WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology soil vapor

  1. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE

  2. Toluene removal from sandy soils via in situ technologies with an emphasis on factors influencing soil vapor extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Farhadkhani, Marzieh; Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    The integration of bioventing (BV) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC) and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE) including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5%) of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing) after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater.

  3. Toluene Removal from Sandy Soils via In Situ Technologies with an Emphasis on Factors Influencing Soil Vapor Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of bioventing (BV and soil vapor extraction (SVE appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5% of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater.

  4. Toluene Removal from Sandy Soils via In Situ Technologies with an Emphasis on Factors Influencing Soil Vapor Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Farhadkhani, Marzieh; Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    The integration of bioventing (BV) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC) and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE) including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5%) of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing) after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater. PMID:24587723

  5. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  6. FRACTURE ENHANCED SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION AT THE A-014 OUTFALL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Richard Hall (NOEMAIL), R

    2008-03-12

    Data collected during this study show that the performance of hydraulically fractured wells (with respect to mass removal rates) may tend to decrease with time following precipitation events. These effects are due to temporary increases in water saturation in the formation within the vicinity of the fractures, therefore, the wells should tend to rebound during subsequent dry periods. The data available for fractured well versus conventional well performance (with respect to flow rate versus vacuum pressure) are limited in this study. However, the data that we have to draw from suggest that, with the possible exception of a few extreme examples, hydraulically fractured wells tend to perform better than conventional wells during soil vapor extraction (SVE) operation at the A-14 Outfall. The pancake like geometry associated with hydraulic fractures also leads to a significant increase in zone of influence (ZOI), as compared to conventional wells. The increase in ZOI is due to the radially extending, horizontal, high-permeability conduit nature of the hydraulic fracture, however, air-flow into the fracture is predominately vertical (occurring at right angles to the fracture plane). Flow rates from above and below the fracture will tend to be equivalent when the formation is homogeneous, however, in the case of directionally fining depositional sequences flow rates will be greater from the direction of increasing permeability. The Upland Unit is a fining upward sequence, therefore flow rates (and contaminant mass flow rates) will tend to be higher below the fracture. This suggests that emplacing the fractures slightly above the source zone is an important strategy for accelerating contaminant removal at the A-014 Outfall site and in the Upland Unit at the SRS. However, due to the multitude of previous borings at the A-014 Outfall site, the shallower fractures failed. More than 2500 lbs of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) were removed during approximately 6

  7. Influence of Soil Moisture on Soil Gas Vapor Concentration for Vapor Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models have been widely used in analyzing the effects of various environmental factors in the vapor intrusion process. Soil moisture content is one of the key factors determining the subsurface vapor concentration profile. This manuscript considers the effects of soil moisture profiles on the soil gas vapor concentration away from any surface capping by buildings or pavement. The “open field” soil gas vapor concentration profile is observed to be sensitive to the soil moisture di...

  8. Influence of Soil Moisture on Soil Gas Vapor Concentration for Vapor Intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2013-10-01

    Mathematical models have been widely used in analyzing the effects of various environmental factors in the vapor intrusion process. Soil moisture content is one of the key factors determining the subsurface vapor concentration profile. This manuscript considers the effects of soil moisture profiles on the soil gas vapor concentration away from any surface capping by buildings or pavement. The "open field" soil gas vapor concentration profile is observed to be sensitive to the soil moisture distribution. The van Genuchten relations can be used for describing the soil moisture retention curve, and give results consistent with the results from a previous experimental study. Other modeling methods that account for soil moisture are evaluated. These modeling results are also compared with the measured subsurface concentration profiles in the U.S. EPA vapor intrusion database.

  9. Model analysis of mechanisms controlling pneumatic soil vapor extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Camilla Kruse; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Jensen, Karsten Høgh;

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency of heterogen...... level the pneumatic venting technology is superior to the traditional technique, and that the method is particularly efficient in cases where large permeability contrasts exist between soil units in the subsurface.......The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency...... of heterogeneous soils by enforcing large fluctuating pressure fronts through the contaminated area. Laboratory experiments have suggested that pneumatic SVE considerably improves the recovery rate from low-permeable units. We have analyzed the experimental results using a numerical code and quantified...

  10. Sequential Application of Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioremediation Processes for the Remediation of Ethylbenzene-Contaminated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, António Carlos Alves; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás;

    2012-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application...

  11. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  12. ELI/SBP'S UVB (VACUUM VAPORIZATION WELL) SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF VOC-CONTAMINATED SOILS; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the Unterdruck-Verdampfer-Brunnen (UVB) technology developed by IEG Technologies (IEG) and licensed in the eastern United States by Environmental Laboratories, Inc. (ELI) and SBP Technologies (SBP). This evaluation was cond...

  13. Field demonstration for bioremediation treatment: Technology demonstration of soil vapor extraction off-gas at McClellan Air Force Base. Final report November 1997--April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magar, V.S.; Tonga, P.; Webster, T.; Drescher, E.

    1999-01-12

    McClellan Air Force Base (AFB) is a National Test Location designated through the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), and was selected as the candidate test site for a demonstration of soil vapor extraction (SVE) off-gas treatment technology. A two-stage reactor system was employed for the treatment of the off-gas. The biological treatment was conducted at Operable Unit (OU) D Site S, located approximately 400 ft southwest of Building 1093. The SVE system at this area normally operates at a nominal volumetric flowrate of approximately 500 to 600 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm). The contaminated air stream from the SVE system that was fed to the reactor system operated at a flowrate of 5 to 10 scfm. The two-stage reactor system consisted of a fixed-film biofilter followed by a completely mixed (by continuous stirring), suspended-growth biological reactor. This reactor configuration was based on a review of the literature, on characterization of the off-gas from the SVE system being operated at McClellan AFB, and on the results of the laboratory study conducted by Battelle and Envirogen for this study.

  14. Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Isaac; Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Watanabe, Yoichi; McClanahan, James A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu, Carman, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF4 fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure (˜100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development.

  15. Innovative technology summary report: six phase soil heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Six Phase Soil Heating (SPSH) was developed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. SPSH is designed to enhance the removal of contaminants from the subsurface during soil vapor extraction. The innovation combines an emerging technology, that of six-phase electrical heating, with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation system for difficult soil and/or contaminant applications. SPSH is especially suited to sites where contaminants are tightly bound to clays and are thus difficult to remove using soil vapor extraction alone. Target zones to be treated would most likely be above the water table, but a thicker treatment zone could be addressed by hydraulically lowering the water table with pumping wells.

  16. Guidance on Soil Vapor Extraction Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    343 Table LNAPL DNAPL Source: after USEPA 1991 draw\\$vehandbk3.cdr aee p1 4/5/01 M~ssive Clay ) . ’C. ~AA_··’’’· --V,V~ . >:’ .’ ’·Sand...for removing orgamc contaminants with a vapor pressure greater than 0.5 mm mercury (Hg) at 200 Celsius (C). This includes common chlorinated solvents...liquids ( DNAPLs ), solvent vapors, or dissolved contaminants. • Depth to groundwater, seasonal variations, recharge and discharge information including

  17. Vapor intrusion in soils with multimodal pore-size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfaro Soto Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Johnson and Ettinger [1] model and its extensions are at this time the most widely used algorithms for estimating subsurface vapor intrusion into buildings (API [2]. The functions which describe capillary pressure curves are utilized in quantitative analyses, although these are applicable for porous media with a unimodal or lognormal pore-size distribution. However, unaltered soils may have a heterogeneous pore distribution and consequently a multimodal pore-size distribution [3], which may be the result of specific granulometry or the formation of secondary porosity related to genetic processes. The present paper was designed to present the application of the Vapor Intrusion Model (SVI_Model to unsaturated soils with multimodal pore-size distribution. Simulations with data from the literature show that the use of a multimodal model in soils with such pore distribution characteristics could provide more reliable results for indoor air concentration, rather than conventional models.

  18. TESVE model for design of soil vapor extraction systems with thermal enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghuman, A. [Lowney Associates, Mountain View, CA (United States); Wong, K. [Air Force, McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Singh, S. [URS Consultants, Inc., Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a popular and effective technology for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), from the subsurface soils. The performance of SVE systems is based on three key parameters: the rate of mass removal, the time required to achieve cleanup goals, and the cost of cleanup. These performance parameters depend on physical and chemical factors such as the rate and pattern of air flow through the affected soils, contaminant type, and the degree of partitioning between the vapor-, liquid-, dissolved- and adsorbed- phase. The effectiveness of SVE can be enhanced by raising the soil temperature. This is done using various methods including electrical heating, and hot air volatilization. TESVE (Thermally-Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction), a multi-component, non-isothermal, three dimensional software model, is a powerful tool in evaluating the feasibility of SVE, optimizing design, predicting performance, and, ultimately reducing cleanup costs. The TESVE model was run for a SVE site at McClellan Air Force Base, California. Four SVE design scenarios were modeled for removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) from the subsurface soil.

  19. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  20. 2-Phase groundwater and soil vapor extraction site test at McClellan AFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, C.; Kingsley, G.B.; Lawrence J. [Radian Corp., Sacramento, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The innovative 2-phase extraction technique is a method recently patented by Xerox Corporation for simultaneously extracting contaminated groundwater and soil vapor from the subsurface. The 2-phase technique is primarily applicable to those sites with semipermeable soils containing volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in both soils and groundwater. This technique has several distinct advantages over either conventional soil vapor extraction or groundwater extraction, because it can: cut the dollar per-contaminant-pound cleanup costs by an order of magnitude; simplify the extraction and treatment of both contaminated water and vapor; and shorten remediation times. The U.S. EPA and the Air Force elected to conduct an EPA Site test of the 2-phase Extraction technology at McClellan results indicate: The groundwater flow rate is twice that of the pump-and-treat system. The mass of contaminants from a single well removed increased from 130 lbs/year to more than 5,000 lbs/year, over 30 times more than the pump-and treat rate, with potential for even higher removal rates: 5,000 to 8,000 pounds of contaminants per year. Up to 95% of the contamination was extracted in the vapor phase, where it could be treated more easily and efficiently.

  1. Gas Vapor Injection on Refrigerant Cycle Using Piston Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Colmek, Sophie; Goderneaux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Gas vapor injection on refrigerant cycle is always used with Scroll, Rotary or others compressors technology to improve efficiency of the system at low and high ambient temperatures. Probably this kind of compressor is more adapted than the piston technology owing to their mechanical system. In this paper, we present the challenge of vapor injection realized on piston technology compressor range non for improving the cooling capacity of the system but to maintain the compressor temperature in...

  2. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    designing and operating remediation systems. Simple and accurate models for estimating soil properties from soil parameters that are easy to measure are useful in connection with preliminary remedial investigations and evaluation of remedial technologies. In this work simple models for predicting transport...

  3. Resistive heating enhanced soil vapor extraction of chlorinated solvents from trichloroethylene contaminated silty, low permeable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutphen, M. van; Heron, G.; Enfield, C.G.; Christensen, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    A 2D-laboratory box experiment (12 x 56 x 116 cm) was conducted to simulate the enhancement of soil vapor extraction by the application of low frequency electrical heating Uoule heating) for the remediation of a low permeable, silty soil contaminated with trichloroethylene. Joule heating enlarged th

  4. Vapor intrusion in soils with multimodal pore-size distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro Soto Miguel; Hung Kiang Chang

    2016-01-01

    The Johnson and Ettinger [1] model and its extensions are at this time the most widely used algorithms for estimating subsurface vapor intrusion into buildings (API [2]). The functions which describe capillary pressure curves are utilized in quantitative analyses, although these are applicable for porous media with a unimodal or lognormal pore-size distribution. However, unaltered soils may have a heterogeneous pore distribution and consequently a multimodal pore-size distribution [3], which ...

  5. Modeling and Prediction of Soil Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    Soil water vapor sorption isotherms describe the relationship between water activity (aw) and moisture content along adsorption and desorption paths. The isotherms are important for modeling numerous soil processes and are also used to estimate several soil (specific surface area, clay content......, cation exchange capacity) and engineering properties (e.g., swelling potential). Our objectives for this work were to: (i) evaluate the potential of several theoretical and empirical isotherm models to accurately describe measured moisture adsorption/desorption isotherms (aw range of 0.03 to 0.......93) for a wide range of soils; and (ii) develop and test regression models for estimating the isotherms from clay content. Preliminary results show reasonable fits of the majority of the investigated empirical and theoretical models to the measured data although some models were not capable to fit both sorption...

  6. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate & Treat (E&T), and Pump & Treat (P&T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios.

  7. VOCs in Arid soils: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds In Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) focuses on technologies to clean up volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soil and groundwater at arid sites. The initial host site is the 200 West Area at DOE`s Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. The primary VOC contaminant is carbon tetrachloride, in association with heavy metals and radionuclides. An estimated 580--920 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were disposed of between 1955 and 1973, resulting in extensive soil and groundwater contamination. The VOC-Arid ID schedule has been divided into three phases of implementation. The phased approach provides for: rapid transfer of technologies to the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) programs once demonstrated; logical progression in the complexity of demonstrations based on improved understanding of the VOC problem; and leveraging of the host site EM-40 activities to reduce the overall cost of the demonstrations. During FY92 and FY93, the primary technology demonstrations within the ID were leveraged with an ongoing expedited response action at the Hanford 200 West Area, which is directed at vapor extraction of VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. Demonstration efforts are underway in the areas of subsurface characterization including: drilling and access improvements, off-gas and borehole monitoring of vadose zone VOC concentrations to aid in soil vapor extraction performance evaluation, and treatment of VOC-contaminated off-gas. These current demonstration efforts constitute Phase 1 of the ID and, because of the ongoing vadose zone ERA, can result in immediate transfer of successful technologies to EM-40.

  8. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  9. Vapor Flow Resistance of Dry Soil Layer to Soil Water Evaporation in Arid Environment: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation from bare sandy soils is the core component of the hydrologic cycle in arid environments, where vertical water movement dominates. Although extensive measurement and modeling studies have been conducted and reported in existing literature, the physics of dry soil and its function in evaporation is still a challenging topic with significant remaining issues. Thus, an overview of the previous findings will be very beneficial for identifying further research needs that aim to advance our understanding of the vapor flow resistance (VFR effect on soil water evaporation as influenced by characteristics of the dry soil layer (DSL and evaporation zone (EZ. In this regard, six measurement and four modeling studies were overviewed. The results of these overviewed studies, along with the others, affirm the conceptual dynamics of DSL and EZ during drying or wetting processes (but not both within dry sandy soils. The VFR effect tends to linearly increase with DSL thickness (δ when δ < 5 cm and is likely to increase as a logarithmic function of δ when δ ≥ 5 cm. The vaporization-condensation-movement (VCM dynamics in a DSL depend on soil textures: sandy soils can form a thick (10 to 20 cm DSL while sandy clay soils may or may not have a clear DSL; regardless, a DSL can function as a transient EZ, a vapor condensation zone, and/or a vapor transport medium. Based on the overview, further studies will need to generate long-term continuous field data, develop hydraulic functions for very dry soils, and establish an approach to quantify the dynamics and VFR effects of DSLs during wetting-drying cycles as well as take into account such effects  when using conventional (e.g., Penman-Monteith evaporation models.

  10. Soil vapor extraction and bioventing: Applications, limitations, and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathfelder, K.; Lang, J. R.; Abriola, L. M.

    1995-07-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) has evolved over the past decade as an attractive in situ remediation method for unsaturated soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). SVE involves the generation of air flow through the pores of the contaminated soil to induce transfer of VOCs to the air stream. Air flow is established by pumping from vadose zone wells through which contaminant vapors are collected and transported above ground where they are treated, if required, and discharged to the atmosphere. The popularity of SVE technologies stems from their proven effectiveness for removing large quantities of VOCs from the soil, their cost competitiveness, and their relatively simple non-intrusive implementation. Widespread field application of SVE has occurred following the success of early laboratory and field scale feasibility studies [Texas Research Institute, 1980, 1984; Thornton and Wootan, 1982; Marley and Hoag, 1984; Crow et al., 1985, 1987]. As many as 18% of Superfund sites employ SVE remediation technologies [Travis and Macinnis, 1992] and numerous articles and reports have documented the application of SVE [e.g. Hutzler et al., 1989; Downey and Elliott, 1990; U.S. EPA, 1991; Sanderson et al, 1993; Gerbasi and Menoli, 1994; McCann et al., 1994;].

  11. Innovative technologies for soil cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for soil cleanup. In this context, soil cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal primarily with the vadose zone and with relatively shallow, near-surface contamination of soil or rock materials. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in soil cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the sits-specific technical challenges presented by each sold contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After cataloging a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, Dynamic Underground Stripping, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising soil cleanup technology that is now being field tested.

  12. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Farrar, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  13. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Farrar, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  14. Performance Enhancement Technology for the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man'o, Tatsunori

    High efficiency refrigerator have been developed. For energy saving that is concerned with against global warming, performance enhancement of vapor compression refrigerator is required in field of air condition and refrigeration facility. In this paper, a review of recent performance enhancement technologies for the vapor compression refrigeration cycle is presented. This review contains high performance cycles of large sized centrifugal chiller, small to middle sized chiller and packaged air conditioner. Moreover, researches and developments of the refrigeration cycle recovering throttling loss, applications of ejector to boost in compressor suction pressure and to recirculate vapor refrigerant in the evaporator for heat transfer enhancement, and applications of expander to employ expansion work for compression work, are reviewed.

  15. Effects of Natural Environmental Changes on Soil-Vapor Extraction Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, S; Gregory, S

    2006-03-23

    Remediation by soil-vapor extraction has been used for over a decade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We have found that natural changes in environmental conditions affect the rate of soil-vapor extraction. Data on flow rate observations collected over this time are compared to in-situ measurements of several different environmental parameters (soil-gas pressure, soil-temperature, soil-moisture, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), rainfall and barometric pressure). Environmental changes that lead to increased soil-moisture are associated with reduced soil-vapor extraction flow rates. We have found that the use of higher extraction vacuums combined with dual-phase extraction can help to increase pneumatic conductivity when vadose zone saturation is a problem. Daily changes in barometric pressure and soil-gas temperature were found to change flow rate measurements by as much as 10% over the course of a day.

  16. Nomographs for soil vapor extraction and off-gas treatment by activated carbon adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egemen, E.; Nirmalakhandan, N. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Civil, Agricultural, and Geological Engineering Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a widely accepted in-place treatment technology that uses forced air to remove contaminant vapors from zones of permeable vapor flow, thereby enhancing the volatilization of contaminants from the subsurface. The resulting off-gases are contaminated with volatiles and semi-volatiles and have to treated by catalytic or thermal destruction systems, activated carbon adsorbers, or bioreactors. Of these, activated carbon adsorption is the most commonly used technology. From the theoretical foundation of SVE and carbon adsorption, two nomographs were developed for remedial investigation, feasibility studies, planning, operation, and preliminary design purposes. An advantage of such nomographs is that they graphically indicate the sensitivity of the remediation process to different design parameters and critical ranges within a given parameter. In effect, nomographs can help to foster an intuitive understanding of the SVE and adsorption processes itself, which is of considerable value to a process engineer. In addition, such a nomograph provides a utilitarian resource to those who do not have direct access to a comparable computer model. The purpose of this paper is to present the design equations and their use in the development of nomographs for the design of SVE systems and treatment of contaminated air streams by activated carbon canisters.

  17. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

  18. Curtailment of soil vapor extraction systems at McClellan Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E. [BDM Federal, McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Mook, P.H. Jr.; Wong, K.B. [SM-ALC/EMR, McClellan AFB, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    McClellan Air Force Base (AFB), located near Sacramento, California, is one of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s National Environmental Technology Test Sites. McClellan AFB has implemented soil vapor extraction (SVE) as an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) non-time-critical remedial action for volatile organic compounds in soil. Operation and maintenance costs for SVE systems are increasingly becoming a major component of the environmental clean-up budget. In an effort to reduce costs, while assuring the protection of public health and the environment, a risk-based strategy has been developed for the curtailment and eventual shut-down of SVE systems at McClellan AFB. This paper presents an overview of the SVE EE/CA process and a detailed description of the development and implementation of the curtailment strategy. Included in the discussion are details of the public and regulatory involvement in the process.

  19. Effect of soil moisture on the sorption of trichloroethene vapor to vadose-zone soil at picatinny arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.A.; Chiou, C.T.; Kammer, J.A.; Kile, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents data on the sorption of trichloroethene (TCE) vapor to vadose-zone soil above a contaminated water-table aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal in Morris County, NJ. To assess the impact of moisture on TCE sorption, batch experiments on the sorption of TCE vapor by the field soil were carried out as a function of relative humidity. The TCE sorption decreases as soil moisture content increases from zero to saturation soil moisture content (the soil moisture content in equilibrium with 100% relative humidity). The moisture content of soil samples collected from the vadose zone was found to be greater than the saturation soil-moisture content, suggesting that adsorption of TCE by the mineral fraction of the vadose-zone soil should be minimal relative to the partition uptake by soil organic matter. Analyses of soil and soil-gas samples collected from the field indicate that the ratio of the concentration of TCE on the vadose-zone soil to its concentration in the soil gas is 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than the ratio predicted by using an assumption of equilibrium conditions. This apparent disequilibrium presumably results from the slow desorption of TCE from the organic matter of the vadose-zone soil relative to the dissipation of TCE vapor from the soil gas.

  20. Influence of soil properties on vapor-phase sorption of trichloroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekele, Dawit N. [Global Center for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment & Remediation of the Environment, Building X (Environmental Sciences Building), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: Ravi.Naidu@newcastle.edu.au [Global Center for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment & Remediation of the Environment, Building X (Environmental Sciences Building), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu [Global Center for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment & Remediation of the Environment, Building X (Environmental Sciences Building), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Vapor intrusion is a major exposure pathway for volatile hydrocarbons. • Certainty in transport processes enhances vapor intrusion model precision. • Detailed understanding of vadose zone vapor transport processes save resources. • Vapor sorption near-steady-state conditions at sites may take months or years. • Type of clay fractions equitably affects sorption of trichloroethylene vapor. - Abstract: Current practices in health risk assessment from vapor intrusion (VI) using mathematical models are based on assumptions that the subsurface sorption equilibrium is attained. The time required for sorption to reach near-steady-state conditions at sites may take months or years to achieve. This study investigated the vapor phase attenuation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in five soils varying widely in clay and organic matter content using repacked columns. The primary indicators of TCE sorption were vapor retardation rate (R{sub t}), the time required for the TCE vapor to pass through the soil column, and specific volume of retention (V{sub R}), and total volume of TCE retained in soil. Results show TCE vapor retardation is mainly due to the rapid partitioning of the compound to SOM. However, the specific volume of retention of clayey soils with secondary mineral particles was higher. Linear regression analyses of the SOM and clay fraction with V{sub R} show that a unit increase in clay fraction results in higher sorption of TCE (V{sub R}) than the SOM. However, partitioning of TCE vapor was not consistent with the samples' surface areas but was mainly a function of the type of secondary minerals present in soils.

  1. Non-aqueous phase liquid spreading during soil vapor extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Hunt, James R.

    2004-02-01

    Many non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are expected to spread at the air-water interface, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. In the vadose zone, this spreading should increase the surface area for mass transfer and the efficiency of volatile NAPL recovery by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Observations of spreading on water wet surfaces led to a conceptual model of oil spreading vertically above a NAPL pool in the vadose zone. Analysis of this model predicts that spreading can enhance the SVE contaminant recovery compared to conditions where the liquid does not spread. Experiments were conducted with spreading volatile oils hexane and heptane in wet porous media and capillary tubes, where spreading was observed at the scale of centimeters. Within porous medium columns up to a meter in height containing stagnant gas, spreading was less than ten centimeters and did not contribute significantly to hexane volatilization. Water film thinning and oil film pinning may have prevented significant oil film spreading, and thus did not enhance SVE at the scale of a meter. The experiments performed indicate that volatile oil spreading at the field scale is unlikely to contribute significantly to the efficiency of SVE.

