was injected into the lumen of superficial proximal or distal tubules of rat kidneys, and recovery in the pelvic urine from the ipsilateral kidney was measured. Fractional recovery of labeled inulin always exceeded 90%. About 70% of injected inorganic Cd (CdCl 2 ) was taken up by the epithelium of proximal tubules, while more than 90% of the injected amount was recovered after distal microinjection. The proximal fractional Cd uptake of a 1:1 (molar) Cd-L-cysteine complex was 82%, but was below 60% for a 5-10:1 molar ratio of cysteine:Cd. The chelate Cd-pentetic acid was recovered in final urine nearly quantitatively after proximal or distal microinjection. Fractional uptake of 109 Cd from a Cd-metallothionein (Mt) complex, following proximal microinjection, ranged between 17 (Cd-Mt 0.19 mM) and 8% (Cd-Mt 1.5 mM). It is concluded that luminal Cd uptake by the tubular epithelium depends markedly on the chemical form of Cd and, when present, occurs mostly or exclusively in proximal tubules

  18. Vitamin A acetate: a behavioral teratology study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, S A; Troise, N J; Cimprich, R E; Yearsley, S M; Rugen, P J

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of maternal administration of vitamin A acetate on pup development and behavior. Vitamin A acetate was administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats (N = 10/treatment) on gestation days 6-19 at doses of 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000 I.U./kg/day. Male and female pups from dams that received 100,000 I.U./kg/day showed a significantly reduced live birth index but few external abnormalities. Twenty-four and 48 hour survival indices were also significantly reduced. The mean pup body weight gain at 100,000 I.U./kg/day was significantly reduced at days 1-3, 3-7 and 21-42. Pinna detachment and eye opening were significantly delayed in all male pups and in female pups from the 50,000 and 100,000 I.U./kg/day groups. Incisor eruption was significantly delayed in male and female pups from the 25,000 and 50,000 I.U./kg/day groups. The following showed no treatment effects: dam mean weight change, length of gestation, total litter size, surface righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, swimming development, open field activity and discriminatory learning.

  19. Managing knowledge: a technology transfer case study in IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Ana Gabriella Amorim Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge management is paramount nowadays. In order to enable the members of an organization to deal with their current situations effectively it is mandatory to know and enhance its intellectual capital. Managing the organization knowledge is important to the extent that it allows and reinforce its mission (what we are trying to accomplish?), and performance (how do we deliver the results?). As a result of a knowledge management effort, the organization can create value for itself and for society as a whole. In this paper, we argue that a technology developed at a research institute and transferred to an industry is knowledge to be managed in order to create value, both for the society and for the Institute. In order to manage such knowledge, it is proposed an approach to enhance the value creation potential of a technology transfer. This paper propose an investigation to expand the understanding on how a public research institute and a private firm could introduce their value creation wishes into a technology transfer agreement in a way to reflect and provide the realization of those wishes. It is proposed that, from the identification of the organizations expectations it is possible to infer which agreement attributes will contribute to that value creation and to establish satisfactory agreement configurations. These configurations have the potential to generate those consequences, given that, through the transfer, each organization seeks to increase potential benefits and to reduce potential sacrifices. Supported by exchange flow and value creation models, by the knowledge management and the means-end theory, an approach to increase the value creation potential of a technology transfer is proposed. Evidences from a case study sustain the proposed approach. The case study unity is the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, a public research institute. (author)

  20. Saphenous artery-based flap models in rats: new flap designs for experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksam, Ersin; Aksam, Berrak; Demirseren, Mustafa Erol; Yavuz, Huban Sibel Orhun

    2016-12-01

    Experimental research using laboratory animals provides substantial data about reconstructive surgery. However, the literature does not include any experimental studies that have used flap models on the hind limbs of rats. To gain an understanding of the physiology of lower-extremity flaps and of flap failures, this study assessed the cutaneous perforators of the saphenous artery, and new flap models were designed for the hind limbs of rats. The experiment was designed to include three stages and used 35 rats. The first stage involved mapping the perforators of the saphenous artery. In the second stage, the contents and structures of McFarlane, epigastric, and anterior hind limb flap tissues were compared histologically. The third stage of the study involved designing and comparing different flaps for the hind limbs of the rats and included random flaps, perforator-based peninsular flaps, perforator-based island flaps, and perforator-based flaps with rotated pedicles. Postoperative necrosis ratios were evaluated using computer-based software. Mapping of the saphenous artery perforators revealed an average of 2.2 septocutaneous arteries in each hind limb. Histologic studies showed thick dermis and panniculus carnosus in the McFarlane flaps, thick dermis, and thin panniculus carnosus layers in the epigastric flaps, and thin subcutaneous tissue with no panniculus carnosus tissue in the skin of the hind limbs. The results of the flap studies that used random flaps showed a 52.4% necrosis, while there was no necrosis when perforator-based peninsular flaps, island flaps, and flaps with rotated pedicles were used. New flap models used on the saphenous artery perforators of the hind limbs of rats can provide valuable information about the physiology of lower-extremity flaps. New studies can also be designed based on these flap models to acquire more knowledge about pathologic conditions such as ischemia and venous insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. A spaceflight study of synaptic plasticity in adult rat vestibular maculas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Behavioral signs of vestibular perturbation in altered gravity have not been well correlated with structural modifications in neurovestibular centers. This ultrastructural research investigated synaptic plasticity in hair cells of adult rat utricular maculas exposed to microgravity for nine days on a space shuttle. The hypothesis was that synaptic plasticity would be more evident in type II hair cells because they are part of a distributed modifying macular circuitry. All rats were shared with other investigators and were subjected to treatments unrelated to this experiment. Maculas were obtained from flight and control rats after shuttle return (R + 0) and nine days post-flight (R + 9). R + 9 rats had chromodacryorrhea, a sign of acute stress. Tissues were prepared for ultrastructural study by conventional methods. Ribbon synapses were counted in fifty serial sections from medial utricular macular regions of three rats of each flight and control group. Counts in fifty additional consecutive sections from one sample in each group established method reliability. All synapses were photographed and located to specific cells on mosaics of entire sections. Pooled data were analyzed statistically. Flown rats showed abnormal posture and movement at R + 0. They had statistically significant increases in total ribbon synapses and in sphere-like ribbons in both kinds of hair cells; in type II cells, pairs of synapses nearly doubled and clusters of 3 to 6 synapses increased twelve-fold. At R + 9, behavioral signs were normal. However, synapse counts remained high in both kinds of hair cells of flight maculas and were elevated in control type II cells. Only counts in type I cells showed statistically significant differences at R + 9. High synaptic counts at R + 9 may have resulted from stress due to experimental treatments. The results nevertheless demonstrate that adult maculas retain the potential for synaptic plasticity. Type II cells exhibited more synaptic plasticity, but

  2. Histochemical studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate on the liver of adult wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweka, Ao; Igbigbi, Ps; Ucheya, Re

    2011-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a commonly used food additive and there is growing concern that excitotoxins such as MSG play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. The histochemical effect of monosodium glutamate was investigated on the liver of adult Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 24), with an average weight of 230 g were randomly assigned into two treatment groups, (A & B) (n=16) and Control (C) (n=8). The rats in the treatment groups (A & B) received 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the grower's mash, respectively on a daily basis for forty-two days. The 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg monosodium glutamate doses were chosen and extrapolated in this experiment based on the previous work done with the additive. The control group (C) received equal amount of feed (Growers' mash) without monosodium glutamate added for the same period. The rats were given water ad libitum. Both the treatment and control rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on day forty-three of the experiment. The Liver was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in Bouin's fluid for histochemical studies, while blood was collected for estimation of total protein, albumin, transaminasese (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The histological findings showed changes like dilatation of the central vein, which contained lysed red blood cells, cyto-architectural distortions of the hepatocytes, atrophic and degenerative changes on the liver of the animals that received feed incoporated with monosodium glutamate. Furthermore, the biochemical parameters were significantly higher in the test than control groups (P monosodium glutamate mixed in their feed. These findings showed that monosodium glutamate consumption may have some deleterious effects on the liver of adult Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may affect the functions of the liver.

  3. Technology sourcing over the technology life cycle : A study about the moderating effect of the technology life cycle on the relation between technology sourcing and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    How do external and internal technology sourcing influence the innovative and market performance of firms over the technology life-cycle? The impact of technology sourcing on firm performance during different phases of the technology life cycle represents a gap in academic literature. Practically,

  4. Toxicity study of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in combination with acetone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Østergaard, G.; Lam, Henrik Rye

    2000-01-01

    In two separate studies with exposure duration 9 weeks or 4 weeks, male Wistar rats were dosed with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) by gavage and exposed to drinking water with or without acetone (0.5% wt/v in the 9-week study, 1.0% wt/v in the 4-week study). In the 9-week study the doses of DEHP...

  5. Uncovering the secret lives of sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus): Movements, distribution and population dynamics revealed by a capture-mark-recapture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig E.l.

    2012-01-01

    and behaviour of these populations. Aims.: The study aimed to uncover the population dynamics, movements and distribution of rats in populations living in sewers. Methods.: We studied rats in a capture–mark–recapture study in two adjacent but separate sewer systems in suburban Copenhagen, Denmark, covering......-to-day movements took place over shorter distances. There were no movements of rats between sewer systems and no sewer rats were observed to be active on the surface. The rat populations seemed to be substructured in smaller groups. Conclusions.: Sewer rat populations vary irregularly in abundance. Pipe dimensions...

  6. Studies on Development of Space Kimchi Using Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-04-15

    Kimchi is Korean traditional fermented vegetable, it was known to one of health food through the world 5 sorts and to one of culture bequest of 100 kinds. In this study, it was conducted to development of Korean space food. Object of the study is development of food processed technology for long term storage and stability of supply at severe environment such as space, desert, deep sea. Irradiation technology is cold sterilization method, and it is able to fusion with the other food manufacturing and additives using method. Therefore, this study can offer to basic information for development of Korean space food. Side by side, it was expected that preceding results were able to wide utilization extension such as export of cured fermentation food. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of additives (A), N2-packaging (N{sub 2}), mild heating at 60 .deg. C (HT) and gamma irradiation of 25 kGy (IR) at frozen state (F) on the shelf stability and quality of Kimchi during storage at 35 .deg. C for 30 days. Briefly, combination treatment of heat and irradiation was considered as the effective method to improve the shelf-stability of Kimchi. However, sensory quality was decreased. After all, irradiation was conducted at Kimchi samples for quality maintenance after gas exchange packaging method such as N{sub 2}-packaging, quick freezing(-70 .deg. C). Therefore, the combination treatment was effected to insurance of shelf-life and satisfaction of quality. But other methods needed for inhibition deterioration of texture. Calcium lactate and vitamin C were added at Kimchi for prevention of softening, oleoresin paprika and artificial Kimchi flavor were added for improvement of sensory quality decreased by severe sterilization.

  7. Studies on Development of Space Kimchi Using Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-04-01

    Kimchi is Korean traditional fermented vegetable, it was known to one of health food through the world 5 sorts and to one of culture bequest of 100 kinds. In this study, it was conducted to development of Korean space food. Object of the study is development of food processed technology for long term storage and stability of supply at severe environment such as space, desert, deep sea. Irradiation technology is cold sterilization method, and it is able to fusion with the other food manufacturing and additives using method. Therefore, this study can offer to basic information for development of Korean space food. Side by side, it was expected that preceding results were able to wide utilization extension such as export of cured fermentation food. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of additives (A), N2-packaging (N 2 ), mild heating at 60 .deg. C (HT) and gamma irradiation of 25 kGy (IR) at frozen state (F) on the shelf stability and quality of Kimchi during storage at 35 .deg. C for 30 days. Briefly, combination treatment of heat and irradiation was considered as the effective method to improve the shelf-stability of Kimchi. However, sensory quality was decreased. After all, irradiation was conducted at Kimchi samples for quality maintenance after gas exchange packaging method such as N 2 -packaging, quick freezing(-70 .deg. C). Therefore, the combination treatment was effected to insurance of shelf-life and satisfaction of quality. But other methods needed for inhibition deterioration of texture. Calcium lactate and vitamin C were added at Kimchi for prevention of softening, oleoresin paprika and artificial Kimchi flavor were added for improvement of sensory quality decreased by severe sterilization

  8. A Comparative Study of Teachers' Perceptions of Traditional Teaching and Teaching with Technology: Pre-Technology Era and Post-Technology Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cynthia Lane

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions of teachers about traditional teaching and teaching with technology in the classroom. The study focused primarily on teachers' perceptions about teaching strategies such as lecture, whole group discussion, drill and practice, and teaching with technology. The quantitative research design was…

  9. Toxicological assessment of combined lead and cadmium: acute and sub-chronic toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guiping; Dai, Shujun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Lu, Hongke; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Shu, Yang; Zhao, Xinghong

    2014-03-01

    The exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and receives concern for their introduction by inhalation and ingestion. However, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to understand the health effects of chemical mixtures compared with single chemicals. In this study, the acute and 90day sub-chronic toxicity tests of combined Pb and Cd were conducted. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 value of Pb(NO3)2 and CdCl2 mixture by the oral route was 2696.54mg/kg by Bliss method. The sub-chronic treatment revealed that the low-dose combination of Pb and Cd exposures can significantly change the physiological and biochemical parameters of the blood of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with dose-response relationship and causes microcytic hypochromic anemia and the damages of liver and kidney of the SD rats to various degrees. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of Pb and Cd were testicle, liver, and kidneys. These observations suggest that Pb and Cd are practically additive-toxic for the SD rats in oral acute toxicity studies. The lowest observed adverse-effect level in rats may be lower than a dose of 29.96mg/(kgbwday) when administered orally for 90 consecutive days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A preparation for studying electrical stimulation of the retina in vivo in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig-Silva, M. S.; Hathcock, C. D.; Hetling, J. R.

    2005-03-01

    A remaining challenge to the development of electronic prostheses for vision is improving the effectiveness of retinal stimulation. Electrode design and stimulus parameters need to be optimized such that the neural output from the retina conveys information to the mind's eye that aids the patient in interpreting his or her environment. This optimization will require a detailed understanding of the response of the retina to electrical stimulation. The identity and response characteristics of the cellular targets of stimulation need to be defined and evaluated. Described here is an in vivo preparation for studying electrical stimulation of the retina in rat at the cellular level. The use of rat makes available a number of well-described models of retinal disease that motivate prosthesis development. Artificial stimulation can be investigated by adapting techniques traditionally employed to study the response of the retina to photic stimuli, such as recording at the cornea, single-cell recording, and pharmacological dissection of the response. Pilot studies include amplitude-intensity response data for subretinal and transretinal stimulation paradigms recorded in wild-type rats and a transgenic rat model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. The ability to record single-unit ganglion cell activity in vivo is also demonstrated.

  11. Technology as a Time Challenge: Study, Concept and Types of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim M. Rozin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article divorce the concepts of engineering and technology. Designated four stages of technological development: the fi rst phase — “pilot technique”, it is characterized by magical conceptualization, the second — engineering (rational conceptualization, third design, fourth technology. For technical equipment is characterized by four features: technology is the artifacts, the technique can be considered as a “social body” of a person or society, technology is a useful way to use the forces of nature, and fi nally, the mediation in the form of tools, machines, and material environment that allows you to implement the ideas of man. It is argued that the conceptualization of technology is the essential characteristic of the concept. If you write, for example, about the technology of the Neolithic age or era of construction of the Egyptian pyramids, then we are talking about retrospective interpretation, from the point of view of modern understanding of technology. It’s not useless, for example, to determine preconditions of formation technology, but in terms of thinking creates problems and contradictions. The author argues that technology develops in the second half of the eighteenth century as a new reality, which describes the industrial activities in language operations and their conditions of division of labor and management. At the same time, technology is being characterized by the installation of quality, savings, standardization, and rational description of the production processes, their optimization for the training of new technologists. Discusses three stages of development of the technology and features of the main types of technology: production technology, engineering, large techno-social projects, global technology. Considering the author and the conditions of the development of new technologies. These include “technological zone of proximal development”, as well as two situation — relevant issues and

  12. Urban development applications project. Urban technology transfer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Technology transfer is defined along with reasons for attempting to transfer technology. Topics discussed include theoretical models, stages of the innovation model, communication process model, behavior of industrial organizations, problem identification, technology search and match, establishment of a market mechanism, applications engineering, commercialization, and management of technology transfer.

  13. Study of the potential oxidative stress induced by six solvents in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalansonnet, Monique; Carabin, Nathalie; Boucard, Stéphane; Cosnier, Frédéric; Nunge, Hervé; Gagnaire, François

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms of action involved in the neurotoxicity of solvents are poorly understood. In vitro studies have suggested that the effects of some solvents might be due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study assesses hydroxyl radical (OH) generation and measures malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the cerebral tissue of rats exposed to six solvents (n-hexane, n-octane, toluene, n-butylbenzene, cyclohexane and 1,2,4-trimethylcyclohexane). Three of these solvents have been shown to generate ROS in studies carried out in vitro on granular cell cultures from rat cerebellum. We assessed OH production by quantifying the rate of formation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid using a trapping agent, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, infused via the microdialysis probe, into the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed intraperitoneally to the solvents. Extracellular MDA was quantified in microdialysates collected from the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed, 6h/day for ten days, to 1000ppm of the solvents (except for n-butylbenzene, generated at 830ppm) in inhalation chambers. Tissue levels of free and total MDA were measured in different brain structures for rats acutely (intraperitoneal route) and sub-acutely (inhalation) exposed to solvents. None of the six solvents studied increased the production of hydroxyl radicals in the prefrontal cortex after acute administration. Nor did they increase extracellular or tissue levels of MDA after 10 days' inhalation exposure. On the other hand, a decrease in the concentrations of free MDA in brain structures was observed after acute administration of n-hexane, 1,2,4-trimethylcyclohexane, toluene and n-butylbenzene. Therefore, data of this study carried out in vivo did not confirm observations made in vitro on cell cultures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. U.S. Linear Collider Technology Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagger, J.

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out at the request of the United States Linear Collider Steering Group (USLCSG). The establishment of such a body was recommended by the HEPAP Subpanel on Long Range Planning [1]. The USLCSG is led by an Executive Committee, chaired by Jonathan Dorfan of SLAC, and consisting currently of the members shown in Table 1.1.1.1. Three subcommittees report to the Executive Committee: an Accelerator Subcommittee, a Physics/Detector Subcommittee, and an International Aggairs Subcommittee. While the functions of the Steering Group are expected to evolve with time, the initial charge includes the following items: (1) Provide an evaluation of options for building the linear collider involving factors such as scientific requirements, technical feasibility, risk, cost, initial facility parameters, upgradeability of alternate technologies, and the implications of different sites; and (2) Prepare the elements of a U.S. bid to host the linear collider. To address these items in its charge, the USLCSG Executive Committee asked the Accelerator Subcommittee to carry out an evaluation of two options for a US-sited linear collider. The two options were to be based on the normal conducting X-band RF technology developed by the GLC/NLC collaboration [ZDR, NLC01], [TRC, Chapter 3], and the superconducting L-band RF technology developed by the TESLA collaboration [TDR]. The physics design requirements which both technical options must meet were established [2] by the Physics and Detector Subcommittee of the USLCSG

  15. Oral (drinking water) two-generation reproductive toxicity study of dibromoacetic acid (DBA) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, M S; York, R G; Hoberman, A M; Frazee, J; Fisher, L C; Brown, W R; Creasy, D M

    2002-01-01

    In a two-generation study of dibromoacetic acid (DBA), Crl SD rats (30 rats/sex/group/generation) were provided DBA in drinking water at 0 (reverse osmosis-deionized water), 50, 250, and 650 ppm (0, 4.4 to 11.6, 22.4 to 55.6, and 52.4 to 132.0 mg/kg/day, respectively; human intake approximates 0.1 microg/kg/day [0.0001 mg/kg/day]). Observations included viability, clinical signs, water and feed consumption, body and organ weights, histopathology, and reproductive parameters (mating, fertility, abortions, premature deliveries, durations of gestation, litter sizes, sex ratios and viabilities, maternal behaviors, reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters and implantation sites, sexual maturation). Histopathological evaluations were performed on at least 10 P and F1 rats/sex at 0 and 650 ppm (gross lesions, testes, intact epididymis; 10 F1 dams at 0, 250, and 650 ppm for primordial follicles). Developmental observations included implantations, pup numbers, sexes, viabilities, body weights, morphology, and reproductive performance. At 50 ppm and higher, both sexes and generations had increased absolute and relative liver and kidneys weights, and female rats in both generations had reduced absolute and relative adrenal weights; adrenal changes were probably associated with physiological changes in water balance. The livers and kidneys (10/sex/group/generation) had no histopathological changes. Other minimal effects at 50 ppm were reduced water consumption and a transient reduction in body weight. At 250 and 650 ppm, DBA reduced parental water consumption, body weight gains, body weights, feed consumption, and pup body weights. P and F1 generation male rats at 250 and 650 ppm had altered sperm production (retained step 19 spermatids in stages IX and X tubules sometimes associated with residual bodies) and some epididymal tubule changes (increased amounts of exfoliated spermatogenic cells/residual bodies in epididymal tubules, atrophy, and hypospermia), although

  16. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  17. A combined phytohemagglutinin and a-ketoglutarate pharmacology study of gut morphology and growth in older adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, R.; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study has evaluated the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on GI-tract morphology and N balance in adult rats. Rats, aged approx. 15 months, were assigned to one of four experimental groups, (1) Control group, (2) AKG group, (3) AKG+PHA 100...

