WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology status

  1. Status of fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Ashok

    1978-01-01

    The current status of fusion technology is surveyed. Limited reserves of fossil fuel and dangers of proliferation from nuclear reactors have brought into focus the need to develop an optional energy source. Fusion is being looked upon as an optional energy source which is free from environmental hazards unlike fossil fuels and nuclear reactors. Investments in R and D of fusion energy have increased rapidly in USA, Japan, USSR and European countries. Out of the various fusion fuels known, a mixture of D and T is widely chosen. The main problem in fusion technology is the confinement of plasma for a time sufficient to start the fusion reaction. This can be done magnetically or inertially. The three approaches to magnetic confinement are : (1) tokamak, (2) mirror and (3) pinch. Inertial confinement makes use of lasers or electron beams or ion beams. Both the methods of confinement i.e. magnetic and inertial have problems which are identified and their nature is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  2. Status of thorium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, R.K.; Raghavan, R.V.; Karve, V.M.; Narayandas, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    Although a number of studies have been conducted in various countries to evolve reactor systems based on thorium fuel cycle, its use, so far, is limited to only a few reactors. However, for countries having large reserves of thorium, its utilization is of great significance for their nuclear power programmes. Reasonably assured world resources of thorium in the lower price range have been estimated at more than 500,000 tons of ThO 2 . While most of these resources are in placer deposits in various parts of the world, some vein deposits and uranium ores are other important sources of thorium. Monazite, the most important mineral of thorium, is found in the beach sand deposits along with other heavy minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and sillimanite etc. Mining of these deposits is usually carried out by suction dredging and separation of monazite from other minerals is effected by a combination of magnetic, electrostatic and gravity separation techniques. Chemical processing of monazite is carried out either by sulphuric acid or caustic treatment, followed by separation of the rare earths and thorium by partial precipitation or leaching. The thorium concentrate is further processed to obtain mantle grade thorium nitrate by chemical purification steps whereas solvent extraction using TBP is adopted for making nuclear-grade material. The purified thorium nitrate is converted to the oxide usually by precipitation as oxalate followed by calcination. The oxide is reduced directly with calcium or converted to the chloride or fluoride and then reduced by calcium or magnesium to obtain thorium metal. Various fuel designs based on the metal or its alloys, mixed oxides or carbides, and dispersed type fuel elements have been developed and accordingly, different fabrication techniques have been employed. Work on irradiation of thorium containing fuel elements and separation of U 233 is being carried out. This paper reviews the status of thorium technology in the world with

  3. Fusion technology status and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined

  4. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  5. Present status of foreign reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao; Ishikawa, Yasusi; Mori, Jyunichi

    2000-03-01

    In considering extensively and evaluating advanced nuclear fuel recycle technologies then selecting credible one among those technology options and establishing practicable plan of future fast reactor fuel recycle technology, it is important to investigate foreign reprocessing information extensively and minutely as much as possible then to know trends of reprocessing technology development in the world and present technology level of each country. This report is intending to present information of the status and the technology of operating, constructing and closed foreign reprocessing facilities in the world, including, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel reprocessing technology. The conceptual study of 'Foreign Reprocessing Technology Database' was also performed in order to add or revise the information easily. The eight countries, France, The U.K., Russia, The U.S., Germany, Belgium, India and China, were studied regarding outline of the facilities, operation status, future plan, technical information of process flow sheet, primary components, maintenance system etc, construction and operating costs, accidents or troubles, decommissioning status. (author)

  6. Status of radiation-based measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Lee, J. W.; Chung, C. E.; Hong, S. B.; Kim, J. T.; Park, W. M.; Kim, J. Y.

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the status of measurement equipment using radiation source and new technologies in this field. This report includes the development status in Korea together with a brief description of the technology development and application status in ten countries including France, America, and Japan. Also this report describes technical factors related to radiation-based measurement and trends of new technologies. Measurement principles are also described for the equipment that is widely used among radiation-based measurement, such as level measurement, density measurement, basis weight measurement, moisture measurement, and thickness measurement. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  7. Instructional Technology in Brazil: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saettler, Paul

    1973-01-01

    A status report on the evolving conceptions of instructional technology and current applications in Brazil. A complementary purpose is to summarize those conditions which vitally influence the general characteristics of the Brazilian educational system and the nature of instructional technology in this major developing country of the world.…

  8. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  9. Status quo of supply technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Shigeo

    1987-09-01

    Problems for gas supply function, activity of the Gas Association, and technological development mainly of the presented subjects are reported. According to the materials released by the Gas Associattion, demands for city gas by the 21st Century is expected to be rather high with 3.6% annual growth rate. It is premissed on an assumption that the superior quality of the city gas satisfying customer requirements would be further upgraded. The problems confronted by the supply function for this purpose are the pursuit for less cost, improvement in security, and stable gas supply. The Gas Association carried out research, investigation, preparation of standards, etc., and published instructive materials such as guide for main and branch piping, guide for supply piping, technical standards for gas related works, etc. It also has been endeavoring to popularize the use of polyethylene pipies, and studying the evaluation method for the renewal and repair of gas conduits and house regulator supply system, etc. The supply function has been working on the cutting dowm of costs, inprovement in security, and developing technologies such as underground probing radar, inteligent pipe locator, identifier for gas and water supply tubes, estimation of ground subsidence, inspection of inside of pipes by a television camera, etc. (1 tab)

  10. Status of Wind Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    With the development of wind turbine technology, wind power will become more controllable and grid‐friendly. It is desirable to make wind farms operate as conventional power plants. Wind turbine generators (WTGs) were mainly used in rural and remote areas for wind power generation. WTG‐based wind...... energy conversion systems (WECS) can be divided into the four main types (type 1‐4). Due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of the wind, the integration of wind power into the grid has brought challenges in several different areas, including power quality, system reliability, stability......, and planning. The impact of each is largely dependent on the level of wind power penetration in the grid. In many countries, relatively high levels of wind power penetration have been achieved. This chapter shows the estimated wind power penetration in leading wind markets....

  11. Status of Irradiation technology development in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Y.; Inoue, S.; Izumo, H.; Kitagishi, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Saito, T.; Ishitsuka, E.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation Engineering Section of the Neutron Irradiation and Testing Reactor Center was organized to development the new irradiation technology for the application at JMTR re operation. The new irradiation engineering building was remodeled from the old RI development building, and was started to use from the end of September, 2008. Advanced in situ instrumentation technology (high temperature multi paired thermocouple, ceramic sensor, application of optical measurement), 99M o production technology by new Mo solution irradiation method, recycling technology on used beryllium reflector, and so on are planned as the development of new irradiation technologies. The development will be also important for the education and training programs through the development of young generation in not only Japan but also Asian counties. In this report, as the status of the development the new irradiation technology, new irradiation engineering building, high temperature multi paired thermocouple, experiences of optical measurement, recycling technology on used beryllium reflector are introduced

  12. Status of irradiation technology development in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Y.; Inoue, S.; Izumo, H.; Kitagishi, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Saito, T.; Ishitsuka, E.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation Engineering Section of the Neutron Irradiation and Testing Reactor Centre was organised to development the new irradiation technology for the application at JMTR re-operation. The new irradiation engineering building was remoulded from the old RI development building, and was started to use from the end of September, 2008. Advanced in-situ instrumentation technology(high temperature multi-paired thermocouple, ceramic sensor,application of optical measurement), 99 Mo production technology by new Mo solution irradiation method,recycling technology on used beryllium reflector, and so on are planned as the development of new irradiation technologies. The development will be also important for the education and training programs through the development of young generation in not only Japan but also Asian countries. In this report, as the status of the development the new irradiation technology, new irradiation engineering building, high temperature multi-paired thermocouple, experiences of optical measurement, recycling technology on used beryllium reflector are introduced

  13. Technological status of organic photovoltaics (OPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a technological status of organic and polymer photovoltaics (OPV) for both single and tandem junctions. We list the current state-of-the-art at the laboratory level for very small rigid and mostly vacuum processed devices to larger area flexible and printed devices. In comparison...

  14. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Status Analysis Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Get Involved Fuel cell developers interested in collaborating with NREL on fuel cell technology status analysis should send an email to NREL's Technology Validation Team at techval@nrel.gov. NREL's analysis of fuel cell technology provides objective

  15. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, Simon P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Bett, Andreas W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the status of the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) market and industry as well as current trends in research and technology. This report is intended to guide research agendas for Fraunhofer ISE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and other R&D organizations. Version 1.1 of this report includes recent progress in CPV. The recent record module efficiency of 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve.

  16. The status of membrane bioreactor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Simon

    2008-02-01

    In this article, the current status of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment is reviewed. Fundamental facets of the MBR process and membrane and process configurations are outlined and the advantages and disadvantages over conventional suspended growth-based biotreatment are briefly identified. Key process design and operating parameters are defined and their significance explained. The inter-relationships between these parameters are identified and their implications discussed, with particular reference to impacts on membrane surface fouling and channel clogging. In addition, current understanding of membrane surface fouling and identification of candidate foulants is appraised. Although much interest in this technology exists and its penetration of the market will probably increase significantly, there remains a lack of understanding of key process constraints such as membrane channel clogging, and of the science of membrane cleaning.

  17. Review of ORNL's MSR technology and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Gat, U.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Williams, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of molten salt reactor development is discussed with reference to the experience from the Oak Ridge Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. Assessment of the future for this reactor system is reviewed with consideration of both advantages and disadvantages. Application of this concept to ADTT (accelerator driven transmutation technology) needs appears to be feasible by drawing on the MSRE experience. Key chemical considerations remain as: solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity and their importance to ADTT planning is briefly explained. Priorities in the future development of molten salts for these applications are listed, with the foremost being the acceptance of the 2LiF-BeF 2 solvent system. 8 refs, 2 figs

  18. Status of 2 micron laser technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Mark

    1991-01-01

    The status of 2 micron lasers for windshear detection is described in viewgraph form Theoretical atmospheric and instrument system studies have demonstrated that the 2.1 micron Ho:YAG lasers can effectively measure wind speeds in both wet and dry conditions with accuracies of 1 m/sec. Two micron laser technology looks very promising in the near future, but several technical questions remain. The Ho:YAG laser would be small, compact, and efficient, requiring little or no maintenance. Since the Ho:YAG laser is laser diode pumped and has no moving part, the lifetime of this laser would be directly related to the diode laser lifetimes which can perform in excess of 10,000 hours. Efficiencies of 3 to 12 percent are expected, but laser demonstrations confirming the ability to Q-switch this laser are required. Coherent laser operation has been demonstrated for both the CW and Q-switched lasers.

  19. Biomass electric technologies: Status and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    At the present time, there axe approximately 6 gigawatts (GWe) of biomass-based, grid-connected electrical generation capacity in the United States. This capacity is primarily combustion-driven, steam-turbine technology, with the great majority of the plants of a 5-50 megawatt (MW) size and characterized by heat rates of 14,770-17,935 gigajoules per kilowatt-hour (GJ/kWh) (14,000-17,000 Btu/kWh or 18%-24% efficiency), and with installed capital costs of $1,300-$1,500/kW. Cost of electricity for existing plants is in the $0.065-$O.08/kWh range. Feedstocks are mainly waste materials; wood-fired systems account for 88% of the total biomass capacity, followed by agricultural waste (3%), landfill gas (8%), and anaerobic digesters (1%). A significant amount of remote, non-grid-connected, wood-fired capacity also exists in the paper and wood products industry. This chapter discusses biomass power technology status and presents the strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Power Program for advancing biomass electric technologies to 18 GWe by the year 2010, and to greater than 100 GWe by the year 2030. Future generation systems will be characterized by process efficiencies in the 35%-40% range, by installed capital costs of $770-$900/kW, by a cost of electricity in the $0.04-$O.05/kWh range, and by the use of dedicated fuel-supply systems. Technology options such as integrated gasification/gas-turbine systems, integrated pyrolysis/gas-turbine systems, and innovative direct-combustion systems are discussed, including present status and potential growth. This chapter also presents discussions of the U.S. utility sector and the role of biomass-based systems within the industry, the potential advantages of biomass in comparison to coal, and the potential environmental impact of biomass-based electricity generation

  20. HTGR technology development: status and direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    During the last two years there has been an extensive and comprehensive effort expended primarily by General Atomic (GA) in generating a revised technology development plan. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has assisted in this effort, primarily through its interactions over the past years in working together with GA in technology development, but also through detailed review of the initial versions of the technology development plan as prepared by GA. The plan covers Fuel Technology, Materials Technology (including metals, graphite, and ceramics), Plant Technology (including methods, safety, structures, systems, heat exchangers, control and electrical, and mechanical), and Component Design Verification and Support areas

  1. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Technology Preparedness and Status Report Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacker, P.B.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Cannon, P.G.; Hyde, R.A.; Watson, L.R.

    1994-04-01

    A Technology Preparedness and Status Report is required for each Technical Task Plan funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. This document provides guidance for the preparation of that report. Major sections of the report will include a subset of the need for the technology, objectives of the demonstration, technology description and readiness evaluation, demonstration requirements, and preparedness checklist and action plan

  2. [Assisted reproductive technologies and the embryo status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Y

    The status of the human embryo has always be a subject of philosophical and theological thoughts with major social consequences, but, until the 19th century, it has been mainly an abstraction. The arrival of the human embryo in vitro, materialized by Louise Brown's birth in 1978 and above all by the supernumerary embryos produced by the Australian team of Trounson and Wood following the introduction of ovarian stimulation, will turn theoretical thoughts into a reality. Nobody may ignore the hidden intentions behind the debate, as to recognise a status to a few days old embryo will immediately have a major impact on the status of a few weeks old foetus and therefore on the abortion rights. We will see that the embryo status, essentially based as well on a vision on the good and evil as on social order, cannot be based on a scientific analysis of the reproduction process but comes from a society's choice, by essence " arbitrary " and always disputable. This does not preclude the collectivity right and legitimacy to give a precise status and it is remarkable to observe the law is careful not to specify which status to give to the human embryo. It is more thru handling procedures and functioning rules that the law designed the embryo position, neither with a status of a person, nor of a thing. It nevertheless remains true that there is a constant risk that the legislation gives the embryo a status that would call into question it's unique characteristic of early reproductive stage, jeopardizing at once the hard-won reproductive freedom (reproductive choice) as well as freedom of research on embryonic stem cells, one of the most promising field of medical research.

  3. Water treatment for fossil fuel power generation - technology status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This technology status report focuses on the use of water treatment technology in fossil fuel power plants. The use of polymeric ion exchange resins for deionization of water, the currently preferred use of ion exchange for economically treating water containing low dissolved salts, the use of low pressure high-flux membranes, membrane microfiltration, and reverse osmosis are discussed. Details are given of the benefits of the technologies, water use at power plants, the current status of water treatment technologies, and the potential for future developments, along with power plant market trends and potentials, worldwide developments, and UK capabilities in water treatment plant design and manufacturing

  4. Gasification - Status and Technology; Foergasning - Status och teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2011-07-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect atmospheric gasification and Pressurized oxygen blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them is based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others more advantageous solutions, still need further development. The report deals to a minor extent with the conversion of syngas to synthetic fuels. The ongoing research and development of gasification techniques is extensive, both on national and international level. Although many process concepts and components have been demonstrated, there is still no full-scale plant for the production of synthetic fuels based on biomass. Factors affecting the choice of technology are plant size, operating conditions, the possibility for process integration, access to feedstock, market aspects, incentives and economic instruments et cetera. Increased competition for biofuels will inevitably lead to higher raw material costs. This in turn means that the fuel chains with high efficiency, such as biomethane through gasification and methanation, are favored

  5. Status of technology for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the area of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes the successful development and application of specific management technologies have been demonstrated over the years. The major area in which technology remains to be effectively implemented is in the management of high-level wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. Research and development specifically directed at the management of high-level radioactive wastes in the USA and other countries is briefly reviewed in the article introduced

  6. Status and promise of fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy

    2001-09-01

    The niche or early entry market penetration by ONSI and its phosphoric acid fuel cell technology has proven that fuel cells are reliable and suitable for premium power and other opportunity fuel niche market applications. Now, new fuel cell technologies - solid oxide fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and polymer electrolyte fuel cells - are being developed for near-term distributed generation shortly after 2003. Some of the evolving fuel cell systems are incorporating gas turbines in hybrid configurations. The combination of the gas turbine with the fuel cell promises to lower system costs and increase efficiency to enhance market penetration. Market estimates indicate that significant early entry markets exist to sustain the initially high cost of some distributed generation technologies. However, distributed generation technologies must have low introductory first cost, low installation cost, and high system reliability to be viable options in competitive commercial and industrial markets. In the long-term, solid state fuel cell technology with stack costs under $100/kilowatt (kW) promises deeper and wider market penetration in a range of applications including a residential, auxillary power, and the mature distributed generation markets. The solid state energy conversion alliance (SECA) with its vision for fuel cells in 2010 was recently formed to commercialize solid state fuel cells and realize the full potential of the fuel cell technology. Ultimately, the SECA concept could lead to megawatt-size fuel-cell systems for commercial and industrial applications and Vision 21 fuel cell turbine hybrid energy plants in 2015. (orig.)

  7. Nanofluid Technology: Current Status and Future Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Stephen U.-S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Technology Division

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R&D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  8. The status of basic technology in Cross River State Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to ascertain the status of basic technology in Cross River State junior secondary schools. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The study was guided by three (3) research questions. The population for the study comprised of one hundred and twelve (112) basic technology ...

  9. Status of fast reactor technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1992-01-01

    The paper has introduced briefly the recent news about the Chinese nuclear programme on PWR and FBR. Concerning the FFR design, some issues under consideration have been presented, including the matches between thermo-parameters of primary sodium and of steam, the arrangement of control and safety rods which correspond to first and second shut-down systems, the structure of inner vessel and the axial length of subassembly. With regard to the R and D of FBR technology, some results on sodium technology and on the cladding materials have been given in the paper. Finally, some progress and troubles on site selection for this reactor have also been outlined. (author)

  10. Fiber Optic Communications Technology. A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joseph A.

    Fiber optic communications (communications over very pure glass transmission channels of diameter comparable to a human hair) is an emerging technology which promises most improvements in communications capacity at reasonable cost. The fiber transmission system offers many desirable characteristics representing improvements over conventional…

  11. Technology - a review of current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, R.

    1986-01-01

    The book reviews the history of the efforts taken by the political and administrative authorities to acquire the technical knowledge required to fulfill their functions as competent authorities to evaluate and decide on technical feasibility and economic justification of complex technical processes, a task which constantly puts strain on the authorities, who have to keep up with the technological know-how of the industrial and technological establishments who, as it where, stand opposite to the authorities in the process of legal regulation of technological risks. The author explains the problems involved in the attempt to use existing, or establish adequate new, legal provisions to reconcile the interests of the law with those of the economy. The leading example for this purpose is the air pollution control laws. Further aspects discussed are steps taken from a technicalization of the law towards a proceduralization, and attempts towards a control of technology in a democratic constitutional state. The chapter on the 'risk to be tolerated' in the law on licensing of nuclear installations has been separately analysed and abstracted for the database. (HSCH) [de

  12. Extravehicular Activity Technology Development Status and Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of NASA s current EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be to reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA hardware life and limited availability of the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) will eventually become a critical issue. The current EMU has successfully served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability will be needed and the current architectures and technologies under development offer significant improvements over the current flight systems. In addition to ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for missions to Near Earth Objects (NEO), Phobos, or future surface missions. Surface missions could include either exploration of the Moon or Mars. Providing an

  13. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-01

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  14. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-15

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  15. Status of nuclear technology education in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davaa, S.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The National University of Mongolia (NUM) is the country's oldest, the only comprehensive university, and a leading center of science, education and culture. The NUM has twelve schools and faculties in the capital city Ulaanbaatar and three branches in provinces. The University offers the widest range of undergraduate and graduate programs in natural and social sciences and humanities. After sixty years of dynamic growth, the University has become a place of sustained innovation, a blend of scholarship and practical realism. The last ten years have been a period of reforms in the structure, financing and governance of Mongolian educational institutions. The NUM has been continuously adjusting its operations and curriculum to deal with new economic conditions, changing labour market demands and altered social aspirations. Committed to human peace, development and welfare in the increasingly globalized world, the NUM promotes equal and mutually beneficial international cooperation. It is a member of the International Association of Universities (IAU), University Mobility in Asia and the Pacific (UMAP), and Euro-Asian University Network (EAUN) and has direct co-operation agreements with more than sixty international academic and research centers in Europe, the USA and the Asia-Pacific Rim. On the threshold of the 21st century, the NUM remains a major center for fundamental and applied research as well as a university that is distinguished by the quality of its teaching. Following its values and traditions, the University strives to be an innovative and dynamic learning community. Requirements for Program Majored in Nuclear Technology: Profession major purpose: The objective is to provide knowledge and skills to use nuclear physics' methodology and nuclear radiation for education, science, health protection, agriculture, geology, mining, nature protection, energy and etc industries. The graduates of this major will become engineer technology staff and researchers in

  16. History and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Nagai, Toshihisa; Washiya, Tadahiro

    2008-01-01

    History and present state of fast breeder reactor was reviewed in series. As a history and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, this ninth lecture presented the progress of the FBR fuel reprocessing technology and advanced reprocessing processes. FBR fuel reprocessing technology had been developed to construct the reprocessing equipment test facilities (RETF) based on PUREX process technologies. With economics, reduction of environmental burdens and proliferation resistance taken into consideration, advanced aqueous method for nuclear fuel cycle activities has been promoted as the government's basic policy. Innovative technologies on mechanical disassembly, continuous rotary dissolver, crystallizer, solvent extraction and actinides recovery have been mainly studied. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Min; Kim, Min; Jeong, Hee Jong; Hwang, Jeong Ki; Cho, Chung Hee

    1996-10-01

    China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

  18. Status of Solar Sail Technology Within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2010-01-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced and they successfully completed functional vacuum testing in NASA Glenn Research Center's (GRC's) Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by ATK Space Systems and L Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support the sails. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and were scalable to much larger solar sails perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were also performed to assess the scalability of the technology to the large sizes required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials were also conducted. NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board the ill-fated Falcon-1 Rocket launched August 2, 2008, and due to the failure of that rocket, never achieved orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare will be flown in the Fall of 2010. This paper will summarize NASA's investment in solar sail technology to-date and discuss future opportunities

  19. The status of nuclear power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calori, F.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the present state of development concerning nuclear power technology, and the prospects of a modified future development of nuclear energy in the world are dealt with, modification being necessary on account of altered conditions in the development of the energy economy. Projections are made for the development of the fuel market taking into account the quantities and costs for the various steps of the fuel cycle. (UA) [de

  20. Status of solar sail technology within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2011-12-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced. NASA has successfully completed functional vacuum testing in their Glenn Research Center's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by Alliant Techsystems Space Systems and L'Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support each sail. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and are scalable to much larger solar sails - perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were performed in order to assess the scalability of the technology to the larger sizes that are required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Furthermore, life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials was also conducted.NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30 M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board a Falcon-1 rocket, launched August 2, 2008. As a result of the failure of that rocket, the NanoSail-D was never successfully given the opportunity to achieve orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare was flown in the Fall of 2010. This review paper summarizes NASA's investment in solar sail technology to date and discusses future opportunities.

  1. Diamond detector technology: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Harris; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H P; Bellini,, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; De Boer, W; Dehning, B; Dorfer, C; Dunser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Mcfadden, N; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Reichmann, M; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz, D; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Schreiner, T; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Taylor, Aaron; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, Stephen; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2017-01-01

    The status of material development of poly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident par-ticle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition the first beam test results from 3D detectors made with poly-crystalline CVD diamond are presented. Finally the first analysis of LHC data from the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) which is based on pixelated poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors bump-bonded to pixel readout elec-tronics is shown.

  2. USDOE radioactive waste incineration technology: status review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Taboas, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Early attempts were made to incinerate radioactive wastes met with operation and equipment problems such as feed preparation, corrosion, inadequate off-gas cleanup, incomplete combustion, and isotope containment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) continues to sponsor research, development, and the eventual demonstration of radioactive waste incineration. In addition, several industries are developing proprietary incineration system designs to meet other specific radwaste processing requirements. Although development efforts continue, significant results are available for the nuclear community and the general public to draw on in planning. This paper presents an introduction to incineration concerns, and an overview of the prominent radwaste incineration processes being developed within DOE. Brief process descriptions, status and goals of individual incineration systems, and planned or potential applications are also included

  3. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  4. The status of food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation is a mature technology for many uses, such as medical product sterilization, crosslinking of plastics, application of coatings, stabilization of natural and synthetic rubbers prior to vulcanization, and in plant genetics. It also has many potential applications in the food and agriculture industries, especially in the postharvest activities associated with processing, storing, and distribution and in utilization and consumption. The safety of food irradiation has been thoroughly studied and established by distinguished scientists of international stature and unimpeachable credentials. Approximately 30 countries permit food irradiation and it is commercially used in 21. Parasites are of serious concern since their impact on human health and economic productivity is significant, especially in developing countries with sanitation and food control problems. Parasites in meat and fish can be rendered sterile or inactivated with irradiation, and the potential for improved human health is significant. The second area for immediate use of irradiation is in meeting plant quarantine requirements. The benefits described above and the approval of the scientific community are moving the technology toward greater utilization

  5. 1982 annual status report: thermonuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this programme is to study the technological problems related to ''Post Jet'' experimental machines and, in a longer range, to assess the engineering aspects of Fusion Power Reactor Plants. According to the decision taken by the Council of Ministers on the JRC multiannual programme (1980-1983), the work performed on 1982 concerns four projects, namely: The Project 1: ''Fusion Reactor Studies''concerns mainly the NET (Next European Torus) studies which have been continued in the framework of the European participation to INTOR (INternational TOkamak Reactor). This represents a collaborative effort to design a major fusion experiment beyond the-upcoming generation of large tokamaks. The Project 2: ''Blanket Technology'' has the aim to investigate the behaviour of blanket materials in fusion conditions. The Project 3: ''Materials Sorting and Development'' has the aim to assess the mechanical properties and radiation damage of standard and advanced materials suited for structures, in particular for application as first wall of the fusion reactors. The Project 4: ''Cyclotron Operation and Experiments''has the task to exploit a cyclotron to simulate radiation damages to materials in a fusion ambient

  6. The status of beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R. E-mail: gx1@inel.gov; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H

    2000-12-01

    Beryllium was used for a number of years in the Joint European Torus (JET), and it is planned to be used extensively on the lower heat-flux surfaces of the reduced technical objective/reduced cost international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It has been included in various forms in a number of tritium breeding blanket designs. There are technical advantages but also a number of safety issues associated with the use of beryllium. Research in a variety of technical areas in recent years has revealed interesting issues concerning the use of beryllium in fusion. Progress in this research has been presented at a series of International Workshops on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The most recent workshop was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on 15-17 September 1999. In this paper, a summary of findings presented there and their implications for the use of beryllium in the development of fusion reactors are presented.

  7. The status of beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Beryllium was used for a number of years in the Joint European Torus (JET), and it is planned to be used extensively on the lower heat-flux surfaces of the reduced technical objective/reduced cost international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It has been included in various forms in a number of tritium breeding blanket designs. There are technical advantages but also a number of safety issues associated with the use of beryllium. Research in a variety of technical areas in recent years has revealed interesting issues concerning the use of beryllium in fusion. Progress in this research has been presented at a series of International Workshops on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The most recent workshop was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on 15-17 September 1999. In this paper, a summary of findings presented there and their implications for the use of beryllium in the development of fusion reactors are presented

  8. Status of SOFCo SOFC technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privette, R.; Perna, M.A.; Kneidel, K. [SOFCo, Alliance, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    SOFCo, a Babcock & Wilcox/Ceramatec Research & Development Limited Partnership, is a collaborative research and development venture to develop technologies related to planar, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). SOFCo has successfully demonstrated a kW-class, solid-oxide fuel cell module operating on pipeline natural gas. The SOFC system design integrates the air preheater and the fuel processor with the fuel cell stacks into a compact test unit; this is the platform for multi-kW modules. The cells, made of tape-cast zirconia electrolyte and conventional electrode materials, exhibit excel lent stability in single-cell tests approaching 40,000 hours of operation. Stack tests using 10-cm and 15-cm cells with ceramic interconnects also show good performance and stability in tests for many thousands of hours.

  9. Diamond Detector Technology: Status and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Reichmann, M; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H; Bellini, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; Dauvergne, D; de Boer, W; Dorfer, C; Dünser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gallin-Martel, L; Gallin-Martel, M L; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kagan, H; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Konovalov, V; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz-Becerra, D A; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Tannenwald, B; Taylor, A; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, S; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2018-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC to the High-Luminosity-LHC will push the luminosity limits above the original design values. Since the current detectors will not be able to cope with this environment ATLAS and CMS are doing research to find more radiation tolerant technologies for their innermost tracking layers. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond is an excellent candidate for this purpose. Detectors out of this material are already established in the highest irradiation regimes for the beam condition monitors at LHC. The RD42 collaboration is leading an effort to use CVD diamonds also as sensor material for the future tracking detectors. The signal behaviour of highly irradiated diamonds is presented as well as the recent study of the signal dependence on incident particle flux. There is also a recent development towards 3D detectors and especially 3D detectors with a pixel readout based on diamond sensors.

  10. 1981 Annual Status Report: thermonuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The work perfomed on 1981 concerns four projects, namely: - The project 1: ''Reactor Studies''. During 1981 this activity was made in support to the European participation to the INTOR (INternational TOkamak Reactor) studies. This represents a collaborative effort among Europe, Japan; USA and USSR, under the auspices of IAEA, to design a major fusion experiment beyond the upcoming generation of large tokamaks. - The Project 2: ''Blanket Technology'' has the aim to investigate the behaviour of blanket materials in fusion conditions. - The Project 3: ''Materials Sorting and Development'' has the aim to assess the mechanical properties and radiation damage of standard and advanced materials suited for structures, in particular for application as first wall of the fusion reactors. - The Project 4: ''Cyclotron Operation and Experiments'' has the task to exploit a cyclotron to simulate radiation damages to materials in a fusion ambient

  11. Status of Fast Reactor Research and Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published a report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors' (Technical Reports Series No. 246). The report was a general review of the status of fast reactor development at that time, covering some aspects of design and operation and reviewing experience from the earliest days. It summarized the programmes and plans in all countries which were pursuing the development of fast reactors. In 1999, the IAEA published a follow-up report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor Technology' (IAEA-TECDOC-1083), necessitated by the substantial advances in fast reactor technology development and changes in the economic and regulatory environment which took place during the period of 1985-1998. Chief among these were the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at a high burnup and the launch of new fast reactor programmes by some additional Member States. In 2006, the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) identified the need to update its past publications and recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactor technology. The present status report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on the technology of fast neutron reactors. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction, operation and decommissioning; various areas of research and development; engineering; safety; and national strategies and public acceptance of fast reactors.

  12. Status of Fast Reactor Research and Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published a report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors' (Technical Reports Series No. 246). The report was a general review of the status of fast reactor development at that time, covering some aspects of design and operation and reviewing experience from the earliest days. It summarized the programmes and plans in all countries which were pursuing the development of fast reactors. In 1999, the IAEA published a follow-up report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor Technology' (IAEA-TECDOC-1083), necessitated by the substantial advances in fast reactor technology development and changes in the economic and regulatory environment which took place during the period of 1985-1998. Chief among these were the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at a high burnup and the launch of new fast reactor programmes by some additional Member States. In 2006, the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) identified the need to update its past publications and recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactor technology. The present status report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on the technology of fast neutron reactors. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction, operation and decommissioning; various areas of research and development; engineering; safety; and national strategies and public acceptance of fast reactors.

  13. Status of Fast Reactor Research and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published a report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors' (Technical Reports Series No. 246). The report was a general review of the status of fast reactor development at that time, covering some aspects of design and operation and reviewing experience from the earliest days. It summarized the programmes and plans in all countries which were pursuing the development of fast reactors. In 1999, the IAEA published a follow-up report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor Technology' (IAEA-TECDOC-1083), necessitated by the substantial advances in fast reactor technology development and changes in the economic and regulatory environment which took place during the period of 1985-1998. Chief among these were the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at a high burnup and the launch of new fast reactor programmes by some additional Member States. In 2006, the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) identified the need to update its past publications and recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactor technology. The present status report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on the technology of fast neutron reactors. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction, operation and decommissioning; various areas of research and development; engineering; safety; and national strategies and public acceptance of fast reactors.

  14. Status of Fast Reactor Research and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published a report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors' (Technical Reports Series No. 246). The report was a general review of the status of fast reactor development at that time, covering some aspects of design and operation and reviewing experience from the earliest days. It summarized the programmes and plans in all countries which were pursuing the development of fast reactors. In 1999, the IAEA published a follow-up report titled 'Status of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor Technology' (IAEA-TECDOC-1083), necessitated by the substantial advances in fast reactor technology development and changes in the economic and regulatory environment which took place during the period of 1985-1998. Chief among these were the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at a high burnup and the launch of new fast reactor programmes by some additional Member States. In 2006, the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) identified the need to update its past publications and recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactor technology. The present status report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on the technology of fast neutron reactors. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction, operation and decommissioning; various areas of research and development; engineering; safety; and national strategies and public acceptance of fast reactors.

  15. Cellulosic ethanol. Potential, technology and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rarbach, M. [Sued-Chemie AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In times of rising oil prices and a growing energy demand, sustainable alternative energy sources are needed. Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable biofuel, made from lignocellulosic feedstock such as agricultural residues (corn stover, cereal straw, bagasse) or dedicated energy crops. Its production is almost carbon neutral, doesn't compete with food or feed production and induces no land use changes. It constitutes a new energy source using an already existing renewable feedstock without needing any further production capacity and can thus play a major role on the way to more sustainability in transport and the chemical industry and reducing the dependence on the import of fossil resources. The potential for cellulosic ethanol is huge: In the US, the annual production of agricultural residues (cereal straw and corn stover) reached almost 384 million tons in 2009 and Brazil alone produced more than 670 million tons of sugar cane in 2009 yielding more than 100 million tons of bagasse (dry basis). And alone in the European Union, almost 300 million tons of crop straw are produced annually. The last years have seen success in the development and deployment in the field of cellulosic ethanol production. The main challenge thereby remains to demonstrate that the technology is economically feasible for the up-scaling to industrial scale. Clariant has developed the sunliquid {sup registered} process, a proprietary cellulosic ethanol technology that reaches highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings while cutting production costs to a minimum. The sunliquid {sup registered} process for cellulosic ethanol matches the ambitious targets for economically and ecologically sustainable production and greenhouse gas reduction. It was developed using an integrated design concept. Highly optimized, feedstock and process specific biocatalysts and microorganisms ensure a highly efficient process with improved yields and feedstock-driven production costs. Integrated, on

  16. 1980 Annual status report: thermonuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    According to the decisions taken by the Council of Ministers on the JRC multiannual programme (1980-83), the 1980 activity has been oriented toward four projects which cover a broad range of fields, namely: - the Project 1: 'Reactor Studies'. The main effort was oriented toward the NET/INTOR studies. JRC Ispra is acting as reference nucleus for NET preliminary design. For the moment being this work was made in support to the European participation to INTOR. In 1980 the conceptual design of a demonstration power reactor (FINTOR-D) was also achieved. - The Project 2: 'Blanket Technology' has the aim to investigate structural materials behaviour in fusion conditions. Items like tritium outgassing and permeation from structurals an materials compatibility were investigated. - The Projet 3: 'Material sorting and development'. Its aim is to assess mechanical properties and radiation damage of standard and advanced materials suited for reactor structures. - The Projet 4: 'Cyclotron construction and operation' has the task to install and exploit a cyclotron to simulate demages to materials in a fusion ambient

  17. Update on status of fluidized-bed combustion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallings, J.; Boyd, T.; Brown, R.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s, fluidized-bed combustion technology has become the dominant technology for solid-fuel-fired power generation systems in the United States. Atmospheric fluidized beds as large as 160 MWe in capacity are now in operation, while pressurized systems reaching 80 MWe have started up in the last year. The commercial status, boiler performance, emissions, and future developments for both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion systems are discussed

  18. Status of biomass fuels technologies research in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, R.P.; Parker, S.; Glenn, B.

    1984-07-01

    Biomass is a tremendous potential source of fuel and chemical feedstocks. The US Department of Energy has sponsored a broad spectrum of research on biomass at various US government laboratories, private installations, and universities. The status of biomass fuels technologies research in the US is discussed.

  19. History, Status and Prospects on Development of Pyroprocess Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Ho; Lee, Han Soo; Park, Geunil; Seo, Chungseok; Ko, Wonil; Kim, Hodong; Choi, Jongwon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate prospects for a practical use of pyroprocess through analysis of current issues and status of pyroprocess technology development being performed at domestic and abroad. Following Fukushima accident, awareness about nuclear safety is further increasing and problems on safe management of used nuclear fuel has emerged as well. So, nuclear industrialized countries are developing recycling technology of used nuclear fuel, significantly reducing used fuel inventory that have cumulated. In this respects, there is a need to comprehensively summarize the technology developed at KAERI until now. In addition to, the current issues of pyroprocess for future R and D are suggested

  20. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    During the period 1985-1998, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor technology development. Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at high burnup. At the IAEA meetings on liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology (LMFR), it became evident that there have been significant technological advances as well as changes in the economic and regulatory environment since 1985. Therefore the International working group on Fast Reactors has recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactors. The present report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on LMFR technology. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction and operation, reactor physics and safety, sore structural material and fuel technology, fast reactor engineering and activities in progress on LMFR plants Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    During the period 1985-1998, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor technology development. Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at high burnup. At the IAEA meetings on liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology (LMFR), it became evident that there have been significant technological advances as well as changes in the economic and regulatory environment since 1985. Therefore the International working group on Fast Reactors has recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactors. The present report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on LMFR technology. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction and operation, reactor physics and safety, sore structural material and fuel technology, fast reactor engineering and activities in progress on LMFR plants

  2. Status report on the relativistic electron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyyengar, S.K.; Ron, P.H.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1974-01-01

    The status of technology of the pulsed relativistic electron beam (REB) has been examined and summarised in this report. With the present technology the beam generator can be used either as a source of intense electron burst or to produce bursts of positive ions x and γ-rays, and neutrons by suitable secondary reactions. A large number of applications have been identified where this technology can play an important role. Typical applications of the technology include : (a) generation and heating of fusion plasma (b) development of high power laser and (c) sterilisation and radiation sources. The present day cost of radiation produced by REB is competitive with the cost of radiation produced from Co 60 source. At the same time there are indications that the cost of radiation from REB source can be significantly reduced with advanced technology. The type of equipment developed by various laboratories to study realitivistic electron beams is also included in this report. (author)

  3. Integrated Magnetic MEMS Relays: Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Schiavone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of magnetic technologies employing microfabricated magnetic structures for the production of switching components has generated enormous interest in the scientific and industrial communities over the last decade. Magnetic actuation offers many benefits when compared to other schemes for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, including the generation of forces that have higher magnitude and longer range. Magnetic actuation can be achieved using different excitation sources, which create challenges related to the integration with other technologies, such as CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, and the requirement to reduce power consumption. Novel designs and technologies are therefore sought to enable the use of magnetic switching architectures in integrated MEMS devices, without incurring excessive energy consumption. This article reviews the status of magnetic MEMS technology and presents devices recently developed by various research groups, with key focuses on integrability and effective power management, in addition to the ability to integrate the technology with other microelectronic fabrication processes.

  4. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, E. L., Jr.; Williams, M. C.; George, T. J.

    The MCFC technology has been identified by the DOE as a promising product for commercialization. Development of the MCFC technology supports the National Energy Strategy. Review of the status of the MCFC technology indicates that the MCFC technology developers are making rapid and significant progress. Manufacturing facility development and extensive testing is occurring. Improvements in performance (power density), lower costs, improved packaging, and scale up to full height are planned. MCFC developers need to continue to be responsive to end-users in potential markets. It will be market demands for the correct product definition which will ultimately determine the character of MCFC power plants. There is a need for continued MCFC product improvement and multiple product development tests.

  5. Research Status on the Heterogeneous Sheet Connection Forming Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Wen-yong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous sheet connection forming is one of the effective ways to realize lightweight in many fields,such as equipment manufacturing and transportation. However, there are obvious differences in the material properties,when using the traditional connection methods,there is a certain technical bottlenecks. In this paper, the technological characteristics and research status of the welding method and mechanical connection method are discussed in detail,such as the TIC welding and the laser welding. The advantages and development potential of the technology are introduced in the field of the heterogeneous sheet connection,in combination with the industry development and the use demand,the development of the heterogeneous sheet connection technology is expected,to provide the technical support for the research and development of new heterogeneous sheet connection technology.

  6. ZnO growth technologies: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupan, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    Development of new technologies for ZnO nano materials and thin films is of critical importance for further fundamental investigations and practical applications. We discuss on the main technical control of the synthesis of zinc oxide and its properties, which are of significance in understanding the growth mechanism and further developing ZnO-based devices. Next, we present a brief summary of recent research activities, current status and progress in developing improved control of technological processes for zinc oxide as advanced material.

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning technology tree and the current status of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H.J.; Kim, G.N.; Lee, K.W.; Chol, W.K.; Jung, C.H.; Kim, C.J.; Kim, S.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Chung, C.M

    2001-03-01

    A technology tree diagram was developed on the basis of the necessary technologies applicable to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The technology tree diagram is consist of 6 main areas such as characterization, decontamination, decommissioning and remote technology, radwaste management, site restoration, and decommissioning plan and engineering. Characterization is divided into 4 regions such as sampling and data collection, general characterization, chemical analysis and radiological analysis. Decontamination is also divided into 4 regions such as chemical decontamination, mechanical decontamination, the other decontamination technologies and new decontamination technologies. Decommissioning and remote technology area is divided into 4 regions such as cutting techniques, decommissioning technologies, new developing technologies and remote technologies. Radwaste management area is divided into 5 regions such as solid waste treatment, sludge treatment, liquid waste treatment, gas waste treatment and thermal treatment. Site restoration area is divided into 3 regions such as the evaluation of site contamination, soil decontamination and ground water decontamination. Finally, permission, decommissioning process, cost evaluation, quality assurance and the estimation of radionuclide inventory were mentioned in the decommissioning plan and engineering area. The estimated items for each technology are applicable domestic D and D facilities, D and D problem area and contamination/requirement, classification of D and D technology, similar technology, principle and overview of technology, status, science technology needs, implementation needs, reference and contact point.

  8. Decontamination and decommissioning technology tree and the current status of the technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H. J.; Kim, G. N.; Lee, K. W.; Chol, W. K.; Jung, C. H.; Kim, C. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kwon, S. O.; Chung, C. M.