  2. Near surface soil vapor clusters for monitoring emissions of volatile organic compounds from soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergas, S J; Hinlein, E S; Reyes, P O; Ostendorf, D W; Tehrany, J P

    2000-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to develop and test a method of determining emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other gases from soil surfaces. Soil vapor clusters (SVCs) were designed as a low dead volume, robust sampling system to obtain vertically resolved profiles of soil gas contaminant concentrations in the near surface zone. The concentration profiles, when combined with a mathematical model of porous media mass transport, were used to calculate the contaminant flux from the soil surface. Initial experiments were conducted using a mesoscale soil remediation system under a range of experimental conditions. Helium was used as a tracer and trichloroethene was used as a model VOC. Flux estimations using the SVCs were within 25% of independent surface flux estimates and were comparable to measurements made using a surface isolation flux chamber (SIFC). In addition, method detection limits for the SVC were an order of magnitude lower than detection limits with the SIFC. Field trials, conducted with the SVCs at a bioventing site, indicated that the SVC method could be easily used in the field to estimate fugitive VOC emission rates. Major advantages of the SVC method were its low detection limits, lack of required auxiliary equipment, and ability to obtain real-time estimates of fugitive VOC emission rates.

  3. The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

    2010-03-31

    Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

  4. Handbook of chemical vapor deposition principles, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pierson, Hugh O

    1999-01-01

    Turn to this new second edition for an understanding of the latest advances in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. CVD technology has recently grown at a rapid rate, and the number and scope of its applications and their impact on the market have increased considerably. The market is now estimated to be at least double that of a mere seven years ago when the first edition of this book was published. The second edition is an update with a considerably expanded and revised scope. Plasma CVD and metallo-organic CVD are two major factors in this rapid growth. Readers will find the latest

  5. Simulation of the Vapor Intrusion Process for Non-Homogeneous Soils Using a Three-Dimensional Numerical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Ozgur; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents model simulation results of vapor intrusion into structures built atop sites contaminated with volatile or semi-volatile chemicals of concern. A three-dimensional finite element model was used to investigate the importance of factors that could influence vapor intrusion when the site is characterized by non-homogeneous soils. Model simulations were performed to examine how soil layers of differing properties alter soil gas concentration profiles and vapor intrusion rates i...

  6. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  7. Evaluation of Empirical Data and Modeling Studies to Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria for Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study is an evaluation of empirical data and select modeling studies of the behavior of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) vapors in subsurface soils and how they can affect subsurface-to-indoor air vapor intrusion (VI), henceforth referred to as petroleum vapor intrusion or “PVI” ...

  8. Reduction of Legionella spp. in water and in soil by a citrus plant extract vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Katie; Kurzbach, Elena; Score, Jodie; Tejpal, Jyoti; Chi Tangyie, George; Phillips, Carol

    2014-10-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by Legionella spp., organisms often isolated from environmental sources, including soil and water. Legionella spp. are capable of replicating intracellularly within free-living protozoa, and once this has occurred, Legionella is particularly resistant to disinfectants. Citrus essential oil (EO) vapors are effective antimicrobials against a range of microorganisms, with reductions of 5 log cells ml(-1) on a variety of surfaces. The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of a citrus EO vapor against Legionella spp. in water and in soil systems. Reductions of viable cells of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii, and an intra-amoebal culture of Legionella pneumophila (water system only) were assessed in soil and in water after exposure to a citrus EO vapor at concentrations ranging from 3.75 mg/liter air to 15g/liter air. Antimicrobial efficacy via different delivery systems (passive and active sintering of the vapor) was determined in water, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the antimicrobial components (linalool, citral, and β-pinene) was conducted. There was up to a 5-log cells ml(-1) reduction in Legionella spp. in soil after exposure to the citrus EO vapors (15 mg/liter air). The most susceptible strain in water was L. pneumophila, with a 4-log cells ml(-1) reduction after 24 h via sintering (15 g/liter air). Sintering the vapor through water increased the presence of the antimicrobial components, with a 61% increase of linalool. Therefore, the appropriate method of delivery of an antimicrobial citrus EO vapor may go some way in controlling Legionella spp. from environmental sources.

  9. Chelant soil-washing technology for metal-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate here, in a pilot-scale experiment, the feasibility of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)based washing technology for soils contaminated with potentially toxic metals. Acid precipitation coupled to initial alkaline toxic metal removal and an electrochemical advanced oxidation process were used for average recovery of 76 +/- 2% of EDTA per batch and total recycle of water in a closed process loop. No waste water was generated; solid wastes were efficiently bitumen-stabilized before disposal. The technology embodiment, using conventional process equipment, such as a mixer for soil extraction, screen for soil/gravel separation, filter chamber presses for soil/liquid and recycled EDTA separation and soil rinsing, continuous centrifuge separator for removal of precipitated metals and electrolytic cells for process water cleansing, removed up to 72%, 25% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd from garden soil contaminated with up to 6960, 3797 and 32.6 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, in nine 60kg soil batches. Concentrations of Pb and Zn remaining in the remediated soil and bioaccessible from the simulated human intestinal phase soil were reduced by 97% and 96% and were brought under the level of determination for Cd. In the most cost-effective operation mode, the material and energy costs of remediation amounted to 50.5 Euros ton(-1) soil and the total cost to 299 Euros ton(-1).

  10. Soil remediation via bioventing, vapor extraction and transition regime between vapor extraction and bioventing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Comparison of the BV, SVE and AIBV technologies indicated that all of those technologies are efficient for remediation of unsaturated zone, but after specific remediation time frames, only AIBV able to support guide line values and protect ground waters.

  11. EVALUATION OF VAPOR EQUILIBRATION AND IMPACT OF PURGE VOLUME ON SOIL-GAS SAMPLING RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequential sampling was utilized at the Raymark Superfund site to evaluate attainment of vapor equilibration and the impact of purge volume on soil-gas sample results. A simple mass-balance equation indicates that removal of three to five internal volumes of a sample system shou...

  12. Using Concentrations of Methane and Gasoline Hydrocarbons in Soil Gas to Predict Vapor Intrusion of Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk management of petroleum vapor intrusion has been a daunting and challenging task for the Underground Storage Tank Program. Because chlorinated solvents do not degrade in soil gas, techniques that focus on their properties and behavior can produce useful estimates. However, t...

  13. Limited recovery of soil microbial activity after transient exposure to gasoline vapors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrzyński, Jakub J.; Christensen, Jan H.; Mayer, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    During gasoline spills complex mixtures of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released to terrestrial environments. Gasoline VOCs exert baseline toxicity (narcosis) and may thus broadly affect soil biota. We assessed the functional resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery of microbial...... functions) in soil microbial communities transiently exposed to gasoline vapors by passive dosing via headspace for 40 days followed by a recovery phase of 84 days. Chemical exposure was characterized with GC-MS, whereas microbial activity was monitored as soil respiration (CO2 release) and soil bacterial...... microbial activity indicating residual soil toxicity, which could not be attributed to BTEX, but rather to mixture toxicity of more persistent gasoline constituents or degradation products. Our results indicate a limited potential for functional recovery of soil microbial communities after transient...

  14. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1997-12-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation are described using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  15. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: IITRI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) technologies use electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. Contaminants are removed from in situ soils and transfe...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: COMM ENGINEERING, USA ENVIRONMENTAL VAPOR RECOVERY UNIT (EVRU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the testing of a new technology that recovers and utilizes vapors from crude oil storage tanks employed in the oil production and processing industry. The COMM Engineering, USA Environmental Vapor Recovery Unit (EVRU) is a non-mechanical eductor, or jet pump...

  17. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  18. Effects of biochar and manure amendments on water vapor sorption in a sandy loam soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    properties of soils, especially on water retention at low matric potentials. To overcome this knowledge gap, the effects of combined BC (0 to 100 Mg ha-1) and manure (21 and 42 Mg ha-1) applications on water vapor sorption and specific surface area was investigated for a sandy loam soil. In addition......, potential impacts of BC aging were evaluated. All considered BC-amendment rates led to a distinct increase of water retention, especially for low matric potentials. The observed increases were attributed to a significant increase of soil organic matter contents and specific surface areas in BCamended soils......Over the last few years, the application of biochar (BC) as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and mitigate global climate change has received considerable attention. While positive effects of biochar on plant nutrition are well documented, little is known about potential impacts on the physical...

  19. Simulation of the Vapor Intrusion Process for Non-Homogeneous Soils Using a Three-Dimensional Numerical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ozgur; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents model simulation results of vapor intrusion into structures built atop sites contaminated with volatile or semi-volatile chemicals of concern. A three-dimensional finite element model was used to investigate the importance of factors that could influence vapor intrusion when the site is characterized by non-homogeneous soils. Model simulations were performed to examine how soil layers of differing properties alter soil gas concentration profiles and vapor intrusion rates into structures. The results illustrate difference in soil gas concentration profiles and vapor intrusion rates between homogeneous and layered soils. The findings support the need for site conceptual models to adequately represent the site's geology when conducting site characterizations, interpreting field data and assessing the risk of vapor intrusion at a given site. For instance, in layered geologies, a lower permeability and diffusivity soil layer between the source and building often limits vapor intrusion rates, even if a higher permeability layer near the foundation permits increased soil gas flow rates into the building. In addition, the presence of water-saturated clay layers can considerably influence soil gas concentration profiles. Therefore, interpreting field data without accounting for clay layers in the site conceptual model could result in inaccurate risk calculations. Important considerations for developing more accurate conceptual site models are discussed in light of the findings.

  20. Incorporation of water vapor transfer in the JULES land surface model: Implications for key soil variables and land surface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Gonzalez, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Luigi Vidale, Pier; Braud, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    This study focuses on the mechanisms underlying water and heat transfer in upper soil layers, and their effects on soil physical prognostic variables and the individual components of the energy balance. The skill of the JULES (Joint UK Environment Simulator) land surface model (LSM) to simulate key soil variables, such as soil moisture content and surface temperature, and fluxes such as evaporation, is investigated. The Richards equation for soil water transfer, as used in most LSMs, was updated by incorporating isothermal and thermal water vapor transfer. The model was tested for three sites representative of semiarid and temperate arid climates: the Jornada site (New Mexico, USA), Griffith site (Australia), and Audubon site (Arizona, USA). Water vapor flux was found to contribute significantly to the water and heat transfer in the upper soil layers. This was mainly due to isothermal vapor diffusion; thermal vapor flux also played a role at the Jornada site just after rainfall events. Inclusion of water vapor flux had an effect on the diurnal evolution of evaporation, soil moisture content, and surface temperature. The incorporation of additional processes, such as water vapor flux among others, into LSMs may improve the coupling between the upper soil layers and the atmosphere, which in turn could increase the reliability of weather and climate predictions.

  1. Limited recovery of soil microbial activity after transient exposure to gasoline vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzyński, Jakub J; Christensen, Jan H; Mayer, Philipp; Brandt, Kristian K

    2016-09-01

    During gasoline spills complex mixtures of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released to terrestrial environments. Gasoline VOCs exert baseline toxicity (narcosis) and may thus broadly affect soil biota. We assessed the functional resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery of microbial functions) in soil microbial communities transiently exposed to gasoline vapors by passive dosing via headspace for 40 days followed by a recovery phase of 84 days. Chemical exposure was characterized with GC-MS, whereas microbial activity was monitored as soil respiration (CO2 release) and soil bacterial growth ([(3)H]leucine incorporation). Microbial activity was strongly stimulated and inhibited at low and high exposure levels, respectively. Microbial growth efficiency decreased with increasing exposure, but rebounded during the recovery phase for low-dose treatments. Although benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) concentrations decreased by 83-97% during the recovery phase, microbial activity in high-dose treatments did not recover and numbers of viable bacteria were 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than in control soil. Re-inoculation with active soil microorganisms failed to restore microbial activity indicating residual soil toxicity, which could not be attributed to BTEX, but rather to mixture toxicity of more persistent gasoline constituents or degradation products. Our results indicate a limited potential for functional recovery of soil microbial communities after transient exposure to high, but environmentally relevant, levels of gasoline VOCs which therefore may compromise ecosystem services provided by microorganisms even after extensive soil VOC dissipation.

  2. Mathematical simulation of soil vapor extraction systems: Model development and numerical examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathfelder, Klaus; Yeh, William W.-G.; Mackay, Douglas

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a numerical model for prediction of soil vapor extraction processes. The major emphasis is placed on field-scale predictions with the objective to advance development of planning tools for design and operation of venting systems. The numerical model solves two-dimensional flow and transport equations for general n-component contaminant mixtures. Flow is limited to the gas phase and local equilibrium partitioning is assumed in tracking contaminants in the immiscible fluid, water, gas, and solid phase. Model predictions compared favorably with analytical solutions and multicomponent column venting experiments. Sensitivity analysis indicates equilibrium phase partitioning is a good assumption in modeling organic liquid volatilization occurring in field venting operations. Mass transfer rates in volatilization from the water phase and contaminant desorption are potentially rate limiting. Simulations of hypothetical field-scale problems show efficiency of venting operations is most sensitive to vapor pressure and the magnitude and distribution of soil permeability.

  3. Evaluation of Water Vapor Sorption Hysteresis in Soils: The Role of Organic Matter and Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Hysteresis of the soil water characteristic (SWC) has been extensively studied for matric potentials between zero and −1.5 MPa. However, little information is available on how to quantify, evaluate, and identify the causes of hysteresis at potentials below −10 MPa where vapor sorption plays...... an important role. It is clear that modeling physical and biological soil processes is more accurate when SWC hysteresis is considered, particularly at low potentials where small differences in water content are associated with large changes in potential energy. The objectives of the presented study were to......: (i) evaluate and compare recently developed methods (MBET-n, Dh and SPN) for quantifying hysteresis in soils and pure clays, and (ii) investigate the role of organic matter (OM) and clay content and type on hysteresis. Five pure clays and two sets of soils with gradients in organic matter and clay...

  4. The predictable influence of soil temperature and barometric pressure changes on vapor intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David L.; McRae, Mary F.

    2017-02-01

    Intrusion of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase has impacted many buildings in many different locations. Various building and environmental factors such as buoyancy of heated air and changes in barometric pressure can influence indoor air concentrations due to vapor intrusion in these buildings resulting in seasonal and daily variability. One environmental factor that previous research has not adequately addressed is soil temperature. In this study we present two northern region study sites where the seasonal trends in indoor air VOC concentrations positively correlate with soil temperature, and short-term (days) variations are associated with barometric pressure changes. We present simple and multivariate linear relationships of indoor air concentrations as a function of soil temperature and barometric pressure. Results from this study show that small changes in soil temperature can result in relatively large changes in indoor air VOC concentrations where the gas phase VOCs are sourced from non-aqueous phase liquids contained in the soil. We use the results from this study to show that a five degree Celsius increase in soil temperature, a variation in soil temperature that is possible in many climatic regions, results in a two-fold increase in indoor air VOC concentrations. Additionally, analysis provides insight into how building ventilation, diffusion, and the relative rate of soil-gas flow across the slab both from the subsurface into the building and from the building into the subsurface impact short term variations in concentrations. With these results we are able to provide monitoring recommendations for practitioners.

  5. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the formulation, numerical development, and use of a multiphase, multicomponent, biodegradation model designed to simulate physical, chemical, and biological interactions occurring primarily in field scale soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (B...

  6. Technology update: bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation for managing severe emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gompelmann D

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Gompelmann,1,2 Ralf Eberhardt,1,2 Felix JF Herth1,21Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, 2German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg, GermanyAbstract: Bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation (BTVA is an endoscopic lung volume reduction therapy that presents an effective treatment approach in patients with severe upper lobe-predominant emphysema. By instillation of heated water vapor, an inflammatory reaction is induced, leading to fibrosis and scarring of the lung parenchyma, resulting in lobar volume reduction. Clinical single-arm trials demonstrated great outcomes, with significant improvement of lung function, exercise capacity, and quality of life. As the BTVA-induced local inflammatory response that seems to be essential for the desired lobar volume reduction can be associated with transient clinical worsening, strict monitoring of the patients is required. In future, the balance between efficacy and safety will constitute a major challenge. This review summarizes the BTVA procedure, the mechanism of action, and the results of the clinical trials, including the efficacy and safety data.Keywords: emphysema, bronchoscopy, bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation

  7. Embedded Empiricisms in Soft Soil Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; John, L. M. S. Alvin; Adnan, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Civil engineers of today are continuously challenged by innovative projects that push further the knowledge boundaries with conceptual and/or ingenious solutions leading to the realization of that once was considered impossible in the realms of geotechnology. Some of the forward developments rely on empirical methods embedded within soft soil technology and the spectral realms of engineering in its entirety. Empiricisms unlike folklore are not always shrouded in mysticism but can find scientific reasoning to justify them being adopted in design and tangible construction projects. This lecture therefore is an outline exposition of how empiricism has been integrally embedded in total empirical beginnings in the evolution of soft soil technology from the Renaissance time, through the developments of soil mechanics in the 19th century which in turn has paved the way to the rise of computational soil mechanics. Developments in computational soil mechanics has always embraced and are founded on a wide backdrop of empirical geoenvironment simulations. However, it is imperative that a competent geotechnical engineer needs postgraduate training combined with empiricism that is based on years of well- winnowed practical experience to fathom the diverseness and complexity of nature. However, experience being regarded more highly than expertise can, perhaps inadvertently, inhibit development and innovation.

  8. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  9. Challenges in Bulk Soil Sampling and Analysis for Vapor Intrusion Screening of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft Engineering Issue Paper discusses technical issues with monitoring soil excavations for VOCs and describes options for such monitoring as part of a VI pathway assessment at sites where soil excavation is being considered or used as part of the remedy for VOC-contaminat...

  10. Testing and Results of Human Metabolic Simulation Utilizing Ultrasonic Nebulizer Technology for Water Vapor Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Matthew; Curley, Su

    2010-01-01

    Life support technology must be evaluated thoroughly before ever being implemented into a functioning design. A major concern during that evaluation is safety. The ability to mimic human metabolic loads allows test engineers to evaluate the effectiveness of new technologies without risking injury to any actual humans. The main function of most life support technologies is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) vapor. As such any good human metabolic simulator (HMS) will mimic the human body s ability to produce these items. Introducing CO2 into a test chamber is a very straightforward process with few unknowns so the focus of this particular new HMS design was on the much more complicated process of introducing known quantities of H2O vapor on command. Past iterations of the HMS have utilized steam which is very hard to keep in vapor phase while transporting and injecting into a test chamber. Also steam adds large quantities of heat to any test chamber, well beyond what an actual human does. For the new HMS an alternative approach to water vapor generation was designed utilizing ultrasonic nebulizers as a method for creating water vapor. Ultrasonic technology allows water to be vibrated into extremely tiny pieces (2-5 microns) and evaporate without requiring additional heating. Doing this process inside the test chamber itself allows H2O vapor generation without the unwanted heat and the challenging process of transporting water vapor. This paper presents the design details as well as results of all initial and final acceptance system testing. Testing of the system was performed at a range of known human metabolic rates in both sea-level and reduced pressure environments. This multitude of test points fully defines the systems capabilities as they relate to actual environmental systems testing.

  11. Evaluation of a Fully Automated Analyzer for Rapid Measurement of Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms for Applications in Soil Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and description of important soil processes such as water vapor transport, volatilization of pesticides, and hysteresis require accurate means for measuring the soil water characteristic (SWC) at low water potentials. Until recently, measurement of the SWC at low water potent...... oven-dry (105 °C) samples of coarse-textured soils exhibited water repellency characteristics. The required measurement times were strongly correlated with clay content and influenced by high organic carbon content....

  12. Assessment of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) Technology at the MSFC ECLS Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Kristin; Long, David; Carter, Layne; Flynn, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia. Removal (VPCAR) technology has been previously discussed as a viable option for. the Exploration Water Recovery System. This technology integrates a phase change process with catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase to produce potable water from exploration mission wastewaters. A developmental prototype VPCAR was designed, built and tested under funding provided by a National Research. Announcement (NRA) project. The core technology, a Wiped Film Rotating Device (WFRD) was provided by Water Reuse Technologies under the NRA, whereas Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International performed the hardware integration and acceptance test. of the system. Personnel at the-Ames Research Center performed initial systems test of the VPCAR using ersatz solutions. To assess the viability of this hardware for Exploration. Life Support (ELS) applications, the hardware has been modified and tested at the MSFC ECLS Test facility. This paper summarizes the hardware modifications and test results and provides an assessment of this technology for the ELS application.

  13. Analytical solutions for a soil vapor extraction model that incorporates gas phase dispersion and molecular diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junqi; Goltz, Mark N.

    2017-06-01

    To greatly simplify their solution, the equations describing radial advective/dispersive transport to an extraction well in a porous medium typically neglect molecular diffusion. While this simplification is appropriate to simulate transport in the saturated zone, it can result in significant errors when modeling gas phase transport in the vadose zone, as might be applied when simulating a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system to remediate vadose zone contamination. A new analytical solution for the equations describing radial gas phase transport of a sorbing contaminant to an extraction well is presented. The equations model advection, dispersion (including both mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion), and rate-limited mass transfer of dissolved, separate phase, and sorbed contaminants into the gas phase. The model equations are analytically solved by using the Laplace transform with respect to time. The solutions are represented by confluent hypergeometric functions in the Laplace domain. The Laplace domain solutions are then evaluated using a numerical Laplace inversion algorithm. The solutions can be used to simulate the spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of contaminant concentrations during operation of a soil vapor extraction well. Results of model simulations show that the effect of gas phase molecular diffusion upon concentrations at the extraction well is relatively small, although the effect upon the distribution of concentrations in space is significant. This study provides a tool that can be useful in designing SVE remediation strategies, as well as verifying numerical models used to simulate SVE system performance.

  14. An Excel(®)-based visualization tool of 2-D soil gas concentration profiles in petroleum vapor intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginelli, Iason; Yao, Yijun; Suuberg, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a petroleum vapor intrusion tool implemented in Microsoft(®) Excel(®) using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and integrated within a graphical interface. The latter helps users easily visualize two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles and indoor concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, biodegradation reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. This tool is based on a two-dimensional explicit analytical model that combines steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil with a piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation model, in which rate is limited by oxygen availability. As recommended in the recently released United States Environmental Protection Agency's final Petroleum Vapor Intrusion guidance, a sensitivity analysis and a simplified Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis are also included in the spreadsheet.

  15. IITRI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    IITRI's patented in situ RFH technology enhances the removal of volatile and semi-volatile organics by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Electromagnetic energy heats the soil resulting in increased contaminant vapor pressures and potentially higher soil permeability. RFH heats soil us...

  16. IITRI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    IITRI's patented in situ RFH technology enhances the removal of volatile and semi-volatile organics by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Electromagnetic energy heats the soil resulting in increased contaminant vapor pressures and potentially higher soil permeability. RFH heats soil us...