  18. Neonatal glucocorticosteroid treatment causes systolic dysfunction and compensatory dilatation in early life : Studies in 4-week-old prepubertal rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, Miriam P; de Vries, Willem B; van der Leij, Feike R; van Oosterhout, Matthijs F M; Berger, Rudolphus; Baan, Jan; van der Wall, Ernst E; van Bel, Frank; Steendijk, Paul

    Glucocorticosteroid treatment is widely used to prevent chronic lung disease in premature infants, Recent studies in adult rats, treated with dexamethasone in the neonatal period, report negative long-term effects on the heart and severely reduced life expectancy. We treated neonatal rats with

  19. Toxicity studies of the water extract from the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Khonsung, Parirat; Lertprasertsuke, Nirush; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2013-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were studied in male and female rats. After 14 days of a single oral administration of test substance 5,000 mg/kg body weight, measurement of the body and organ weights, necropsy and health monitoring were performed. No signs and differences of the weights or behaviour compared to the control rats were observed. The results indicated that the single oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract in the amount of 5,000 mg/kg body weight does not produce acute toxicity. The chronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats daily with the extract at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days. The examinations of signs, animal behaviour and health monitoring showed no defects in the test groups compared to the control groups. Both test and control groups (day 270th) and satellite group (day 298th) were analysed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining haematology, blood clinical chemistry, and microanatomy. Results showed no differences from the control groups. Overall, our study demonstrated that an oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days does not cause chronic toxicity in rat.

  20. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, C.; Vaska, P.; Schlyer, D.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, S.; Park, S.-J.; Stoll, S.; Purschke, M.; Southekal, S.; Kriplani, A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Maramraju, S.; Lee, D.; Schiffer, W.; Dewey, S.; Neill, J.; Kandasamy, A.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Fontaine, R.; Lecomte, R.

    2007-02-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4×8 array of 2.2×2.2×5 mm 3 LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of ˜14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using 18F-FDG and 11C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP.

  1. Dietary restriction of choline reduces hippocampal acetylcholine release in rats: in vivo microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Suzuki, Y; Umegaki, H; Ikari, H; Tajima, T; Endo, H; Iguchi, A

    2001-12-01

    We fed rats with a diet deficient in choline for 12 weeks and studied how dietary choline deficiency affected their behavior and their ability to release acetylcholine in discrete regions of rat brain using step-through passive avoidance task and in vivo microdialysis. In comparison with the control, rats fed the choline-deficient diet showed poorer retention of nociceptive memory in the passive avoidance task. Average choline level in cerebrospinal fluid in the choline-deficient group was significantly less (33.1%) than that of control rats. In vivo microdialysis showed no difference in the pattern of acetylcholine release enhanced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) in the striatum between the two groups, whereas in the hippocampus, the maximum and subsequent increase of acetylcholine from the baseline by scopolamine injection was significantly lower in the choline-deficient group than in the control. From the results of our study, we speculate that long-term dietary restriction of choline can affect extra- and intracellular sources of substrates required for acetylcholine synthesis, and eventually limit the ability to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Reduced capacity to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus implies that the mechanism, maintaining acetylcholine synthesis on increased neuronal demand, may vary in discrete regions of the brain in response to dietary manipulation. The vulnerability of the mechanism in the hippocampus to dietary choline restriction is indicated by impaired mnemonic performance we observed.

  2. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Rescues Rats from Steatosis: A Comparative and Combination Study with Metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Yogalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, a premorbid condition, lacks proper management owing to multitude of abnormalities. In this study, we compared the effects of a potent antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP, and an insulin sensitizer, metformin (MET, in high-fat-fructose-diet- (HFFD- induced albino Wistar rat model of NAFLD. Either GSP (100 mg/Kg b.w or MET (50 mg/Kg b.w or both were administered as therapeutic options. HFFD-fed rats showed abnormal plasma lipid profile, inflammation, and steatosis of the liver when examined by biochemical and histology techniques. Increased lipid storage, lipogenesis, and reduced lipolysis were evident from mRNA expression studies of hepatic lipid droplets (LD proteins, sterol regulatory element binding 1c (SREBP 1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α. GSP administration to HFFD-fed rats caused 69% reduction in hepatic TG levels, whereas MET caused only 23%. The combination treatment reduced TG levels by 63%. GSP reduced the mRNA expression of SREBP1c and LD proteins and increased that of PPAR-α more effectively compared to MET in HFFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Combination of MET and GSP improved the metabolism of lipids effectively, but the effect was not additive in restoring lipid levels.

  3. Study of the effect of extract of Thymus vulgaris on anxiety in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Alireza; Hoseini, Faeghe; Shahidi, Siamak; Baharlouei, Negar

    2016-07-01

    There is some evidence in traditional medicine for the effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ( bǎi lǐ xiāng) in the treatment of anxiety in humans. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of extract of T. vulgaris on rat behavior in the EPM. In the present study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into four groups: saline group and T. vulgaris groups (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg infusion for 7 days by feeding). During the test period, the total distance covered by animals, the number of open- and closed-arm entries, and the time spent in open and closed arms of the EPM were recorded. T. vulgaris increased open-arm exploration and open-arm entry in the EPM, whereas extract of this plant has no effects on the total distance covered by animals and the number of closed-arm entries. The results of the present experiment indicate that T. vulgaris may have an anxiolytic profile in rat behavior in the EPM test, which is not influenced by the locomotor activity. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms by which T. vulgaris extract exerts an anxiolytic effect in rats.

  4. Study of Transected Sciatic Nerve Repair by Amniotic Membrane with Betamethasone in Adult Albino Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Parivar, Kazem; Arabi, Farzaneh; Moattari, Mehrnaz; Kaka, Gholamreza; Mansouri, Korosh

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of amniotic membrane impregnated with betamethasone on regeneration of transected sciatic nerve injury in adult albino Wister rats. In this research, 42 male adult rats were divided into six equal groups. 1) Normal (intact) group: healthy rats without any injury; 2) CONTROL GROUP: sciatic nerve was cut and sutured; 3) Sham group: 0.2 mL culture medium was injected on the epineurium in the injury; 4) Amniotic membrane group (AM): Acellular amniotic membrane was used around the damaged sciatic nerve; 5) Betamethasone group (B): 0.2 mL Betamethasone (4 mg/mL) was injected in the site of damaged nerve and 6) Amniotic membrane group and Betamethasone (AM/B) group: Acellular amniotic membrane impregnated with 0.2 mL betamethasone was used around the damaged sciatic nerve. The rate of recovery was studied by Sciatic Functional Index (SFI), withdrawal reflex latency (WRL) test and electroctrophysiological assessments at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after surgery. Histological assessment was done 8 weeks after surgery. At 8 weeks after surgery, SFI, WRL test and electrophysiological values in AM/B group were significantly improved compared to control and sham groups (P nerve regeneration of transected sciatic nerve in a rat model.

  5. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)]. E-mail: woody@bnl.gov; Vaska, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schlyer, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Pratte, J.-F. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Junnarkar, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Park, S.-J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Stoll, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Purschke, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Southekal, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kriplani, A. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Krishnamoorthy, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Maramraju, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lee, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schiffer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Dewey, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Neill, J. [Long Island University, Brookville, NY (United States); Kandasamy, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Radeka, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Fontaine, R. [Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Que. (Canada); Lecomte, R. [Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Que. (Canada)

    2007-02-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4x8 array of 2.2x2.2x5 mm{sup 3} LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of {approx}14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP.

  6. An Experimental Study of the Irradiation Effects on Rat Submandibular Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of irradiation on the rat submandibular gland which composed of the serous and mucous acini, and the ducts producing the epithelial growth factors. The experimental animals were the Sprague Dawley strain rats, which were the rats as the non-irradiated control group and the rats as the experimental group which were divided into groups as the experimental duration of 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks. The experimental animals were singly irradiated at a dose of 8 Gray gamma ray to their head and neck region by the Co-60 teletherapy unit and sacrificed after each experimental duration. The specimens were stained with H-E and Azan stain and examined light microscopically. The results of this study were obtained as follows. 1. The all of mucous and serous acini in submandibular gland showed similar pattern of changes in structure according to the lapse of time. 2. The acinic cells started to change after 1 hour, and repaired after 12 hours with mitosis and proliferation of the cells between acini. The changes were marked after 1 day, and repaired gradually in course of time. 3. The duct were dilatated irregularly, and the outline of the eosinophilic stained ductal cells changed indistinctly.

  7. Study of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Sprague Dawley Rat Gastric Cancer Induced by H. Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aeini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Gastric cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal tumors; the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer are on the increase nowadays. Helicobacter pylori(H.Pylori causes chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Cycloocygenase-2 (COX-2 is the central enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to prostaglandins. Studies from different laboratories suggested that over-expression of COX-2 was detected in colon and other tumors. To obtain direct evidence concerning this relationship, we investigated the immunohistochemical findings of gastric mucosa using an animal model of gastric cancer induced by H. pylori in sprague dawley rat. Methods: The rats were randomly assigned into three groups(n=5. Those of experimental group2 were given MNU. one week after completion of MNU administration, rats in experimental groups 1 were inoculated with H. pylori three times every other day. Rats in control group(group 3 received neither MNU nor H. pylori. Rats of groups 1, 2, and control group were maintained on standard diets throughout the experiment. Rat were weighed and sacrificed under anesthesia with ether at 20 weeks after infection. One half of the excised stomachs, were fixed in neutral-buffered 10% formalin and were cut into approximately six strips, which were processed by standard methods, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 6 µm, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and immunohistochemistry for Cox-2 protein detection. To confirm H. pylori infection, samples ( 3-mm2 of stomach mucosa transferred to appropriate medium  and Colonies were identified by characteristic Gram’s stain morphology, and by urease, catalase, and oxidase activity sample was also placed into the gel of a rapid urease test kit. Results: Data showed a significant decrease of animal body weight in experimental groups compared with control group

  8. Study of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Sprague Dawley Rat Gastric Cancer Induced by H. Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooladi A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Gastric cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal tumors; the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer are on the increase nowadays. Helicobacter pylori(H.Pylori causes chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Cycloocygenase-2 (COX-2 is the central enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to prostaglandins. Studies from different laboratories suggested that over-expression of COX-2 was detected in colon and other tumors. To obtain direct evidence concerning this relationship, we investigated the immunohistochemical findings of gastric mucosa using an animal model of gastric cancer induced by H. pylori in sprague dawley rat.Methods: The rats were randomly assigned into three groups(n=5. Those of experimental group2 were given MNU. one week after completion of MNU administration, rats in experimental groups 1 were inoculated with H. pylori three times every other day. Rats in control group(group 3 received neither MNU nor H. pylori. Rats of groups 1, 2, and control group were maintained on standard diets throughout the experiment. Rat were weighed and sacrificed under anesthesia with ether at 20 weeks after infection. One half of the excised stomachs, were fixed in neutral-buffered 10% formalin and were cut into approximately six strips, which were processed by standard methods, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 6 µm, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and immunohistochemistry for Cox-2 protein detection. To confirm H. pylori infection, samples ( 3-mm2 of stomach mucosa transferred to appropriate medium and Colonies were identified by characteristic Gram’s stain morphology, and by urease, catalase, and oxidase activity sample was also placed into the gel of a rapid urease test kit.Results: Data showed a significant decrease of animal body weight in experimental groups compared with control group. Histopathological studies showed severe infiltration of the lamina propria and submucusaal layer by

  9. A Study of Fırat University Faculty of Veterinary Students' View on Environmental Issues

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEN, Rahşan; ÖZEN, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the opinion of the veterinary students about environmental issues. To this aim, studying in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Fırat University, 20 students whom were interviewed on a voluntary basis. In this study conducted with qualitative research methods, content analysis was applied to the evaluation of the data. Participants primarily focused on pollution-related problems. They have expressed the opinion: Veterinarians should take responsibility to...

  10. A Study on Test Technology to Diagnose the Power Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Kang, Y. S.; Jeon, Y. K.; Lee, W. Y.; Kang, D. S.; Kyu, H. S.; Sun, J. H.; Jo, K. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J. S.; Mun, Y. T.; Lee, K. H.; Jung, E. H.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Water Resources Corporation (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we have educated KOWACO(Korea Water Resources Corporation) specialists about the insulation diagnostic technology and trained them the insulation diagnostic test and estimation method of power apparatus. The main results of this study are as follows; A. Education of basic high-voltage engineering. B. Research of insulation characteristic and deterioration mechanism in power apparatus C. Discussion on high-voltage test standard specifications. D. Study on insulation deterioration diagnostics in power apparatus. E. Field testing of insulation diagnosis in power apparatus. F. Engineering of insulation diagnostic testing apparatus to diagnose power apparatus. KOWACO specialists are able to diagnose insulation diagnostic test of power apparatus through this study. As they have instruments to diagnose power apparatus, they can do the test and estimation of the power apparatus insulation diagnosis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  11. The NASA hydrogen energy systems technology study: A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The results and conclusions of the study, which found a significant current usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs and supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks are discussed. These needs are expected to increase significantly in the remainder of this century and to largely outgrow the current means of supply. Several hydrogen production methods were evaluated. Those not dependent on fossil resources were found to be presently more costly and technically more difficult than fossil-feedstock-based technologies, but it is clear that they will eventually need to be implemented.

  12. A microdialysis study of the medial prefrontal cortex of adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiti, Amanda M; Morgane, Peter J; Galler, Janina R; Grivetti, Janice Y; Bass, Donna C; Mokler, David J

    2011-09-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the rat has become a key focus of studies designed to elucidate the basis of behavior involving attention and decision-making, i.e. executive functions. The adolescent mPFC is of particular interest given the role of the mPFC in impulsivity and attention, and disorders such as attentional deficit disorder. In the present study we have examined the basal extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the ventral portion of the mPFC (vmPFC) in both adolescent (post-natal day 45-50) and adult, and male and female rats using in vivo microdialysis. We have also examined both the left and right vmPFCs given reports of laterality in function between the hemispheres. Basal extracellular concentrations of 5-HT differed significantly between male and female rats. Extracellular DA also differed significantly between male and female rats and between the left and the right vmPFC in adult males. No differences were seen in basal extracellular NE. There was a significant age difference between groups in the laterality of extracellular NE levels between right and left vmPFC. Infusion of 100 μM methamphetamine through the dialysis probe increased the extracellular concentration of all the monoamines although there were no differences between groups in methamphetamine stimulated release. The findings from this study demonstrate that there are differences in monoaminergic input to the mPFC of the rat based on age, gender and hemisphere. This work sets the neurochemical baseline for further investigations of the prefrontal cortex during development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An immunohistochemical study of the antinociceptive effect of calcitonin in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Miho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcitonin is used as a treatment to reduce the blood calcium concentration in hypercalcemia and to improve bone mass in osteoporosis. An analgesic effect of calcitonin has been observed and reported in clinical situations. Ovariectomaized (OVX rats exhibit the same hormonal changes as observed in humans with osteoporosis and are an animal model of postmenopousal osteoporosis. The aim of this study to investigate antinociceptive effect of calcitonin in OVX rats using the immunohistochemical study. Methods We assessed the antinociceptive effects of calcitonin in an ovariectomized (OVX rat model, which exhibit osteoporosis and hyperalgesia, using the immunohistochemical method. Fifteen rats were ovariectomized bilaterally, and ten rats were received the same surgery expected for ovariectomy as a sham model. We used five groups: the OVX-CT (n = 5, the sham-CT (n = 5, and the OVX-CT-pcpa (n = 5 groups recieved calcitonin (CT: 4 U/kg/day, while OVX-vehi (n = 5 and the sham-vehi (n = 5 groups received vehicle subcutaneously 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The OVX-CT-pcpa-group was given traperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (pcpa; an inhibitor of serotonin biosynthesis (100 mg/kg/day in the last 3 days of calcitonon injection. Two hours after 5% formalin (0.05 ml subcutaneously into the hind paw, the L5 spinal cord were removed and the number of Fos-immunoreactive (ir neurons were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney-U test. Results The numbers of Fos-ir neurons in the OVX-CT and sham-CT groups were significantly less than in the OVX-vehi and sham-vehi groups, respectively (p = 0.0090, p = 0.0090. The number of Fos-ir neurons in the OVX-CT-pcpa-group was significantly more than that of the OVX-CT-group (p = 0.0283, which means pcpa inhibits calcitonin induced reduction of c-Fos production. Conclusion The results in this study demonstrated that 1 the increase of c-Fos might be related to hyperalgesia in OVX-rats. 2 Calcitonin has

  14. The role of nuclear data for fusion technology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, Robin A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nuclear data are of fundamental importance in studies of nuclear technology. → Data libraries cover: experiments (EXFOR), theory (RIPL) and evaluations (ENDF). → Libraries are general purpose or special purpose (decay, dosimetry and activation). → Activation files contain many reactions, only a fraction needs to be known precisely. → Covariance data are important, but details of formatting are being worked out. - Abstract: Nuclear data are of fundamental importance in studies of nuclear technology. In these studies, experiments to measure cross sections and decay properties and simulations of the design of fission power plants, fusion devices and accelerators are included. The large amount of data required is stored in computer readable formats in data libraries and the most common of these are the general purpose files used for neutronics or transport calculations. These files also contain the standards against which most measurements are made. The other class of libraries are the special purpose ones containing decay data, fission yields and cross section data for dosimetry and activation. This paper gives examples of what data are available and describes their use for various fusion applications. The focus will be on neutron-induced activation data with examples of how the reactions of particular importance can be identified. All data should be accompanied by estimates of the uncertainty. This is best achieved by including covariance data; however, this is extremely challenging and only a subset of the available data has such uncertainty data. The general principles of how covariance matrices are used are outlined.

  15. Developmental toxicity study of D-tagatose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, C L; Whittaker, M H; Frankos, V H; Schroeder, R E

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a low-calorie sweetener that tastes like sucrose. The developmental toxicity of D-tagatose was investigated in Crl:CD(SD)BR rats administered D-tagatose at three dose levels (4000, 12,000, and 20,000 mg/kg body wt/day) via gastric intubation on days 6-15 of gestation. No compound-related toxicity was seen among any of the maternal groups. No treatment-related clinical effects were seen in the maternal animals at the 4000 mg/kg/day dose level. At the mid- and high-dose levels, most maternal animals had unformed or watery stools; this effect was most prominent early in the treatment period (Gestation Days 6-8). This effect was attributed to the osmotic effect of the large amount of D-tagatose given to the animals at these doses. Since D-tagatose is not digested or absorbed to a large extent, most of the sugar passes into the colon where it absorbs water and is fermented by colonic bacteria. Mean weight gain for the low- and mid-dose animals was comparable to the control; however, the high-dose group experienced a mean weight loss over the Gestation Day 6-9 interval. Over the entire treatment interval, however, mean weight gain for the high-dose animals was comparable to control. The decreased weight gain in the high-dose animals during the Gestation Day 6-9 interval was considered to be a direct result of laxation. In addition to the effect of laxation on body weight, reduced food consumption also contributed to the decreased weight gain. In the low-dose animals, no effect on food consumption was seen; however, both mid- and high-dose animals had food consumption values that were statistically significantly lower than the control. Food consumption was lowest during the Gestation Day 6-9 interval, the period when laxation was most prominent. Food consumption rebounded and was statistically significantly higher than the control for the mid- and high-dose animals during the posttreatment interval. Maternal liver weight for the low-dose animals was

  16. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  17. Variable Cycle Engine Technology Program Planning and Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, J. S.; Stern, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    The variable stream control engine, VSCE-502B, was selected as the base engine, with the inverted flow engine concept selected as a backup. Critical component technologies were identified, and technology programs were formulated. Several engine configurations were defined on a preliminary basis to serve as demonstration vehicles for the various technologies. The different configurations present compromises in cost, technical risk, and technology return. Plans for possible variably cycle engine technology programs were formulated by synthesizing the technology requirements with the different demonstrator configurations.

  18. Blind Technology Transfer or Technological Knowledge Leakage: a Case Study from the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Codner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Blurring boundaries between science and technology is a new phenomenon especially in fields such as biotechnology. The present work shows the fate of biotech research papers on foreign patents produced during the last decade in Quilmes National University. It aims at recognizing the flow of scientific knowledge developed at a public university towards foreign companies and organizations as well as reflecting on its technological value, the role of technology transfer management, the institutional significance of technology transfer processes and the need to develop innovative public policies for solving structural failures caused by industrial underdevelopment

  19. Biochemical Studies on Rosemary Extracts as an Antioxidant in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abady, M.M.; Zahran, A.M.; Mansour, S.Z.; Ragab, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) essential oil and crude ethanolic extract, have been attributed to its phenolic diterpene, carnosol, carnosic acid, caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These aroma compounds were identified to protect biological membranes from oxidative stress in addition to divers pharmacological and therapeutic activities. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of natural extract derived from rosemary herb, as an antioxidant defensive element in irradiated rats. Mixture of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract was orally administered to rats by gavage (150 mg/kg B.w.) for 35 days before exposure to the first fraction of irradiation exposure and during the whole period of irradiation treatment (12 days). Whole body irradiation was delivered as fractionated doses at 1 Gy increment every other day up to total cumulative dose of 6 Gy. Changes in the content of reduced glutathion (GSH), glutathion peroxidase (GSHPx), glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat.) in blood, liver and spleen were evaluated in different rat groups. The results revealed that transient noticeable increase during the 1st hour post irradiation in the aforementioned parameters, followed by significant decrease recorded after 7 days. Rats supplemented rosemary extract before irradiation have significantly ameliorate the radiation induced depletion in the antioxidant component system

  20. Preliminary study on androgen dependence of calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhou-Jun; Chen, Shan-Wen; Lu, Ying-Li; Li, Liao-Yuan; Zhou, Xie-Lai; Zhang, Ming-Guang; Chen, Zhao-Dian

    2005-03-01

    To study the androgen dependence of the neurotransmitter, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat penis. Forty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Group A (intact controls), Group B (castrated) and Group C (gavaged with finasteride 4.5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)). Four and ten weeks later respectively, half of rats in each group were anaesthetized. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by means of radioimmunoassay. Penile samples were harvested for the investigation of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers with immunohistochemistry. The computer-assisted imaging analysis system was applied to calculate the area proportion of the CGRP-positive nerve fibers (CGRP-PNF) in each group. 1) Both 4 and 10 weeks later, testosterone and DHT levels in Group B decreased significantly compared with those in Group A, (P 0.05); However, 10 weeks later, the proportion of CGRP-PNF in Groups B and C was significantly less than that in Group A (P testosterone and DHT in rat penis.