    2001-03-01

    A technology tree diagram was developed on the basis of the necessary technologies applicable to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The technology tree diagram is consist of 6 main areas such as characterization, decontamination, decommissioning and remote technology, radwaste management, site restoration, and decommissioning plan and engineering. Characterization is divided into 4 regions such as sampling and data collection, general characterization, chemical analysis and radiological analysis. Decontamination is also divided into 4 regions such as chemical decontamination, mechanical decontamination, the other decontamination technologies and new decontamination technologies. Decommissioning and remote technology area is divided into 4 regions such as cutting techniques, decommissioning technologies, new developing technologies and remote technologies. Radwaste management area is divided into 5 regions such as solid waste treatment, sludge treatment, liquid waste treatment, gas waste treatment and thermal treatment. Site restoration area is divided into 3 regions such as the evaluation of site contamination, soil decontamination and ground water decontamination. Finally, permission, decommissioning process, cost evaluation, quality assurance and the estimation of radionuclide inventory were mentioned in the decommissioning plan and engineering area. The estimated items for each technology are applicable domestic D and D facilities, D and D problem area and contamination/requirement, classification of D and D technology, similar technology, principle and overview of technology, status, science technology needs, implementation needs, reference and contact point

  9. Current Status and Application of Hazard Definition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George C.

    1997-01-01

    A research is performed: to define wake non-encounter & hazard, to provide requirements for sensors, and to obtain input from the user community. This research includes: validating wake encounter simulation models, establishing a metric to quantify the upset potential of a wake encounter, applying hazard metric and simulation models to the commercial fleet for development of candidate acceptable encounter limits, and applying technology to near term problems to evaluate current status of technology. The following lessons are learned from this project: technology is not adequate to determine absolute spacing requirements; time, not distance, determines the duration of the wake hazard; Optimum standards depend on the traffic; Wing span is an important parameter for characterizing both generator and follower; and Short span "biz jets" are easily rolled.

  10. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  11. Advanced fuel technology and performance: Current status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    During the last years the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Division of the IAEA has been giving great attention to the collection, analysis and exchange of information in the field of reactor fuel technology. Most of these activities are being conducted in the framework of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). The purpose of this Advisory Group Meeting on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance was to update and to continue the previous work, and to review the experience of advanced fuel technology, its performance with regard to all types of reactors and to outline the future trends on the basis of national experience and discussions during the meeting. As a result of the meeting a Summary Report was prepared which reflected the status of the advanced nuclear fuel technology up to 1990. The 10 papers presented by participants of this meeting are also published here. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes recent status and trends on Chinese national economy, electrical power capacity and nuclear power development. The preliminary design of the CEFR has been approved by the State Science and Technology Commission. Now it is in the detail design stage. It is planned that the first pot of concrete will be in April of 1999, in the end of 2000 the reactor building construction will be finished and the first criticality of the reactor will be envisaged in July 2003. The brief of preliminary design, analysis results of some beyond design basic accidents and design basic accidents, CEFR research works, and international cooperation are presented in the paper. (author)

  13. Status of advanced ultra-supercritical pulverised coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-01

    In pulverised coal combustion (PCC) power plant, increasing the maximum temperature of the steam cycle increases the electrical efficiency, which in turn lowers both coal consumption and flue gas emissions. However, the maximum steam temperature is limited by materials that can operate at these conditions for practical service lifetimes without failure. The EU, USA, Japan, India and China all have material research programmes aiming for the next generation of increased steam temperatures and efficiency, known as advanced ultra-supercritical (AUSC) or 700°C technology. This report reviews developments and status of these major material research programmes.

  14. Status of radiation detector and neutron monitor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y K; Ha, J H; Han, S H; Hong, S B; Hwang, I K; Lee, W G; Moon, B S; Park, S H; Song, M H

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe the current states of the radiation detection technology, detectors for industrial application, and neutron monitors. We also survey the new technologies being applied to this field. The method to detect radiation is the measurement of the observable secondary effect from the interaction between incident radiation and detector material, such as ionization, excitation, fluorescence, and chemical reaction. The radiation detectors can be categorized into gas detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors according to major effects and main applications. This report contains the current status and operational principles of these detectors. The application fields of radiation detectors are industrial measurement system, in-core neutron monitor, medical radiation diagnostic device, nondestructive inspection device, environmental radiation monitoring, cosmic-ray measurement, security system, fundamental science experiment, and radiation measurement standardization. The st...

  15. Status of technologies related to radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    The document discusses the status of technologies relevant to radioactive waste management and disposal, as defined by the INFCE Working Group 7 study. All fuel cycle wastes, with the exception of mill tailings, are placed in mined geologic repositories. In addition to the availability of technologies, the document discusses the: a) importance of the systems viewpoint, b) importance of modeling, c) need for site-specific investigations, d) consideration of future sub-surface human activities and e) prospects for successful isolation. In the sections on waste isolation and repository safety assessments, principal considerations are discussed. The document concludes that successful isolation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere appears technically feasible for periods of thousands of years provided that the systems view is used in repository siting and design

  16. Status of reprocessing technology in the HTGR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, G.; Merz, E.; Zimmer, E.

    1977-01-01

    For more than ten years extensive R and D work has been carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany in order to develop the technology necessary for closing the fuel cycle of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The efforts are concentrated primarily on fuel elements having either highly enriched 235 U or recycled 233 U as the fissile and thorium as the fertile material embedded in a graphite matrix. They include the development of processes and equipment for reprocessing and remote preparation of coated microspheres from the recovered uranium. The paper reviews the issues and problems associated with the requirements to deal with high burn-up fuel from HTGR's of different design and composition. It is anticipated that a grind-burn-leach head-end treatment and a modified THOREX-type chemical processing are the optimum choice for the flowsheet. An overview of the present status achieved in construction of a small reprocessing facility, called JUPITER, is presented. It includes a discussion of problems which have already been solved and which have still to be solved like the treatment of feed/breed particle systems and for minimizing environmental impacts envisaged with a HTGR fuel cycle technology. Also discussed is the present status of remote fuel kernel fabrication and coating technology. Additional activities include the design of a mock-up prototype burning head-end facility, called VENUS, with a throughput equivalent to about 6000 MW installed electrical power, as well as a preliminary study for the utilisation of the Karlsruhe LWR prototype reprocessing plant (WAK) to handle HTGR fuel after remodelling of the installations. The paper concludes with an outlook of projects for the future

  17. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region

  18. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report reviews the status of the Department of Energy Subelement on Electrochemical Storage Systems. It emphasizes material presented at the Fourth US Department of Energy Battery and Electrochemical Contractors' Conference, held June 2-4, 1981. The conference stressed secondary batteries, however, the aluminum/air mechanically rechargeable battery and selected topics on industrial electrochemical processes were included. The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to supported technologies: electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chromous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included

  19. Robotic technology in surgery: current status in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G; Hall, Rohan; Tong, Raymond; Goel, Rajiv; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing patient and surgeon interest in robotic-assisted surgery, particularly with the proliferation of da Vinci surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) throughout the world. There is much debate over the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of these systems. The currently available robotic surgical technology is described. Published data relating to the da Vinci system are reviewed and the current status of surgical robotics within Australia and New Zealand is assessed. The first da Vinci system in Australia and New Zealand was installed in 2003. Four systems had been installed by 2006 and seven systems are currently in use. Most of these are based in private hospitals. Technical advantages of this system include 3-D vision, enhanced dexterity and improved ergonomics when compared with standard laparoscopic surgery. Most procedures currently carried out are urological, with cardiac, gynaecological and general surgeons also using this system. The number of patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery in Australia and New Zealand has increased fivefold in the past 4 years. The most common procedure carried out is robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Published data suggest that robotic-assisted surgery is feasible and safe although the installation and recurring costs remain high. There is increasing acceptance of robotic-assisted surgery, especially for urological procedures. The da Vinci surgical system is becoming more widely available in Australia and New Zealand. Other surgical specialties will probably use this technology. Significant costs are associated with robotic technology and it is not yet widely available to public patients.

  20. Present status of laser technology for maintenance and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji

    2001-01-01

    A laser has superior spatial and timely controllability and has no repulsive force at its use, it is a tool suitable for remote operation. And, as a partial processing with low exotherm and deformation by its use becomes possible, it can have an advantage omissible for post processes such as heat treatment and so on. Therefore, on in-situ repair of present constructions, laser is thought to be an optimum tool. And, in nuclear energy plants, maintenance and management of their instruments are important, and then a number of technical developments activating its advantages have been carried out. Above all, repair engineering around a reactor has a number of places difficult to access them for its operators, so remote engineering using laser is desired for in special. Here was described on the present status of development and realization containing protect conservation and inspection repair technology using laser. (G.K.)

  1. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy - Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented of point-focusing, or 'dish' solar concentrator system features, development status, and performance levels demonstrated to date. In addition to the requirements of good optical efficiency and high geometric concentration ratios, the most important future consideration in solar thermal energy dish concentrator design will be the reduction of installed and lifetime costs, as well as the materials and labor costs of production. It is determined that technology development initiatives are needed in such areas as optical materials, design wind speeds and wind loads, structural configuration and materials resistance to prolonged exposure, and the maintenance of optical surfaces. The testing of complete concentrator systems, with energy-converting receivers and controls, is also necessary. Both reflector and Fresnel lens concentrator systems are considered.

  2. Advanced secondary batteries: Their applications, technological status, market and opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, M.

    1989-03-01

    Program planning for advanced battery energy storage technology is supported within the NEMO Program. Specifically this study had focused on the review of advanced battery applications; the development and demonstration status of leading battery technologies; and potential marketing opportunity. Advanced secondary (or rechargeable) batteries have been under development for the past two decades in the U.S., Japan, and parts of Europe for potential applications in electric utilities and for electric vehicles. In the electric utility applications, the primary aim of a battery energy storage plant is to facilitate peak power load leveling and/or dynamic operations to minimize the overall power generation cost. In the application for peak power load leveling, the battery stores the off-peak base load energy and is discharged during the period of peak power demand. This allows a more efficient use of the base load generation capacity and reduces the need for conventional oil-fired or gas-fire peak power generation equipment. Batteries can facilitate dynamic operations because of their basic characteristics as an electrochemical device capable of instantaneous response to the changing load. Dynamic operating benefits results in cost savings of the overall power plant operation. Battery-powered electric vehicles facilitate conservation of petroleum fuel in the transportation sector, but more importantly, they reduce air pollution in the congested inner cities.

  3. LNG - Status in Denmark. Technology and potential. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2012-05-15

    The interest for LNG both on a small and a large scale is increasing worldwide. The experiences and knowledge on LNG is limited in Denmark. The Danish gas companies' Technical Management Group (TCG) has asked for a status report including a technology description and an evaluation of the potential in Denmark. A survey of primarily small-scale LNG technology is done in the report. The focus is motivated by the new areas of gas utilisation that become possible with small-scale LNG. Small-scale LNG in this study is defined as LNG stored and used at the application or in an isolated gas grid. The small-scale use of LNG has today an almost negligible share of the total LNG trade but offers interesting new applications for gas utilisation. LNG on a small scale can be used primarily as: 1) Ship fuel. 2) Truck fuel (heavy duty long distance). 3) Individual users not connected to the natural gas grid. 4) Backup for upgraded biogas to individual users and vehicle fleets. 5) Security of supply or supply enhancement of heavily loaded parts of the gas grid. 6) Small-scale storage and/or peak shaving. All but the first topics are natural uses for the current Danish gas distributors. LNG as ship fuel may engage other specialized LNG companies. The report contains a technical description of the parts in primarily small-scale LNG handling and operation. Liquefaction, transport, storage, engine technologies, gas quality and safety aspects related to LNG are covered. There seem to be two more or less separate paths for LNG in Denmark, onshore and off-shore use. These are not, apparently, sharing their experiences and knowledge. Rules and regulations are also different which may create some problems in the interface, for example ship bunkering. Further studies are suggested in the area of gas quality and engine technologies and adaptation of foreign guidelines for small-scale installations to Danish conditions. These guidelines ought to be based on international standards and

  4. [Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabić-Stanković, Kata M; Stanković, Jovan B; Radosević-Jelić, Ljiljana M

    2004-01-01

    After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower) for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and matched to point current status. The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%), as well as, ADAC (43.7%) and Focus (CMS) (27.4%) systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%), although classic "simulation" is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%). About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CPRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.). CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day). Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in technology and consequent improvements, as well as wide introduction of computers in radiotherapy, radiotherapy results have not changed significantly. Vendor developement strategies do not point that

  5. 75 FR 39664 - Grant of Authority For Subzone Status Materials Science Technology, Inc. (Specialty Elastomers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Status Materials Science Technology, Inc. (Specialty Elastomers and Fire Retardant Chemicals) Conroe... specialty elastomer manufacturing and distribution facility of Materials Science Technology, Inc., located... and distribution of specialty elastomers and fire retardant chemicals at the facility of Materials...

  6. Technology readiness levels and technology status for selected long term/high payoff technologies on the RLV program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a new space transportation system in a climate of constant budget cuts and staff reductions can be and is a difficult task. It is no secret that NASA's current launching system consumes a very large portion of NASA funding and requires a large army of people to operate & maintain the system. The new Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) project and it's programs are faced with a monumental task of making the cost of access to space dramatically lower and more efficient than NASA's current system. With pressures from congressional budget cutters and also increased competition and loss of market share from international agencies RLV's first priority is to develop a 'low-cost, reliable transportation to earth orbit.' One of the RLV's major focus in achieving low-cost, reliable transportation to earth orbit is to rely on the maturing of advanced technologies. The technologies for the RLV are numerous and varied. Trying to assess their current status, within the RLV development program is paramount. There are several ways to assess these technologies. One way is through the use of Technology Readiness Levels (TRL's). This project focused on establishing current (summer 95) 'worst case' TRL's for six selected technologies that are under consideration for use within the RLV program. The six technologies evaluated were Concurrent Engineering, Embedded Sensor Technology, Rapid Prototyping, Friction Stir Welding, Thermal Spray Coatings, and VPPA Welding.

  7. Status and prospects of fuel cell technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijkum

    1998-01-01

    Fuel Cells attract a lot of press attention today and an some example of a recent press heading is: ''Orders for Onsi's fuel cells hit $111 million''. The principle of fuel cell technology is explained and examples of realized applications given. In short: fuel cells can be used everywhere where power (and heat) is needed. Regarding the status of fuel cells, Europe is way behind Japan and the US. The 15 PAFC-200 kWe units in operation in Europe (worldwide > 90 units) produced 46,796 MWhe during 296,704 cumulative operating hours with an availability % over 70.00. The world record on continuous operation is held by Japan with 9,478 hours reached at 14th September 1996 and two PAFC-units passed their 40,000 hours of cumulative operation (US and Japan). In Japan, market enabling support is continued with subsidies of one third of the costs for 7 PAFC-units. In the Netherlands, Energy Distribution Companies test their tubular 100 kWe SOFC-unit. During 1,335 hours of continuous operation, the unit produced 165 MWhe in total at 3rd March. EnergieNed, CLC/Ansaldo and Gastec evaluated changes for co-generation and small power production with packaged fuel cell power plants in EU and EFTA countries. In general the authors concluded that implementation of fuel cell power plants in all EU and EFTA countries will be probably possible with today' s technical regulations. On might wonder: What has fuel cell technology to offer in one of the most efficient and low-priced gas economies in Europe, the Netherlands. An example of efficient energy use are greenhouses with artificial lighting and CO 2 -fertilization and energy (heat) storage device. Applying relatively favorable depreciation periods and (utility) interest rate, a PAFC 200 kWe generates just a positive return (IRR = 1.7 % after taxes and subsidies) when part of a gas-engine capacity is replaced

  8. Biomass torrefaction technology: Techno-economic status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batidzirai, B.; Mignot, A.P.R.; Schakel, W.B.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising bioenergy pre-treatment technology, with potential to make a major contribution to the commodification of biomass. However, there is limited scientific knowledge on the techno-economic performance of torrefaction. This study therefore improves available knowledge on torrefaction by providing detailed insights into state of the art prospects of the commercial utilisation of torrefaction technology over time. Focussing on and based on the current status of the compact moving bed reactor, we identify process performance characteristics such as thermal efficiency and mass yield and discuss their determining factors through analysis of mass and energy balances. This study has shown that woody biomass can be torrefied with a thermal and mass efficiency of 94% and 48% respectively (on a dry ash free basis). For straw, the corresponding theoretical energetic efficiency is 96% and mass efficiency is 65%. In the long term, the technical performance of torrefaction processes is expected to improve and energy efficiencies are expected to be at least 97% as optimal torgas use and efficient heat transfer are realised. Short term production costs for woody biomass TOPs (torrefied pellets) are estimated to be between 3.3 and 4.8 US$/GJ LHV , falling to 2.1–5.1 US$/GJ LHV in the long term. At such cost levels, torrefied pellets would become competitive with traditional pellets. For full commercialisation, torrefaction reactors still require to be optimised. Of importance to torrefaction system performance is the achievement of consistent and homogeneous, fully hydrophobic and stable product, capable of utilising different feedstocks, at desired end-use energy densities. - Highlights: • Woody biomass torrefaction thermal efficiency is 94% and mass efficiency is 48% on a daf basis. • Straw theoretical torrefaction energetic efficiency is 96% and mass efficiency is 65%. • Current woody TOPs production costs are between 3.3 and 4.8 US$/GJ LHV , 50

  9. 700 C power plant technology. Status and challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaffon, Helmut [E.ON Energie AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Coal will remain an indispensable major source of energy for power generation in the world in the coming decades, because there are resources for hundreds of years. Coal fired power plants can be operated very flexible which gets increasing importance due to the stochastic input from regenerative energies like wind and solar energy. Sustainable technologies for cool-fired power plants have to be developed to optimise environmental protection and to save valuable resources and reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions. Future coal fired steam power plants aim an elevated steam temperature of about 700 C to reach a net efficiency of about 50%. This paper will give an overview over the status of the development of the 700 C technology and will highlight the challenges to be overcome before their commercial use. The European way to a 700 C Power plant started with the project AD700 in the year 1998. In this project the basic design of a 400 MW demo plant was done and some material tests and component qualifications for nickel-based alloys and new austenitic steels were started and terminated. AD700 delivered the basis of the design of the Component Test Facility COMTES700 (RFCS funded project with European manufacturers and utilities). COMTES 700 was operated between 2005 and 2009. It was integrated into the E.ON power plant Scholven in Germany to test mainly nickel based materials and power plant components. In the project NRWPP700 (2006-2010, funded by NRW and financed by European utilities) the detail design of the steam generator, piping system and turbine of a 500 MW power plant was done. In 7 material projects the qualification of components and materials was supported. At the same time of lot of national and international R and D projects (e.g. MARCKO and COORETEC) were performed. Due to the high amount of these projects they cannot be mentioned here in a detailed way. In 2007 the E.ON project 50plus was started. The aim was to plan and build a 700 C demo plant in

  10. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2016-03-01

    The number of assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics, ART cycles, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), and number of newborns conceived using ART have steadily increased in South Korea. This aim of this study was to describe the status of ART in South Korea between January 1 and December 31, 2011. A localized online survey was created and sent to all available ART centers via email in 2015. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized depending on whether standard in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or half-ICSI procedures were used. Thawed embryo transfer (TET) and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 36,990 ART procedures were provided by 74 clinics. Of the 30,410 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, a complete transfer was performed in 91.0% (n=27,683). In addition, 9,197 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, representing a pregnancy rate of 30.2% per oocyte pick-up and 33.2% per ET. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET procedures was three (38.1%), followed by two (34.7%) and one (14.3%). Of the 8,826 TET cycles, 3,137 clinical pregnancies (31.1%) were confirmed by ultrasonography. While the overall clinical pregnancy rate for the TET cycles performed was lower than the rate reported in 2010 (31.1% vs. 35.4%), the overall CPR for the FET cycles was higher than in 2010 (33.2% in 2011 and 32.9% in 2010). The most common number of embryos transferred in FET cycles was three, as was the case in 2010.

  11. Current status and technology development tendency of research reactors in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Guotu; Shen Feng; Zhao Shouzhi; Zhang Weiguo; Yuan Luzheng

    2009-01-01

    The current status and development history of domestic and abroad research reactors (RRs) are mentioned. The representative RRs and their respective technology characteristics are introduced. The utilizations of China's RRs, mainly included as nuclear engineering technology, basic research applications of nuclear technology, teaching and personnel training, are explained. (authors)

  12. A Quantitative Examination of the Educational Technology Characteristics of Ohio Schools and Their Blue Ribbon Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from Ohio schools and the frequency of use of educational technology, a teacher's comfort level using technology, and a teacher's beliefs about the effect of educational technology on teaching and learning based upon the school's Blue Ribbon award status. The study used an ex-post facto, quantitative…

  13. R&D status of linear collider technology at KEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Junji

    1992-02-01

    This paper gives an outline of the Japan Linear Collider (JLC) project, especially JLC-I. The status of the various R&D works is particularly presented for the following topics: (1) electron and positron sources, (2) S-band injector linacs, (3) damping rings, (4) high power klystrons and accelerating structures, (5) the final focus system. Finally, the status of the construction and design studies for the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) is summarized.

  14. Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the

  15. Application status and prospect of X-ray lithography technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Changqing; Chen Dapeng; Liu Ming; Ye Tianchun; Yi Futing

    2004-01-01

    Because of its many merits, such as high resolution, large depth of focus, large field size, high throughput, large process latitude, easy extendibility to 50 nm and below ground rule, and so on, the Proximity X-ray Lithography (PXL) is very attractive for the 100 nm and smaller ground rule integrated circuit manufacturing. In this paper, the international research and development status of PXL is briefly introduced firstly, and both its application status and prospect in nanoelectronics research, Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) production and silicon-based Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuits (ULSIC) production are described, and the recent research progress in home PXL is also presented briefly. (authors)

  16. Current Status of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Lee, Jong Hyun

    2009-07-01

    To expand the use of nuclear energy, SNF from nuclear power plants must be managed in a safe and environmental friendly and the problem of decreasing uranium should be solved. To resolve this, a dry processing technology Pyroprocessing is focused on. The government started to develop of Pyroprocessing technology in 1997. According to the decision of government based of Atomic Energy Commission in December 2008, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute will construct PRIDE (Pyroprocess Integrated Inactive DEmonstration Facility) by 2011 to prove a consistent process. If Pyroprocessing technology will be developed in the near future, the size of radioactive waste disposal site can be reduced to 100 times compared to the direct disposal. When this technology will be connected to Fast Reactor. high level nuclear waste management of Hundreds of thousands of years may be reduced to hundreds years. However for the commercialization of Pyroprocessing technology, there are some problems to solve. First, because of none commercial facilities in the world of executive experience, so that the facility design, measurement. management and material flow, the critical need for data accumulation. Second, High-level nuclear waste have been known to generate more than the wet methods, it should continue to reduce technology development. In addition, a careful consideration of the residual uranium generating on process also can maximize the efficiency of reducing. The new concept is being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Pyroprocessing technology and nuclear waste processing technology to overcome these drawbacks sUQQested a way

  17. Status and prospect of radiation processing technology in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan; Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation processing technology in Malaysia is gaining acceptance by the local industry. The technology has proven to enhance the industrial efficiency, productivity and improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, variety of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been produced either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. Today, effort is being focused towards producing environmentally friendly and biodegradable materials using natural polymers. The government of Malaysia through the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has developed research program to utilize indigenous materials such as natural rubber, palm oil and polysaccharide. Radiation processing technology is used to process (crosslink/grafting/curing) the materials at a competitive cost. This technology can be applied in several industrial sectors such as automobile, aerospace, construction and healthcare. (author)

  18. Ceramic technologies for automotive industry: Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The automotive industry has developed substantially through advances in mechanical technologies, and technologies such as electronics and advanced materials have also contributed to further advances in automobiles. The contribution of ceramic materials to automobile technologies ranges over driving performance, exhaust gas purification, and fuel efficiency improvements. Several ceramic components, such as knock sensors, oxygen sensors, exhaust gas catalysts, and silicon nitride parts for automotive engines, have been successfully applied to automobiles. This paper focuses on the contribution of ceramics to automotive technologies. It also mentions potential contributions in the future, including adiabatic turbo-compound diesels, ceramic gas turbines, fuel cells, and electric vehicles because ceramic technologies have been intensively involved in the challenge to achieve advanced power sources.

  19. Status and prospect of radiation processing technology in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd Dahlan; Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid

    2001-01-01

    Radiation processing technology in Malaysia is gaining acceptance by the local industry. The technology has proven to enhance the industrial efficiency, productivity and improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, variety of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been produced either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. Today, effort is being focused towards producing environmentally friendly and biodegradable materials using natural polymers. The government of Malaysia through the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has developed research program to utilize indigenous materials such as natural rubber, palm oil and polysaccharide. Radiation processing technology is used to process (crosslink/grafting/curing) the materials at a competitive cost. This technology can be applied in several industrial sectors such as automobile, aerospace, construction and healthcare. (author)

  20. Status of the JET project and its supporting technological programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolini, E.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of the overall design of the JET facility is given. Particular JET components described include the vacuum system, toroidal field coils, poloidal system, power supplies, control and data acquisition, and status of the project towards the construction phase

  1. Technological implications of fusion power: requirements and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.

    1978-01-01

    The major technological requirements for fusion power, as implied by current conceptual designs of fusion power plants, are identified and assessed relative to the goals of existing technology programs. The focus of the discussion is on the tokamak magnetic confinement concept; however, key technological requirements of mirror magnetic confinement systems and of inertial confinement concepts will also be addressed. The required technology is examined on the basis of three general areas of concern: (a) the power balance, that is, the unique power handling requirements associated with the production of electrical power by fusion; (b) reactor design, focusing primarily on the requirements imposed by a tritium-based fuel cycle, thermal hydraulic considerations, and magnet systems; and (c) materials considerations, including radiation damage effects, neutron-induced activation, and resource limitations

  2. Indian fast reactor technology: Current status and future programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IGCAR is responsible for the design, R & D, manufacturing technology and regulatory clear- ances. ... material production that can be used to fuel another reactor. ..... The nuclear steam supply system components are being manufactured suc-.

  3. The Status of Basic Technology in Cross River State Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    practical class. It was further ... saying technology refer to all tools and procedures used or required for manufacturing .... Self-reliance is very necessary for today's world especially in Cross River, when children .... safety in the workshops. 2.40.

  4. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Technology Development Status and Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, Extravehicular activity (EVA) technology development became a technology foundational domain under a new program Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration. The goal of the EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA technology life and limited availability of the EMUs will become a critical issue eventually. The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has vastly served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability could be an option for the future mission applications building off of the technology development over the last several years. Besides ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for

  5. Current status and future potential for advanced volume reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, L.; Naughton, M.D.; Papaiya, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    With escalating costs for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) from nuclear power plants, and the possibility of unavailability of disposal space, some nuclear power utilities responded by commiting to implementing advanced volume reduction (VR) systems. This paper presents recent experience to implement advanced volume reduction technologies; their performance and typical operating and capital costs. This experience in the light of current economic conditions may enable us to predict the direction that future advanced VR technology commitments is taking

  6. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzlova, Daniela; Kouzes, R.; McElroy, R.; Peerani, P.; Baird, K.; Bakel, A.; Borella, M.; Bourne, M.; Bourva, L.; Cave, F.; Chandra, R.; Chernikova, D.; Croft, S.; Dermody, G.; Dougan, A.; Ely, J.; Fanchini, E.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gavron, Victor; Kureta, M.; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Ishiyama, K.; Lee, T.; Martin, Ch.; McKinny, K.; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Orton, Ch.; Pappalardo, A.; Pedersen, B.; Plenteda, R.; Pozzi, S.; Schear, M.; Seya, M.; Siciliano, E.; Stave, S.; Sun, L.; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Tagziria, H.; Takamine, J.; Weber, A.-L.; Yamaguchi, T.; Zhu, H.

    2015-01-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3 He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3 He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3 He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3 He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3 He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3 He-alternative technologies.

  7. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kouzes, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peerani, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Aspinall, M. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Baird, K. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bakel, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Borella, M. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Bourne, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bourva, L. [Canberra Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Cave, F. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Chandra, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Zurich (Sweden); Chernikova, D. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dermody, G. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Dougan, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Ely, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fanchini, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Gavron, Victor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ishiyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Lee, T. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Martin, Ch. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); McKinny, K. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, OH (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Orton, Ch. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Pappalardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Peranteau, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Plenteda, R. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pozzi, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schear, M. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Seya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Siciliano, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, L. [Proportional Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tagziria, H. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Vaccaro, S. [DG Energy (Luxembourg); Takamine, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Weber, A. -L. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yamaguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Zhu, H. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3

  8. Status of tritium technology development for magnetic-fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of tritium technology for the magnetic fusion energy program has progressed at a rapid rate over the past two years. The focal points for this development in the United States have been the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos and the FED/INTOR studies supported by the Fusion Engineering Design Center at Oak Ridge. In Canada the Canadian Fusion Fuel Technology Project has been initiated and promises to make significant contributions to the tritium technology program in the next few years. The Japanese government has now approved funding for the Tritium Processing Laboratory at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute's Tokai Research Establishment. Construction on this new facility is scheduled to begin in April 1983. This facility will be the center for fusion tritium technology development in Japan. The European Community is currently working on the design of the tritium facility for the Joint European Torus. There is considerable interaction between all of these programs, thus accelerating the overall development of this crucial technology

  9. Status of electron beam processing technology in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazali, Zulkafli; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman; Aiasah, S.H.; Khomsaton, A.B.; Ting, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The electron beam processing in Malaysia starting in 1991 at MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) has been focussed on medical product sterilization, curing of surface coating and polymer modifications. Subsequent installation of accelerators by private companies promoted the development of radiation processing technologies for the use of production of heat-shrinkable products, pilot-scale flue gas purification, as well as wires, cables, tubes and hydrogels. Decomposition of a wide range of volatile organic compounds from industrial exhausts (car painting lines, volatile dioxin and furan from municipal waste incinerators) and purification of liquid wastewater and drinking water are also being under R and D work. Malaysia will continue to play an active part in the program on radiation technology to strengthen environmentally sustainable development in line with FNCA objectives. (S. Ohno)

  10. ITER and the fusion reactor: status and challenge to technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.

    2001-01-01

    Fusion has a high potential, but requires an integrated physics and technology effort without precedence in non-military R and D, the basic physics feasibility demonstration will be concluded with ITER, although R and D for efficiency improvement will continue. The essential technological issues remaining at the start of ITER operation concern materials questions: first wall components and radiation tolerant (low activation materials). This paper comprised just the copy of the slides presentation with the following subjects: magnetic confinement fusion, the Tokamak, progress in Tokamak performance, ITER: its geneology, physics basis-critical issues, cutaway of ITER-FEAT, R and D - divertor cassette (L-5), differences power plant-ITER, challenges for ITER and fusion plants, main technological problems (plasma facing materials), structural and functional materials for fusion power plants, ferritic steels, EUROFER development, improvements beyond ferritic steels, costing among others. (nevyjel)

  11. Current status of technology development on remote monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, Y. D.; Na, W. W.

    1997-03-01

    IAEA is planning to perform the remote monitoring system in nuclear facility in order to reinforce the economical and efficient inspection. National lab. in U.S. is developing the corresponding core technology and field trial will be done to test the remote monitoring system by considering the case that it replace the current safeguards system. U.S. setup the International Remote Monitoring Project to develop the technology. IAEA makes up remote monitoring team and setup the detail facility to apply remote monitoring system. Therefore, early participation in remote monitoring technology development will make contribution in international remote monitoring system and increase the transparency and confidence in domestic nuclear activities. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs

  12. U.S. Status of Fast Reactor Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Summary: • Fast reactor R&D is focused on key technologies innovations for performance improvement (cost reduction) and safety: 1. System Integration and Concept Development; 2. Safety Technology; 3. Advanced Materials; 4. Ultrasonic Viewing; 5. Advanced Energy Conversion (Supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle); 6. Reactor Simulation; 7. Nuclear Data; 8. Advanced Fuels. • Fast reactors have flexible capability for actinide management: – A wide variety of fuel cycle options are being considered; • International R&D collaboration pursued in Generation-IV and multilateral arrangements

  13. Accelerator technology program. Status report, October 1984-March 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.; Schriber, S.O.

    1986-04-01

    Activities of the racetrack-microtron development programs are highlighted, one of which is being done in collaboration with the National Bureau of Standards and the other with the University of Illinois; the BEAR (Beam Experiment Aboard Rocket) project; work in beam dynamics; the proposed LAMPF II accelerator; and the Proton Storage Ring. Discussed next is radio-frequency and microwave technology, followed by activities in accelerator theory and simulation, and free-electron laser technology. The report concludes with a listing of papers published during this reporting period

  14. Commercial Supersonics Technology Project - Status of Airport Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James

    2016-01-01

    The Commercial Supersonic Technology Project has been developing databases, computational tools, and system models to prepare for a level 1 milestone, the Low Noise Propulsion Tech Challenge, to be delivered Sept 2016. Steps taken to prepare for the final validation test are given, including system analysis, code validation, and risk reduction testing.

  15. Status and development of food irradiation technology in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myungwoo; Park, Younnam

    1996-01-01

    In Korea, the health authorities and food industry emphasize the need of sanitary food production, which is mainly resulted from the recent growing of consumer's interest in the safety of food. For that reason, development of a new alternative technology of chemicals currently used for decontamination and disinfestation has become an urgent task in the domestic and worldwide food industry. Furthermore, the improvement of quality and manufacturing process of processed foods is a requisite for winning the competition in export fields. Irradiation technology being practically applicable in the food industry has been well established on the basis of more than 40 years of R and D work in the fields of the increasing availability of food-stuffs, sanitary food production and quarantine treatment in a food trade. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods has been officially approved in 37 countries, of which 25 countries are commercially utilizing food irradiation technology. The first commercial irradiator in Korea (18.5 PBq : 500 kCi 60 Co, max. cap ; 4 MCi) was established at Kyungki-do, Yeoju-gun by Greenpia Tech. Inc. with the technical assistance of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in June 1987. As of 1996, thirteen irradiated food groups (above 25 items) have been domestically approved for human consumption and an industrial irradiation facility is also available. However, the promotion of consumer acceptance toward irradiated foods is considered as a confronted subject to be studied for a commercial utilization of this technology

  16. The Melt-Dilute Treatment Technology Offgas Development Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    The melt-dilute treatment technology is being developed to facilitate the ultimate disposition of highly enriched Al-Base DOE spent nuclear fuels in a geologic repository such as that proposed for Yucca Mountain. The melt-dilute process is a method of preparing DOE spent nuclear fuel for long term storage

  17. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status, potential, and research requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, B.; Feinberg, D.; Hill, A.; McIntosh, R.; Terry, K.

    1986-08-01

    Although numerous options for the production of fuels from microalgae have been proposed, our analysis indicates that only two qualify for extensive development - gasoline and ester fuel. In developing the comparisons that support this conclusion, we have identified the major areas of microalgae production and processing that require extensive development. Technology success requires developing and testing processes that fully utilize the polar and nonpolar lipids produced by microalgae. Process designs used in these analyses were derived from fragmented, preliminary laboratory data. These results must be substantiated and integrated processes proposed, tested, and refined to be able to evaluate the commercial feasibility from microalgae. The production of algal feedstocks for processing to gasoline or ester fuel requires algae of high productivity and high lipid content that efficiently utilize saline waters. Species screening and development suggest that algae can achieve required standards taken individually, but algae that can meet the integrated requirements still elude researchers. Effective development of fuels from microalgae technology requires that R and D be directed toward meeting the integrated standards set out in the analysis. As technology analysts, it is inappropriate for us to dictate how the R and D effort should proceed to meet these standards. We end our role by noting that alternative approaches to meeting the feasibility targets have been identified, and it is now the task of program managers and scientists to choose the appropriate approach to assure the greatest likelihood of realizing a commercially viable technology. 70 refs., 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  18. Status of technology of uranium recovery from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugo, Takanobu; Saito, Kyoichi.

    1990-01-01

    By bringing the solid material called adsorbent in contact with seawater, uranium can be collected, therefore, the adsorbent to which uranium was adsorbed in seawater can be regarded as the resource of uranium storing. To the adsorbent, also rare metals are concentrated in addition to uranium. From such viewpoint, the development of the technology for collecting seawater uranium is important for the Japanese energy policy. The uranium concentration in seawater is about 3 mg/m 3 and its form of dissolution is uranyl tricarbonate ions. The technology of collecting seawater uranium is the separation technology for extracting the component of very low concentration from the aqueous solution containing many components. The total amount of uranium in the whole oceans reaches about 4 billion t, which is about 1000 times as much as the uranium commercially mined on land. It is the target of the technology to make artificial uranium ore of as high quality as possible quickly. The process of collecting seawater uranium comprises adsorption, desorption, separation and enrichment. As the adsorbents, hydrated titanium oxide and chelate resin represented by amidoxime are promising. The adsorption system is described. (K.I.)

  19. Status and implementation of reproductive technologies in goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mené

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... In modern cattle breeding, assisted reproductive technologies in small ruminants have been used even ..... comparison to sponges that cause stress in the animals ... well as the use of females in heat (Rodríguez-Martínez et.

  20. Monitoring Technology for Vehicle Loading Status Based on the Analysis of Suspension Vibration Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and early warning of vehicle risk status was one of the key technologies of transportation security, and real-time monitoring load status could reduce the transportation accidents effectively. In order to obtain vehicle load status information, vehicle characters of suspension were analyzed and simulated under different working conditions. On the basis of this, the device that can detect suspension load with overload protection structure was designed and a method of monitored vehicle load status was proposed. The monitoring platform of vehicle load status was constructed and developed for a FAW truck and system was tested on level-A road and body twist lane. The results show that the measurement error is less than 5% and horizontal centre-of-mass of vehicle was positioned accurately. The platform enables providing technical support for the real-time monitoring and warning of vehicles risk status in transit.

  1. Status and outlook of CFD technology at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Nagoya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Tadayuki

    1990-09-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology has made tremendous progress in the last several years. It has matured to become a practical simulation tool in aircraft industries. In MHI, CFD has become an indispensible tool for aerodynamic design aerospace vehicles. The present status is described of this advanced technology at MHI. Also mentioned are some future advances of the fast growing technology as well as associated hardware requirements.

  2. Status Report of National Radiation Fusion Technology R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Cheol; Woo, Byun Myung; Koo, Hwang Duk

    2007-07-01

    Although RT Industry now occupy the high portion of world market size, about $500 billions, it would be expanded steeply to U$1,100 billions in 2010, and U$4 trillions in 2030 when using PV (present value) methodology. But domestic RT industry is the level of 'the dawn stage'. Recently, individual government department begins to perceive the importance of RT industry. In order to promote Domestic RT technology and industry as a growth dynamic of next generation of 21 century, - Intensive R and D investment policy driven by the Ministry of Science and Technology - In the side of efficient allocation of resources, centralizing in national professional research institute and bringing to effect is desirable

  3. Renewable energy technologies in Australia: research, status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    In support of environmental goals - principally reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector - Australian Federal and State governments have put in place a range of measures to support the deployment of increasing levels of renewable energy products and services. These market-making mechanisms complement Australia's leadership in a wide range of technologies for stationary energy applications of renewable energy, including photovoltaics, electricity storage, concentrating solar power, small wind turbines, energy efficiency products, hot dry rock geothermal and wave power. Industry is responding to these market and technology opportunities, and associated policy measures to support their growth, with the aim of growing a sizeable renewable energy sector that delivers economically competitive solutions for Australian and export markets. (author)

  4. Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D. This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage.

  5. Status of fast reactor design technology development in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohee Hahn

    2000-01-01

    The LMR Design Technology Development Project was approved as a national long-term R and D program in 1992 by the Korea Atomic Energy Commission (KAEC) which decided to develop and construct a LMR with the goal of developing a LMR which can serve as a long term power supplier with competitive economics and enhanced safety. Based upon the KAEC decision, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor). According to the revised National Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan of June 1997, the basic design of KALIMER will be completed by 2006 and the possibility of construction will be considered sometime during the mid 2010s. Three year Phase 1 of the LMR Design Technology Development Project was completed in March 2000 and a preliminary conceptual design report has been issued. Conceptual design of KALIMER will be developed during the Phase 2 of the Project, which will last for two years. (author)

  6. In-situ vitrification: a status of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, V.F.

    1986-09-01

    The In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process is a new technology developed from its conceptual phase to selected field-scale applications in the last 5 years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored the ISV program to develop alternative technology for potential application to contaminated soil sites. The ISV process converts contaminated soils and wastes into a durable glass and crystalline waste form in place by melting using joule heating. The ISV process has been developed through a series of 25 engineering-scale (laboratory) tests, 10 pilot-scale (small field) tests, and four large-scale (full-scale field) tests. Its major advantages for stabilizing radioactive and hazardous wastes are found to be: safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; long-term durability of waste form (more than 1 million years); cost effectiveness ($150 to $300/m 3 ); applicability to a wide variety of soils and inclusions; and potential for eliminating exhumation, transport, and handling

  7. Status of the Visible Nulling Coronagraph Technology Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, M.; Lyon, R.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the development, sensing and control of the Vacuum Nuller Testbed to realize a Visible Nulling Coronagraphy (VNC) for exoplanet detection and characterization. The VNC is one of the few approaches that works with filled, segmented and sparse or diluted-aperture telescope systems. It thus spans a range of potential future NASA telescopes and could be flown as a separate instrument on such a future mission. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center has an established effort to develop VNC technologies, and an incremental sequence of testbeds to advance this approach and its critical technologies. We will highlight results demonstrating the achievement of our TDEM contrast milestones, and highlight the performance of our wavefront sensing and control concept.

  8. Current status and application of fine screening technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, E. V.; Chernov, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents data on the design and technical parameters of high frequency vibrating screens, which are produced by Chinese manufacturer - company Landsky Tech Ltd. The technology of high frequency vibration is widely used at mining and metallurgical industries to separate fine and ultra-fine particles from the flow of dry material or pulp. The paper contains different types of screening systems, description, advantages and disadvantages of equipment and test results from mineral processing plants.

  9. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel

  10. Current status of stereoscopic 3D LCD TV technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jin

    2011-06-01

    The year 2010 may be recorded as a first year of successful commercial 3D products. Among them, the 3D LCD TVs are expected to be the major one regarding the sales volume. In this paper, the principle of current stereoscopic 3D LCD TV techniques and the required flat panel display (FPD) technologies for the realization of them are reviewed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. The recent status of nuclear technology development in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Sumitra, Tatchai; Sudprasert, Wanwisa; Chankow, Nares; Tiyapan, Kanokrat; Onjun, Thawatchai; Bhanthumnavin, Duangduen

    2016-01-01

    Thailand has started the peaceful utilization of nuclear program in 1961. The program has developed considerably in various aspects. Laws and regulations were established while applications in medical, agriculture, industry as well as research and education have been accomplished successfully in the country. As for the energy production, Thailand has realized the importance of nuclear power generation several years back. However, the implementation has been delayed. There are four main nuclear organizations namely The Thai Atomic Energy Commission - the country's policy holder, the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) - the nuclear regulatory bodies, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT: Public Organization) - the research and services provider in nuclear field and the Nuclear Society of Thailand the non-governmental organization. Major research in nuclear technology is actively carried out at TINT. Filed of research include medical and public health, agricultural, material and industrial, environmental and advanced technology like neutron scattering and nuclear fusion. Nuclear density gauge has been utilized in many industries including petrochemical production and refineries. TINT is also providing services on nuclear radiography to industrial and clients. Additionally, x-ray techniques have been utilized in many manufacturers for quality and process control. Nuclear applications for medical purpose have been utilized in Thailand several years back both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. To ensure safe and peaceful use of nuclear technology and for the safety of the general public in Thailand, OAP has launched laws, regulations and ministerial announcements. Thailand has only one multi-purposes nuclear research reactor and no NPP. Yet we have realized the importance of nuclear power generation several years back. (N.T.)

  12. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy: Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Point-focusing concentrators under consideration for solar thermal energy use are reviewed. These concentrators differ in such characteristics as optical configuration, optical materials, structure for support of the optical elements and of the receiver, mount, foundation, drive, controls and enclosure. Concentrator performance and cost are considered. Technology development is outlined, including wind loads and aerodynamics; precipitation, sand, and seismic considerations; and maintenance and cleaning.