  17. Deposition of heavy water vapor from air to plant and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ichimasa, Michiko; Ichimasa, Yusuke

    1999-03-01

    When tritium is released into the atmosphere, plants play an important role in processes of tritium transfer in the environment. However, available data is limited because the uptake of tritium into a plant is affected by many factors such as plant growth, humidity, solar radiation, stomatal condition - all of which vary in daily and seasonal cycles. Deuterium, a stable isotope of tritium, was released as a tracer of tritium in the form of D{sub 2}O vapor in a greenhouse to study the transfer of tritium from air to plants and soils. The deposition rate of D{sub 2}O from the air to plant leaves was measured in a daytime and in a nighttime, and the results were compared. After D{sub 2}O release stopped, decline of D{sub 2}O concentrations in plant free water was measured. (author)

  18. Vapor Extraction/Bioventing Sequential Treatment of Soil Contaminated with Volatile and SemiVolatile Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malina, G.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    A cost-effective removal strategy was studied in bench-scale columns that involved vapor extraction and bioventing sequential treatment of toluene- and decane-contaminated soil. The effect of operating mode on treatment performance was examined at a continuous air flow and consecutively at two diffe

  19. [Recent advance in solidification/stabilization technology for the remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Han-zhou; Chen, Tong-bin; Jin, Meng-gui; Lei, Mei; Liu, Cheng-wu; Zu, Wen-pu; Huang, Li-mi

    2011-03-01

    Remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil is still a difficulty and a hotspot of international research projects. At present, the technologies commonly adopted for the remediation of contaminated sites mainly include excavation, solidification/stabilization (S/S), soil washing, soil vapor extraction (SVE), thermal treatment, and bioremediation. Based on the S/S technical guidelines of Unite State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and United Kingdom Environment Agency (EA) and the domestic and foreign patents, this paper introduced the concepts of S/S and its development status at home and abroad, and discussed its future development directions. Solidification refers to a process that binds contaminated media with a reagent, changing the media's physical properties via increasing its compressive strength, decreasing its permeability, and encapsulating the contaminants to form a solid material. Stabilization refers to the process that involves a chemical reaction which reduces the leachability of a waste, chemically immobilizes the waste and reduces its solubility, making the waste become less harmful or less mobile. S/S technology includes cement solidification, lime pozzolanic solidification, plastic materials stabilization, vitrification, and regent-based stabilization. Stabilization (or immobilization) treatment processes convert contaminants to less mobile forms through chemical or thermal interactions. In stabilization technology, the aim of adding agents is to change the soil physical and chemical properties through pH control technology, redox potential technology, precipitation techniques, adsorption technology, and ion-exchange technology that change the existing forms of heavy metals in soil, and thus, reduce the heavy metals bioavailability and mobility. This review also discussed the S/S evaluation methods, highlighted the need to enhance S/S technology in the molecular bonding, soil polymers, and formulation of China's S/S technical guidelines.

  20. COMPARISON OF GEOPROBE PRT AND AMS GVP SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS WITH DEDICATED VAPOR PROBES IN SANDY SOILS AT THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut to compare results of soil-gas sampling using dedicated vapor probes, a truck-mounted direct-push technique - the Geoprobe Post-Run-Tubing (PRT) system, and a hand-held rotary hammer technique - the A...

  1. Comparison of Adsorbed Mercury Screening Method With Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for Determination of Mercury in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, Donald F.; Hovanitz, Edward S.; Street, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    A field screening method for the determination of elemental mercury in environmental soil samples involves the thermal desorption of the mercury from the sample onto gold and then the thermal desorption from the gold to a gold-film mercury vapor analyzer. This field screening method contains a large number of conditions that could be optimized for the various types of soils encountered. In this study, the conditions were optimized for the determination of mercury in silty clay materials, and the results were comparable to the cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometric method of determination. This paper discusses the benefits and disadvantages of employing the field screening method and provides the sequence of conditions that must be optimized to employ this method of determination on other soil types.

  2. Effects of pulsed and oscillatory flow on water vapor removal from a laboratory soil column. Final report, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, K.E.

    1993-05-01

    Subsurface contamination by volatile organic contaminants (VOC`s) in the vadose zone and groundwater is primarily due to leaking underground storage tanks and industrial spills. Soil vapor extraction is a technique that is being used successfully to remove VOC`s from the subsurface. A flow of air is established through the soil to remove the vapor phase component of the contaminant. Soil vapor extraction will initially remove high levels of contaminant that is already present in the macropores. The concentration will start to decline as the removal from the soil matrix becomes limited by diffusion of contaminant from regions away from the air flow paths. This study examines potential methods of overcoming the diffusion limitation by adding an oscillatory component to the steady air flow and by pulsed flow, which involves turning air flow on and off at predetermined intervals. The study considered only the removal of water from the soil to try to establish general vapor behavior in the soil under the imposed conditions. Based on a statistical analysis, both the oscillatory and pulsed flow showed an improved water removal rate over the steady state flow. The effect of oscillatory flow was only examined at higher frequencies. The literature indicates that oscillations at lower frequencies may be more effective. Pulsed flow showed the most efficient removal of water compared to steady state conditions. The pulsed flow was most efficient because rather than reducing the diffusion limitation, the system would shut down and wait for diffusion to occur. This optimizes energy consumption, but does not reduce treatment time. The oscillatory flow actually reduced the diffusion limitation within the column which could result in a shorter treatment time.

  3. Soil and Sediment remediation, mechanisms, technologies and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Malina, G.; Tabak, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for the treatment of soils and sediments in-situ (landfarming, bioscreens, bioventing, nutrient injection, phytoremediation) and ex-situ (landfarming, bio-heap treatment, soil suspension reactor) will be discussed. The microbiological, process technological and socio-economical aspects

  4. Soil and Sediment remediation, mechanisms, technologies and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Malina, G.; Tabak, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for the treatment of soils and sediments in-situ (landfarming, bioscreens, bioventing, nutrient injection, phytoremediation) and ex-situ (landfarming, bio-heap treatment, soil suspension reactor) will be discussed. The microbiological, process technological and socio-economical aspects

  5. Developing technology of remediation of oil-contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchyk, Lesya; Romaniuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Abstract ? The results of developing technologies for cleaning of soils from oil pollution on the example of Boryslav are shown. The prospects of tree species for the remediation of oil-contaminated soils are studied. The best results of cleaning oil contaminated soils with the application of Hippophae rhamnoides L. plants were obtained. It is a promising measure for restoring the oil-contaminated soils, attractive both from environmental and economical point of view.

  6. Soil radon survey to assess NAPL contamination from an ancient spill. Do kerosene vapors affect radon partition ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Gabriele; Lucchetti, Carlo; Pompilj, Francesca; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola; Curatolo, Pierpaolo; Giorgi, Riccardo

    2017-05-01

    A soil radon-deficit survey was carried out in a site polluted with kerosene (Rome, Italy) in winter 2016 to assess the contamination due to the NAPL residual component in the vadose zone and to investigate the role of the vapor plume. Radon is indeed more soluble in the residual NAPL than in air or water, but laboratory experiments demonstrated that it is also preferentially partitioned in the NAPL vapors that transport it and may influence soil radon distribution patterns. Specific experimental configurations were designed and applied to a 31-station grid to test this hypothesis; two RAD7 radon monitors were placed in-series and connected to the top of a hollow probe driven up to 80-cm depth; the first instrument was directly attached to the probe and received humid soil gas, which was counted and then conveyed to the second monitor through a desiccant (drierite) cylinder capturing moisture and eventually the NAPL volatile component plus the radon dissolved in vapors. The values from the two instruments were cross-calibrated through specifically designed laboratory experiments and compared. The results are in agreement within the error range, so the presence of significant NAPL vapors, eventually absorbed by drierite, was ruled out. This is in agreement with low concentrations of soil VOCs. Accordingly, the radon-deficit is ascribed to the residual NAPL in the soil pores, as shown very well also by the obtained maps. Preferential areas of radon-deficit were recognised, as in previous surveys. An average estimate of 21 L (17 Kg) of residual NAPL per cubic meter of terrain is provided on the basis of original calculations, developed from published equations. A comparison with direct determination of total hydrocarbon concentration (23 kg per cubic meter of terrain) is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: KAI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAI developed a patented, in situ RFH technology to enhance the removal of volatile and semi-volatile organics by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Electromagnetic energy heats the soil resulting in increased contaminant vapor pressures and soil permeability that may increase with dry...

  8. Identification of Alternative Vapor Intrusion Pathways Using Controlled Pressure Testing, Soil Gas Monitoring, and Screening Model Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Holton, Chase; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-11-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment and data interpretation have been guided by an historical conceptual model in which vapors originating from contaminated soil or groundwater diffuse upward through soil and are swept into a building by soil gas flow induced by building underpressurization. Recent studies reveal that alternative VI pathways involving neighborhood sewers, land drains, and other major underground piping can also be significant VI contributors, even to buildings beyond the delineated footprint of soil and groundwater contamination. This work illustrates how controlled-pressure-method testing (CPM), soil gas sampling, and screening-level emissions calculations can be used to identify significant alternative VI pathways that might go undetected by conventional sampling under natural conditions at some sites. The combined utility of these tools is shown through data collected at a long-term study house, where a significant alternative VI pathway was discovered and altered so that it could be manipulated to be on or off. Data collected during periods of natural and CPM conditions show that the alternative pathway was significant, but its presence was not identifiable under natural conditions; it was identified under CPM conditions when measured emission rates were 2 orders of magnitude greater than screening-model estimates and subfoundation vertical soil gas profiles changed and were no longer consistent with the conventional VI conceptual model.

  9. A Study on Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) Technology and Super Coating Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian; LI Jian-ping; ZENG Xiang-cai; MA Wen-cun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the dense and columnar crystalline TiCN coating layers with very good bonding strength between a layer and another layer was deposited using Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) where CH3CN organic composite with C/N atomic clusters etc. was utilized at 700 ~ 900 ℃. Effect of coating processing parameters, such as coating temperature, pressure and different gas flow quantity on structures and properties of TiCN coating layers were investigated. The super coating mechanis mand structures were analyzed. The new coating processing parameters and properties of carbide inserts with super coating layers were gained by using the improved high temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD) equipment and HT-CVD, in combination with MT-CVD technology.

  10. Status and prospects of frozen soil studies using CT technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiJie Chen; ShuPing Zhao; Wei Ma; QianTao Zhu; LiLi Xing

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of Computed Tomography (CT) technology and reviews its history, current situation, representative achievements, and use of using CT technology on frozen soil study, including auxiliary equipment specially de-signed for frozen soil studies. CT numbers are used to analyze frozen soil internal structure change, defining and exploring dam-age evolution, and use of CT images on observing soil mesostructure. Finally, this paper presents existing problems confronted by using CT in frozen soil studies, possible solutions and challenges, among which, we introduce high quality CT image processing for frozen soils, and relations between CT number change and each component change on frozen soil samples within the region of interest. It is shown that present CT technology is one of the most ideal and effective technology to study frozen soil mesostructure using non-destructive testing. CT technology will play a key role in the study and development in the field of frozen soil by means of auxiliary equipment and the digital imaging processing.

  11. Field Validation of the NUFT Code for Subsurface Remediation by Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J.J.

    2000-09-23

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a widely-used method for remediation of contaminants in the unsaturated, or vadose, zone. SVE removes volatile contaminants by extracting gases from the subsurface. The pressure gradients necessary to drive gas flow are limited by at most one atmosphere of vacuum. Therefore, a common adjunct to SVE is the injection of fresh air into the subsurface at a distance from the extraction wells in order to increase overall gas pressure gradients, and, hence, flow rates. SVE has also been used for saturated zone remediation by first pumping the water table down to expose free phase contaminants. The selection of a vadose zone remediation method depends on a variety of site parameters. The type of contaminant is a major factor. Obviously, the selection of SVE as a method makes sense only for volatile contaminants since, otherwise, gas phase transport would be impossible. Bioventing is often a cost-effective candidate for contaminants that biodegrade easily in an aerobic environment, such as petroleum hydrocarbons. Bioventing shares some similarity to SVE, except that the flow rates are usually much lower. Whereas, the main goal of bioventing is to provide oxygen to the micro-organisms that break-down the contaminant; the main goal of SVE is physical removal. Biodegradation may be, for some contaminants, an important side benefit of SVE. However, bioventing and other forms of bioremediation are not considered to be effective for chlorinated vadose zone contaminants, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), which does not biodegrade readily in an aerobic environment. Soil excavation is a viable remediation method for the shallow spills where there are no existing important man-made structures. Otherwise, SVE is often the most appropriate and widely used remediation method for VOC's in the vadose zone.

  12. Profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern Uganda Highlands. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract. The lack of farmer awareness of costs and benefits associated with the use of sustainable land ...

  13. SOIL-WASHING TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil washing in the United States has been studied and evaluated with increasing thoroughness during the last 15 to 20 years. It is now entering a phase of actual use and acceptance as its applicability and economics become clearer. This paper reviews the principles behind soil...

  14. SOIL-WASHING TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil washing in the United States has been studied and evaluated with increasing thoroughness during the last 15 to 20 years. It is now entering a phase of actual use and acceptance as its applicability and economics become clearer. This paper reviews the principles behind soil...

  15. Remediation of oil-contaminated soil using the CLEANSOIL technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, A. V.; Korzhov, Yu. V.; Lapshina, E. D.; Kul'Kov, M. G.; Yarkov, D. M.; Khoroshev, D. I.

    2011-04-01

    Approbation data of the innovative CLEANSOIL technology of soil purification after oil pollution are given. Drainage pipes filled with an adsorbent with microorganisms placed in the soil are used. It is revealed that the content of hydrocarbons under the technological constructions (metal columns and reservoirs) rises in comparison with the open oil-polluted areas. It is shown that the oil is destroyed quicker under the constructions versus in the open areas. The microorganisms better assimilate the n-alkanes with C14 chains than the C32-40 hydrocarbons. The application of a combined technology based on the sorption and reduction of the hydrocarbons by microorganisms makes it possible to quickly reduce the soil pollution by oil products without the soil cover's disturbance.

  16. Estimating the Impact of Vadose Zone Sources on Groundwater to Support Performance Assessment of Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rice, Amy K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carroll, Kenneth C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simon, Michelle A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. To support selection of an appropriate endpoint for the SVE remedy, an evaluation is needed to determine whether vadose zone contamination has been diminished sufficiently to protect groundwater. When vapor-phase transport is an important component of the overall contaminant fate and transport from a vadose zone source, the contaminant concentration expected in groundwater is controlled by a limited set of parameters, including specific site dimensions, vadose zone properties, and source characteristics. An approach was developed for estimating the contaminant concentration in groundwater resulting from a contaminant source in the vadose zone based on pre-modeling contaminant transport for a matrix of parameter value combinations covering a range of potential site conditions. An interpolation and scaling process are then applied to estimate groundwater impact for site-specific conditions.

  17. Soil ecology and agricultural technology; An integrated approach towards improved soil management for sustainable farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulleman, Mirjam; Pérès, Guénola; Crittenden, Stephen; Heddadj, Djilali; Sukkel, Wijnand

    2014-05-01

    Intensive arable food production systems are in need of smart solutions that combine ecological knowledge and farm technology to maximize yields while protecting natural resources. The huge diversity of soil organisms and their interactions is of crucial importance for soil functions and ecosystem services, such as organic matter incorporation and break down, nutrient mineralization, soil structure formation, water regulation and disease and pest control. Soil management decisions that take into account the soil biodiversity and associated functions are thus essential to (i) maintain soil productivity in the long term, (ii) reduce the dependency on external inputs and non-renewables such as fossil fuels, and (iii) make agroecosystems more resilient against biotic and abiotic stresses. Organic farming systems and reduced tillage systems are two approaches that aim to increase soil biodiversity and general soil quality, through improved management of organic matter but differ in their emphasis on the use of chemical inputs for crop protection or soil disturbance, respectively. In North-western Europe experience with and knowledge of reduced tillage systems is still scarce, both in conventional and organic farming. Our study targeted both conventional and organic farming and aimed at 1) documenting reduced tillage practices within different agroecological contexts in NW Europe; 2) evaluating the effects of reduced tillage systems on soil biodiversity and soil ecosystem services; 3) increase understanding of agroecological factors that determine trade-offs between different ecosystem services. Earthworm species and nematode taxa were selected as indicator organisms to be studied for their known response to soil management and effects on soil functions. Additionally, soil organic matter, physical soil parameters and processes, and crop yields have been measured across multiple sites. Data have been collected over several cropping seasons in long term field experiments

  18. BABCOCK & WILCOX CYCLONE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Babcock & Wilcox 6 million Btu/hr pilot cyclone furnace was successfully used in a 2-yr Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology project to melt and vitrify an EPA Synthetic Soil Matrix (SSM) spiked with 7,000 ppm lead, 1,000 ppm cadmium, and 1,5...

  19. 土壤气相抽提影响半径及透气率现场试验%Field Study on Radius of Influence of Soil Vapor Extraction and Air Permeability of Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 王慧玲

    2011-01-01

    土壤气相抽提技术(SVE)可有效去除非饱和土壤中的挥发性有机污染物。土壤透气率及气相抽提的影响半径是进行SVE系统设计的重要参数,可通过多种方法取得。文章通过在北京市某焦化厂进行SVE现场试验,监测系统运行的土壤气相压力变化,求取土壤透气率及抽气影响半径。监测结果表明:SVE系统运行后,土壤中气相压力降最初不断增大,可在某—时刻达到稳定;压力降以抽气井为中心,向外围逐渐减小,其压力降梯度也渐趋平缓。可在现场试验资料的基础上,利用公式或绘制真空度随距离变化的半对数曲线求取影响半径;利用公式或监测井真空度随时间变化的半对数曲线(直线图解法)确定土壤透气率。SVE现场试验土壤参数计算结果与经验值一致,说明现场试验方法是进行参数计算的有效方法。%Volatile organic contaminants can be removed from soil using technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE). This paper describes an on-site experiment of SVE used for contaminated soil remediation at a coking plant in Beijing, in which variation of soil vapor pressure is monitored and radius of influence (ROI) of soil permeability is calculated. Results of the field test are used to calculate the ROI and to determine air permeability of soil based on a formula or the data of monitoring wells which describe changes of vacuum against time. Values of soil data acquired are consistent with the empirical ones, which indicate the effectiveness of the field test method.

  20. Remediation of DNAPLs in Low Permeability Soils. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-09-01

    Dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) compounds like trichloroethene (TCE) and perchloroethene (PCE) are prevalent at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), other government, and industrial sites. Their widespread presence in low permeability media (LPM) poses severe challenges for assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective remediation technologies. Most remedial methods that involve fluid flow perform poorly in LPM. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of remediation methods such as vapor extraction, free-product recovery, soil flushing, steam stripping, bioremediation, bioventing, and air sparging in LPM by enhancing formation permeability through the creation of fractures filled with high-permeability materials, such as sand. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of other remediation methods such as oxidation, reductive dechlorination, and bioaugmentation by enhancing delivery of reactive agents to the subsurface. Hydraulic fractures are typically created using a 2-in. steel casing and a drive point pushed into the subsurface by a pneumatic hammer. Hydraulic fracturing has been widely used for more than 50 years to stimulate the yield of wells recovering oil from rock at great depth and has recently been shown to stimulate the yield of wells recovering contaminated liquids and vapors from LPM at shallow depths. Hydraulic fracturing is an enabling technology for improving the performance of some remedial methods and is a key element in the implementation of other methods. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

  1. Recent lidar technology developments and their influence on measurements of tropospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Syed; Browell, Edward V.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the influences of recent technology developments in the areas of lasers, detectors, andoptical filters of a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system on the measurenent of tropospheric water vapor (H2O) profiles are discussed. The lidar parameters selected are based upon a diode-seeded Ti:sapphire laser that is locked to an H2O line in the 820- or 930-nm band of H2O. To assess the influence of the mode of deployment on the measurement of tropospheric H2O, DIAL performance is evaluated for operation from a medium-altitude (12 km) aircraft, the ground, and space-based systems. It is found that incorporation of these developments could greatly enhance DIAL measurement capability.

  2. Densification mechanism of chemical vapor infiltration technology for carbon/carbon composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-xun; XIONG Xiang; HUANG Qi-zhong; YI Mao-zhong; HUANG Bai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites were fabricated using pressure-gradient chemical vapor infiltration(CVI) technology with propane (C3H6) as the carbon precursor gas and nitrogen (N2) as the carrier gas. The chemical process of deposition of pyrolytic carbon was deduced by analyzing the component of molecules in gas phase and observing the microstructure of deposition carbon. The results show that the process of deposition starts from the breakdown of C-C single bond of propene (C3H6), and forms two kinds of active groups in the heterogeneous gas phase reaction. Afterwards, these active groups form many stable bigger molecules and deposit on carbon fiber surface. At the same time, hydrogen atoms of the bigger molecules absorbed on carbon fiber surface are eliminated and the solid pyrolytic carbon matrix is formed in the heterogeneous reaction process.

  3. Soil Physical Constraints on Intrinsic Biodegradation of Petroleum Vapors in a Layered Subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Andreas Houlberg; Henriksen, Kaj; Mortensen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic biodegradation of organic contaminants in the soil vadose zone depends on site-specific soil properties controlling biophysical and geochemical interactions within the soil pore space. In this study we evaluated the effect of soil texture and moisture conditions on aerobic biodegradation...... in a deep and highly layered vadose zone contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Soil slurry experiments on benzene biodegradation were used for determining the relative potential for hydrocarbon biodegradation in 100 soil samples collected from 2-16 m below ground surface. Regardless of nutrient......-poor and calcareous subsoil conditions, the results showed a significant aerobic biodegradation potential. Average first-order rate constants (k1) ranged from 0 to 5 d-1 and varied significantly across soil types in the order sandy loam > fine sand > limestone. Within samples with high biodegradation potential, soil...

  4. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: In-well vapor stripping, in-situ bioremediation, gas membrane separation system (membrane separation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides stakeholder evaluations on innovative technologies to be used in the remediation of volatile organic compounds from soils and ground water. The technologies evaluated are; in-well vapor stripping, in-situ bioremediation, and gas membrane separation.

  5. Efficacy of an Unsaturated Soil Flushing/Enhanced Bioremediation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. E.; Badley, J. A.; Crowe, A. S.

    2003-12-01

    Undesirably high concentrations of DDT and its daughter products DDE and DDD in some soils at Point Pelee National Park (PPNP) in Leamington, Ontario, Canada has resulted in restricted access to relatively large areas of the park. The contamination occurs primarily within the upper 20 cm thick Ah horizon, and has been linked to elevated levels within numerous local fauna. The common solution of "dig-and-dump" is not practical in this case since it would destroy the local protected ecosystem. Field trials conducted by McMaster University in partnership with Environment Canada, and Parks Canada have indicated that the application of solutions of cyclodextrin as a low-impact soil flushing/enhanced biodegradation remediation technology can remove a large proportion of DDT, DDE and DDD from the soil within a few months. Based upon previous studies at PPNP, the naturally occurring degradation processes would take decades to achieve the same mass loss. The cyclodextrin solutions exhibited a strong "tailing-effect" after approximately ten pore-volumes had passed through the Ah. There was an effect on soil hydraulic properties with decreased hydraulic conductivities and higher soil water retention, particularly where the higher concentration solutions were applied. The results indicate that soil flushing with cyclodextrin is highly effective to remediate pesticide contaminated soils. Additional work will quantify the relative amount of enhanced degradation versus mobilisation.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CYCLONE FURNACE SOIL VITRI- FICATION TECHNOLOGY - BABCOCK & WILCOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock and Wilcox's (B&W) cyclone furnace is an innovative thermal technology which may offer advantages in treating soils containing organics, heavy metals, and/or radionuclide contaminants. The furnace used in the SITE demonstration was a 4- to 6-million Btu/hr pilot system....

  7. Biosurfactant technology for remediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Nair, Anupa; Dubey, Kirti V; Singh, S K; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-08-01

    This research focuses on column experiments conducted to evaluate the potential of environmentally compatible rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2 to remove heavy metals (Cd and Pb) from artificially contaminated soil. Results have shown that di-rhamnolipid removes not only the leachable or available fraction of Cd and Pb but also the bound metals as compared to tap water which removed the mobile fraction only. Washing of contaminated soil with tap water revealed that approximately 2.7% of Cd and 9.8% of Pb in contaminated soil was in freely available or weakly bound forms whereas washing with rhamnolipid removed 92% of Cd and 88% of Pb after 36 h of leaching. This indicated that di-rhamnolipid selectively favours mobilization of metals in the order of Cd>Pb. Biosurfactant specificity observed towards specific metal will help in preferential elution of specific contaminant using di-rhamnolipid. It was further observed that pH of the leachates collected from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with di-rhamnolipid solution was low (6.60-6.78) as compared to that of leachates from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with tap water (pH 6.90-7.25), which showed high dissolution of metal species from the contaminated soil and effective leaching of metals with treatment with biosurfactant. The microbial population of the contaminated soil was increased after removal of metals by biosurfactant indicating the decrease of toxicity of metals to soil microflora. This study shows that biosurfactant technology can be an effective and nondestructive method for bioremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soil.