  1. Effects of diuron on male rat reproductive organs: a developmental and postnatal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Glaura S A; Favareto, Ana Paula A; Fernandez, Carla D B; Bellentani, Fernanda F; Arena, Arielle C; Grassi, Tony F; Kempinas, Wilma G; Barbisan, Luís F

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine whether developmental exposure (perinatal and juvenile) to the herbicide diuron exerted adverse effects on adult rat male reproductive system. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received basal diet or diet containing diuron at 500 or 750 ppm from gestational day 12 (GD 12) until the end of lactation period (postnatal day 21, PND 21). After weaning male offspring received basal diet or diet containing diuron until PND 42 (peripubertal age). At PND 90, adult male rats from each experimental group were anesthetized and euthanized for evaluation of body and reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters, plasma testosterone levels, and testicular and epididymal histopathology. Male offspring exposed to diuron at 750 ppm displayed reduced body weight at PND 10, 21, 42, and 90 compared to controls. At PND 90, diuron treatment did not induce significant change in daily sperm production, sperm morphology and motility, and testosterone levels compared to controls. In conclusion, diuron at 750 ppm induced male offspring toxicity but these alterations were not permanent, as evidenced by absence of reproductive-system alterations in adult Sprague Dawley rats.

  2. Taurine Attenuates Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced Breast Tumorigenesis in Rats: A Plasma Metabolomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y U; Li, Qingdi Quentin; Guo, Song Chao

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Taurine, the most abundant free amino acid, plays a role in several biological processes in humans and has been shown to have activity against breast cancer and other tumors. To investigate the role and mechanism of taurine action in breast cancer, we used dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast carcinogenesis in rats as a model of breast cancer. The administration of taurine significantly reduced the DMBA-induced breast cancer rate from 80% to 40% in rats (ptaurine-administered rats. Bioinformatic analysis further revealed that these metabolites are involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including energy, glucose, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism, suggesting that the antitumor activity of taurine in rats is mediated through altered metabolism of breast cancer cells. We propose that these differential metabolites may be potential biomarkers for monitoring cancer therapy and prognosis in the clinic. This study provides a scientific basis for further investigations of the antitumor mechanism of taurine and the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat breast cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Subchronic feeding study of high-free-lysine transgenic rice in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Qing; He, Xiao-Yun; Wu, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Zou, Shi-Ying; Lang, Tian-Qi; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2017-07-01

    Lysine is considered to be the first essential amino acid in rice. An elite High-Free-Lysine transgenic line HFL1 was previously produced by metabolic engineering to regulate lysine metabolism. In this study, a 90-day toxicology experiment was undertaken to investigate the potential health effect of feeding different doses of HFL1 rice to Sprague-Dawley rats. During the trial, body weight gain, food consumption and food efficiency were recorded, and no adverse effect was observed in rats fed transgenic (T) rice diets compared with non-transgenic (N) or control diets. At both midterm and final assessments, hematological parameters and serum chemistry were measured, and organ weights and histopathology were examined at the end of the trial. There was no diet-related difference in most hematological or serum chemistry parameters or organ weights between rats fed the T diets and those fed the N or control diets. Some parameters were found to differ between T groups and their corresponding N and/or control groups, but no adverse histological effect was observed. Taken together, the data from the current trial demonstrates that high lysine transgenic rice led to no adverse effect in Sprague-Dawley rats given a diet containing up to 70% HFL1 rice in 90 days. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental study of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini on Hyperlipidemia and lipid in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of Pinus densiflora on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, we divided the rats into groups(Normal group, Control group and Sample group and perfomed the experimental research. Hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats were induced by high fat diets for 8weeks. The sample group was administerd the extract of Pinus densiflora for 14 days and control group was administerd equal dose of oral. And then we measured the amount of serum triglyceride, Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Free Fatty Acid, phospholipid, Insuline, Laptin, Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell, Cardiac Risk Factor(CRF. The results were as followers : 1. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Total cholesterol, Trigylceride, LDL-cholesterol, and Phospholipid levels in serum and CRF significantly. 2. Sample Group showed increasing effects on HDL-cholesterol level in serum significantly. 3. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Insuline in serum significantly. 4. Sample Group showed increasing effects on Laptin in serum significantly. 5. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell significantly. According to the above results, Pinus densiflora showed significant decreasing effects on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, it is considered that it is appropriate to apply for hyperlipidemia, obesity.

  5. Learning and memory enhancing activity of Ficus carica (Fig: An experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Sumanth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to assess the learning and memory enhancing activity of the ethanolic fruit extract of Ficus carica in rats using elevated plus maze (EPM, Hebb-William maze (HWM and Morris water maze (MWM. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats (100-150 g of either sex, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6. Group I (control animals received vehicle, Group II (scopolamine control animals received scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p, Groups III and IV animals received ethanolic fruit extract of F. carica (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg p.o and Group V animals received piracetam (400 mg/kg i.p for 27 days. The rats of Groups III-V were injected with a single dose of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p on 19 th and 27 th day. Assessment of transfer latency (TL, time taken to reach reward chamber (TRC and swim latency (SL was done on 19 th and 27 th day using EPM, HWM and MWM, respectively. The data was analyzed by one-way Analysis of Variance followed by Dunnett′s test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Ethanolic fruit extract of F. carica decreased TL, TRC and SL in comparison to scopolamine treated rats. Conclusion: The fruit of F. carica enhanced learning and memory activity.

  6. A relative study of hepatic perfusion and portal vein pressure in rats with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiaping; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Huang Yonghui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate spiral CT perfusion in assessing portal vein pressure in rats with different stages of liver cirrhosis. Methods Seventeen rats with early stage of liver cirrhosis, 18 with intermediate stage, 12 with advanced stage, and 13 healthy rats as a control group were selected and recieved hepatic perfusion on a single-row spiral CT scanner. The parameters of hepatic perfusion were calculated using the deconvolution method. The portal vein pressure was measured by multi-physiographer. Results: (1) In study group, the PVP (portal venous perfusion) and THBP (total hepatic blood perfusion) were negatively correlated with FPP, while positively correlated with the HPI (hepatic perfusion index) and MTT (mean transit time). The FPP had a close relation with PVP. The equation, Y 20.671-3.195X, could be conducted with linear regression analysis. (2) According to the linear regression equation mentioned above, the FPP in 47 rats were 16.090±2.150 cmH 2 0, which was highly correlated with the observed valuel6.108±3.662 cmH 2 O (r=0.823 P<0.01). Conclusion: CT perfusion is a new non-invasive and efficient modality for assessment of the portal pressure in liver cirrhosis in various stages. (authors)

  7. Preliminary study of efficacy of hyaluronic acid on caustic esophageal burns in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Muazez; Demir, Tuncer; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Ketani, Muzaffer Aydin; Celik, Hakim; Kaplan, Davut Sinan; Boleken, Mehmet Emin

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid on the prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation after experimental caustic (alkaline) esophageal injury in rats. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups. A caustic esophageal burn was created following the Gehanno model: Group l (n=7) underwent operation, but no injury; Group 2 (n=7) was injured and left untreated; and Group 3 (n=7) was injured and treated with hyaluronic acid, first topically and then orally by gavage (2×0.3mL; 12.5mg/mL for 7days). The caustic esophageal burn was created by instilling 25% NaOH into the distal esophagus. All rats were euthanized on day 22 for evaluation. The efficacy of hyaluronic acid treatment was assessed histopathologically and biochemically via blood determination of the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and sulfhydryl group (SH) and lipid hydroperoxidase (LOOH) levels. Statistical analyses were performed. Weight gain was significantly lower in Group 2 than in the other two groups (POSI, and SH and LOOH levels were higher in Group 2 than in the other two groups. The mean stenosis index, inflammation, TAS, SH and OSI in Group 2 were significantly different than those in the other two groups (P<0.05). Hyaluronic acid treatment is effective in treating damage and preventing strictures after caustic esophageal burn in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effective Information Technology Governance Mechanisms: An Australian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaiful Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing importance of information technology (IT, as a strategic factor for organizations in achieving their objectives, have raised the concern of organizations in establishing and implementing effective IT governance. This study seeks to empirically examine the individual IT governance mechanisms that influence the overall effectiveness of IT governance. The data were obtained by using web based survey from 176 members of ISACA (Information Systems and Audit Control Association Australia. This study examines the influences of six proposed IT governance mechanisms on the overall effectiveness of IT governance. Using Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression techniques, the current study finds significant positive relationships between the overall level of effective IT governance and the following four IT governance mechanisms: the existence of ethics/ culture of compliance in IT, corporate communication systems, an IT strategy committee, and the involvement of senior management in IT.

  9. The rat as animal model in breast cancer research: a histopathological study of radiation- and hormone-induced rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwieten, M.J. van.

    1984-01-01

    One of the goals of this monograph is to present data on the frequency of mammary neoplasms following irradiation and/or hormone administration in intact and castrated female rats of three strains allowed to live their natural life spans. These data are intended to give an overview of the effects of radiation and hormonal manipulation on the mammary gland based on histological examination of necropsied rats and using standard morphological criteria for mammary tumors. The second goal of this monograph is to provide detailed histological descriptions of the mammary tumors found in the various experimental groups as well as in several groups of untreated control rats. The aims are to examine whether possible strain-related and treatment-related differences in morphology or growth patterns exist, as well as to define the pathogensis of radiation-induced rat mammary tumors through the study of early lesions. An attempt will be made to describe tumor characteristics which may be of comparative value in identifying tumor types (and their induction methods) useful as models for specific human breast neoplasms. A rat mammary tumor classification system reflecting the morphological features useful for comparative purposes is also presented. (Auth.)

  10. An experimental study of extraction wound healing in the calcium deficient rat and maxillofacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Young Sun; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of osteoporosis on extraction wound healing in the calcium deficient rat. In order to carry out this study, ten-week old Wistar strain rats weighing about 300 gms were selected. When the ras reached thirteen-week old, rat's mandibular first molar were removed. The rats were then divided into three groups : Group 1(rats given a normal diet both before and after tooth extraction), Group 2(rats given a low calcium diet for three weeks before tooth extraction and a normal diet after tooth extraction), and Group 3(rats given a low calcium diet for three weeks before and after tooth extraction). The healing of extraction wounds, as assessed by microradiography, autoradiography, and histopathologic examination, were compared among these three groups. The obtained results were as follows : 1. In Group 1, newly formed bone and active uptake of 45 Ca around extraction wound were noted on the 3rd and the 7th day. On the 14th and the 21st day, the extraction wounds of this group showed the bone trabecular formation and active 45 Ca uptake in the extraction wound and alveolar crest. The more prominent bone trabuculae with a less uptake of 45 Ca were noted on the 42nd day. 2. In Group 2, newly formed bone and thinning of alveolar bone trabeculae with more extensive uptake of 45 Ca than that in Group 1 were noted on the 3rd and the 7th day. On the 14th day, bone trabeculae were less thicker than that in Group 1. the prominent bone trabeculae in the extraction wounds and alveolar crest were noted on the 21st and the 42nd days. 3. In Group 3, newly formed bone was noted on the 3rd and the 7th day, Alveolar bone trabeculae and uptake of 45 Ca were similar to that in Group 2. On the 14th and 21st day, bone trabeculae were less thicker than that in Group 2 and group 3. the osteoporotic change with active uptake of 45 Ca was markedly noted on the 42nd day.

  11. An experimental study of extraction wound healing in the calcium deficient rat and maxillofacial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Young Sun; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of osteoporosis on extraction wound healing in the calcium deficient rat. In order to carry out this study, ten-week old Wistar strain rats weighing about 300 gms were selected. When the ras reached thirteen-week old, rat's mandibular first molar were removed. The rats were then divided into three groups : Group 1(rats given a normal diet both before and after tooth extraction), Group 2(rats given a low calcium diet for three weeks before tooth extraction and a normal diet after tooth extraction), and Group 3(rats given a low calcium diet for three weeks before and after tooth extraction). The healing of extraction wounds, as assessed by microradiography, autoradiography, and histopathologic examination, were compared among these three groups. The obtained results were as follows : 1. In Group 1, newly formed bone and active uptake of 45 Ca around extraction wound were noted on the 3rd and the 7th day. On the 14th and the 21st day, the extraction wounds of this group showed the bone trabecular formation and active 45 Ca uptake in the extraction wound and alveolar crest. The more prominent bone trabuculae with a less uptake of 45 Ca were noted on the 42nd day. 2. In Group 2, newly formed bone and thinning of alveolar bone trabeculae with more extensive uptake of 45 Ca than that in Group 1 were noted on the 3rd and the 7th day. On the 14th day, bone trabeculae were less thicker than that in Group 1. the prominent bone trabeculae in the extraction wounds and alveolar crest were noted on the 21st and the 42nd days. 3. In Group 3, newly formed bone was noted on the 3rd and the 7th day, Alveolar bone trabeculae and uptake of 45 Ca were similar to that in Group 2. On the 14th and 21st day, bone trabeculae were less thicker than that in Group 2 and group 3. the osteoporotic change with active uptake of 45 Ca was markedly noted on the 42nd day.

  12. Study of antidiarrheal and hematology profile of laboratory rat fed with yogurt containing local probiotic and purple sweet potato extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, A. I. N.; Handayani, C. B.; Hartati, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of local probiotic in yogurt with purple sweet potato extract supplementation on the hematological parameters of albino rats (Spraque dawley). The study was conducted using a Completely Randomized Design with 30 rats divided into 6 groups. In group K-, rats were fed with distilled water from day 1 to 21. In group YTP, Rats were fed with yogurt without probiotics from day 1 to 21. YDP group was rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 21. In group YTP+E, rats were fed with yogurt without probiotic from day 1 to 7, interspersed with exposure to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) on day 8 to 14. In group YDP+E, rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 7, interspersed by EPEC on day 8 to 24. In group K +, rats were fed with water from day 1 to 7, then fed with EPEC on day 8 to 14, after which water was given back on day 15 to 21. The result showed that probiotic yogurt treatment with supplement of purple sweet potato extract had a significant effect (P<0,05) on feces water content, number of erythrocyte, leucocyte, and hemoglobin. The treatment of YDP had water content in feces 48.422% and the number of erythrocyte, leucocytes, and hemoglobin were 8.578 106/μl, 14.152 106/μl and 13.98 g/dL respectively.

  13. Rasagiline prevents neurodegeneration in thiamine deficient rats-a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Vered; Rehavi, Moshe; Biton, Inbal E; Eliash, Sarah

    2014-04-04

    Neuroprotection is a therapeutic approach for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental thiamine deficiency (TD) in rats provides a model for selective neurodegeneration accompanied by chronic oxidative deficits. Rats exhibit neurological and cognitive impairments, which can be partially reversed by thiamine administration, enabling the study of mechanisms of neurodegeneration as well as neuroprotection. In this magnetic resonance (MR) study we used various techniques to characterize the neuroprotective effects of rasagiline, a selective MAO-B inhibitor. TD was induced by a thiamine-deficient diet and daily injections of the central thiamine antagonist, pyrithiamine. Daily injections of either saline or rasagiline (3mg/kg) were also administered to untreated-TD rats and rasagiline-treated TD rats respectively. With the appearance of neurological symptoms, all injections were terminated and thiamine was restored. MRI scans were performed before induction of TD (control values), on days 10, 12 (before symptoms appear), 14 (symptomatic stage) and during the recuperation period. Both groups were assessed using in-vivo serial T2-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), from which apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were calculated. A histopathological evaluation was correlated with the MRI analysis. Thalamic hyperintensities were significantly smaller and less severe in the rasagiline-treated TD rats. Enlargement of the lateral ventricles was significantly less pronounced in the rasagiline-treated TD group. FA values of the untreated-TD group decreased significantly in the thalamic on days 12 and 14 and in the corpus callosum on day 14. These results demonstrate significant neuroprotection by rasagiline which could have implications for clinical neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The hTH-GFP reporter rat model for the study of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Iacovitti

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease (PD is the second leading neurodegenerative disease in the US. As there is no known cause or cure for PD, researchers continue to investigate disease mechanisms and potential new therapies in cell culture and in animal models of PD. In PD, one of the most profoundly affected neuronal populations is the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-expressing dopaminergic (DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc. These DA-producing neurons undergo degeneration while neighboring DA-producing cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA are largely spared. To aid in these studies, The Michael J. Fox Foundation (MJFF partnered with Thomas Jefferson University and Taconic Inc. to generate new transgenic rat lines carrying the human TH gene promoter driving EGFP using a 11 kb construct used previously to create a hTH-GFP mouse reporter line. Of the five rat founder lines that were generated, three exhibited high level specific GFP fluorescence in DA brain structures (ie. SN, VTA, striatum, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus. As with the hTH-GFP mouse, none of the rat lines exhibit reporter expression in adrenergic structures like the adrenal gland. Line 12141, with its high levels of GFP in adult DA brain structures and minimal ectopic GFP expression in non-DA structures, was characterized in detail. We show here that this line allows for anatomical visualization and microdissection of the rat midbrain into SNpc and/or VTA, enabling detailed analysis of midbrain DA neurons and axonal projections after toxin treatment in vivo. Moreover, we further show that embryonic SNpc and/or VTA neurons, enriched by microdissection or FACS, can be used in culture or transplant studies of PD. Thus, the hTH-GFP reporter rat should be a valuable tool for Parkinson's disease research.

  15. THE MODULATION EFFECT OF MELATONIN AGAINST GAMMA IRRADIATION IN BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON MALE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDOU, M.I.; OSMAN, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate the radiomodulatory role of melatonin in the regulation of some biochemical and histopathological damage in case of total body irradiated rats.Male albino rats weighing 120-150 g were divided into four groups, group (I) control animals, group (II) animals received melatonin daily by gavages (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks, group (III) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays and group (IV) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays followed by daily administration with melatonin (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks. Rats were sacrificed on the 1st and 2nd week post-irradiation. Blood samples were collected for biochemical investigations. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were determined as biomarkers of liver functions, urea and creatinine contents were measured as markers of kidney functions, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were selected to evaluate heart damage. Alteration in the level of serum glucose was also determined. Tissue specimens from liver, kidney, heart and spleen were collected for the pathological studies.The results indicated that, the levels of liver enzymes, kidney functions and glucose were increased after irradiation of rats and reduced by the treatment with melatonin. These reductions were more noticed during the second weeks except in case of glucose which increased during the second week compared to the first week. On the other hand, heart enzymes levels were reduced by the effect melatonin which may be important for cardiopathological patients.Histopathological results showed that irradiation of rats induced tissue injuries in liver, kidney, heart and spleen.Melatonin treatment reduced these injuries to minimum.It could be concluded that, melatonin could be used as antioxidant to protect vital organs and their functions against irradiation since it works as free radicals

  16. Technology Leadership of Education Administrators and Innovative Technologies in Education: A Case Study of Çorum City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kör, Hakan; Erbay, Hasan; Engin, Melih

    2016-01-01

    In this global world in which educational technologies have developed at such a great pace, it is possible to say that administrators in the education sector are obliged with serious roles with regard to keeping up with the evolving technology and the management of education in this virtual environment. In the present study utilizing screening…

  17. Study and practice of flipped classroom in optoelectronic technology curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianhua; Lei, Bing; Liu, Wei; Yao, Tianfu; Jiang, Wenjie

    2017-08-01

    "Flipped Classroom" is one of the most popular teaching models, and has been applied in more and more curriculums. It is totally different from the traditional teaching model. In the "Flipped Classroom" model, the students should watch the teaching video afterschool, and in the classroom only the discussion is proceeded to improve the students' comprehension. In this presentation, "Flipped Classroom" was studied and practiced in opto-electronic technology curriculum; its effect was analyzed by comparing it with the traditional teaching model. Based on extensive and deep investigation, the phylogeny, the characters and the important processes of "Flipped Classroom" are studied. The differences between the "Flipped Classroom" and the traditional teaching model are demonstrated. Then "Flipped Classroom" was practiced in opto-electronic technology curriculum. In order to obtain high effectiveness, a lot of teaching resources were prepared, such as the high-quality teaching video, the animations and the virtual experiments, the questions that the students should finish before and discussed in the class, etc. At last, the teaching effect was evaluated through analyzing the result of the examination and the students' surveys.

  18. New technological localisms: a comparative analysis of two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J. Reed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper is concerned with elucidating an account of forms of new localism as they relate to the concept of ‘habitele’, a conceptual framework that helps us understand new forms of relatedness in the digitally mediated world. In doing this it will also reflect back on the concept and draw out as yet unconsidered elements based upon issues of fluidity, mobility, and what we will call ‘distal-locals’. The paper is centred around two case studies: the first is of a smart phone app, vouchercloud and details the way that the offering of money-off vouchers rests on particular notions of the local; while the second is of a environment organization who uses information technology to promote their activities. It is premised upon a history of work in the sociology of science and technology studies (STS and in particular a set of conceptual and methodologicalresources that helps to reveal the complexities of notions such as “the local”.