  13. Status of high-temperature heat-pipe technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of heat pipes to nuclear reactor space power systems. Characteristics of the device that favor such an application are described and recent results of current technology development programs are presented. Research areas that will need to be addressed in demonstrating that adequate lifetimes can be achieved with evaporation/condensation cycles operating at high temperatures in a reactor environment are also discussed

  14. Present status of some technological activities supporting the MOLCARE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torazza, A. [Ansaldo Ricerche S.r.l., Genova (Italy); Rocchini, G. [ENEL, Milano (Italy); Scagliotti, M. [CISE, Milano (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The development of MCFC stack technology is carried out at Ansaldo Ricerche in the framework of the MOLCARE project, a cooperation with Spanish companies under a partial UE funding, while a specific research program concerning the physico-chemical characterization of materials is performed jointly by CISE and ENEL. The project includes the development, the construction and the testing of a full scale 100 kW prototype, the assessment of stack technology on subscale stacks, the mathematical modelling of the MCFC based plants and the basic researches. The aim of the basic researches, carried out on single cells, is to improve the effectiveness and durability of both the active and the hardware materials. The Ansaldo stack technology is based on external manifolding. The full scale 100 kW prototype will be integrated with the sensible heat reformer and other ancillary equipments according to the {open_quote}Compact Unit (CU){close_quotes} concept. These technical choices stress requirements for manifold gasket configuration. electrolyte migration control, {Delta}p management and porous component compaction.

  15. Status of development on simulation technology for pyrochemical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arie, Kazuo; Mizuguchi, Koji; Fujita, Reiko

    2004-01-01

    Simulation techniques for the elemental behaviors in the pyrochemical reprocessing process of spent nuclear fuels are important for fuel reprocessing and future power station development. The authors developed a simulation code SPR1.0 which can analyze co-occurring electrochemical and chemical reactions simultaneously and which is applicable to know the behavior of any element in the system. The present report describes the status of the code development, the database for fundamental electrochemical reactions, and verification of the code. The code employs TRIAS code for electrochemical reactions and SOLGASMIX-PV for chemical reactions. Electrolytic process for MOX (mixed oxide) fuels with different Pu redox ratios were simulated using the present code and the effect of introducing iron ions was studied. The prospect of future development is also described. (S. Ohno)

  16. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1999-01-01

    The paper outlines the recent development status of nuclear power plants in China and introduces the main design characteristics and nuclear safety features of the Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR). During the review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report some important subjects have been proposed by the China National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA). More detailed research for the answer has been done. The main analysis results for (1) Reactor Shut-down System, (2) Decay Heat Removal System and (3) Fuel Subassembly Blockage as three examples are given in this paper. The CEFR is still in the detail design stage. Its site is almost ready for the construction of the main building. It is planned to have the first pouring of concrete in June, 1999, but it depends on the license issued by the NNSA. (author)

  17. Materials technology for fusion - Current status and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Bloom, E.E.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Smith, D.L.; Stevenson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The general status of the materials research and development activities currently under way in support of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors in the United States is reviewed. In the area of magnetic confinement configurations, attention is given to development programs for first wall materials, which are at various stages for possible austenitic stainless steels, high-strength Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, reactive and refractory metal alloys, specially designed long-range ordered and rapidly solidified alloys, and ferritic/martensitic steels, and for tritium breeding materials, electrical insulators, ceramics, and coolants. The development of materials for inertial confinement reactors is also surveyed in relation to the protection scheme employed for the first wall and the effects of pulsed neutron irradiation. Finally, the materials requirements and selection procedures for the ETF/INTOR and Starfire tokamak reactor designs are examined. Needs for the expansion of research on nonfirst-wall materials and inertial confinement fusion reactor material requirements are pointed out

  18. The status and prospects of nuclear reactor technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven technology which currently contributes about 16% to the world electricity supply and, to a much lesser extent, to heat supply in some countries. Nuclear Power is economically competitive with fossil fuels for base load electricity generation in many countries, and is one of the commercially proven energy supply options that could be extended in the future to reduce environmental burdens, especially greenhouse gas emissions, from the electricity sector. Over the past five decades, nearly ten thousand reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with current nuclear power plants. However, nuclear power is currently at a cross-road. There are no new nuclear power construction projects in most parts of the world, except some countries in East Asia and Eastern Europe. The main issues are economic competitiveness with cheap gas plants and public concerns on nuclear waste disposal and safety. Strong economic growth and the shrinking of existing electricity over-capacities could favour nuclear power. Since nuclear power emits no greenhouse gases to the environment, its development could be further accelerated by a breakthrough in innovative nuclear reactor technology development. Great attention also needs to be paid to the design of new nuclear reactors, which are modularized and faster to construct, thus reducing capital investment and construction period, and thereby improving their overall economics and their compatibility with the infrastructure of, in particular, developing countries, where new energy demands are expected. This paper discusses the future world energy outlook, challenges for and progresses on nuclear power; overview of new nuclear reactor technology development; and the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the development of new innovative nuclear reactors. (author)

  19. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  20. Accelerator Technology Program. Status report, October 1983-March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report covers major projects in the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first sections highlight activities related to beam dynamics, inertial fusion, structure development, the racetrack microtron, and the CERN high-energy physics experiment NA-12. Discussed next is the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility, followed by a summary of progress on the Proton Storage Ring and activities of the Theory and Simulation Group. The report concludes with a discussion of the H- accelerator program and a listing of papers published by AT-Division personnel during this reporting period

  1. The status and prospects of radiation application technology in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung-Kee, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Full text : This article describes the Nuclear age in Korea which began in 1959 when Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) was first established. Since then, Korea became one of the leading countries in the world nuclear technology and industry. In Korea, 20 nuclear power plants are currently in operation, which produced 34.1% of total electricity in 2009. Furthermore, 8 nuclear power plants are under construction. Eventually, Korea succeeded in exporting nuclear power plant to United Arab Emirates and research reactor to Jordan in 2009. The nuclear application can be divided into two fields. The first one is nuclear power production, and the other is radiation application. Due to the governmental promotion policy, the research activity on radiation and RI application is greatly rising in Korea. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) are two leading research institutes in this field. KAERI is conducting RI production and neutron research by using research reactor, and radiation application research such as radiation processing, biotechnological and agricultural application, and cyclotron application. KIRAMS is dedicated to the research on the medical application of radiation. Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI), constructed in 2006 as a sub organization of KAERI, is a major research institute for radiation application to material engineering, agriculture, biotechnology, environmental technology, and cyclotron beam application. ARTI is equipped with various radiation facilities such as Co-60 irradiation facility (490 kCi and 3 kCi), gamma phytotron, gamma cell, electron beam irradiator, ion implanter, and 30 MeV cyclotron. In material engineering field, new industrial and biomedical materials (carbon fiber filament, composite electrolyte, fuel cell membrane, hydrogels) are developed by radiation processing of polymer materials. In agricultural area, new plant varieties

  2. Current status of iron and steelmaking technology at Tata Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, B.D.; Poddar, M.N.; Chandra, S. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2002-07-01

    Tata Steel was set up in the early years of the 20th century and over the years the plant has grown into one of the most modern steel plants in the world. The philosophy of phase-wise modernisation on a continuing basis was adopted by Tata Steel with great advantage for the modernisation of the two million tonne Jamshedpur Steel Works. Four phases of the modernisation programme have already been successfully completed and their gains consolidated. Adoption and absorption of the latest technologies, fundamental changes in the operating philosophy and setting of stretch performance targets have brought about this remarkable transformation. The recently commissioned state of the art 1.2 Mtpa Cold Rolling Mill Complex is an example of Tata Steel remaining in harmony with times. Another is the use of pulverised coal injection in blast furnaces. The paper highlights some of the important technological developments in integrated steel plants, particularly those being practiced at Tata Steel, in the areas of ironmaking, steelmaking, casting and rolling for retaining its competitive position in the global market with regard to cost, customer and change. 9 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Current status and challenges for automotive battery production technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwade, Arno; Haselrieder, Wolfgang; Leithoff, Ruben; Modlinger, Armin; Dietrich, Franz; Droeder, Klaus

    2018-04-01

    Production technology for automotive lithium-ion battery (LIB) cells and packs has improved considerably in the past five years. However, the transfer of developments in materials, cell design and processes from lab scale to production scale remains a challenge due to the large number of consecutive process steps and the significant impact of material properties, electrode compositions and cell designs on processes. This requires an in-depth understanding of the individual production processes and their interactions, and pilot-scale investigations into process parameter selection and prototype cell production. Furthermore, emerging process concepts must be developed at lab and pilot scale that reduce production costs and improve cell performance. Here, we present an introductory summary of the state-of-the-art production technologies for automotive LIBs. We then discuss the key relationships between process, quality and performance, as well as explore the impact of materials and processes on scale and cost. Finally, future developments and innovations that aim to overcome the main challenges are presented.

  4. Remote participation technologies in the EFDA Laboratories - status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, V.; How, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    More than 25 laboratories of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) have been increasingly using remote participation (RP) technologies for collaborative work on several experiments. We present an overview of the technologies that are employed to provide remote data access, remote computer access, and tele-conference. We also deal with computer network requirements, and support and documentation needs. The biggest application of these tools has been the joint scientific exploitation of the JET Facilities. Increasingly other experiments are operated as shared facilities, and the RP tools are being used in this context. For remote data access there is a clear trend towards MDSplus as common data access layer for multi-experiment data access. Secure Remote Computer access is converging on two different solutions. Video-conference is also converging on two partially inter-operable solutions, whereas the sharing of presentation material is converging on one solution. Remote Control Room participation is being used in two laboratories. Network monitoring has been developed and is now in routine use. The RP work is being done at many laboratories and is co-ordinated by EFDA. A number of items in several fields need still to be tackled and an overview of these is presented. (authors)

  5. Remote participation technologies in the EFDA Laboratories - status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); How, J.A. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2003-07-01

    More than 25 laboratories of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) have been increasingly using remote participation (RP) technologies for collaborative work on several experiments. We present an overview of the technologies that are employed to provide remote data access, remote computer access, and tele-conference. We also deal with computer network requirements, and support and documentation needs. The biggest application of these tools has been the joint scientific exploitation of the JET Facilities. Increasingly other experiments are operated as shared facilities, and the RP tools are being used in this context. For remote data access there is a clear trend towards MDSplus as common data access layer for multi-experiment data access. Secure Remote Computer access is converging on two different solutions. Video-conference is also converging on two partially inter-operable solutions, whereas the sharing of presentation material is converging on one solution. Remote Control Room participation is being used in two laboratories. Network monitoring has been developed and is now in routine use. The RP work is being done at many laboratories and is co-ordinated by EFDA. A number of items in several fields need still to be tackled and an overview of these is presented. (authors)

  6. Moroccan experience in nuclear sciences and technology: Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mediouri, K.

    2001-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology started in Morocco in the early sixties and were developed particularly in the sectors of Agriculture, Education and Medicine. In the early seventies, these applications were extended to other important sectors such as Industry using gauges and NDT techniques, Mines and Hydrology. But a lack of sufficient and adequate infrastructure has limited the development of these applications. Further more, as Morocco relies totally on foreign imports to meet its energy needs, the option of nuclear power generation started to be considered seriously. This was the initiator of a real national reflection on an integrated program for all peaceful applications of nuclear energy which led to the progressive constitution of an institutional and regulatory frame. In this context, the National Center for Nuclear energy, Sciences and Techniques (CNESTEN), which is a public institution, was created in 1986. Its current programme and future are described in the paper. (author)

  7. Status of core nuclear design technology for future fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Jung, Hyung Guk; Noh, Jae Man; Kim, Yeong Il; Kim, Taek Kyum; Gil, Choong Sup; Kim, Jung Do; Kim, Young Jin; Sohn, Dong Seong

    1997-01-01

    The effective utilization of nuclear resource is more important factor to be considered in the design of next generation PWR in addition to the epochal consideration on economics and safety. Assuming that MOX fuel can be considered as one of the future fuel corresponding to the above request, the establishment of basic technology for the MOX core design has been performed : : the specification of the technical problem through the preliminary core design and nuclear characteristic analysis of MOX, the development and verification of the neutron library for lattice code, and the acquisition of data to be used for verification of lattice and core analysis codes. The following further studies will be done in future: detailed verification of library E63LIB/A, development of the spectral history effect treatment module, extension of decay chain, development of new homogenization for the MOX fuel assembly. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Accelerator technology program. Status report, July-December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1984-05-01

    Major projects of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Accelerator Technology Division are discussed, covering activities that occurred during the last six months of calendar 1982. The first sections report highlights in beam dynamics, accelerator inertial fusion, radio-frequency structure development, the racetrack microtron, CERN high-energy physics experiment NA-12, and high-flux radiographic linac study. Next we report on selected proton Storage Ring activities that have made significant progress during this reporting period, followed by an update on the free electron laser. The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility work is discussed next, then progress on the klystron development project and on the gyrocon project. The activities of the newly formed Theory and Simulation Group are outlined. The last section covers activities concerning the accelerator test stand for the neutral particle beam program

  9. Current Status on Stress Diagnostic Kit and Detection Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Mi Hee; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-01

    The accurate measurement of a stress level is one of the most important issues in a stress diagnosis and its measurement could be of great value in clinical medicine. Stress has a potent effect on the spirit and physical condition of an individual. There are various methods available for its measurement. Some of the commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of a stress level include analysis of the body fluids, questionnaire assessments, psychophysiological evaluations and by determining heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects. However, the existing diagnostic methods have several defects like, a low sensitivity, inaccuracy and long of operation time. In this report, we present a diagnostic technology to detect a stress level which is the origin of various diseases. This method can be of great help in providing an early diagnosis through a biosensor and might play a vital role in preventing diseases like hypochondria and hypertension. Majority of the human population is exposed to stress in one way or another and hence developing a convenient stress diagnosis kit will be of great use to all. This stress diagnostic kit and detection technology dose not involve simple a mechanical measurement or questionnaires, but is based on developing a detection kit with a high sensitivity, which will mean an easy use for common man. Individuals can undergo regular check ups and can personally diagnose their present situation of health by determining their stress levels, thus enabling them to diagnose the early onset of several stress disorders. This might help them take precautionary measures and thereby lead to a healthy life

  10. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1998-01-01

    The paper will outline the main activities on fast reactor technology in China. In the year 1996, with the increasing of about 15 GWe installed electricity capacity, the total national electricity generation capacity has reached 225 GWe in the Country. Two nuclear power plants, Qinshan Phase 1 and Daya Bay have their rather good operation. The load factor of Qinshan Phase 1 was 84.7%. 76.1% and 64.1% for Daya Bay Unit 1 and Unit 2 respectively. During the Ninth 5-year (from 1996 to 2000) four NPPs Consisting of eight units of installed 6620MWe will be constructed. Under the framework of the High Technology Programme the Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) with the power 65MWth matched with 25MWe turbine-generator is still under preliminary design stage, which is sodium cooled pool type, (Pu,U)O 2 as fuel, in-core primary Went fuel storage, two mechanical pumps and four intermediate heat exchangers for primary circuit two loops for secondary circuits two independent immersed heat exchangers and air coolers with high stacks for passive residual heat removal system. Some design changes are presented in the paper. Concerning the R and D for the CEFR, besides the facilities already prepared, for demonstration of thermohydraulic characteristics of natural convection, a water simulation reactor pool facility in about one third scale is planned, in order to prepare the reactor physics experiments for its start-up, the zero power fast neutron facility with 50kg U-235 has been restored, for endurance testing of core subassemblies and getting some sodium loop operation experiences, Italian ESPRESSO and CEDI are under reconstruction in our lab. As for the engineering preparation of the project CEFR, the Feasibility Study Report was approved by Authorities on November last year. The site preparation and the design of incorporated to grid are just started. Finally, the activities of the international cooperation are presented in the paper. (author)

  11. Current Status on Stress Diagnostic Kit and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Mi Hee; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-15

    The accurate measurement of a stress level is one of the most important issues in a stress diagnosis and its measurement could be of great value in clinical medicine. Stress has a potent effect on the spirit and physical condition of an individual. There are various methods available for its measurement. Some of the commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of a stress level include analysis of the body fluids, questionnaire assessments, psychophysiological evaluations and by determining heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects. However, the existing diagnostic methods have several defects like, a low sensitivity, inaccuracy and long of operation time. In this report, we present a diagnostic technology to detect a stress level which is the origin of various diseases. This method can be of great help in providing an early diagnosis through a biosensor and might play a vital role in preventing diseases like hypochondria and hypertension. Majority of the human population is exposed to stress in one way or another and hence developing a convenient stress diagnosis kit will be of great use to all. This stress diagnostic kit and detection technology dose not involve simple a mechanical measurement or questionnaires, but is based on developing a detection kit with a high sensitivity, which will mean an easy use for common man. Individuals can undergo regular check ups and can personally diagnose their present situation of health by determining their stress levels, thus enabling them to diagnose the early onset of several stress disorders. This might help them take precautionary measures and thereby lead to a healthy life.

  12. Status and future perspectives of PWR and comparing views on WWER fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidinger, H.

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview on status and future perspectives of the Western PWR fuel technology. For easer understanding and correlating, some comparing views to the WWER fuel technology are provided. This overview of the PWR fuel technology of course can not go into the details of the today used designs of fuel, fuel rods and fuel assemblies. However, it tries to describe the today achieved capability of PWR fuel technology with regard to reliability, efficiency and safety

  13. Status of technology for isolating high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingsberg, C.; Duguid, J.

    1980-10-01

    This report attempts to summarize the status of scientific and technological knowledge relevant to long-term isolation of high-level and transuranic wastes in a mined geologic repository. It also identifies and evaluates needed information and identifies topics in which work is under way or needed to reduce uncertainties. The major findings and conclusions on the following topics are presented: importance of the systems approach; prospects for successful isolation of wastes; need for site-specific investigations; human activities in the future; importance of modelling; disposal of transuranic wastes; status of technology of isolation barriers, performance assessment, site selection and characterization, and potential host rocks

  14. Technology status in support of refined technical baseline for the Spent Nuclear Fuel project. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigh, R.J.; Toffer, H.; Heard, F.J.; Irvin, J.J.; Cooper, T.D.

    1995-10-20

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) has undertaken technology acquisition activities focused on supporting the technical basis for the removal of the N Reactor fuel from the K Basins to an interim storage facility. The purpose of these technology acquisition activities has been to identify technology issues impacting design or safety approval, to establish the strategy for obtaining the necessary information through either existing project activities, or the assignment of new work. A set of specific path options has been identified for each major action proposed for placing the N Reactor fuel into a ``stabilized`` form for interim storage as part of this refined technical basis. This report summarizes the status of technology information acquisition as it relates to key decisions impacting the selection of specific path options. The following specific categories were chosen to characterize and partition the technology information status: hydride issues and ignition, corrosion, hydrogen generation, drying and conditioning, thermal performance, criticality and materials accountability, canister/fuel particulate behavior, and MCO integrity. This report represents a preliminary assessment of the technology information supporting the SNFP. As our understanding of the N Reactor fuel performance develops the technology information supporting the SNFP will be updated and documented in later revisions to this report. Revision 1 represents the incorporation of peer review comments into the original document. The substantive evolution in our understanding of the technical status for the SNFP (except section 3) since July 1995 have not been incorporated into this revision.

  15. Technology status in support of refined technical baseline for the Spent Nuclear Fuel project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigh, R.J.; Toffer, H.; Heard, F.J.; Irvin, J.J.; Cooper, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) has undertaken technology acquisition activities focused on supporting the technical basis for the removal of the N Reactor fuel from the K Basins to an interim storage facility. The purpose of these technology acquisition activities has been to identify technology issues impacting design or safety approval, to establish the strategy for obtaining the necessary information through either existing project activities, or the assignment of new work. A set of specific path options has been identified for each major action proposed for placing the N Reactor fuel into a ''stabilized'' form for interim storage as part of this refined technical basis. This report summarizes the status of technology information acquisition as it relates to key decisions impacting the selection of specific path options. The following specific categories were chosen to characterize and partition the technology information status: hydride issues and ignition, corrosion, hydrogen generation, drying and conditioning, thermal performance, criticality and materials accountability, canister/fuel particulate behavior, and MCO integrity. This report represents a preliminary assessment of the technology information supporting the SNFP. As our understanding of the N Reactor fuel performance develops the technology information supporting the SNFP will be updated and documented in later revisions to this report. Revision 1 represents the incorporation of peer review comments into the original document. The substantive evolution in our understanding of the technical status for the SNFP (except section 3) since July 1995 have not been incorporated into this revision

  16. Current status of low-level-waste-segregation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.; Sailor, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    The adoption of improved waste segregation practices by waste generators and burial sites will result in the improved disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) in the future. Many of the problems connected with this disposal mode are directly attributable to or aggravated by the indiscriminate mixing of various waste types in burial trenches. Thus, subsidence effects, contact with ground fluids, movement of radioactivity in the vapor phase, migration of radionuclides due to the presence of chelating agents or products of biological degradation, deleterious chemical reactions, and other problems have occurred. Regulations are currently being promulgated which will require waste segregation to a high degree at LLW burial sites. The state-of-the-art of LLW segregation technology and current practices in the USA have been surveyed at representative facilities. Favorable experience has been reported at various sites following the application of segregation controls. This paper reports on the state-of-the-art survey and addresses current and projected LLW segregation practices and their relationship to other waste management activities

  17. Dose management in radiology. Review of the technological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verius, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Euratom directive 2013/59 (''EU directive for radiation protection'') has to be implemented into national law by spring 2018 and requires a complete recording of patient dosages and relevant parameters. Additionally, a medical physics expert has to be consulted for each radiological examination above a defined threshold. A complete recording of the dosage administered from all modalities and optimization of the radiological procedures should result in a reduction of the total dosage. This can be achieved by automated systems that incorporate not only the detection of the dose parameters but also the evaluation and analysis of these data. When provided with warning levels such a system should be able to inform or warn the operator when dose thresholds have been exceeded or even better inform the operator about possible excess dosages before an examination. Depending on the information provided by the modality, dose management systems can operate at different levels in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS), radiological and hospital information systems (RIS/HIS) or with the header information of a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) image and evaluate and analyze this data. A practicable use of such systems is only possible by close cooperation of medical personnel, medical physicists and information technology (IT) administrators. Various systems are available commercially or free but an individual adaptation of these systems is useful and necessary, depending on the requirements of the radiology practice or hospital. (orig.) [de

  18. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    2000-01-01

    Considering the future clean energy supply in China, a rather consistent opinion is to develop nuclear power step by step with the contribution from a supplementary one up to an important one. The large scale utilization of nuclear energy obviously determines the interest in fast breeders; China right now already has about 300 GWe total electricity capacity using conventional energy resources. As the first step for fast reactor technology development in the country, the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) project is still under detail design stage, which is a sodium cooled pool type fast reactor with 65 MW thermal power matched with a turbine-generator of 25 MW. The ordering of the components is continuing. The site is ready and the steel works for the 3 m x 69 m x 82.5 m foundation base of reactor building are being arranged layer by layer. The review to the PSAR by the China National Nuclear Safety Administration (CNNSA) is going to the final stage, if everything goes smoothly. The first pouring of the concrete for the reactor building will be in the middle of the year 2000. The brief introduction of the CEFR design, safety characteristics, the main results of the safety analysis and design test demonstration are given in the paper. (author)

  19. Accelerator Technology Program. Status report, January-September 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1984-07-01

    This report presents highlights of major projects in the Accelerator Technology Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first section deals with the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility's 2-MeV accelerator on which tests began in May, as scheduled. Then, activities are reported on beam dynamics, inertial fusion, structure development, the racetrack microtron, the CERN high-energy physics experiment NA-12, and LAMPF II. The Proton Storage Ring is discussed next, with emphasis on the computer control system, diagnostics interfacing, and theoretical support. Other sections summarize progress on a portable radiographic linac, developments on the klystron code, and on permanent magnets. Activities of the Theory and Simulation Group are outlined next, followed by discussion of the oscillator experiment and the energy-recovery experiment in the free electron laser project. The last section reports on the accelerator test stand. An unusual and very satisfying activity for the Division was the hosting of the 1983 Particle Accelerator Conference in Santa Fe, March 21-23, 1983. The conference had the largest attendance ever, with 895 registrants, 61 invited papers, and 521 contributed papers

  20. Silver-zinc: status of technology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpinski, A.P.; Makovetski, B.; Russell, S.J.; Serenyi, J.R.; Williams, D.C. [Yardney Technical Products, Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Michel Yardney and Professor Henri Andre developed the first practical silver-zinc battery more than 55 years ago. Since then, primary and rechargeable silver-zinc batteries have attracted a variety of applications due to their high specific energy/energy density, proven reliability and safety, and the highest power output per unit weight and volume of all commercially available batteries. Although significant improvements have been achieved on traditional systems such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, and in spite of the advent of new electrochemistries such as lithium-ion and nickel/metal hydride, many users still rely on silver-zinc to satisfy their most demanding and critical requirements. Over the past few years, several of the internal components have been subject to many studies which resulted in significant improvements in the battery wet life and cycle life. Specifically, these include new separator materials which offer an alternative to the cellulosic membranes, improvements to the zinc electrode that include additives that help reduce shape-change and dendritic growth, and to a lesser extent, process changes to the silver electrode and additives to the electrolyte. In comparison, the commonly used secondary systems are lead-acid, nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion. Each has attributes which make them desirable for certain applications. Where low cost, high voltage, and high rate capability is required, the lead-acid battery is an obvious choice whenever size and weight are not critical. For applications requiring longer wet life, moderate rate capability, and high cycle life, nickel/cadmium or nickel/metal hydride can be used in spite of their poor charge retention and higher costs. Relatively newer systems are also available such as lithium-ion or lithium polymer technology which are preferred for their high voltage and excellent cycle life. Among the disadvantages of these systems are higher costs, limited configurations (usually

  1. Status of higher education in nuclear technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, A.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan's nuclear power program was formally launched in 1959 with the establishment of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). The first research reactor, the Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR1), went critical in 1965, while the first nuclear power plant, the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), was connected to the grid in 1972. PARR1, a 5 MW highly enriched uranium swimming pool reactor, has been upgraded to 10 MW low enriched reactor and KANUPP is a 137 MWe CANDU reactor. Later during the mid eighties PAEC added another small research reactor, PARR2, a miniature neutron source, and in 2000 a 325 MW PWR at Chashma, the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASHNUPP). Thus PAEC currently owns and operates two nuclear power plants and two research reactors. KANUPP has completed its design life of 30 years and is now undergoing the re-licensing process. CHASNUPP has just completed its first refuelling outage. Negotiations for the third nuclear power plant, also a 300 MW PWR from China, are continuing. The training and education programs in nuclear technology were initiated in the early 1960's soon after the establishment of PAEC. Initially the cream of fresh graduates in engineering, medicine and natural sciences, who were inducted in PAEC were given short training before they were sent for higher studies abroad. The availability of a nucleus of highly qualified professionals in nuclear power and allied disciplines, the lack of adequate facilities in the local educational institutions in these fields and the realization that many more professionals will be needed than could be trained abroad led to the establishment of coherent indigenous training and education program in the late sixties. Given below is a brief description of the centers set up by the PAEC for providing manpower for its nuclear power program

  2. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.

    2002-01-01

    China, as a developing country with a great number of population and relatively less energy resources, reasonably emphasizes the nuclear energy utilization development. For the long term sustainable energy supply, as for nuclear application the basic strategy of PWR-FBR-Fusion has been settled and envisaged. Due to the economy and experience reasons the nuclear power and technology development with a moderate style are kept in China up to now. In China mainland apart from two NPPs with the total capacity of 2.1 GWe in operation, four NPPs are under construction and two NPPs are planned for the Tenth Five Year Plan (2001-2005). Also another one or two NPPs are still in discussion. It could be foreseen that the total nuclear power capacity will reach 8.5GWe before the year 2005 and 14-15 GWe before 2010 respectively. As the first step for the Chinese fast reactor engineering development the 65MWt China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is under construction. The main components of primary, secondary and tertiary circuits and of fuel handling system have been ordered. The reactor building under construction has reached 16.8m above the ground. Forty seven components and shielding doors have been installed. It is planned that the construction of reactor building with about 40,000m2 floor surface will be completed in the end of the year 2002 and envisaged that the first criticality of the CEFR will be in the end of 2005. The second step of the Chinese fast reactor engineering development is a 300MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor which is only under consideration up to now. Some important technical selections have been settled, but its design has not yet started. (author)

  3. Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The current status of technology January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, I.S.; Kelly, B.R.; Wood, E.

    1987-02-01

    The Study assesses the degree and status of research and development worldwide on Direct Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel. It is limited to technological, radiological and waste management aspects appertaining to Light Water and AGR Reactor Systems and reviews the 'State of the Art' in terms of applicability to the United Kingdom. The report concludes that much technology exists both at National and International level which the UK can apply to the subject of Direct Disposal. (author)

  4. Status of thermal imaging technology as applied to conservation-update 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, F.J.; Wood, J.T.; Barthle, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    This document updates the 1978 report on the status of thermal imaging technology as applied to energy conservation in buildings. Thermal imaging technology is discussed in terms of airborne surveys, ground survey programs, and application needs such as standards development and lower cost equipment. Information on the various thermal imaging devices was obtained from manufacturer's standard product literature. Listings are provided of infrared projects of the DOE building diagnostics program, of aerial thermographic firms, and of aerial survey programs. (LCL)

  5. The current status of fuel cell technology for mobile and stationary applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de F.A.

    2005-01-01

    This review of fuel cell technology gives an overview on the status of low and high temperature fuel cells, both on materials as well as on a system level. Their application in transport and the combined generation of heat and power is discussed in relation to their environmental benefits

  6. The Status of Information Technology in Iranian Hospital Libraries: A Comparative Study of Managers' Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfandyari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Sedehi, Maryam; Dehghani, Mozhdeh; Nemati-Anaraki, Leila; Hasanzadeh-Dizaji, Elaheh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the attitude of the managers of libraries located at Iran, Tehran and Shahid Beheshti Medical Sciences Universities' training hospitals, on the status of information technology (IT) in the mentioned libraries. Design/methodology/approach: This study employed a researcher-made questionnaire. The…

  7. Analysis on the status of the application of satellite remote sensing technology to nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zhangsheng; Zhao Yingjun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the application status of satellite remote sensing technology to nuclear safeguards, advantage of satellite remote sensing technology is analyzed, main types of satellite image used in nuclear safeguards are elaborated and the main application of satellite images is regarded to detect, verify and monitor nuclear activities; verify additional protocol declaration and design information, support performing complementary access inspections; investigate alleged undeclared activities based on open source or the third party information. Application examples of satellite image in nuclear safeguards to analyze nuclear facilities by other countries, the ability of remote sensing technology in nuclear safeguards is discussed. (authors)

  8. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Water reactors represent a high level of performance and safety. They are mature technology and they will undoubtedly continue to be the main stream of nuclear power. There are substantial technological development programmes in Member States for further improving the technology and for the development of new concepts in water reactors. Therefore the establishment of an international forum for the exchange of information and stimulation of international co-operation in this field has emerged. In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors has been undertaken to document the major current activities and different trends of technological improvements and developments for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with LWRs has now been prepared and is based mainly on submissions from Member States. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced light water reactor design and technology of the year 1987 and early 1988 will be useful for disseminating information to Agency Member States and for stimulating international cooperation in this subject area. 93 refs, figs and tabs

  9. Current status and prospect of radiation technology for the safety and security of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo

    2009-01-01

    Since 1960, radiation technology (RT), which had been known as the method eliminating the biologically hazardous factors of the products in the food, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, was comprehensively investigated. The safety of food irradiation has been throughout evaluated with scientific experiments. Recently, RT has been associated with other high technologies such as biotechnology and nanotechnology, and resulted in the innovative products. Through these fusion technology with RT, the new items with high functionality and value will be shown. But, until now, consumers' acceptance on radiation is still the problem to be solved for further development. To make the consumer correctly understand RT, the benefits and defects of RT should be informed and there should be the legislated policy for the industrialization of RT by government. Therefore, this review will introduce the current status of food irradiation in the world, the safety and national agreements and the recent results from radiation fusion technology, and suggest the further work

  10. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of the IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors, has been undertaken to document the major current activities and trends of technological improvement and development for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with Light Water Reactors (LWRs) was published in 1988 (IAEA-TECDOC-479). Part II of the report covers Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) and has now been prepared. This report is based largely upon submissions from Member States. It has been supplemented by material from the presentations at the IAEA Technical Committee and Workshop on Progress in Heavy Water Reactor Design and Technology held in Montreal, Canada, December 6-9, 1988. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced heavy water reactor technology up to 1988 and ongoing development programmes will aid in disseminating information to Member States and in stimulating international cooperation. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Present status and problems of remote systems technology in nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This reports the activities of Special Committee on Remote Systems Technology, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, during the period from Oct. 1984 to Sep. 1988. The Committee studied and reviewed the present status and problems of remote operation and maintenance in various fields of nuclear industry. Reported items are; reactor operation, reprocessing, nuclear fusion and decommissioning. It also reviews robotics and remote systems tehcnology applied to space and marine development.

  12. Present status and problems of remote systems technology in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reports the activities of Special Committee on Remote Systems Technology, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, during the period from Oct. 1984 to Sep. 1988. The Committee studied and reviewed the present status and problems of remote operation and maintenance in various fields of nuclear industry. Reported items are; reactor operation, reprocessing, nuclear fusion and decommissioning. It also reviews robotics and remote systems tehcnology applied to space and marine development. (author)

  13. Electronic Nose Technology to Measure Soil Microbial Activity and Classify Soil Metabolic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio De Cesare; Elena Di Mattia; Simone Pantalei; Emiliano Zampetti; Vittorio Vinciguerra; Antonella Macagnano

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (E-nose) is a sensing technology that has been widely used to monitor environments in the last decade. In the present study, the capability of an E-nose, in combination with biochemical and microbiological techniques, of both detecting the microbial activity and estimating the metabolic status of soil ecosystems, was tested by measuring on one side respiration, enzyme activities and growth of bacteria in natural but simplified soil ecosystems over 23 days of incubation thr...

  14. Conventional engine technology. Volume 1: Status of OTTO cycle engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    Federally-mandated emissions standards have led to major changes in automotive technology during the last decade. Efforts to satisfy the new standards were directed more toward the use of add-on devices, such as catalytic converters, turbochargers, and improved fuel metering, than toward complete engine redesign. The resulting changes are described and the improvement brought about by them in fuel economy and emissions levels are fully documented. Four specific categories of gasoline-powered internal combustion engines are covered, including subsystem and total engine development. Also included are the results of fuel economy and exhaust emissions tests performed on representative vehicles from each category.

  15. Current status of 700 MWe class PHWR NSSS design and engineering technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Keun; Suh, Sung Ki

    1996-06-01

    The capability of NSSS design and engineering technology of KAERI for 700 MWe class PHWR (CANDU 6) as of 1996 March 30 is comprehensively summarized in this report. The design and engineering capability of KAERI which have been gained during the implementation of Wolsung 2, 3 and 4 project are assessed, and showed with tangible scale. The status of Technology Transfer Materials received from Atomic Energy of Canada Limited under the Technology Transfer Agreement (TTA) which is effective simultaneously to Wolsung 3 and 4 contract, is also given in this report. The division of responsibility (DOR) of KAERI for Wolsung 2 and Wolsung 3 and 4 contract is also given, and expansion of DOR from Wolsung 2 contract to Wolsung 3 and 4 is presented. 3 refs. (Author)

  16. Current status and improvement of the nuclear physics experiment course for speciality of nuclear physics and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Guopu; Guo Lanying

    1999-01-01

    The author reviews the current status of the nuclear physics experiment course for speciality of nuclear physics and nuclear technology in higher education and expresses author's views on the future improvement of the nuclear physics experiment course

  17. Current status of technology development for fabrication of Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, T., E-mail: tjk@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [TBM Division, Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Status of technology developments for Indian TBM to be installed in ITER is presented. • Procedure development for EB, laser and laser-hybrid welding of RAFM steel presented. • Filler wires for RAFM steel for TIG, NG-TIG and laser-hybrid welding have been developed. • Feasibility of production of channel plate by HIP technology has been demonstrated. - Abstract: Ever since India decided to install its Lead-Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) TBM in ITER, various technologies for fabrication of Indian TBM are being pursued by IPR and IGCAR, in collaboration with various research laboratories in India. Welding consumables for joining India specific RAFM steels (IN-RAFMS), procedures for hot isostatic pressing, electron beam welding, laser and laser-hybrid welding have been developed. Considering the complex nature and limited access available for inspection, innovative inspection procedures that involved use of phased array ultrasonic and C-scan imaging are also being pursued. This paper presents the current status of these developments and provides a roadmap for the future activities planned in realizing Indian TBM for testing in ITER.

  18. Update of super-speed ground transportation technology development status and performance capabilities. CIGGT report No. 89-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, W F

    1990-01-01

    This report presents an update of the Phase II assessment of development status and performance capabilities for four candidate super-speed ground transportation system alternatives for the Las Vegas-Southern California corridor. The four alternatives considered are the TGV wheel-on-rail technology, the Transrapid TR- 07 long-stator Electromagnetic Maglev (EMS) technology, the Japan Railways MLU Electrodynamic Maglev (EDS) technology, and the HSST Corp. HSST-400 short-stator Electromagnetic Maglev technology.

  19. Total Isolation Status Monitoring and Management System by CAD Assisted Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masaaki

    1995-01-01

    Isolation tasks in a nuclear power station require high confidence and quick response particularly during the annual inspection when the equipment must be checked in a safe and planned manner. To realize these advanced isolation works, JAPC has developed TOtal Isolation Status Monitoring and Management System using CAD Assisted Technology. This system, TOMM-CAT, developed under the concept of 'User friendly advanced man-machine interface', allows planning and management to be performed on a CRT display. TOMM-CAT allows isolation tasks to be performed accurately and efficiently in conjunction with equipment information from the existing Job Order Management System, which runs on the station host computer. (author)

  20. Information technologies in optimization process of monitoring of software and hardware status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, P. V.; Savinov, A. N.; Bazhenov, R. I.; Ryabov, I. V.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes a model of a hardware and software monitoring system for a large company that provides customers with software as a service (SaaS solution) using information technology. The main functions of the monitoring system are: provision of up-todate data for analyzing the state of the IT infrastructure, rapid detection of the fault and its effective elimination. The main risks associated with the provision of these services are described; the comparative characteristics of the software are given; author's methods of monitoring the status of software and hardware are proposed.

  1. Status of technologies related to the isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irish, E R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Protection; Cooley, C R [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Nuclear Waste Management

    1980-09-01

    The authors present an overview of the status of technologies relevant to the isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. In addition to summarizing scientific and technical work on waste forms and packages, the: a) importance of the systems viewpoint, b) importance of modeling, c) need for site-specific investigations, d) consideration of future sub-surface human activities and e) prospects for successful isolation are discussed. It is concluded that successful isolation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere appears technically feasible for periods of thousands of years provided that the systems view is used in repository siting and design.

  2. Tritium processing and containment technology for fusion reactors: perspective and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroni, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of selected tritium processing and containment technologies that will be required to support the development of the fusion energy program. Considered in order are the fuel conditioning and recycle systems, the containment and cleanup systems, the blanket processing systems, and two unique problems relating to tritium interactions in neutral beam injectors and first wall coolant circuits. The major technical problem areas appear to lie in the development of (1) high-capacity, rapid recycle plasma chamber evacuation systems; (2) large-capacity (greater than or equal to 100,000 cfm) air handling and processing systems for atmospheric detritiation; (3) tritium recovery technology for liquid lithium blanket concepts; (4) tritium compatible neutral injector systems; and (5) an overall approach to tritium handling and containment that guarantees near zero release to the environment at a bearable cost

  3. Status and Mission Applicability of NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Munk, Michelle M.; Dankanich, John; Pencil, Eric; Liou, Larry

    2009-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project develops propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. Since 2001, the ISPT project developed and delivered products to assist technology infusion and quantify mission applicability and benefits through mission analysis and tools. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for flagship destinations currently under evaluation, as well as having broad applicability to future Discovery and New Frontiers mission solicitations. This paper provides status of the technology development, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of advanced chemical thrusters, electric propulsion, aerocapture, and systems analysis tools. The current chemical propulsion investment is on the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. Investments in electric propulsion technologies focused on completing NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system, and the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster, which is a mid-term product specifically designed for a low-cost electric propulsion option. Aerocapture investments developed a family of thermal protections system materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars and Venus; and models for aerothermal effects. In 2009 ISPT started the development of propulsion technologies that would enable future sample return missions. The paper describes the ISPT project's future focus on propulsion for sample return missions. The future technology development areas for ISPT is: Planetary Ascent Vehicles (PAV), with a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) being the initial development focus; multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) needed

  4. Current status of development in dry pyro-electrochemical technology of SNF reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, A.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    The technology of SNF management in molten salts currently developed by a group of institutes headed by RIAR has had several stages of development: - basic research of uranium, plutonium and main FP properties (investigation and reprocessing of different kinds of SNF in 1960 - 1970); - development of the equipment and implementation of the pyro-electrochemical technology of granulated UPu fuel production. Development of the vibro-packing method and in-pile testing of vibro-packed fuel pins with granulated fuel as the most 'logical' continuation of reprocessing: implementation of the technology for BOR-60 and BN-600 (1980 - 1990); - development of closed fuel cycle elements. Checking of the technology using batches of SNF. In-pile tests. Feasibility study of the closed fuel cycle (CFC). Study of application of the technology to other objects (transmutation; nitride, cermet and other fuels) (1980 - 1990). The current status of the research is the following: - Basic research. Properties of uranium, plutonium, thorium, and neptunium in chloride melts have been studied in much detail. The data on physical chemistry and electrochemistry of the main FP is enough for understanding the processes. Detailed studies of americium, curium, and technetium chemistry are the essential investigation directions; - Engineering development. The technology and equipment bases have been developed for the processes of oxide fuel reprocessing and fabrication. The technology was checked using 5500 kg of pure fuel from different reactors and 20 kg of irradiated BN-350 and BOR-60 fuel. The bases of the technology have been provided and the feasibility study has been carried out for a full-scale plant of BN-800 CFC; - Industrial application: Since the technology is highly prepared, the activities on industrial application of U-Pu fuel are now underway. The BOR-60 reactor uses fuel obtained by the dry method, the design of the facility for implementation of CFC reactors is being developed. 9

  5. Comprehensive assessment of the status scientific and technical projects using Technology Project Readiness Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The balanced methodology for assessing the Technology Project Readiness Level for commercialization (TPRL is proposed. TPRL allows to determine the dynamics and balance of development projects that use the standardized approaches used in assessing the readiness of the technology. Validation of the methodology undertaken for the projects of Federal target programs “Research and development on priority directions of development of scientific-technological complex of Russia for 2007–2013” and “Research and development on priority directions of development of scientific-technological complex of Russia for 2014–2020”. The obtained results showed the possibility of application of the methodology for the evaluation of projects, improving efficiency of expert activity in the evaluation of projects, monitoring the status of individual project and group of projects (portfolio. The application of the methodology allowed us to improve the management of individual project and portfolio of projects.Methodology TPRL will allow the implementers, industry partners, investors, and innovative industrial companies to improve the efficiency of its activities.