  8. Bioremediation of industrially contaminated soil using compost and plant technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, A M; Gbadebo, A M; Oyedepo, J A; Ojekunle, Z O; Alo, O M; Oyeniran, A A; Onalaja, O J; Ogunjimi, D; Taiwo, O T

    2016-03-05

    Compost technology can be utilized for bioremediation of contaminated soil using the active microorganisms present in the matrix of contaminants. This study examined bioremediation of industrially polluted soil using the compost and plant technology. Soil samples were collected at the vicinity of three industrial locations in Ogun State and a goldmine site in Iperindo, Osun State in March, 2014. The compost used was made from cow dung, water hyacinth and sawdust for a period of twelve weeks. The matured compost was mixed with contaminated soil samples in a five-ratio pot experimental design. The compost and contaminated soil samples were analyzed using the standard procedures for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus, exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds were also planted for co-remediation of metals. The growth parameters of Kenaf plants were observed weekly for a period of one month. Results showed that during the one-month remediation experiment, treatments with 'compost-only' removed 49 ± 8% Mn, 32 ± 7% Fe, 29 ± 11% Zn, 27 ± 6% Cu and 11 ± 5% Cr from the contaminated soil. On the other hand, treatments with 'compost+plant' remediated 71 ± 8% Mn, 63 ± 3% Fe, 59 ± 11% Zn, 40 ± 6% Cu and 5 ± 4% Cr. Enrichment factor (EF) of metals in the compost was low while that of Cu (EF=7.3) and Zn (EF=8.6) were high in the contaminated soils. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) revealed low metal uptake by Kenaf plant. The growth parameters of Kenaf plant showed steady increments from week 1 to week 4 of planting.

  9. [Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control for gas station with membrane separation technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of membranes modules, vapor retained glassy membrane based on PEEK hollow fiber membrane modules and vapor permeated rubbery membrane system based on GMT plate-and-frame membrane modules, were used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receiving and transferring gasoline in oil station. The efficiencies of the membrane module and the membrane system of them were evaluated and compared respectively in the facilities which were developed by ourselves. It was found that both the two kinds of membranes modules had high efficiency for the separation of VOCs-air mixed gases, and the outlet vapor after treatment all can meet the national standard. When the vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g x m(-3).

  10. VAPOR PHASE TREATMENT OF PCE IN A SOIL COLUMN BY LAB-SCALE ANAEROBIC BIOVENTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial destruction of highly chlorinated organic compounds must be initiated by anaerobic followed by aerobic dechlorination. In-situ dechlorination of vadose zone soil contaminated with these compounds requires, among other factors, the establishment of highly reductive anaer...

  11. Vapor-pressure osmometric study of the molecular weight and aggregation tendency of a reference-soil fulvic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinsky, J.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The molecular weight and aggregation tendency of a reference-soil fulvic acid in Armadale horizon Bh were determined by vapor-pressure osmometry using tetrahydrofuran and water as solvents. With tetrahydrofuran, number-average molecular weight values of 767 ?? 34 and 699 ?? 8 daltons were obtained from two separate sets of measurements. Two sets of measurements with water also yielded values within this range (754 ?? 70 daltons) provided that the fulvic acid concentration in water did not exceed 7 mg ml-1; at higher concentrations (9.1-13.7 mg ml-1) a number-average molecular weight of 956 ?? 25 daltons was resolved, providing evidence of molecular aggregation. Extension of these studies to 80% neutralized fulvic acid showed that a sizeable fraction of the sodium counter ion is not osmotically active.

  12. Basewide Engineering Evaluation-Cost Analysis for Soil Vapor Extraction. Site Specific Document IC 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    7, BASEW= ENGPRMMG EVALUAnON- COff ANAIYSIS FOR SOLL VAPOR EXTRAmON, SITE SPECIFIC DOCUMENT IC 1 93-2886 McCleflan Air Force Bwe DISCLAIMER NOTICE...Antalisis Secton 2 ~I&LLT Site 47, Electroplating Shop * ~DmMt of bonngs 0 0eញft o > 60 feea 0 0 C30 10I ILcto Z=g Figure 2-1 ZU 13S" Maps and Site...storage removed by parking (1946-1949) 1981 Open air storage Most structures razed area (after 1957) by 1982 Site 47 Building 666 Electroplating shop

  13. MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

  14. Evaluation of Water Vapor Sorption Hysteresis in Soils: The Role of Organic Matter and Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    hysteresis and hysteresis was dependent on the degree of interlayer expansion, where kaolinite exhibited little hysteresis and montmorillonite showed significant hysteresis between the sorption isotherms. For soils, clay and OM effects on hysteresis depended on the method used for quantifying hysteresis...

  15. A Citizen's Guide to Vapor Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes how vapor intrusion is the movement of chemical vapors from contaminated soil and groundwater into nearby buildings.Vapors primarily enter through openings in the building foundation or basement walls.

  16. Evaluation of theoretical and empirical water vapor sorption isotherm models for soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per;

    2016-01-01

    sorption isotherms of building materials, food, and other industrial products, knowledge about the 24 applicability of these functions for soils is noticeably lacking. We present validation of nine models for characterizing adsorption/desorption isotherms for a water activity range from 0.03 to 0.......93 for 207 soils, widely varying in texture and organic carbon content. In addition the potential applicability of the models for prediction of sorption isotherms from known clay content was investigated. While in general all investigated models described measured adsorption and desorption isotherms...... reasonably well, distinct differences were observed between physical and empirical models and due to the different degrees of freedom of the model equations. There were also considerable differences in model performance for the adsorption and desorption data. Regression analysis relating model parameters...

  17. United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program. Guidance on Soil Vapor Extraction Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    DoD Department of Defense DNAPL Dense non-aqueous phase liquid DPE dual-phase extraction DQO Data quality objective ECD electron capture device...EPA Environmental Protection Agency ER electrical resistance FID flame ionization detector Hg Mercury MCL maximum contaminant level MCLG Maximum...Well Ground Surface Soil (Advection) V a d o s e Z o n e (Diffusion) Massive Clay Sand Sand Vadose Zone Groundwater Zone LNAPL DNAPL Groundwater Table

  18. Characterizing exposure to chemicals from soil vapor intrusion using a two-compartment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David A.; Corsi, Richard L.

    Though several different models have been developed for sub-surface migration, little attention has been given to the effect of subsurface transport on the indoor environment. Existing methods generally assume that a house is one well-mixed compartment. A two-compartment model was developed to better characterize this exposure pathway; the model treats the house as two well-mixed compartments, one for the basement and one for the remainder of the house. A field study was completed to quantify parameters associated with the two-compartment model, such as soil gas intrusion rates and basement to ground floor air exchange rates. Two residential test houses in Paulsboro, New Jersey were selected for this study. All experiments were completed using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6) as a tracer gas. Soil gas intrusion rates were found to be highly dependent on the soil gas to basement pressure difference, varying from 0.001 m 3 m -2 h -1 for a pressure drop of -0.2 Pa to 0.011 m 3 m -2 h -1 for a pressure drop of -6.0 Pa. Basement ventilation rates ranged from 0.17 to 0.75 air changes per hour (ACH) for basement to ambient pressure differences ranging from -1.1 to -7.6 Pa (relative to ambient). Application of experimental results in conjunction with the two-compartment model indicate that exposures are highly dependent on gas intrusion rates, basement ventilation rate, and fraction of time spent in the basement. These results can also be significantly different when compared with the simple well-mixed house assumption.

  19. Biological Remediation of Soil: An Overview of Global Market and Available Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Kuhad, Ramesh C.; Ward, Owen P.

    Due to a wide range of industrial and agricultural activities, a high number of chemical contaminants is released into the environment, causing a significant concern regarding potential toxicity, carcinogenicity, and potential for bioaccumulation in living systems of various chemicals in soil. Although microbial activity in soil accounts for most of the degradation of organic contaminants, chemical and physical mechanisms can also provide significant transformation pathways for these compounds. The specific remediation processes that have been applied to clean up contaminated sites include natural attenuation, landfarming, biopiling or composting, contained slurry bioreactor, bioventing, soil vapor extraction, thermal desorption, incineration, soil washing and land filling (USEPA 2004).

  20. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION - SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF PCP AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - SELMA, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technolgy Evaluation Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of contaminated soil The STC immobilization technology uses a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stabilize and ...

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation of DNAPL removal mechanisms in a layered porous medium by means of soil vapor extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hongkyu; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Werth, Charles J.; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2009-10-13

    The purpose of this work is to identify the mechanisms that govern the removal of carbon tetrachloride (CT) during soil vapor extraction (SVE) by comparing multiphase flow simulations with a detailed data set from a well-defined two-dimensional flow cell experiment. The flow cell was packed with two sandy soils including an embedded fine-grained sand layer. Gas concentrations at the outlet of the flow cell and 15 sampling ports inside the flow cell were measured during SVE. A dual-energy gamma radiation system was used to measure an initial NAPL saturation profile in a fine-grained sand layer. Imaging result from a dual-energy gamma radiation system with dyed CT mark along CT migration was used to construct the distribution of initial NAPL saturation in the flow cell for input to numerical simulations. Gas concentration results and photographs during SVE were compared to simulation results using a continuum-based multiphase flow simulator, STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases). The measured effluent gas concentration decreased quickly at first, and then started to decrease gradually, resulting in long-term tailing. CT mass was removed quickly in coarse sand, followed by a slow removal from the fine-grained sand layer. An analytical solution for a one-dimensional advection and first-order volatilization model matched the tailing well with two fitting parameters. However, given detailed knowledge of the permeability field and initial NAPL distribution, we can predict the tailing and gas concentration profiles at sampling ports using equilibrium NAPL volatilization. NAPL flow occurs in the presence of free NAPL, and must be accounted for to accurately predict NAPL removal during the SVE experiment. The model prediction was accurate within the uncertainty of the measured or literature derived parameters (i.e., dispersivity and soil parameters). This study provides insights into the physical mechanisms of NAPL removal from a low permeability zone, and use of

  2. Liquid Water and Vapor Flow in Arid Soil: Comparison of Weighing Lysimeter Data with Simulations from a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, M.; Dijkema, J.; Koonce, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; Van Genuchten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Desert soils account for about a third of the Earth's land surface and are believed to be important players in terrestrial energy balance. However, the mechanisms that govern energy and mass fluxes across the land-atmosphere interface of hot deserts remain poorly understood. This knowledge gap also spills over to our insufficient understanding of the ecology and hydrology of deserts. A recently constructed weighing lysimeter (3 m deep and 2.26 m in diameter) located in Boulder City, NV, provides data of water and energy fluxes across the soil-atmosphere boundary of the Mojave Desert. The lysimeter has been filled with homogenized desert soil from nearby Eldorado Valley, instrumented with a suite of more than 150 sensors at multiple depth between 2.5 and 250 cm and under continuous operation since July 2008. In this study, we report on water content, water potential, and temperature data from one hydrologic year at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data was used to develop, calibrate and validate a coupled, process-based water flow and storage model using Hydrus-1D. The model simulates liquid water flow, heat flow, and non-isothermal vapor flow along the soil profile. Detailed soil bulk density and porosity profiles are known based on soil mass and volume determined during lysimeter soil installation. Water retention property was determined from concurrent volumetric water content and matric potential measurements. A density-dependent scaling relation was developed to adjust water retention properties to the different soil bulk densities in the profile. The water flux across the soil-atmosphere boundary was determined from high-resolution lysimeter scale data. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was estimated via inverse modeling, using a subset of the soil moisture data. The calibrated model was validated using the remainder of the data set. The model accurately captures the soil temperature dynamics through the year and across the profile. The water

  3. The integration of innovative technologies into a physical-separation-based soil washing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstich, M.A.

    1995-11-01

    An innovative system`s approach to the treatment of soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has been proposed to effectively and cost competitively treat a significant mass of soil. The use of an integrated soil treatment system to decontaminate FEMP soils is a unique application of the soil washing technology. Due to the unfavorable soil particle size distribution and the ubiquitous distribution of uranium among these particle size fractions, conventional soil washing processes commonly used on predominantly sandy soils alone may not achieve the desirable waste minimization level without the inclusion of innovative technologies. This objective of this paper is to briefly describe the physical separation and chemical extraction process commonly used in soil washing operation and to present the baseline soil washing approach used on FEMP soils. Noting the successful and not-so-successful processes within the soil washing operation at the FEMP, a proposed innovative system`s approach to treating FEMP soils will be described. This system`s approach will integrate a conventional soil washing operation with proposed innovative technologies.

  4. A numerical model (MISER) for the simulation of coupled physical, chemical and biological processes in soil vapor extraction and bioventing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathfelder, Klaus M.; Lang, John R.; Abriola, Linda M.

    2000-05-01

    The efficiency and effectiveness of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) systems for remediation of unsaturated zone soils is controlled by a complex combination of physical, chemical and biological factors. The Michigan soil vapor extraction remediation (MISER) model, a two-dimensional numerical simulator, is developed to advance our ability to investigate the performance of field scale SVE and BV systems by integrating processes of multiphase flow, multicomponent compositional transport with nonequilibrium interphase mass transfer, and aerobic biodegradation. Subsequent to the model presentation, example simulations of single well SVE and BV systems are used to illustrate the interplay between physical, chemical and biological processes and their potential influence on remediation efficiency and the pathways of contaminant removal. Simulations of SVE reveal that removal efficiency is controlled primarily by the ability to engineer gas flow through regions of organic liquid contaminated soil and by interphase mass transfer limitations. Biodegradation is found to play a minor role in mass removal for the examined SVE scenarios. Simulations of BV systems suggest that the effective supply of oxygen may not be the sole criterion for efficient BV performance. The efficiency and contaminant removal pathways in these systems can be significantly influenced by interdependent dynamics involving biological growth factors, interphase mass transfer rates, and air injection rates. Simulation results emphasize the need for the continued refinement and validation of predictive interphase mass transfer models applicable under a variety of conditions and for the continued elucidation and quantification of microbial processes under unsaturated field conditions.

  5. A Review of Vapor Intrusion Models

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yijun; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    A complete vapor intrusion (VI) model, describing vapor entry of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) into buildings located on contaminated sites, generally consists of two main parts-one describing vapor transport in the soil and the other its entry into the building. Modeling the soil vapor transport part involves either analytically or numerically solving the equations of vapor advection and diffusion in the subsurface. Contaminant biodegradation must often also be included in this simulatio...

  6. Application of Phenotype Microarray technology to soil microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that soil microorganisms are extremely diverse and only a small fraction has been successfully cultured in the laboratory. Furthermore, addressing the functionality of genomes is one of the most important and challenging tasks of today's biology. In particular the ability to link genotypes to corresponding phenotypes is of interest in the reconstruction and biotechnological manipulation of metabolic pathways. High-throughput culture in micro wells provides a method for rapid screening of a wide variety of growth conditions and commercially available plates contain a large number of substrates, nutrient sources, and inhibitors, which can provide an assessment of the phenotype of an organism. Thus, over the last years, Phenotype Microarray (PM) technology has been used to address many specific issues related to the metabolic functionality of microorganisms. However, computational tools that could directly link PM data with the gene(s) of interest followed by the extraction of information on gene-phenotype correlation are still missing. Here potential applications of phenotype arrays to soil microorganisms, use of the plates in stress response studies and for assessment of phenotype of environmental communities are described. Considerations and challenges in data interpretation and visualization, including data normalization, statistics, and curve fitting are also discussed. In particular, here we present DuctApe, a suite that allows the analysis of both genomic sequences and PM data, to find metabolic differences among PM experiments and to correlate them with KEGG pathways and gene presence/absence patterns.

  7. EXTERIOR PRESSURE OF THE GASEOUS MEDIUM AS AN ADDITIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR FOR OPTIMIZING THE VAPORIZATION PROCESS IN THE PRODUCTION OF CELLULAR SILICATE CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rezanov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The quality of silicate porous concrete is largely determined by vapor-ization processes at the stage of the formation of the macrostructure of the obtained material. In the production of cellular concrete with the use of injection molding, the existing manufacturing technologies do not enable the expeditious handling of the vaporization process. This is why there is a growing need to develop additional efficient methods of handling the vaporization process thus improving cellular silicate concrete.Results. Based on modelling and detailed examination of the balance of pressure affecting devel-oping gas pores, mechanisms and factors governing a defect-free structure are found. An additional governing factor, which is a pressure of the external gaseous medium, was discovered. The approaches to handling the vaporization process have been developed and a plant fitted with a system of automatic control of vaporization process by conscious operative pressuring effect from the external gaseous phase on a poring mixture has been designed.Conclusions. Theoretical validation along with the results of the experimental study help to arrive at the conclusion about the efficiency of the suggested system in controlling vaporization that could provide a good addition to the traditional injection molding and make it more susceptible against varying characteristics of raw materials.

  8. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  9. Evaluating the impact of ambient benzene vapor concentrations on product water from Condensation Water From Air technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Katherine M; Gellasch, Christopher A; Dusenbury, James S; Timmes, Thomas C; Hughes, Thomas M

    2017-07-15

    Globally, drinking water resources are diminishing in both quantity and quality. This situation has renewed interest in Condensation Water From Air (CWFA) technology, which utilizes water vapor in the air to produce water for both potable and non-potable purposes. However, there are currently insufficient data available to determine the relationship between air contaminants and the rate at which they are transferred from the air into CWFA untreated product water. This study implemented a novel experimental method utilizing an environmental test chamber to evaluate how air quality and temperature affects CWFA untreated product water quality in order to collect data that will inform the type of water treatment required to protect human health. This study found that temperature and benzene air concentration affected the untreated product water from a CWFA system. Benzene vapor concentrations representing a polluted outdoor environment resulted in benzene product water concentrations between 15% and 23% of the USEPA drinking water limit of 5μg/l. In contrast, product water benzene concentrations representing an indoor industrial environment were between 1.4 and 2.4 times higher than the drinking water limit. Lower condenser coil temperatures were correlated with an increased concentration of benzene in the product water. Environmental health professionals and engineers can integrate the results of this assessment to predict benzene concentrations in the product water and take appropriate health protective measures.

  10. Study on Obstacles to Continuous Cropping of Vegetables and Soil Remediation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingsheng FAN; Gang CHEN; Deli XU; Weimin FENG; Yuyu LU; Anqin GUAN

    2016-01-01

    Firstly,this paper analyzes the cause of obstacles to continuous cropping of vegetables,and then introduces the soil ecological remediation technology used for overcoming obstacles to continuous cropping of vegetables. Finally,this paper analyzes the effect of applying soil ecological remediation technology in overcoming obstacles to continuous cropping of vegetables.

  11. New technology for the investigation of water vapor sorption-induced crystallographic form transformations of chemical compounds: a water vapor sorption gravimetry-dispersive Raman spectroscopy coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feth, Martin Philipp; Jurascheck, Jörg; Spitzenberg, Michael; Dillenz, Jürgen; Bertele, Günter; Stark, Herbert

    2011-03-01

    In this study, a new dynamic water vapor sorption gravimetry (DWVSG)-Raman spectroscopy coupled system is presented and described for the investigation of water (de)sorption-induced solid-phase transition of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The innovative characteristic of the system is the possibility to measure up to 23 samples gravimetrically and spectroscopically in one sorption/desorption experiment. The used dispersive RXN1 Raman system with a 6-mm laser spot P(h) AT probe head is ideal for this kind of coupled technology, as the energy density at the point of measurement of the sample is low, which grants that gravimetrical data and the state of the sample (phase transformations or even degradation) are not influenced by the laser beam. The capabilities of the system were tested by the investigation of a crystalline, nonstoichiometric hydrate form (form 1) and the corresponding X-ray amorphous form of an API (SAR474832). For the crystalline hydrate form, it was possible to correlate the weight loss at low humidities to a crystallographic phase transition (form 2). Furthermore, it was possible to show that the phase transition is reversible upon water uptake (sorption cycle); however, a further intermediate crystal form (form 3) is involved in the rehydration process. By multivariate curve resolution analysis of the Raman spectra, the form distribution diagrams of the desorption/sorption cycle could be constructed. For the amorphous material, the recrystallization process was monitored by the changes in the Raman spectra. The recrystallization point was detected at high humidities (>90% relative humidity), the crystal phase formed was identified (form 1), and the time needed for the conversion into the crystalline state was determined. The form transformation processes were visualized by contour plots (time/humidity vs. wavenumber vs. Raman intensity). In summary, it was concluded that the presented water sorption gravimetry-Raman spectroscopy

  12. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Technology evaluation and screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Donaldson, T.L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Morrissey, C.M.; Harris, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Ports) is located approximately 70 miles south of Columbus in southern Ohio. Among the several waste management units on the facility, the X-231B unit consists of two adjacent oil biodegradation plots. The plots encompass {approximately} 0.8 acres and were reportedly used from 1976 to 1983 for the treatment and disposal of waste oils and degreasing solvents, some containing uranium-235 and technetium-99. The X-231B unit is a regulated solid waste management unit (SWMU) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The X-231B unit is also a designated SWMU located within Quadrant I of the site as defined in an ongoing RCRA Facilities Investigation and Corrective Measures Study (RFI/CMS). Before implementing one or more Technology Demonstration Project must be completed. The principal goal of this project was to elect and successfully demonstrate one ore more technologies for effective treatment of the contaminated soils associated with the X-231B unit at PORTS. The project was divided into two major phases. Phase 1 involved a technology evaluation and screening process. The second phase (i.e., Phase 2) was to involve field demonstration, testing and evaluation of the technology(s) selected during Phase 1. This report presents the methods, results, and conclusions of the technology evaluation and screening portion of the project.

  13. Parameter sets for upper and lower bounds on soil-to-indoor-air contaminant attenuation predicted by the Johnson and Ettinger vapor intrusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Weaver, James W.

    Migration of volatile chemicals from the subsurface into overlying buildings is known as vapor intrusion (VI). Under certain circumstances, people living in homes above contaminated soil or ground water may be exposed to harmful levels of these vapors. A popular VI screening-level algorithm widely used in the United States, Canada and the UK to assess this potential risk is the "Johnson and Ettinger" (J&E) model. Concern exists over using the J&E model for deciding whether or not further action is necessary at sites, as many parameters are not routinely measured (or are un-measurable). Using EPA-recommended ranges of parameter values for nine soil-type/source depth combinations, input parameter sets were identified that correspond to bounding results of the J&E model. The results established the existence of generic upper and lower bound parameter sets for maximum and minimum exposure for all soil types and depths investigated. Using the generic upper and lower bound parameter sets, an analysis can be performed that, given the limitations of the input ranges and the model, bounds the attenuation factor in a VI investigation.

  14. Direct determination of arsenic in soil samples by fast pyrolysis–chemical vapor generation using sodium formate as a reductant followed by nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Xuchuan; Zhang, Jingya; Bu, Fanlong

    2015-09-01

    This new study shows for the first time that sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via fast pyrolysis – chemical vapor generation. We found that the presence of thiourea greatly enhanced the generation efficiency and eliminated the interference of copper. We studied the reaction temperature, the volume of sodium formate, the reaction acidity, and the carried argon rate using nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Under optimal conditions of T = 500 °C, the volumes of 30% sodium formate and 10% thiourea were 0.2 ml and 0.05 ml, respectively. The carrier argon rate was 300 ml min{sup −1} and the detection limit and precision of arsenic were 0.39 ng and 3.25%, respectively. The amount of arsenic in soil can be directly determined by adding trace amount of hydrochloric acid as a decomposition reagent without any sample pretreatment. The method was successfully applied to determine trace amount of arsenic in two soil-certified reference materials (GBW07453 and GBW07450), and the results were found to be in agreement with certified reference values. - Highlights: • Sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via pyrolysis–chemical vapor generation. • Thiourea can enhance the generation efficiency and eliminate the interference of copper. • Arsenic in soil Sample can be directly determined without sample pretreatment.