  19. Water Desalination Studies Using Forward Osmosis Technology, A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El-Nour, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water and energy shortage represent a great challenge facing the whole world now. To cover the global water demand, an energy-efficient approach is required to be applied in the suitable technology to achieve the shortage in the fresh water demand. Different techniques are used to solve this problem. A mong the different methods applied to desalinate seawater is the osmosis technologies . Although reversible osmosis (RO) is the most familiar method used for this purpose, forward osmosis (FO) represents a more suitable technique due to several arguments including low energy cost. The present study represents the use of FO technique for water desalination with adsorption regeneration. In this respect, a self-prepared granular active carbon produced from dates is to be used as an adsorbent agent. The physical characteristics of the active carbon are studied such as BET specific surface area, pore size, particle size and the structure using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Different advanced apparatus are used for such measurements. In addition, the adsorption is otherms (Langmuier and Freundlich) are established to explain the adsorption mechanism of the process. Accordingly, the review includes essential information and sufficient backgrounds in the field of desalination using FO or simply direct osmosis, which overcome the different difficulties present in reversible RO

  20. A preliminary study of current multimedia information technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.C.

    1997-03-01

    This paper surveys more than 70 articles published in the IEEE Multimedia journal and other journals. The survey summarizes aspects of multimedia information technology and categorizes application areas of multimedia information technology and interesting research areas related to it.

  1. Acute Toxicity Study of “Gadagi” Tea on Rats | Gadanya | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study was carried out on three most common types of “Gadagi” tea preparations, “sak'',”sada” and “magani”.. LD50 values of each type of the tea were determined. Results of phase I and phase II of the study showed no mortality was recorded in any of the experimental groups of rats in 24hours and up to four ...

  2. A BEHAVIORAL STUDY ON LEARNING AND MEMORY IN ADULT SPRAGUE DAWLEY RAT IN INDUCED ACETAMIPRID TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the behavioral change related with learning and memory due to the toxicity of Acetamiprid. On 24 healthy male Sprague dawley rats (12 for contextual fear condition and 12 for modified step-down model the study was performed. Treated animal showed impaired learning and memory in both Contextual fear condition and Modified Step-down model of behavioral assays.

  3. Space Technology: A study of the significance of recognition for innovators of spinoff technologies. A case study on the impact of the space technology hall of fame award

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This report represents the preliminary effort in studying the significance of recognition for innovators of spinoff technologies. The purpose of this initial year's effort in this area was to gather preliminary data and define the direction for the remainder of the research. This report focuses on the most recent recipients of the Hall of Fame Award, the developers of liquid-cooled garments. Liquid-cooled garments technology and its spinoffs were used as a case study to define and explore the factors involved in technology transfer and to consider the possible incentives in developing commercial applications including the Hall of Fame Award. Through interviews, views of award recipients were obtained on factors encouraging spinoffs as well as impediments to spinoffs. The researchers observed complex inter-relationships among the significant entities (government, individuals, large and small business), the importance of people, the importance of resource availability, and the significance of intrinsic motivation; drew preliminary conclusions pertaining to the direct and indirect influence of recognition like the Hall of Fame Award; and planned the direction for next year's follow-on research.

  4. Neuronal precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: a comparative study of two rat strains using stereological tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsen, Jesper; Larsen, Marianne; Sørensen, Jens Christian H.

    2010-01-01

    We are currently investigating microglial activation and neuronal precursor cell (NPC) proliferation after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) in rats. This study aimed: (1) to investigate differences in hippocampal NPC proliferation in outbred male spontaneously hypertensive rats...

  5. Neuronal precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: a comparative study of two rat strains using stereological tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsen, Jesper; Larsen, Marianne; Sørensen, Jens Christian H.

    2010-01-01

    We are currently investigating microglial activation and neuronal precursor cell (NPC) proliferation after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) in rats. This study aimed: (1) to investigate differences in hippocampal NPC proliferation in outbred male spontaneously hypertensive rats ...

  6. Comparative microscopic study of human and rat lungs after overexposure to welding fume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, James M; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Mercer, Robert R

    2013-11-01

    Welding is a common industrial process used to join metals and generates complex aerosols of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Most long-time welders experience some type of respiratory disorder during their time of employment. The use of animal models and the ability to control the welding fume exposure in toxicology studies have been helpful in developing a better understanding of how welding fumes affect health. There are no studies that have performed a side-by-side comparison of the pulmonary responses from an animal toxicology welding fume study with the lung responses associated with chronic exposure to welding fume by a career welder. In this study, post-mortem lung tissue was donated from a long-time welder with a well-characterized work background and a history of extensive welding fume exposure. To simulate a long-term welding exposure in an animal model, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once a week for 28 weeks by intratracheal instillation with 2mg of a stainless steel, hard-surfacing welding fume. Lung tissues from the welder and the welding fume-treated rats were examined by light and electron microscopy. Pathological analysis of lung tissue collected from the welder demonstrated inflammatory cell influx and significant pulmonary injury. The poor and deteriorating lung condition observed in the welder examined in this study was likely due to exposure to very high levels of potentially toxic metal fumes and gases for a significant number of years due to work in confined spaces. The lung toxicity profile for the rats treated with welding fume was similar. For tissue samples from both the welder and treated rats, welding particle accumulations deposited and persisted in lung structures and were easily visualized using light microscopic techniques. Agglomerates of deposited welding particles mostly were observed within lung cells, particularly alveolar macrophages. Analysis of individual particles within the agglomerates showed that these

  7. The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Areas Vargas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS, including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. Materials and Methods: We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a control rats, with 105 days of age (C105 (n = 7; (b control rats with 65 days of age (C65 (n = 9, injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil; (c treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105 (n = 10 and (d treated rats with 65 days of age (T65 (n = 13. The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105 and 121 days of age (C65 and T65 and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The weight (p < 0.001 and volume (p = 0.004 of the prostate ventral lobe showed differences between C65 and T65 groups and between C105 and T105 groups. The epithelium height showed no difference between groups C65 and T65 (p = 0.8509, but the T105 group showed an increase of 32% compared to C105 (p = 0.0089. Concerning

  8. CENTEV/UFV Technology Incubator : Brazil Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    A professor at Brazil's prestigious Federal University of Vicosa saw a need on campus for an incubator to support technologically-oriented businesses, including agribusinesses. This resulted in the CENTEV Technology Incubator, which is partially funded by the university but which also receives state and private grants. Its function is to nurture entrepreneurs to develop viable technology b...

  9. TO STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS IN RAT PAW EDEMA MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The process of inflammation is one of the most fundamental responses of the vascularised living tissue to local injury.1 Inflammation is a universal host defense process involving a complex network of cell-cell, cell-mediator & tissue interactions.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES To study of anti-inflammatory effect of calcium channel blockers in rat paw edema model. MATERIALS AND METHODS To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect with different doses of calcium channel blockers nifedipine, verapamil and standard drug ibuprofen in experimentally induced acute model of inflammation in male Wister rat. Inter drug comparison of anti-inflammatory efficacy of nifedipine, verapamil with standard drug ibuprofen in rats. Divide the animals into 3 groups each comprising at least six rats. Control group inject saline, standard group inject ibuprofen 20 mg/kg. test group inject (nifedipine & verapamil subcutaneously. After 30 min inject 0.1ml 1% (w/v Carrageenin in the plantar region of the left paw of all rats. The left hind paw was measured plethysmograph, immediately (zero hour and 4 hours after the sub plantar injection of Carrageenin. The difference between zero hour volume and the paw volume recorded at the end of 4 hrs. Indicated the actual volume. RESULT The statistical test ANOVA is applied to inter drug comparison. It is found that drug. Nifedipine 1mg/kg (86% has more efficacy significantly as compared to standard drug Ibuprofen 20mg/kg (55%, and drug Verapamil 1mg/kg (71% for its anti-inflammatory action. (F value is 94.27 >tab F 5.82 so this method is statistically highly significant. CONCLUSION Thus it was found that nifedipine has better anti-inflammatory efficacy as compared to ibuprofen, verapamil in various experimental anti-inflammatory models. The various experimental anti-inflammatory models were rat paw edema method. The calcium channel blockers included were nifedipine, verapamil and standard drug ibuprofen. Nifedipine has anti

  10. Laser photobiomodulation of wound healing: a review of experimental studies in mouse and rat animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Philip V; Chung, Tzu-Yun; Baxter, G David

    2010-06-01

    This investigation reviewed experimental studies of laser irradiation of wound healing in mice and rats published from 2003 to August 2008, respectively, to assess putative stimulatory effects of this treatment. Animal models, including rodents, attempt to reflect human wound healing and associated problems such as dehiscence, ischemia, ulceration, infection, and scarring. They have played a key role in furthering understanding of underlying mechanisms involved in impaired wound healing, and in testing new therapeutic strategies including laser irradiation. Original research papers investigating effects of laser or monochromatic light therapy on wound healing in mice and rats and published from January 2003 to August 2008 were retrieved from library sources, PubMed and Medline databases, reference lists from retrieved papers, and hand searches of relevant journals. Papers were selected for this review with regard to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were critically reviewed in terms of study design, methodology, and appropriateness of laser irradiation parameters. The literature search identified eight studies in mice and 39 in rats. A variety of wound models were investigated, including acute-wound, impaired-healing, and chronic-wound models. Considerable variation was observed in research design, methodology, and irradiation parameters employed, limiting comparison of research findings between studies. Inadequate reporting of key experimental details, or errors in specification and/or calculation of key irradiation parameters was also found. Evidence from the studies reviewed suggested that use of red or infrared wavelength at a range of dosage parameters (median 4.2 J cm(-2)) results in significant benefits in measured parameters of wound healing. Interestingly, coherence does not seem essential to the photobiomodulatory effects of 'laser' phototherapy. Studies reviewed consistently demonstrated the ability of laser or monochromatic light to

  11. Development of telmisartan in the therapy of spinal cord injury: pre-clinical study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Min Lin,1,* Jo-Ting Tsai,2,* Chen Kuei Chang,1 Juei-Tang Cheng,3 Jia-Wei Lin11Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shuang Ho Hospital-Taipei Medical University, 3Institute of Medical Science, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan City, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Decrease of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-δ (PPARδ expression has been observed after spinal cord injury (SCI. Increase of PPARδ may improve the damage in SCI. Telmisartan, the antihypertensive agent, has been mentioned to increase the expression of PPARδ. Thus, we are going to screen the effectiveness of telmisartan in SCI for the development of it in clinical application.Methods: In the present study, we used compressive SCI in rats. Telmisartan was then used to evaluate the influence in rats after SCI. Change in PPARδ expression was identified by Western blots. Also, behavioral tests were performed to check the recovery of damage.Results: Recovery of damage from SCI was observed in telmisartan-treated rats. Additionally, this action of telmisartan was inhibited by GSK0660 at the dose sufficient to block PPARδ. However, metformin at the dose enough to activate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase failed to produce similar action as telmisartan. Thus, mediation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in this action of telmisartan can be rule out. Moreover, telmisartan reversed the expressions of PPARδ in rats with SCI.Conclusion: The obtained data suggest that telmisartan can improve the damage of SCI in rats through an increase in PPARδ expression. Thus, telmisartan is useful to be developed as an agent in the therapy of SCI.Keywords: PPARδ, AMPK, spinal cord injury, angiotensin receptor blocker, metformin

  12. [Study on extraction and purification technology of Hubei ophiopogon saponins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Han; Li, Chong-Ming; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xiang, Yang; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Cun; Liu, Xia

    2013-05-01

    To explore the extraction and purification technology of total saponins from the effective parts of Liriope spicata. Orthogonal design was used. Macroporous resin was selected to separate and purify total saponin from the effective parts of Liriope spicata. The process validation was conducted. The total saponins was determined by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: 10 times the amount of ethanol (70%) for each occasion and hot reflux (3 x 2 h). Total saponins was purified by D101 macroporous resin. The concentration of eluting ethanol was 50% - 70%. Ethanol (70%) was selected as the best eluent. The result of process validation was consistent with the study. The process is simple and stable enough to significantly improve the extraction rate of the effective parts. The study can provide reference for the research and production of effective parts of traditional Chinese medicine such as Liriope spicata.

  13. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and......The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... cycle impact assessment methods on pathogens, whole effluent toxicity and micropollutants will be developed within the project. As part of this work a review of more than 20 previous LCA studies on WWTTs has been done and the findings are summarised on this poster. The review is focused on the relative...

  14. Study of near infrared technology for intracranial hematoma detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Ma, Hong Y.; Nioka, Shoko; Chance, Britton

    2000-04-01

    Although intracranial hematoma detection only requires the continuous wave technique of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), previous studies have shown that there are still some problems in obtaining very accurate, reliable hematoma detection. Several of the most important limitations of NIR technology for hematoma detection such as the dynamic range of detection, hair absorption, optical contact, layered structure of the head, and depth of detection are reported in this article. A pulsed light source of variable intensity was designed and studied in order to overcome hair absorption and to increase the dynamic range and depth of detection. An adaptive elastic optical probe was made to improve the optical contact and decrease contact noise. A new microcontroller operated portable hematoma detector was developed. Due to the layered structure of the human head, simulation on a layered medium was analyzed experimentally. Model inhomogeneity tests and animal hematoma tests showed the effectiveness of the improved hematoma detector for intracranial hematoma detection.

  15. Histometric study of alveolar bone healing in rats treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Giovanini, Gabriela Salgueiro; Fracon, Ricardo Nogueira; Lamano, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    There is extensive experimental and clinical evidence in the orthopedic area that prolonged use of nonselective (inhibitor of both cyclooxygenases 1 and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can hinder long bone fracture healing, spinal fusion rate, and new bone formation around implants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether nimesulide (Nimesulida, Medley S.A., Campinas, SP, Brazil), a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, can hinder alveolar bone healing, in rats. Treated rats received oral doses (5 mg/kg/rat/day) of nimesulide from the day of tooth extraction until euthanasia 2 weeks later and control rats received tap water (n = 5 per group). The volume of neoformed bone inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semiserial longitudinal histological sections by a differential point-counting method, and the significance of the difference between groups was analyzed by Student t test (P alveolar bone healing in rats.

  16. Does prolonged pneumoperitoneum affect the kidney? Oxidative stress, stereological and electron microscopy study in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo B. de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pneumoperitoneum (Pp at 12 to 15 mmHg in rats is associated with kidney damage. However, Pp at 8 mmHg is now known to best correlate to working pressures used in humans. Thus the aim of this work was to study the kidney of rats submitted to prolonged Pp at 8 mmHg. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into a Sham group (n = 14, submitted to anesthesia, and a Pp group (n = 14, submitted to Pp at 8 mmHg, followed by deflation. In both groups, 7 animals were immediately killed and their kidneys were used for oxidative stress analyses. The remaining 7 rats in each group were evaluated after 6 weeks for the number of glomeruli and podocyte morphology. Results: For all analyzed parameters Sham and Pp groups presented no statistical difference. Conclusion: When submitted to adequate Pp pressures (8 mmHg, no kidney damage occurs in rats.

  17. Oral carcinogenicity study with nickel sulfate hexahydrate in Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, Katherine E.; Bates, Hudson K.; Rush, Rusty E.; Oller, Adriana R.

    2007-01-01

    Until now, existing data on the oral carcinogenicity of nickel substances have been inconclusive. Yet, the assessment of oral carcinogenicity of nickel has serious scientific and regulatory implications. In the present study, nickel sulfate hexahydrate was administered daily to Fischer 344 rats by oral gavage for 2 years (104 weeks) at exposure levels of 10, 30 and 50 mg NiSO 4 ·6H 2 O/kg. This treatment produced a statistically significant reduction in body weight of male and female rats, compared to controls, in an exposure-related fashion at 30 and 50 mg/kg/day. An exposure-dependent increase in mortality was observed in female rats. However, the overall study survival rate (males and females) was at least 25 animals per group (compliant with OECD guidelines) in the treated animals. Daily oral administration of nickel sulfate hexahydrate did not produce an exposure-related increase in any common tumor type or an increase in any rare tumors. One tumor type was statistically increased in a nickel sulfate-treated group compared to the study controls (keratoacanthoma in the 10 mg NiSO 4 ·6H 2 O/kg/day males), but there was no exposure-response relationship for this common tumor type. This study achieved sufficient toxicity to reach the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) while maintaining a sufficiently high survival rate to allow evaluation for carcinogenicity. The present study indicated that nickel sulfate hexahydrate does not have the potential to cause carcinogenicity by the oral route of exposure in the Fischer 344 rat. Data from this and other studies demonstrate that inhalation is the only route of exposure that might cause concern for cancer in association with nickel exposures

  18. New echocardiographic technologies in the study of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Paolo; D'Agostino, Carlo; Del Salvatore, Bibiana; Sorino, Margherita

    2004-06-01

    Echocardiography has a key role in the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients in the different phases of acute myocardial infarction. Despite this important role of the conventional echocardiographic technologies, novel echocardiographic applications are under development or already used in the clinical practice. It is very difficult to distinguish which of these techniques will play a consistent role and will cover important diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic use. The wise cardiologist will be the one who will choose the appropriate technology for the right subset of patients. In this review paper we try to assign to each novel echocardiographic technique its actual clinical weight in every pathophysiological condition: myocardial contrast echocardiography, contrast opacification of the left ventricle, coronary flow reserve study, integrated backscatter, tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging. For the best treatment choice, each patient has to be perfectly diagnosed and characterized in order to have a tailored therapy. A correct diagnosis of the extension of myocardial necrosis cannot ignore the transmural wavefront development, the amount of viable myocardium or the presence of microvascular damage. Also the simple echocardiographic wall motion akinesia can be caused by a variable extension of non-contracting, scarred myocardium. The different anatomic and functional intramyocardial patterns represent the basis for different functional outcome of regional and hence global left ventricular function. The greatest understanding of the pathology always leads to the best treatment.

  19. Impact of Collaborative Work on Technology Acceptance: A Case Study from Virtual Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Konak

    2016-12-01

    Findings\tThe findings of the study supported that collaborative work could improve non-technology students’ acceptance of RVCLs. However, no significant effect of collaborative work on technology acceptance was observed in the case of technology students. Recommendations for Practitioners\tEducators should consider the benefits of collaborative work while introducing a new technology to students who may not have background in the technology introduced. Recommendation for Researchers In this study, student technological background was found to be a significant factor for technology acceptance; hence, it is recommended that technological background is included in TAM studies as an external factor. Future Research\tRepeating similar studies with multiple exercises with varying degrees of challenge is required for a better understanding of how collaborative work and student technological background affect technology acceptance.

  20. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of n-hexane in rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.

    1987-12-01

    The straight chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent used in industrial, academic, and smaller commercial environments. The significant opportunity for women of child-bearing age to be exposed to this chemical prompted the undertaking of a study to assess the developmental toxicity of n-hexane in an animal model. Timed-pregnant (30 animals per group) and virgin (10 animals per group) Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0 (filtered air), 200, 1000, and 5000 ppM n-hexane (99.9% purity) vapor in inhalation chambers for 20 h/day for a period of 14 consecutive days. Sperm-positive females were exposed for 6 to 19 days of gestation (dg) and virgins were exposed concurrently for 14 consecutive days. The day of sperm detection was designated as 0 dg for mated females. Adult female body weights were monitored prior to, throughout the exposure period, and at sacrifice. Uterine, placental, and fetal body weights were obtained for gravid females at sacrifice. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded as live fetus, early or late resorption, or dead. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 16 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Past speculations of future health technologies: a description of technologies predicted in 15 forecasting studies published between 1986 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doos, Lucy; Packer, Claire; Ward, Derek; Simpson, Sue; Stevens, Andrew

    2017-07-31

    To describe and classify health technologies predicted in forecasting studies. A portrait describing health technologies predicted in 15 forecasting studies published between 1986 and 2010 that were identified in a previous systematic review. Health technologies are classified according to their type, purpose and clinical use; relating these to the original purpose and timing of the forecasting studies. All health-related technologies predicted in 15 forecasting studies identified in a previously published systematic review. Outcomes related to (1) each forecasting study including country, year, intention and forecasting methods used and (2) the predicted technologies including technology type, purpose, targeted clinical area and forecast timeframe. Of the 896 identified health-related technologies, 685 (76.5%) were health technologies with an explicit or implied health application and included in our study. Of these, 19.1% were diagnostic or imaging tests, 14.3% devices or biomaterials, 12.6% information technology systems, eHealth or mHealth and 12% drugs. The majority of the technologies were intended to treat or manage disease (38.1%) or diagnose or monitor disease (26.1%). The most frequent targeted clinical areas were infectious diseases followed by cancer, circulatory and nervous system disorders. The most frequent technology types were for: infectious diseases-prophylactic vaccines (45.8%), cancer-drugs (40%), circulatory disease-devices and biomaterials (26.3%), and diseases of the nervous system-equally devices and biomaterials (25%) and regenerative medicine (25%). The mean timeframe for forecasting was 11.6 years (range 0-33 years, median=10, SD=6.6). The forecasting timeframe significantly differed by technology type (p=0.002), the intent of the forecasting group (p<0.001) and the methods used (p<001). While description and classification of predicted health-related technologies is crucial in preparing healthcare systems for adopting new innovations

  2. Prevention and intervention studies with telmisartan, ramipril and their combination in different rat stroke models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Thoene-Reineke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The effects of AT1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, and the ACE inhibitor, ramipril, were tested head-to head and in combination on stroke prevention in hypertensive rats and on potential neuroprotection in acute cerebral ischemia in normotensive rats. METHODS: Prevention study: Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP were subjected to high salt and randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1 untreated (NaCl, n = 24, (2 telmisartan (T; n = 27, (3 ramipril (R; n = 27 and (4 telmisartan + ramipril (T+R; n = 26. Drug doses were selected to keep blood pressure (BP at 150 mmHg in all groups. Neurological signs and stroke incidence at 50% mortality of untreated SHR-SP were investigated. Intervention study: Normotensive Wistar rats were treated s.c. 5 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 90 min with reperfusion. Groups (n = 10 each: (1 sham, (2 vehicle (V; 0.9% NaCl, (3 T (0.5 mg/kg once daily, (4 R (0.01 mg/kg twice daily, (5 R (0.1 mg/kg twice daily or (6 T (0.5 mg/kg once daily plus R (0.01 mg/kg twice daily. Twenty-four and 48 h after MCAO, neurological outcome (NO was determined. Forty-eight h after MCAO, infarct volume by MRI, neuronal survival, inflammation factors and neurotrophin receptor (TrkB were analysed. RESULTS: Stroke incidence was reduced, survival was prolonged and neurological outcome was improved in all treated SHR-SP with no differences between treated groups. In the acute intervention study, T and T+R, but not R alone, improved NO, reduced infarct volume, inflammation (TNFα, and induced TrkB receptor and neuronal survival in comparison to V. CONCLUSIONS: T, R or T+R had similar beneficial effects on stroke incidence and NO in hypertensive rats, confirming BP reduction as determinant factor in stroke prevention. In contrast, T and T+R provided superior neuroprotection in comparison to R alone in normotensive rats with induced cerebral ischemia.