  6. Healthcare professionals' use of health clouds: Integrating technology acceptance and status quo bias perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pi-Jung

    2015-07-01

    Cloud computing technology has recently been seen as an important milestone in medical informatics development. Despite its great potential, there are gaps in our understanding of how users evaluate change in relation to the health cloud and how they decide to resist it. Integrating technology acceptance and status quo bias perspectives, this study develops an integrated model to explain healthcare professionals' intention to use the health cloud service and their intention to resist it. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to collect data from healthcare professionals; a structural equation model was used to examine the data. A valid sample of 209 healthcare professionals was collected for data analysis. The results show that healthcare professionals' resistance to the use of the health cloud is the result of regret avoidance, inertia, perceived value, switching costs, and perceived threat. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control are shown to have positive and direct effects on healthcare professionals' intention to use the health cloud. The results also indicate a significant negative effect in the relationship between healthcare professionals' intention and resistance to using the health cloud. Our study illustrates the importance of incorporating user resistance in technology acceptance studies in general and in health technology usage studies in particular. This study also identifies key factors for practitioners and hospitals to make adoption decisions in relation to the health cloud. Further, the study provides a useful reference for future studies in this subject field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of production status of heavy steel castings and key technologies for their manufacture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Baicheng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper expatiates on domestic status of heavy steel casting production, with a special focus on hydraulic turbine castings for Three Gorges Project. In China, there is magnificent demand for heavy castings with the rapid growth of the national economy in recent years and the expected high growth in the coming 10 to 20 years. Some heavy and large castings such as mill housing and hydraulic turbine runner crown, blade and band for Three Gorges Project have been successfully made. However, the domestic production capability is still far from meeting the gigantic requirements. The domestic capability still lags behind the world class level, and a lot of heavy castings still depend on import. The paper also gives a particular introduction of the key technologies in the manufacturing of heavy steel castings like metal melting, foundry technology, heat treatment technology and numerical simulation technique, etc. In addition, several case studies on the application of numerical simulation in the production of heavy steel castings are presented.

  8. Status of NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Anderson, David J.; Tuttle, Karen L.; Tew, Roy C.

    2006-01-01

    NASA s Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) development program is funding the advancement of next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that can not be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Requirements of advanced radioisotope power systems include high efficiency and high specific power (watts/kilogram) in order to meet mission requirements with less radioisotope fuel and lower mass. Other Advanced RPS development goals include long-life, reliability, and scalability so that these systems can meet requirements for a variety of future space applications including continual operation surface missions, outer-planetary missions, and solar probe. This paper provides an update on the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Project which awarded ten Phase I contracts for research and development of a variety of power conversion technologies consisting of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectrics, and thermophotovoltaics. Three of the contracts continue during the current Phase II in the areas of thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion. The accomplishments to date of the contractors, project plans, and status will be summarized.

  9. Post-harvest technologies for various crops of pakistan: status quo, employment generation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.

    2005-01-01

    The climatic conditions of Pakistan vary from tropical to temperate, allow 40 different kinds of vegetables, 21 type of fruit, and 5 major crops (wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, and maize) to grow. During the peak harvest-season, a great proportion of fresh agricultural/horticultural produce is lost, due to unavailability of suitable post-harvest technologies. An effort was made to present the status quo, constraints, Government policies and possible post-harvest technologies that can be developed/adopted in the country to generate employment in the rural areas. Secondary processing-industry (flour mills, sugar mills, oil mills etc.) is fairly developed in the country. However. primary processing of agricultural produce is poorly developed in the country. The higher cost of the processed products, consumers habits of eating fresh commodities, seasonability of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low quality of the processed products are the key-constraints for the slow growth of post-harvest processing industry. By removing these constraints, and by developing/adopting various technologies, identified in this paper, we may help to establish post-harvest processing industry on sound footings. Consequently, the employment-opportunities will increase in the rural areas of the country. (author)

  10. Status of the technology development of large scale HTS generators for wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T. D.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. J.; Boo, C. J.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Large wind turbine generators with high temperature superconductors (HTS) are in incessant development because of their advantages such as weight and volume reduction and the increased efficiency compared with conventional technologies. In addition, nowadays the wind turbine market is growing in a function of time, increasing the capacity and energy production of the wind farms installed and increasing the electrical power for the electrical generators installed. As a consequence, it is raising the wind power energy contribution for the global electricity demand. In this study, a forecast of wind energy development will be firstly emphasized, then it continue presenting a recent status of the technology development of large scale HTSG for wind power followed by an explanation of HTS wire trend, cryogenics cooling systems concept, HTS magnets field coil stability and other technological parts for optimization of HTS generator design-operating temperature, design topology, field coil shape and level cost of energy, as well. Finally, the most relevant projects and designs of HTS generators specifically for offshore wind power systems are also mentioned in this study.

  11. Status of the technology development of large scale HTS generators for wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T. D.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. J.; Boo, C. J.; Kim, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Large wind turbine generators with high temperature superconductors (HTS) are in incessant development because of their advantages such as weight and volume reduction and the increased efficiency compared with conventional technologies. In addition, nowadays the wind turbine market is growing in a function of time, increasing the capacity and energy production of the wind farms installed and increasing the electrical power for the electrical generators installed. As a consequence, it is raising the wind power energy contribution for the global electricity demand. In this study, a forecast of wind energy development will be firstly emphasized, then it continue presenting a recent status of the technology development of large scale HTSG for wind power followed by an explanation of HTS wire trend, cryogenics cooling systems concept, HTS magnets field coil stability and other technological parts for optimization of HTS generator design-operating temperature, design topology, field coil shape and level cost of energy, as well. Finally, the most relevant projects and designs of HTS generators specifically for offshore wind power systems are also mentioned in this study

  12. Status of Research on Pebble Bed HTR Fuel Fabrication Technology in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachmawati, M.; Sarjono; Ridwan; Langenati, R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on pebble bed HTR fuel fabrication is conducted in Indonesia. One of the aims is to build a knowledge base on pebble bed HTR fuel element fabrication technology for fuel procurement. The steps of research strategies are firstly to understand the basic design research of TRISO fuel, properties, and requirements, and secondly to understand the TRISO fuel manufacturing technology, which comprises fabrication and quality control, including its facility. Both steps are adopted from research and experiences of the countries with HTR fuel element fabrication technology. From the knowledge gained in the research, an experimental design of the process and a set of prototype process equipment for fabrication are developed, namely kernels production using external gelation process, TRISO coating of the kernel, and pebble compacting. Experiments using the prototypes have been conducted. Characterization of the kernel product, i.e. diameter, sphericity, density and O/U ratio, shows that the kernel product is still not in compliance with the specification requirements. These are deemed to be caused mainly by the selected vibrating system and the viscosity adjustment. Another major cause is the selected NH3 and air feeding method for both NH3 and air layer in the preparation for spherical droplets of liquid. The FB-CVD TRISO coating of the kernel has been experimented but unsuccessful by using an FB-CVD once‐through continuous coating process. For the pebble compacting, the process is still in the early stage of setting-up compaction equipment. This paper summarizes the current status of research on HTR fuel fabrication technology in Indonesia, the proposed process and its equipment setting-up for improvement of the kernel production. The knowledge and lessons learned gained from the research is useful and can be an assistance in planning for fuel development laboratory facilities procurement, formulating User Requirement Document and Bid Invitation Specification for

  13. Danish research and development in PEM fuel cell technology. Status for strategy follow up; Dansk forskning og udvikling inden for PEM-braendselscelleteknologi. Status for strategiopfoelgning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    PEM fuel cell technology shows promise as to efficient and environmental friendly production of power and heat. Furthermore, the technology can be used for production of hydrogen through electrolysis of water. In Denmark research and development focus on PEM fuel cells for low temperatures (up to c 80 deg. C) as well as for high temperatures (up to 200 deg. C). This note summarizes the present plane for research and development in PEM in Denmark, including status for development within specific areas i.e. basic research and development, process development, cell and stack development and tests, and system development. (BA)

  14. A review on the current status and production technology of 32,33P-orthophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ul Jae; Han, Hyun Soo; Cho, Woon Kap; Kuznetsov, Rostislav A.

    2000-10-01

    The current status of 32 , 33 P-Orthophosphoric acid production technology is reviewed. The following aspects of the technology are covered: - production of phosphorus-32 and phosphorus-33 using various nuclear reactions; - chemical properties of sulfur and phosphorus effecting the technology of radioactive phosphorus production; - chemical state of 32 , 33 P in neutron irradiated sulfur; - the technology of radioactive phosphorus isolation from neutron irradiated target and orthophosphoric acid production; - purification of 32 , 33 P-orthophosphoric acid from impurities and some related problems, like the nature of impurities, the storage of the final product, etc. - the quality control procedures of carrier-free ( 32 , 33 P)-orthophosphoric acid preparations

  15. VRdose: an exposure dose evaluation system based on virtual reality technology - current status and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Yukihiro; Louka, Michael; Johnsen, Terje

    2004-01-01

    The Fugen Nuclear Power Station (NPS) was shut down permanently in March 2003, and preparatory activities are underway to decommission the Fugen NPS. It is necessary to accomplish the decommissioning economically and rationally by optimizing the workload, exposure dose and waste mass. This is important at the planning stage of the decommissioning. Virtual reality (VR) technology may prove beneficial to this process with regard to minimizing the workers' radiation exposure as well as contributing towards achieving efficient use of manpower. It could also be a valuable tool in the actual dismantling phase. In addition to this, VR provides an effective medium in presentations for public acceptance as well as for communication with relevant engineers. The VRdose project conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Halden Virtual Reality Centre is doing research and development of VR technology for use in the decommissioning process at the Fugen NPS. This is technically an extensive project, touching on many of the present challenges in the VR area such as visual simulation and animation, interaction with objects in a virtual environment and scenario generation and optimisation. This paper describes the present status and future of the system. (Author)

  16. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  17. A review on the current status and production technology for 188W-188Re generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, R. A.; Han, H. S.; Cho, W. K.; Park, U. J.; Kim, Y. M.

    1998-11-01

    The current status of 188 W- 188 Re generator production technology were reviewed in PART 1. Main interests were given to the aspects of 188 W reactor production, irradiated targets reprocessing and generator loading technologies, such as alumina type and gel type generators. In order to develop the more convenient and advanced 188 W- 188 Re generator, further studies must be carried out to get the precise evaluation of production and burn-up cross section of 188 W, the more easily realizable generator loading procedure, and also to optimize the column and generator design to compensate the deterioration of generator performance because of parent radionuclide decay. By irradiation of 186 W enriched sample, 188 W- 188 Re generator production experiments were performed to evaluate the possibility of 188 W- 188 Re generator production using HANARO, and PART 2 describes about the experiments. The experimental results shows the possibility of practical 188 W- 188 Re generator production using of low-specific activity 188 W produced in HANARO. (author). 79 refs., 4 tabs., 26 figs

  18. MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee. Seventh semi-annual status report, April 1991--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    This seventh semi-annual status report of the MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee (TTIRC) summarizes activities of the TTIRC during the period April 1991 through September 1991. It includes a summary and minutes of the General Committee meeting, progress summaries of ongoing POC contracts, discussions pertaining to technical integration issues in the POC program, and planned activities for the next six months. The meeting included test plan with Western coal, seed regeneration economics, power management for the integrated topping cycle and status of the Clean Coal Technology Proposal activities. Appendices cover CDIF operations HRSR development, CFFF operations etc.

  19. Status of teaching elementary science for English learners in science, mathematics and technology centered magnet schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Alyson Kim

    According to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (2001), one in three students speaks a language other than English. Additionally, the Commission stated that a student is considered to be an English learner if the second language acquisition is English. In California more than 1.4 million English learners enter school speaking a variety of languages, and this number continues to rise. There is an imminent need to promote instructional strategies that support this group of diverse learners. Although this was not a California study, the results derived from the nationwide participants' responses provided a congruent assessment of the basic need to provide effective science teaching strategies to all English learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of elementary science teaching practices used with English learners in kindergarten through fifth grade in public mathematics, science, and technology-centered elementary magnet schools throughout the country. This descriptive research was designed to provide current information and to identify trends in the areas of curriculum and instruction for English learners in science themed magnet schools. This report described the status of elementary (grades K-5) school science instruction for English learners based on the responses of 116 elementary school teachers: 59 grade K-2, and 57 grade 3-5 teachers. Current research-based approaches support incorporating self-directed learning strategy, expository teaching strategy, active listening strategies, questioning strategies, wait time strategy, small group strategy, peer tutoring strategy, large group learning strategy, demonstrations strategy, formal debates strategy, review sessions strategy, mediated conversation strategy, cooperative learning strategy, and theme-based instruction into the curriculum to assist English learners in science education. Science Technology Society (STS) strategy, problem-based learning strategy, discovery learning

  20. Technology status of spray calcination--vitrification of high-level liquid waste for full-scale application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, R.B.; Bonner, W.F.; Larson, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Spray calcination and vitrification technology for stabilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been developed to the point that initiation of technology transfer to an industrial-sized facility could begin. This report discusses current process and equipment development status together with additional R and D studies and engineering evaluations needed. Preliminary full-scale process and equipment descriptions are presented. Technology application in a full-scale plant would blend three distinct maintenance design philosophies, depending on service life anticipated: (1) totally remote maintenance with limited viewing and handling equipment, (2) totally remote maintenance with extensive viewing and handling equipment, and (3) contact maintenance

  1. Status of an advanced radioisotope space power system using free-piston Stirling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.A.; Qiu, S.; Erbeznik, R.M.; Olan, R.W.; Welty, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a free-piston Stirling engine technology project to demonstrate a high efficiency power system capable of being further developed for deep space missions using a radioisotope (RI) heat source. The key objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years or longer on deep space missions. Primary issues being addressed for Stirling space power systems are weight and the vibration associated with reciprocating pistons. Similar weight and vibration issues have been successfully addressed with Stirling cryocoolers, which are the accepted standard for cryogenic cooling in space. Integrated long-life Stirling engine-generator (or convertor) operation has been demonstrated by the terrestrial Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) and other Stirling Technology Company (STC) programs. Extensive RSG endurance testing includes more than 40,000 maintenance-free, degradation-free hours for the complete convertor, in addition to several critical component and subsystem endurance tests. The Stirling space power convertor project is being conducted by STC under DOE Contract, and NASA SBIR Phase II contracts. The DOE contract objective is to demonstrate a two-convertor module that represents half of a nominal 150-W(e) power system. Each convertor is referred to as a Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC). The ultimate Stirling power system would be fueled by three general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules, and is projected to produce substantially more electric power than the 150-watt target. The system is capable of full power output with one failed convertor. One NASA contract, nearing completion, uses existing 350-W(e) RG-350 convertors to evaluate interactivity of two back-to-back balanced convertors with various degrees of electrical and mechanical interaction. This effort has recently provided the first successful synchronization of two convertors by means of parallel

  2. European accomplishments in regulation of the family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor, ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This procedure is allowed in, for instance, United Kingdom, but not allowed in France, Switzerland, and Italy. Considering genetics elements in this situation there is no doubt on fatherhood - father is a man whose sperm is used for insemination, regardless of the fact if frozen sperm or frozen embryo is used in the procedure. Nevertheless, until 2008 in United Kingdom, the husband/partner was not considered as legal father, because of the fact that the child was born after his death. Heterologous artificial insemination could be used in three different situations. First, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of different sexes. Second, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex and the third if a single woman is an only subject. Most recent procedure is the one in which subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex, specifically two women. This procedure is allowed in the United Kingdom and Sweden. In these legislatures, there is a rule that the woman who delivers the child is legal mother, and her spouse/partner is a second parent of the child. The most recent procedure of egg donation is a donation of only a part of an egg, mitochondrial DNA. In this case, there are in fact three genetic parents of the child: two genetic mothers and a father. Legally, the child has one mother (the woman who delivers a child and a father. One of potential outcomes of the recent research is the ability to create human embryo without any male genetic contribution - by

  3. Status of international cooperation in nuclear technology on testing/research reactors between JAEA and INP-NNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Kimura, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Masataka; Izumo, Hironobu; Chakrov, Petr; Gizatulin, Shamil; Chakrova, Yelena; Ludmila, Chkushuina; Asset, Shaimerdenov; Nataliya, Romanova

    2012-02-01

    Based on the implementing arrangement between National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for 'Nuclear Technology on Testing/Research Reactors' in cooperation in Research and Development in Nuclear Energy and Technology, four specific topics of cooperation (STC) have been carried out from June, 2009. Four STCs are as follows; (1) STC No.II-1 : International Standard of Instrumentation. (2) STC No.II-2 : Irradiation Technology of RI Production. (3) STC No.II-3 : Lifetime Expansion of Beryllium Reflector. (4) STC No.II-4 : Irradiation Technology for NTD-Si. The information exchange, personal exchange and cooperation experiments are carried out under these STCs. The status in the field of nuclear technology on testing/research reactors in the implementing arrangement is summarized, and future plans of these specific topics of cooperation are described in this report. (author)

  4. Subsurface Planar Vitrification Treatment of Problematic TRU Wastes: Status of a Technology Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, M.K.; Nowack, B.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a status of the In Situ Transuranic Waste Delineation and Removal Project in which the GeoMelt R Subsurface Planar Vitrification TM (SPV TM ) process is being evaluated for the in situ treatment of burial sites containing remote handled mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. The GeoMelt R SPV TM process was invented and patented by Geosafe Corporation. AMEC holds the exclusive worldwide license to use this technology. The current project is part of a three-phase demonstration program to evaluate the effectiveness of the GeoMelt R SPV TM process to treat waste contained in vertical pipe units (VPUs) and caissons that were used for the disposal of remote handled transuranic wastes located at Hanford's 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds. This project is being performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for use at the Hanford site and other DOE installations. The Phase I evaluation determined that removal and treatment of the 618-10/11 VPUs are beyond what can be safely accomplished using conventional excavation methods. Accordingly, a careful stepwise non-intrusive delineation approach and treatment using the GeoMelt R SPV TM technology, followed by removal, characterization, and disposal of the resulting inert vitrified mass was identified as the preferred alternative. Phase II of the project, which started in July 2004, included a full-scale non-radioactive demonstration of AMEC's GeoMelt R SPV TM process on a mock VPU configured to match the actual VPUs. The non-radioactive demonstration (completed in May 2005) was performed to confirm the approach and design before proceeding to a radioactive ('hot') demonstration on an actual VPU. This demonstration took approximately 130 hours, processed the entire mock VPU, and resulted in a vitrified monolith weighing an estimated 90 tonnes. [1] Plans for a radioactive demonstration on an actual VPU are being developed for CY 2006. In addition to demonstrating GeoMelt R SPV TM , delineation techniques are being

  5. Biogas technology dissemination in Ghana: history, current status, future prospects, and policy significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana); Brew-Hammond, Abeeku [Faculty of Mechanical and Agricultural Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Despite numerous benefits derived from biogas technology, Ghana is yet to develop a major programme that will promote the dissemination of biogas plants on a larger scale. This paper reviews biogas installations in Ghana and investigates challenges facing the design, construction, and operation of biogas plants. It further captures the current status and functions of biogas plants as well as the impact of these plants on the people who use them. The study was done by surveying fifty (50) biogas installations, and conducting interviews with both plant users and service providers. From the survey, twenty-nine (58 %) installations were institutional, fourteen (28 %) were household units, and the remaining seven (14 %) were community plants. Fixed-dome and water-jacket floating-drum digesters represented 82 % and 8 % of installations surveyed, respectively. It was revealed that sanitation was the main motivational reason for people using biogas plants. Of the 50 plants, 22 (44 %) were functioning satisfactorily, 10 (20 %) were functioning partially, 14 (28 %) were not functioning, 2 (4 %) were abandoned, and the remaining 2 (4 %) were under construction. Reasons for non-functioning include non-availability of dung, breakdown of balloon gasholders, absence of maintenance services, lack of operational knowledge, and gas leakages and bad odour in toilet chambers of biolatrines. This paper recommends the development of a national biogas programme focussing on three major areas -- sanitation, energy, and agricultural fertilizer production; it further supports the development of standardized digester models. The founding of a national body or the establishment of a dedicated unit within an existing organization with the sole aim of coordinating and managing biogas dissemination in Ghana is proposed.

  6. The status of lightweight photovoltaic space array technology based on amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Kaschmitter, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Ultralight, flexible photovoltaic (PV) array of amorphous silicon (a-Si) was identified as a potential low cost power source for small satellites. A survey was conducted of the status of the a-Si PV array technology with respect to present and future performance, availability, cost, and risks. For existing, experimental array blankets made of commercial cell material, utilizing metal foil substrates, the Beginning of Life (BOL) performance at Air Mass Zero (AM0) and 35 C includes total power up to 200 W, power per area of 64 W/sq m and power per weight of 258 W/kg. Doubling of power per weight occurs when polyimide substrates are used. Estimated End of Life (EOL) power output after 10 years in a nominal low earth orbit would be 80 pct. of BOL, the degradation being due to largely light induced effects (-10 to -15 pct.) and in part (-5 pct.) to space radiation. Predictions for the year 1995 for flexible PV arrays, made on the basis of published results for rigid a-Si modules, indicate EOL power output per area and per weight of 105 W/sq m and 400 W/kg, respectively, while predictions for the late 1990s based on existing U.S. national PV program goals indicate EOL values of 157 W/sq m and 600 W/kg. Cost estimates by vendors for 200 W ultralight arrays in volume of over 1000 units range from $100/watt to $125/watt. Identified risks include the lack of flexible, space compatible encapsulant, the lack of space qualification effort, recent partial or full acquisitions of US manufacturers of a-Si cells by foreign firms, and the absence of a national commitment for a long range development program toward developing of this important power source for space.

  7. National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies Institute. Status report, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.

    1997-12-31

    The National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) program is intended to pool support, talent, and technologies of the industries dependent upon drilling and excavation technologies to initiate, coordinate, and sustain programs capable of developing substantial technological advances. The NADET Institute has been funded by the DOE Office of Geothermal Technologies and is now supporting seven projects aimed at advanced geothermal drilling technologies. The Institute seeks to broaden its base of funding and technological support from both government and industry sources. Encouraging progress has been made with the support of dues-paying industrial members and industrial sponsorship of a substantial drilling research study.

  8. A review on the current status and production technology of {sup 32,} {sup 33}P-orthophosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ul Jae; Han, Hyun Soo; Cho, Woon Kap; Kuznetsov, Rostislav A

    2000-10-01

    The current status of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P-Orthophosphoric acid production technology is reviewed. The following aspects of the technology are covered: - production of phosphorus-32 and phosphorus-33 using various nuclear reactions; - chemical properties of sulfur and phosphorus effecting the technology of radioactive phosphorus production; - chemical state of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P in neutron irradiated sulfur; - the technology of radioactive phosphorus isolation from neutron irradiated target and orthophosphoric acid production; - purification of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P-orthophosphoric acid from impurities and some related problems, like the nature of impurities, the storage of the final product, etc. - the quality control procedures of carrier-free ({sup 32}, {sup 33}P)-orthophosphoric acid preparations.

  9. Adoption of Technology and the Socio-Economic Status of Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic status of rural women. A comparison of adopters and non-adopters reveals that the adopters are generally more privileged and occupy a higher status because of adoption. In addition, education and awareness are crucial variables in the ...

  10. A Survey on the Development Status of Nano Technology as a Basic and Fundamental Technology of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, J. Y.; Lee, G. H.

    2010-02-01

    - It is necessary to research and develop high-grade nuclear energy technology such as raising stability of nuclear power generation, improving economic feasibility and managing radioactive wastes. - Innovation of nano technology is composed of each stage as follows Energy source -> conversion to energy -> distribution of energy -> energy storage -> energy use which are a value added system in the part of energy. - It is necessary to strengthen support of the government to raise next-generation human resources for continuous promotion of nuclear energy, referring to KNOO program promoted by the UK government for raising recognition about nuclear energy, raising core human resources and developing next generation core technology

  11. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix B. Assessment of status of technology for solvent refining of coal. 1977 technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report reviews the technology and environmental impacts of the solvent refined coal process to produce clean solid fuel (SRC-I). Information on SRC-I pilot plant operation, process design, and economics is presented. A bibliography of current available literature in this technology area, divided into fourteen categories with abstracts of the references, is appended. The history, current operations, and future plans for the SRC pilot plants at Fort Lewis and Wilsonville are reviewed. Process data generated at these pilot plants for various coals are used as a basis for a conceptual commercial plant design with a capacity to process 20,000 tons per day (TPD) of prepared coal. Block flow diagrams, material balances, an energy balance, and a list of raw materials for the plant are also provided. Capital cost estimates for a 20,000 TPD coal feed plant derived from four prior economic studies range from $706 million to $1093 million in 1976 dollars. The annual net operating cost is estimated at $238.6 million (1976 dollars) and the average product cost at $2.71/MM Btu based on utility financing (equity 25:debt 75) with $25/ton as the delivered price of the dry coal. The report also discusses special technical considerations associated with some of the process operations and major equipment items and enumerates technical risks associated with the commercialization of the SRC-I process.

  12. Current status of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), PR, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy; Barbosa, Laercio; Perna, Allan F.N.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous and systematic studies performed in different countries for many decades resulted in the explicit conclusion that radon exposure, as well as its progeny, is the main cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. All three natural radon isotopes ( 222 Rn, 220 Rn and 219 Rn) are produced in the three principal natural radioactive decay chains. Specifically, the 222 Rn is produced by the decay series of 238 U and proceeded from α-decay of 226 Ra. Current work describes the present status and obtained results concerning indoor radon survey in dwellings, radon in water supply and soil gas tests performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR) within Curitiba urban area. For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN (GE) and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD, Genitron/SAPHYMO) connected to the air pump with filter vessels and to specially developed in our Laboratory the Soil Gas Probe. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.) connected to special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. Obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m 3 which is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of studied artesian wells, collected samples of water presented the average 222 Rn activity about 60 Bq/L which is 6 times bigger than maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented the radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, it was identified the radioactivity of radium ( 226 Ra) salts which are soluble in water and almost all water samples presented results bigger than

  13. Status of fusion technology development in JAERI stressing steady-state operation for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on the progress of the fusion reactor technologies developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and expected to lead to a future steady state operation reactor. In particular, superconducting coil technology for plasma confinement, NBI and RF systems technology for plasma control and current drive, fueling and pumping systems technology for particle control, heat removal technology, and development of long life materials are highlighted as the important key elements for the future steady state operation. It will be discussed how these key technologies have already been developed by the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) technology R and D as well as by the Japanese domestic program, and which technologies are planned for the near future

  14. The Status of Technology and Engineering Education in the United States: A Fourth Report of the Findings from the States (2011-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Johnny J.; Dugger, William E., Jr.; Starkweather, Kendall N.

    2012-01-01

    Technology and engineering education continues to evolve as it becomes more apparent that students need this information to become more successful in college and careers. The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA ) has tracked the status of technology education in the United States in three separate studies over the…

  15. Reflection of Information Technologies over the Information Professionals in Terms of Status: A Survey on the Librarians in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanur Öztemiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order not to succumb to technologies that carry out tasks similar to those performed by humans, modern professional understanding makes it essential to adopt reconciliatory approaches. Because it requires less effort, the partnership between manpower and technology allows professional activities to be carried out in a shorter time and results in greater product or service output. In addition, this partnership deeply affects the workforce responsible for professional implementation. Developing technologies have brought about various changes in education and job titles and particularly in the professional specifications for information professionals. This study aims to set forth the reflections of change on the status extent, based on the information professionals ’ experiences. This study is based on descriptive methodology and covers 106 information professionals working in public libraries, university libraries and in the libraries of those institutions attached to the Prime Ministry in the Turkish capital city Ankara. This research finds that changes in information technologies have had meaningful impacts in terms of indicators of social status such as value, respectability, financial income and professional interest.

  16. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Rogers, A.Z.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethrope, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels

  17. Current status and future development of modular high temperature gas cooled reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This report includes an examination of the international activities with regard to the development of the modular HTGR coupled to a gas turbine. The most significant of these gas turbine programmes include the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) being designed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL) of the United Kingdom, and the gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) by a consortium of General Atomics of the United States of America, MINATOM of the Russian Federation, Framatome of France and Fuji Electric of Japan. Details of the design, economics and plans for these plants are provided in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. Test reactors to evaluate the safety and general performance of the HTGR and to support research and development activities including electricity generation via the gas turbine and validation of high temperature process heat applications are being commissioned in Japan and China. Construction of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) at its Oarai Research Establishment has been completed with the plant currently in the low power physics testing phase of commissioning. Construction of the high temperature reactor (HTR-10) by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) in Beijing, China, is nearly complete with initial criticality expected in 2000. Chapter 5 provides a discussion of purpose, status and testing programmes for these two plants. In addition to the activities related to the above mentioned plants, Member States of the IWGGCR continue to support research associated with HTGR safety and performance as well as development of alternative designs for commercial applications. These activities are being addressed by national energy institutes and, in some projects, private industry, within China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, the Netherlands, the Russian Federation, South Africa, United Kingdom and the USA. Chapter 6 includes details

  18. Status of clean vehicle technologies and impact of the accompanying public policies; Etat des filieres de vehicules propres et impact des politiques publiques d'accompagnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The French inter-ministry committee for clean vehicles (CIVP) published in 1999 a report about the status of development of the different clean vehicle technologies (electric-powered, LPG-fueled, natural gas fueled, hybrid, fuel cells) and accompanied by recommendations for public policies. A re-evaluation of these technologies was planned by the end of 2002 and is the purpose of this document. The first part makes a status of the actions carried out by the public authorities since the previous CIVP report. The second part presents the present day situation of the LPG, natural gas and electric technologies. It describes also the recent advances in the classical technologies (gasoline and diesel engines) and includes a part about battery technologies and about the use of bio-fuels. The status of each technology is presented both for France and for foreign countries and with its perspectives of evolution. (J.S.)

  19. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  20. Nuclear and radiation technologies in Ukraine: opportunities, status and problems of implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbulyin, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The collection contains research materials and information presented at the Scientific Conference 'Nuclear and radiation technologies in Ukraine' (September 17, 2009, Kyiv). The articles offered specific ways to address a number of issues relevant to nuclear energy, science, technology, medicine and related to the radiation and environmental safety, the use of radiation technologies in medicine, development of uranium and uranium processing industry, safety on factories of NFC, nuclear physical instrumentation, behaviour with radioactive wastes.

  1. The status of development of energy technologies to reduce greenhousegas emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salokoski, P.; Aeijaelae, M.

    1997-01-01

    In Finland there is a versatile energy production in which the combined heat and power production (CHP) plays a remarkable role. In the total power supply, the CHP production accounts for about 30 %. Biomass is also widely used. In all fuels, wood and peat accounts for 21 %, the largest share in Western Countries. The utilization of wood based fuels is also remarkable, about 16 %. The high rate of CHP production and the utilization of biomass have contributed to the lower CO 2 -emissions. In future, fossil fuels will probably be utilized in larger volumes because there are limits to the increasing of the capacity of the CHP production, biomass utilization, nuclear power and hydro power. Consequently added use of fossil fuels will increase the CO 2 -emissions. The methods with most potential in reducing CO 2 -emissions in Finland are an increased use of biomass, an expanding production of nuclear power, a larger number of CHP plants and an increase in the utilization of natural gas. Other important methods with a minor effect are technologies which increase the power/heat ratio or the efficiency. These technologies include the IGCC-technologies, the gasification-diesel or the diesel technology in general with small heat loads. These technologies will grow in importance if the substitutive fuel is biomass. Most of the technologies mentioned above are in use in Finland and, in our experience, can be recommended to other countries. Viable commercial technologies are, for example, the CHP techniques in both district heating and industrial processes, various small-scale power plants integrated to CHP or condensate power plants, the fluidized-bed technology in power production or heat production only the diesel technology; the cofiring of biomass and coal as well as the harvesting, handling, drying and utilization technologies of biomass. Technologies still in the developmental stage include the IGCC-technology for biomasses, the gasification-diesel, and the production

  2. THE CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT STATUS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE JOB SATISFACTION OF ACADEMICS WITHIN SOUTH AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES OF TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ntisa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available South African higher education has gone through numerous changes in terms ofrestructuring and transformation. Rapid changes of this nature, within the highereducation system, necessitate alternative work arrangements, which have potentialnegative effects on job satisfaction of academics. Research on the contracts ofemployment of academic staff in the context of developing countries such asSouth Africa has remained scarce. The primary purpose of the study was toexplore the relationship between the status of the contract of employment and jobsatisfaction. Data were analysed from 494 (n academics within South Africanuniversities of technology. Correlation analysis was used to establish therelationship between the status of the contract of employment and job satisfaction.A negative correlation between the status of the contract and job satisfaction wasobserved. Significant differences were found between the status of the contractand job satisfaction. The results showed that those who are permanently employedexperience high levels of job satisfaction and those who have fixed-term andtemporary contracts experience lower levels of job satisfaction. This study concludes by discussing managerial implications of the results. Limitations andimplication for further research are explored.

  3. Current status on research and development of accelerator-driven system and nuclear transmutation technology in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho

    2013-01-01

    This status report describes the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: Japan, Korea and China. The report also includes all presentation materials presented in 'the 10th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS+NTT 2012)' held at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, Japan on 6th and 7th December, 2012. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The 5 of 27 papers presented at the entitled report and meeting are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. High power density superconducting rotating machines—development status and technology roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, Kiruba S.; Kalsi, Swarn; Arndt, Tabea; Karmaker, Haran; Badcock, Rod; Buckley, Bob; Haugan, Timothy; Izumi, Mitsuru; Loder, David; Bray, James W.; Masson, Philippe; Stautner, Ernst Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting technology applications in electric machines have long been pursued due to their significant advantages of higher efficiency and power density over conventional technology. However, in spite of many successful technology demonstrations, commercial adoption has been slow, presumably because the threshold for value versus cost and technology risk has not yet been crossed. One likely path for disruptive superconducting technology in commercial products could be in applications where its advantages become key enablers for systems which are not practical with conventional technology. To help systems engineers assess the viability of such future solutions, we present a technology roadmap for superconducting machines. The timeline considered was ten years to attain a Technology Readiness Level of 6+, with systems demonstrated in a relevant environment. Future projections, by definition, are based on the judgment of specialists, and can be subjective. Attempts have been made to obtain input from a broad set of organizations for an inclusive opinion. This document was generated through a series of teleconferences and in-person meetings, including meetings at the 2015 IEEE PES General meeting in Denver, CO, the 2015 ECCE in Montreal, Canada, and a final workshop in April 2016 at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign that brought together a broad group of technical experts spanning the industry, government and academia.

  5. History and status of beamed power technology and applications at 2.45 Gigahertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Various applications of beamed power technology are discussed. An experimental microwave powered helicopter, rectenna technology, the use of the Solar Power Satellite to beam energy to Earth via microwaves, the use of cyclotron resonance devices, microwave powered airships, and electric propulsion are discussed.

  6. Status and perspective on radiotracer technology and development of its equipment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha

    2003-01-01

    The Korean tracer team was organized under the regular research project in the middle of 1990s. The objective of the project is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems. The Korean tracer team started with basic tracer technologies and basic tools for radiotracer experiment. Under the research project, various equipments and skills for radiotracer have been developed. With these skill and equipment, there have been several demonstration experiments in petrochemical industry and waste water treatment facilities. The direction of research using radiotracer technology is highly reflected by each country's industrial situation. There is overview on how the tracer technology has applied to the industries in Korea in this paper. And the case on the application of radiotracer technology and the development of its equipment in Korea are also introduced in this paper

  7. Current status of nuclear power generation in Japan and directions in water cooled reactor technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, T.

    1991-01-01

    Electric power demand aspects and current status of nuclear power generation in Japan are outlined. Although the future plan for nuclear power generation has not been determined yet the Japanese nuclear research centers and institutes are investigating and developing some projects on the next generation of light water reactors and other types of reactors. The paper describes these main activities

  8. Forward Osmosis in India: Status and Comparison with Other Desalination Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in demand of freshwater and depleting water sources, it is imperative to switch to seawater as a regular source of water supply. However, due to the high total dissolved solid content, it has to be desalinated to make it drinkable. While desalination technologies have been used for many years, mass deployment of such technologies poses a number of challenges like high energy requirements as well as high negative environmental impact through side products and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is to present a sustainable technology for desalination. Forward osmosis, an emerging technology, is compared with the other commonly used technologies worldwide, namely, multieffect distillation, multistage flash distillation, and reverse osmosis as well as other emerging technologies like vapour compression, solar humidification dehumidification, nanofiltration, and freezing desalination. As energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions are one of the major concerns of desalination, this paper concludes that forward osmosis is an emerging sustainable technology for seawater desalination. This paper then presents the challenges involved in the application of forward osmosis in India and presents a plant setup. In the end, the cost comparison of a forward osmosis and reverse osmosis plant has been done and it was concluded that forward osmosis is economically better as well. PMID:27350984

  9. Forward Osmosis in India: Status and Comparison with Other Desalination Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Dhruv; Gupta, Lovleen; Dhingra, Rijul

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in demand of freshwater and depleting water sources, it is imperative to switch to seawater as a regular source of water supply. However, due to the high total dissolved solid content, it has to be desalinated to make it drinkable. While desalination technologies have been used for many years, mass deployment of such technologies poses a number of challenges like high energy requirements as well as high negative environmental impact through side products and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is to present a sustainable technology for desalination. Forward osmosis, an emerging technology, is compared with the other commonly used technologies worldwide, namely, multieffect distillation, multistage flash distillation, and reverse osmosis as well as other emerging technologies like vapour compression, solar humidification dehumidification, nanofiltration, and freezing desalination. As energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions are one of the major concerns of desalination, this paper concludes that forward osmosis is an emerging sustainable technology for seawater desalination. This paper then presents the challenges involved in the application of forward osmosis in India and presents a plant setup. In the end, the cost comparison of a forward osmosis and reverse osmosis plant has been done and it was concluded that forward osmosis is economically better as well.

  10. Present status and future challenges of nuclear forensics technology developments in JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Okubo, Ayako; Toda, Nobufumi; Funatake, Yoshio; Kataoka, Osamu; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a nuclear forensics (NF) technology development project from JFY 2011, according to the National Statement of Japan in Nuclear Security Summit 2010. This paper will present the progress and future prospects of the development project during JFY 2011 to 2013. The project on NF technology in JAEA includes the development of analytical technologies such as isotope and impurity measurements, morphology analysis, age determination technique, and the prototype of nuclear forensics library (NFL) for future national NFL. Some analytical devices were installed for the analytical technology developments, and various uranium materials produced in JAEA facilities at Ningyo-toge have been measured to verify the analytical technologies. A nuclear material database of the prototype NFL was also developed with brief tools of multivariate analysis and image analysis. The implementation of the analytical technologies, the development of advanced analytical technologies and the system improvements of the prototype NFL will be continued from JFY 2014 in JAEA. The national regime and national response plan are remained as a big challenge to establish the national NF capabilities in Japan. (author)

  11. Current status of utilization of radioisotopes and radiation technology in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Tajuddin Ali

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of isotope and radiation technology in Malaysia dates back to the early sixties. However it was confined to the field of medicine. Today, the use of this technology has widen up, covering the agricultural and industrial areas. The increasing use of the technology has prompted the government to establish the Nuclear Energy Unit whose one of its main functions is to ensure the safe application of radioisotopes and radiations. For this purpose, facilities for training, calibration, waste treatment, etc. were provided by this unit to cater the need of radioisotope and radiation users throughout the country. (author)

  12. Progress and status of fusion technology and materials research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zengyu; Liu Xiang; Chen Jiming; Zhang Fu

    2003-01-01

    Fusion technology and materials research in China was included in the National High Technology Project during 1986-2000. Since 2000, the National Natural Science Foundation Committee, the State Development Planning Commission, and the Ministry of Science and Technology have supported this field of research. The research program has covered the topics of tritium engineering, plasma facing materials and structural materials. The Southwestern Institute of Physics has been a leading institute in this research program in the last 15 years in China, and over ten universities and institutes have joined the program. (author)

  13. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhifu, Luo [Dept. of Isotope, China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1998-10-01

    The research and application of the technology of isotopes and radiation have been reviewed. Since the setup of the China`s first nuclear reactor at China Institute of Nuclear Energy in 1958, the technology of isotopes and radiation has been developed significantly. A research and application system has formed a considerable state. The technology of isotopes and radiation has been taken into the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and scientific research. The main achievements are on radiopharmaceuticals, radiation source, radiation process, and radioactive tracers. (author)

  14. The present status and perspectives on the development of radiation chemistry and technology in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroh, J.; Rosiak, J.; Wolszczak, M.; Bobrowski, K.; Chmielewski, A. G.; Zimek, Z.; Forys, M.; Kalecinski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Having in mind the world research trends in the field of radiation chemistry and technology, the development of this domain in Poland has been discussed in this report. The condition of apparatus and man power at the Polish scientific institutions and academic centers acting in the above mentioned scientific and technological area has been analyzed. It has been shown that the basic research achievements of national institutions are placing them among the most advanced foreign centers. As to the implemented technological elaborations it may be said that is one of the few high-tech fields in which Poland can compete with the most advanced centers in the world. (author)

  15. Advances for prosthetic technology from historical perspective to current status to future application

    CERN Document Server

    LeMoyne, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the advances in transtibial prosthetic technology and targets research in the evolution of the powered prosthesis such as the BiOM, which was derived from considerable research and development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The concept of the book spans the historical evolution of prosthetic applications from passive to new and futuristic robotic prosthetic technologies.  The author describes the reasons for amputation, surgical procedures, and an historical perspective of the prosthesis for the lower limb. He also addresses the phases and sub-phases of gait and compensatory mechanisms arising for a transtibial prosthesis and links the compensatory mechanisms to long-term morbidities.  The general technologies for gait analysis central to prosthetic design and the inherent biomechanics foundations for analysis are also explored.  The book reports on recent-past to current-term applications with passive elastic prostheses.  The core of the book deals with futuristic robo...

  16. NASA advanced space photovoltaic technology-status, potential and future mission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Piszczor, Michael, Jr.; Stella, Paul M.; Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA program in space photovoltaic research and development encompasses a wide range of emerging options for future space power systems, and includes both cell and array technology development. The long range goals are to develop technology capable of achieving 300 W/kg for planar arrays, and 300 W/sq m for concentrator arrays. InP and GaAs planar and concentrator cell technologies are under investigation for their potential high efficiency and good radiation resistance. The Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program is a near term effort aimed at demonstrating 130 W/kg beginning of life specific power using thin (62 micrometer) silicon cells. It is intended to be technology transparent to future high efficiency cells and provides the baseline for development of the 300 W/kg array.