  15. Highly efficient shrinkage of inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Deng, Tao; Chen, Qi; Liang, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2016-06-01

    Solid-state nanopore-based analysis systems are currently one of the most attractive and promising platforms in sensing fields. This work presents a highly efficient method to shrink inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technology by the deposition of SiN x onto the surface of the nanopore. The contraction of the inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores when subjected to the PECVD process has been modeled and carefully analyzed, and the modeling data are in good agreement with the experimental results within a specific PECVD shrinkage period (˜0-600 s). Silicon nanopores within a 50-400 nm size range contract to sub-10 nm dimensions. Additionally, the inner structure of the nanopores after the PECVD process has been analyzed by focused ion beam cutting process. The results show an inner structure morphology change from inverted-pyramid to hourglass, which may enhance the spatial resolution of sensing devices.

  16. Highly efficient shrinkage of inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Deng, Tao; Chen, Qi; Liang, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2016-06-24

    Solid-state nanopore-based analysis systems are currently one of the most attractive and promising platforms in sensing fields. This work presents a highly efficient method to shrink inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technology by the deposition of SiN x onto the surface of the nanopore. The contraction of the inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores when subjected to the PECVD process has been modeled and carefully analyzed, and the modeling data are in good agreement with the experimental results within a specific PECVD shrinkage period (∼0-600 s). Silicon nanopores within a 50-400 nm size range contract to sub-10 nm dimensions. Additionally, the inner structure of the nanopores after the PECVD process has been analyzed by focused ion beam cutting process. The results show an inner structure morphology change from inverted-pyramid to hourglass, which may enhance the spatial resolution of sensing devices.

  17. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  18. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING ALTERNATIVES TO USING GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TO TREAT 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER AND 200-PW-1 SOIL VAPOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME, KALMAR JA

    2007-11-26

    This document presents a detailed evaluation of selected alternative treatment options to granular activated carbon (GAC) for removing carbon tetrachloride generated from the groundwater pump-and-treat system at the 200-ZP-I Operable Unit (OU) in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation of alternative treatment options to GAC is also applicable to the vadose zone soil vapor extraction (SVE) system at the 200-PW-l OU, which is also located in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area.

  19. Application of Advanced Sensor Technology to DoD Soil Vapor Intrusion Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    minimize the risk of thermal degradation of the C-X, which we have found to shed small particles after repeated thermal cycling at > 250°C in air. Figure...R. Tauler, G.A. Ibanez and A.C. Olivieri, 2009, Standard Addition Analysis of Fluoroquinolones in Human Serum in the Presence of the Interferent

  20. Soils and food security | Nortcliff | Nigerian Journal of Technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soils and food security. ... Whilst all these threats are important of particular significance is the loss of soil through ... A threat impacting on food security strongly in Africa is nutrient mining where insufficient nutrients are returned to the soil after ...

  1. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Hoeffner

    2003-12-31

    The Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL) was contracted by the National Energy Technology Center to evaluate technologies that might be used to reduce the volume of plutonium-contaminated soil at the Nevada Test Site. The project has been systematically approached. A thorough review and summary was completed for: (1) The NTS soil geological, geochemical and physical characteristics; (2) The characteristics and chemical form of the plutonium that is in these soils; (3) Previous volume reduction technologies that have been attempted on the NTS soils; (4) Vendors with technology that may be applicable; and (5) Related needs at other DOE sites. Soils from the Nevada Test Site were collected and delivered to the CETL. Soils were characterized for Pu-239/240, Am-241 and gross alpha. In addition, wet sieving and the subsequent characterization were performed on soils before and after attrition scrubbing to determine the particle size distribution and the distribution of Pu-239/240 and gross alpha as a function of particle size. Sequential extraction was performed on untreated soil to provide information about how tightly bound the plutonium was to the soil. Magnetic separation was performed to determine if this could be useful as part of a treatment approach. Using the information obtained from these reviews, three vendors were selected to demonstration their volume reduction technologies at the CETL. Two of the three technologies, bioremediation and soil washing, met the performance criteria. Both were able to significantly reduce the concentration plutonium in the soil from around 1100 pCi/g to 200 pCi/g or less with a volume reduction of around 95%, well over the target 70%. These results are especially encouraging because they indicate significant improvement over that obtained in these earlier pilot and field studies. Additional studies are recommended.

  2. Possible Applications of Soil Remediation Technologies in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlakovs, Juris; Vircavs, Magnuss

    2011-01-01

    Increasing public concern about deleterious effects of contamination on the environment and human health has led to legislative actions aimed at controlling and regulating the emission of potential contaminants into the environment, but there is still a plethora of territories historically contaminated with different contaminants within the territory of Latvia. The purpose of the present study is to give an overview of the formerly and presently contaminated areas and give some recommendations for remediation. 242 first category contaminated territories (the contamination exceeds the acceptable normative 10 times or more) are mentioned in the National Register of Contaminated Territories, a lot of them are known as contaminated with hazardous contaminants such as heavy metals, oil products, organic compounds and other contaminants in different amounts and concentrations. An overview of soil contamination in Latvia is provided, the planned and recommended research, as well as the planned remediation in pilot case studies, are described, giving a review of the historical contamination situation and of applications of the planned remediation technologies.

  3. Review in Strengthening Technology for Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated by Heavy Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chishan; Zhang, Xingfeng; Deng, Yang

    2017-07-01

    In view of current problems of phytoremediation technology, this paper summarizes research progress for phytoremediation technology of heavy metal contaminated soil. When the efficiency of phytoremediation may not meet the demand in practice of contaminated soil or water. Effective measures should be taken to improve the plant uptake and translocation. This paper focuses on strengthening technology mechanism, which can not only increase the biomass of plant and hyperaccumulators, but also enhance the tolerance and resistance to heavy metals, and application effect of phytoremediation, including agronomic methods, earthworm bioremediation and chemical induction technology. In the end of paper, deficiencies of each methods also be discussed, methods of strengthening technology for phytoremediation need further research.

  4. Application of off-gas treatment technology to soil vapour extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, G. S.; Harvey, E. M.; McKee, R. C. E. [O`Connor Associates Environmental Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada); Lucas, W. P. [Commenco Systems Inc., Concord, ON (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Various off-gas treatment technologies, including carbon adsorption, thermal incineration, UV oxidation, bio-reactors, combustion and catalytic oxidation were investigated as means to remediate sub-surface soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons or volatile organic compounds. The primary objective was to determine the most cost-effective portable off-gas treatment technology for a typical soil vapour extraction system. Advantages, disadvantages and relative costs of each technology were summarized. Catalytic oxidation was found to be the most cost-effective method for off-gas treatment for the specified soil vapour extraction systems.

  5. An evaluation of soil erosion hazard: A case study in Southern Africa using geomatics technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiswerth, Barbara Alice

    Accelerated soil erosion in Malawi, Southern Africa, increasingly threatens agricultural productivity, given current and projected population growth trends. Previous attempts to document soil erosion potential have had limited success, lacking appropriate information and diagnostic tools. This study utilized geomatics technologies and the latest available information from topography, soils, climate, vegetation, and land use of a watershed in southern Malawi. The Soil Loss Estimation Model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA), developed for conditions in Zimbabwe, was evaluated and used to create a soil erosion hazard map for the watershed under Malawi conditions. The SLEMSA sub-models of cover, soil loss, and topography were computed from energy interception, rainfall energy, and soil erodibility, and slope length and steepness, respectively. Geomatics technologies including remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provided the tools with which land cover/land use, a digital elevation model, and slope length and steepness were extracted and integrated with rainfall and soils spatial information. Geomatics technologies enable rapid update of the model as new and better data sets become available. Sensitivity analyses of the SLEMSA model revealed that rainfall energy and slope steepness have the greatest influence on soil erosion hazard estimates in this watershed. Energy interception was intermediate in sensitivity level, whereas slope length and soil erodibility ranked lowest. Energy interception and soil erodibility were shown by parameter behavior analysis to behave in a linear fashion with respect to soil erosion hazard, whereas rainfall energy, slope steepness, and slope length exhibit non-linear behavior. When SLEMSA input parameters and results were compared to alternative methods of soil erosion assessment, such as drainage density and drainage texture, the model provided more spatially explicit information using 30 meter grid cells. Results of this

  6. Functional nanostructured hydrothermal carbons for sustainable technologies : heteroatom doping and superheated vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlgemuth, Stephanie-Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The underlying motivation for the work carried out for this thesis was the growing need for more sustainable technologies. The aim was to synthesize a “palette” of functional nanomaterials using the established technique of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). The incredible diversity of HTC was demonstrated together with small but steady advances in how HTC can be manipulated to tailor material properties for specific applications. Two main strategies were used to modify the materials obtained ...

  7. TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Gabriela POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological methods for remediation of soils is based on the degradation of pollutants due to activity of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi. Effectiveness of biological decontamination of soils depends on the following factors: biodegradation of pollutants, type of microorganisms used, choice of oxidant and nutrient and subject to clean up environmental characteristics. Ex situ techniques for bioremediation of soils polluted are: composting (static / mechanical agitation, land farming and biopiles. Techniques in situ bioremediation of soils polluted are: bioventingul, biospargingul and biostimulation – bioaugumentarea.

  8. BIOREMEDIATION - TECHNOLOGY FOR DECONTAMINATION OF SOILS POLLUTED WITH PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of soil with petroleum hydrocarbons prevents unfolding processes ofwater infiltration in soil, its circulation and the exchanges of the gaseous substances with theatmosphere. The biodegradation speed of the pollutants by the microorganisms is influenced ofsome factors: nutrients, soil type, humidity, temperature, pH, the type and the metabolism of themicroorganisms. The spill of the crude oil in the soil results in numerical growth of bacteriapopulations, with a concomitant reduction in their diversity, respectively with the predominantspecies that degrade hydrocarbons to simpler compounds, determining their gradualdisappearance.

  9. Soil-based filtration technology for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Bohn, Hinrich

    Soil biofiltration, also known as Soil bed reactor (SBR), technology was originally developed in Germany to take advantage of the diversity in microbial mechanisms to control gases producing malodor in industrial processes. The approach has since gained wider international acceptance and seen numerous improvements, for example, by the use of high-organic compost beds to maximize microbial processes. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms which underlay soil processes involved in air purification, advantages and limitations of the technology and the cur-rent research status of the approach. Soil biofiltration has lower capital and operating/energetic costs than conventional technologies and is well adapted to handle contaminants in moderate concentrations. The systems can be engineered to optimize efficiency though manipulation of temperature, pH, moisture content, soil organic matter and airflow rates. SBR technology was modified for application in the Biosphere 2 project, which demonstrated in preparatory research with a number of closed system testbeds that soil could also support crop plants while also serving as soil filters with air pumps to push air through the soil. This Biosphere 2 research demonstrated in several closed system testbeds that a number of important trace gases could be kept under control and led to the engineering of the entire agricultural soil of Biosphere 2 to serve as a soil filtration unit for the facility. Soil biofiltration, coupled with food crop produc-tion, as a component of bioregenerative space life support systems has the advantages of lower energy use and avoidance of the consumables required for other air purification approaches. Expanding use of soil biofiltration can aid a number of environmental applications, from the mitigation of indoor air pollution, improvement of industrial air emissions and prevention of accidental release of toxic gases.

  10. Modelling and technologies for restoration of oil polluted soils and water bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Pankratova, N. D.; Khokhlova, L. I.

    2011-01-01

    Development and creation a tool set of modeling (forecast and foresight) and highly environmentally friendly technologies to prevent and eliminate pollution of soil and water areas by xenobiotics (oil, petroleum products, pesticides) are presented.

  11. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils.

  12. Thermal Treatment of Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils: A Review of Technology Innovation for Sustainable Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Vidonish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment technologies hold an important niche in the remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and sediments due to their ability to quickly and reliably meet cleanup standards. However, sustained high temperature can be energy intensive and can damage soil properties. Despite the broad applicability and prevalence of thermal remediation, little work has been done to improve the environmental compatibility and sustainability of these technologies. We review several common thermal treatment technologies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, assess their potential environmental impacts, and propose frameworks for sustainable and low-impact deployment based on a holistic consideration of energy and water requirements, ecosystem ecology, and soil science. There is no universally appropriate thermal treatment technology. Rather, the appropriate choice depends on the contamination scenario (including the type of hydrocarbons present and on site-specific considerations such as soil properties, water availability, and the heat sensitivity of contaminated soils. Overall, the convergence of treatment process engineering with soil science, ecosystem ecology, and plant biology research is essential to fill critical knowledge gaps and improve both the removal efficiency and sustainability of thermal technologies.

  13. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOIL AND GROUNDWATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NEEDS, PLANS AND INITIATIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, B; V. ADAMS, V; G. M. CHAMBERLAIN, G; T. L. STEWART, T

    2007-12-12

    This paper presents the process used by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program to collect and prioritize DOE soil and groundwater site science and technology needs, develop and document strategic plans within the EM Engineering and Technology Roadmap, and establish specific program and project initiatives for inclusion in the EM Multi-Year Program Plan. The paper also presents brief summaries of the goals and objectives for the established soil and groundwater initiatives.

  14. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Natsis, M.E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Walker, J.S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  15. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Natsis, M.E. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Walker, J.S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  16. Microorganisms applying for artificial soil regeneration technology in space greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivobok, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    increased up to 30 % from initial roots dry weight. When the bacterial association derived from organic compost was used, the roots dry weight reduction was not exceeded 20 % in liquid state fermentation after 21 days. But the total cellulose was quietly steady, only the readily accessible soluble fractions were consumed. It was found that the most promising microorganisms for pointed task are anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum F9 and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM 6725. It has been shown that its' in the liquid medium with the roots residuals during 10 days provides root biomass degradation up to 45 % and double decrease of crystalline cellulose. It's known that one of the possible ways to improve biodegradation process efficiency is applying of physical-chemical pretreatment for plant biomass. We used the pretreatment of BIONA substrate in microwave irradiation in 0,7 % sodium hydroxide water solution with addition of 0,5 % of hydrogen peroxide. It has allowed hydrolyzing the roots biomass partially and making the cellulose portion accessible to subsequent biodegradation. The alkaline pretreatment and the subsequent degradation by anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum, had lead to root biomass decrease up to 85% during 10 days. The examined procedure has allowed to restore the initial pore space volume of BIONA substrate and its' hydro-physical properties. It has made used-up BIONA suitable for the subsequent plant cultivation. The obtained results are the basis for future development of fibrous artificial soils regeneration technologies particularly for space greenhouses

  17. Combining vapor pressure and evaporimetric methods to generate swrc - and its application to interprete soil moisture data in hydrologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C. M.; Ferrer, F.

    2012-04-01

    Transport of soil water affects heat and solute transport in soils, also it defines rates of biological processes in soil and water supply to plants, over transpiration and ground water replenishment, controls runoff, and has many other important functions in the environment. Therefore, the knowledge of soil water storage and its movement inside the matrix have many applications in hydrology, meteorology, agronomy, environmental protection, and other soil-related disciplines. The aim of this research is to evaluate the combination of two different methods to obtain the complete water retention characteristic curve for a silt loam soil under laboratory conditions. The first method used for wetting part of the curve is the HYPROP System. This method is based on evaporation rates (Wind, 1968), i.e. loss water by evaporation and in some cases by plant transpiration as well. The evaporation method of Schindler (1980) is a simplification of the Wind (1968) approach. Tension is measured at two depths within a short soil column device (250 cm3), evaporating water from its surface, and taking the measured with two micro-tensiometers. Water content is determined by weighing in a accurate scale (0.01 g). The change in sample mass or water loss from the sample during evaporation is the ground for deriving soil water retention curve up to tensions root mean square error calculated for the water content data. To sum up, the application of both methods allowed obtaining the soil moisture characteristic curve for this kind of soil. The outstanding features were a faster reach the complete curve, a small performance was carried out to assemble the devices, and especially the time consuming, such that only needs less than one week to achieve one curve accurately. On the other hand, some weakness of the methodology used could be to obtain good unaltered samples and reliable weights of them. Some variations on the data could prompt a low accurate results and high uncertainty.

  18. [Mixture Leaching Remediation Technology of Arsenic Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun-feng; Li, Xiao-ming; Chen, Can; Yang, Qi; Deng, Lin-jing; Xie, Wei-qiang; Zhong, Yui; Huang, Bin; Yang, Wei-qiang; Zhang, Zhi-bei

    2016-03-15

    Soil contamination of arsenic pollution has become a severely environmental issue, while soil leaching is an efficient method for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil. In this study, batch tests were primarily conducted to select optimal mixture leaching combination. Firstly, five conventional reagents were selected and combined with each other. Secondly, the fractions were analyzed before and after the tests. Finally, to explore the feasibility of mixed leaching, three soils with different arsenic pollution levels were used to compare the leaching effect. Comparing with one-step washing, the two-step sequential washing with different reagents increased the arsenic removal efficiency. These results showed that the mixture of 4 h 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ NaOH + 4 h 0.1 mol · L⁻¹ EDTA was found to be practicable, which could enhance the removal rate of arsenic from 66.67% to 91.83%, and the concentration of arsenic in soil was decreased from 186 mg · kg⁻¹ to 15.2 mg · kg⁻¹. Furthermore, the results indicated that the distribution of fractions of arsenic in soil changed apparently after mixture leaching. Leaching process could significantly reduce the available contents of arsenic in soil. Moreover, the mixture of 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ NaOH + 0.1 mol L⁻¹ EDTA could well decrease the arsenic concentration in aluminum-type soils, while the mixture of 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ OX + 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ NaOH could well decrease the arsenic concentration in iron-type soils.

  19. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  20. A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil - Present works and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mee Wei; Lau, Ee Von; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2016-08-15

    Oil spills result in negative impacts on the environment, economy and society. Due to tidal and waves actions, the oil spillage affects the shorelines by adhering to the soil, making it difficult for immediate cleaning of the soil. As shoreline clean-up is the most costly component of a response operation, there is a need for effective oil remediation technologies. This paper provides a review on the remediation technologies for soil contaminated with various types of oil, including diesel, crude oil, petroleum, lubricating oil, bitumen and bunker oil. The methods discussed include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal technologies, ultrasonication, flotation and integrated remediation technologies. Each of these technologies was discussed, and associated with their advantages, disadvantages, advancements and future work in detail. Nonetheless, it is important to note that no single remediation technology is considered the best solution for the remediation of oil contaminated soil. This review provides a comprehensive literature on the various remediation technologies studied in the removal of different oil types from soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discussion on the application of 3S technology in soil and water conservation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fen; Hu, Sujie; Wang, Yanan; Tang, Fuping

    2007-06-01

    Soil and water conservation project in the loess plateau of China is focus on improving its feasibility with new technology. This paper discussed on the application of "3S" technology in a soil and water conservation project of selected small watershed of Jingjiahe, Loess plateau. The research presents an approach to apply RUSLE to quantify soil and water loss by the help of "3S" technology, the suitability evaluation for each piece of land is implemented with the assessment indices. Finally, according to the nature condition and economic development trend, by accomplishing the analysis of the comprehensive control benefits for the small watershed, establishing rational land use pattern. Through five years construction of soil and water conservation, the controlling soil erosion area up to 2369.98 hectares, harnessed degree reaches 80.66%, the per capita net income will float up from yen 944.72 to yen 1049.75, the annual preserved area of endangered soil will be 90,000t with the efficiency increased by more than 22%, eventually the soil and water loss shall be well under control. This indicates that "3S" technology make the work more cost-effective, more efficient and more reliable taking into account the precise data which are processed in the planning.

  2. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs.

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING - KAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) is a process that uses electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. An RFH system developed by KAI Technologies, I...

  4. Evaporation loss of oil and oil vapor recovery technology%油品蒸发损耗及油气回收技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何广湘; 杨春育; 佟泽民; 徐春明

    2001-01-01

    The vapor loss during processing,storing and transportation of petroleum and its products has become a serious problem in industries of petroleum and environmental protection for a long time.It is very important to develop and spread the technology of oil vapor recovery.Four technologies such as absorption,adsorption,condensation and membrane selective osmosis commonly used for oil vapor recovery were introduced.The characteristics of these four technologies were evaluated.The development of the technology of oil vapor recovery in future was analyzed.Especially the prospect of using activated carbon fiber as a new type of adsorbent for recovery of oil gas was also predicted.%石油及其产品在加工和储运过程中产生的蒸发损耗是困扰石油加工储运和环保行业的重要课题,推广和采用油气回收技术十分迫切和重要。本文介绍了常见的4种油气回收技术:吸附法、吸收法、冷凝法和薄膜选择渗透法,分析了各种油气回收方法的发展方向,特别介绍了活性碳纤维作为新型油气回收吸附材料的应用前景。

  5. Biocomplementation of SVE to achieve clean up goals in soils contaminated with toluene and xylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Antonio; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás

    2013-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioremediation (BR) are two of the most common soil remediation technologies. Their application is widespread; however, both present limitations, namely related to the efficiencies of SVE on organic soils and to the remediation times of some BR processes. This work...

  6. Effects of gentle remediation technologies on soil biological and biochemical activities - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, B.; Haag, R.; Renella, G.

    2009-04-01

    Remediation technologies for contaminated sites are generally designed to reduce risks for human health, groundwater or plant quality. While some drastic remediation measures such as soil excavation, thermal treatment or soil washing eliminate or strongly reduce soil life, in-situ treatments involving plants or immobilizing additives may also restore soil functionality by establishing or promoting a well structured and active community of soil organisms. Biological parameters that are sensitive to contaminants and other pedo-environmental conditions and which contribute to biogeochemical nutrient cycles, can be used as synthetic indicators of the progress and also the efficiency of given remediation approaches. Data from long-term studies on re-vegetated mine spoils show that biological and biochemical activity is enhanced with increasing plant density and diversity. Among the soil amendments, most measures that introduce organic matter or alkalinity to the contaminated soils also improve microbial or faunal parameters. Only few amendments, such as phosphates and chelators have deleterious effects on soil biota. In this review, soil microbial biomass and the activity of the enzymes phosphatase and arylsulphatase are identified as suitable and sensitive biological indicators for soil health. The results and future research needs are are summarized.

  7. Sensing technologies to measure metabolic activities in soil and assess its health conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    (olfactory fingerprint) typical of the analysed air sample. Due to these features, we decided to apply such a sensing technology to the analyses of soil atmospheres, because several processes in soil, both abiotic and biotic, result in gas and/or volatile production and the dynamics of such releases may also be affected by several additional environmental factors, such as soil moisture, temperature, gas exchange rates with outer atmosphere, adsorption/desorption processes, etc. Then, the analysis of soil atmosphere may provide information about global soil conditions (e.g. soil quality and health), according to a holistic approach, where several factors are contemporarily taken into account. At the same time, the use of such a technology, if adequately trained on purpose, can supply information about a single or a pool of processes sharing similar features, which occur in soil over a certain period of time and mostly affecting soil atmosphere. According to these premises and hypotheses, we demonstrated that EN is an useful technology to measure soil microbial activity, through its correlation to specific metabolic activities occurring in soil (i.e. global and specific respiration and some enzyme activities), but also soil microbial biomass. On the basis of such evidences, we also were able to use this technology to assess the quality and health conditions of soil ecosystems in terms of metabolic indices previously identified, according to some metabolic parameters and biomass quantification of microbial populations. In other studies, we also applied EN technology, despite using a different set of sensors in the array, to analyse the atmosphere of soil ecosystems in order to assess their environmental conditions after contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (i.e. semivolatile - SVOCs - organic pollutants). In this case, EN technology resulted capable of distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated soils, according to the differences in a list of

  8. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  9. Evaluation of soil salinity amelioration technologies in Timpaki, Crete: a participatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Panagea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we use the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE Project Case Study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rain water harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, whereas green manuring and the use of biological agents can support increasing production/efficiency and improving soil properties.