  3. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna CBP; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio OC

    2013-01-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis. PMID:23715031

  4. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna C B P; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio O C

    2013-07-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis.

  5. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed.

  7. Boswellic acids and glucosamine show synergistic effect in preclinical anti-inflammatory study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surjeet; Khajuria, Anamika; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Khajuria, Ravi Kant; Singh, Jaswant; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2007-07-01

    The present study revealed the synergistic effect of boswellic acid mixture (BA) and glucosamine for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities in rats. Two studies were conducted, that is, acute anti-inflammatory by carrageenan edema and chronic anti-arthritic by Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis. Five groups of animals were included in each of the study: the vehicle control, positive control (ibuprofen 100mg/kg), boswellic acids (250 mg/kg), glucosamine (250 mg/kg) and a combination of boswellic acids (125 mg/kg) and glucosamine (125 mg/kg). BA when administered at 250 mg/kg in rats, carrageenan-induced paw edema and Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis were significantly inhibited. In comparison to boswellic acids, glucosamine when administered at 250 mg/kg showed a mild effect in carrageenan-induced edema and moderate inhibition of paw swelling against developing arthritis. Although the combination of boswellic acids and glucosamine did not affect the acute inflammation to a greater extent yet a significant anti-arthritic activity was observed in rats. In conclusion, a synergistic effect was observed in chronic inflammatory conditions when two chemical entities were administered in combination in preclinical study.

  8. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  9. Current Highlights on ESA's Planetary Technology Reference Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, P.

    The concept of Technology Reference Studies has been introduced already at EGU05, where the Venus Entry Probe (VEP), the Jupiter Minisat Explorer (JME), the Deimos Sample Return (DSR) and the Interstellar Heliopause Probe (IHP) have been presented in detail. At the EGU06 the new studies in reaction to the Cosmic Vision exercise have been introduced. The formulation of themes and mapping into potential future missions has been taken as basis in the planning of additional new and adaptation of existing TRS's to cover areas, which have not yet been addressed by any TRS. These new ongoing studies are progressing well and current highlights will be presented in the paper in further detail as well as an overview on supporting technology studies and Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) sessions. The Jupiter System Explorer (JSE) study investigates mission concepts with up to two Magnetospheric Orbiters placed in a highly elliptical Jovian orbit and the possibility to deploy a Jovian Entry Probe. The mission profile is based on a solar powered concept launched on a Soyuz-Fregat launcher. Mission analysis and the application of a new Jovian radiation model are supporting the study activities. The Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return (NEA-SR) concept explores the possibilities of sample return or in-situ mission profiles with visits to up to two NEA targets. Due to the assumed low cost cap a trade between a sample return and remote/in-situ exploration concept has a high attention in the study. The Cross Scale TRS (CS-TRS) is intended to simultaneously investigate magnetospheric and plasma processes in three spatial scales with a formation flight of up to 12 spacecraft, orbiting on deep elliptical orbits around Earth. One of the major challenges is the launch of that number of spacecraft on a single launcher and the collisionless deployment of the formation at the target orbit. The scope if the GeoSail TRS is to demonstrate deployment, attitude control and navigation concepts for a

  10. Study on the consistency and repeatability of FBG packaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuegang; Chen, Yiyang; Li, Ruiya; Yu, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yujia

    2016-10-01

    The main research is thermal strain sensing characteristics of epoxy resin in fiber Bragg grating (FBG) packaging process. The results of experiment showed that modified epoxy acrylate resin which is often used to package FBG, occurred glass transition at about 65°C, of which the thermal strain sensing sensitivity decreased. Meanwhile, this study showed that FBG is packaged by the modified epoxy acrylate resin after heat treatment has the effect on strain measurement. The experiment indicated that strain measuring consistency and repeatability of FBG has been significantly improved after heat treatment at high temperature 120°C. Finally, a FBG packaging technology about curable epoxy resin curing at room temperature is proposed, and it can improved strain and temperature measuring consistency and repeatability.

  11. Nuclear microbeam study of advanced materials for fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, L.C.; Alves, E.; Grime, G.W.; Silva, M.F. da; Soares, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Oxford scanning proton microprobe was used to study SiC fibres, SiC/SiC ceramic composites and Be pebbles, which are some of the most important materials for fusion technology. For the SiC materials, although the results reveal a high degree of homogeneity and purity in the composition of the fibres, some grains containing heavy metals were detected in the composites. Rutherford backscattering analysis further allowed establishing that at least some of these grains are not on the surface of the material but rather distributed throughout the bulk of the SiC composites. The two different types of Be pebbles analysed also showed very different levels of contaminants. The information obtained with the microbeam analysis is confronted with the one resulting from the broad beam PIXE and RBS analysis

  12. Microfluidics Technologies and Approaches for Studying the Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfee, Walter L; Peirce, Shayn M

    2017-07-01

    A challenge for basic and applied microvascular research is the lack of ex vivo experimental platforms that mimic the structural and functional complexity that is inherent to the microcirculation in living organisms. This Special Topic Issue highlights the emergence of microfluidic-based approaches as tools for recapitulating physiologically relevant network architectures and hemodynamics to study biochemical and biomechanical mechanisms of microvascular function and adaptation. This collection of review and original research articles showcases the value of microfluidics in bridging the gap between in vivo and in vitro model systems by demonstrating the utility of this technology for investigating microvascular dynamics spanning angiogenesis to blood cell rheology and for preclinical evaluation of therapeutic strategies that target the microcirculation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Vascular effects of aqueous extract of Chamaemelum nobile: in vitro pharmacological studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeggwagh, Naoufel Ali; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the in vitro vasorelaxant effect of C. nobile aqueous extract. We use aortic ring isolated from Wistar rats and aqueous C. nobile extract at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/ml. Incubation of aqueous C. nobile extract for 30 minutes produced a significant shift of the dose-response curve to norepinephrine (NE) (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) (p nobile extract possesses in vitro vasorelaxant effect.

  14. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; El Ashry, Fatma El Zahraa Z; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes). The effects of MC juice were studied both in vivo and in vitro by studying the glucose uptake of isolated rat diaphragm muscles in the presence and absence of insulin. Histopathological examination of pancreas was also performed. This study showed that MC caused a significant reduction of serum glucose (135.99 ± 6.27 and 149.79 ± 1.90 vs. 253.40* ± 8.18) for prophylaxis and treatment respectively, fructosamine (0.99 ± 0.01 and 1.01 ± 0.04 vs. 3.04 ± 0.07), total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index (1.13 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.05 vs. 1.48 ± 1.47) and pancreatic malondialdehyde content (p Momordica charantia presents excellent antidiabetic and antioxidant activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment whether it is used for prophylaxis or treatment.

  15. In vitro glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm study of Aegle marmelos Correa root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subban Ravi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the root of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal plant, was fractionated into eight fractions using column chromatography. The anti-diabetic activity of all the fractions was studied using the glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm in vitro model. Using the bioassay-guided fractionation, two compounds 1 and 2 were isolated by column chromatography and identified as 6-methyl-4-chromanone and skimmianine respectively by NMR and mass spectral methods.

  16. STUDY OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM LINN. IN PYLORUS LIGATED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty P.K.; Panda S.K.; Mishra S.K.; Panda P.K.; Jaliwala Y.A.; Parle Milind

    2011-01-01

    Different extracts of Alangium salvifolium Linn. roots were tested for its antiulcer activity in aspirin induced and pylorus ligated rats model. The effect was assessed by parameters like Total acidity(TA),Free acidity(FA),Peptic activity(PA), Ulcer Index(UI) .The antiucler activity of all extracts were compared to the standard drug ranitidine. The study showed that all extracts were showing reductions TA, PA, FA and UI among which the extract of petroleum ether showed significant reduction ...

  17. Optimised motion tracking for positron emission tomography studies of brain function in awake rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Z Kyme

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is a non-invasive molecular imaging technique using positron-emitting radioisotopes to study functional processes within the body. High resolution PET scanners designed for imaging rodents and non-human primates are now commonplace in preclinical research. Brain imaging in this context, with motion compensation, can potentially enhance the usefulness of PET by avoiding confounds due to anaesthetic drugs and enabling freely moving animals to be imaged during normal and evoked behaviours. Due to the frequent and rapid motion exhibited by alert, awake animals, optimal motion correction requires frequently sampled pose information and precise synchronisation of these data with events in the PET coincidence data stream. Motion measurements should also be as accurate as possible to avoid degrading the excellent spatial resolution provided by state-of-the-art scanners. Here we describe and validate methods for optimised motion tracking suited to the correction of motion in awake rats. A hardware based synchronisation approach is used to achieve temporal alignment of tracker and scanner data to within 10 ms. We explored the impact of motion tracker synchronisation error, pose sampling rate, rate of motion, and marker size on motion correction accuracy. With accurate synchronisation (20 Hz, and a small head marker suitable for awake animal studies, excellent motion correction results were obtained in phantom studies with a variety of continuous motion patterns, including realistic rat motion (<5% bias in mean concentration. Feasibility of the approach was also demonstrated in an awake rat study. We conclude that motion tracking parameters needed for effective motion correction in preclinical brain imaging of awake rats are achievable in the laboratory setting. This could broaden the scope of animal experiments currently possible with PET.

  18. Histomorphometric study of tibia of rats exposed aboard American Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Shuttle Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnova, G.; Kaplansky, A.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1996-01-01

    Tibial bones of rats flown onboard the SLS-2 shuttle mission were studied. Trabecular bone parameters were investigated, including growth plate height, trabecular bone volume, thickness and number, and trabecular separation in the primary and secondary spongiosa. Several histomorphometric changes were noted, allowing researchers to conclude that exposure to microgravity resulted in osteopenia of spongy bone of tibial metaphysis. The roles of bone formation and bone resorption are discussed.

  19. Extraction of Labelled WR-158,122 from Rat and Monkey Urine and Bile. Initial Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-28

    Labelled WR-158,122 from Rat and Monkey Urine and Bile. Initial Studies Carl C. ’Smith, Ph.D. Steele F. Mattingly, D.V.M. Geraldine F. Wolfe, M.S. David H...le I C, DC TAB JUn ’r -to a I69CUOiTY CLASIFICATION OF T1416 PAGIfL~ "m J nඊ TABLE OF CONTENTS DD Form 1473 Pg List of Tables iii I. Introduction 1

  20. Development and Validation of Information Technology Mentor Teacher Attitude Scale: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study development and validation of a teacher attitude scale toward Information Technology Mentor Teachers (ITMT). ITMTs give technological support to other teachers for integration of technology in their lessons. In the literature, many instruments have been developed to measure teachers' attitudes towards the technological tools…

  1. A Mathematics Teacher's Practice in a Technological Environment: A Case Study Analysis Using Two Complementary Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabach, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Integrating technology in school mathematics has become more and more common. The teacher is a key person in integrating technology into everyday practice. To understand teacher practice in a technological environment, this study proposes using two theoretical perspectives: the theory of technological pedagogical content knowledge to analyze…

  2. Ella-V and technology usage technology usage in an english language and literacy acquisition validation randomized controlled trial study

    OpenAIRE

    Roisin P. Corcoran; Steven M. Ross; Beverly J. Irby; Fuhui Tong; Rafael Lara-Alecio; Cindy Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of technology to provide virtual professional development (VPD) for teachers and to conduct classroom observations in a study of English Language Learner (ELL) instruction in grades K–3. The technology applications were part of a cluster randomized control trial (RCT) design for a federally funded longitudinal validation study of a particular program, English Language and Literacy Acquisition-Validation, ELLA- V, to determine its degree of impact on English oral l...

  3. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O.Eweka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the medial geniculate body (MGB of adult wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups.The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the medial geniculate body showed some cellular degenerative changes, autophagic vacuoles with some vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections. These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the medial geniculate body (MGB. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the MGB of adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  4. Bone histomorphometric study of young rats following oestrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteoporosis is a global problem which results in increased fractures risk. The reports from earlier studies were inconsistent with the aging factor as well as the time which is needed to induce bone loss post-ovariectomy. This study aimed to determine the short-term effects of estrogen deficiency on bone structural ...

  5. Enacting Disability: How Can Science and Technology Studies Inform Disability Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galis, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss how science and technology studies (STS) can inform disability studies and challenge dominant approaches, such as the medical and the social models, in the ordering and representation of disability. Disability studies and STS have followed somewhat parallel paths in the history of ideas. From a positivist approach to…

  6. [Single dose toxicity studies of calcipotriol (MC903) in rats and dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, T; Tsuruta, M; Kitagaki, T; Ono, M; Shirakawa, K; Nagata, M; Konishi, R

    1996-07-01

    A single dose toxicity of calcipotriol (MC903), an anti-psoriasic agent, administered subcutaneously (s.c.) and percutaneously (p.c.) was studied in Slc:SD rats (s.c. and p.c.) and beagle dogs (s.c.). The LD50 values of MC903 were as follows: rats, 2.19 mg/kg in males and 2.51 mg/kg in females by s.c., and more than 15 mg/kg in both sexes by p.c.; dogs, more than 1.5 mg/kg in males by p.c. No sexual difference was noted in LD50 values of rats. Death of rats was observed from 1 to 3 days after administration by both routes. Dead animals showed decreases in body weight and locomotor activity, reddish tear, abnormal gait and dirty hair by both routes. Furthermore, dead animals administered by s.c. showed salivation, nasal discharge, piloerection, ptosis, diarrhea, urorrhea, nasal and vaginal bleeding, subnormal temperature, loose stool, cyanosis, irregular and deep respirations, clonic and tonic convulsions. Survival of rats showed similar signs to those of dead animals except for nasal discharge, nasal and vaginal bleeding, cyanosis, agonal respiration and convulsion. Discoloration of the kidney, white patch of the heart and a dilatation of the stomach wall were observed on macroscopic examinations. No mortalities were observed in dogs which showed vomiting, conjunctival congestion, circumoral and auricular reddenings, periblepharal purplish reddening, decreases in locomotor activity and defecation, emaciation, eye discharge, skin desquamation of treated area and an increase in respiration. On macroscopic examination, desquamation of the skin, reddening of the circumoral mucosa, pale gray yellow striations in renal tubules of the cortex and discoloration of the thyroid were observed. Histopathological findings revealed epidermal thickening with parakeratosis, fibrocytes, hypertrophy and hypersecretion of the sebaceous and sweat glands, formation of epitheloid glanulomas and infiltration of neutrophils in the subcutaneous tissues. Furthermore, moderate calcium

  7. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model.

  8. Effect of metal fragments in brain on electrical monitoring: In vitro and in vivo rat studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.; Bodo, M.; Armonda, R. A.

    2010-04-01

    Preliminary results showed, measurements by rheoencephalography (REG) very promising as a practical, noninvasive continuous monitoring modality of traumatic brain/blast injuries. As the impact of metal fragments on the REG signal is unknown, we report here results of our study .The in vitro study confirmed that impedance pulse amplitude waves do not change in the presence of metal (needles) placed between electrodes. In vivo studies: rats under anesthesia (10 rats, 101 trials) were measured after implantation of EEG and REG electrodes in the brain. Metal fragments were represented by 18 g needles inserted and removed between EEG and REG electrodes. Data were stored in a PC. EEG recording typically showed amplitude decrease; REG showed transitory amplitude increase after placement of a needle into either hemisphere. Removal of needles caused a decrease in REG amplitude after a transitory increase. The change in REG amplitude statistically was non-significant. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation(AR) persisted following placement of metal fragments in rat brain.

  9. Impact of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoke on alveolar bone loss: a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio R; Todescan, Sylvia; Shah, Adnan; Rosa, Bruno T; Tunes, Urbino da R; Cesar Neto, Joao B

    2011-11-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) can interfere with bone physiopathology because of its effect on osteoblast and osteoclast activity. However, its impact on periodontal tissues is still controversial. The present study evaluates whether marijuana smoke affects bone loss (BL) on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. A ligature was placed around one of the mandible first molars (ligated teeth) of each animal, and they were then randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 15) or marijuana smoke inhalation ([MSI] for 8 minutes per day; n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified sections of the furcation area were obtained and evaluated according to the following histometric parameters: bone area (BA), bone density (BD), and BL. Tetrahydrocannabinol was positive in urine samples only for the rats of the MSI group. Non-significant differences were observed for unligated teeth from both groups regarding BL, BA, and BD (P >0.05). However, intragroup analysis showed that all ligated teeth presented BL and a lower BA and BD compared to unligated teeth (P <0.05). The intergroup evaluation of the ligated teeth showed that the MSI group presented higher BL and lower BD (P <0.05) compared to ligated teeth from the control group. Considering the limitations of this animal study, cannabis smoke may impact alveolar bone by increasing BL resulting from ligature-induced periodontitis.

  10. Immunohistochemical and morphometric study of the development of fetal and newborn rat pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawoud, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    Aim of this study is to perform a detailed morphometric immunohistochemichal study of develpment of fetal and newborn rat pancreatic islets. 24 pancreas were obtained from 19 and 21-day-old fetal rats,1 and 4-day-old newborn rats. They were fixed in a buffered neutral formalin ,dehydrated and embedded in paraplast. Sections were stained with anti-insulin antibodies. Study was performed at Department of Anatomy, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between 2001 and 2002. The volume density of B cells showed a grdual increase during the last days of gestation and a slight increase during the first 4 days after birth. All the other morphometric parameters showed a gradual increase during the last days of gestation and during the first days after birth.The B cell nuclear diameter and volume showed a slight increase after birth. B cells were stained and present in the central part of of fetal and new born islets,while the other islet cells were present in the periphery of the islets. The size of endocrine tissue, which was represented by the islet diameter, islet volume, islet volume density, total number of islet cells,number of B cells and volume density of B cells showed a progressive increase during the prenatal period. (author)

  11. Entrepreneurship Education: An Experimental Study with Information and Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenchun Jim Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been regarded as a new science in the promotion of economic development, which has led to rapid development in entrepreneurship education. The growing number of students enrolled in entrepreneurship programs creates unprecedented challenges on educators. Although multiple teaching and learning activities are adopted in entrepreneurship education, these are mainly carried out using traditional classroom lectures, case studies and group discussions. Nowadays, information & communication technology (ICT is used to enhance the effectiveness of traditional teaching methods and competency training. PowToon is a web-based ICT tool that hat allows teachers and students to quickly and easily create animated presentations. Using quasi-experimental design and qualitative method, this study is to examine whether PowToon is an effective tool for business plan presentation. The study find that the animated presentations attracted more investment than the groups that did not prepare animated videos. It reflects that developed videos which helps entrepreneurial team to better deliver their business ideas to investors in a well-thought out way. In addition, the results of the study show that individuals who generate a business idea did not necessarily significantly influence their investment decisions. Our findings challenge the concept on self-biases evaluations of the economic potential of their own business ideas. Finally, the students were very willing to adopt new ways of delivering their business ideas.

  12. Experimental study of prevention effect of andrographolide against radiation exposure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Huiyun; Mu Xiang; Li Li; Ding Kuke; Yang Lijian; Li Jie; Dong Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of andrographolide (AP), extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Andrographlis paniculata (AP), on injury induced by radiation exposure. Methods: Sixty male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups and irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays at the doses of 1, 2, and 4 Gy, respectively: low dose AP group(intragastrically administered with AP at the dose of 100 ms/kg daily for 10 d before irradiation), and high dose AP group (intragastrically administered with AP at the dose of 200 ms/kg daily for 10 d before irradiation), model group (administered with the same volume of normal saline instead of AP for 10 d before irradiation), and control group(irradiated only at 3 different doses). One day after irradiation all rats were killed with their livers being fixed to make paraffin section. The morphological feature was observed under light microscope after HE staining, and the cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technology. Results: Compared to the control and model groups, the pathological changes of liver were significantly gentler in the AP treatment groups. The apoptosis rates of the liver cells of all the AP sub-groups were significantly lower than those of the control and model subgroup (t=2.19-4.80, P<0.05). Conclusions: AP might have prevention effect against radiation exposure. (authors)

  13. In vitro metabolism and permeation studies in rat jejunum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jensen, K; Steffansen, B

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to compare the in vitro absorption of two inorganic chromium(III) compounds: chromium chloride and chromium nitrate, with organic chromium(III)-picolinate; and to investigate if any in vitro metabolism of chromium(VI) takes place. The in vitro metabolism studies s...... on pig intestine in Ussing chambers showed a nearly total adsorption of chromium(III) by the chambers, resulting in unreliable data....