  17. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Development and Maturation Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Boghozian, T.; Driver, D.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzales, G.; Kazemba, C.; Kellermann, C.; hide

    2018-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D (Three Dimensional) Woven TPS (Thermal Protection System) being developed under NASA's Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a TPS capable of surviving entry into Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  18. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Development and Maturation Status for NF Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Blosser, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzales, G.; Hamm, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASA's Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  19. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Project: 3.0 Year Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a funded NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology project. Begun in 2011, we are in Phase 2 of a multi-year effort. Our objective is to mature towards TRL6 critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable astronomy mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. The developed technology must enable missions capable of both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. Just as JWST's architecture was driven by launch vehicle, a future UVOIR mission's architecture (monolithic, segmented or interferometric) will depend on capacities of future launch vehicles (and budget). Since we cannot predict the future, we must prepare for all potential futures. Therefore, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. One of our key accomplishments is that we have derived engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicle and its inherent mass and volume constraints. Another key accomplishment is that we have matured our technology by building and testing hardware. To demonstrate stacked core technology, we built a 400 mm thick mirror. Currently, to demonstrate lateral scalability, we are manufacturing a 1.5 meter mirror. To assist in architecture trade studies, the Engineering team develops Structural, Thermal and Optical Performance (STOP) models of candidate mirror assembly systems including substrates, structures, and mechanisms. These models are validated by test of full- and subscale components in relevant thermo-vacuum environments. Specific analyses include: maximum

  20. Current status and perspective of advanced loop type fast reactor in fast reactor cycle technology development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hajime; Aoto, Kazumi; Morishita, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    After selecting the combination of the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) with oxide fuel, the advanced aqueous reprocessing and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication as the most promising concept of FR cycle system, 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems' was finalized in 2006. Instead, a new project, Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT Project) was launched in Japan focusing on development of the selected concepts. This paper describes the current status and perspective of the advanced loop type SFR system in the FaCT Project, especially on the design requirements, current design as well as the related innovative technologies together with the development road-map. Some considerations on advantages of the advanced loop type design are also described. (authors)

  1. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  2. Production technology status and development trend of stable isotopes C, N and O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hulin

    2011-01-01

    It has been over half a century since the successful separation of table isotopes carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. The production capacity achieved three levels improvements from the laboratory-scale of one hundred grams, to the pilot production of several kilo- grams, and mass production of one hundred kilograms. The separation technologies also achieved three generation progress. The first generation of separation technology was represented by thermal diffusion method, chromatography, and ion exchange; the second generation of separation technology was represented by chemical exchange, distillation; the third generation of separation technology was characterized by the techniques innovation of material recycling, energy coupling, energy saving, and large-scale production capacity. At present, "1"3C is wholly produced by cryogenic distillation method, "1"5N is produced by NO/HNO_3 chemical exchange and NO cryogenic distillation method, and "1"80 is manufactured by distillation of water, and cryogenic distillation of NO and O_2. The same features of these separation methods are achieving energy coupling, materials recycling, large-scale producing, and energy conservation in the process. In the future, it will be the theme of stable isotope industry to develop environment-friendly, raw materials available, energy saving, low-cost, and large-scale manufacturing technology through continuous technological innovation. (authors)

  3. Links between biogas technology adoption and health status of households in rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadi, Nigussie; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya; Techane, Ataklti; Nerea, Hailish

    2017-01-01

    Many Ethiopians face quality of life and livelihood challenges associated with sub-optimal sanitation, dependence on biomass energy, and decreasing agricultural productivity. To mitigate these livelihood challenges, the government of Ethiopia has recognized the need for a national policy framework, which encourages the uptake of biogas technology. However, despite expectations of improved health and livelihood outcomes from biogas technology, rigorous impact evaluations of existing biogas interventions in Ethiopia do not exist. In this paper, we investigated the impact of biogas technology adoption on indoor air pollution (IAP) health symptoms in a sample of 200 households in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. The average treatment effect results of the study revealed that households with small-scale biogas technology have significantly lower incidence of IAP-related illness than comparison (non-adopter) households in the matched sample. Consequently, small-scale biogas adopters spent less money for medication and had less absentee days from work due to illness. Results also show that biogas adopters spent less time per year collecting fuel energy. Overall, these findings are grounds for optimism about the potential for small-scale biogas to improve human capital formation through better health, which is one the major targets of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. - Highlights: • We critically investigate the impact of biogas technology on human health. • We employ Propensity score matching methods. • We found biogas technology enhancing human health and welfare. • We advise to stress on monetizing health benefits of biogas. • We recommend innovative financing for promotion of biogas technology.

  4. Current status of education and training in nuclear technology in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.U.

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for the introduction, promotion and safety issues of nuclear science and technology in the country. During the last four decades, a significant development has been achieved in the field of food and agriculture, medicine, industries and environment using nuclear technology. Education and training in science and technology played a vital role to achieve the significant development in these fields. Some local public universities and BAEC training facilities at home and abroad have played mainly a key role to develop the human resource in the field of nuclear science and technology. Over the last four decades, BAEC with its various specialized establishments has played a focused role in the advancement, understanding and usage of nuclear science and technologies in the country. Through years of cumulative efforts, BAEC has developed a pool of research infrastructure, capacity and human resources having been trained extensively at home and abroad in their respective fields. The trained manpower in the different fields of science and technology are working in the country to solve some national problems like arsenic contamination in drinking water, iodine deficiency disease goitre, cancer and many others. BAEC is going to establish a Nuclear Training Institute which will also have residential facilities. Government has already assured to fund to establish the Nuclear Training Centre in the campus of AERE, Savar. BAEC placed a formal proposal for Affiliation with Jahangirnagar University for Awarding Post Graduate Degrees in different specialized fields of nuclear science and technology. As this might take some time for implementation; therefore, BAEC has decided to start the academic program immediately under the present set-up of the organization. With this view, BAEC proposes to affiliate its Nuclear Training Institute with the Jahangirnagar University for pursuing academic degree programmes i.e. post

  5. Status and trends of nuclear technologies - Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in the year 2000, based on a resolution by the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO intends to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available in the 21st century in a sustainable manner, and seeks to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider, jointly, actions to achieve desired innovations. INPRO is taking care of the specific needs of developing countries. This IAEA publication is part of Phase 1 of INPRO. It intends to provide an overview on history, present situation and future perspectives of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. While this overview focuses on technical issues, nevertheless, the aspects of economics, environment, and safety and proliferation resistance are important background issues for this study. After a brief description about the INPRO project and an evaluation of existing and future reactor designs the publication covers nuclear fuel cycle issues in detail. It is expected that this documentation will provide IAEA Member States and their nuclear engineers and designers, as well as policy makers with useful information on status and trends of future nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Due to the size of the full report it was decided to create a summary of the information and attach a CD-ROM in the back of this summary report with the full text of the report

  6. Present Status and Future Growth of Advanced Maintenance Technology and Strategy in US Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoning; Weiss, Brian A; Siegel, David; Lee, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this paper are to 1) examine the current practices of diagnostics, prognostics, and maintenance employed by United States (U.S.) manufacturers to achieve productivity and quality targets and 2) to understand the present level of maintenance technologies and strategies that are being incorporated into these practices. A study is performed to contrast the impact of various industry-specific factors on the effectiveness and profitability of the implementation of prognostics and health management technologies, and maintenance strategies using both surveys and case studies on a sample of U.S. manufacturing firms ranging from small to mid-sized enterprises (SMEs) to large-sized manufacturing enterprises in various industries. The results obtained provide important insights on the different impacts of specific factors on the successful adoption of these technologies between SMEs and large manufacturing enterprises. The varying degrees of success with respect to current maintenance programs highlight the opportunity for larger manufacturers to improve maintenance practices and consider the use of advanced prognostics and health management (PHM) technology. This paper also provides the existing gaps, barriers, future trends, and roadmaps for manufacturing PHM technology and maintenance strategy.

  7. Research and Development of Technologies for Partitioning and Transmutation of Long-lived Nuclides in Japan - Status and Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanae Aoki

    2003-01-01

    Japanese basic policy regarding disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is to solidify it into stabilized form, to store it for 30-50 years to be cooled, and to dispose of it deep to the underground (geological disposal). In Japan, reference to P and T technology for long-lived and other nuclides first appeared in the Long-term Programme for Nuclear Research, Development and Utilisation (or 'long-term nuclear programme') back in 1972. That programme noted the need for research and development in order to ensure effective processing of radioactive waste. The long-term nuclear programme issued in 1987 stated that P and T technology was very important from the viewpoint of recycling HLW and enhancing disposal efficiency. It also stated that systematic R and D would be carried out jointly by JAERI, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC, now JNC) and others. The long-term nuclear programme issued in 1994 stated that each research institute would carry out basic studies on P and T technologies and evaluate each technology at some time in the mid- 1990's to determine how to proceed thereafter. Based on the evaluation schedule stated in this program, the AEC's Advisory Committee on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Back-end Policy investigated and considered matters concerning P and T technology for long-lived and other nuclides. In March 2000, the Committee issued a report entitled 'Research and Development of Technologies for Partitioning and Transmutation of Long-lived Nuclide Status and Evaluation Report'. A brief summary of this report is presented

  8. Analysis of actual status of works on technology of heavy liquid metal coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynov, P.N.; Askhadullin, R.Sh.; Orlov, Yu.I.; Storozhenko, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Principle duties in heavy liquid metal coolant technology (HLMC) are provision of the purity of coolant and surfaces of circulation loop for maintenance of design thermohydraulic characteristics, prevention of structural materials corrosion and erosion during long service life and present-day safety precautions on different stages of reactor facility operation. For this reason, current HLMC (Pb-Bi, Pb) technology must include coolant pre-operation and charging; monitoring and regulating of coolant oxygen potential; hydrogen purification of coolant and surfaces of circulation loop from lead oxides-based slags; coolant filtration; reactor cover gas purification from coolant aerosols. The current topical problem is personnel training on the questions of HLMC technology [ru

  9. CO2 capture technologies: current status and new directions using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art techniques for CO2 capture are presented and discussed. Post-combustion capture of CO2 by absorption is the technology most easily retrofitted to existing installations, but at present this is not economically viable to install and run. Using ionic liquids instead...... of aqueous amine solutions overcomes the major thermodynamic issues. By applying SILP technology further advances, in terms of ease of handling and sorption dynamics, are obtained. Initial experimental studies showed that ionic liquids such as tetrahexylammonium prolinate, [N6666][Pro], provide a good...... candidate for CO2 absorption using SILP technology. Thus a solid SILP absorber comprised of 40 wt% [N6666][Pro] loaded on precalcined silica quantitatively takes up about 1.2 mole CO2 per mole of ionic liquid in consecutive absorption-desorption cycles in a flow-experiment performed with 0.09 bar of CO2 (9...

  10. Current status of the radiation technology and quality control for radiation processing in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Enrique Francisco Prietro

    2013-01-01

    The use of the radiation technology has gained acceptance in various regions of the world, where studies estimated that the installed capacity increases at a rate of 6 % per year and Latin America is part of this increase, due the advantages of this process when it is employed for the food preservation, sterilization of medical pharmaceutical material and to control the insect pests. This paper shows the art state of the application of Radiation Technology in Latin America, as well as the technological characteristics of the most gamma irradiation facilities and minor number the electron beam accelerator facilities, the types of irradiated products, state of the Quality Management System and the Dosimetric Systems used in the Radiation Processing Control in the Region. (author)

  11. Status and trends in nuclear technology for power plants with WWER-1000 reactors. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorev, N N

    1977-04-01

    The problems of improving quality of nuclear equipment for WWER-1000 power plants and associated nuclear technology automation are surveyed. Examples of technological innovations are presented which significantly reduce labour intensity, time consumption and increase quality standards of the products. Some new automated equipments for materials welding, working, machining and quality control are described. The discussion is centering around heavy-section steel technologies. Some mechanical properties of new-developed nuclear grade steels designed for producing reactor vessels and steamgenerators, volume compensators and pipes, as well as steam separators and steamsuperheaters are also presented. Their properties (impact strength and radiation resistance) are pointed out to be superior to that of steels used abroad. The basic trend in nuclear structural material developments is towards integrated optimization of strength, performance and workability.

  12. Examination of the Relationship between Technology Use of 5-6 Year-Old Children and Their Social Skills and Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Güngör, Hande; Körükçü, Özlem; Erten Sarkaya, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to determine the predictive effect of technology use durations of 5-6 year-old children on their social skill levels and social status. In this study, children's technology usage is restricted to the use of television, portable computers, tablets and smartphones. The sample group of the study consisted of 162…

  13. Current status of neutron scattering research and accelerator technology in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan; Ikram, Abarul; Wuryanto

    2001-01-01

    The neutron beam generated from steady state reactor 30 MW RSG-GAS are used mainly for neutron scattering studies and isotope production. There are seven neutron scattering facilities under responsible and operated by Research and Development Center for Materials Science and Technology of National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan) of Indonesia. In this report, current conditions of the facilities namely, DN1-M, HRPD, FCD/TD, SANS, HRSANS, TAS and NRF and research activities will be described. Also, a part of research activities by using accelerator technology at Batan-Yogyakarta will be reviewed. (author)

  14. Status of technology R&D for the ITER tungsten divertor monoblock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, T., E-mail: takeshi.hirai@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Escourbiac, F.; Barabash, V.; Durocher, A.; Fedosov, A.; Ferrand, L.; Jokinen, T.; Komarov, V.; Merola, M.; Carpentier-Chouchana, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arkhipov, N. [Project Center ITER, 1, Building 3, Kurchatov Sq., 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetcov, V.; Volodin, A. [NIIEFA, 3 doroga na Metallostroy, Metallostroy, St. Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation); Suzuki, S.; Ezato, K.; Seki, Y. [JAEA, Fusion Research and Development Directorate JAEA, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaragi 311-0193 (Japan); Riccardi, B.; Bednarek, M.; Gavila, P. [F4E, c/Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    In order to develop and validate the high performance tungsten monoblock technology, the full-tungsten divertor qualification program was defined. As the first step, small-scale mock-ups were manufactured and successfully tested under the required high heat flux loads. The test results demonstrated that the technology is available in Japan and Europe. Post-tests observation of the loaded W monoblocks showed generation of self-castellation – a crack along coolant tube axis. The cause of the self-castellation was discussed and a tungsten material characterization program is being developed with the objective to understand mechanical properties that influence the occurrence of the self-castellation.

  15. Recent status of research activities for development of CTBT-related technologies in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Naoki; Houkida, Takanori; Inoue, Yoji

    2003-08-01

    This report describes research activities of the R and D Group for Non-Proliferation Technology related to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. The main subjects of this report are (1) an overview of the CTBT verification regime, (2) preparation of the National Data Center for radionuclide data, (3) construction and operation of the radionuclide monitoring stations at Takasaki and Okinawa and the certified radionuclide laboratory at Tokai in Japan. We have participated in an intercomparison test internationally organized for the certified laboratories and the test results are given here. Scientific application of the CTBT-related technologies to environmental researches is also depicted. (author)

  16. The status of silicon ribbon growth technology for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, T. F.

    1985-01-01

    More than a dozen methods have been applied to the growth of silicon ribbons, beginning as early as 1963. The ribbon geometry has been particularly intriguing for photovoltaic applications, because it might provide large area, damage free, nearly continuous substrates without the material loss or cost of ingot wafering. In general, the efficiency of silicon ribbon solar cells has been lower than that of ingot cells. The status of some ribbon growth techniques that have achieved laboratory efficiencies greater than 13.5% are reviewed, i.e., edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG), edge-supported pulling (ESP), ribbon against a drop (RAD), and dendritic web growth (web).

  17. Current status, new frontiers and challenges in radiation biodosimetry using cytogenetic, transcriptomic and proteomic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenech, Michael, E-mail: michael.fenech@csiro.au [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Gate 13 Kintore Avenue, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    Biodosimetric methods for determining exposure dose in individuals following a radiation accident are important for the health management of the exposed cohort and prioritisation of high dose exposure cases to receive emergency medical treatment. This brief review provides a succinct outline of (i) the current status of standard cytogenetic methods used in radiation biodosimetry; (ii) development of high-throughput systems for current standard cytogenetic methods; (iii) emerging minimally invasive methods; (iv) the impact of nutrition and genotype on observed dose-response relationships and (v) new frontiers in biodosimetry using molecular biology techniques such as transcriptomics and proteomics.

  18. The status of the federal magnetic fusion program, or fusion in transition: from science to technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of magnetic fusion is summarized. The science is in place; the application must be made. Government will have to underwrite the risk of the program, but the private sector must manage it. Government officials must be convinced fusion is in the interest of the taxpayer, private sector decision makers that it is commercial. Questions concerning reliability, availability, first cost, safety, environment, and sociology must be asked. Fusion energy is essentially inexhaustible, appears environmentally acceptable, and is one of a very short list of alternatives

  19. Electric energy gun technology: status of the french-german-netherlands programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, W.J.; Jamet, F.

    1999-01-01

    Research and technology development is being performed jointly in six subprograms. Next to operational aspects and system studies, railgun, coilgun and electrothermal gun launch is investigated. To power these future gun weapon systems, research on both energy storage, switching, pulse forming

  20. Application of OMICS technologies in occupational and environmental health research; current status and projections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, J.J.; Moore, L.E.; Smith, M.T.; Lan, Q.; Zhang, L.; Skibola, C.F.; Rothman, N.; Vermeulen, R.

    2010-01-01

    OMICS technologies are relatively new biomarker discovery tools that can be applied to study large sets of biological molecules. Their application in human observational studies (HOS) has become feasible in recent years due to a spectacular increase in the sensitivity, resolution and throughput of

  1. Status of NIF mirror technologies for completion of the NIF facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    The 1600 mirrors required for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are now coated with the last optics currently being installed. The combined surface area of the NIF mirrors is almost 450 square meters, roughly 3.4 times greater than the surface area of the two Keck primary mirrors. Additionally, the power handling specification of NIF mirrors is 19 orders of magnitude greater than that of the Keck mirrors. The NIF laser will be at least 40x greater energy than the previous LLNL fusion laser called NOVA. To manufacture these mirrors, a number of new technologies (electrolytic in-situ dressing, ion figuring, source stabilization) were used that were not available for previous fusion laser optics. Post deposition technologies designed to increase laser resistance (off-line laser conditioning, solarization, air knives) have also been utilized. This paper summarizes the differences in technologies used to manufacture NIF mirrors from those used for previous fusion lasers and examines potential future technologies that would enable higher fluence operations and extend lifetimes

  2. Building World-Market Competitors: Technology Transfer and the Illinois Community College System. 1990 Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Debra D.

    In 1990, the Illinois Council of Public Community College Presidents (ICPCCP) commissioned a survey to document the current capacity and future potential of the Illinois Community College System (ICCS) to provide technology transfer assistance to the commercial marketplace and the public sector. An extensive questionnaire was developed and mailed…

  3. Brain Machine Interfaces : technology status, applications and the way to the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Duistermaat, M.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.; Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs) enable direct communication between the brain or nervous system and a machine without involving the sensory-motor system. BMIs are an embryonic technology and remarkable accomplishments have recently been reported. BMIs have a high potential and possibly an enormous

  4. ITS Technologies in Military Wheeled Tactical Vehicles: Status Quo and the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Army operates and maintains the largest trucking fleet in the United States. Its fleet consists of over 246,000 trucks, and it is responsible for buying and developing trucks for all branches of the armed forces. The Army's tactical wheeled vehicle fleet is the logistical backbone of the Army, and annually, the fleet logs about 823 million miles. The fleet consists of a number of types of vehicles. They include eight different families of trucks from the High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicles to M900 series line haul tractors and special bodies. The average age of all the trucks within the Army fleet is 15 years, and very few have more than traditional driving instrumentation on-board. Over the past decade, the Department of Transportation's (DOT's) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program has conducted research and deployment activities in a number of areas including in-vehicle systems, communication and telematics technologies. Many current model passenger vehicles have demonstrated the assimilation of these technologies to enhance safety and trip quality. Commercial vehicles are also demonstrating many new electronic devices that are assisting in making them safer and more efficient. Moreover, a plethora of new technologies are about to be introduced to drivers that promise greater safety, enhanced efficiency, congestion avoidance, fuel usage reduction, and enhanced trip quality. The U.S. Army has special needs with regard to fleet management, logistics, sustainability, reliability, survivability, and fuel consumption that goes beyond similar requirements within the private industry. In order to effectively apply emerging ITS technologies to the special needs of the U.S. Army, planning for the conduct of the Army's Vehicle Intelligence Program (AVIP) has now commenced. The AVIP will be focused on the conduct of research that: (1) will apply ITS technologies to the special needs of the Army, and (2) will conduct research for special needs

  5. Northrop Grumman TR202 LOX/LH2 Deep Throttling Engine Technology Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromski, Jason; Majamaki, Annik; Chianese, Silvio; Weinstock, Vladimir; Kim, Tony S.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project is currently developing enabling propulsion technologies in support of future lander missions. To meet lander requirements, several technical challenges need to be overcome, one of which is the ability for the descent engine(s) to operate over a deep throttle range with cryogenic propellants. To address this need, PCAD has enlisted Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) in a technology development effort associated with the TR202 engine. The TR202 is a LOX/LH2 expander cycle engine driven by independent turbopump assemblies and featuring a variable area pintle injector similar to the injector used on the TR200 Apollo Lunar Module Descent Engine (LMDE). Since the Apollo missions, NGAS has continued to mature deep throttling pintle injector technology. The TR202 program has completed two series of pintle injector testing. The first series of testing used ablative thrust chambers and demonstrated igniter operation as well as stable performance at discrete points throughout the designed 10:1 throttle range. The second series was conducted with calorimeter chambers and demonstrated injector performance at discrete points throughout the throttle range as well as chamber heat flow adequate to power an expander cycle design across the throttle range. This paper provides an overview of the TR202 program, describing the different phases and key milestones. It describes how test data was correlated to the engine conceptual design. The test data obtained has created a valuable database for deep throttling cryogenic pintle technology, a technology that is readily scalable in thrust level.

  6. Technological Innovation and Competitiveness in The Global Economy: India's Changing Status and Its Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Subrahmanya Mungila Hillemane

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   This paper probes the changing innovation status and resultant competitiveness in the context of global economy and questions the recent ranking improvements of India on the basis of hard economic facts. This paper has made use of secondary data comprising innovation indices and competitiveness rankings published by international organizations and reputed business schools from time to time since 1996 to analyze the changing status of India internationally. Later, using secondary data on key macro-economic variables published by the Government of India, the recent ranking of India is closely examined as well as recent steps taken by the government of India to improve competitiveness is elaborated. The study throws light on the changing but improving innovation dimensions and competitiveness ranking of India since 1996 till 2010. From nowhere India emerges and occupies the second slot, after China, in the global competitiveness ranking. But hard core macro-economic variables do not justify India’s elevation to the top in any way. Given this, the study throws light on the recent policy measures announced by the Government of India and its implications as well as policy imperatives.

  7. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical

  8. Production of "Green Natural Gas" Using Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC): Status of Technology and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard

    2012-01-01

    energy sources only. Also dimethyl ether (DME = (CH3)2O), which might be called Liquefied Green Gas, LGG, in analogy to Liquefied Petroleum Gas, LPG, because DME has properties similar to LPG. It further gives a short review of the state of the art of electrolysis in general and SOEC in particular......This paper gives arguments in favour of using green natural gas (GNG) as storage media for the intermittent renewable energy sources. GNG is here defined as being CH4, i.e. methane, often called synthetic natural gas or substitute natural gas (SNG), produced using renewable or at least CO2 neutral....... Production of synthesis gas (H2 + CO) from CO2 and H2O using SOEC technology is evaluated. GNG and LGG can be produced from synthesis gas (or short: syngas) by means of well established commercially available catalysis technology. Finally, estimations of costs and efficiencies are presented and the relative...

  9. Power Electronics – Key Technology for Renewable Energy Systems – Status and Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    play an essential role. Using highly efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/ distribution and end-user application, together with advanced control solutions, can pave the way for renewable energies. In view of this, some of the most emerging renewable energies, e.g. wind......The energy paradigms in many countries (e.g. Germany and Denmark) have experienced a significant change from fossil-based resources to clean renewables in the past few decades. The scenario of highly penetrated renewables is going to be further enhanced. This requires that the production......, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be streng-thened. In order to realize the transition smoothly and effectively, energy conversion systems, currently based on power electronics technology, will again...

  10. Status and progress in ion implantation technology for semiconductor device manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Noriyuki

    1998-01-01

    Rapid growth in implant applications in the fabrication of semiconductors has encouraged a dramatic increase in the range of energies, beam currents and ion species used. The challenges of a wider energy range, higher beam currents, continued reduction in contamination, improved angle integrity and larger substrates have motivated the development of many innovations. Advanced processes in submicron device production uses up to twenty implantation steps. Thus the outstanding growth of this industry has led to the evolution of a thriving business of hundreds of implantation equipment systems each year with very specific requirements. The present paper reviews the principal process requirements which resulted in the evolution of the equipment technology, and describes the recent trends in the ion implanter technology all three principal categories: high current, medium current and high energy. (author)

  11. Current status and trends of cooperation on radiotracer and NCS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thereska, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section

    1997-10-01

    Relevant target areas for radiotracer and neutronic control system (NCS) applications are defined. The petroleum and petrochemical industries, mineral processing and waste-water treatment sectors are identified as the most appropriate beneficiaries. The new CRP on `Radiotracer technology for engineering unit operations studies and unit process optimisation` aims to improve the radiotracer methodology, including new radiotracers, development of expert systems, new software for data processing with finite element techniques for flow structure visualisation, as well as to formulate guidelines for problem solving of complex processes. The organisation of a CRP on `Multibeam radiogauging for multi-phase systems studies` to further develop and refine nucleonic gauge methodology and technology, including development of expert systems for optimal design and calibration, quality control according to ISO standards, emerging new applications, and formulation of guidelines and software for on line measurement of multi-phase system parameters of complex processes will be discussed in the near future

  12. Current status and trends of cooperation on radiotracer and NCS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thereska, J.

    1997-01-01

    Relevant target areas for radiotracer and neutronic control system (NCS) applications are defined. The petroleum and petrochemical industries, mineral processing and waste-water treatment sectors are identified as the most appropriate beneficiaries. The new CRP on 'Radiotracer technology for engineering unit operations studies and unit process optimisation' aims to improve the radiotracer methodology, including new radiotracers, development of expert systems, new software for data processing with finite element techniques for flow structure visualisation, as well as to formulate guidelines for problem solving of complex processes. The organisation of a CRP on 'Multibeam radiogauging for multi-phase systems studies' to further develop and refine nucleonic gauge methodology and technology, including development of expert systems for optimal design and calibration, quality control according to ISO standards, emerging new applications, and formulation of guidelines and software for on line measurement of multi-phase system parameters of complex processes will be discussed in the near future

  13. Current status and technology development of Reprocessing Plant in Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    It is a problem that the vitrified waste could not be produced at the down nozzle in glass furnace by accumulation of platinum group metals contented in high-level radioactive waste. This article describes our efforts to solve the problem. The glass furnace, glassification process, development of glassification technology in Japan, structure of glass furnace, improvement of glass furnace now in use, improvement of glassification technology, and development of new glass furnace and new glass materials are explained. Configuration drawing of glass furnace, heating method, glass flow from the down nozzle, existing state of platinum group metals in glass, comparison between the current glass furnace and advance furnace, analysis result of inner part of furnace, and measurement result of density, viscosity and heat capacity of molten glass are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  14. Accelerator Technology Program: Status report, October 1985--March 1986: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.; Schriber, S.O.

    1988-07-01

    This report presents highlights of the major projects in the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first section details progress associated with the accelerator test stand. Following sections cover achievements in accelerator theory and simulation, LAMPF II accomplishments, and updates on BEAR, beam dynamics, the rf laboratory, p-bar gravity experiment, University of Illinois racetrack microtron, and NBS microtron. Also included are results from the Proton Storage Ring commissioning, developments in very high microwave systems, and advances in the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test rf technology. In addition, the Phoenix Project and the Krypton Fluoride Project are discussed. The report concludes with a listing of papers published by AT-Division personnel during this reporting period. 42 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  16. Comparative status and development trends of central electricity supply technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the present situation in the public electricity sector of the FRG with its legal and political constraints, to identify the development trends of the supply technologies for central electricity in regard to their application potential during the forthcoming 10 to 20 years. Summarizing expectations and conclusions are drawn on the foreseeable contribution of the electricity supply sector to the aspired CO 2 -reductions in the FRG

  17. R and D status of oxide electro-refining reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myochin, Munetaka

    2005-01-01

    The oxide electro-refining pyrochemical reprocessing is excellent in the resistivity against nuclear material diversion and in the suitability for oxide fuel cycle and has an excellent affinity for the technology of fuel production using the vibropac method. The oxide electro-refining pyrochemical reprocessing system has therefore been examined as a part of studies of commercialization of FBR cycle. This report outlines the examination results of fundamental data acquired for the system design. (M.H.)

  18. Current status and future prospects for enabling chemistry technology in the drug discovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Stevan W; Hutchins, Charles W; Talaty, Nari N

    2016-01-01

    This review covers recent advances in the implementation of enabling chemistry technologies into the drug discovery process. Areas covered include parallel synthesis chemistry, high-throughput experimentation, automated synthesis and purification methods, flow chemistry methodology including photochemistry, electrochemistry, and the handling of "dangerous" reagents. Also featured are advances in the "computer-assisted drug design" area and the expanding application of novel mass spectrometry-based techniques to a wide range of drug discovery activities.

  19. Current status and future prospects for enabling chemistry technology in the drug discovery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Stevan W.; Hutchins, Charles W.; Talaty, Nari N.

    2016-01-01

    This review covers recent advances in the implementation of enabling chemistry technologies into the drug discovery process. Areas covered include parallel synthesis chemistry, high-throughput experimentation, automated synthesis and purification methods, flow chemistry methodology including photochemistry, electrochemistry, and the handling of “dangerous” reagents. Also featured are advances in the “computer-assisted drug design” area and the expanding application of novel mass spectrometry-based techniques to a wide range of drug discovery activities. PMID:27781094

  20. Additive Manufacturing Technologies Used for Processing Polymers: Current Status and Potential Application in Prosthetic Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-León, Marta; Özcan, Mutlu

    2018-04-22

    There are 7 categories of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, and a wide variety of materials can be used to build a CAD 3D object. The present article reviews the main AM processes for polymers for dental applications: stereolithography (SLA), digital light processing (DLP), material jetting (MJ), and material extrusion (ME). The manufacturing process, accuracy, and precision of these methods will be reviewed, as well as their prosthodontic applications. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. Current status and perceived needs of information technology in Critical Access Hospitals: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Demiris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The US Congress established the designation of Critical Access Hospitals in 1997, recognising rural hospitals as vital links to health for rural and underserved populations. The intent of the reimbursement system is to improve financial performance, thereby reducing hospital closures. Informatics applications are thought to be tools that can enable the sustainability of such facilities. The aim of this study is to identify the current use of information and communication technology in Critical Access Hospitals, and to assess their readiness and receptiveness for the use of new software and hardware applications and their perceived information technology (IT needs. A survey was mailed to the administrators of all Critical Access Hospitals in one US state (Missouri and a reminder was mailed a few weeks later. Twenty-seven out of 33 surveys were filled out and returned (response rate 82%. While most respondents (66.7% stated that their employees have been somewhat comfortable in using new technology, almost 15% stated that their employees have been somewhat uncomfortable. Similarly, almost 12% of the respondents stated that they themselves felt somewhat uncomfortable introducing new technology. While all facilities have computers, only half of them have a specific IT plan. Findings indicate that Critical Access Hospitals are often struggling with lack of resources and specific applications that address their needs. However, it is widely recognised that IT plays an essential role in the sustainability of their organisations. The study demonstrates that IT applications have to be customised to address the needs and infrastructure of the rural settings in order to be accepted and properly utilised.

  2. Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Water: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ricci Nicomel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review paper presents an overview of the available technologies used nowadays for the removal of arsenic species from water. Conventionally applied techniques to remove arsenic species include oxidation, coagulation-flocculation, and membrane techniques. Besides, progress has recently been made on the utility of various nanoparticles for the remediation of contaminated water. A critical analysis of the most widely investigated nanoparticles is presented and promising future research on novel porous materials, such as metal organic frameworks, is suggested.

  3. Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Water: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicomel, Nina Ricci; Leus, Karen; Folens, Karel; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Du Laing, Gijs

    2015-12-22

    This review paper presents an overview of the available technologies used nowadays for the removal of arsenic species from water. Conventionally applied techniques to remove arsenic species include oxidation, coagulation-flocculation, and membrane techniques. Besides, progress has recently been made on the utility of various nanoparticles for the remediation of contaminated water. A critical analysis of the most widely investigated nanoparticles is presented and promising future research on novel porous materials, such as metal organic frameworks, is suggested.

  4. Regulatory Risk Reduction for Advanced Reactor Technologies - FY2016 Status and Work Plan Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, Wayne Leland

    2016-01-01

    Millions of public and private sector dollars have been invested over recent decades to realize greater efficiency, reliability, and the inherent and passive safety offered by advanced nuclear reactor technologies. However, a major challenge in experiencing those benefits resides in the existing U.S. regulatory framework. This framework governs all commercial nuclear plant construction, operations, and safety issues and is highly large light water reactor (LWR) technology centric. The framework must be modernized to effectively deal with non-LWR advanced designs if those designs are to become part of the U.S energy supply. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Regulatory Risk Reduction (RRR) initiative, managed by the Regulatory Affairs Department at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is establishing a capability that can systematically retire extraneous licensing risks associated with regulatory framework incompatibilities. This capability proposes to rely heavily on the perspectives of the affected regulated community (i.e., commercial advanced reactor designers/vendors and prospective owner/operators) yet remain tuned to assuring public safety and acceptability by regulators responsible for license issuance. The extent to which broad industry perspectives are being incorporated into the proposed framework makes this initiative unique and of potential benefit to all future domestic non-LWR applicants

  5. Regulatory Risk Reduction for Advanced Reactor Technologies – FY2016 Status and Work Plan Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Millions of public and private sector dollars have been invested over recent decades to realize greater efficiency, reliability, and the inherent and passive safety offered by advanced nuclear reactor technologies. However, a major challenge in experiencing those benefits resides in the existing U.S. regulatory framework. This framework governs all commercial nuclear plant construction, operations, and safety issues and is highly large light water reactor (LWR) technology centric. The framework must be modernized to effectively deal with non-LWR advanced designs if those designs are to become part of the U.S energy supply. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Regulatory Risk Reduction (RRR) initiative, managed by the Regulatory Affairs Department at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is establishing a capability that can systematically retire extraneous licensing risks associated with regulatory framework incompatibilities. This capability proposes to rely heavily on the perspectives of the affected regulated community (i.e., commercial advanced reactor designers/vendors and prospective owner/operators) yet remain tuned to assuring public safety and acceptability by regulators responsible for license issuance. The extent to which broad industry perspectives are being incorporated into the proposed framework makes this initiative unique and of potential benefit to all future domestic non-LWR applicants

  6. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Status of HgCdTe Barrier Infrared Detectors Grown by MOCVD in Military University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytko, M.; Jóźwikowski, K.; Martyniuk, P.; Gawron, W.; Madejczyk, P.; Kowalewski, A.; Markowska, O.; Rogalski, A.; Rutkowski, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present the status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with an emphasis on technological progress in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. It is shown that MOCVD technology is an excellent tool for HgCdTe barrier architecture growth with a wide range of composition, donor /acceptor doping, and without post-grown annealing. The device concept of a specific barrier bandgap architecture integrated with Auger-suppression is as a good solution for high-operating temperature infrared detectors. Analyzed devices show a high performance comparable with the state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. Dark current densities are close to the values given by "Rule 07" and detectivities of non-immersed detectors are close to the value marked for HgCdTe photodiodes. Experimental data of long-wavelength infrared detector structures were confirmed by numerical simulations obtained by a commercially available software APSYS platform. A detailed analysis applied to explain dark current plots was made, taking into account Shockley-Read-Hall, Auger, and tunneling currents.

  8. The European ITER Test Blanket Modules: Current status of fabrication technologies development and a way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmitko, Milan, E-mail: milan.zmitko@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla 2, Barcelona (Spain); Galabert, Jose [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla 2, Barcelona (Spain); Thomas, Noël [ATMOSTAT, F-94815 Villejuif (France); Forest, Laurent [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bucci, Philippe; Cogneau, Laurence [CEA-DRT, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rey, Jörg; Neuberger, Heiko [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla 2, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Significant progress on development of welding procedures for European TBM achieved. • Fabrication processes feasibility based on diffusion and fusion welding demonstrated. • TBM box assembly welding scenarios investigated and welding scenarios identified. • Future qualification of pF/WPS proposed through realization of a number of QMUs. - Abstract: The paper reviews fabrication technologies and procedures applied for manufacturing of the TBM sub-components, like, HCLL and HCPB cooling plates, HCLL/HCPB stiffening plates, and HCLL/HCPB first wall and side caps. The used technologies are based on fusion and diffusion welding techniques taking into account specificities of the EUROFER-97 steel. Development of a standardized procedure complying with professional codes and standards (RCC-MRx), a preliminary fabrication/welding procedure specification (pF/WPS), is described as well as a fabrication and characterization of feasibility mock-ups (FMU) aimed at assessing the suitability of a fabrication process for fulfilling the design and fabrication specifications. Also, fabrication procedures for the TBM box assembly are presently under development through collaboration between European Fusion Laboratories and Industry for the establishment of an optimized assembly sequence/scenario and development of standardized welding procedure specifications. Selection of optimized assembly scenario takes into accounts not only the design requirements and fabrication possibilities/constraints but also maximum accessibility to the welds for sound non-destructive examination in compliance with welds classification. A future approach towards qualification of the developed fabrication technologies and procedures, through a number of medium to full-size qualification mock-ups according to European standards, is outlined before construction of the first TBMs.

  9. Status of SAT CID InSb detector technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatard, J.P.; Lussereau, A.; Lorans, D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents SAT indium antimonide Charge Injection Devices (C.I.D) Technology, post focal plane signal processing and some applications. These detectors are constituted by MOS capacitors realized on InSb wafers using integrated circuit-like processing. When a negative voltage is applied to the structure (put it into depletion) the capacitors form integrating detectors for use in 3-5 μm band. Linear arrays constituted by a line of single capacitors, matrix arrays constituted by a group of two coupled MOS capacitors, collect and store photon generated charge carriers. In the last case, the selection of a site is accomplished by X-Y decoding technique

  10. Microarray technology for major chemical contaminants analysis in food: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  11. Status of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology and potential for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.; Nuttall, L. J.

    The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell represents the first fuel cell technology known to be used operationally. Current activities are mainly related to the development of a space regenerative fuel cell system for energy storage on board space stations, or other large orbiting vehicles and platforms. During 1981, a study was performed to determine the feasibility of using SPE fuel cells for automotive or other vehicular applications, using methanol as the fuel. The results of this study were very encouraging. Details concerning a conceptual automotive fuel cell power plant study are discussed, taking into account also a layout of major components for compact passenger car installation.

  12. Status of corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.; Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Lopez, E.A.; Herrera, W.J.; Langhorst, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measure technologies for arid shallow land burial sites is described. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with similar data from agricultural systems across the United States. Report of field testing of biointrusion barriers continues at a closed-out waste disposal site at Los Alamos. Final results of an experiment designed to determine the effects of subsidence on the performance of a cobble-gravel biobarrier system are reported, as well as the results of hydrologic modeling activities involving biobarrier systems. 11 refs., 10 figs

  13. Status analysis for the confinement monitoring technology of PWR spent nuclear fuel dry storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeg, Chang Yeal; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Leading national R and D project to design a PWR spent nuclear fuel interim dry storage system that has been under development since mid-2009, which consists of a dual purpose metal cask and concrete storage cask. To ensure the safe operation of dry storage systems in foreign countries, major confinement monitoring techniques currently consist of pressure and temperature measurement. In the case of a dual purpose metal cask, a pressure sensor is installed in the interspace of bolted double lid(primary and secondary lid) in order to measure pressure. A concrete storage cask is a canister based system made of double/redundant welded lid to ensure confinement integrity. For this reason, confinement monitoring method is real time temperature measurement by thermocouple placed in the air flow(air intake and exit) of the concrete structure(over pack and module). The use of various monitoring technologies and operating experiences for the interim dry storage system over the last decades in foreign countries were analyzed. On the basis of the analysis above, development of the confinement monitoring technology that can be used optimally in our system will be available in the near future.

  14. An overview of environmental pollution status and waste treatment technology used in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Qureshi, R.M.; Ahmad, S.; Sajjad, M.I.; Mashiatullah, A.; Shah, Z.

    1998-01-01

    There is little pollution consciousness in Pakistan. Rapid growth in population and unplanned disposal of untreated industrial, agricultural and domestic wastes has caused severe pollution problems in air, soil, drinking water and coastal marine water environments. To date, no systematic approach is being used in the domestic and industrial sectors for continuous processing and decontamination of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes prior to disposal. The two large industrial and population centers namely, the cities of Karachi and Islamabad, use small scale wastewater treatment facilities consisting of trickling filters and activated sludge process, respectively. Presently, no accelerator is being used in Pakistan for decontamination of hospital, industrial or domestic wastes. However, the prospects of Radiation Technology for waste treatment are well realized and a 250 keV ion accelerator has been developed at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) for research, development and training purposes. The main emphasis is now to locally design and fabricate user dedicated electron beam machines for radiation curing and decontamination of domestic, industrial and hospital wastes

  15. Current status and manufacturing technologies of magnesium alloy parts in Japanese home electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Y.; Takara, A. [Corporate Production Engineering Div., Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The Japanese home electronics market has demanded that the newer products must be smaller, thinner and lighter. The use of magnesium alloys for Japanese home electronics has increased since the latter half of the 1990's. Magnesium alloys have been used mainly for the outer cases of portable electric products, because of their lightness and rigidness. Magnesium is also a promising material from the viewpoint of recycling. Magnesium alloy parts have been mass-produced for the outer cases of portable home electronics, such as, mini-disc player, notebook type personal computer or cell phone. The parts have the characteristics of high quality in appearance and thin walled, complicated shape with rib or boss. Most of them are formed by die-casting or injection molding technologies. After casting, the parts are treated precise machining to clear minute surface cracks or voids. Subsequently, they are operated anti-corrosion treatment and spray coating. Recycling have already carried out for magnesium alloy scraps to be cast again. Paint stripping before remelting is performed by alkali solutions or sandblast techniques for coated scraps. Finally, the development of promising press forming technologies is also introduced. (orig.)

  16. R and D status on Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoeda, Mikio, E-mail: enoeda.mikio@jaea.go.jp; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Nakajima, Motoki; Sato, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Nishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji; Yokoyama, Kenji

    2014-10-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing the development of a Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket. Regarding the blanket module fabrication technology development using F82H, the fabrication of a real scale mockup of the back wall of TBM was completed. In the design activity of the TBM, electromagnetic analysis under plasma disruption events and thermo-mechanical analysis under steady state and transient state of tokamak operation have been performed and showed bright prospect toward design justification. Regarding the development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles for DEMO blanket, fabrication technology development of Li rich Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble and BeTi pebble was performed. Regarding the research activity on the evaluation of tritium generation performance, the evaluation of tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility has been performed. This paper overviews the recent achievements of the development of the WCCB Blanket in JAEA.

  17. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  18. Australia [Status and technology of polymer-containing fibrous materials in the Eastern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouston, J. G. [Australian Atomic Energy Commission, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1968-10-15

    Enough commercial irradiators with particle accelerators or cobalt-60 sources have been built in recent years to give confidence that the technology for treating material with gamma or electron radiation is practical and well established. Experience has shown that irradiation of packaged materials, with gamma radiation, involves a complex arrangement of conveyors to ensure efficient utilization of the radiation, particularly when the treatment requires a dose in the megarad range. It is therefore impractical to consider that small-scale irradiators might favourably compete on economic grounds with conventional methods to achieve similar results. It is the capital cost, apart from intangible considerations, which places any proposed radiation process at a disadvantage with respect to alternative methods even though operating costs and material costs may be low. Furthermore, high capital cost demands a high utilization rate and an assured long-term market for the product to minimize the radiation cost per unit. It is intended in this contribution to the study group to survey briefly the possibilities for an irradiated wood-polymer process in terms of the existing technology in Australia.