  10. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of biological systems to destroy and reduce the concentrations of hazardous waste from contaminated sites, is an evolving technology for the removal and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as industrial solvents, phenols and pesticides. Microorganisms are the main bioremediation agents due to their diverse metabolic capacities. In order to enhance the rate of pollutant degradation the technology optimizes the conditions for the growth of microorganisms present in soil by aeration, nutrient addition and, if necessary, by adding separately prepared microorganisms cultures. The other factors that influence the efficiency of process are temperature, humidity, presence of surfactants, soil pH, mineral composition, content of organic substance of soil as well as type and concentration of contaminant. This paper presents a review of our ex situ bioremediation procedures successfully implemented on the industrial level. This technology was used for treatment of soils contaminated by crude oil and its derivatives originated from refinery as well as soils polluted with oil fuel and transformer oil.

  11. Successful Implementation of Soil Segregation Technology at the Painesville FUSRAP Site - 12281

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, Stephen P.; Andrews, Shawn M. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, Buffalo, New York (United States); Lombardo, Andrew J. [Safety and Ecology Corporation, Beaver, Pennsylvania (United States); Lively, Jeffrey W. [AMEC Environment and Infrastructure, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Typically the highest cost component of the radiological soils remediation of Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites is the cost to transport and dispose of the excavated soils, typically contaminated with naturally occurring isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium, at an appropriately permitted off-site disposal facility. The heterogeneous nature of the contamination encountered at these sites makes it difficult to accurately delineate the extent of contaminated soil using the limited, discrete sampling data collected during the investigation phases; and difficult to precisely excavate only the contaminated soil that is above the established cleanup limits using standard in-field scanning and guiding methodologies. This usually results in a conservative guided excavation to ensure cleanup criteria are met, with the attendant transportation and disposal costs for the larger volumes of soil excavated. To address this issue during the remediation of the Painesville FUSRAP Site, located in Painesville, Ohio, the Buffalo District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and its contractor, Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC), employed automatic soil segregation technology provided by MACTEC (now AMEC) to reduce the potential for transportation and disposal of soils that met the cleanup limits. This waste minimization technology utilized gamma spectroscopy of conveyor-fed soils to automatically segregate the material into above and below criteria discharge piles. Use of the soil segregation system resulted in cost savings through the significant reduction of the volume of excavated soil that required off-site transportation and disposal, and the reduction of the amount of imported clean backfill required via reuse of 'below criteria' segregated soil as place back material in restoring the excavations. Measurements taken by the soil segregation system, as well as results of quality control sampling of segregated soils, confirmed that soils

  12. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization.

  13. Effectiveness of sloping agricultural land technology on soil fertility status of mid-hills in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiran Lamichhane

    2013-01-01

    Hedgerows with intercropping systems were established at the ICIMOD test and demonstration site at Godawari to assess the effective-ness of Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT) in reducing run-off water volume, controlling soil loss, increasing crop production, and improving soil fertility in the mid-hills of Nepal. Runoff water volume (1996-2002), soil loss (1996-2002) and maize yield (1995-2001), and soil fertility-related parameters were assessed on SALT models with three factors:the type of nitrogen-fixing plant, the farmers’ practice, and fertilizer use. Results showed a significant effect of Alnus nepalensis and/or Indigofera dosua on runoff water volume, soil loss, crop produc-tion, soil water retention, and soil nutrients (NPK). Farmers’ practice and fertilization did not play a significant role in reducing runoff water and soil loss. However, farmers’ practice significantly increased crop produc-tion. Therefore, integrating soil conservation approaches on SALT sys-tems enhances stable economic output to hills and mountain farmers.

  14. Potential applications of surface active compounds by Gordonia sp. strain BS29 in soil remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, Andrea; Caredda, Paolo; Ruggeri, Claudio; La Colla, Paolo; Tamburini, Elena; Papacchini, Maddalena; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2009-05-01

    A wide range of structurally different surface active compounds (SACs) is synthesised by many prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Due to their properties, microbial SACs have been exploited in environmental remediation techniques. From a diesel-contaminated soil, we isolated the Gordonia sp. strain BS29 which extensively grows on aliphatic hydrocarbons and produces two different types of SACs: extracellular bioemulsans and cell-bound biosurfactants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential applications of the strain BS29 and its SACs in the following environmental technologies: bioremediation of soils contaminated by aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, and washing of soils contaminated by crude oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. Microcosm bioremediation experiments were carried out with soils contaminated by aliphatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, while batch soil washing experiments were carried out with soils contaminated by crude oil, PAHs or heavy metals. Bioremediation results showed that the BS29 bioemulsans are able to slightly enhance the biodegradation of recalcitrant branched hydrocarbons. On the other hand, we obtained the best results in soil washing of hydrocarbons. The BS29 bioemulsans effectively remove crude oil and PAHs from soil. Particularly, crude oil removal by BS29 bioemulsans is comparable to the rhamnolipid one in the same experimental conditions showing that the BS29 bioemulsans are promising washing agents for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  15. Direct determination of arsenic in soil samples by fast pyrolysis-chemical vapor generation using sodium formate as a reductant followed by nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xuchuan; Zhang, Jingya; Bu, Fanlong

    2015-09-01

    This new study shows for the first time that sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via fast pyrolysis - chemical vapor generation. We found that the presence of thiourea greatly enhanced the generation efficiency and eliminated the interference of copper. We studied the reaction temperature, the volume of sodium formate, the reaction acidity, and the carried argon rate using nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Under optimal conditions of T = 500 °C, the volumes of 30% sodium formate and 10% thiourea were 0.2 ml and 0.05 ml, respectively. The carrier argon rate was 300 ml min- 1 and the detection limit and precision of arsenic were 0.39 ng and 3.25%, respectively. The amount of arsenic in soil can be directly determined by adding trace amount of hydrochloric acid as a decomposition reagent without any sample pretreatment. The method was successfully applied to determine trace amount of arsenic in two soil-certified reference materials (GBW07453 and GBW07450), and the results were found to be in agreement with certified reference values.

  16. Dynamics and species diversity of soil seed bank of weeds in resource-saving technologies

    OpenAIRE

    SELYUCK M.P.; TOROPOVA E.Y.; STETSOV G.Y.; ZAHAROV A.F.

    2016-01-01

    The soil seed bank of weeds in No-till technology southern forest-steppe Novosibirsk region dominated by Panicum miliaceum, Setaria glauca, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum linicola. The highest soil infestation with weed seeds was marked after peas and wheat monoculture. The main factor determining the species diversity and abundance of weed seeds the weather conditions were, the impact of crop rotation was 2 times lower.

  17. Field evaluation of a new plastic film (vapor safe) to reduce fumigant emissions and improve distribution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein; Sullivan, David; Wang, Dong; Hanson, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    Preplant soil fumigation is an important pest management practice in coastal California strawberry production regions. Potential atmospheric emissions of fumigants from field treatment, however, have drawn intensive environmental and human health concerns; increasingly stringent regulations on fumigant use have spurred research on low-emission application techniques. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of a new low-permeability film, commonly known as totally impermeable film (TIF), on fumigant emissions and on fumigant distribution in soil. A 50/50 mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) was shank-applied at 314 kg ha in two location-separate field plots (0.4 ha each) in Ventura County, California, in fall 2009. One plot was surface-covered with standard polyethylene (PE) film, and the other was covered with TIF immediately after fumigant application. Data collection included emissions, soil-gas phase concentration profile, air concentration under the film, and soil residuals of the applied fumigants. Peak emission flux of 1,3-D and CP from the TIF field was substantially lower than from the PE field. Total through-film emission loss was 2% for 1,3-D and emission surge compared with the PE field, while CP emissions were fairly low in both fields. Higher concentrations and a more uniform distribution in the soil profile for 1,3-D and CP were observed under the TIF compared with the PE film, suggesting that the TIF may allow growers to achieve satisfactory pest control with lower fumigant rates. The surging 1,3-D emissions after film-cutting could result in high exposure risks to workers and bystanders and must be addressed with additional mitigation measures.

  18. Evaluation of Bioaugmentation with Entrapped Degrading Cells as a Soil Remediation Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil augmentation with microbial degraders immobilized on carriers is evaluated as a potential remediation technology using a mathematical model that includes degradation within spatially distributed carriers and diffusion or advectiondispersion as contaminant mass transfer mechanisms. The total...... to determine whether the spatially distributed model is required. Results show that field scale applications of immobilized degraders will be limited by the amount of carriers required to reach acceptable degradation rates....... degraders have low intrinsic degradation rates and that only limited carrier to soil volume ratios are practically feasible, bioaugmented soils are characterized by low effective degradation ratesandcanbeconsidered fully mixed. A simple exponential model is then sufficient to predict biodegradation...

  19. A comparison of the cost and performance of passive and active soil and soil gas measurement technologies at McClellan Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E. [BDM Federal, McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Mook, P.H. Jr.; Wong, K.B. [SM-ALC/EMR, McClellan AFB, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    McClellan Air Force Base (AFB), located near Sacramento, California, is one of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s National Environmental Technology Test Sites. McClellan AFB has recently completed an evaluation of a passive soil gas screening technology and an innovative soil gas measurement technology for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The paper presents an overview and comparison of the cost and performance of a passive soil gas measurement technology with that of conventional and innovative soil gas monitoring techniques. Although not a quantitative analysis, the passive soil gas screening technology has been shown to be representative and cost effective for many site characterization and remedial action monitoring needs. The performance and experience with a multi-purpose soil gas and groundwater sampling probe are presented. The results of an in progress evaluation of an innovative soil sampling technique that allows VOC profiling of soil in a single direct push are also presented. The performance of the above innovative technologies are compared with conventional site characterization methods in use at McClellan AFB.

  20. Technologies for improved soil carbon management and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reicosky, D.C. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Morris, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to create an environmental awareness of and to provide insight into the future balance of environment and economic issues in developing new technologies that benefit the farmer, the public, and agricultural product sales. Agricultural impacts of tillage-induced CO{sub 2} losses are addressed along with new and existing technologies to minimize tillage-induced flow of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, Emphasis is placed on the carbon cycle and the cost of environmental damage to illustrate the need for improved technologies leading to reduced environmental impacts by business ventures. New technologies and concepts related to methods of tillage and stover management for carbon sequestration with the agricultural production systems are presented. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Technological Process and Equipment for Electric-local Softening Soil of Different Strength and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizun, A.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric-discharge technology for soil local softening is developed; the pre-production model of mobile high-energy electric-discharge generator with the controlled energy release is produced. Application of the proposed equipment and technology will allow essentially reduce construction materials and cost of the installation and construction works, in particular, capital investments in alternative energy, industrial, residential construction, and hydraulic engineering in general.

  2. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  3. Socio-Economic Factors Assessment Affecting the Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies on Rwenzori Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabalegwa Wambede Muhamud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the role of socio-economic factors in influencing farmers’ adoption to soil conservation technologies in Bugoye Sub-county, Rwenzori Mountain. A cross sectional household survey design was used in this study, using systematic sampling to obtain 150 household samples. Qualitative analysis and chi-square tests were used to analyze these data. Results indicated that only 54% of the sampled households have adopted soil conservation, and revealed that eight of the nine factors significantly influenced farmers’ adoption, which are slope, farm size, farm distance from home, education level, family income, training, membership to NGOs, and credit accessibility. Only family size was insignificant. Other constraints are labour demands, cost of conservation work, land fragmentation, crop pests, and the limited agricultural extension services. It is recommended to perform training for farmers on designing soil conservation structures. Policies for empowering farmers with extra income are crucial to increase the adoption of soil conservation efforts.

  4. New technologies to detect and monitor Phytophthora ramorum in plant, soil, and water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Russell; Nathan McOwen; Robert Bohannon

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research efforts has been to develop methods to quickly identify plants, soil, and water samples infested with Phytophthora spp., and to rapidly confirm the findings using novel isothermal DNA technologies suitable for field use. These efforts have led to the development of a rapid Immunostrip® that reliably detects...

  5. 'Enlivening' Development Concepts through Workshops: A Case Study of Appropriate Technology and Soil Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to communicate to students the idea of appropriate technology in soil conservation enabling them to experience concepts in the geography of development. Explains that the workshop was evaluated by students using open and closed style questions. Includes references. (CMK)

  6. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

  7. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.R. [Reclamation Technology, Inc., Athens, GA (United States); Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -1} cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems.

  8. [Research Progress in Technology of Using Soil Micro-organisms to Generate Electricity and Its Potential Applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huan; Xue, Hong-jing; Jiang, Yun-bin; Zhong, Wen-hui

    2015-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells ( microbial fuel cells, MFCs) are devices in which micro-organisms convert chemical energy into electrical power. Soil has electrogenic bacteria and organic substrates, thus can generate electrical current in MFCs. Soil MFCs can be operated and applied to real-time and continuously monitor soil pollution, remove soil pollutants and to reduce methane emitted from flooded rice paddy, without energy consumption and the application of chemical reagents to the soil. Instead, the operation of soil MFCs generates small amount of electrical power. Therefore, soil MFCs are useful in the development of environment-friendly technology for monitoring and remediating soil pollution, which have potential value for applications in the domain of environmental science and engineering. However, much of advanced technology hasn't been applied into soil MFCs since the studies on soil MFCs was not started until recently. This paper summarized the research progress in related to soil MFCs combining with the frontier of MFCs technology, and brought forward the possible direction in studies on soil MFCs.

  9. ER Operations Installation of Three FLUTe Soil-Vapor Monitoring Wells (MWL-SV03 MWL-SV04 and MWL-SV05) at the Mixed Waste Landfill.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John Robin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This installation report describes the May through July 2014 drilling activities performed for the installation of three multi-port soil-vapor monitoring wells (MWL-SV03, MWL-SV04, and MWL-SV05) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), which is located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). SNL/NM is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration. The MWL is designated as Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 76 and is located in Technical Area (TA) III (Figure 1-1). The locations of the three soil-vapor monitoring wells (MWL-SV03, MWL-SV04, and MWL-SV05) are shown in Figure 1-2

  10. 土壤气相抽提过程非水相液体与气相的传质动力学研究%Kinetic Mass Transfer Between Non-aqueous Phase Liquid and Gas During Soil Vapor Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫钢; 黄国强; 沈铁孟

    2002-01-01

    The mass transfer between non-aqueous phase liquid(NAPL) phase and soil gas phase in soil vapor extraction(SVE) process has been investigated by one-dimensional venting experiments. During quasi-steady volatilization of three single-component NAPLs in a sandy soil, constant initial lumped mass transfer coefficient (λgN,0) canbe obtained if the relative saturation (ξ) between NAPL phase and gas phase is higher than a critical value (ξc), andthe lumped mass transfer coefficient decreases with ξ when ξ<ξc. It is also shown that the lumped mass transfercoefficient can be increased by blending porous micro-particles into the sandy soil because of the increasing of theinterfacial area.

  11. [Research on the Screening Method of Soil Remediation Technology at Contaminated Sites and Its Application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-ping; Luo, Yun; Liu, Li; Zhou, You-ya; Yan, Zeng-guang; Li, Fa-sheng

    2015-11-01

    Soil remediation technology screening is an important procedure in the supervision of contaminated sites. The efficiency and costs of contaminated site remediation will be directly affected by the applicability of soil remediation technology. The influencing factors include characteristics of contaminants, site conditions, remediation time and costs should be considered to determine the most applicable remediation technology. The remediation technology screening was commonly evaluated by the experienced expert in China, which limited the promotion and application of the decision making method. Based on the supervision requirements of contaminated sites and the research status at home and abroad, the screening method includes preliminary screening and explicit evaluation was suggested in this paper. The screening index system was constructed, and the extension theory was used to divide the technology grade. The extension theory could solve the problem of human interference in the evaluation process and index value assignment. A chromium residue contaminated site in China was selected as the study area, and the applicable remediation technologies were suggested by the screening method. The research results could provide a scientific and technological support for the supervision and management of contaminated sites in China.

  12. A new technology for the treatment of mercury contaminated water and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, J M; Walsh, T; Lam, T

    2003-07-01

    A new technology has been developed for the treatment of contaminated water and soils with lignin derivatives. It has been demonstrated that this technology can be used in the process of removal of high levels of mercury from water, and in the immobilization of leachable mercury in contaminated soils. Lignin derivatives contain an abundance of oxygen-containing functional groups such as phenolic, carboxyl, sulfonyl, alcoholic and enolic structures, which will form lignin-metal macromolecular complexes with high stability through ionic and coordinate covalent bonding. This feature is the basis for the application of lignin derivatives in the removal of metal contaminants from water and in the immobilization of leachable metal in soils or sediments. Tests have confirmed that lignin derivatives are capable of combining with a variety of metal ions including chromium, copper, lead, zinc, mercury, nickel and aluminum. In the new water treatment process, lignin derivatives are dissolved in mercury contaminated water to complex mercury in an exceptionally stable form of a lignin-mercury colloid. The lignin-mercury colloid is then coagulated through the addition of a flocculating agent such as ferric chloride. Under optimized conditions, a dean effluent is produced with a residual mercury level of less than 1 microg l(-1), together with a ferric sludge that is not leachable by TCLP, EPA Method 1311. In the new soil stabilization process, a new solid adsorbent of ferric-lignin is blended with mercury contaminated soil. This solid adsorbent can stabilize the soil by complexing with mercury and, thereby, greatly reduce the TCLP mercury of soil.

  13. Dynamic compaction treatment technology research of red clay soil embankment in southern mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建华; 袁剑波; 熊虎; 陈伟

    2008-01-01

    High liquid limit soil generally adopted in expressway embankment construction of southern mountains, which often expresses some characteristics including high moisture content, high porosity ratio, low permeability, high compressibility, certain disintegration, and so on. Spring soil phenomenon and inhomogeneous compaction have effects on the quality of embankment construction, just because the water in soil is difficult to evaporate. Based on the study of reinforcement mechanism for high liquid limit soil, in situ tests for dynamic compaction treatment in Yizhang-Fengtouling expressway embankment were developed. The reliable and economical dynamic compaction treatment methods and the construction technology for large range high liquid limit soil embankment in southern mountains expressway were discussed. In the process, convenient measurement methods were adopted to evaluate the treatment effects. The test results show that the dynamic compaction method has good treatment effects on the local red clay embankment. The embankment compaction degree is improved with compactness coming to 90% around tamping pits and compactness over 95% in tamping pits interior after tamping. The bearing capacity, the physical mechanic-property and the shear strength for soil are obviously improved, which are enhanced with cohesive strength increasing over 10 kPa and compression modulus increasing over 3 MPa.

  14. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  15. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norini, M.P.; Beguiristain, Th.; Leyval, C. [LIMOS UMR 7137 CNRS-UHP Nancy - Faculty of Sciences, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of persistent and toxic soil pollutants that are of major public concern due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic property. Phyto-remediation is the use of plants and their associated microorganisms for remediation of polluted soils. Phyto-remediation could be used in conjunction with other remediation technologies to reduce the contamination to safe levels and maintain or restore soil physico-chemical and biological properties. Most plant species form mycorrhizas with symbiotic fungi. It was shown that AM fungi enhance survival and plant growth in PAH contaminated soils. Mycorrhizal fungi also enhance the biotransformation or biodegradation of PAH, although the effect differed between soils. A rhizosphere and myco-rhizosphere gradient of PAH concentrations was observed, with decreased PAH concentration with decreased distance to roots. Different microbial communities were found in the rhizosphere of AM and non-mycorrhizal plants in comparison to bulk soil, suggesting that AM could affect PAH degradation by changing microbial communities. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal fungi and nutrients on the ability of alfalfa to grow on soil contaminated with PAHs before and after two remediation treatments. We used soil from an industrial site (Homecourt, North East part of France) highly contaminated with PAH (2000 mg kg{sup -1}), which has been partially treated by two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption). The bio-pile treatment consisted of piling the contaminated soil with stimulation of aerobic microbial activity by aeration and addition of nutrient solution, and reduced PAH concentration to around 300 mg kg-1. With the thermal desorption treatment the soil was heated to around 500 deg. C so that PAH vaporized and were separated from the soil. The residual PAH concentration in soil was 40 mg kg{sup -1}. Treated and non-treated contaminated soil was planted with alfalfa

  16. Analytical modeling of the subsurface volatile organic vapor concentration in vapor intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The inhalation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds that intrude from a subsurface contaminant source into indoor air has become the subject of health and safety concerns over the last twenty years. Building subslab and soil gas contaminant vapor concentration sampling have become integral parts of vapor intrusion field investigations. While numerical models can be of use in analyzing field data and in helping understand the subslab and soil gas vapor concentrations, they are not w...

  17. Vapor Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the fundamental physics of vapor bubbles in liquids. Work on bubble growth and condensation for stationary and translating bubbles is summarized and the differences with bubbles containing a permanent gas stressed. In particular, it is shown that the natural frequency of a vapor bubble is proportional not to the inverse radius, as for a gas bubble, but to the inverse radius raised to the power 2/3. Permanent gas dissolved in the liquid diffuses into the bubble with strong effects on its dynamics. The effects of the diffusion of heat and mass on the propagation of pressure waves in a vaporous bubbly liquid are discussed. Other topics briefly touched on include thermocapillary flow, plasmonic nanobubbles, and vapor bubbles in an immiscible liquid.

  18. Application of zinc isotope tracer technology in tracing soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Yang, Jianqiang; Liu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Recent years the soil heavy metal pollution has become increasingly serious, especially the zinc pollution. Due to the complexity of this problem, in order to prevent and treat the soil pollution, it's crucial to accurately and quickly find out the pollution sources and control them. With the development of stable isotope tracer technology, it's able to determine the composition of zinc isotope. Based on the theory of zinc isotope tracer technique, and by means of doing some latest domestic and overseas literature research about the zinc isotope multi-receiving cups of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) testing technology, this paper summarized the latest research results about the pollution tracer of zinc isotope, and according to the deficiencies and existing problems of previous research, made outlooks of zinc isotope fractionation mechanism, repository establishment and tracer multiple solutions.

  19. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization by Pseudo......Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization...... saturation 7%) and agree satisfactory well with model predictions. In contrast, much larger mineralization rates are measured for wet conditions (water saturation of 68%). This discrepancy originates from extensive cell dispersal, not accounted for in the model, which occurs in wet conditions...