  14. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful

  15. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-11-10

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

  16. Increased trabecular bone and improved biomechanics in an osteocalcin-null rat model created by CRISPR/Cas9 technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Lambert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin, also known as bone γ-carboxyglutamate protein (Bglap, is expressed by osteoblasts and is commonly used as a clinical marker of bone turnover. A mouse model of osteocalcin deficiency has implicated osteocalcin as a mediator of changes to the skeleton, endocrine system, reproductive organs and central nervous system. However, differences between mouse and human osteocalcin at both the genome and protein levels have challenged the validity of extrapolating findings from the osteocalcin-deficient mouse model to human disease. The rat osteocalcin (Bglap gene locus shares greater synteny with that of humans. To further examine the role of osteocalcin in disease, we created a rat model with complete loss of osteocalcin using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Rat osteocalcin was modified by injection of CRISPR/Cas9 mRNA into the pronuclei of fertilized single cell Sprague-Dawley embryos, and animals were bred to homozygosity and compound heterozygosity for the mutant alleles. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, glucose tolerance testing (GTT, insulin tolerance testing (ITT, microcomputed tomography (µCT, and a three-point break biomechanical assay were performed on the excised femurs at 5 months of age. Complete loss of osteocalcin resulted in bones with significantly increased trabecular thickness, density and volume. Cortical bone volume and density were not increased in null animals. The bones had improved functional quality as evidenced by an increase in failure load during the biomechanical stress assay. Differences in glucose homeostasis were observed between groups, but there were no differences in body weight or composition. This rat model of complete loss of osteocalcin provides a platform for further understanding the role of osteocalcin in disease, and it is a novel model of increased bone formation with potential utility in osteoporosis and osteoarthritis research.

  17. Reproduction studies in the rat with shea oleine and hardened shea oleine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, P; Robinson, J A; Hepburn, P A

    2001-09-01

    Shea oleine is an oil fraction derived from the nut of the tree Butyrospermum parkii, which grows in central and western Africa. There are several uses of shea oleine including its use as a frying oil and, after hardening, in margarine and toffee fat. This investigation was performed to examine the toxicity of 7 or 15% hardened shea oleine in comparison with 7 or 15% unhardened shea oleine and various commercially available materials, sheanut and palm oils, cocoa butter and toffee powder following dietary administration to rats during pre-mating, mating, pregnancy and offspring weaning in two separate investigations. Reproduction was assessed using number of litters and pups born plus survival and body weights at birth and at weaning on day 21. Skeletal evaluation using X-ray, clinical pathology and a macroscopic examination were also performed for F1 rats. Study measures for parent animals comprised evaluation of body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology, organ weights and macroscopic examination. Fatty acids and hydrocarbon levels were measured and an evaluation for lipogranulomata was made for various tissues. Results showed that shea oleine, whether unhardened or hardened, produced no evidence of reproduction toxicity and gave a similar profile to the other commercially available materials used in this study in the rat. Minor findings with shea oleine were not related to reproduction performance but comprised slightly reduced body weight gain and reduced cholesterol and raised alkaline phosphatase levels. None of the findings in this study were considered to be of toxicological significance. Thus, no evidence of reproduction toxicity was seen for both unhardened and hardened shea oleine in this investigation in the rat at levels equating to greater than 7.5 g/kg/day.

  18. Antioxidant activity of Bol d'Air Jacquier breathing sessions in Wistar rats--first studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Béatrice; Prost, Josiane; Prost, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The Bol d'Air Jacquier is used to create a molecule able to deliver oxygen at the cellular level to manage hypoxia due to environmental pollution, ageing, or inflammatory disease. This study was designed to determine, firstly, whether the device generated oxidative stress and, secondly, whether it might induce an antioxidant effect. Over a period of 62 weeks, 10 male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups: the Bol d'Air group (BA) regularly breathed peroxidizing terpens delivered by the device and the control group breathed water vapour during 9-min sessions, at the frequency of 1-12 per month. Several antioxidant compounds and KRL levels were determined in the blood and major organs. The results showed that the two groups did not differ with respect to the organ concentrations of Cu, Zn SOD, GPx, GSH, GSSG and TBARS. The device might have a weak slimming effect over time. The BA group presented a significantly higher GR level in plasma throughout the experiment, and in the muscle at the end of the study. In the BA group, the plasma Cu, Zn SOD level was related to the number of breathing sessions per week before blood collection. The BA group also had a higher KRLantioxidant status at two different time-points: at the onset of the study, in the blood of young rats; and after three breathing sessions per week, in the blood and RBCs of old rats. The device did not generate oxidative stress and seemed to produce global antioxidant effect depending on the number of sessions per week, especially in old rats.

  19. Do similar neural systems subserve aggressive and sexual behaviour in male rats? Insights from c-Fos and pharmacological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, Jan G.; Coolen, LM; de Jong, TR; Joosten, Henk W.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Olivier, B; Coolen, Lique M.; Boer, Sietze F. de

    2005-01-01

    It is a common belief that male aggressive and sexual behaviour share many of the underlying neurobiological, neurological, pharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Therefore, we studied brain activation patterns in male rat after performance of aggressive and sexual behaviour and compared

  20. Do similar neural systems subserve aggressive and sexual behaviour in male rats? Insights from c-Fos and pharmacological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L.M.; Jong, T.R. de; Joosten, H.W.M.; Boer, S.F. de; Koolhaas, J.M.; Olivier, B.

    2005-01-01

    It is a common belief that male aggressive and sexual behaviour share many of the underlying neurobiological, neurological, pharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Therefore, we studied brain activation patterns in male rat after performance of aggressive and sexual behaviour and compared

  1. A Case Study of the Application of SAMR and TPACK for Reflection on Technology Integration into Two Social Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Jason Theodore

    2016-01-01

    As emerging technology continues to enter the social studies classroom, teachers need to approach integration of such technology in a systematic manner to ensure that such technology enhances the learning of their students. Currently, scholars of technology integration advocate for the use of one of two different models, either SAMR or TPACK. This…

  2. The systematic risk study in technology companies at Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Marcelo Belli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work tested if brasilian technology companies has a greater systematic risk than traditional companies in Brazil. For to achieve tje purpose, two companies samples , one of technology companies and the other of traditional companies, were composed. The tecnique employed was a multiple regression analysis considering a dichotomous variable wich represents the technological factor and another numerical variable wich represents the intangibility degree of  companies. As a dependent variable was considered the CAPM systematic risk. The results indicated that technology companies have a greater systematic risk than traditional companies regardless of the degree of intangibility.

  3. Application study of nuclear technologies for dual use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Gon; Chung, W. S.; Park, W. S.; Lee, K. W.; Cha, H. K.; Han, M. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Honh, D. H.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, C. H.; Yeo, J. W.; Jung, M.; Ra, G. H

    2000-02-01

    The projects for the joint development of technology common to the civilian and military sectors are being carried out at national level to maximize the utilization of limited resources. The technologies have been identified through a process which considered whether they are duplicates of the present military technology, whether they are necessary, and whether their realization is feasible. In addition, the problems surfaced during the identification process have been analyzed and suggestions to vitalize the military application of civilian nuclear technology are presented in the contexts of personal channel, institutional networking, R and D information exchange, and budgetary support. (author)

  4. Health information management using optical storage technology: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, D

    1992-05-01

    All the health care facilities examined in the case studies addressed several important organizational issues before and during the installation of their systems. All the facilities examined employee commitment. The prudent managers considered how easily their employees adapt to changes in their jobs and work environment. They considered how enthusiastic cooperation can be fostered in the creation of a liberated and reengineered office. This was determined not only by each individual's reaction to change, but also by the health care facility's track record with other system installations. For example, document image, diagnostic image, and coded data processing systems allow the integration of divergent health care information systems within complex institutions. Unfortunately, many institutions are currently struggling with how to create an information management architecture that will integrate their mature systems, such as their patient care and financial systems. Information managers must realize that if optical storage technology-based systems are used in a strategic and planned fashion, these systems can act as focal points for systems integration, not as promises to further confuse the issue. Another issue that needed attention in all the examples was the work environment. The managers considered how the work environment was going to affect the ability to integrate optical image and data systems into the institution. For example, many of these medical centers have created alliances with clinics, HMOs, and large corporate users of medical services. This created a demand for all or part of the health information outside the confines of the original institution. Since the work environment is composed of a handful of factors such as merged medical services, as many work environment factors as possible were addressed before application of the optical storage technology solution in the institutions. And finally, the third critical issue was the organization of work

  5. Distribution studies of /sup 111/In-oxine-labeled peritoneal mononuclear cells in tumor-bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreo, K.; Lieberman, L.M.; Moorthy, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of /sup 111/In-labeled peritoneal mononuclear cells (PMC) in Sprague-Dawley rats with carcinosarcoma (CS) tumor was studied. The authors obtained PMC from normal rats and rats pretreated with BCG or irradiated CS cells as antigenic stimulant. PMC were labeled in-vitro with /sup 111/In-oxine and transferred by tail-vein injection to rats bearing CS tumor. Twenty-four, 48 and 72 h after PMC transfer, the authors measured the accumulation of these cells in the CS tumor as a percentage of dose radioactivity per gram of tumor using an external gamma-ray camera. PMC from normal and BCG treated donor rats accumulated 0.4% and 0.46% dose per gram of CS tumor respectively. PMC from donor rats given killed CS cells accumulated significantly greater concentrations of /sup 111/In (0.79% dose per gram of CS tumor, P less than 0.025). Thus, killed CS cells were able to sensitize the PMC of normal rats. /sup 111/In-oxine-labeling is an elegant procedure to study the distribution of mononuclear cells in tumors.

  6. Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Graphene Oxide in the Sprague-Dawley Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO is an oxidized derivative of graphene used in biotechnology and medicine. The safety of GO is uncertain, so we evaluated its toxicity in male rats. Rat tail veins were injected with 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg GO for seven days and behavioral patterns, pathology, and tissue morphology were assessed. Data show that behaviors were not altered according to an open field test and a functional observational battery test, but histopathological analysis indicated that GO caused inflammation of the lung, liver, and spleen. GO also reduced cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL. No other organs were modified. Thus, high concentrations of GO are toxic for the lung, liver, and spleen, but the mechanism by which this occurs requires more study.

  7. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance surface coil study of ischemic preconditioned isolated perfused rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongbin; Luo Xuechun; Zhang Riqing; Wang Xiaoyin; Zuo Lin; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    ischemic preconditioning (IPC) will protect the heart from the damage caused by a subsequent long ischemia period. 31 P spectra of isolated perfused rat heart measured by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) surface coil technique can be used to continually, dynamically and noninvasively obtain metabolism information. This paper explores the IPC mechanisms by NMR. This study shows that IPC has no effect on enhancing the ATP and PCr levels during reperfusion but makes significantly slows and smooths the changes of intracellular pH and ATP during ischemia periods. The ATP and PCr recovery rate of the IPC group after ischemia is significantly higher than that of the control group. In conclusion, the above results support that IPC can protect the rat heart by reducing damage during the ischemia period

  8. Curative effect of TFX-Jelfa supplementation on the skin of ovariectomised rats – morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpińska Teresa Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of thymus factor X (TFX-Jelfa treatment in hypoestrogenic female rats for the purpose of decreasing skin impairments. Ovariectomised rats were used as a model. The histopathological analysis of the skin after TFX-Jelfa treatment demonstrated that the epidermis was thicker and more desquamated, without deep wrinkles or hypersecretion in comparison to the skin of animals only castrated and not treated with TFX-Jelfa. Collagen and elastic fibres were arranged more uniformly in the dermis and there were numerous fibroblasts, hair follicles, and small vessels. Ultrastructural analysis showed keratinocytes without degenerative changes and the proliferation of lymphatic and dendritic cells in the skin. The results indicate that thymus extracts can have beneficial effects on skin aging, which is often accompanied by hormonal perturbances.

  9. Proteomic studies of rat tibialis anterior muscle during postnatal growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hualin; Zhu, Ting; Ding, Fei; Hu, Nan; Gu, Xiaosong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, a proteomic analysis consisting of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was accomplished to investigate the complex protein expression patterns in rat tibialis anterior muscle during postnatal 3-month period. We determined the time-dependent expression alterations of 107 protein spots, among which 53 protein spots were identified. These identified proteins included skeletal contractile proteins, metabolic enzymes, chaperone, intermediate filament, and signal transduction proteins. The time-dependent expression of three proteins, such as Mylpf, desmin, and RKIP, was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The functional implication of these expression changes was also discussed. We further analyzed the linkage and interactions among the differentially expressed proteins (MAPK1, RKIP, AHSG, etc.). Collectively, the results might add to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating postnatal growth and development of rat tibialis anterior muscle.

  10. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mole rats kidney: A histopathologic and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Türker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to realize the ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet radiation on the kidney tissue cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon. The mole rats of 180–200 g body weight were divided into the control and radiation-trial groups. The control group was not given any radiation. The other groups were irradiated with artificially produced UVC radiation for 14, 28 and 60 days. The kidney tissue samples were prepared at the end of experiments and analyzed by the light and electron microscope. Several effects were observed in the kidney tissues cells analyzed in accordance with the dose magnitude of radiation. These results clearly show the detrimental effects of UVC radiation on kidney tissue cells in exposure periods dependent on radiation dose and exposure time.

  11. Immunological studies on albino rats against crude endotoxins of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Aeromonas comprises a group of organisms widely distributed in the environment, isolated from water, shallow tube wells, dug wells, piped water supply from sewage, children and adults with diarrhoea, and associated with disease in animals and man. The present work studied the effect of crude endotoxin ...

  12. Determination and Distribution Study of Pogostone in Rat Tissues by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the essential oil of Pogostemonis Herba [2]. Recent studies ... activities. It was reported that PO can restrain the activities of Preris rapae L., Plutella xylostella L. and Dermatophagoides farinae, and was proved to be one of the insecticidal components [3]. Moreover, PO .... the experimental protocols and schedules involving ...

  13. Opioids and spike-wave discharges in rats: Pharmacological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Przewlocka, B.; Lason, W.; Coenen, A.; Przewlocki, R.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have provided evidence for the involvement of opioids in the mechanisms of various forms of epilepsy. Most have investigated the effects of opioids in the control and genesis of convulsive epilepsy, whereas data on opioids mechanisms with respect to nonconvulsive epilepsy are almost

  14. Aqueous Extract of Ipomoea batatas Reduces Food Intake in Male Wistar Rats: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olubobokun, Th; Aluko, Eo; Iyare, Ee; Anyaehie, Usb; Olatunbosun, Ed; Aizenabor, Gi

    2014-07-01

    Food intake is regulated by the complex interaction of psychological and physiological events associated with ingestion. Food that increases short-term satiety decreases the amount of energy ingested subsequently and thus could potentially help in weight management in the long run. Potato, a common starchy tuber in our environment is believed to contain substances that can help maintain and increases short-term satiety. This study was conducted to determine the effect of the aqueous extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [IB]) on food intake in male Wistar rats. The sweet potato tubers were chopped into small pieces and homogenized in distilled water for 30 s. Homogenate was filtered through muslin cloth and then centrifuged at 120 rpm for 20 min. For use, the residue was evaporated to dryness. The dried extract was reconstituted in freshly prepared normal saline for administration to test animals. The 20 acclimatized male Wistar rats weighing 170-180 g were used for this study. The animals were randomly assigned into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 served as the control and was fed with 0.3 ml of normal saline while Groups 2-4 were fed with IB extract. The results showed that in the extract-treated groups, the food intake was significantly reduced at P < 0.01 in a dose dependent manner when compared with the control group. Consumption of IB caused a reduction in food intake probably by reducing appetite and increasing satiety.

  15. Pharmacokinetic study of gallocatechin-7-gallate from Pithecellobium clypearia Benth. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Song, Xiaowei; Song, Junke; Pang, Xiaocong; Wang, Zhe; Zhao, Ying; Lian, Wenwen; Liu, Ailin; Du, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of gallocatechin-7-gallate (J10688) was studied in rats after intravenous administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg (i.v.) of J10688 and plasma drug concentrations were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. The pharmacokinetic software Data Analysis System (Version 3.0) was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. For different i.v. doses of J10688, the mean peak plasma concentration (C 0) values ranged from 11.26 to 50.82 mg/L, and mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t ) values ranged from 1.75 to 11.80 (mg·h/L). J10688 lacked dose-dependent pharmacokinetic properties within doses between 1 and 10 mg/kg, based on the power model. The method developed in this study was sensitive, precise, and stable. The pharmacokinetic properties of J10688 in SD rats were shown to have rapid distribution and clearance values. These pharmacokinetic results may contribute to an improved understanding of the pharmacological actions of J10688.

  16. Pharmacokinetic study of gallocatechin-7-gallate from Pithecellobium clypearia Benth. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetic profile of gallocatechin-7-gallate (J10688 was studied in rats after intravenous administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats received 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg (i.v. of J10688 and plasma drug concentrations were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC–MS method. The pharmacokinetic software Data Analysis System (Version 3.0 was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. For different i.v. doses of J10688, the mean peak plasma concentration (C0 values ranged from 11.26 to 50.82 mg/L, and mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0–t values ranged from 1.75 to 11.80 (mg·h/L. J10688 lacked dose-dependent pharmacokinetic properties within doses between 1 and 10 mg/kg, based on the power model. The method developed in this study was sensitive, precise, and stable. The pharmacokinetic properties of J10688 in SD rats were shown to have rapid distribution and clearance values. These pharmacokinetic results may contribute to an improved understanding of the pharmacological actions of J10688.

  17. The impact of dietary induced hyperparathyroidism on healthy and diseased periodontia: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütfioğlu, Müge; Sakallioğlu, Umur; Sakallioğlu, Elif Eser; Bariş, Sancar; Gürgör, Pınar

    2012-03-01

    Nutrition may be a potential modifying factor in periodontal conditions. The present study investigated this phenomenon for dietary induced hyperparathyroidism (dHPT) by revealing the histopathological and histomorphometrical profiles of healthy and diseased periodontia in dHPT. Dietary induced hyperparathyroidism was induced in 12 rats by dietary calcium/phosphorous imbalance and 12 rats were fed standard diet (SD). Periodontitis was induced on the right mandibular molar teeth (mmt) of these rats by injecting an endotoxin + saline solution whereas injecting pure saline to the left mmt. Thus, four study groups were created: dHPT + saline (group 1), dHPT + endotoxin (group 2), SD + endotoxin (group 3) and SD + saline (group 4). Histological sections were obtained from the second mmt and examined using light microscope. Group 1 demonstrated inflammatory and degenerative alterations in periodontium without pocket formation. Periodontitis was evident in groups 2 and 3. Group 2 revealed the highest amounts of gingival inflammatory cell and vessel counts (group 2 > group 3 > group 1 > group 4), attachment and bone losses (group 2 > group 3 > groups 1 > group 4) and osteoclast count (group 2 > group 3 > group 1 > group 4) (p < 0.05). These results propose that dHPT may impair the health status of periodontium and may worsen the pathobiology of periodontal diseases. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise on spatial learning ability in hypothyroid rats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, MinYoung

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] This pilot study analyzed the degradation of spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism using aerobic and anaerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The experiments were performed on 11, four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypothyroidism-induced rats receiving propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment were divided into aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups. Each group performed exercise and rest for four weeks. Changes in lethargy, memory deterioration, and thyroid function were measured in each group by blood analysis and open field and Morris water maze tests. [Results] After four weeks, blood analysis revealed that the thyroid hormone levels had returned to normal in the aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups, whereas the open field and Morris water maze tests showed that the aerobic and anaerobic exercise groups had faster recovery compared to that of the control group. In addition, comparison of aerobic and anaerobic groups showed that the anaerobic exercise group had faster recovery compared to that of the aerobic group. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that exercise helped to improve lethargy and deteriorated spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism and to recover function in rats. Anaerobic exercise was more beneficial than aerobic exercise in alleviating symptoms.

  19. A comparative behavioural study of mechanical hypersensitivity in 2 pain models in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marie-Céline; Hrncic, Dragan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Caspani, Ombretta

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of pain sensitivity in humans has been standardized using quantitative sensory testing, whereas in animals mostly paw withdrawal thresholds to diverse stimuli are measured. This study directly compares tests used in quantitative sensory testing (pinpricks, pressure algometer) with tests used in animal studies (electronic von Frey test: evF), which we applied to the dorsal hind limbs of humans after high frequency stimulation and rats after tibial nerve transection. Both experimental models induce profound mechanical hypersensitivity. At baseline, humans and rats showed a similar sensitivity to evF with 0.2 mm diameter tips, but significant differences for other test stimuli (all P pain models (P pain sensitivity, but probe size and shape should be standardized. Hypersensitivity to blunt pressure-the leading positive sensory sign after peripheral nerve injury in humans-is a novel finding in the tibial nerve transection model. By testing outside the primary zone of nerve damage (rat) or activation (humans), our methods likely involve effects of central sensitization in both species.