  19. Applications of containment technologies in Australia for contamination remediation/control: Status and experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouazza, A.; Parker, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In discussing containment technologies in Australia it is important to understand the factors which influence environmental control of wastes. Although Australia is considered to be an and country, there is only limited reliance on use of groundwater for domestic purposes and this is mainly in rural areas. In many areas, the groundwater is brackish to saline, thus limiting the use of the water. The limited use of groundwater for domestic purposes and the sparse population of Australia combine to produce an environmental regulatory framework very different to North America and Europe. Up until very recently, the approach to disposal of industrial, mining and domestic waste has been based on the principle of open-quotes dilute and disperseclose quotes. However, this attitude has changed, new regulations have been put forward imposing much greater control over the disposal of all forms of waste. This paper provides an overview of the containment technology in Australia as used in certain states with a discussion on the regulatory aspect. It presents examples of some of the innovative techniques that can be considered in the limited Australian regulatory environment

  20. Toward Production From Gas Hydrates: Current Status, Assessment of Resources, and Simulation-Based Evaluationof Technology and Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George J.; Collett, Timothy; Boswell, Ray; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Koh, Carolyn; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2008-02-12

    Gas hydrates are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural gas hydrate accumulations, the status of the primary international R&D programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing commercialization of production. After a brief examination of gas hydrate accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps are either not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of gas hydrate deposits, and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates over long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets, (b) methods to maximize production, and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain gas hydrate deposits undesirable for production.

  1. Republic of Korea [Status and technology of polymer-containing fibrous materials in the Eastern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chwa-Kyung [Office of Atomic Energy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1968-10-15

    In describing the present status of composite materials made from fibrous materials and synthetic polymers, it should first be mentioned that Korea produces almost no polymer-wood combinations. However, Korea has been very active in the production of various resin-fibrous material combinations that mainly employ thermosetting resins as binding agents to improve the quality of woods and other fibrous materials. Plywood, chip board, hard board and straw board are some examples. Korean forest resources are not sufficient to meet industrial needs. Only a small amount of domestic pine timber is used for ground pulp production. However, plywood production, which started some ten years ago, has increased to where domestic consumption is now fully supplied and annual exports are now worth more than 40 million US dollars. Although whole log timber for the industry is imported, urea and formalin for adhesives are produced domestically. To develop an effective means for using waste lumber, chip board, fibre board and hard board have been produced since 1962 and the production of straw board has been started as a means of utilizing agricultural wastes.

  2. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinrong, Z. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, (China). Department of Isotopes

    1997-10-01

    The research and applications of isotope technology and radiation sources in China are presented. Many effort were directed towards production of radiopharmaceuticals, radiation sources, radiation treatment and radioactive tracers. Reactor and accelerator produced radioisotopes contributed to and will further accelerate the development of nuclear medicine in China. Recently, much attention has been paid on tumor therapy mainly with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody, radiolabelled microsphere and colloid, bone-seeking agents, and radiolabelled Octreotide. Radioimmunoassay has been widely used with many convenient kits available. There are above 30 radioimmunoassay kit produces and more than 60 radioimmunoassay centers. Recently the advance is mainly in solid-phase separation process and in radioimmunoassay method, including some nonradioactive immunoassay methods, such as enzyme immunoassay, fluorescence immunoassay, and chemiluminescence immunoassay. Kits for enzyme immunoassay have been put into clinical use. Various radiation sources are produced for medical purposes and for use in nuclear power stations 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (I): Canada and Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    2007-05-15

    Canada produces about one third of the world's uranium mine output, most of it from two new mines. After 2007 Canadian production is expected to increase further as more new mines come into production. About 15% of Canada's electricity comes from nuclear power, using indigenous technology, and 18 reactors provide over 12,500 MWe of power. Mexico has two nuclear reactors generating almost 5% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1989. There is some government support for expanding nuclear energy to reduce reliance on natural gas. Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one tenth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. Brazil has two nuclear reactors generating 4% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1982.

  4. Present status of development of alternative energy technology from environment protection point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Japan lacks fossil fuel resources. Consequently, almost all fossil fuels are imported from abroad. Therefore, change in international affairs affects on Japan's politics and social life, as learned from experience of economic social life, as learned from experience of economic confusion caused by the oil crisis of 1973. For this reason, research and development (R and D) of alternative energy technologies was initiated in July 1974, which was promoted as one of national energy development programs called Sunshine Project. Presently, their technical developments are being continued to put practical use under this project. However, Japan's dependency of primary energy resources on oil is still high among major advanced countries and energy supply structure is significantly weak. Furthermore, from indetermination of the recent political condition in the Middle East, the importance of security against supply and demand of petroleum in middle and long term is generally recognized with the increasing cost of oil

  5. Assessment and status report High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor gas-turbine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to present a brief summary assessment of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor - Gas Turbine (HTGR-GT) technology. The focal point for the study was a potential 2000 MW(t)/800 MW(e) HTGR-GT commercial plant. Principal findings of the study were that: the HTGR-GT is feasible, but with significantly greater development risk than the HTGR-SC (Steam Cycle). At the level of performance corresponding to the reference design, no incremental economic incentive can be identified for the HTGR-GT to offset the increased development costs and risk relative to the HTGR-SC. The relative economics of the HTGR-GT and HTGR-SC are not significantly impacted by dry cooling considerations. While reduced cycel complexity may ultimately result in a reliability advantage for the HTGR-GT, the value of that potential advantage was not quantified

  6. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinrong, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The research and applications of isotope technology and radiation sources in China are presented. Many effort were directed towards production of radiopharmaceuticals, radiation sources, radiation treatment and radioactive tracers. Reactor and accelerator produced radioisotopes contributed to and will further accelerate the development of nuclear medicine in China. Recently, much attention has been paid on tumor therapy mainly with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody, radiolabelled microsphere and colloid, bone-seeking agents, and radiolabelled Octreotide. Radioimmunoassay has been widely used with many convenient kits available. There are above 30 radioimmunoassay kit produces and more than 60 radioimmunoassay centers. Recently the advance is mainly in solid-phase separation process and in radioimmunoassay method, including some nonradioactive immunoassay methods, such as enzyme immunoassay, fluorescence immunoassay, and chemiluminescence immunoassay. Kits for enzyme immunoassay have been put into clinical use. Various radiation sources are produced for medical purposes and for use in nuclear power stations

  7. Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, Don; Gage, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Heat shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Project is a NASA STMD and SMD co-funded effort. The goal is to develop and mission infuse a new ablative Thermal Protection System that can withstand extreme entry. It is targeted to support NASA's high priority missions, as defined in the latest decadal survey, to destinations such as Venus and Saturn in-situ robotic science missions. Entry into these planetary atmospheres results in extreme heating. The entry peak heat-flux and associated pressure are estimated to be between one and two orders of magnitude higher than those experienced by Mars Science Laboratory or Lunar return missions. In the recent New Frontiers community announcement NASA has indicated that it is considering providing an increase to the PI managed mission cost (PIMMC) for investigations utilizing the Heat Shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) and in addition, NASA is considering limiting the risk assessment to only their accommodation on the spacecraft and the mission environment. The HEEET ablative TPS utilizes 3D weaving technology to manufacture a dual layer material architecture. The 3-D weaving allows for flat panels to be woven. The dual layer consists of a top layer designed to withstand the extreme external environment while the inner or insulating layer by design, is designed to achieve low thermal conductivity, and it keeps the heat from conducting towards the structure underneath. Both arc jet testing combined with material properties have been used to develop thermal response models that allows for comparison of performance with heritage carbon phenolic. A 50% mass efficiency is achieved by the dual layer construct compared to carbon phenolic for a broad range of missions both to Saturn and Venus. The 3-D woven flat preforms are molded to achieve the shape as they are compliant and then resin infusion with curing forms a rigid panels. These panels are then bonded on to the aeroshell structure. Gaps

  8. Technology status review and carbon abatement potential of renewable transport fuels in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J; Bauen, A

    2003-07-01

    The document reviews the technology for the production of renewable transport fuels (RTFs) and includes a discussion on the costs of the different RTF options and the role they might play in helping reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The motivation for using RTFs in the UK are (1) to reduce transport sector costs; (2) reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (3) improve air quality; (4) improve energy security in the transport sector and (5) assist rural development through domestic production of biomass-based fuels. The RTFs of most interest at present are ethanol produced in the fermentation of sugar and starchy crops, and biodiesel from oil crops. Figures for the UK potential for RTFs are given. It is pointed out however that given the finite availability of renewable sources and the competition for other applications, the use of RTFs will need to be efficient for sustainability. The report was prepared by Imperial College London as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme.

  9. Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.

  10. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (I): Canada and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    2007-05-01

    Canada produces about one third of the world's uranium mine output, most of it from two new mines. After 2007 Canadian production is expected to increase further as more new mines come into production. About 15% of Canada's electricity comes from nuclear power, using indigenous technology, and 18 reactors provide over 12,500 MWe of power. Mexico has two nuclear reactors generating almost 5% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1989. There is some government support for expanding nuclear energy to reduce reliance on natural gas. Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one tenth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. Brazil has two nuclear reactors generating 4% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1982

  11. Sensing Technologies for Precision Phenotyping in Vegetable Crops: Current Status and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Tripodi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the ability to investigate plant functions and structure through non-invasive methods with high accuracy has become a major target in plant breeding and precision agriculture. Emerging approaches in plant phenotyping play a key role in unraveling quantitative traits responsible for growth, production, quality, and resistance to various stresses. Beyond fully automatic phenotyping systems, several promising technologies can help accurately characterize a wide range of plant traits at affordable costs and with high-throughput. In this review, we revisit the principles of proximal and remote sensing, describing the application of non-invasive devices for precision phenotyping applied to the protected horticulture. Potentiality and constraints of big data management and integration with “omics” disciplines will also be discussed.

  12. Present status and expectations of international cooperation on nuclear technology in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mann-Tchao

    1992-01-01

    The development and international cooperation on nuclear energy in Taiwan started in the early fifties. As one of original signatories for the open-quotes Non-proliferation Treatyclose quotes in the United Nations, the development and international cooperation programs has been positioned, ever since, in the peaceful applications of this new found technology. The first establishment of nuclear facility in Taiwan was an open pool research reactor for educational and research purposes at the National Tsing-Hua University in 1956. Subsequently, a heavy water moderated research reactor, TRR, and 6 units of thermal nuclear power reactors were constructed. Peaceful applications of nuclear energy, in areas of generations, medical diagnosis and treatments, agricultural and industrial services were developed step by step

  13. Status on Technology Development of Optic Fiber-Coupled Laser Ignition System for Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Early, Jim; Osborne, Robin; Thomas, Matthew; Bossard, John

    2003-01-01

    To pursue technology developments for future launch vehicles, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is examining vortex chamber concepts for liquid rocket engine applications. Past studies indicated that the vortex chamber schemes potentially have a number of advantages over conventional chamber methods. Due to the nature of the vortex flow, relatively cooler propellant streams tend to flow along the chamber wall. Hence, the thruster chamber can be operated without the need of any cooling techniques. This vortex flow also creates strong turbulence, which promotes the propellant mixing process. Consequently, the subject chamber concept: not only offer system simplicity, but also enhance the combustion performance. Test results have shown that chamber performance is markedly high even at a low chamber length-to-diameter ratio. This incentive can be translated to a convenience in the thrust chamber packaging.

  14. Status of the material capsule irradiation and the development of the new capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Kee-Nam; Kang, Young-Hwan; Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Man-Soon; Kim, Bong-Goo

    2006-01-01

    A material capsule system including a main capsule, fixing, control, cutting, and transport systems was developed for an irradiation test of non-fissile materials in HANARO. 14 irradiation capsules (12 instrumented and 2 non-instrumented capsules) have been designed, fabricated and successfully irradiated in the HANARO CT and IR test holes since 1995. The capsules were mainly designed for an irradiation of the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel), reactor core materials, and Zr-based alloys. Most capsules were made for KAERI material research projects, but 5 capsules were made as a part of national projects for the promotion of the HANARO utilization for universities. Based on the accumulated irradiation experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, development of new instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen irrespective of the reactor operation has been performed in HANARO. (author)

  15. Current status of the technology development on lithium safety handling under IFMIF/EVEDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Tomohiro, E-mail: furukawa.tomohiro@jaea.go.jp; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Kato, Shoichi; Iijima, Minoru; Ohtaka, Masahiko; Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji; Wakai, Eiichi

    2014-12-15

    Studies for establishing technology for the safe handling of lithium was performed in the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) for the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). This research comprises four tasks: (a) extinguishing lithium files, (b) chemical reactions of lithium on the event of a leak, (c) lithium removal from the components, and (d) chemical analysis of impurities in lithium. Tasks (a) and (b), related to functions on the event of a lithium leak, involve selection of the material suitable for extinguishing lithium fires and assessment of corrosive effects of leaked lithium on materials at high temperature, respectively. Task (c) involves evaluation of methods for the replacement and/or decommissioning of the lithium components. Task (d) constitutes the development of high-precision techniques for the determination of impurities in lithium, particularly the dominating corrosive impurity—dissolved nitrogen. Experimental results addressing the objectives of each of the tasks are described in this communication.

  16. Application and Research Status of Alternative Materials for 3D-printing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yanqing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Application features and research status of alternative 3D-printing materials for six typical 3D-printingtechniques were reviewed. From the point of view of physical forms, four kinds of materials of liquid photosensitive resin material, thin sheet material (paper or plastic film , low melting point filament material and powder material are included. And from the composition point of view, nearly all kinds of materials in the production and life are included such as polymer materials: plastic, resin, wax; metal and alloy materials; ceramic materials. Liquid photosensitive resin material is used for stereo lithigraphy apparatus(SLA; thin sheet materials such as paper or plastic film are used for laminated object manufacturing(LOM; low melting point polymer filament materials such as wax filament, polyolefin resin filament, polyamide filament and ABS filament are used for fused deposition modeling(FDM; very wide variety powder materials including nylon powder, nylon-coated glass powder, polycarbonate powder, polyamide powder, wax powder, metal powder(Re-sintering and infiltration of copper are needed after sintering, wax-coated ceramic powder, wax-coated metal powder and thermosetting resin-coated fine sand are used for selective laser sintering(SLS. Nearly the same above powder materials are used for selective laser melting(SLM, but the printed parts own much more higher density and better mechanical properties. Powder materials are likewise used for threedimensional printing and gluing(3DP, however, the powders are stuck together by tricolor binder sprayed through nozzle and cross-section shape of the part is color-printed on it. Finally, the development direction in both quality and the yield of 3D-printing materials were pointed out to be a bottle-neck issue and a hot topic in the field of 3D-printing.

  17. High energy physics advisory panel's composite subpanel for the assessment of the status of accelerator physics and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    In November 1994, Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research (OER), initiated a broad assessment of the current status and promise of the field of accelerator physics and technology with respect to five OER programs -- High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy, and Health and Environmental Research. Dr. Krebs asked the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) to establish a composite subpanel with representation from the five OER advisory committees and with a balance of membership drawn broadly from both the accelerator community and from those scientific disciplines associated with the OER programs. The Subpanel was also charged to provide recommendations and guidance on appropriate future research and development needs, management issues, and funding requirements. The Subpanel finds that accelerator science and technology is a vital and intellectually exciting field. It has provided essential capabilities for the DOE/OER research programs with an enormous impact on the nation's scientific research, and it has significantly enhanced the nation's biomedical and industrial capabilities. Further progress in this field promises to open new possibilities for the scientific goals of the OER programs and to further benefit the nation. Sustained support of forefront accelerator research and development by the DOE's OER programs and the DOE's predecessor agencies has been responsible for much of this impact on research. This report documents these contributions to the DOE energy research mission and to the nation

  18. A review on the current status and production technology for {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, R. A.; Han, H. S.; Cho, W. K.; Park, U. J.; Kim, Y. M

    1998-11-01

    The current status of {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator production technology were reviewed in PART 1. Main interests were given to the aspects of {sup 188}W reactor production, irradiated targets reprocessing and generator loading technologies, such as alumina type and gel type generators. In order to develop the more convenient and advanced {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator, further studies must be carried out to get the precise evaluation of production and burn-up cross section of {sup 188}W, the more easily realizable generator loading procedure, and also to optimize the column and generator design to compensate the deterioration of generator performance because of parent radionuclide decay. By irradiation of {sup 186}W enriched sample, {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator production experiments were performed to evaluate the possibility of {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator production using HANARO, and PART 2 describes about the experiments. The experimental results shows the possibility of practical {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator production using of low-specific activity {sup 188}W produced in HANARO. (author). 79 refs., 4 tabs., 26 figs.

  19. Development of incident progress prediction technologies for nuclear emergency preparedness. Current status and future subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Kusunoki, Takayoshi; Kawasaki, Ikuo; Yanagi, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Iwasaki, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear licensees are required to maintain a prediction system during normal condition for using a nuclear emergency by the Basic Plan for Disaster Prevention of government. With prediction of the incident progress, if the present condition of nuclear power plant is understood appropriately and it grows more serious with keeping the present situation, it is in predicting what kind of situation will be occurred in the near future, choosing the effective countermeasures against the coming threat, and understanding the time available of intervention time. Following the accident on September 30 1999 in the nuclear fuel fabrication facility in Tokai Village of Ibaraki Prefecture, the Institute of Nuclear Safety System started development of incident progress prediction technologies for nuclear emergency preparedness. We have performed technical applications and made improvements in nuclear emergency exercises and verified the developed systems using the observed values of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. As a result, our developed Incident Progress Prediction System was applied to nuclear emergency exercises and we accumulated knowledge and experience by which we improved the system to make predictions more rapidly and more precisely, including for example, the development of a prediction method for leak size of reactor coolant. On the other hand, if a rapidly progressing incident occurs, since end users need simple and quick predictions about the public's protection and evacuation areas, we developed the Radioactive Materials Release, Radiation Dose and Radiological Protection Area Prediction System which changed solving an inverse problem into a forward problem solution. In view of the water-level-decline incident of the spent fuel storage facility at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the spent fuel storage facility water level and the water temperature evaluation tool were improved. Such incident progress prediction technologies were

  20. Nanobody Technology for Mycotoxin Detection in the Field of Food Safety: Current Status and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting; Zhu, Jiang; Nie, Yao; Hu, Rui; Wang, Ting; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Yunhuang

    2018-04-29

    Mycotoxins, which are toxic, carcinogenic, and/or teratogenic, have posed a threat to food safety and public health. Sensitive and effective determination technologies for mycotoxin surveillance are required. Immunoassays have been regarded as useful supplements to chromatographic techniques. However, conventional antibodies involved in immunoassays are difficult to be expressed recombinantly and are susceptible to harsh environments. Nanobodies (or VHH antibodies) are antigen-binding sites of the heavy-chain antibodies produced from Camelidae. They are found to be expressed easily in prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems, more robust in extreme conditions, and facile to be used as surrogates for artificial antigens. These properties make them the promising and environmentally friendly immunoreagents in the next generation of immunoassays. This review briefly describes the latest developments in the area of nanobodies used in mycotoxin detection. Moreover, by integrating the introduction of the principle of nanobodies production and the critical assessment of their performance, this paper also proposes the prospect of nanobodies in the field of food safety in the foreseeable future.

  1. R and D status of key technologies for the development of KO TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Yu, In-Keun; Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Sang-Jin; Yoon, Han-Ki; Kim, Tae-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    R and D activities currently being undertaken for Korean Helium Cooled Solid Breeder (HCSB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) include joining technologies of structural materials, breeder pebble material development, and measurement of pebble bed characteristics. The joining performance of ferritic-martensitic steel is evaluated. TIG welding for ferritic-martensitic steel is evaluated to find welding conditions with two different current modes. The fabrication methods of lithium silicate powder and lithium titanate pebble are under development using special process. The Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles showing an average diameter of 1.8 mm was fabricated by water-based sol-gel method. The Li 4 SiO 4 powder with the particle size of about 200 nm was synthesized by PVA polymer solution method. The method of silicon carbide coating on the graphite pebble is investigated, and its possibility is verified based on the coating results on the graphite plate. Sputtered SiC coating layer was crystallized by high temperature heat treatment. The measurement method and database of the thermal properties of the pebble and pebble bed are important for the design of TBM as well as breeding blanket. The initial characteristics of the pebbles are assessed measuring the effective thermal diffusivity of graphite pebble by laser flash method.

  2. The analysis on the current status of the overseas recycle technology of the metallic radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae In; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Jung, Kee Jung

    2002-05-01

    It was understood that regulation criteria for material release varied with countries and that international standards were not setup. But, most advanced countries are continuously studying on the recycling of metallic wastes for the purpose of the reuse of resources and disposal cost reduction. Practically, the advanced countries make a lot of cost profits compared with disposal as their metallic wastes are recycled and reused through technology like melting. The reasonable international standards are also expected to be set in the near future because of the aggressive cooperation between international agencies such as IAEA and NEA toward recycling these wastes. In our case, the recycle criteria for radioactive waste containing radioactive nuclide with long half-life such as Cs-137(half-life: 30y) and Co-60(half-life: 5.26y) including others, which are generated from the nuclear fission or dismantling of nuclear facilities, are not yet established. Therefore, it is required that the recommendation and legalization of the regulatory criteria be carried out for the recycle and reuse of metallic wastes to be generated from the dismantling of domestic nuclear facilities in the future

  3. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 {times} 10{sup -7} cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 {times} 10{sup -8} cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 {times} 10{sup -9} cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 {times} 10{sup -11} cm/s.

  4. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 x 10 -7 cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 x 10 -8 cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 x 10 -9 cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 x 10 -11 cm/s

  5. The Status of Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Technology at Lockheed Martin Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EJ Brown; PF Baldasaro; SR Burger; LR Danielson; DM DePoy; JM Dolatowski; PM Fourspring; GJ Nichols; WF Topper; TD Rahmlow

    2004-07-29

    In a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system, a heated surface radiates in the mid-infrared range onto photocells which are sensitive at these energies. Part of the absorbed energy is converted into electric output. Conversion efficiency is maximized by reducing the absorption of non-convertible energy with some form of spectral control. In a TPV system, many technology options exist. Our development efforts have concentrated on flat-plate geometries with greybody radiators, front surface tandem filters and a multi-chip module (MCM) approach that allows selective fabrication processes to match cell performance. Recently, we discontinued development of GaInAsSb quaternary cell semiconductor material in favor of ternary GaInAs material. In our last publication (Ref. 1), the authors reported conversion efficiencies of about 20% (radiator 950 C, cells 22 C) for small modules (1-4 cm{sup 2}) tested in a prototypic cavity test environment. Recently, we have achieved measured conversion efficiencies of about 12.5% in larger ({approx}100 cm{sup 2}) test arrays. The efficiency reduction in the larger arrays was probably due to quality and variation of the cells as well as non-uniform illumination from the hot radiator to the cold plate. Modules in these tests used GaInAsSb cells with 0.52 eV bandgap and front surface filters for spectral control. This paper provides details of the individual system components and the rationale for our technical decisions. It also describes the measurement techniques used to record these efficiencies.

  6. Status of fuel element technology for plate type dispersion fuels with high uranium density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.; Huschka, H.; Koch, K.H.; Nazare, S.; Ondracek, G.

    1983-01-01

    A number of about 20 Material Test and Research Reactors in Germany and abroad is supplied with fuel elements by the company NUKEM. The power of these reactors differs widely ranging from up to about 100 MW. Consequently, the uranium density of the fuel elements in the meat varies considerably depending on the reactor type and is usually within the range from 0.4 to 1.3 g U/cm 3 if HEU is used. In order to convert these reactors to lower uranium enrichment (19.75% 235-U) extensive work is carried out at NUKEM since about two years with the goal to develop fuel elements with high U-density. This work is sponsored by the German Ministry for Research and Technology in the frame of the AF-program. This paper reports on the present state of development for fuel elements with high U-density fuels at NUKEM is reported. The development works were so far concentrated on UAl x , U 3 O 8 and UO 2 fuels which will be described in more detail. In addition fuel plates with new fuels like e.g. U-Si or U-Fe compounds are developed in collaboration with KfK. The required uranium densities for some typical reactors with low, medium, and high power are listed allowing a comparison of HEU and LEU uranium density requirements. The 235-U-content in the case of LEU is raised by 18%. Two different meat thicknesses are considered: Standard thickness of 0.5 mm; and increased thickness of 0.76 mm. From this data compilation the objective follows: in the case of conversion to LEU (19.75% 235-U-enrichment), uranium densities have to be made available up to 24 gU/cm 3 meat for low power level reactors, up to 33 gU/cm 3 meat for medium power level reactors, and between 5.75 and 7.03 g/cm 3 meat for high power level reactors according to this consideration

  7. Current status of electron beam processing applications and accelerator technology in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.S.; Lavale, D.S.; Sabharwal, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Electron Beam (EB) processing is now a well established technology world over in a few specific sections of the industry, particularly the polymer industry. The actual use of the technology however is dependent upon the specific socioeconomic needs of the individual country. In India, an industrial type EB accelerator has been operative since 1988 at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. This 2 MeV, 20 kW machine is being utilized to develop and optimize process and material process techniques for research, development and industry in the fields viz., crosslinking, degradation and grafting of polymers; color enhancement in precious and semi-precious stones, lifetime control in semi-conductor devices; food irradiation. Some of these processes have developed into products that are now being carried out on regular commercial basis, meeting the requirements of the Indian industry. These include crosslinked high temperature PE 'O' rings, wire and cable insulation, heat shrinkable tubes; micro-fine PTFE powder, degraded viscose rayon pulp and color diamonds, With the collaboration of Indian cable industry, EB crosslinkable insulation formulations were developed. Suitable irradiation parameters and techniques have been studied, optimized and standardized. Over 100 km length of cables based on PE, PVC and elastomer blends has been irradiated and the results were found to be very encouraging. Since the main parameters to be monitored in the radiation processing is the absorbed dose and its uniformity in the product, dose evaluation and optimization hb been carried out specific to the process and the product under treatment. EB dosimetry based on the graphite calorimetry, thin film and alanine powder dosimeters has been standardized and being used in the facility for dose evaluation and optimization studies. An endless stainless steel mesh conveyor is available in the facility to carry out product irradiation. An eight type cable irradiation gadget has been

  8. Toward production from gas hydrates: Current status, assessment of resources, and simulation-based evaluation of technology and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Koh, C.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Gas hydrates (GHs) are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural GH accumulations, the status of the primary international research and development (R&D) programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing the commercialization of production. After a brief examination of GH accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate-production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical-simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps either are not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of GH deposits and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates across long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets; (b) methods to maximize production; and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain GH deposits undesirable for production. Copyright ?? 2009 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  9. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  10. On-line monitoring of milk electrical conductivity by fuzzy logic technology to characterise health status in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary infection affects the quality and quantity of dairy goat milk. Health status (HS and milk quality can be monitored by electrical conductivity (EC. The aim of the study was to determine the detection potential of EC when measured on-line on a daily basis and compared with readings from previous milkings. Milk yields (MYs were investigated with the same approach. To evaluate these relative traits, a multivariate model based on fuzzy logic technology – which provided interesting results in cows – was used. Two foremilk samples from 8 healthy Saanen goats were measured daily over the course of six months. Bacteriological tests and somatic cells counts were used to define the HS. On-line EC measurements for each gland and MYs were also considered. Predicted deviations of EC and MY were calculated using a moving-average model and entered in the fuzzy logic model. The reported accuracy has a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 69%. Conclusions show that fuzzy logic is an interesting approach for dairy goats, since it offered better accuracy than other methods previously published. Nevertheless, specificity was lower than in dairy cows, probably due to the lack of a significant decrease of MY in diseased glands. Still, results show that the detection of the HS characteristics with EC is improved, when measured on-line, daily and compared with the readings from previous milkings.

  11. Gasification - Status and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2012-06-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect gasification and pressurized oxygen-blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them are based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others, more advantageous solutions, still need further development.

  12. Analysis on the Current Status of Chemical Decontamination Technology of Steam Generators in the Oversea Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Taebin; Kim, Sukhoon; Kim, Juyoul; Kim, Juyub; Lee, Seunghee [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The steam generators in Hanbit Unit 3 and 4 are scheduled to be replaced in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Nevertheless, the wastes from the dismantled steam generators are currently just on-site stored in the NPP because there are no disposal measures for the waste and lack of the decontamination techniques for large-sized metallic equipment. In contrast, in the oversea NPPs, there are many practical cases of chemical decontamination not only for oversized components in the NPPs such as reactor pressure vessel and steam generator, but also for major pipes. Chemical decontamination technique is more effective in decontaminating the components with complicated shape compared with mechanical one. Moreover, a high decontamination factor can be obtained by using strong solvent, and thereby most of radionuclides can be removed. Due to these advantages, the chemical decontamination has been used most frequently for operation of decontaminating the large-sized equipment. In this study, an analysis on the current status of chemical decontamination technique used for the steam generators of the foreign commercial NPPs was performed. In this study, the three major chemical decontamination processes were reviewed, which are applied to the decommissioning process of the steam generators in the commercial NPPs of the United States, Germany, and Belgium. The three processes have the different features in aspect of solvent, while those are based in common on the oxidation and reduction between the target metal surface and solvents. In addition, they have the same goals for improving the decontamination efficiency and decreasing the amount of the secondary waste generation. Based on the analysis results on component sub-processes and major advantages and disadvantages of each process, Table 2 shows the key fundamental technologies for decontamination of the steam generator in Korea and the major considerations in the development process of each technology. It is necessary to prepare

  13. Technology Status and Expected Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery, Plug-In Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    2011-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) of various types are experiencing a commercial renaissance but of uncertain ultimate success. Many new electric-drive models are being introduced by different automakers with significant technical improvements from earlier models, particularly with regard to further refinement of drivetrain systems and important improvements in battery and fuel cell systems. The various types of hybrid and all-electric vehicles can offer significant greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions when compared to conventional vehicles on a full fuel-cycle basis. In fact, most EVs used under most condition are expected to significantly reduce lifecycle GHG emissions. This paper reviews the current technology status of EVs and compares various estimates of their potential to reduce GHGs on a fuel cycle basis. In general, various studies show that battery powered EVs reduce GHGs by a widely disparate amount depending on the type of powerplant used and the particular region involved, among other factors. Reductions typical of the United States would be on the order of 20-50%, depending on the relative level of coal versus natural gas and renewables in the powerplant feedstock mix. However, much deeper reductions of over 90% are possible for battery EVs running on renewable or nuclear power sources. Plug-in hybrid vehicles running on gasoline can reduce emissions by 20-60%, and fuel cell EV reduce GHGs by 30-50% when running on natural gas-derived hydrogen and up to 95% or more when the hydrogen is made (and potentially compressed) using renewable feedstocks. These are all in comparison to what is usually assumed to be a more advanced gasoline vehicle "baseline" of comparison, with some incremental improvements by 2020 or 2030. Thus, the emissions from all of these EV types are highly variable depending on the details of how the electric fuel or hydrogen is produced.

  14. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. In situ physical/chemical treatment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites: Applicability, developing status, and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Gates, D.D.; West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Webb, O.F.; Corder, S.L.; Dickerson, K.S.

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was established in June 1991 to facilitate the development and implementation of in situ remediation technologies for environmental restoration within the DOE complex. Within the ISR IP, four subareas of research have been identified: (1) in situ containment, (2) in situ physical/chemical treatment (ISPCT), (3) in situ bioremediation, and (4) subsurface manipulation/electrokinetics. Although set out as individual focus areas, these four are interrelated, and successful developments in one will often necessitate successful developments in another. In situ remediation technologies are increasingly being sought for environmental restoration due to the potential advantages that in situ technologies can offer as opposed to more traditional ex situ technologies. These advantages include limited site disruption, lower cost, reduced worker exposure, and treatment at depth under structures. While in situ remediation technologies can offer great advantages, many technology gaps exist in their application. This document presents an overview of ISPCT technologies and describes their applicability to DOE-complex needs, their development status, and relevant ongoing research. It also highlights research needs that the ISR IP should consider when making funding decisions

  15. Status of environmental technology; Interim Report to the sector study 'Petroleum and Energy', the integrated management plan for North Sea. Mapping of available environmental technology; Statusrapport for miljoeteknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the current status of environmental technology that may help to prevent and reduce / prevent environmental pollution. The report is a foundation report to the management plan for the North Sea. The report was prepared based on the NPD's knowledge and with good input from the PSA, and resource persons in the oil companies. The following is given a summary of the various disciplines and the technological challenges the industry has managed to meet and which ones remain. (Author)

  16. Research status and future trends on surface pre-grouting technology in reforming wall rock of vertical shafts in coal mines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    In the mine construction, the surface pre-grouting technology is an important method to prevent water blast in excavation process of vertical shaft when the shaft must pass through the thick, water-rich and high water-pressure bedrock aquifer. It has been nearly 60 years since the technology was used to reform wall rock of vertical shaft in coal mine in China for the first time, and the existing technology can basically meet the needs of constructing 1000m deep vertical shaft. Firstly, the article introduces that in view of Magg’s spherical seepage theory and Karol’s spherical seepage theory, Chinese scholars found that the diffusion of grout from borehole into the surrounding strata in horizontal direction is irregular through a lot of research and engineering practice of using the surface pre-grouting technology to reform wall rock of vertical shafts, and put forward the selecting principles of grout’s effective diffusion radius in one grouting engineering; Secondly, according to the shape of the grouting boreholes, surface pre-grouting technology of vertical shaft is divided into two stages: vertical borehole stage and S-type borehole stage. Thirdly, the development status of grouting materials and grouting equipment for the technology is introduced. Fourthly, grouting mode, stage height and pressure of the technology are introduced. Finally, it points out that with the increasing depth of coal mining in China, the technology of reforming wall rock of 1000~2000m deep vertical shafts will face many problems, such as grouting theory, grouting equipment, grouting finishing standard, testing and evaluation of grouting effect, and so on. And it put forward a preliminary approach to solving these problems. This paper points out future research directions of the surface pre-grouting technology in China.

  17. Short-Term and Long-Term Technology Needs/Matching Status at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claggett, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report identifies potential technology deployment opportunities for the Environmental Management (EM) programs at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The focus is on identifying candidates for Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) proposals within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management areas. The 86 technology needs on the Site Technology Coordination Group list were verified in the field. Six additional needs were found, and one listed need was no longer required. Potential technology matches were identified and then investigated for applicability, maturity, cost, and performance. Where promising, information on the technologies was provided to INEEL managers for evaluation. Eleven potential ASTD projected were identified, seven for near-term application and four for application within the next five years

  18. The Text of the Fifth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Text of the Fifth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status [es

  19. The text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987. Status of acceptances as of 28 February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The document gives the status of acceptances as of 28 February 1993 of the agreement to extend regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology from 1987

  20. A review of nuclear data needs and their status for fusion reactor technology with some suggestions on a strategy to satisfy the requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Cheng, E.T. (TSI Research, Inc., Solana Beach, CA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    A review was performed on the needs and status of nuclear data for fusion-reactor technology. Generally, the status of nuclear data for fusion has been improved during the past two decades due to the dedicated effort of the nuclear data developers. However, there are still deficiencies in the nuclear data base, particularly in the areas of activation and neutron scattering cross sections. Activation cross sections were found to be unsatisfactory in 83 of the 153 reactions reviewed. The scattering cross sections for fluorine and boron will need to be improved at energies above 1 MeV. Suggestions concerning a strategy to address the specific fusion nuclear data needs for dosimetry and activation are also provided.

  1. A review of nuclear data needs and their status for fusion reactor technology with some suggestions on a strategy to satisfy the requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Cheng, E.T.

    1991-09-01

    A review was performed on the needs and status of nuclear data for fusion-reactor technology. Generally, the status of nuclear data for fusion has been improved during the past two decades due to the dedicated effort of the nuclear data developers. However, there are still deficiencies in the nuclear data base, particularly in the areas of activation and neutron scattering cross sections. Activation cross sections were found to be unsatisfactory in 83 of the 153 reactions reviewed. The scattering cross sections for fluorine and boron will need to be improved at energies above 1 MeV. Suggestions concerning a strategy to address the specific fusion nuclear data needs for dosimetry and activation are also provided

  2. Status and prospects of exploration and exploitation key technologies of the deep petroleum resources in onshore China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genshun Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, China's deep oil and gas exploration and exploitation have developed rapidly. Technological advancements have played an important role in the rapid exploration and highly efficient development. Aimed at the complex engineering geological environment of deep oil and gas in China, this paper has combined the four technological systems that have made significant progress, mainly including: (1 seismic imaging and reservoir prediction techniques for deep–burial complex structures, includign “2W1S” technique (wide-band, wide azimuth, and small bin, RTM (Reverse Time Migration, integrated modeling technology for complex structures and variable velocity mapping technique, improving structural interpretation accuracy, ensuring high precision ofimaging, and prediction for deep geological bodies; (2 deep speed raising and efficiency drilling technology series, which significantly improved the drilling speed, in turn reduced the drilling cost and drilling risk; (3 development of a deep high-temperature and high-pressure logging technology series, which provided a guarantee for the accurate identification of reservoir properties and fluid properties; (4 the efficient development technology for deep reservoirs, especially the development and maturity of the reconstruction volume technology, improve the production of single well and the benefit of deep oil and gas development. This paper further points out the improvement direction of the four major technology series of deep oil based on the analysis of the current development of the four major technological systems. Moreover, the development of applicability and economy for technical system is the key to realize high efficiency and low-cost exploration and development of deep oil and gas. Keywords: Deep oil & gas, Exploration and exploitation technologies, Seismic, Logging, Drilling, Petroleum reservoir stimulation

  3. Elevance of PCDD/PCDF formation for the evaluation of POPs destruction technologies - Necessity and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) states in Article 6 that POPs waste should be destroyed or disposed of in a way that the POPs content is destroyed or irreversibly transformed. In this context it is critical that the destruction methods used do not create by-products that are themselves POPs. Therefore one important criterion for assessment of a POPs destruction technology is the potential formation of POPs and other toxic by-products, in particular if higher toxic PCDDs/PCDFs are formed and under which operation conditions their formation is relevant (for the respective POPs destruction technology). A detailed evaluation of non-combustion technologies with respect to PCDD/PCDF formation is lacking to date. Most information with respect to PCDD/PCDF formation in non-combustion technologies in the present stage of evaluation is provided by the companies developing or selling the facility. In a laboratory study it was discovered that super critical water oxidation (SCWO), a technology listed from United Nations Environmental Programme UNEP as ''Commercialised Technology with Considerable Experience'' and from United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) as ''Emerging and Innovative Technologies'', has the potential to form high concentrations of PCDFs (in the % range) during PCB destruction. Such elevated PCDF formations might occur even at temperatures of potential application. This highlights the necessity of a more rigorous assessment of non-combustion technologies with respect to their PCDD/PCDF formation potential and their actual applicability for PCB/POPs destruction. The present paper provides a critical impulse in this respect, discusses the relevant formation pathways with respect to POPs destruction technologies and proposes a basic framework on how evaluations may be performed.

  4. Development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seher, Holger; Beuth, Thomas; Bracke, Guido; Kock, Ingo; Mayer, Kim-Marisa; Moog, Helge C.; Uhlmann, Stephan; Weyand, Torben

    2016-09-01

    The project ''development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases'' covers the following key aspects: global aspects of the methodology for scenario assumption for the operational phase following closure, potential analysis of the derives safety cases for the project Gorleben, determination of the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes using geochemical modeling calculations, search for an adequate approach for the calculation of density and viscosity of saline solutions for the future use in GRS computer codes, international approaches for an integral analysis for the host rocks clay and granite in relation to the safety requirements of BMUB.

  5. Legal status of minister's notices and technology standards of 'Korea institute of nuclear safety'(KINS) to regulate nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. K.; Jung, M. M.; Kim, S. W.; Jang, K. H.; Oh, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    Concerning nuclear safety or technology standards, each of 'notices' issued by minister of science and technology(MOST) empowered by law of its regulation is obviously forceful as a law, if not all. But the standards made by the chief of Korea institute of nuclear safety(KINS) to meet the tasks entrusted to KINS by MOST is only conditionally forceful as a law, that is, on the condition that law or regulation empowered the chief of KINS to make nuclear safety and/or technology standards

  6. The status of training and education in information and computer technology of Australian nurses: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Robert; Fallon, Tony; Soar, Jeffrey; Buikstra, Elizabeth; Hegney, Desley

    2008-10-01

    A study was undertaken of the current knowledge and future training requirements of nurses in information and computer technology to inform policy to meet national goals for health. The role of the modern clinical nurse is intertwined with information and computer technology and adoption of such technology forms an important component of national strategies in health. The majority of nurses are expected to use information and computer technology during their work; however, the full extent of their knowledge and experience is unclear. Self-administered postal survey. A 78-item questionnaire was distributed to 10,000 Australian Nursing Federation members to identify the nurses' use of information and computer technology. Eighteen items related to nurses' training and education in information and computer technology. Response rate was 44%. Computers were used by 86.3% of respondents as part of their work-related activities. Between 4-17% of nurses had received training in each of 11 generic computer skills and software applications during their preregistration/pre-enrolment and between 12-30% as continuing professional education. Nurses who had received training believed that it was adequate to meet the needs of their job and was given at an appropriate time. Almost half of the respondents indicated that they required more training to better meet the information and computer technology requirements of their jobs and a quarter believed that their level of computer literacy was restricting their career development. Nurses considered that the vast majority of employers did not encourage information and computer technology training and, for those for whom training was available, workload was the major barrier to uptake. Nurses favoured introduction of a national competency standard in information and computer technology. For the considerable benefits of information and computer technology to be incorporated fully into the health system, employers must pay more attention

  7. Status and trends of nuclear technologies - Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Additional information (Companion CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in the year 2000, based on a resolution by the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO intends to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available in the 21st century in a sustainable manner, and seeks to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider, jointly, actions to achieve desired innovations. INPRO is taking care of the specific needs of developing countries. This IAEA publication is part of Phase 1 of INPRO. It intends to provide an overview on history, present situation and future perspectives of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. While this overview focuses on technical issues, nevertheless, the aspects of economics, environment, and safety and proliferation resistance are important background issues for this study. After a brief description about the INPRO project and an evaluation of existing and future reactor designs the publication covers nuclear fuel cycle issues in detail. It is expected that this documentation will provide IAEA Member States and their nuclear engineers and designers, as well as policy makers with useful information on status and trends of future nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Due to the size of the full report it was decided to attach a CD-ROM in the back of the summary report

  8. Status of NDE research in the US-contributions of NDE to reactor safety and implementation of NDE technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammirato, F. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Power plant designers, plant owners, and regulators have developed inservice inspection (ISI) programs as part of their comprehensive approach to ensuring nuclear safety. This paper examines the role of ISI in reactor safety through several examples drawn from recent industry initiatives to address implementation of effective examination technology for nuclear power plant piping, and BWR and PWR reactor pressure vessels. These examples also illustrate the importance of well designed performance demonstration activities to support application of effective ISI. Finally, the efforts required to implement effective ISI technology for field inspection is addressed. (orig./DGE)

  9. Present status of technology development on decommissioning and waste management in Nuclear Cycle Backend Directorate. Progress in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kuniaki; Ishigami, Tsutomu; Funabashi, Hideyuki; Meguro, Yoshihiro; Tachibana, Mitsuo

    2010-11-01

    It is an important issue to take measures against the matters on decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities and management of low-level radioactive waste arising from research activities and operation of nuclear facilities, and the measures must be taken with rational way by ensuring the safety. As the development, improvement, and proper deployment of technologies will be key factors, a technology development program is under way in Nuclear Cycle Backend Directorate taking account of these matters in cooperation with research and development institutes/centers in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The technology development items are selected from the viewpoints of systematic implementation of measures and cost reduction; these include the development of computer systems for planning and evaluation of decommissioning programs, supercritical CO 2 fluid leaching method for decontamination, nitrate-ion degradation method, simple and rapid determination method for radioactivity of radioactive waste, safety assessment for waste disposal and so on. This report describes outline and progress of the technology development program conducted in FY2009 by the research and development unit. (author)

  10. OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY, PRESENT STATUS, AND FUTURE DIRECTION OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology processes are currently being utilized in the United States to treat inorganic and organic hazardous waste and radioactive waste. These wastes are generated from operating industry or have resulted from the uncontrolled management of ...