  20. Soil column simulation experiment of remediating soil contaminated by diesel using bioventing technology%生物通风技术修复柴油污染土壤的土柱模拟实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金凤; 陈鸿汉; 王春艳; 杨正礼

    2012-01-01

    Bioventing is an in situ forced oxidative soil remediation technology which combines soil vapor extraction with biodegradation.It has broad application prospects of soil contamination caused by underground storage tank leakage.In this paper,soil column experiment,which was used to simulate diesel contamination,was conducted.The law of balance distribution of residual TPH at different times and the change of diesel quantity in soil at different depths,together with total diesel quantity of the whole column were analyzed.The results showed that:(1) The profile distribution difference of residual TPH was influenced largerly by the initial loading conditions of soil column.(2) The diesel in soil was removed mainly by volatilization and biological degradation for the column which the balance distribution curves of residual TPH was bimodal.(3) Volatilization was mainly influenced by pore volume number during soil venting and soil moisture content,and gravity was mainly influenced by initial diesel concentration,soil moisture content and the ratio of carbon,nitrogen and phosphate.In addition to venting mode,the other factors affect the biodegradation.(4) For the soil column 8 and 11,which the initial diesel concentration were higher and the soil moisture content were both less,the biodegradation was the most significant and the removal effect of diesel in soil column was the best.The results could provide a theoretical basis for the enhancement of bioventing process.%生物通风技术是将土壤气相抽提和生物降解结合起来的原位强迫氧化降解方法,对于修复因地下储油罐泄漏引起的土壤污染具有广阔的应用前景。通过室内土柱模拟柴油泄漏污染土壤,分析了不同历时残余总石油烃(total pe-troleum hydrocarbon,TPH)的平衡分布规律以及土壤中不同深度柴油量、总柴油量的变化。结果表明:(1)各柱残余TPH剖面分布差异的原因受土柱的初始

  1. 活性炭吸附法油气回收技术及其应用%Oil Vapor Recovery Technology by Adsorption Method and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海军

    2011-01-01

    The working principle and process flow of oil vapor recovery technology by active carbon adsorption method are introduced briefly. Taking the SINOPEC Beijing Oil Products Company Changxindian Depot as an example, combining the actual operation status, the method is discussed from the aspects of social benefit and safety and environmental benefit. Using oil vapor recovery unit, oil loss could be controlled, and the operation environment could also be improved, the hidden danger caused by direct oil emission could be avoided and certain economic benefit could be obtained.%简要介绍了活性炭吸附法油气回收技术的原理和工艺流程,并以中国石化北京石油分公司长辛店油库的实际应用为例,报道了所取得的社会效益,建议进一步强化油库和加油站各环节的油气回收管理,减少无回收排放,特别是加油枪至储油罐,以及油罐车的密闭性,真正杜绝油气的转移排放。

  2. Biofiltration of solvent vapors from air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Young-sook.

    1993-01-01

    For various industrial solvent vapors, biofiltration promises to offer a cost-effective emission control technology. Exploiting the full potential of this technology will help attain the goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Concentrating on large volumes of volatile industrial solvents, stable multicomponent microbial enrichments capable of growing a mineral medium with solvent vapors as their only source of carbon and energy were obtained from soil and sewage sludge. These consortia were immobilized on an optimized porous solid support (ground peat moss and perlite). The biofilter material was packed in glass columns connected to an array of pumps and flow meters that allowed the independent variation of superficial velocity and solvent vapor concentrations. In various experiments, single solvents, such as methanol, butanol, acetonitrile, hexane and nitrobenzene, and solvent mixtures, such as benzene-toluene-xylene (BTX) and chlorobenzene-o-dichlorobenzene (CB/DCB) were biofiltered with rates ranging from 15 to334 g solvent removed per m[sup 3] filter volume /h. Pressure drops were low to moderate (0-10 mmHg/m) and with periodic replacement of moisture, the biofiltration activity could be maintained for a period of several months. The experimental data on methanol biofiltration were subjected to mathematical analysis and modeling by the group of Dr. Baltzis at NJIT for a better understanding and a possible scale up of solvent vapor biofilters. In the case of chlorobenzenes and nitrobenzene, the biofilter columns had to be operated with water recirculation in a trickling filter mode. To prevent inactivation of the trickling filter by acidity during CB/DCB removal, pH control was necessary, and the removal rate of CB/DCB was strongly influenced by the flow rate of the recyling water. Nitrobenzene removal in a trickling filter did not require pH control, since the nitro group was reduced and volatilized as ammonia.

  3. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    VAPOR PRESSURE DATA ANALYSIS AND STATISTICS ECBC-TR-1422 Ann Brozena RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE...DATE XX-12-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Nov 2015 – Apr 2016 4. TITLE Vapor Pressure Data Analysis and Statistics 5a...1 VAPOR PRESSURE DATA ANALYSIS AND STATISTICS 1. INTRODUCTION Knowledge of the vapor pressure of materials as a function of temperature is

  4. Tailoring conservation agriculture technologies to West Africa semi-arid zones: Building on traditional local practices for soil restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahmar, R.; Bationo, B.A.; Lamso, N.D.; Guéro, Y.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Low inherent fertility of tropical soils and degradation, nutrient deficiency and water stress are the key factors that hamper rainfed agriculture in semi-arid West Africa. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is currently promoted in the region as a technology to reduce soil degradation, mitigate the effe

  5. Tailoring conservation agriculture technologies to West Africa semi-arid zones: Building on traditional local practices for soil restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahmar, R.; Bationo, B.A.; Lamso, N.D.; Guéro, Y.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Low inherent fertility of tropical soils and degradation, nutrient deficiency and water stress are the key factors that hamper rainfed agriculture in semi-arid West Africa. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is currently promoted in the region as a technology to reduce soil degradation, mitigate the effe

  6. Analytical modeling of the subsurface volatile organic vapor concentration in vapor intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    The inhalation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds that intrude from a subsurface contaminant source into indoor air has become the subject of health and safety concerns over the last twenty years. Building subslab and soil gas contaminant vapor concentration sampling have become integral parts of vapor intrusion field investigations. While numerical models can be of use in analyzing field data and in helping understand the subslab and soil gas vapor concentrations, they are not widely used due to the perceived effort in setting them up. In this manuscript, we present a new closed-form analytical expression describing subsurface contaminant vapor concentrations, including subslab vapor concentrations. The expression was derived using Schwarz-Christoffel mapping. Results from this analytical model match well the numerical modeling results. This manuscript also explores the relationship between subslab and exterior soil gas vapor concentrations, and offers insights on what parameters need to receive greater focus in field studies.

  7. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  8. 土壤汞污染及其修复技术%Soil Mercury Pollution and Its Remediation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何姗姗; 李薇; 卢晗

    2016-01-01

    The main factors that caused the increase of the concentration of mercury in soil and the main factors affected the migration of mercury in soil were summarized. The main remediation technology and its application in controlling soil mercury pollution were reviewed. Focus on soil washing technology, stabilization/solidification technology, thermal treatment technology and bioremediation technology. The improvement measures of soil mercury remediation technology should be further studied. Promote the method of local conditions. Different treatments for different soils.%总结了导致土壤中汞浓度增加的来源,以及影响土壤中汞迁移的主要因素,这些因素对评价和优化修复技术是至关重要的。回顾了主要修复技术及其在控制土壤汞污染方面的应用。重点关注土壤淋洗技术,稳定化/固化技术,热处理技术和生物修复技术。应进一步对土壤汞修复技术的改进措施进行研究,提倡因地制宜的修复方法。

  9. A novel phytoremediation technology shown to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons from soils in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.D.; Yu, X.M.; Gerhardt, K.; Glick, B.; Greenberg, B [Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2009-04-01

    This article described a newly developed, advanced microbe-enhanced phytoremediation system that can be used to remediate lands polluted by hydrocarbons, salts and metals. The technology uses 3 complementary processes to achieve effective remediation of strongly bound persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil. The remediation process involves physical soil treatment, photochemical photooxidation, microbial remediation and growth of plants treated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR-enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS) alleviates plant stress and increases biodegradation activities, thereby accelerating plant growth in the presence of POPs or poor soils. The PEPS has been used successfully to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from impacted soils in situ at several sites across Canada. Studies have shown that the PHCs are degraded in the rhizosphere. This article also presented a summary of the work conducted at 3 sites in Alberta. It took only 2 years to remediate the 3 sites to levels required for site closure under Alberta Tier 1 guidelines. It was concluded that PEPS is equally effective for total PHC and Fraction 3 CCME hydrocarbons. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  10. Cost–benefit calculation of phytoremediation technology for heavy-metal-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xiaoming; Lei, Mei, E-mail: leim@igsnrr.ac.cn; Chen, Tongbin

    2016-09-01

    Heavy-metal pollution of soil is a serious issue worldwide, particularly in China. Soil remediation is one of the most difficult management issues for municipal and state agencies because of its high cost. A two-year phytoremediation project for soil contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, and lead was implemented to determine the essential parameters for soil remediation. Results showed highly efficient heavy metal removal. Costs and benefits of this project were calculated. The total cost of phytoremediation was US$75,375.2/hm{sup 2} or US$37.7/m{sup 3}, with initial capital and operational costs accounting for 46.02% and 53.98%, respectively. The costs of infrastructures (i.e., roads, bridges, and culverts) and fertilizer were the highest, mainly because of slow economic development and serious contamination. The cost of phytoremediation was lower than the reported values of other remediation technologies. Improving the mechanization level of phytoremediation and accurately predicting or preventing unforeseen situations were suggested for further cost reduction. Considering the loss caused by environmental pollution, the benefits of phytoremediation will offset the project costs in less than seven years. - Highlights: • A two-year phytoremediation project was introduced. • Costs and benefits of a phytoremediation project were calculated. • Costs of phytoremediation project can be offset by benefits in 7 years.

  11. A Numerical Investigation of Vapor Intrusion — the Dynamic Response of Contaminant Vapors to Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1 m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in

  12. A numerical investigation of vapor intrusion--the dynamic response of contaminant vapors to rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2012-10-15

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in determining

  13. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO{sub 2} emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  14. Differential Determination of Organic Mercury and Inorganic Mercury in Sediment, Soil and Aquatic Organisms by Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TOMIYASU, Takashi; NAGANO, Ayako; SAKAMOTO, Hayao; YONEHARA, Norinobu

    1996-01-01

    A method has been proposed for the differential determination of inorganic and organic mercury in environmental and biological materials, based on their successive extraction followed by a cold vapor...

  15. Final OSWER Vapor Intrusion Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is preparing to finalize its guidance on assessing and addressing vapor intrusion, which is defined as migration of volatile constituents from contaminated media in the subsurface (soil or groundwater) into the indoor environment. In November 2002, EPA issued draft guidance o...

  16. Biological remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a refinery's soil : comparison of different technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazare Couto, M.; Vasconcelos, T.S.D. [CIMAR/CIIMAR, Porto (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed bioremediation methods used at a refinery in Portugal with a high distillation capacity. The aim of the project was to develop a method for restoring contaminated sites using rhizoremediation and bio-augmentation. Hydrocarbon molecules were tightly sorbed to the soil particles at the refinery. Plants used in the bioremediation project included Scirpus maritimus and Juncus maritimus, as well as Cortoaderia selloana taken from an estuary near the refinery. Tests were conducted both with, and without the use of microorganisms. Commercial bio-augmentation products were used. Plant growth was evaluated for a period of 64 days. It was concluded that the technology is cheaper than many traditional methods of treating hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. tabs., figs.

  17. Economic Efficiency of Selected Crops Cultivated under Different Technology of Soil Tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vach M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the model comparison and economic evaluation of different methods of soil tillage and crop stand establishments used. Based on yield results (winter wheat, spring barley, and white mustard cultivated in three-crop rotation from field experiments with conventional, conservation with minimum tillage, and no-tillage methods conducted at the site Prague-Ruzyně, model economic balances were evaluated. Prices of the main products were determined based on the yield results from the period 2010-2013 and the current market prices. In the individual tillage systems, the total costs of production of evaluated crops were counted up and profitability was calculated as a ratio of profit to total costs. The highest total costs of crop cultivation were identified in cereals under conventional soil tillage, on the contrary, the lowest in cereals cultivated under conservation tillage technology. As for the growing technologies, the highest profitability was found in winter wheat, as for the tillage methods, it was in the conservation variant with minimum tillage. The economic evaluation for individual crops was based on standards of growing technologies and particular work operations.

  18. Monitoring System for Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Ground-Based Multi-Band Radiometer: Meteorological Application of Radio Astronomy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, T.; Araki, K.; Ishimoto, H.; Kominami, K.; Tajima, O.

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution estimation of thermodynamic properties in the atmosphere can help to predict and mitigate meteorological disasters, such as local heavy rainfall and tornadic storms. For the purposes of short-term forecasting and nowcasting of severe storms, we propose a novel ground-based measurement system, which observes the intensity of atmospheric radiation in the microwave range. Our multi-band receiver system is designed to identify a rapid increase in water vapor before clouds are generated. At frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz, our system simultaneously measures water vapor as a broad absorption peak at 22 GHz as well as cloud liquid water. Another band at 50-60 GHz provides supplementary information from oxygen radiation to give vertical profiles of physical temperature. For the construction of this cold receiver system, novel technologies originally developed for observations of cosmic microwave background radiation were applied. The input atmospheric signal is amplified by a cold low-noise amplifier maintained below 10 K, while the spectrum of this amplified signal is measured using a signal analyzer under ambient conditions. The cryostat also contains a cold black body at 40 K to act as a calibration signal. This calibration signal is transported to each of the receivers via a wire grid. We can select either the atmospheric signal or the calibration signal by changing the orientation of this wire. Each receiver can be calibrated using this setup. Our system is designed to be compact (<1 m3), with low power consumption (˜ 1.5 kW). Therefore, it is easy to deploy on top of high buildings, mountains, and ship decks.

  19. 油气回收技术的经济性分析%The Economic Analysis about Technologies of Oil Vapor Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武鑫; 丁泽中; 王旭飞; 念合新

    2012-01-01

    Because of a set of problems of the reduce of oil amount for cruel oil and finished oil evaporation and outrage, the potential fire hazard and environment pollution and so on, under the tendency to increase requirement of environment protection and energy saving, the technology and device of oil vapor recovery become hotspots. This article introduced four different ways of technology, and gave some advices clearly on if it is profitable to adopt recovery equipment, through the e- conomic analysis.%由于原油及成品油的蒸发损耗造成油料数量减少、油品质量降低、潜在火灾隐患、环境污染等一系列问题,在环境保护和节约能源的要求下,油气回收技术已成为公众关注的热点。介绍了四种油库用油气回收的技术工艺,并通过对回收工艺进行经济性分析,为是否进行油气回收的改造提供了依据。

  20. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. INTERIM REPORT ON THE EVOLUTION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE EICHROM TECHNOLOGIES PROCEPT RAPID DIOXIN ASSAY FOR SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of screening technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's(EPA's) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in 2004. T...

  2. Integrated monitoring technologies for the management of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment (SAT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Alexandros; Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Schmidt, Felix; Athanasiou, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Amditis, Angelos; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential

  3. Integrated monitoring technologies for the management of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment (SAT) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Athanasiou, Georgios; Schimdt, Felix; Apostolopoulos, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Dietrich, Peter; Schuth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential

  4. The technology of layer-specific rotary soil cultivation for forest crops and equipment for its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlovskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Influence of existing methods and technologies of soil processing for forest crops on establishment and growth of cultivated tree species was studied. It was found that furrow plough processing of soil can interfere with the cultivated trees’ ecological peculiarities, because the furrow floor, where trees are planted, often constitutes the lower part of the turf or the upper part of the ashen-gray layers having unfavorable water-physical conditions and decreased crop-producing power. Whenever conifer trees grow on the bottom of a furrow excavated in medium and heavy clay loam, their growth is significantly decreased and accompanied by remarkable changes in morphology. Processing of shallow humus thickness soil with multiple cutter results in mixing of A0, A1 and A2 (ashen-gray layers. Consequently, the processed horizon obtains a lower amount of fertile substances than the vegetable soil on non-processed places. An apparatus for graded soil tillage, its construction, working principle and usage technology are described. The major peculiarity of the device consists in the ability not to crumbl the soil, but to shake down vegetable earth cut by subsurface plow from beneath. The technology involves removing roots and grass outside cultivated land, so that it cannot be then overgrown with weeds. It was found that exploitation of the device improves soil pulverization quality, enhances percentage of separates less than 10 mm and 10–50 mm, decreases content of the separate larger than 50 mm, and reduced specific energy output almost three-fold. Vertical displacement of control particles while soil processing with common cutter machines and the suggested device was studied. Establishment and growth of Siberian pine was determined in experimental productive cultures at different planting technologies. It was shown that under the suggested technology, forest plants furrow sowing can be done while soil processing, so that making nurseries becomes

  5. Soil and water conservation on Central American hillsides: if more technologies is the answer, what is the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hellin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to lead to increased water scarcity in the coming decades and to changes in patterns of precipitation. The result will be more short-term crop failures and long-term production declines. Improved soil management is key to climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts. There is growing interest in the promotion of climate smart agricultural practices. Many of these are the same practices that were promoted in the 1980s and 1990s under the guise of soil and water conservation. Farmer non-adoption of soil conservation technologies was rife and suggests that different approaches are needed today. Much can be learnt from these past endeavors to ensure that current efforts are better designed and implemented. We use the example of Central America to highlight some of these lessons and suggest alternative ways forward. Technology per se is not the limiting factor; many suitable technologies and practices are extant. What is required is a more nuanced approach to soil conservation efforts. There is a need to focus less on capturing soil once it has been eroded, via the use of cross-slope soil conservation practices, and more on improving soil quality of the soil that remains through improved soil cover. It is also critical to understand farming systems as a whole i.e. the full range of interlinked activities and the multiplicity of goals that farm households pursue. Furthermore, it is important to engage farmers as active players in conservation efforts rather than passive adopters of technologies, and to adopt a board value chain approach and engage a plethora of value chain actors (researchers, extension agents, equipment manufacturers, input suppliers, farmers, traders, and processors in an agricultural innovation system.

  6. Study on Cultural Technologies and Salt-resistance of Nitraria sibirica in Coastal Areas with Serious Salt-affected Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJianfeng; XINGShangjun; SUNQixiang; XIJinbiao; SONGYumin

    2004-01-01

    In this research, five Nitraria sibirica provenances such as Dayilu were selected to do experiment of salt-resistance, combining fixed plots test with typical plot investigation, measuring survival rate and growth as main indicators. The experiments of main cultural technology were done on Nitraria sibirica in 4 types of site preparation, 3 types of planting, 3 designs for planting density. The Nitraria sibirica experiments for the effects of curbing salt and improving soil were done by testing soil nutrients, salt content, soil physical properties as focal points in typical site of 3-4 years woods. The experiment results showed that the Nitraria sibirica could survive well with soil salt content of 0.6%, and that survival rate declined distinctively as soil salt content exceeded 0.8%. However, high soil salt content did not influence growth in the year of planting. There were obvious differences in salt-tolerance among Nitraria sibirica provenances; Dayilu was the best on salt-tolerance, the other 4 provenances had no differences, and obviously inferior to Dayilu. The different types of site preparation clearly influenced planting survival rate, conserving rate and growth. The method of two-ploughing-two-harrowing was the best among all 4 types of site preparation. Seed forestation was largely limited, bared-rooted seedling forestation may be popularised when soil salt content was less than 1% and soil moisture content was better in spring. Forestation with container seedling was suited to coastal saline soil in rainy season. The optimum planting density of Nitraria sibirica was 2 505/ha in the Yellow River Delta area in view of coverage rate, yield of fruits and cost of planting. Generally speaking,Nitraria sibirica could effectively refrain soil from accumulation of salt in the surface soil, decrease salt content and increase soil nutrient, and heighten soil capillary pore rate.

  7. SITE EVALUATION OF SOIL AMENDMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT THE CROOKSVILLE/ROSEVILLE POTTERY AREA OF CONCERN - STAR ORGANICS SOIL RESCUE INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT (ITER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star Organics, L.L.C., of Dallas, Texas (Star Organics) has developed Soil Rescue to treat soil contaminated with metals. Star Organics claims that Soil Rescue forms metal complexes that immobilize toxic metals, thereby reducing the risk to human health and the environment. The ...

  8. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

  9. DTS technology: evaluation in steam injection pilots in PETROBRAS; Tecnologias DTS: avaliacao em pilotos de injecao de vapor na PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triques, Adriana Lucia Cerri; Rodrigues, Renato Cunha; Souza, Carlos Francisco Sales de; Izetti, Ronaldo Goncalves [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In oil and gas industry, downhole pressure and temperature distributed sensors can provide strategic information for production optimization throughout the field. Upon the successful implementation of a pilot for optical fiber distributed temperature monitoring of observer wells in a steam injection field, two new pilots have been implemented to also monitor injectors and producers in both cyclic and continuous injection fields strongly influenced by H2S. The pilots demonstrated that this technology is suitable to monitor producers in onshore fields under the conditions above without risks to the production. The sensors did not prove to be suitable for long term monitoring of injectors under continuous steam injection if fiber is installed inside the injection tubing. For cyclic injection applications, the development of steam injection packers is needed to guarantee casing integrity during the injection cycle. The application of the technology in offshore wells is nowadays restricted to dry completion situation. The potential applicability in submarine wells is tightly linked to the development of downhole and wellhead wet mate optical fiber connectors. (author)

  10. Remediation trials for hydrocarbon-contaminated sludge from a soil washing process: evaluation of bioremediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, F J García; Pérez, R; Escolano, O; Rubio, A; Gimeno, A; Fernandez, M D; Carbonell, G; Perucha, C; Laguna, J

    2012-01-15

    The usual fate of highly contaminated fine products (silt-clay fractions) from soil washing plants is disposal in a dump or thermal destruction (organic contaminants), with consequent environmental impacts. Alternative treatments for these fractions with the aim of on-site reuse are needed. Therefore, the feasibility of two technologies, slurry bioremediation and landfarming, has been studied for the treatment of sludge samples with a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of 2243 mg/kg collected from a soil washing plant. The treatability studies were performed at the laboratory and pilot-real scales. The bioslurry assays yielded a TPH reduction efficiency of 57% and 65% in 28 days at the laboratory and pilot scale, respectively. In the landfarming assays, a TPH reduction of 85% in six months was obtained at laboratory scale and 42% in three months for the bioremediation performed in the full-scale. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated by ecotoxicity assessments. The toxic effects in the initial sludge sample were very low for most measured parameters. After the remediation treatments, a decrease in toxic effects was observed in earthworm survival and in carbon mineralisation. The results showed the applicability of two well known bioremediation technologies on these residues, this being a novelty.

  11. Investigations into the application of a combination of bioventing and biotrickling filter technologies for soil decontamination processes--a transition regime between bioventing and soil vapour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, S M C; Ferreira Jorge, R M; Castro, P M L

    2009-10-30

    Bioventing has emerged as one of the most cost-effective in situ technologies available to address petroleum light-hydrocarbon spills, one of the most common sources of soil pollution. However, the major drawback associated with this technology is the extended treatment time often required. The present study aimed to illustrate how an intended air-injection bioventing technology can be transformed into a soil vapour extraction effort when the air flow rates are pushed to a stripping mode, thus leading to the treatment of the off-gas resulting from volatilisation. As such, a combination of an air-injection bioventing system and a biotrickling filter was applied for the treatment of contaminated soil, the latter aiming at the treatment of the emissions resulting from the bioventing process. With a moisture content of 10%, soil contaminated with toluene at two different concentrations, namely 2 and 14 mg g soil(-1), were treated successfully using an air-injection bioventing system at a constant air flow rate of ca. 0.13 dm(3) min(-1), which led to the removal of ca. 99% toluene, after a period of ca. 5 days of treatment. A biotrickling filter was simultaneously used to treat the outlet gas emissions, which presented average removal efficiencies of ca. 86%. The proposed combination of biotechnologies proved to be an efficient solution for the decontamination process, when an excessive air flow rate was applied, reducing both the soil contamination and the outlet gas emissions, whilst being able to reduce the treatment time required by bioventing only.

  12. [Research on soil bacteria under the impact of sealed CO2 leakage by high-throughput sequencing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Di; Ma, Xin; Li, Yu-E; Zha, Liang-Song; Wu, Yang; Zou, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Shuang

    2013-10-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic CO2 emission with its unique advantages. However, there is a risk of the sealed CO2 leakage, bringing a serious threat to the ecology system. It is widely known that soil microorganisms are closely related to soil health, while the study on the impact of sequestered CO2 leakage on soil microorganisms is quite deficient. In this study, the leakage scenarios of sealed CO2 were constructed and the 16S rRNA genes of soil bacteria were sequenced by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology on Miseq platform, and related biological analysis was conducted to explore the changes of soil bacterial abundance, diversity and structure. There were 486,645 reads for 43,017 OTUs of 15 soil samples and the results of biological analysis showed that there were differences in the abundance, diversity and community structure of soil bacterial community under different CO, leakage scenarios while the abundance and diversity of the bacterial community declined with the amplification of CO2 leakage quantity and leakage time, and some bacteria species became the dominant bacteria species in the bacteria community, therefore the increase of Acidobacteria species would be a biological indicator for the impact of sealed CO2 leakage on soil ecology system.