  20. Effect of opium dependency on secondary intention wound healing in a rat model: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedian, Jalal; Mirshekari, Tooraj-Reza; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh

    2013-06-01

    Opium dependency is a social and health problem in some middle eastern countries like Iran. Many of these people may require surgery. This study investigates the effects of opium dependency on histological parameters of secondary intention wound healing in rat. A full-thickness wound (2 × 2 cm in diameters) was created on the dorsum of two groups of rats, a normal control group and a second group of rat depended to opium (Badawy's method). Several times during 14 days postwounding, the wound was excised with peripheral margins of normal skin and was evaluated for cellular population, reepithelialisation and revascularisation. Results are presented as the mean ± standard error. Data were compared by an unpaired t-test or analysis of variance. Histological examination of the wound tissue showed evidence of increased population of fibroblasts, decreased recruitment of neutrophile and plateau of macrophage cells in opium depended animals comparing with control group. In the depended animals, reepithelialisation was seen to be enhanced significantly, while prohibiting progression of revascularisation. This study shows that opium dependency enhances reepitheliazation as well as tissue recruitment of fibroblasts; thereby probable enhancement of secondary intention wound healing. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  1. Developing high-frequency ultrasound tomography for testicular tumor imaging in rats: An in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chih-Chung, E-mail: cchuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Tsen [Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: This paper describes a feasibility study for developing a 35-MHz high-frequency ultrasound computed-tomography (HFUCT) system for imaging rat testicles. Methods: The performances of two kinds of HFUCT-attenuation and sound-speed UCT-based on transmission and pulse-echo modes were investigated in this study. Experiments were carried out using phantoms and actual rat testiclesin vitro. HFUCT images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm. Results: The phantom experimental results indicated that all types of HFUCT can determine the dimensions of a plastic cylinder with a diameter of 500μm. Compared to sound-speed HFUCT, attenuation HFUCT exhibited a better performance in recognizing a tiny sclerosed region in a gelatin phantom. Therefore, the in vitro testicular experiments were performed using attenuation HFUCT based on transmission and pulse-echo modes. The experimentally measured attenuation coefficient and sound speed for healthy rat testicles were 2.92 ± 0.25 dB/mm and 1537 ± 25 m/s, respectively. Conclusions: A homogeneous texture was evident for healthy testicles using both modes. An artificial sclerosed tumor could also be clearly observed using two- and three-dimensional attenuation HFUCT in both modes. However, an object artifact was apparent in pulse-echo mode because of ultrasound beam refraction. All of the obtained experimental results indicate the potential of using HFUCT as a novel tool for monitoring the preclinical responses of testicular tumors in small animals.

  2. Developing high-frequency ultrasound tomography for testicular tumor imaging in rats: An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Wei-Tsen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes a feasibility study for developing a 35-MHz high-frequency ultrasound computed-tomography (HFUCT) system for imaging rat testicles. Methods: The performances of two kinds of HFUCT-attenuation and sound-speed UCT-based on transmission and pulse-echo modes were investigated in this study. Experiments were carried out using phantoms and actual rat testiclesin vitro. HFUCT images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm. Results: The phantom experimental results indicated that all types of HFUCT can determine the dimensions of a plastic cylinder with a diameter of 500μm. Compared to sound-speed HFUCT, attenuation HFUCT exhibited a better performance in recognizing a tiny sclerosed region in a gelatin phantom. Therefore, the in vitro testicular experiments were performed using attenuation HFUCT based on transmission and pulse-echo modes. The experimentally measured attenuation coefficient and sound speed for healthy rat testicles were 2.92 ± 0.25 dB/mm and 1537 ± 25 m/s, respectively. Conclusions: A homogeneous texture was evident for healthy testicles using both modes. An artificial sclerosed tumor could also be clearly observed using two- and three-dimensional attenuation HFUCT in both modes. However, an object artifact was apparent in pulse-echo mode because of ultrasound beam refraction. All of the obtained experimental results indicate the potential of using HFUCT as a novel tool for monitoring the preclinical responses of testicular tumors in small animals

  3. [Study on effects of bioelectric parameters of rats in electromagnetic radiation of HV transmission line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anying; Pang, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Ping

    2007-02-01

    With the development of economy and coming of information era, the chance of exposure to electromagnetic fields with various frequencies has been increased for every human. The effects of electromagnetic radiattion on human being's health are versatile. To study the effects of bioelctronic parameters of rats in the electromagnetic radiations of HV transmission line, EEG, ECG and CMAP were measured in rats exposed to simulating high-voltage transmission line electromagnetic radiation for over one year. Brain tissues were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that no significant difference between exposed group and control group in EEG; however the FT-infrared spectra of brain tissues were different; the ECG of the exposed animals was considerably altered. Significant slowing of heart rate was observed in those rates exposed to EMFs; the latent period of CMAP in exposed group were not different compared with those of control group however there was a significant difference in wave amplitude of CMAP between the exposed group and control group. All results indicated that there must be some effects on bioelectric parameters of rats exposed to electromagnetic radiation of high-voltage transmission line for a long time.

  4. Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzuddin Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone, Control (laminectomy with SCI, and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180 mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis. A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord.

  5. Study of wound healing potential of Stevia rebaudiana ethanol extract in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goorani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Stevia rebaudiana has been used in medicine as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, anti-fungal, and antibacterial agent. The present study was conducted to investigate the healing effects of S. rebaudiana ethanol extracts on cutaneous wounds in rats. Methods: Full-thickness excisional wounds (2×2 cm were induced on the back of 32 rats. The rats were divided into four groups as follows; untreated (control and treated with 1 mL basal cream, 1 mL S. rebaudiana ethanol extract 10%, and 1 mL tetracycline (3% for 20 days (short term. Animals of each group were euthanized at 20 day post-injury and wounds were assessed through macroscopic and microscopic analyses. Results: During the experiment, S. rebaudiana indicated a significant reduction in the wound area compared to other groups. Parameters such as arrangement of the healing tissue, re-epithelilization and epithelial formation demonstrated considerable changes when compared to the control. In addition, treatment with S. rebaudiana decreased the total number of cells, fibrocytes/fibroblasts ratio, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and enhanced the number of blood vessels and fibroblasts at 20 day. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the wound healing activity of S. rebaudiana, lending credence to the folkloric use in the treatment of cutaneous wounds.

  6. Acute and subacute (28-day) toxicity studies of ionic liquid, didecyldimethyl ammonium acesulfamate, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Nowicki, Michał; Adamska, Teresa; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Kujawska, Małgorzata; Petzke, Ewelina; Konwerska, Aneta; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Pernak, Juliusz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute and subacute oral toxicity of an ionic liquid, didecyldimethylammonium acesulfamate [DDA][Ace], in rats. The compound tested was classified to the fourth toxicity class with a fixed LD(50) cut-off value of 500 mg/kg. Organ pathology induced by [DDA][Ace] in acute experiments included exfoliation of the surface layer of the digestive tract and alveolar septa in lung parenchyma. In a subacute experiment, rats were administered 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day [DDA][Ace] for 28 days. Reduced body weight gain and reduced food consumption was observed in mid- and high-dose rats. Statistically significant hematology changes were found mostly in high-dose groups of both sexes: increases in hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean platelet volume. Statistically significant changes in clinical chemistry parameters included increases in the GGT, SDH, and LDH activity and bilirubin concentration, and decreases in triglycerides, glucose, and inorganic phosphorus concentration. No treatment-related microscopic changes were observed. Under the conditions of this study, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of [DDA][Ace] was considered to be 10 mg/kg/day.

  7. Methodological considerations on descriptive studies of induced periodontal diseases in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to show the technique and the methodological approach used in describing histological characteristics of induced periodontal disease in rats. To reach that inflammatory process, periodontal disease was induced by ligature, with or without sucrose-rich diet. Twenty-four female adult (60 days old Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Group 1, or control (which received standard diet, Group 2 (which received ligature around the upper second molars and a standard diet, Group 3 (which received a sucrose-rich diet, and Group 4 (which received ligature around the upper second molars and a sucrose-rich diet. The animals were followed for a period of 30 days, after which they were sacrificed. The upper second molars were removed, processed, and the histological characteristics were analyzed by a descriptive dichotomous method. The results were analyzed by the Fisher's exact test (significance level of 95% and by a residual test, which showed the relation between groups and histological characteristics. The animals which received ligature (Groups 2 and 4 showed histological characteristics related with periodontitis, whilst the animals without ligatures showed no periodontal destruction. This was shown by a distribution of these groups in extremes of a graphic representation. The use of a ligature, as done in this study, was able to promote a chronic inflammatory process in the periodontium of rats, regardless of the adopted diet. The correspondence factorial analysis was capable of showing these characteristics, being one more tool to be used in histological research.

  8. Tamarind seed polysaccharide: a 28-day dietary study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbach, James T; Egawa, Hiroshi; Marone, Palma Ann; Bauter, Mark R; Kennepohl, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Forty male and 40 female Crl:SD® CD® IGS rats were fed diets containing 0, 40,000, 80,000, or 120,000 ppm tamarind seed polysaccharide (equivalent to 3450.8, 6738.9, or 10 597.1 mg/kg bw/day and 3602.1, 7190.1, or 10,690.7 mg/kg bw/day for males and females, respectively) for 28 days. Animals were observed for adverse clinical signs, body weight, feed consumption, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, urinalysis values were recorded, and at the end of the study the rats underwent a full necropsy. Functional Observational Battery (FOB) and Motor Activity (MA) tests were performed on all animals. There were no mortalities, no clinical or ophthalmologic signs, body weight, body weight gain, food consumption and food efficiency, FOB or MA findings associated with the administration of tamarind seed polysaccharide. Initial statistically significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption resolved after the first week and were considered the result of reduced palatability. There were no adverse changes in hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry or urinalysis parameters in male or female rats considered the result of test substance administration. At necropsy, there were no macroscopic, histopathological findings, estrus cycle, or organ weight changes deemed related to administration of the test substance. Under the conditions of this study and based on the toxicological endpoints evaluated, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for tamarind seed polysaccharide in the diet was the highest concentration tested of 120,000 ppm (equivalent to 10,597 mg/kg bw/day and 10,691 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats, respectively).

  9. Hesperidin as radioprotector against radiation-induced lung damage in rat: A histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hassan Haddadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated by ionizing radiation, and one of the organs commonly affected by ROS is the lung. Radiation-induced lung injury including pneumonia and lung fibrosis is a dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy (RT of patients with thorax irradiation. Administration of antioxidants has been proved to protect against ROS. The present study was aimed to assess the protective effect of hesperidin (HES against radiation-induced lung injury of male rats. Fifty rats were divided into three groups. G1: Received no HES and radiation (sham. G2: Underwent γ-irradiation to the thorax. G3: Received HES and underwent γ-irradiation. The rats were exposed to a single dose of 18 Gy using cobalt-60 unit and were administered HES (100 mg/kg for 7 days before irradiation. Histopathological analysis was performed 24 h and 8 weeks after RT. Histopathological results in 24 h showed radiation-induced inflammation and presence of more inflammatory cells as compared to G1 (P < 0.05. Administration of HES significantly decreased such an effect when compared to G2 (P < 0.05. Histopathological evaluation in 8 weeks showed a significant increase in mast cells, inflammation, inflammatory cells, alveolar thickness, vascular thickness, pulmonary edema, and fibrosis in G2 when compared to G1 (P < 0.05. HES significantly decreased inflammatory response, fibrosis, and mast cells when compared to G2 (P < 0.05. Administration of HES resulted in decreased radiation pneumonitis and radiation fibrosis in the lung tissue. Thus, the present study showed HES to be an efficient radioprotector against radiation-induced damage in the lung of tissue rats.

  10. Genetic, physiological and comparative genomic studies of hypertension and insulin resistance in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Coan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously mapped hypertension-related insulin resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs to rat chromosomes 4, 12 and 16 using adipocytes from F2 crosses between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, and subsequently identified Cd36 as the gene underlying the chromosome 4 locus. The identity of the chromosome 12 and 16 genes remains unknown. To identify whole-body phenotypes associated with the chromosome 12 and 16 linkage regions, we generated and characterised new congenic strains, with WKY donor segments introgressed onto an SHR genetic background, for the chromosome 12 and 16 linkage regions. We found a >50% increase in insulin sensitivity in both the chromosome 12 and 16 strains. Blood pressure and left ventricular mass were reduced in the two congenic strains consistent with the congenic segments harbouring SHR genes for insulin resistance, hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Integrated genomic analysis, using physiological and whole-genome sequence data across 42 rat strains, identified variants within the congenic regions in Upk3bl, RGD1565131 and AABR06087018.1 that were associated with blood pressure, cardiac mass and insulin sensitivity. Quantitative trait transcript analysis across 29 recombinant inbred strains showed correlation between expression of Hspb1, Zkscan5 and Pdgfrl with adipocyte volume, systolic blood pressure and cardiac mass, respectively. Comparative genome analysis showed a marked enrichment of orthologues for human GWAS-associated genes for insulin resistance within the syntenic regions of both the chromosome 12 and 16 congenic intervals. Our study defines whole-body phenotypes associated with the SHR chromosome 12 and 16 insulin-resistance QTLs, identifies candidate genes for these SHR QTLs and finds human orthologues of rat genes in these regions that associate with related human traits. Further study of these genes in the congenic strains will lead to robust identification of the

  11. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematologica...

  12. A combined phytohemagglutinin and a-ketoglutarate pharmacology study of gut morphology and growth in older adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, R.; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study has evaluated the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on GI-tract morphology and N balance in adult rats. Rats, aged approx. 15 months, were assigned to one of four experimental groups, (1) Control group, (2) AKG group, (3) AKG+PHA 100......% group and (4) AKG+PHA 1% group. AKG and AKG+PHA were administered via a stomach tube. Rats were treated for a period of 7 days before being killed humanely. Lighter GI-tract weights were found in the AKG and AKG+PHA 1% groups (6.8%, p

  13. Focus on Games & Simulations: Trends+Technologies+Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    A changing mindset combined with changing technology is driving the use of games and simulations. People are becoming more open to using games and simulations for learning, and, at the same time, the technologies are making the development of games and simulations easier and faster than a mere five years ago. Together, the changing mindset and the…

  14. Future of health technology assessment studies in gene and cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of new knowledge and technological change is a key driver of the achievements in policy decisions in health care environments at macro and micro level to achieve better health outcomes. The newly emerging stem cell therapies and genomics technologies stay at the interface of Research and ...

  15. Navigation studies based on the ubiquitous positioning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Mi, Weijie; Wang, Defeng

    2007-11-01

    This paper summarized the nowadays positioning technologies, such as absolute positioning methods and relative positioning methods, indoor positioning and outdoor positioning, active positioning and passive positioning. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technologies were introduced as the omnipresent out-door positioning technologies, including GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BD-1/2. After analysis of the shortcomings of GNSS, indoor positioning technologies were discussed and compared, including A-GPS, Cellular network, Infrared, Electromagnetism, Computer Vision Cognition, Embedded Pressure Sensor, Ultrasonic, RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification), Bluetooth, WLAN etc.. Then the concept and characteristics of Ubiquitous Positioning was proposed. After the ubiquitous positioning technologies contrast and selection followed by system engineering methodology, a navigation system model based on Incorporate Indoor-Outdoor Positioning Solution was proposed. And this model was simulated in the Galileo Demonstration for World Expo Shanghai project. In the conclusion, the prospects of ubiquitous positioning based navigation were shown, especially to satisfy the public location information acquiring requirement.

  16. Role of Information Technology on Warehouse Management in Kenya: A Case Study of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kellen Karimi; G.S. Namusonge

    2014-01-01

    The general objective was to find out factors affecting warehousing management. The specific objective was; to determine the effect of information technology on warehouse management. The researcher used descriptive research design taking Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology as a case for this study. The target population was 930 and a sample size of 50. The sampling design adopted was stratified random sampling. Data collection was done by use of questionnaires and informal ...

  17. Assessment of the effects of laser or LED photobiomodulation on hypothyroid rats of cutaneous wound healing: A morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Isabele Cardoso Vieira; Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; dod Reis Júnior, João Alves; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Rodriguez, Tânia Tavares; Ramalho, Maria José Pedreira; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Hypothyroid has been associated to a disruption of the body's metabolism, including the healing process. Laser and LED have been shown to be effective on improving healing in many situations, but their benefit in the improvement of healing on hypothyroidism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess, morphometrically, the influence of Laser (λ660nm, 24 J/cm2, 40mW, CW, spot output= 4mm2;) and LED (λ630nm ± 20, 24 J/cm2, 150mW, CW, spot output= 0.5 cm2) on the wound healing of rats with Hypothyroid. Under general anesthesia, a standard surgical wound (1cm2) was created on the dorsum of 72 male Wistar rats divided into 6 groups of 12 animals each: G1: Euthyroid; G2: Euthyroid + Laser; G3: Euthyroid + LED; G4: Hypothyroid; G5: Hypothyroid + Laser and G6: Hypothyroid + LED. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats with propylthiouracil (0.05g/100mL) administered orally for 4 weeks and maintained until the end of the experiment. Rats were irradiated after surgery each 48h then killed after 7 and 14 days. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Hypothyroid rats with phototherapy laser or LED showed significant less wound contraction than euthyroid's rats at the 7th day (pLED photobiomodulation using 24 J/cm2 per session improved cutaneous wound healing in hypothyroid rats.

  18. A comparative study of myocardial function and morphology during fasting/refeeding and food restriction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Matheus Fécchio; Leopoldo, André Soares; Silva, Maeli Dal-Pai; Sugizaki, Mário Mateus; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Aragon, Flávio Ferrari; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the influence of fasting/refeeding cycles and food restriction on rat myocardial performance and morphology. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats were submitted to food ad libitum (C), 50% food restriction (R50), and fasting/refeeding cycles (RF) for 12 weeks. Myocardial function was evaluated under baseline conditions and after progressive increase in calcium and isoproterenol. Myocardium ultrastructure was examined in the papillary muscle. Fasting/refeeding cycles maintained rat body weight and left ventricle weight between control and food-restricted rats. Under baseline conditions, the time to peak tension (TPT) was more prolonged in R50 than in RF and C rats. Furthermore, the maximum tension decline rate (-dT/dt) increased less in R50 than in RF with calcium elevation. While the R50 group showed focal changes in many muscle fibers, such as the disorganization or loss of myofilaments, polymorphic mitochondria with disrupted cristae, and irregular appearance or infolding of the plasma membrane, the RF rats displayed few alterations such as loss or disorganization of myofibrils. Food restriction promotes myocardial dysfunction, not observed in RF rats, and higher morphological damage than with fasting/refeeding. The increase in TPT may be attributed possibly to the disorganization and loss of myofibrils; however, the mechanisms responsible for the alteration in -dT/dt in R50 needs to be further clarified. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring Regional Changes in the Diastolic Deformation of the Left Ventricle of SHR Rats Using microPET Technology and Hyperelastic Warping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grant T; VERESS , ALEXANDER I.; WEISS, JEFFREY A.; HUESMAN, RONALD H.; REUTTER, BRYAN W.; TAYLOR , SCOTT E.; SITEK , AREK; FENG, BING; YANG , YONGFENG; GULLBERG, GRANT T.

    2008-04-04

    The objective of this research was to assess applicability of a technique known as hyperelastic warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle (LV) directly from microPET image data sets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image data sets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target images. For validation, the template image was defined as the end-systolic microPET image data set from a Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The target image was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a FE model of diastolic filling. Regression analysis revealed highly significant correlations between the simulated forward FE solution and image derived warping predictions for fiber stretch (R2 = 0.96), circumferential strain (R2 = 0.96), radial strain (R2 = 0.93), and longitudinal strain (R2 = 0.76) (p<0.001for all cases). The technology was applied to microPET image data of two spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and a WKY control. Regional analysis revealed that, the lateral freewall in the SHR subjects showed the greatest deformation compared with the other wall segments. This work indicates that warping can accurately predict the strain distributions during diastole from the analysis of microPET data sets.

  20. Technological and economic study of ship recycling in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Abdel Naby, Maged M.; Tadros, Mina Y.

    2012-12-01

    The ship recycling industry is growing rapidly. It is estimated that the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) decision to phase-out single hull tankers by 2015 will result in hundreds of ships requiring disposal. At present, the ship recycling industry is predominantly based in South Asia. Due to the bad practice of current scrapping procedure, the paper will highlight the harm occurring to health, safety and environment. The efforts of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) which led to the signing of the Hong Kong International Convention are also reviewed. The criteria and standards required to reduce the risk and damage to the environment are discussed and a proposed plan for the safe scrapping of ships is then presented. A technological and economic study for the ship recycling in Egypt is carried out as a case study. This includes the ship recycling facility size and layout. The equipment and staff required to operate the facility are also evaluated. A cost analysis is then carried out. This includes site development, human resources, machineries and equipment. A fuzzy logic approach is used to assess the benefits of the ship breaking yard. The use of the fuzzy logic approach is found suitable to make decisions for the ship breaking industry. Based on given constraints, the proposed model has proved capable of assessing the profit and the internal rate of return.

  1. Biological responses to perfluorododecanoic acid exposure in rat kidneys as determined by integrated proteomic and metabonomic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA is a perfluorinated carboxylic chemical (PFC that has broad applications and distribution in the environment. While many studies have focused on hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity of PFCAs, few have investigated renal toxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we used comparative proteomic and metabonomic technologies to provide a global perspective on renal response to PFDoA. Male rats were exposed to 0, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.5 mg/kg/day of PFDoA for 110 days. After 2-D DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF analysis, 79 differentially expressed proteins between the control and the PFDoA treated rats (0.2 and 0.5 mg-dosed groups were successfully identified. These proteins were mainly involved in amino acid metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, electron transport, and stress response. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic analysis showed an increase in pyruvate, lactate, acetate, choline, and a variety of amino acids in the highest dose group. Furthermore, the profiles of free amino acids in the PFDoA treated groups were investigated quantitatively by high-coverage quantitative iTRAQ-LC MS/MS, which showed levels of sarcosine, asparagine, histidine, 1-methylhistidine, Ile, Leu, Val, Trp, Tyr, Phe, Cys, and Met increased markedly in the 0.5 mg dosed group, while homocitrulline, α-aminoadipic acid, β-alanine, and cystathionine decreased. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations provide evidence that disorders in glucose and amino acid metabolism may contribute to PFDoA nephrotoxicity. Additionally, α(2u globulin may play an important role in protecting the kidneys from PFDoA toxicity.