  11. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  12. Current status and future prospects for enabling chemistry technology in the drug discovery process [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan W. Djuric

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This review covers recent advances in the implementation of enabling chemistry technologies into the drug discovery process. Areas covered include parallel synthesis chemistry, high-throughput experimentation, automated synthesis and purification methods, flow chemistry methodology including photochemistry, electrochemistry, and the handling of “dangerous” reagents. Also featured are advances in the “computer-assisted drug design” area and the expanding application of novel mass spectrometry-based techniques to a wide range of drug discovery activities.

  13. Development status on hydrogen production technology using high-temperature gas-cooled reactor at JAEA, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Shusaku; Ogawa, Masuro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2006-01-01

    The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which is graphite-moderated and helium-cooled, is attractive due to its unique capability of producing high temperature helium gas and its fully inherent reactor safety. In particular, hydrogen production using the nuclear heat from HTGR (up to 900 deg. C) offers one of the most promising technological solutions to curb the rising level of CO 2 emission and resulting risk of climate change. The interests in HTGR as an advanced nuclear power source for the next generation reactor, therefore, continue to rise. This is represented by the Japanese HTTR (High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) Project and the Chinese HTR-10 Project, followed by the international Generation IV development program, US nuclear hydrogen initiative program, EU innovative HTR technology development program, etc. To enhance nuclear energy application to heat process industries, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has continued extensive efforts for development of hydrogen production system using the nuclear heat from HTGR in the framework of the HTTR Project. The HTTR Project has the objectives of establishing both HTGR technology and heat utilization technology. Using the HTTR constructed at the Oarai Research and Development Center of JAEA, reactor performance and safety demonstration tests have been conducted as planned. The reactor outlet temperature of 950 deg. C was successfully achieved in April 2004. For hydrogen production as heat utilization technology, R and D on thermo-chemical water splitting by the 'Iodine-Sulfur process' (IS process) has been conducted step by step. Proof of the basic IS process was made in 1997 on a lab-scale of hydrogen production of 1 L/h. In 2004, one-week continuous operation of the IS process was successfully demonstrated using a bench-scale apparatus with hydrogen production rate of 31 L/h. Further test using a pilot scale facility with greater hydrogen production rate of 10 - 30 m 3 /h is planned as

  14. Status and Benefits of Renewable Energy Technologies in the Rural Areas of Ethiopia: A Case Study on Improved Cooking Stoves and Biogas Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Ethiopia’s people (85% reside in rural areas, deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Ethiopia’s energy system is characterized mainly by biomass fuel supply, with households being the greatest energy consumers. The household sector takes up nearly 94 % of the total energy supplies. Access to energy resources and technologies in rural Ethiopia is highly constrained which makes the energy supply and consumption pattern of the country to show many elements of un-sustainability. The concern on cooking practices, household economics, health, forest and agricultural resource management, and global greenhouse gas emissions has emerged as a transformative opportunity to improve individual lives, livelihoods, and the global environment. More decentralized renewable energy projects could play an important role in mitigating traditional biomass fuel use. Improved cooking stove (ICS dissemination projects have been launched involving the private sector in the production and commercialization of the stoves. In doing so, about 3.7 million ICSs have been disseminated in the country so far which benefited stove users, producers and the total environment as about 30 million hectare of forest per year can be conserved. Conversion of animal waste to biogas energy to replace traditional fuel and use of the slurry as a fertilizer is the other current focus of the government of Ethiopia and installed more than 860 biogas digesters. The benefits obtained from these technologies are considerable and promising. However, the programs are not that much benefited the rural households where it had been intended to address. So, due attention should be given for those of the rural households in order to address the fuel wood crisis, environmental degradation and their health condition.

  15. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  16. Computer analyses for the design, operation and safety of new isotope production reactors: A technology status review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented on the currently available technologies for nuclear reactor analyses by computer. The important distinction is made between traditional computer calculation and advanced computer simulation. Simulation needs are defined to support the design, operation, maintenance and safety of isotope production reactors. Existing methods of computer analyses are categorized in accordance with the type of computer involved in their execution: micro, mini, mainframe and supercomputers. Both general and special-purpose computers are discussed. Major computer codes are described, with regard for their use in analyzing isotope production reactors. It has been determined in this review that conventional systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5, RETRAN, etc.) cannot meet four essential conditions for viable reactor simulation: simulation fidelity, on-line interactive operation with convenient graphics, high simulation speed, and at low cost. These conditions can be met by special-purpose computers (such as the AD100 of ADI), which are specifically designed for high-speed simulation of complex systems. The greatest shortcoming of existing systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5) is their mismatch between very high computational efforts and low simulation fidelity. The drift flux formulation (HIPA) is the viable alternative to the complicated two-fluid model. No existing computer code has the capability of accommodating all important processes in the core geometry of isotope production reactors. Experiments are needed (heat transfer measurements) to provide necessary correlations. It is important for the nuclear community, both in government, industry and universities, to begin to take advantage of modern simulation technologies and equipment. 41 refs

  17. Screening, early detection, education, and trends for melanoma: current status (2007-2013) and future directions: Part I. Epidemiology, high-risk groups, clinical strategies, and diagnostic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jonathan E; Swetter, Susan M; Fu, Teresa; Geller, Alan C

    2014-10-01

    While most cancers have shown both decreased incidence and mortality over the past several decades, the incidence of melanoma has continued to grow, and mortality has only recently stabilized in the United States and in many other countries. Certain populations, such as men >60 years of age and lower socioeconomic status groups, face a greater burden from disease. For any given stage and across all ages, men have shown worse melanoma survival than women, and low socioeconomic status groups have increased levels of mortality. Novel risk factors can help identify populations at greatest risk for melanoma and can aid in targeted early detection. Risk assessment tools have been created to identify high-risk patients based on various factors, and these tools can reduce the number of patients needed to screen for melanoma detection. Diagnostic techniques, such as dermatoscopy and total body photography, and new technologies, such as multispectral imaging, may increase the accuracy and reliability of early melanoma detection. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Current Status of the Transmutation Reactor Technology and Preliminary Evaluation of Transmutation Performance of the KALIMER Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeong Il; Kim, Young Gyum; Lee, Byung Woon; Song, Hoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Jang, Jin Wook; Lee, Dong Uk

    2005-08-15

    Recently the most countries using the nuclear power plants for electricity generation have been faced with the problem of the preparation of the repository for the disposition of the nuclear waste generated from LWR. It was well-known that the issues related with long term risk of the radioactive wastes for the future generations are due only to 1% of the total waste. This small fraction of 1% consists of transuranic (TRU) nuclides such as Pu, Np, Am, Cm and the long lived fission products such as Tc and I. For the transuranic (TRU) nuclides, their half lives range from several years to several hundred thousands years and hence their radioactive toxicity can be lasted over very long time period. This has made the change of the rule of the fast spectrum reactor from the economical use of uranium resource through breeding to the reduction of the nuclear waste through the transmutation. The purpose of this study is to obtain the basic knowledge on the nuclear transmutation technology and to suggest the technical solution ways for the future technology development and enhancement through a survey of the state-of-art of the international research on the nuclear transmutation. The increase of the transmutation rate requires the reduction of the breeding ratio. In fact, the transmutation rate is determined by the breeding ratio. The reduction of the breeding ratio can be achieved by reducing the U-238 content in fuel or increasing the neutron leakage through core boundary or absorbing the neutrons by using some absorbers. However, the reduction of the U-238 content results in the degradation of the fuel Doppler coefficient that is one of the most important safety-related parameters and the reduction of the effective delayed neutron fraction that is related with the controllability of the reactor core. Also, the increase of the transmutation rate can lead to the increase of the coolant void reactivity worth unless some ways to reduce the coolant void reactivity are not

  19. Safeguarding uranium enrichment facilities. Review and analysis of the status of safeguards technology for uranium enrichment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine critically the diversion potential at uranium enrichment facilities and to outline a basic safeguards strategy which counters all identified hazards as completely as possible yet with a minimum of non-essential redundancy. Where existing technology does not appear to be adequate for effective safeguards, the limitations are examined, and suggestions for further R and D effort are made. Parts of this report are generally applicable to all currently known enrichment processes, while other parts are specifically directed toward facilities based on the gas centrifuge process. It is hoped that additional sections discussing a safeguards strategy for gas diffusion facilities can be added later. It should be emphasized that this is a technical report, and does not reflect any legal positions. The safeguards strategy and subsequent inspection procedures are intended as guidelines, not as negotiating positions

  20. Current status of JAERI program on development of ultra-trace-analytical technology for safeguards environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T.; Usuda, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In order to contribute to the strengthened safeguards system based on the Program 93+2 of the IAEA, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is developing analytical technology for ultra-trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples, and constructed the CLEAR facility (Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research) for this purpose. The development of the technology is carried out, at existing laboratories for time being, in the following fields: screening, bulk analysis and particle analysis. The screening aims at estimating the amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples to be introduced into the clean rooms, and is the first step to avoid cross-contamination among the samples and contamination of the clean rooms themselves. In addition to ordinary radiation spectrometry, Compton suppression technique was applied to low energy γ- and X-ray measurements, and sufficient reduction in background level has been demonstrated. Another technique in examination is imaging-plate method, which is a kind of autoradiography and suitable for determination of radioactive-particle distribution in the samples as well as for semiquantitative determination. As for the bulk analysis, the efforts are temporally made on uranium in swipe samples. Preliminary examination for optimization of sample pre-treatment conditions is in progress. At present, ashing by low-temperature-plasma method gives better results than high-temperature ashing or acid leaching. For the isotopic ratio measurement, instrumental performance of inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are mainly examined because sample preparation for ICP-MS is simpler than that for thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). It was found by our measurement that the swipe material (TexWipe TX304, usually used by IAEA) contains un-negligible uranium blank with large deviation (2-6 ng/sheet). This would introduce significant uncertainty in the trace analysis. JAERI

  1. Study on the status of breast and prostate cancers in Gazira State using (CA-15-3 and PSA) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elgadir, O.M.

    2007-06-01

    This study was conducted in Algezira State in two environmentally and economically different areas. The people in these areas were divided into two groups in the study: group (A) people who live alongside the Blue Nile bank. Group people who live away how the Blue Nile, I e in midland between the Blue Nile and White Nile which is called (AI-Bajour). The aim of the study was to recognize the normal rate of breast cancer markers(Carbohydrate Antigen 15-3), which is one of the most common cancers, and the prostate cancer (Prostate Cancer Markers), as compared with the global normal rate, in order to early detect and treat these types of cancers. The study was conducted on 336 men and 304 women, who are different in ages, work and social status. The researcher used an experimental, descriptive and analytical method, and the SPSS program for analysis. The study showed that the results of normal rate as compared with previous studies are typical to the breast cancer markers (carbohydrate antigen 15-3, ranging between (0-40) ngm/ml, where as the normal rate of the prostate cancer markers (PSA) ranges between (0-4) ngm/ml, and according to the previous African and American studies. The studies also showed that the results are different according to the group are different according to the group involved. There is an increase in normal rates of group (A) in the PSA markers. From 177 men, 49 had rated of (4-10) ng/ml, 6 had very high rates (10-20)ng/ml and extremely high rates of 2 samples (>20)ng/ml. It was noticed that the abnormal increase rate is directly proportional to the age development. The study showed high results of breast cancer markers (Carbohydrate antigen 15-3), as compared with the global normal rate (0-40)ng/ml, 6 had very high rates (60-100)ng/ml and extremely high rates (>100)ng/ml. Two women of uterus cancer died. Again the abnormal increase in the rates is directly proportional to age development. The study showed that the results of group (B) is

  2. Republic of China (Taiwan) [Status and technology of polymer-containing fibrous materials in the Eastern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ung-Ping [Radioisotope Laboratory, Union Industrial Research Institute, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan (China)

    1968-10-15

    Research Institute (UIRI) sponsored by the Government of the Republic of China. A detailed description of the status of production of polymer-containing fibrous materials in Taiwan is given here and covers four typical industries including plywood, wood-particle-board, wood-fibre-board and bagasse-board, respectively.

  3. Process Design and Costing of Bioethanol Technology: A Tool for Determining the Status and Direction of Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley; Ruth; Glassner; Sheehan

    1999-10-01

    Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the U.S. Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. We use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help us understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on our latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Our analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

  4. Development of the plant life management technology for RPV steels [ - Current status of surveillance test specimen reconstitution program -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazunobu, Sakamoto; Eliichiro, Otsuka; Yoshiaki, Oka; Kosei, Taguchi; Michiyoshi, Yamamoto

    2001-01-01

    In order to develop the reconstitution technology to standardize surveillance test specimen reconstitution practices to deal with the extended service life of reactor pressure vessels, the Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carried out the project entrusted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). We focus on a correlation between the reduction of absorbed energy and the interaction of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the plastic zone, to establish applicable reconstitution conditions for Charpy specimens. The relationship between the plastic zone width and the absorbed energy has been obtained by estimating the plastic zone width from the hardness distribution of the Charpy specimens. Impact tests of reconstituted specimens with 10 mm-length insert using the surface activated joining method were performed and the test results were compared to those obtained by the standard specimens. By comparing the length of insert material to the sum of HAZ width and plastic zone width, it is clear that the interaction causes the reduction of the absorbed energy. Hence, the applicable conditions of reconstituted Charpy specimens could be assessed by comparing the insert length to the sum of HAZ width and plastic zone width. Moreover the effects of the possible deviations from the standard shape and size specimens for the reconstituted specimens were studied. (authors)

  5. Status Of The Development Of In-Tank/At-Tank Separations Technologies For High-Level Waste Processing For The U.S. Department Of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, G.; Wilmarth, B.

    2011-01-01

    Within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development, the Office of Waste Processing manages a research and development program related to the treatment and disposition of radioactive waste. At the Savannah River (South Carolina) and Hanford (Washington) Sites, approximately 90 million gallons of waste are distributed among 226 storage tanks (grouped or collocated in 'tank farms'). This waste may be considered to contain mixed and stratified high activity and low activity constituent waste liquids, salts and sludges that are collectively managed as high level waste (HLW). A large majority of these wastes and associated facilities are unique to the DOE, meaning many of the programs to treat these materials are 'first-of-a-kind' and unprecedented in scope and complexity. As a result, the technologies required to disposition these wastes must be developed from basic principles, or require significant re-engineering to adapt to DOE's specific applications. Of particular interest recently, the development of In-tank or At-Tank separation processes have the potential to treat waste with high returns on financial investment. The primary objective associated with In-Tank or At-Tank separation processes is to accelerate waste processing. Insertion of the technologies will (1) maximize available tank space to efficiently support permanent waste disposition including vitrification; (2) treat problematic waste prior to transfer to the primary processing facilities at either site (i.e., Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) or Savannah River's Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF)); and (3) create a parallel treatment process to shorten the overall treatment duration. This paper will review the status of several of the R and D projects being developed by the U.S. DOE including insertion of the ion exchange (IX) technologies, such as Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at Savannah River. This has the potential to align the

  6. Status of Closure Welding Technology of Canister for Transportation and Storage of High Level Radioactive Material and Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. J.; Bang, K. S.; Seo, K. S.; Seo, C. S.

    2010-10-01

    Closure seal welding is one of the key technologies in fabricating and handling the canister which is used for transportation and storage of high radioactive material and waste. Simple industrial fabrication processes are used before filling the radioactive waste into the canister. But, automatic and remote processes should be used after filling the radioactive material because the thickness of canister is not sufficient to shield the high radiation from filled material or waste. In order to simplify the welding process the closure structure of canister and the sealing method are investigated and developed properly. Two types of radioactive materials such as vitrified waste and compacted solid waste are produced in nuclear industry. Because the filling method of two types of waste is different, the shapes of closure and opening of canister and welding method is also different. The canister shape and sealing method should be standardized to standardize the handling facilities and inspection process such as leak test after closure welding. In order to improve the productivity of disposal and compatibility of the canister, the structure and shape of canister should be standardized considering the type of waste. Two kind of welding process such as arc welding and resistance welding are reported and used in the field. In the arc welding process GTAW and PAW are considered proper processes for closure welding. The closure seal welding process can be selected by considering material of canister, thickness of body, productivity, and applicable codes and rules. Because the storage time of nuclear waste in canister is very long, at least 20 years, the long-time corrosion at the weld should be estimated including mechanical integrity. Recently, the mitigation of residual stress around weld region, which causes stress corrosion cracking, is also interesting research issue

  7. Paging Doctor Google! Heuristics vs. technology [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/113

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenar D Jhaveri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The most dramatic development in medical decision-making technology has been the advent of the Internet. This has had an impact not only on clinicians, but has also become an important resource for patients who often approach their doctors with medical information they have obtained from the Internet.  Increasingly, medical students, residents and attending physicians have been using the Internet as a tool for diagnosing and treating disease. Internet-based resources that are available take various forms, including informational websites, online journals and textbooks, and social media.  Search engines such as Google have been increasingly used to help in making diagnoses of disease entities. Do these search methods fare better than experienced heuristic methods? In a small study, we examined the comparative role of heuristics versus the 'Google' mode of thinking. Internal medicine residents were asked to “google” key words to come up with a diagnosis. Their results were compared to experienced nephrology faculty and fellows in training using heuristics and no additional help of internet. Overall, with the aid of Google, the novices (internal medicine residents correctly diagnosed renal diseases less often than the experts (the attendings but with the same frequency as the intermediates (nephrology fellows.  However, in a subgroup analysis of both common diseases and rare diseases, the novices correctly diagnosed renal diseases less often than the experts but more often than the intermediates in each analysis.  The novices correctly diagnosed renal diseases with the same frequency as nephrology fellows in training.

  8. Dose management in radiology. Review of the technological status; Dosismanagement in der Radiologie. Ein Ueberblick zum Stand der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verius, M. [LKH Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    The Euratom directive 2013/59 (''EU directive for radiation protection'') has to be implemented into national law by spring 2018 and requires a complete recording of patient dosages and relevant parameters. Additionally, a medical physics expert has to be consulted for each radiological examination above a defined threshold. A complete recording of the dosage administered from all modalities and optimization of the radiological procedures should result in a reduction of the total dosage. This can be achieved by automated systems that incorporate not only the detection of the dose parameters but also the evaluation and analysis of these data. When provided with warning levels such a system should be able to inform or warn the operator when dose thresholds have been exceeded or even better inform the operator about possible excess dosages before an examination. Depending on the information provided by the modality, dose management systems can operate at different levels in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS), radiological and hospital information systems (RIS/HIS) or with the header information of a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) image and evaluate and analyze this data. A practicable use of such systems is only possible by close cooperation of medical personnel, medical physicists and information technology (IT) administrators. Various systems are available commercially or free but an individual adaptation of these systems is useful and necessary, depending on the requirements of the radiology practice or hospital. (orig.) [German] Die Euratom-Richtlinie 2013/59 (''EU-Richtlinie zum Strahlenschutz'') besagt, dass sie bis zum Fruehjahr 2018 in nationales Recht der Mitgliedstaaten umgesetzt werden muss, d. h. eine lueckenlose Erfassung der Patientendosen zu erfolgen hat. Ausserdem muss zu jeder Modalitaet in einem bestimmten Ausmass ein Medizinphysikexperte hinzugezogen werden. Die

  9. Loose-parts monitoring: present status of the technology, its implementation in U.S. reactors, and some recommendations for achieving improved performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.; Ricker, C.W.; Jones, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the technical development status of loose-parts monitoring systems (LPMS) and their performance record to data in commercial light-water-cooled nuclear reactor plants was made during the spring of 1977, using an on-site personal interview and equipment demonstration approach. The study revealed that while presently demonstrated LPMS technology does indeed provide a capability for detecting the presence of those relatively massive loose parts that would likely constitute a serious operational or safety hazard to the plant, it unfortunately affords little information useful to the determination of the parts' safety significance and has not yet attained the levels of sophistication and reliability ordinarily associated with safety systems. A definite need was found for specification of the functional requirements for LPMS, in the form of a clear and comprehensive statement of NRC policy regarding the formulation and implementation of safety-oriented, yet operationally practicable, loose-parts monitoring programs for both existing and future nuclear generating stations so that overall objectives of both the utilities and the regulatory agency might be satisfied simultaneously

  10. Proceedings of the symposium on the joint research project between JAERI and Universities. Status and perspective of the advanced radiation technology project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the Proceedings of the Symposium on the Joint Research Project between JAERI and Universities -Status and Perspective of the Advanced Radiation Technology Project-, held at Tokyo on January 27, 1999. After a series of conferences which had been held at the second or third year to present the main activities of this unique collaborative project system, the symposium was particularly focused on critical reviewing of the project and on its future. The scientific papers presented were the recent achievements in the themes: 1) nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear materials science with an isotope separator on-line; 2) radiation shielding and nuclear data for use of accelerators; 3) materials analysis methods using ion beams; 4) microstructure in polymer materials irradiated with ions; 5) effects of transmutation products in fusion-reactor materials; 6) physiological study of plants using positron-emitting isotopes. The new theme titled 'Development and application of micro PIXE analysis in the atmospheric pressure' was proposed. Eight panelists discussed the future of the project. The 17 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-07-15

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance.

  12. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance

  13. Assessing the Impact and Effectiveness of the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program. Survey Results 2004. Volume III: Status of ATE Projects and Articulation Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryn, Chris L.; Gullickson, Arlen R.; Hanssen, Carl E.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program is a federally funded program designed to educate technicians for the high-technology disciplines that drive the United State's economy. As stated in the ATE program guidelines, this program promotes improvement in technological education at the undergraduate and secondary school levels by…

  14. Status of fusion maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission

  15. The Competitive status of the U.S. civil aviation manufacturing industry: a study of the influences of technology in determining international industrial competitive advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seitz, Frederick; Steele, Lowell W

    1985-01-01

    ... A Study of the Influences of Technology in Determining International Industrial Competitive Advantage Prepared by the U.S. Civil Aviation Manufacturing Industry Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering and the Commission on Engineering and Techni...

  16. NASA Armstrong Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Armstrong (formerly Dryden) Flight Research Center continues it's legacy of exciting work in the area of dynamics and control of advanced vehicle concepts. This status presentation highlights the research and technology development that Armstrong's Control and Dynamics branch is performing in the areas of Control of Flexible Structures and Automated Cooperative Trajectories.

  17. Technology roadmaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of a technology road map is to define the state of a current technology, relevant market issues, and future market needs; to develop a plan that industry can follow to provide these new products and services; and to map technology pathways and performance goals for bringing these products and services to market. The three stages (planning, implementation, and reviewing and updating), benefits, and status of the Clean Coal Technology Roadmap are outlined. Action Plan 2000, a $1.7 million 2000 Climate Change Technology and Innovation Program, which uses the technology roadmapping process, is described. The members of the management steering committee for the Clean Coal Technology Roadmap are listed. A flowsheet showing activities until November 2004, when the final clean coal road map is due, is included.

  18. 手机技术现状及发展局限性%Mobile Phone Technology Status and Development Limitations Sexual

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁丽华

    2013-01-01

    Guangzhou new communications equipment limited company The technology continues to update promoted constantly update and progress of the mobile phone, mobile phone technology have gradually been widespread concern, At the same time, the development of mobile phone technology provides strong support for the progress of society. This article the author analyzes the current situation of the development of mobile phone technology, and then explore the limitations of the development of mobile phone technology, and the healthy development of the mobile phone technology strategy put forward some proposals, in order to provide guidance and reference for the development of mobile phone technology%  技术的不断更新促进了手机的不断更新和进步,手机技术逐渐受到人们的普遍关注,同时,手机技术的发展为社会的进步提供了有力的支持。对手机技术的发展现状进行了分析,探讨了手机技术发展的局限性,并对手机技术的健康发展策略提出了一些建议,以便为手机技术的发展提供指导和借鉴。

  19. Health technology assessment (HTA): a brief introduction of history and the current status in the field of cardiology under the economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2015-08-01

    In a time of economic recession health technology assessment is an established aid in decision making in many countries in order to identify cost-containment policy options. Moreover, as the volume, complexity, and cost of new medical technology increases, the need for evaluating benefits, risks and costs becomes increasingly important. In recent years there has been a proliferation of health technology assessment initiatives internationally, aimed in introducing rationality in the decision-making process, informing reimbursement, providing clinical guidance on the use of medical technologies across the world in an evidence-based decision-making environment and in pricing decisions. © 2015 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Development of inherent technologies for advanced PWR core - A study on the current status and the construction feasibility of critical facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik; Yang, Hyun Seok [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea); Kim, Chang Hyo; Shim, Hyung Jin [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the appropriateness of constructing critical facilities in our country and to decide a course of constructing them if necessary by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. We investigated the status and the utilization of foreign critical facilities through literature survey and personal visitation. In our judgement, critical facilities are necessary for developing the advanced reactors and fuels which are being studied as parts of the Nuclear R and D Program by MOST. Considering the construction cost and the current state of domestic economy, however, it is unjustifiable to build three different types of critical facilities (the light water, the heavy water, and the fast critical facility). It appears to be reasonable to build a light water critical, considering the construction cost, degree of utilization, and other constraints. (author). 89 refs., 134 figs., 64 tabs.

  1. Current status, research needs, and opportunities in applications of surface processing to transportation and utilities technologies. Proceedings of a December 1991 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Landgrebe, A.R. [eds.

    1992-09-01

    Goal of surface processing is to develop innovative methods of surface modification and characterization for optimum performance and environmental protection for cost-effective operational lifetimes of systems, materials, and components used in transportation and utilities. These proceedings document the principal discussions and conclusions reached at the workshop; they document chapters about the current status of surface characterization with focus on composition, structure, bonding, and atomic-scale topography of surfaces. Also documented are chapters on the current status of surface modification techniques: electrochemical, plasma-aided, reactive and nonreactive physical vapor deposition, sol-gel coatings, high-energy ion implantation, ion-assisted deposition, organized molecular assemblies, solar energy. Brief chapters in the appendices document basic research in surface science by NSF, Air Force, and DOE. Participants at the workshop were invited to serve on 10 working groups. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base where appropriate.

  2. Status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensiek, AE; Absalom, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Status epilepticus is defined as epileptic activity that continues for more than 30 minutes as a single seizure or as recurrent seizures without inter-ictal return of consciousness. The seizure activity is usually classified as partial or generalized. Although status epilepticus is an uncommon

  3. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  4. Danish SDHW Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented.......The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented....

  5. [The study of functional status in the perception of visual information depending on the method of technical color mixing on LCD and DLP projectors technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, A G; Osokina, E S; Bukhtiiarov, I V

    2014-10-01

    The case of compare two ways of projection color visual images, characterized by different spatial-temporal characteristics of visual stimuli, presents the methodology and the set of techniques. Received comparative data, identifying risks of regulation disorder of the functional state and development general, mental and visual fatigue during prolonged strenuous visual activity, according to two types of test tasks, which are the most typical for the use of modern projectors to work with the audience, both inthe process of implementation of learning technologies and the collective take responsible decisions by expert groups that control of complex technological processes.

  6. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  7. Status report on compact gasifier cogeneration units in Germany. Applications of the cogeneration gasifier technology; Stand kleintechnischer Vergaser-BHKW-Anlagen in Deutschland. Einsatz der BHKW-Vergasertechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschunke, Tobias; Schuessler, Ingmar; Salomo, Bert [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany); Braekow, Dieter [Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V., Berlin (Germany); Treppe, Konrad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Umwelttechnik

    2010-07-01

    In contrast to biogas, the use of solid biomass with low water content in cogeneration units is lagging several years of development behind. A promising variant is a wood gas engine cogeneration unit. Different energy sources can be combined, e.g. in an Otto engine and a Stirling engine. The authors describe the technology for compact systems. (orig.)

  8. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Latest Status. Declarations/Reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Section 9 thereof specifies the Members that may become party to it [es

  9. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Latest Status. Declarations/Reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Section 9 thereof specifies the Members that may become party to it

  10. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Latest Status. Declarations/Reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Section 9 thereof specifies the Members that may become party to it [fr

  11. The Competitive status of the U.S. auto industry: a study of the influences of technology in determining international industrial competitive advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Automobile Panel of the Committee on Technology; National Research Council Staff

    ... International Industrial Competitive Advantage Prepared by the Automobile Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering and the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council William J. Abernathy, Chairman Kim Clar...

  12. Identification and validation of biomarkers of IgV(H) mutation status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using microfluidics quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzo, Lynne V; Barron, Lynn L; Anderson, Keith; Newman, Rachel J; Wierda, William G; O'brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Luthra, Madan; Talwalkar, Sameer; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Jones, Dan; Keating, Michael J; Coombes, Kevin R

    2007-09-01

    To develop a model incorporating relevant prognostic biomarkers for untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, we re-analyzed the raw data from four published gene expression profiling studies. We selected 88 candidate biomarkers linked to immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IgV(H)) mutation status and produced a reliable and reproducible microfluidics quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array. We applied this array to a training set of 29 purified samples from previously untreated patients. In an unsupervised analysis, the samples clustered into two groups. Using a cutoff point of 2% homology to the germline IgV(H) sequence, one group contained all 14 IgV(H)-unmutated samples; the other contained all 15 mutated samples. We confirmed the differential expression of 37 of the candidate biomarkers using two-sample t-tests. Next, we constructed 16 different models to predict IgV(H) mutation status and evaluated their performance on an independent test set of 20 new samples. Nine models correctly classified 11 of 11 IgV(H)-mutated cases and eight of nine IgV(H)-unmutated cases, with some models using three to seven genes. Thus, we can classify cases with 95% accuracy based on the expression of as few as three genes.

  13. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 9. Current status of surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.A.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Brakke, D.F.; Herlihy, A.T.; Eilers, J.M.

    1990-09-01

    The report is based largely upon the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), augmented by numerous smaller state and university surveys and many detailed watershed studies. In describing the current status of surface waters, the authors go far beyond the description of population statistics, although some of this is necessary, and direct their attention to the interpretation of these data. They address the question of the sources of acidity to surface waters in order to determine the relative importance of acidic deposition compared with other sources, such as naturally produced organic acids and acid mine drainage. They also examine in some detail what they call 'high interest' populations-the specific groups of lakes and streams most likely to be impacted by acidic deposition. The authors then turn to the general question of uncertainty, and finally examine low alkalinity surface waters in several other parts of the world to develop further inferences about the acid-base status of surface waters in the United States

  14. Stock Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data inform the public of the most recent stock status for all stocks (FSSI and non-FSSI) in the fishery management unit contained in a fishery managment plan....

  15. Review of core technologies for development of 2G HTS NMR/MRI magnet: A status report of progress in Korea University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Song

    Full Text Available In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on development of core technologies for 2G HTS NMR/MRI magnets at Korea University. To outperform the current state-of-art NMR/MRI magnet systems, we have developed the following technologies: 1 a REBCO-REBCO superconducting joint for operation of persistent current mode; 2 partial and grease-insulation winding techniques for self-protection of the HTS magnets; 3 pre-shimming to reduce the screening-current-induced-field; and 4 optimization of multi-width winding to minimize conductor consumption and volume of the HTS magnets. The test results demonstrated the feasibility of employing the developed techniques to achieve ultra-high-field and LHe-free 2G NMR/MRI magnets possessing self-protecting feature.

  16. Food traceability systems in China: The current status of and future perspectives on food supply chain databases, legal support, and technological research and support for food safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Mei; Lv, Jun; Gai, Ruoyan; Mei, Lin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of food security has witnessed numerous problems and incidents that have garnered public attention. Given this serious situation, the food traceability system (FTS) has become part of the expanding food safety continuum to reduce the risk of food safety problems. This article reviews a great deal of the related literature and results from previous studies of FTS to corroborate this contention. This article describes the development and benefits of FTS in developed countries like the United States of America (USA), Japan, and some European countries. Problems with existing FTS in China are noted, including a lack of a complete database, inadequate laws and regulations, and lagging technological research into FTS. This article puts forward several suggestions for the future, including improvement of information websites, clarification of regulatory responsibilities, and promotion of technological research.

  17. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates

  18. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-09-26

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  19. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008; La liquefaction du charbon: ou en est-on aujourd'hui? - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel.

  20. Fukushima Daiichi Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA issues regular status reports to the public on the current status of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, including information on environmental radiation monitoring, the status of workers, and current conditions on-site at the plant. The information cited in this report is compiled from official Japanese sources, including the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) through the Japanese Permanent Mission in Vienna and the Cabinet's Office of the Prime Minister. Information is also provided by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), the operator of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

  1. [The impact of nutrient prosperity of the body on the alimentary status of junior high school pupils within the framework of the implementation of health-saving technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setko, A G; Trishina, S P; Timoshenko, E P

    2014-01-01

    In the work there was performed the assessment of the actual nutrition of high school pupils, its impact on the nutritional status and efficiency of the implementation in the modern educational process certified vitamin-mineral complexes as a health-saving component of the optimization of rations. The introduction of additional vitamin-mineral complexes into the food of high school pupils was established to lead to the optimization of nutrition content by most of macro- and micronutrients, which in turn contributed to the increase in the number of children with an adequate supply of the body with vitamins and also contributed to the increase of students with a satisfactory adaptation by 44.3%, cases having sufficient performance reserves by 48.4% and the decrease of the number of children with sharply reduced functional reserves by 4 times.

  2. Battery waste management status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, B.M.; Sabatini, J.C.; Wolsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper consists of a series of slides used in the conference presentation. The topics outlined in the slides are: an overview of battery waste management; waste management of lead acid batteries; lead acid recycling; typical legislation for battery waste; regulatory status in European countries; mercury use in cells; recent trends in Hg and Cd use; impact of batteries to air quality at MSW incinerators; impact of electric vehicles; new battery technologies; and unresolved issues

  3. An art report to analyze research status for the establishment of the space food development and future food system using the advanced food technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun

    2006-12-01

    The quality of food for the astronaut accomplishing the mission in the space is one of the most important matters, and it is time to study and develop Korean space food for the Korean astronaut in the space. Therefore, in the beginning of the space exploration era, it is necessary to establish a national long-term plan and study and develop Korean space food in order to provide food with better quality for the astronaut accomplishing the space mission. Using current food processing, preservation, and packaging technology, it is necessary to develop the Korean space food, provide Korean astronaut studying at the international space station, and study the future space food systems used for the long-term space voyage and planet habitat base in the era of space exploration. Space food is analyzed through nutritional analysis, sensory evaluation, storage studies, packaging evaluations, and many other methods before its final shipment on the space shuttle. Each technology developed for the advanced food system must provide the required attribute to the food system, including safety, nutrition, and acceptability. It is anticipated that the duration of the exploration class missions can be at least 2, 3 years, and one of the biggest challenges for these missions will be to provide acceptable food with a shelf-life of 3-5 years. The development of space food process/preservation technology and its ripple effect will make a contribution to the improvement of nation's international phase, and the developed space food will potentially be used for combat ration and emergency/special food like the U. S. A. In the 21th century of space exploration era, the development of the advanced food system and life support system in the Mars space base as well as the space shuttle will strengthen the capability to precede the future space exploration era

  4. An art report to analyze research status for the establishment of the space food development and future food system using the advanced food technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The quality of food for the astronaut accomplishing the mission in the space is one of the most important matters, and it is time to study and develop Korean space food for the Korean astronaut in the space. Therefore, in the beginning of the space exploration era, it is necessary to establish a national long-term plan and study and develop Korean space food in order to provide food with better quality for the astronaut accomplishing the space mission. Using current food processing, preservation, and packaging technology, it is necessary to develop the Korean space food, provide Korean astronaut studying at the international space station, and study the future space food systems used for the long-term space voyage and planet habitat base in the era of space exploration. Space food is analyzed through nutritional analysis, sensory evaluation, storage studies, packaging evaluations, and many other methods before its final shipment on the space shuttle. Each technology developed for the advanced food system must provide the required attribute to the food system, including safety, nutrition, and acceptability. It is anticipated that the duration of the exploration class missions can be at least 2, 3 years, and one of the biggest challenges for these missions will be to provide acceptable food with a shelf-life of 3-5 years. The development of space food process/preservation technology and its ripple effect will make a contribution to the improvement of nation's international phase, and the developed space food will potentially be used for combat ration and emergency/special food like the U. S. A. In the 21th century of space exploration era, the development of the advanced food system and life support system in the Mars space base as well as the space shuttle will strengthen the capability to precede the future space exploration era

  5. The use of entertainment and communication technologies before sleep could affect sleep and weight status: a population-based study among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Nomathemba; Khan, Kaviul; Loehr, Sarah; Chu, Yen; Veugelers, Paul

    2017-07-19

    Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality have been demonstrated to be associated with childhood obesity. It has been suggested that electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) including TVs, computers, tablets, video games and cell phones interfere with sleep in children and youth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact that the use of EECDs in the hour before bedtime has on sleep and weight status to inform sleep promotion interventions and programs to prevent childhood obesity. A provincially representative sample of 2334 grade 5 children and their parents in Alberta, Canada was surveyed. Parents reported their child's bedtime and wake-up time along with how often their child snored, felt sleepy during the day, woke-up at night and woke-up in the morning feeling unrefreshed. Sleep duration, sleep quality and sleep efficiency were derived from these indicators. Parents also reported on the presence of EECDs in their child's bedroom, while children reported use of EECDs during the day and frequency of using each of these devices during the hour before sleep. The height and weight of children were measured. Multivariable mixed effect linear and logistic regression models were used to determine how sleep duration, sleep quality, sleep efficiency and weight status are influenced by (i) access to EECDs in children's bedrooms, (ii) use of EECDs during the hour before sleep, and (iii) calming activities specifically reading during the hour before sleep. Sleep duration was shorter by -10.8 min (cell phone), -10.2 min (computer) and -7.8 min (TV) for those with bedroom access to and used these EECDs during the hour before sleep compared to no access and no use. Good sleep quality was hindered by bedroom access to and use of all EECDs investigated during the hour before sleep, particularly among users of cell phones (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.58-0.71) and computers (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.65-0.80). Very good sleep efficiency was decreased by access

  6. Development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases; Weiterentwicklung des internationalen Stands von Wissenschaft und Technik zu Methoden und Werkzeugen fuer Betriebs- und Langzeitsicherheitsnachweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seher, Holger; Beuth, Thomas; Bracke, Guido; Kock, Ingo; Mayer, Kim-Marisa; Moog, Helge C.; Uhlmann, Stephan; Weyand, Torben (eds.)

    2016-09-15

    The project ''development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases'' covers the following key aspects: global aspects of the methodology for scenario assumption for the operational phase following closure, potential analysis of the derives safety cases for the project Gorleben, determination of the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes using geochemical modeling calculations, search for an adequate approach for the calculation of density and viscosity of saline solutions for the future use in GRS computer codes, international approaches for an integral analysis for the host rocks clay and granite in relation to the safety requirements of BMUB.

  7. Evaluation of improved technologies for the removal of 90Sr and 137Cs from process wastewater and groundwater: FY 1995 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Burgess, M.W.; McTaggart, D.R.; Taylor, P.A.; Guo, B.

    1996-03-01

    A number of new sorbents are currently being developed for the removal of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from contaminated, caustic low-level liquid waste (LLLW). These sorbents are potentially promising for use in the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and process wastewater containing the two radionuclides. The goal of this subtask is to evaluate the new sorbents to determine whether their associated treatment technology is more selective for the decontamination of wastewater streams than that of currently available processes. Activities during fiscal year 1995 have included completing the characterization of the standard treatment technology, ion exchange on chabazite zeolite. Strontium and cesium sorption on sodium-modified zeolite was observed in the presence of elevated concentrations of wastewater components: sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The most significant loss of nuclide sorption was noted in the first 0- to 4-meq/L addition of the cations to a wastewater simulant. Radionuclide sorption on the pretreated zeolite was also determined under dynamic flow conditions. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, which was developed at the Savannah River Site, was selected as the first new sorbent to be evaluated for wastewater treatment. Nuclide sorption on this resin was greater when the resin had been washed with ultrapure water and air dried prior to use

  8. Status and outlook of CFD technology at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Nagoya. Mitsubishi Meiko ni okeru CFD gijutsu no genjo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanioka, T [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-09-01

    The present and future were reviewed of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technology in Nagoya Works, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan. The progress of the role of CFD in aerodynamic design and progress of CFD technology were reviewed. The followings were illustrated as examples of CFD analysis: design of a main wing for transonic private aircrafts by backward analysis, analysis of an airframe shape for the MU300 jet airplane with a panel method, Navier-stokes (NS) analysis of a transonic wing section, NS analysis of pressure distributions on the surfaces of the YXX airplane and space shuttle HOPE, and NS analysis of an aerodynamic heating distribution for spaceplanes. CFD tools were outlined for every developmental item such as a main wing, and requirements and subjects in practical use were discussed of several CFD tools for a rough check, precise performance check and parametric study. Such computer performance as a main memory capacity and processing speed required for the future practical use of advanced CFD was also discussed. 20 figs.

  9. New technologies, new hazards: Need for evidence base: A report on the health status and safety measures in a biotechnology factory in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhashree V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In highly competitive economies, the fast-paced development of new and improved products and services inevitably spurs the development of new technologies, of which one-fifth growth has been in the biotechnology sector. Advances in technologies provide opportunities to minimize the drudgery of work and to eliminate old hazards, but they may create new currently unrecognized risks to workers. Objectives: To assess the morbidity pattern among workers in the biotechnology industry and also to find out the health and safety measures provided to the workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a biotechnology industry in Bangalore, which covered 779 employees who underwent health examination and blood and urine investigations; of the 779 employees, 600 were permanent employees and 179 were contract employees. Results and Discussion: The common morbidity among the workers included refractory errors; allergic contact dermatitis; hypertension; abnormal pulmonary function tests (61, 10.2%, of which 23 (37.7% were from the production department; high eosinophil count (110, 14.1%. Majority, i.e., 46 (41.8% worked in the production department. The safety measures provided to the workers are adequate, but there is a need to insist on regular use of personal protective devices by newly employed and contract laborers.

  10. "On-off" switchable tool for food sample preparation: merging molecularly imprinting technology with stimuli-responsive blocks. Current status, challenges and highlighted applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raquel; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R; Cabrita, Maria João

    2018-01-01

    Sample preparation still remains a great challenge in the analytical workflow representing the most time-consuming and laborious step in analytical procedures. Ideally, sample pre-treatment procedures must be more selective, cheap, quick and environmental friendly. Molecular imprinting technology is a powerful tool in the development of highly selective sample preparation methodologies enabling to preconcentrate the analytes from a complex food matrix. Actually, the design and development of molecularly imprinted polymers-based functional materials that merge an enhancement of selectivity with a controllable and switchable mode of action by means of specific stimulus constitutes a hot research topic in the field of food analysis. Thus, combining the stimuli responsive mechanism and imprinting technology a new generation of materials are emerging. The application of these smart materials in sample preparation is in early stage of development, nevertheless new improvements will promote a new driven in the demanding field of food sample preparation. The new trends in the advancement of food sample preparation using these smart materials will be presented in this review and highlighted the most relevant applications in this particular area of knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 45 CFR 170.440 - ONC-ATCB status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.440 ONC-ATCB status...

  12. Compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford's compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute

  13. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  14. STATUS REPORT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. STATUS REPORT. Raman scattering observed – 90, 135, 180 degrees and back scattering. Traditionally specific angle dependence to learn about polarization response. Learn molecular information from the surface or materials just below the surface (upto 12 mm depth) ...