  2. A quality-of-life scale for assistive technology: results of a pilot study of aging and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agree, Emily M; Freedman, Vicki A

    2011-12-01

    In an aging society, it is increasingly important to understand how assistive devices can be used by older people to maintain quality of life despite chronic disabilities. Assistive technology is a mainstay of physical therapist practice, but the potential for device use to affect psychosocial well-being is not yet understood at the population level. The objective of this study was to develop a parsimonious indicator that can be used in population-based surveys to represent the effect of assistive technologies on quality of life for older people, separate from personal assistance. This study was a cross-sectional survey. /b> The methods used in this study were psychometric scale development and structural equation modeling. The results indicated that a parsimonious, valid, and reliable scale reflecting quality of life related to assistive device use can be created from 3 questions designed to measure improvements in safety, control, and participation due to technology. The findings also suggested that assistive technology may more effectively improve quality of life for people with greater levels of functional limitations. The data were derived from a cross-sectional survey conducted by telephone. The use of personal assistance, on average, was low; thus, the applicability to a population with more profound care needs has yet to be confirmed. Determining the broader impact of assistive technology on quality of life with population-level measures may provide insight into how best to leverage technologies to prevent dependence in aging adults.

  3. Alveolar bone healing process in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A radiographic densitometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Natalia; Pereira, Cassiano Costa Silva; Garcia, Lourdes Maria Gonzáles; Micaroni, Samuel; Carvalho, Antonio Augusto Ferreira de; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Okamoto, Roberta; Sumida, Doris Hissako; Antoniali, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. If undiagnosed or untreated, this pathology represents a systemic risk factor and offers unfavorable conditions for dental treatments, especially those requiring bone healing. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate, by analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), that the alveolar bone healing process is altered in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Wistar rats and SHRs were submitted to extraction of the upper right incisor and were euthanized 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after surgery. Right maxillae were collected, radiographed and analyzed using Digora software. BMD was expressed as minimum (min), middle (med) and maximum (max) in the medium (MT) and apical (AT) thirds of the dental alveolus. The results were compared across days and groups. Wistar showed difference in med and max BMD in the MT between 7 and 28 and also between 14 and 28 days. The AT exhibited significant difference in med and min BMD between 7 and 28 days, as well as difference in min BMD between 28 and 42 days. SHRs showed lower med BMD in the MT at 28 days when compared to 21 and 42 days. Differences were observed across groups in med and min BMD at day 28 in the MT and AT; and in max BMD at 14, 21 and 42 days in the MT. These results suggest that the alveolar bone healing process is delayed in SHRs comparing with Wistar rats.

  4. Effects of melatonin on diclofenac sodium treated rat kidney: a stereological and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshvakhti, Habib; Yurt, K Kübra; Altunkaynak, B Zuhal; Türkmen, Aysın P; Elibol, Ebru; Aydın, Işınsu; Kıvrak, Elfide G; Önger, M Emin; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of diclofenac sodium (DS) and melatonin (MEL) on kidney of the prenatally administered rats. Pregnant rats were divided into the control, physiological saline, DS, and DS + MEL groups. All injections were given beginning from the 5th day after mating to the 15th day of the pregnancy. Physical dissector and Cavalieri principle were used to estimate the numerical density and total number of glomeruli and the volumetric parameters of kidney, respectively. Our stereological results indicated that DS application during the pregnancy lead to decrease in the mean volume, numerical density, and total number of the glomeruli (p  0.05). Light microscopic investigation showed congestion in blood vessels and shrinkage of the Bowman's space in the DS group. Moreover, there was degeneration in nephrons including glomerulosclerosis and tubular defects, and an increase in the connective tissue in the kidneys of the DS-treated group. However, usage of the MEL with the DS caused preventing of these pathological alterations in the kidney. We suggested that DS might lead to adverse effects in the kidneys of the rats that are prenatally subjected to this drug. Fortunately, these adverse effects can be prevented by the melatonin supplementation.

  5. Proliferation of lung cells in chronically hypoxic rats. An autoradiographic and radiochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedenzu, C.; Grasedyck, K.; Voelkel, N.F.; Bittmann, S.; Lindner, J.

    1981-05-01

    Chronic hypoxia induces an increase in the DNA-synthesis rate of lung tissue and this study confirms this previously reported result using in vivo incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. Autoradiographic investigations demonstrate an increase in the /sup 3/H-thymidine labelling index of cells in the bronchial epithelial lining, of lung parenchyma cells, and of smooth muscle cells in the media of pulmonary arteries after 9 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 4250 m (Pb = 440 Torr). In contrast, in control tissue from rat liver and kidney chronic hypoxia inhibits the proliferation of sinusoid endothelial cells and Kupffer cells and also the proliferation of renal tubulus epithelial cells. Our results indicate that chronic hypoxia stimulates proliferation of various cell types in the rat lung; cells of the bronchial epithelial lining respond to chronic hypoxia with very high proliferation rates; and the formation of new media smooth muscle cells may contribute to the adaptation process of the pulmonary arteries of chronically hypoxic rats. These results can contribute to the understanding of pulmonary hypertension, an often seen concomitant reaction of chronic lung diseases.

  6. The combined effects of diabetes and ionising radiation on the rat retina: an ultrastructural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stitt, A.W.; Anderson, H.R.; Gardiner, T.A.; Archer, D.B.; McIntyre, Irene

    1994-01-01

    The combined effect of STZ-diabetes and ionising radiation on the rat retina was investigated. Wistar rats, which had been diabetic for 6 months, were irradiated with a single dose of x-rays (1500 cGy) and the ultrastructural effects evaluated at 4-10 mths post-irradiation. At 4 months post-irradiation, the outer nuclear layer of the retina was greatly reduced in thickness and the photoreceptor outer segments were disorganised and reduced in length. By 6 months post-irradiation, the photoreceptor cells were virtually absent, bringing the external limiting membrane into close apposition to the RPE. At 10 months post-irradiation, the RPE was atrophic and degenerative with retinal glial cells coming into contact with Bruch's membrane. This study has described a progressive inner retinal ischemia, with cytoid bodies, capillary non-perfusion and general atrophy of the inner retina intensifying markedly with increasing post-irradiation time. The results suggest that irradiated STZ-diabetic rats may provide a useful model of outer retinal neovascularisation and progressive inner retina ischemia. (author)

  7. A single-neuron tracing study of arkypallidal and prototypic neurons in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Nakano, Takashi; Matsuda, Wakoto; Furuta, Takahiro; Udagawa, Jun; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    The external globus pallidus (GP) is known as a relay nucleus of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. Recent studies in dopamine-depleted and healthy rats indicate that the GP comprises two main types of pallidofugal neurons: the so-called "prototypic" and "arkypallidal" neurons. However, the reconstruction of complete arkypallidal neurons in healthy rats has not been reported. Here we visualized the entire axonal arborization of four single arkypallidal neurons and six single prototypic neurons in rat brain using labeling with a viral vector expressing membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein and examined the distribution of axon boutons in the target nuclei. Results revealed that not only the arkypallidal neurons but nearly all of the prototypic neurons projected to the striatum with numerous axon varicosities. Thus, the striatum is a major target nucleus for pallidal neurons. Arkypallidal and prototypic GP neurons located in the calbindin-positive and calbindin-negative regions mainly projected to the corresponding positive and negative regions in the striatum. Because the GP and striatum calbindin staining patterns reflect the topographic organization of the striatopallidal projection, the striatal neurons in the sensorimotor and associative regions constitute the reciprocal connection with the GP neurons in the corresponding regions.

  8. Effect of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on the severity of acute pancreatitis: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yol, S; Bostanci, E B; Ozogul, Y; Zengin, N I; Ozel, U; Bilgihan, A; Akoglu, M

    2004-12-01

    In the management of mild acute biliary pancreatitis, it is generally recommended to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy after the subsidence of the attack during the same hospital admission. The effect of laparoscopy on abdominal organs has been widely investigated but not in acute pancreatitis. This study used an animal model of mild acute pancreatitis to examine the effects of CO(2) pneumoperitoneum on acute pancreatitis in rats. Mild acute pancreatitis was induced in 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats by surgical ligation of the biliopancreatic duct. After 2 days, animals were assigned to three groups: sham operation (animals were anesthetized for 30 min without undergoing laparotomy), CO(2) pneumoperitoneum (applied for 30 min at a pressure of 12 mmHg), and laparotomy (performed for 30 min, and then the abdomen was closed). Two hours after the surgical procedures, animals were killed and levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, urea, hematocrit, and leukocyte count among Ranson's criteria and levels of amylase, lipase, and total bilirubin were measured to determine the severity of acute pancreatitis. Histopathologic examination of the pancreas was done, and malondialdehyde and glutathione levels of the pancreas and lung were determined. The only significant differences between the groups were in lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, which were significantly higher in the pneumoperitoneum group compared to the sham operation group. CO(2) pneumoperitoneum for 30 min at a pressure of 12 mmHg did not affect the severity of acute pancreatitis induced by ligation of the biliopancreatic duct in rats.

  9. A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

    2009-12-01

    The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage.

  10. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat liver influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovská, K; Almášiová, V; Cigánková, V; Beňová, K; Račeková, E; Martončíková, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile communication systems are undoubtedly an environmental source of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). There is an increasing concern regarding the interactions of EMR with the humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of EMR on Wistar rat liver. Mature rats were exposed to electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm2 for 3 h/d for 3 wk. Samples of the liver were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed histologically for light and transmission electron microscopy. Data demonstrated the presence of moderate hyperemia, dilatation of liver sinusoids, and small inflammatory foci in the center of liver lobules. Structure of hepatocytes was not altered and all described changes were classified as moderate. Electron microscopy of hepatocytes revealed vesicles of different sizes and shapes, lipid droplets, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally necrotizing hepatocytes were observed. Our observations demonstrate that EMR exposure produced adverse effects on rat liver.

  11. The effect of electromagnetic radiation on the rat brain: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Olcay; Songur, Ahmet; Aktas, Cevat; Karavelioglu, Ergun; Caglar, Veli; Aylak, Firdevs; Ozguner, Fehmi; Kanter, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the structural changes of electromagnetic waves in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. 24 Wistar Albino adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups: group I consisted of control rats, and groups II-IV comprised electromagnetically irradiated (EMR) with 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz. The heads of the rats were exposed to 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz microwaves irradiation for 1h per day for 2 months. While the histopathological changes in the frontal cortex and brain stem were normal in the control group, there were severe degenerative changes, shrunken cytoplasm and extensively dark pyknotic nuclei in the EMR groups. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the Total Antioxidative Capacity level was significantly decreased in the EMR groups and also Total Oxidative Capacity and Oxidative Stress Index levels were significantly increased in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. IL-1β level was significantly increased in the EMR groups in the brain stem. EMR causes to structural changes in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum and impair the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine system. This deterioration can cause to disease including loss of these areas function and cancer development.

  12. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat testes influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almášiová, Viera; Holovská, Katarína; Cigánková, Viera; Račeková, Enikö; Fabianová, Kamila; Martončíková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of whole-body electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on testicular parenchyma of Wistar rats. Sexually mature rats were subjected to pulsed electromagnetic field at frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) by 3-h daily applications for 3 wk. Tissue samples were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed by histological techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy. Testes showed apparent degenerative changes of seminiferous epithelium. The seminiferous tubules were mostly irregular in shape, and seminiferous epithelium contained a number of empty spaces of different size. Subsequently, groups of sloughed epithelial cells were often found inside the lumina of tubules. Except for relatively unchanged Sertoli cells, some locations of basal compartment of seminiferous epithelium contained shriveled Sertoli cells with dark cytoplasm. These areas showed degenerative features including necrotizing and shriveled spermatogonia surrounded by empty irregular spaces, and undulating basement membrane. The intertubular spaces were enlarged but interstitial Leydig cells did not show any marked morphological changes. Evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of EMR on testicular parenchyma in rats.

  13. DNA Riboprinting and Biochemical Studies on The Effect of Exposure to Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzook, E.A.; EL-Abiad, N.M.; Awwad, M.H.; El-Aragi, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) was used to evaluate the effect of exposure on some molecular and biochemical aspects in male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Three groups of rats were exposed to PEMF (10, 15, 20 pulses/day three times per week for three weeks) with frequency of 8-12 GHz. An unexposed group was considered the control group. At the end of experiment, serum levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, testosterone, triglycerides and cholesterol were determined. The results revealed that exposure to electromagnetic field induced significant increases in scrum total protein, globulin, triglycerides and testosterone hormone on the second exposed group only. Non significant changes were found in serum levels of albumin and cholesterol in the same group with decreased A/G ratio. All the tested parameters were not affected on the other two exposed groups. An indicative hypothesis for spotting the effect of electromagnetic spectrum on the liver of albino rats was proposed based on the examination of total DNA genome by using PacI, Sfil, Notl and SWal restriction endonucleases. The results achieved have established the value of the physical map as an additional complement to the standard biodosimetric methods

  14. Sensory dynamics of intense microwave irradiation: A comparative study of aversive behaviors by mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D.R.

    1981-10-01

    The results of two experiments are reported, the first on 24 mice and 14 rats, all experimentally naive, that were observed for evidence of adventitious escape from faradic shock or from a potentially lethal, 2450-MHz microwave field in a multi-mode cavity. All of ten rats irradiated at a whole-body-averaged dose rate of 60 mW/g convulsed and expired, presumably from radiation-induced hyperpyrexia. Eight of ten mice irradiated at 60 mW/g survived the four sessions of irradiation, but reliable evidence of escape learning was not observed. The data of the second experiment, which was a pilot study of four rats with an extensive history of exposure to intense but intermittently applied microwave fields, revealed that the animals learned to thermoregulate behaviorally by locomoting in and out of the safe-area circle. A strong relation between dose rate (30, 60, and 120 mW/g) and proportion of time spent in the safe area was observed (r = .97). Post-exposure means of colonic temperature during three sets of sessions under the different rates of energy dosing were highly stable and averaged 39.6 deg C.

  15. Microscopic evaluation of induced tooth movement after subluxation trauma: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the histological alterations that occurred in the periodontal area of rat molars submitted to induced tooth movement (ITM right after an intentional trauma (subluxation. METHODS: Forty adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were selected. The animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5, according to the combination of variables: Group 1 - control (neither trauma nor ITM; Group 2 - ITM; Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 - dentoalveolar trauma groups corresponding, respectively, to 1, 3, 8 and 10 days after trauma; Groups 7 and 8 - the animals' molars were subjected to a 900 cN impact and, one and three days after the trauma event, tooth movement was induced. The rats' maxillary first molars were mesially moved during seven days with a closed coil (50 cN. After the experimental period of each group, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the right maxillas were removed and processed for histological analysis under light microscopy. RESULTS: In the animals of group 3, 4, 5 and 6, the histological alterations were not very significant. Consequently, the effect of induced tooth movement right after a subluxation event (groups 7 and 8 was very similar to those described for Group 2. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the quality of periodontal repair when ITM was applied to teeth that had suffered a subluxation trauma.

  16. Study of spermatogenesis fetal testis exposed noise stress during and after natal period in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Maryamalsadat; Hemadi, Masoud; Saki, Ghasem; Sarkaki, Alireza

    2013-10-01

    Noise stress is dangerous natural contaminant that produces harmful physiological, psychological and morphological outcomes to the body. So this study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of noise stress on the parenchyma of testis. Healthy mature females rats (n = 20) were mated with the mature male rats and then randomly allocated equally either to experimental or control groups. Experimental group has given daily noise stress up to birth their child. In the second step, the child's pregnant rats of experimental group were distributed to three subgroups as follow: group I (without exposure to noise stress), group II (exposure to noise for 8 weeks) and group III (exposure to noise for 14 weeks) for morphometric analysis of their child's testicles by sacrificing of them at weeks 14. In general, the testes of non-exposed group were grown larger than ones in the noise exposed groups. Moreover, the testes of the experimental group 1 were larger than the other experimental groups. Indeed, the rate of atrophic seminiferous tubules and jumbled appearance of the interstitial space were more observed in the noise stress exposed group than non-exposed ones. In addition, seminiferous tubules analysis revealed that the characteristics of interstitial space cells and epithelial germinative cells of the seminiferous tubules in the control group were better than the noise exposed groups. It seems that the noise stress has negative influences on the fertility of male based on enhancing of the apoptotic process induced by pathogenesis stress and suppressing the kinetics spermatogenesis.

  17. Effects of benzodiazepine and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands: histomorphometric and sialometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaclikevis, M V; D'Agulham, A C; Bertassoni, L E; Machado, M A N; de Lima, A A S; Grégio, A M T; Azevedo-Alanis, L R

    2009-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently prescribed drugs and are often related with dry mouth. Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist that increases salivary flow rate and has been used to treat xerostomia. This study aimed to measure salivary flow rate of rats under chronic treatment with benzodiazepine (Diazepam), to analyze by histomorphometry the effects of the drug in the parotids glands and to verify the effect of the pilocarpine in glandular parenchyma and in the salivary flow rate. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were allocated to four groups. Control groups received saline during 60 days (C60) and pilocarpine (Pilo) during 60 days. Experimental groups were dealt with Diazepam associated with saline (DS), and Diazepam associated with pilocarpine (DP) during 60 days. The stimulated salivary flow rate was obtained by using the gravimetric method. After the animals were killed, parotid glands were removed and mass and size were determined. The specimens were processed and stereological analysis revealed cell volume. Mean values of size and salivary flow rate varied from 9.007 mm and 0.015 mg/min in DS to 7.854 mm and 0.029 mg/min in DP, respectively. ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between groups for size (p=0.0028) and salivary flow rate (p=0.0003). Psychotropic drugs caused hyposalivation in rats and acinar hypertrophy in their parotid glands. Pilocarpine, a cholinergic agonist with topical appliance, showed significant secretagogue action in the treatment of hyposalivation induced by Diazepam chronic use.

  18. Study of the variations in apoptotic factors in hippocampus of male rats with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Alani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress-related psychosomatic disorder caused by occurrence of a traumatic event and the hippocampus volume of the patients with Post-traumatic stress disorder decreased. However, the mechanisms that cause such damage are not well-understood. The aim of this study is to detect the expression of apoptosis-related Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and Insulin-like growth Factor-I proteins in the hippocampus region in the Predatory stress rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 male wistar rats were divided into Predatory stress groups of 1d, 2d, 3d, 7d, 14d, 30d and a normal control group (N = 10. Rats were subjected to 5 min of predatory stress and then exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM. Serum corticosterone and Insulin-like growth factor-1 level of Hippocampus were measured by ELISA technique. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 were detected by western blotting. Results: Rats spent significantly more time in closed arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM than control group after exposure to stress. Serum levels of corticosterone significantly increased at 2d-3d. The expression of hippocampal IGF-1 was significantly up-regulated at 1d-2d after stress. Both Bax and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 significantly peaked at Predatory stress 2d-14d. Caspase3 was significantly active among 2d-30 compared to the normal control. Conclusion: The activation of caspase-3 in the stress groups indicates that apoptosis may be one of the reasons inducing hippocampus atrophy and play roles in the pathogenesis of PTSD. Increase in hippocampus levels of IGF-1 during early PTSD might be involved in the early molecular inhibitory mechanism of apoptosis in PTSD.

  19. Hypercaloric diet modulates effects of chronic stress: a behavioral and biometric study on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla de; Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes de; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Quevedo, Alexandre S; Filho, Paulo Ricardo Marques; Silva, Fernanda Ribeiro da; Vercelino, Rafael; de Souza, Izabel C Custodio; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that has been associated with chronic stress and hypercaloric diet (HD) consumption. Increased ingestion of food containing sugar and fat ingredients (comfort food) is proposed to "compensate" chronic stress effects. However, this eating habit may increase body fat depositions leading to obesity. This study evaluated behavioral/physiological parameters seeking to establish whether there is an association between the effects of HD intake and stress, and to test the hypothesis that the development of anxious behavior and obesity during chronic stress periods depends on the type of diet. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats (n = 100) were divided into four groups: standard chow, hypercaloric diet, chronic stress/standard chow and chronic stress/hypercaloric diet. Chronic stress was induced by restraint stress exposure for 1 h/day, for 80 d. At the end of this period, rat behavior was evaluated using open-field and plus-maze tests. The results showed that HD alone increased weight gain and adipose deposition in subcutaneous and mesenteric areas. However, stress reduced weight gain and adipose tissue in these areas. HD also increased naso-anal length and concurrent stress prevented this. Behavioral data indicated that stress increased anxiety-like behaviors and comfort food reduced these anxiogenic effects; locomotor activity increased in rats fed with HD. Furthermore, HD decreased corticosterone levels and stress increased adrenal weight. The data indicate that when rats are given HD and experience chronic stress this association reduces the pro-obesogenic effects of HD, and decreases adrenocortical activity.

  20. Studying Challenges in Integrating Technology in Secondary Mathematics with Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes challenges encountered by two secondary mathematics teachers when they try to integrate ICT devices in their classes. These findings are based on using the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) context, the four dimension framework developed by Niess: 1) overarching conceptions of integrating ICT, 2)…