  15. Present status of R and D for radioactive waste disposal and expectations for civil engineering in advances of their technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Motoi; Onishi, Yuzo; Yui, Mikazu

    2005-01-01

    About high-level radioactive waste disposal, the general invitation in a voluntary approach for selection of ''preliminary investigation areas'' which is the 1 st step of the stepwise site selection by Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan is started. On the other hand, about low-level radioactive waste disposal, several kinds of investigation for the burial disposal approach of the underground tunnel facility system in about 50-100 m depth below ground surface have been performed for disposing of high βγ radioactive wastes. For carrying forward each disposal project of these radioactive wastes, the integration of the state-of-the-art technology in an interdisciplinary broad research field is indispensable. Especially the role that civil engineering can play in fields, such as investigation, design, development of new materials and performance assessment for underground disposal facility is very large. In this paper, the role and expectation of civil engineering, and the latest trend in the disposal techniques to need an argument to the order of very-long term of longer than 1,000 to 10,000 years which civil engineering have not experienced until now, are described. (author)

  16. Technology Catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for remediating its contaminated sites and managing its waste inventory in a safe and efficient manner. EM's Office of Technology Development (OTD) supports applied research and demonstration efforts to develop and transfer innovative, cost-effective technologies to its site clean-up and waste management programs within EM's Office of Environmental Restoration and Office of Waste Management. The purpose of the Technology Catalogue is to provide performance data on OTD-developed technologies to scientists and engineers assessing and recommending technical solutions within the Department's clean-up and waste management programs, as well as to industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. OTD's applied research and demonstration activities are conducted in programs referred to as Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and Integrated Programs (IPs). The IDs test and evaluate.systems, consisting of coupled technologies, at specific sites to address generic problems, such as the sensing, treatment, and disposal of buried waste containers. The IPs support applied research activities in specific applications areas, such as in situ remediation, efficient separations processes, and site characterization. The Technology Catalogue is a means for communicating the status. of the development of these innovative technologies. The FY93 Technology Catalogue features technologies successfully demonstrated in the field through IDs and sufficiently mature to be used in the near-term. Technologies from the following IDs are featured in the FY93 Technology Catalogue: Buried Waste ID (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho); Mixed Waste Landfill ID (Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico); Underground Storage Tank ID (Hanford, Washington); Volatile organic compound (VOC) Arid ID (Richland, Washington); and VOC Non-Arid ID (Savannah River Site, South Carolina)

  17. Status Epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seinfeld, Syndi; Goodkin, Howard P.; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of seizures are brief and cause no long-term consequences, a subset is sufficiently prolonged that long-term consequences can result. These very prolonged seizures are termed “status epilepticus” (SE) and are considered a neurological emergency. The clinical presentation of SE can be diverse. SE can occur at any age but most commonly occurs in the very young and the very old. There are numerous studies on SE in animals in which the pathophysiology, medication responses, and pathology can be rigorously studied in a controlled fashion. Human data are consistent with the animal data. In particular, febrile status epilepticus (FSE), a form of SE common in young children, is associated with injury to the hippocampus and subsequent temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in both animals and humans. PMID:26931807

  18. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  19. Progress report and technology status development of an EG and G Berthold LB-150 alpha/beta particulate monitor for use on the East Tennessee Technology Park Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, J.T.; Singh, S.P.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Gibson, L.V. Jr. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). ASO Customer Services Div.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify and evaluate a commercially available EG and G Berthold LB-150 alpha-beta radionuclide particulate monitor for the high-temperature and moisture-saturation conditions of the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Site) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator stack. The monitor was originally outfitted for operation at gas temperatures of 150 F on the defunct Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) controlled air incinerator, and the objective was to widen its operating envelope. A laboratory apparatus was constructed that simulated the effects of water-saturated air at the TSCA Incinerator stack-gas temperatures, 183 F. An instrumented set of heat exchangers was constructed to then condition the gas so that the radionuclide monitor could be operated without condensation. Data were collected under the conditions of the elevated temperatures and humidities and are reported herein, and design considerations of the apparatus are provided. The heat exchangers and humidification equipment performed as designed, the Mylar film held, and the instrument suffered no ill effects. However, for reasons as yet undetermined, the sensitivity of the radionuclide detection diminishes as the gas temperature is elevated, whether the gas is humidified or not. The manufacturer has had no experience with (a) the operation of the monitor under these conditions and (b) any commercial market that might exist for an instrument that operates under these conditions. The monitor was not installed into the radiologically contaminated environment of the TSCA Incinerator stack pending resolution of this technical issue.

  20. Progress report and technology status development of an EG and G Berthold LB-150 alpha/beta particulate monitor for use on the East Tennessee Technology Park Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, J.T.; Singh, S.P.N.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify and evaluate a commercially available EG and G Berthold LB-150 alpha-beta radionuclide particulate monitor for the high-temperature and moisture-saturation conditions of the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Site) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator stack. The monitor was originally outfitted for operation at gas temperatures of 150 F on the defunct Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) controlled air incinerator, and the objective was to widen its operating envelope. A laboratory apparatus was constructed that simulated the effects of water-saturated air at the TSCA Incinerator stack-gas temperatures, 183 F. An instrumented set of heat exchangers was constructed to then condition the gas so that the radionuclide monitor could be operated without condensation. Data were collected under the conditions of the elevated temperatures and humidities and are reported herein, and design considerations of the apparatus are provided. The heat exchangers and humidification equipment performed as designed, the Mylar film held, and the instrument suffered no ill effects. However, for reasons as yet undetermined, the sensitivity of the radionuclide detection diminishes as the gas temperature is elevated, whether the gas is humidified or not. The manufacturer has had no experience with (a) the operation of the monitor under these conditions and (b) any commercial market that might exist for an instrument that operates under these conditions. The monitor was not installed into the radiologically contaminated environment of the TSCA Incinerator stack pending resolution of this technical issue

  1. CMS Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L.

    2007-01-01

    The status of the construction and installation of CMS detector is reviewed. The 4T magnet is cold since end of February 2006. Its commissioning up to the nominal field started in July 2006 allowing a Cosmic Challenge in which elements of the final detector are involved. All big mechanical pieces equipped with muons chambers have been assembled in the surface hall SX5. Since mid July the detector is closed with commissioned HCAL, two ECAL supermodules and representative elements of the silicon tracker. The trigger system as well as the DAQ are tested. After the achievement of the physics TDR, CMS is now ready for the promising signal hunting. (author)

  2. Teleradiology - current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltadjiev, D.; Charakchiev

    2000-01-01

    Tele-radiology is a term becoming increasingly popular in the medical literature. Nevertheless, terminological definitions in this particular field are still rather vague. The scope of applications extend from simple image presenting via analogue telephone lines to transmission of 3-D medical images through a satellite. It is a matter of standards highly differing in terms of data transmission rates, safety, technical demands on the systems and the like. In this article new information technologies, technical aspects, as well as some major applications of tele-radiology are discussed. The current status of tele-medicine/tele-radiology in this country is likewise briefly outlined

  3. 1998 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since its creation in 1945, the activities of Cea have been centered on the study and development of the pacific use of nuclear energy and on assuring the credibility of nuclear deterrent. This status report presents the research programs led by Cea in 1998. The main topics are: the designing of reactor cores, fuel cycle, nuclear safety, radiation protection, the activities for defense, high technologies for industry, biology and fundamental sciences. The quality of research work is assured by an independent and regular assessment of the scientific activities. (A.C.)

  4. Status of spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Existing and planned facilities using proton accelerator driven spallation neutron source are reviewed. These include new project of neutron science proposed from Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present status of facility requirement and accelerator technology leads us to new era of neutron science such as neutron scattering research and nuclear transmutation study using very intense neutron source. (author)

  5. Status of advanced technologies for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsett, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The future development of the CANDU reactor is a continuation of a successful series of reactors, the most recent of which are nine CANDU 6 Mk 1* units and four Darlington units. There are three projects underway that continue the development of the CANDU reactor. These new design projects flow from the original reactor designs and are a natural progression of the CANDU 6 Mk 1, two units of which are operating successfully in Canada, one each in Argentina and Korea, with five more being built in Rumania. These new design projects are known as: CANDU 6 Mk 2, an improved version of CANDU 6 Mk 1; CANDU 3, a small, advanced version of the CANDU 6 Mk 1; CANDU 6 Mk 3, a series of advanced CANDU reactors. A short description of modified versions of CANDU reactors is given in this paper. 5 figs

  6. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  7. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION: BASICS AND TECHNOLOGY STATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrokinetic remediation, variably named as electrochemical soil processing, electromigration, electrokinetic decontamination or electroreclamation uses electric currents to extract radionuclides, heavy metals, certain organic compounds, or mixed inorganic species and some orga...

  8. Current status of solid state target technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, David J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    In general radioisotopes fall into two basic groups: those that are neutron rich and those that are neutron deficient. Those that are neutron rich are usually made in a nuclear reactor while those that are neutron deficient are produced by bombarding a suitable target with protons, deuterons or helium particles. Particle accelerators and in particular cyclotrons, were very important in the preparation of radioisotopes during the years of 1935 to the end of World War Two. The amount of radioactive material which could be produced in an accelerator was many times greater than the amount which could be produced using the alpha particles from naturally occurring radioactive elements. After World War Two, reactors were used to produce radioactive elements and the use of accelerators for this purpose became less common. However, as the techniques for using radiotracers became more sophisticated, it became clear that reactor produced radionuclides could not satisfy the growing demands and therefore accelerators were needed to produce new radioisotopes which could be used in new ways. There are three major reasons the accelerator produced radioisotopes are used more widely that reactor produced radionuclides. These are: 1) The radioisotopes produced in a reactor may have unfavorable decay characteristics (particle emission, half-life, gamma rays, etc.) for a particular application. 2) The radioisotope cannot be produced in a reactor with high specific activity. 3) Access to a reactor is limited. The number of reactors available has become many fewer than the number of cyclotrons available to the scientific community, or the radioisotope has too short a half-life to be transported to the site where it is needed. There are a wide variety of nuclear reactions which are used in an accelerator to produce the artificial radioactivity. The bombarding particles are usually protons, deuterons, or helium particles. The energies which are used range from a few MeV to hundreds of MeV. There is a minimum energy required to overcome the Coulomb barrier. Particles with energies below this barrier have a very low probability of reacting

  9. Advanced uranium enrichment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Gas Centrifuge and Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation methods are described. The status and potential of the technologies are summarized, the programs outlined, and the economic incentives are noted. How the advanced technologies, once demonstrated, might be deployed so that SWV costs in the 1990s can be significantly reduced is described

  10. HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0168 HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY Dr. Burhan Bayraktaroglu Devices for Sensing Branch Aerospace Components & Subsystems...Final September 1, 2016 – May 1, 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A...provide a structure for this review. The history and the current status of integration technologies in each category are examined and product examples are

  11. Nuclear technology and societal needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This volume aims to review the present status of development of nuclear technologies and their applications in the country and also to make projections for future requirements. This will also cover state-of-the-art technologies in these areas. The following topics are covered in detail: nuclear technologies for water desalination, water resources development and management using nuclear technology, industrial applications of isotopes and radiation technology, radiation technology in health care, nuclear technology for food preservation, agricultural applications of nuclear technology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. COHERENT Experiment: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, D; Belov, V; Bolozdynya, A; Burenkov, A; Albert, J B; Del Valle Coello, M; D’Onofrio, M; Awe, C; Barbeau, P S; Cervantes, M; Becker, B; Cabrera-Palmer, B; Collar, J I; Cooper, R J; Cooper, R L; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J; Eberhardt, A; Dean, D; Dolgolenko, A G

    2017-01-01

    The COHERENT Collaboration is realizing a long term neutrino physics research program. The main goals of the program are to detect and study elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS). This process is predicted by Standard Model but it has never been observed experimentally because of the very low energy of the recoil nucleus. COHERENT is using different detector technologies: CsI[Na] and NaI scintillator crystals, a single-phase liquid Ar and a Ge detectors. The placement of all the detector setups is in the basement of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The current status of the COHERENT experimental program is presented. (paper)

  13. Status of food irradiation worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1992-01-01

    The past four decades have witnessed the steady development of food irradiation technology - from laboratory-scale research to full-scale commercial application. The present status of this technology, approval for processing food items in 37 countries and commerical use of irradiated food in 24 countries, will be discussed. The trend in the use of irradiation to overcome certain trade barriers such as quarantine and hygiene will be presented. Emphasis will be made on the use of irradiation as an alternative to chemical treatments of food. (orig.) [de

  14. The ATHENA telescope and optics status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ayre, Mark

    2017-01-01

    chosen for ATHENA is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), which hinges on technology spin-in from the semiconductor industry, and uses a modular approach to produce large effective area lightweight telescope optics with a good angular resolution. Both system studies and the technology developments are guided...... by ESA and implemented in industry, with participation of institutional partners. In this paper an overview of the current status of the telescope optics accommodation and technology development activities is provided....

  15. 45 CFR 170.465 - Revocation of authorized testing and certification body status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.465 Revocation of authorized testing and certification body status. (a) Type-1...

  16. Appendix A: Energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The project financial evaluation section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  17. Maintenance technologies for reactor internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kenji [Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Div., Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Masahiro [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Keihin Product Operations; Sano, Yuji; Kimura, Seiichiro [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corp., Tokyo(Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Toshiba places the highest priority on maintenance technologies for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its internals in operating nuclear power plants. This paper summarizes the status of applied laser maintenance technologies, both preventive and repair. For laser peeing and laser desensitization treatment (LDT) technologies in particular, field applications are also described in detail. In the future, the area of field applications for preventive maintenance, repair, and inspection technologies will be further expanded. (author)

  18. Renewables 2013. Global Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawin, J. L. [and others

    2013-07-01

    Renewable energy markets, industries, and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. The Renewables Global Status Report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by many contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecasts. This latest Renewables Global Status Report saw: a shift in investment patterns that led to a global decrease in clean energy investment; continuing growth in installed capacity due to significant technology cost reductions and increased investment in developing countries; renewables progressively supplementing established electricity systems, demonstrating that the implementation of suitable policies can enable the successful integration of higher shares of variable renewables; and the emergence of integrated policy approaches that link energy efficiency measures with the implementation of renewable energy technologies.

  19. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  20. Status of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of engineering design activities (EDA) in July 2001, all the essential elements became available to make a decision on construction of ITER. A sufficiently detailed and integrated engineering design now exists for a generic site, has been assessed for feasibility, and costed, and essential physics and technology R and D has been carried out to underpin the design choices. Formal negotiations have now begun between the current participants--Canada, Euratom, Japan, and the Russian Federation--on a Joint Implementation Agreement for ITER which also establishes the legal entity to run ITER. These negotiations are supported on technical aspects by Coordinated Technical Activities (CTA), which maintain the integrity of the project, for the good of all participants, and concentrate on preparing for procurement by industry of the longest lead items, and for formal application for a construction license with the host country. This paper highlights the main features of the ITER design. With cryogenically-cooled magnets close to neutron-generating plasma, the design of shielding with adequate access via port plugs for auxiliaries such as heating and diagnostics, and of remote replacement and refurbishing systems for in-vessel components, are particularly interesting nuclear technology challenges. Making a safety case for ITER to satisfy potential regulators and to demonstrate, as far as possible at this stage, the environmental attractiveness of fusion as an energy source, is also important. The paper gives illustrative details on this work, and an update on the progress of technical preparations for construction, as well as the status of the above negotiations

  1. Innovations, status, and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Wang (Pengfei)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractTo obtain and maintain competitive advantage, firms need to implement appropriate innovation strategies (i.e. exploration or exploitation) and acquire status in external networks. In this dissertation, I investigate how innovation strategy, status, and network structure jointly

  2. USCIS My Case Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS provide a way for the public who applied for U.S. citizenship to check the status of their application online. To view the status of a case, the application...

  3. Status of science and technology with respect of preparation and evaluation of accident analyses and the use of analysis simulators. Final report; Ermittlung des Standes von Wissenschaft und Technik bei der Durchfuehrung und Bewertung von Stoerfallanalysen und der Verwendung von Analysesimulatoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draeger, P.; Cester, F.; Erdmann, W.; and others

    2011-12-15

    The final report on the status of science and technology with respect of preparation and evaluation of accident analyses and the use of analysis simulators includes the following work packages: uncertainty analysis for an incident in BWR, preparation and evaluation of accident analyses considering the requirements in the reviewed standards, safeguarding of the mixing modeling for the evaluation of re-criticality accidents, answering of recent questions concerning reactor and containment behavior during incidents and accidents, actualization and refinement of data bases for plant specific analysis simulators.

  4. 2016 Bioenergy Industry Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristen L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-03

    This report provides a snapshot of the bioenergy industry status at the end of 2016. The report compliments other annual market reports from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offices and is supported by DOE’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO). The 2016 Bioenergy Industry Status Report focuses on past year data covering multiple dimensions of the bioenergy industry and does not attempt to make future market projections. The report provides a balanced and unbiased assessment of the industry and associated markets. It is openly available to the public and is intended to compliment International Energy Agency and industry reports with a focus on DOE stakeholder needs.

  5. Global status of hydrogen research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, J.B.; Browning, D.J.

    2001-07-01

    This report surveys the global status of hydrogen research and identifies technological barriers to the implementation of a global hydrogen economy. It is concluded that there will be a 30 year transition phase to the full implementation of the hydrogen economy. In this period, hydrogen will be largely produced by the reformation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane. It will be necessary to ensure that any carbonaceous oxides (and other unwanted species) formed as by-products will be trapped and not released into the atmosphere. Following the transition phase, hydrogen should be largely produced from renewable energy sources using some form of water cracking, largely electrolysis. Target performances and costs are identified for key technologies. The status of hydrogen research in the UK is reviews and it is concluded that the UK does not have a strategy for the adoption of the hydrogen economy, nor does it have a coherent and co-ordinated research and development strategy addressing barriers to the hydrogen economy. Despite this fact, because of the long transition phase, it is still possible for the UK to formulate a coherent strategy and make a significant contribution to the global implementation of the hydrogen economy, as there are still unresolved technology issues. The report concludes with a number of recommendations. (Author)

  6. Nanometals - Status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faester, S.; Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Juul Jensen, D.; Ralph, B.

    2012-01-01

    Nanometals and nanotechnology have over the years been covered in papers, books and conferences - also in many Risoe International Symposia, where the 30th in 2009 dealt solely with nanostructured metals. Since then, rapid progress has been made in synthesis, characterization and modeling, and it is timely to discuss status and perspective also with a view on applications in an international forum such as the Risoe Symposium. Both keynote and contributed papers address important current problems illustrating global research and development in this field. Examples are the development of new synthesis techniques followed by characterization and modeling of microstructures both in 2D and 3D now starting to bridge the micrometer scales. The vital area of mechanical behavior is addressed by the development of new testing techniques and a broad effort to characterize and model mechanical properties of metals strengthened by dislocations and twins. This research has now led to new understanding of both strengthening mechanisms and strengh structure relationships based on experiments in combination with analytical and numerical modeling. The holistic approach to research on nanometals demonstrated by these proceedings can guide both scientists and technologists in their future work also with the aim of introducing into society this new group of advanced materials. Such an effort is important, as science and technology today is significantly affected by politics of governments and international institutions, and therefore a new initiative in the pressent is to include a discussion of research and development in the area of nanometals i USA, China and Japan. (Author)

  7. Nanometals - Status and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faester, S.; Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Juul Jensen, D.; Ralph, B. (eds.)

    2012-11-01

    Nanometals and nanotechnology have over the years been covered in papers, books and conferences - also in many Risoe International Symposia, where the 30th in 2009 dealt solely with nanostructured metals. Since then, rapid progress has been made in synthesis, characterization and modeling, and it is timely to discuss status and perspective also with a view on applications in an international forum such as the Risoe Symposium. Both keynote and contributed papers address important current problems illustrating global research and development in this field. Examples are the development of new synthesis techniques followed by characterization and modeling of microstructures both in 2D and 3D now starting to bridge the micrometer scales. The vital area of mechanical behavior is addressed by the development of new testing techniques and a broad effort to characterize and model mechanical properties of metals strengthened by dislocations and twins. This research has now led to new understanding of both strengthening mechanisms and strengh structure relationships based on experiments in combination with analytical and numerical modeling. The holistic approach to research on nanometals demonstrated by these proceedings can guide both scientists and technologists in their future work also with the aim of introducing into society this new group of advanced materials. Such an effort is important, as science and technology today is significantly affected by politics of governments and international institutions, and therefore a new initiative in the pressent is to include a discussion of research and development in the area of nanometals i USA, China and Japan. (Author)

  8. TESLA Test Facility. Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, B.

    1996-01-01

    The TESLA Test Facility (TTF), under construction at DESY by an international collaboration, is an R and D test bed for the superconducting option for future linear e+/e-colliders. It consists of an infrastructure to process and test the cavities and of a 500 MeV linac. The infrastructure has been installed and is fully operational. It includes a complex of clean rooms, an ultra-clean water plant, a chemical etching installation and an ultra-high vacuum furnace. The linac will consist of four cryo-modules, each containing eight 1 meter long nine-cell cavities operated at 1.3 GHz. The base accelerating field is 15 MV/m. A first injector will deliver a low charge per bunch beam, with the full average current (8 mA in pulses of 800 μs). A more powerful injector based on RF gun technology will ultimately deliver a beam with high charge and low emittance to allow measurements necessary to qualify the TESLA option and to demonstrate the possibility of operating a free electron laser based on the Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission principle. Overview and status of the facility will be given. Plans for the future use of the linac are presented. (R.P.)

  9. The Text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Latest Status. Extension of Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, t he 1987 RCA , is reproduced herein for the information of all Members [es

  10. The Text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members [es

  11. The Text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  12. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  13. Decontamination technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Konzek, G.J.; Schneider, K.R.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-10-01

    This study identifies and technically assesses foreign decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technology developments that may represent significant improvements over D and D technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water reactor (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign D and D technologies of potential interest to the US were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of D and D literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in D and D costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to US needs. 4 refs

  14. Hyper-X Program Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClinton, Charles R.; Reubush, David E.; Sitz, Joel; Reukauf, Paul

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the objectives and status of the Hyper-X program, which is tailored to move hypersonic, airbreathing vehicle technology from the laboratory environment to the flight environment. The first Hyper-X research vehicle (HXRV), designated X-43, is being prepared at the Dryden Flight Research Center for flight at Mach 7. Extensive risk reduction activities for the first flight are completed, and non-recurring design activities for the Mach 10 X-43 (third flight) are nearing completion. The Mach 7 flight of the X-43, in the spring of 2001, will be the first flight of an airframe-integrated scramjet-powered vehicle. The Hyper-X program is continuing to plan follow-on activities to focus an orderly continuation of hypersonic technology development through flight research.

  15. Nuclear energy - status and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, Hans-Holger; MacDonald, Alan

    2007-07-01

    Rising expectations best characterize the current prospects of nuclear power in a world that is confronted with a burgeoning demand for energy, higher energy prices, energy supply security concerns and growing environmental pressures. It appears that the inherent economic and environmental benefits of the technology and its excellent performance record over the last twenty years are beginning to tilt the balance of political opinion and public acceptance in favour of nuclear power. Nuclear power is a cost-effective supply-side technology for mitigating climate change and can make a substantial contribution to climate protection. This paper reviews the current status of nuclear power and its fuel cycle and provides an outlook on where nuclear power may be headed in the short-to-medium run (20 to 40 years from now). (auth)

  16. Status and perspectives of nanoscale device modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macucci, M.; Lannaccone, G.; Greer, J.

    2001-01-01

    During the meetings of the theory and modelling working group, within the MEL-ARI (Microelectronics Advanced Research Initiative) and NID-FET (Nanotechnology information Devices-Future and Emerging Technologies) initiatives of the European Commission, we have been discussing the current status...

  17. Experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam - recent status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    Status of research works on experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam is reviewed. Vietnam institutions and main instruments for nuclear research are listed. The results on physics and technology of nuclear reactor, neutron physics, nuclear reactions, radiological safety are mentioned. (N.H.A). 6 tabs, 4 figs

  18. The legal status of engineering companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    It is assumed that the carrying out of research, also in the nuclear field should be entrusted to engineering companies, especially when dealing with the setting up of technological structures. This paper considers the problems of the legal status of such companies under Italian legislation. (NEA) [fr

  19. ASSESSMENT OF GALLIUM OXIDE TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0167 ASSESSMENT OF GALLIUM OXIDE TECHNOLOGY Burhan Bayraktaroglu Devices for Sensing Branch Aerospace...TITLE AND SUBTITLE ASSESSMENT OF GALLIUM OXIDE TECHNOLOGY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6...report summarizes the current status of the Ga2O3 technology based on published results on theoretical electronic structure, materials growth, and

  20. Nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... b Research Fellow, CSL, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa ... Keywords: primary school children; nutrition knowledge; nutritional status. Nutrition ... research on basic nutrition education focusing on adolescents has.

  1. Status of fusion reactor blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.

    1986-02-01

    The recent Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS), which was a comprehensive evaluation of fusion reactor blanket design and the status of blanket technology, serves as an excellent basis for further development of blanket technology. This study provided an evaluation of over 130 blanket concepts for the reference case of electric power producing, DT fueled reactors in both Tokamak and Tandem Mirror (TMR) configurations. Based on a specific set of reactor operating parameters, the current understanding of materials and blanket technology, and a uniform evaluation methodology developed as part of the study, a limited number of concepts were identified that offer the greatest potential for making fusion an attractive energy source

  2. Status of superconducting RF test facility (STF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting technology was recommended for the main linac design of the International Linear Collider (ILC) by the International Technology Recommendation Panel (ITRP). The basis for this design has been developed and tested at DESY, and R and D is progressing at many laboratories around the world including DESY, Orsay, KEK, FNAL, SLAC, Cornell, and JLAB. In order to promote Asian SC-technology for ILC, construction of a test facility in KEK was discussed and decided. The role and status of the superconducting RF test facility (STF) is reported in this paper. (author)

  3. The Text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987. Status of Acceptances as of 28 February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    As of 28 February 1993, notifications of acceptance of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (See INFCIRC/ 167/Add.15), in accordance with Article 2 thereof, had been received by the Director General from the Governments [ru

  4. Innovation in Psychology Teaching in Europe: A Scoping Survey of European Union Universities Use of Technology, Aims and Status of Teaching, Drivers of Change, and a Thematic Review of Recent Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Peter; Hammond, Jennifer; Lewandowska, Anna; Trapp, Annie; Marques, J. Frederico

    2014-01-01

    To investigate innovation in psychology teaching in European Union (EU) higher education, Europlat partners were surveyed and 43 replies were received from 30 countries. Estimated use of e-learning and other technologies including e-books and journals, virtual learning environments, lecture recording, plagiarism detection, laboratory simulation…

  5. The Text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987. Status of Acceptances as of 28 February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    As of 28 February 1993, notifications of acceptance of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (See INFCIRC/ 167/Add.15), in accordance with Article 2 thereof, had been received by the Director General from the Governments [es

  6. Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, ...

  7. Service Level Status

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopienski, S

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, IT departments provide, and people use, computing services of an increasingly heterogeneous nature. There is thus a growing need for a status display that groups these different services and reports status and availability in a uniform way. The Service Level Status (SLS) system addresses these needs by providing a web-based display that dynamically shows availability, basic information and statistics about various IT services, as well as the dependencies between them.

  8. SIS - Status Determination

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Status Determination dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information related to overfishing, overfished, and approaching overfished...

  9. Pediatric Status Epilepticus Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Nicholas S; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review discusses management of status epilepticus in children including both anticonvulsant medications and overall management approaches. Recent Findings Rapid management of status epilepticus is associated with a greater likelihood of seizure termination and better outcomes, yet data indicate there are often management delays. This review discusses an overall management approach aiming to simultaneously identify and manage underlying precipitant etiologies, administer anticonvulsants in rapid succession until seizures have terminated, and identify and manage systemic complications. An example management pathway is provided. Summary Status epilepticus is a common neurologic emergency in children and requires rapid intervention. Having a predetermined status epilepticus management pathway can expedite management. PMID:25304961

  10. The ATHENA telescope and optics status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ayre, Mark; Ferreira, Ivo; Shortt, Brian; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Collon, Maximilien; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Barriere, Nicolas; Landgraf, Boris; Haneveld, Jeroen; van Baren, Coen; Zuknik, Karl-Heintz; Della Monica Ferreira, Desiree; Massahi, Sonny; Christensen, Finn; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Vernani, Dervis; Oliver, Paul; Seidel, André

    2017-08-01

    The work on the definition and technological preparation of the ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) mission continues to progress. In parallel to the study of the accommodation of the telescope, many aspects of the X-ray optics are being evolved further. The optics technology chosen for ATHENA is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), which hinges on technology spin-in from the semiconductor industry, and uses a modular approach to produce large effective area lightweight telescope optics with a good angular resolution. Both system studies and the technology developments are guided by ESA and implemented in industry, with participation of institutional partners. In this paper an overview of the current status of the telescope optics accommodation and technology development activities is provided.

  11. Fighting status inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job as a th...

  12. Morocco: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Morocco begins with an overview of the distribution and usage of Arabic, the official language, the Berber dialects, and French, an unofficial second language. The continuing high status and widespread use of French despite arabization efforts is discussed. A matrix follows that rates these languages and…

  13. Adolescent Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Kjelldgaard, Heidi; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    day) communication with friends through cellphones, SMS messages, or Internet (1.66, 1.03-2.67). In the full population, overweight/obese weight status was associated with not perceiving best friend as a confidant (1.59, 1.11-2.28). No associations were found between weight status and number of close...

  14. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  15. Status report, canister fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika; Emilsson, Goeran

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  16. Genetic mutations associated with status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, M; Shorvon, S

    2015-08-01

    -onset status epilepticus cases remains obscure. It has been suggested that idiopathic adult-onset status epilepticus might often have an immunological cause but no gene mutations which relate to immunological mechanisms were identified. Overall, the clinical utility of what is currently known about the genetics of status epilepticus is slight and the findings have had little impact on clinical treatment despite what has been a very large investment in money and time. New genetic technologies may result in the identification of further genes, but if the identified genetic defects confer only minor susceptibility, this is unlikely to influence therapy. It is also important to recognize that genetics has social implications in a way that other areas of science do not. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Technology certification and technology acceptance: Promoting interstate cooperation and market development for innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-03-01

    In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges

  18. Information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned a panel of U.S. experts to study the international status of satellite communications systems and technology. The study covers emerging systems concepts, applications, services, and the attendant technologies. The panel members traveled to Europe, Japan, and Russia to gather information firsthand. They visited 17 sites in Europe, 20 in Japan, and 4 in Russia. These included major manufacturers, government organizations, service providers, and associated research and development facilities. The panel's report was reviewed by the sites visited, by the panel, and by representatives of U.S. industry. The report details the information collected and compares it to U.S. activities.

  19. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  20. Technology transfer and commercialization of in situ vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.D.; Hansen, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) technology was conceived and an initial proof-of-principle test was conducted in 1980 by Battelle Memorial Institute for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The technology was rapidly developed through bench, engineering pilot, and large scales in the following years. In 1986, DOE granted rights to the basic ISV patent to Battelle in exchange for a commitment to commercialize the technology. Geosafe Corporation was established as the operating entity to accomplish the commercialization objective. This paper describes and provides status information on the technology transfer and commercialization effort

  1. Extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA). Status of Acceptances as of 30 July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    As of 30 July 1998, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) (INFCIRC/377), had been received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Governments of 23 African States. Senegal is added to the list of 22 States reported in the previous edition (add.10) of this document. The extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000

  2. Extension of the African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA). Status of acceptances as of 30 September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    As of 30 September 1995, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (see INFCIRC/377), has been received by the Director General from the Governments of: Tunisia, Egypt, Madagascar, South Africa, Ethiopia, Algeria, Mauritius, Sudan, Tanzania, Cameroon, Kenya, Zaire, Morocco, Sierra Leone, Namibia, Nigeria, Ghana. Pursuant to Article XIV.2, (of the original Agreement) the extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000

  3. Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL). Status list as of 30 September 2002. Signature and ratification. Declarations/reservations made upon signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) which was opened for signature on 25 September 1998 and shall come into force after deposit of the instrument of ratification by ten Member States. It shall remain in force for ten years, and may be extended by periods of five years if the Member States so agree. By 30 September 2002, there were 18 Signatories to the above Agreement

  4. Extension of the African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA). Status of acceptances as of 30 September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    As of 30 September 1995, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (see INFCIRC/377), has been received by the Director General from the Governments of: Tunisia, Egypt, Madagascar, South Africa, Ethiopia, Algeria, Mauritius, Sudan, Tanzania, Cameroon, Kenya, Zaire, Morocco, Sierra Leone, Namibia, Nigeria, Ghana. Pursuant to Article XIV.2, (of the original Agreement) the extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000.

  5. Extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA). Status of Acceptances as of 30 July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-13

    As of 30 July 1998, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) (INFCIRC/377), had been received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Governments of 23 African States. Senegal is added to the list of 22 States reported in the previous edition (add.10) of this document. The extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000

  6. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  7. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  8. Status Epilepticus and Refractory Status Epilepticus Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Nicholas S.; Bearden, David; Helbig, Ingo; McGuire, Jennifer; Narula, Sona; Panzer, Jessica A.; Topjian, Alexis; Dlugos, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) describes persistent or recurring seizures without a return to baseline mental status, and is a common neurologic emergency. SE can occur in the context of epilepsy or may be symptomatic of a wide range of underlying etiologies. The clinician’s aim is to rapidly institute care that simultaneously stabilizes the patient medically, identifies and manages any precipitant conditions, and terminates seizures. Seizure management involves “emergent” treatment with benzodiazepines followed by “urgent” therapy with other anti-seizure medications. If seizures persist then refractory SE is diagnosed and management options include additional anti-seizure medications or infusions of midazolam or pentobarbital. This paper reviews the management of pediatric SE and RSE. PMID:25727508

  9. Management of status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, M; Hocker, S

    2017-01-01

    Status epilepticus is a neurologic and medical emergency manifested by prolonged seizure activity or multiple seizures without return to baseline. It is associated with substantial medical cost, morbidity, and mortality. There is a spectrum of severity dependent on the type of seizure, underlying pathology, comorbidities, and appropriate and timely medical management. This chapter discusses the evolving definitions of status epilepticus and multiple patient and clinical factors which influence outcome. The pathophysiology of status epilepticus is reviewed to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms which contribute to status epilepticus, as well as the potential long-term effects. The clinical presentations of different types of status epilepticus in adults are discussed, with emphasis on the hospital course and management of the most dangerous type, generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Strategies for the evaluation and management of status epilepticus are provided based on available evidence from clinical trials and recommendations from the Neurocritical Care Society and the European Federation of Neurological Societies. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Technology Catalogue. First edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for remediating its contaminated sites and managing its waste inventory in a safe and efficient manner. EM`s Office of Technology Development (OTD) supports applied research and demonstration efforts to develop and transfer innovative, cost-effective technologies to its site clean-up and waste management programs within EM`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Office of Waste Management. The purpose of the Technology Catalogue is to provide performance data on OTD-developed technologies to scientists and engineers assessing and recommending technical solutions within the Department`s clean-up and waste management programs, as well as to industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. OTD`s applied research and demonstration activities are conducted in programs referred to as Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and Integrated Programs (IPs). The IDs test and evaluate.systems, consisting of coupled technologies, at specific sites to address generic problems, such as the sensing, treatment, and disposal of buried waste containers. The IPs support applied research activities in specific applications areas, such as in situ remediation, efficient separations processes, and site characterization. The Technology Catalogue is a means for communicating the status. of the development of these innovative technologies. The FY93 Technology Catalogue features technologies successfully demonstrated in the field through IDs and sufficiently mature to be used in the near-term. Technologies from the following IDs are featured in the FY93 Technology Catalogue: Buried Waste ID (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho); Mixed Waste Landfill ID (Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico); Underground Storage Tank ID (Hanford, Washington); Volatile organic compound (VOC) Arid ID (Richland, Washington); and VOC Non-Arid ID (Savannah River Site, South Carolina).

  11. Current status and future perspectives of electron interactions with molecules, clusters, surfaces, and interfaces [Workshop on Fundamental challenges in electron-driven chemistry; Workshop on Electron-driven processes: Scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt H.; McCurdy, C. William; Orlando, Thomas M.; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2000-09-01

    This report is based largely on presentations and discussions at two workshops and contributions from workshop participants. The workshop on Fundamental Challenges in Electron-Driven Chemistry was held in Berkeley, October 9-10, 1998, and addressed questions regarding theory, computation, and simulation. The workshop on Electron-Driven Processes: Scientific Challenges and Technological Opportunities was held at Stevens Institute of Technology, March 16-17, 2000, and focused largely on experiments. Electron-molecule and electron-atom collisions initiate and drive almost all the relevant chemical processes associated with radiation chemistry, environmental chemistry, stability of waste repositories, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, plasma processing of materials for microelectronic devices and other applications, and novel light sources for research purposes (e.g. excimer lamps in the extreme ultraviolet) and in everyday lighting applications. The life sciences are a rapidly advancing field where the important role of electron-driven processes is only now beginning to be recognized. Many of the applications of electron-initiated chemical processes require results in the near term. A large-scale, multidisciplinary and collaborative effort should be mounted to solve these problems in a timely way so that their solution will have the needed impact on the urgent questions of understanding the physico-chemical processes initiated and driven by electron interactions.

  12. Status of readout integrated circuits for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cheng, J. E. and others

    2001-09-01

    In this report, we describe the current status of readout integrated circuits developed for radiation detectors, along with new technologies being applied to this field. The current status of ASCIC chip development related to the readout electronics is also included in this report. Major sources of this report are from product catalogs and web sites of the related industries. In the field of semiconductor process technology in Korea, the current status of the multi-project wafer(MPW) of IDEC, the multi-project chip(MPC) of ISRC and other domestic semiconductor process industries is described. In the case of other countries, the status of the MPW of MOSIS in USA and the MPW of EUROPRACTICE in Europe is studied. This report also describes the technologies and products of readout integrated circuits of industries worldwide

  13. Nano technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Sik

    2002-03-01

    This book is introduction of nano technology, which describes what nano technology is, alpha and omega of nano technology, the future of Korean nano technology and human being's future and nano technology. The contents of this book are nano period is coming, a engine of creation, what is molecular engineering, a huge nano technology, technique on making small things, nano materials with exorbitant possibility, the key of nano world the most desirable nano technology in bio industry, nano development plan of government, the direction of development for nano technology and children of heart.

  14. Rover Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and mature rover technologies supporting robotic exploration including rover design, controlling rovers over time delay and for exploring . Technology...

  15. Systematic arrangement of global environment measure technology. 3. Current status of methane generation and its effective utilization; Chikyu kankyo taisaku gijutsu no taikeiteki seiri. 2. Methane no hassei jokyo to sono yuko riyo no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The status of the methane generation due to landfill with waste has been analyzed to investigate the actual circumstances of effective utilization of methane in the world and its possibility. The artificial generation of methane is 375 Tg per year among the total methane generation in the world, 535 Tg per year. The methane generation from the landfill with waste is 40 Tg per year, which becomes a rather large contribution. The methane generation from the landfill with waste in Japan is estimated to be from 130 to 520 Gg per year, which is a rather low value as a share in the world. This is caused by the sub-aerobic property of landfill in Japan, and the methane generation can be suppressed. Accordingly, there are no systems using recovered methane as energy source in Japan. In the USA, profitability of energy recovery can be established in 600 to 700 landfills among about 6,000 landfills. The methane recovery is practically conducted at more than 120 landfills. The recovered methane is used as a power generation fuel. 45 refs., 43 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Report on investigation in fiscal 2000 of actual status of technological cooperation in foreign market entry supporting organizations in fiscal 2000; 2000 nendo kaigai shinshutsu shien kikan ni okeru gijutsu renkei jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to help improve the business creation supporting environment in Japan, investigations were performed on cases of advanced business creation supporting infrastructures, centering on the United States. The activity results were put into order in the following six fields: 1) creator support and incubators in the United States, 2) the current status of incubators in the United States, 3) support on creation by universities and research institutions, 4) advantages of industry-academia cooperation on creation support, 5) international cooperation in the state of Pennsylvania with other countries, and 6) conclusion. In Item 6), the evolution of the incubator concept in the United States, roles of incubators in areas in which general business creation infrastructures have matured, creator support by universities and education organizations, and matters expected on incubators were summarized. Based on the summarisation, four items were proposed, including structuring of the Japanese type business creation infrastructures to structure a fusion and circulation model for the Japanese type business creation support and economic development, and district economy development under the initiative of business communities. (NEDO)

  17. 76 FR 6794 - 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology... submission of requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) status. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 300jj-11. DATES: The... for ONC-AA status may be submitted. The 30-day period for submission of requests for ONC-AA status...

  18. Advanced Physiological Estimation of Cognitive Status. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    fatigue, overload) Technology Transfer Opportunity Technology from PDT – Methods to acquire various physiological signals (EEG, EOG , EMG, ECG, etc...Integrated Hardware for Experiments EEG Sensor Array EOG Sensor Array Eye Tracker Amplifiers and Signal Conditioners Laptop Computer...REPORT Advanced Physiological Estimation of Cognitive Status - Part II 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This report describes ongoing work

  19. STATUS GIZI DAN STATUS KESEHATAN SUKU BADUY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Anwar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} The objectives of the study were: (1 To analyze the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of Baduy people; (2 To analyze the health status and nutritional status of Baduy people and its influential factors. This research is an explorative and descriptive study on the socio-cultural aspects of food system. The data were collected through a direct interview and discussion with respondents as well as a direct observation at the location of respondents. A sample size of 338 households was drawn from the population. To obtain the data on the cultural aspects, history and  socio aspect of food, in-depth interviews was conducted with 19 key persons. The study was last for 12 months. In Outer Baduy, the factors significantly related to nutritional status are age, number of household size, income, nutritional knowledge, and wife’s ability to read. In Moslem Baduy, only age and income are related to the nutritional status of children. In Moslem Baduy and the Outer Baduy, the correlation between age and W/A or W/H is similar: namely, the higher the age, the lower would the Z-score for the W/A or W/H. The income is significantly correlated to the child nutritional status according to Z-score for W/A with a high correlation coefficient, that is, 0.61. This means that the higher the income, the higher would be the Z-score value for the W/A.  The distribution of adults according to BMI classification in Outer Baduy it shows that 12.7% husbands and 17.6% wives are thin (wasted, while the

  20. Technological status diagnosis used by partners of a Eucalyptus plantation reforesting company in Divinopolis, MG, Brazil; Levantamento do nivel tecnologico utilizado por parceiros no plantio de eucalipto de uma empresa reflorestadora na regiao de Divinopolis, MG, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccon, Eliane [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), DF (Mexico)]. Email: ececcon@miranda.ecologia.unam.mx

    1999-07-15

    Among the reforesting companies holding a partnership program on eucalyptus plantations with small and medium farmers in Minas Gerais, the Pains Florestal S.A. stands out for creating a research and development program in agroforestry systems with eucalyptus. Following a successful biological research, the need for a more specific diagnosis of the social-economic conditions emerged in order to assess the viability of the program. It was found that the company's partners lack important financial resources to start new agricultural and forest enterprises in their lands. Additionally, their technological level was low. The main income sources are livestock, corn plantations and charcoal production. On the other hand, most farmers presented a high level of interest in beginning new activities, provided credit conditions were available. (author)