  13. Determinants of Farmers' Adoption of Improved Soil Conservation Technology in a Middle Mountain Watershed of Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Krishna R.; Sitaula, Bishal K.; Nyborg, Ingrid L. P.; Paudel, Giridhari S.

    2008-08-01

    This study explores different socio-economic and institutional factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology (ISCT) on Bari land (Rainfed outward sloping terraces) in the Middle Mountain region of Central Nepal. Structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussion methods were applied to collect the necessary information from farm households. The logistic regression model predicted seven factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the study area including years of schooling of the household head, caste of the respondent, land holding size of the Bari land, cash crop vegetable farming, family member occupation in off farm sector, membership of the Conservation and Development Groups, and use of credit. The study showed that technology dissemination through multi-sectoral type community based local groups is a good option to enhance the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the Middle Mountain farming systems in Nepal. Planners and policy makers should formulate appropriate policies and programs considering the farmers’ interest, capacity, and limitation in promoting improved soil conservation technology for greater acceptance and adoption by the farmers.

  14. Determinants of farmers' adoption of improved soil conservation technology in a middle mountain watershed of Central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Krishna R; Sitaula, Bishal K; Nyborg, Ingrid L P; Paudel, Giridhari S

    2008-08-01

    This study explores different socio-economic and institutional factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology (ISCT) on Bari land (Rainfed outward sloping terraces) in the Middle Mountain region of Central Nepal. Structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussion methods were applied to collect the necessary information from farm households. The logistic regression model predicted seven factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the study area including years of schooling of the household head, caste of the respondent, land holding size of the Bari land, cash crop vegetable farming, family member occupation in off farm sector, membership of the Conservation and Development Groups, and use of credit. The study showed that technology dissemination through multi-sectoral type community based local groups is a good option to enhance the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the Middle Mountain farming systems in Nepal. Planners and policy makers should formulate appropriate policies and programs considering the farmers' interest, capacity, and limitation in promoting improved soil conservation technology for greater acceptance and adoption by the farmers.

  15. Hot air injection for removal of dense, non-aqueous-phase liquid contaminants from low-permeability soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, F.C.

    1996-08-01

    The performance of soil vapor extraction systems for the recovery of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is potentially enhanced by the injection of heated air to increase soil temperatures. The soil temperature increase is expected to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) performance by increasing target compound vapor pressures and by increasing soil permeability through drying. The vapor pressure increase due to temperature rise relieves the vapor pressure limit on the feasibility of soil vapor extraction. However, the system still requires an air flow through the soil system to deliver heat and to recover mobilized contaminants. Although the soil permeability can be increased through drying, very low permeability soils and low permeability soils adjacent to high permeability air flow pathways will be treated slowly, if at all. AR thermal enhancement methods face this limitation. Heated air injection offers advantages relative to other thermal techniques, including low capital and operation costs. Heated air injection is at a disadvantage relative to other thermal techniques due to the low heat capacity of air. To be effective, heated air injection requires that higher air flows be established than for steam injection or radio frequency heating. Heated air injection is not economically feasible for the stratified soil system developed as a standard test for this document. This is due to the inability to restrict heated air flow to the clay stratum when a low-resistance air flow pathway is available in the adjoining sand. However, the technology should be especially attractive, both technically and economically, for low-volatile contaminant recovery from relatively homogeneous soil formations. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Post-adoption behaviour of farmers towards soil and water conservation technologies of watershed management in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lal Bagdi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation (IISWC and its Research Centres have developed many successful model watershed projects in India in the past and implemented many Soil and Water Conservation (SWC technologies for sustainable watershed management. While many evaluation studies were conducted on these projects in the past, there has been no assessment of the post-adoption status of the SWC technologies over a longer period. It was imperative to appraise the behaviour of the farmers with regard to the continuance or discontinuance of the technologies adopted, diffusion or infusion that took place and technological gaps that occurred in due course of time in the post watershed programme. Therefore, it was realized that the post-adoption behaviour of beneficiary farmers who have adopted different soil and water conservation technologies for watershed management projects should be studied in detail. The research study was initiated in 2012 as a core project at Vasad as the lead Centre along with IISWC headquarter Dehradun, and Centres Agra, Bellary, Chandigarh, Datia, Kota & Ooty, with the specific objectives of the study to measure the extent of post-adoption behaviour (continued-adoption, discontinuance, technological gap, diffusion and infusion of farmers towards the adopted SWC technologies of watershed management. In the present study various indices regarding continued adoption, dis-adoption (discontinuance, technological gap, diffusion, infusion regarding soil and water conservation technologies for watershed management were developed for measurement of post-adoption behaviour of farmers. It was revealed that a little less than three-fourth (73% of SWC technologies continued to be adopted and more than one-fourth (27% were discontinued by farmers. Out of the total continue adopted SWC technologies by farmers, a little less than one-fifth (19% of technologies continued to be adopted with a technological gap. More than one

  17. Pilot-scale studies of soil vapor extraction and bioventing for remediation of a gasoline spill at Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Joss, C.J.; Martino, L.E. [and others

    1994-07-01

    Approximately 10,000 gal of spilled gasoline and unknown amounts Of trichloroethylene and benzene were discovered at the US Army`s Cameron Station facility. Because the base is to be closed and turned over to the city of Alexandria in 1995, the Army sought the most rapid and cost-effective means of spill remediation. At the request of the Baltimore District of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Argonne conducted a pilot-scale study to determine the feasibility of vapor extraction and bioventing for resolving remediation problems and to critique a private firm`s vapor-extraction design. Argonne staff, working with academic and private-sector participants, designed and implemented a new systems approach to sampling, analysis and risk assessment. The US Geological Survey`s AIRFLOW model was adapted for the study to simulate the performance of possible remediation designs. A commercial vapor-extraction machine was used to remove nearly 500 gal of gasoline from Argonne-installed horizontal wells. By incorporating numerous design comments from the Argonne project team, field personnel improved the system`s performance. Argonne staff also determined that bioventing stimulated indigenous bacteria to bioremediate the gasoline spin. The Corps of Engineers will use Argonne`s pilot-study approach to evaluate remediation systems at field operation sites in several states.

  18. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  19. Postfire restoration of soil hydrology and wildland vegetation using surfactant seed coating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    n semi-arid environments, soil water repellency can contribute to reseeding failure by reducing soil moisture availability and site stability. Non-ionic soil surfactants (wetting agents) have been shown to be effective in ameliorating soil water repellency; however, their application in wildland eco...

  20. A Manual on Conservation of Soil and Water. Appropriate Technologies for Development. R-38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    In order to keep the land productive, a good conservation program is imperative. The primary purpose of soil and water conservation is to prevent soil erosion and heal its scars. This handbook explains the causes, processes, and consequences of soil erosion and depletion, and describes major soil- and water-conservation measures. This book was…

  1. Heavy Metal Soil Contamination at U.S. Army Installations: Proposed Research and Strategy for Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document represents a research strategy to develop new and innovative technologies for treatment of heavy metal -contaminated soils on U.S. Army...contaminated by heavy metals are a common problem. Over 50 percent of the installations surveyed have potential heavy metal problems that may prove to be

  2. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  3. Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process commonly used for the synthesis of thin films for several important technological applications, for example, microelectronics, hard coatings, and smart windows. Unfortunately, the complexity and prohibitive cost of CVD equipment makes it seldom available for undergraduate chemistry students. Here, a…

  4. Soil water regime and crop yields in relation to various technologies of cultivation in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai Krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Beliaev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of crop yield in areas with different technologies of cultivation based on the network of automatic stations that provide data on climatic and soil-hydrological monitoring in the dry steppe during the vegetation period of May–September 2013–2016 . These data  on regional ecological and climatic parameters are of great interest to the ecologists, plant physiologists, and farmers working in the Kulunda Plain (Altai Territory. We compared the following options for cropping technologies: the modern system, which is the "no-till", technology without autumn tillage;the intensive technology of deep autumn tillage by plough PG-3-5 at a depth of 22–24 cm. Cultivation of crops was carried out using the following scheme of crop rotation: the modern system: 1–2–3–4 (wheat – peas – wheat – rape; the intensive system: 5/6 – 7/8 – 9/10 (fallow – wheat – wheat. We believe that the use of modern technology in these conditions is better due to exchange between the different layers of soil. When  the ordinary Soviet system , the so-called "plow sole" , was used , at a depth of 24 cm , we observed that this creates a water conductivity barrier that seems to preclude the possibility of lifting water from the lower horizons. Results of the study of infiltration of soil moisture at the depth of 30 and 60 cm  have shown in some years the advantages of the modern technology over the ordinary Soviet system: in the version with the use of modern technology we can trace better exchange between the various horizons and , probably,  moisture replenishment from the lower horizons. Differences in individual observation periods are comparatively large due to the redistribution of soil moisture, depending on the weather conditions, the crops used in the crop rotations, and cultivation techniques. Moreover, the average moisture reserves within the one meter layer did not show any significant differences during the

  5. A New Soil Infiltration Technology for Decentralized Sewage Treatment: Two-Stage Anaerobic Tank and Soil Trench System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Chun; HU Zhan-Bo; KONG Hai-Nan; WANG Xin-Ze; HE Sheng-Bing

    2008-01-01

    The low removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) is one of the main disadvantages of traditional single stage subsurface infiltration system,which combines an anaerobic tank and a soil filter field.In this study,a full-scale,two-stage anaerobic tank and soil trench system was designed and operated to evaluate the feasibility and performances in treating sewage from a school campus for over a one-year monitoring period.The raw sewage was prepared and fed into the first anaerobic tank and second tank by 60% and 40%,respectively.This novel process could decrease chemical oxygen demand with the dichromate method by 89%-96%,suspended solids by 91%-97%,and total phosphorus by 91%-97%.The denitrification was satisfactory in the second stage soil trench,so the removals of TN as well as ammonia nitrogen (NH+4-N) reached 68%-75% and 96%-99%,respectively.It appeared that the removal efficiency of TN in this two-stage anaerobic tank and soil trench system was more effective than that in the single stage soil infiltration system.The effluent met the discharge standard for the sewage treatment plant (GB18918-2002) of China.

  6. Decision support tools for evaluation and selection of technologies for soil remediation and disposal of halogenated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifi, O.; Zinovyev, S.; Lodolo, A.; Vranes, S.; Miertus, S. [ICS-UNIDO, Trieste (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    One of the most justified demands in abating the pollution created by polychlorinated substances is the remediation of contaminated sites, mainly soil remediation, which is also the most complex technical task in removing pollution because of the necessity to process huge quantities of matrix and to account for numerous side factors. The commercial technologies are usually based on rather direct and simplified but also secure processes, which often approach remediation in a general way, where different types of pollutants can be decontaminated at the same time by each technology. A number of different soil remediation technologies are nowadays available and the continuous competition among environmental service companies and technology developers generates a further increase in the clean-up options. The demand for decision support tools that could help decision makers in selecting the most appropriate technology for the specific contaminated site has consequently increased. These decision support tools (DST) are designed to help decision makers (site owners, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc.) to assess available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options. The analysis for the identification of the most suitable options in the DST is based on technical, economic, environmental, and social criteria. These criteria are ranked by all parties involved in the decision process to determine their relative importance for a particular remediation project. The aim of the present paper is to present the new approach for building decision support tool to evaluate different technologies for remediation and disposal of halogenated waste.

  7. [Identification of aluminum toxicity of soybean in red soil region with FTIR, TG and DT technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-na; Liu, Peng; Xu, Gen-di

    2008-12-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major constraints to crop production in acid soils. In order to provide a correct and effective identification method of aluminum toxicity of soybean in red soil regions, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal (DT) analysis were adopted to study the soybean root under different Al treatments. The results showed that the aluminum contents of soybean roots treated with 60 and 90 mg x L(-1) Al concentration were higher than that with other aluminum treatment, and the Al content reached significant aluminum toxicity level. In the same wavenumber range, the character, wavenumber and absorption peak of infrared spectra were different from those under different Al treatments. In summary, the absorption peaks at 3300, 2 930, 1542 and 721 cm(-1) were the characteristic peaks for identification that can be used to evaluate the Al toxicity of soybean. Detailed description is as follows: with the high aluminum treatment (60 and 90 mg x L(-1)), the characteristic peaks at 3300 and 2930 cm(-1) were higher than those with other aluminum treatment. There are no infrared bands at 1542 cm(-1) under 90 mg x L(-1) aluminum treatment, as the characteristic peak of Amide II. However, the characteristic peak at 721 cm(-1) was clearly shown at 60 and 90 mg x L(-1), but no sign was shown in 0, 10 and 30 mg x L(-1) aluminum concentration. Curves of TG and DT revealed the greatest difference with different Al treatment in the range of temperature of 400-500 degrees C. Under the Al treatment above 30 mg x L(-1), TG curve had less weight than that at 0 mg x L(-1), which indicated that the root system may be more lignified, producing some material hard to be burned. DT curve had double peaks at 60 and 90 mg x L(-1) Al treatments, which may also be used as identification mark of Al toxicity. Because some features were expressed under Al treatment with FTIR, TG and DT, the technology of FTIR, TG and DT

  8. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SEPARATION/CONCENTRATION TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide contamination includes a wide variety of compounds and may result from manufacturing improper storage, handling, disposal; or agricultural processes. It can occur in soil and can lead to secondary contamination of groundwater. Remediation of pesticide-contaminated soils...

  9. 柴油低温临界吸收油气回收技术的应用%APPLICATION OF DIESEL LOW TEMPERATURE CRITICAL ABSORPTION TECHNOLOGY IN OIL VAPOR RECOVERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠生; 廖昌建; 方向晨; 王海波

    2013-01-01

    在分析柴油油气吸收特性的基础上,提出柴油低温临界吸收概念,开发了柴油低温临界吸收油气回收技术.该技术在中国石化金陵分公司酸性水罐区进行了应用,对酸性水罐排放气的油气回收率高达95%以上,净化气可以达标排放,治理效果明显.%After analyzing the characters of diesel in oil vapor absorption process,a concept of low temperature critical absorption technology for oil vapor recovery using diesel as absorber is brought up in this article.A corresponding technology has been developed as well.The use of this technology on the vent gas from sour water tank in SINOPEC Jinling Company has received significant results.The recovery rate of oil gas in the vent gas from sour water tank reaches to 95% and above.Currently the technology has been widely used.

  10. Applying nitrogen site-specifically using soil electrical conductivity maps and precision agriculture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E D; Wolcott, M C; Hanson, G P

    2001-10-16

    Soil texture varies significantly within many agricultural fields. The physical properties of soil, such as soil texture, have a direct effect on water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, crop yield, production capability, and nitrogen (N) loss variations within a field. In short, mobile nutrients are used, lost, and stored differently as soil textures vary. A uniform application of N to varying soils results in a wide range of N availability to the crop. N applied in excess of crop usage results in a waste of the grower"s input expense, a potential negative effect on the environment, and in some crops a reduction of crop quality, yield, and harvestability. Inadequate N levels represent a lost opportunity for crop yield and profit. The global positioning system (GPS)-referenced mapping of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC) has been shown to serve as an effective proxy for soil texture and other soil properties. Soils with a high clay content conduct more electricity than coarser textured soils, which results in higher EC values. This paper will describe the EC mapping process and provide case studies of site-specific N applications based on EC maps. Results of these case studies suggest that N can be managed site-specifically using a variety of management practices, including soil sampling, variable yield goals, and cropping history.

  11. Applying Nitrogen Site-Specifically Using Soil Electrical Conductivity Maps and Precision Agriculture Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Lund

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil texture varies significantly within many agricultural fields. The physical properties of soil, such as soil texture, have a direct effect on water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, crop yield, production capability, and nitrogen (N loss variations within a field. In short, mobile nutrients are used, lost, and stored differently as soil textures vary. A uniform application of N to varying soils results in a wide range of N availability to the crop. N applied in excess of crop usage results in a waste of the grower’s input expense, a potential negative effect on the environment, and in some crops a reduction of crop quality, yield, and harvestability. Inadequate N levels represent a lost opportunity for crop yield and profit. The global positioning system (GPS-referenced mapping of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC has been shown to serve as an effective proxy for soil texture and other soil properties. Soils with a high clay content conduct more electricity than coarser textured soils, which results in higher EC values. This paper will describe the EC mapping process and provide case studies of site-specific N applications based on EC maps. Results of these case studies suggest that N can be managed site-specifically using a variety of management practices, including soil sampling, variable yield goals, and cropping history.

  12. Using Soil Conservation Strategies in the Development of Learning Activities for the Students of Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariya Kanchanwong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were 1 to study nutrient content in soil samples taken from Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology Campus, 2 to study the social factors, economic factors and technological factors the effect on soil conservation of Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology students, 3 the development of soil conservation activities Learning package efficiency of 80/80, 4 to Study and to compare the knowledge, attitudes and skills regarding soil conservation of students of Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology. The student activities package of learning soil conservation was enrolled by 40 people in its club. These people were selected by purposive sampling. The instruments were used in this research as follows; 1 scientific analysis, 2 social questionnaire on economic and technological factors affecting soil conservation, 3 test of knowledge about soil conservation, 4 test of attitudes about soil conservation, 5 test of skill about soil conservation. The experimental research was designed to use students as key informants. The statistics analysis was used in the research as follows: frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, test results, assumptions which included a dependent t-test statistical at the significance level of 0.05. The results of the study were as follows: 1 The study found that the amount of soil nutrient content (N: P: K around cultivated plants in an area of converted agriculture land have the significance: Soil checks collected in plots from soil containing morning glory, chrysanthemums, marigolds, corn and cassava, and had neutral pH. 2 The results of the analysis determing the factors that affected the conservation of soil found economic factors were at a high level Social factors and technology factors were moderate thus leading the approach that has come to create of learning activities package in soil conservation. 3 The results showed that the efficiency of the manual was 83

  13. A pilot-plant study for destruction of PCBs in contaminated soils using fluidized bed combustion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dilip L; Anthony, Edward J; Wang, Jinsheng

    2007-08-01

    Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soils and wastes using circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) technology was studied using a pilot plant and simulated waste material. The results show that the technology is effective and particularly promising for treatment of PCB-containing materials like the toxic sludge from a large contaminated site. Destruction of the toxics in the gas phase appears to be very fast, and over 99.9999% destruction and removal efficiency can be achieved in the temperature range 875-880 degrees C. Heat transfer in the fluidized bed also appears adequate. Toxic residues in treated soil can be reduced to very low levels. Rate-controlling factors of the decontamination process are analyzed, and key issues for determination of the process conditions are discussed.

  14. Conceptual design and experiments of electrochemistry-flushing technology for the remediation of historically Cr(Ⅵ)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sun, Delin; Hu, Siyang; Hu, Jing; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2016-02-01

    A conceptual design and experiments, electrochemistry-flushing (E-flushing), using electrochemistry to enhance flushing efficiency for the remediation of Cr(Ⅵ)-contaminated soil is presented. The rector contained three compartments vertically superposed. The upper was airtight cathode compartment containing an iron-cathode. The middle was soil layer. The bottom was anode compartment containing an iron-anode and connected to a container by circulation pumps. H2 and OH(-) ions were produced at cathode. H2 increased the gas pressure in cathode compartment and drove flushing solution into soil layer forming flushing process. OH(-) ions entered into soil layer by eletromigration and hydraulic flow to enhance the desorption of Cr(Ⅵ). High potential gradient was applied to accelerate the electromigration of desorbed Cr(Ⅵ) ions and produced joule heat to increase soil temperature to enhance Cr(Ⅵ) desorption. In anode compartment, Fe(2+) ions produced at iron-anode reduced the desorbed Cr(Ⅵ) into Cr(3+) ions, which reacted with OH(-) ions forming Cr(OH)3. Experimental results show that Cr(Ⅵ) removal efficiency of E-flushing experiments was more than double of flushing experiments and reached the maximum of removal efficiency determined by desorption kinetics. All electrochemistry processes were positively used in E-flushing technology.

  15. Proceedings of Soil Decon `93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document.

  16. Transport of Chemical Vapors from Subsurface Sources to Atmosphere as Affected by Shallow Subsurface and Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. K.; Smits, K. M.; Hosken, K.; Schulte, P.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the movement and modeling of chemical vapor through unsaturated soil in the shallow subsurface when subjected to natural atmospheric thermal and mass flux boundary conditions at the land surface is of importance to applications such as landmine detection and vapor intrusion into subsurface structures. New, advanced technologies exist to sense chemical signatures at the land/atmosphere interface, but interpretation of these sensor signals to make assessment of source conditions remains a challenge. Chemical signatures are subject to numerous interactions while migrating through the unsaturated soil environment, attenuating signal strength and masking contaminant source conditions. The dominant process governing movement of gases through porous media is often assumed to be Fickian diffusion through the air phase with minimal or no quantification of other processes contributing to vapor migration, such as thermal diffusion, convective gas flow due to the displacement of air, expansion/contraction of air due to temperature changes, temporal and spatial variations of soil moisture and fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. Soil water evaporation and interfacial mass transfer add to the complexity of the system. The goal of this work is to perform controlled experiments under transient conditions of soil moisture, temperature and wind at the land/atmosphere interface and use the resulting dataset to test existing theories on subsurface gas flow and iterate between numerical modeling efforts and experimental data. Ultimately, we aim to update conceptual models of shallow subsurface vapor transport to include conditionally significant transport processes and inform placement of mobile sensors and/or networks. We have developed a two-dimensional tank apparatus equipped with a network of sensors and a flow-through head space for simulation of the atmospheric interface. A detailed matrix of realistic atmospheric boundary conditions was applied in a series of

  17. Microbial growth with vapor-phase substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzel, Joanna; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wick, Lukas Y., E-mail: lukas.wick@ufz.de [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Limited information exists on influences of the diffusive transport of volatile organic contaminants (VOC) on bacterial activity in the unsaturated zone of the terrestrial subsurface. Diffusion of VOC in the vapor-phase is much more efficient than in water and results in effective VOC transport and high bioavailability despite restricted mobility of bacteria in the vadose zone. Since many bacteria tend to accumulate at solid-water, solid-air and air-water interfaces, such phase boundaries are of a special interest for VOC-biodegradation. In an attempt to evaluate microbial activity toward air-borne substrates, this study investigated the spatio-temporal interplay between growth of Pseudomonas putida (NAH7) on vapor-phase naphthalene (NAPH) and its repercussion on vapor-phase NAPH concentrations. Our data demonstrate that growth rates of strain PpG7 were inversely correlated to the distance from the source of vapor-phase NAPH. Despite the high gas phase diffusivity of NAPH, microbial growth was absent at distances above 5 cm from the source when sufficient biomass was located in between. This indicates a high efficiency of suspended bacteria to acquire vapor-phase compounds and influence headspace concentration gradients at the centimeter-scale. It further suggests a crucial role of microorganisms as biofilters for gas-phase VOC emanating from contaminated groundwater or soil. - Research highlights: > Suspended bacteria have a high efficiency to degrade vapor-phase naphthalene. > Bacteria influence NAPH vapor-phase concentration gradients at centimeter-scale. > Microbial growth on vapor-phase naphthalene is inversely correlated to its source. > Bacteria are good biofilters for gas-phase NAPH emanating from contaminated sites. - Suspended bacteria have a high efficiency to degrade vapor-phase naphthalene and effectively influence vapor-phase naphthalene concentration gradients at the centimeter scale.

  18. Estimating soil erosion changes in the Wenchuan earthquake disaster area using geo-spatial information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Jiao, Quanjun; Wu, Yanhong; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2009-05-01

    The secondary disasters induced by the Wenchuan earthquake of May 12, 2008, such as landslides, collapsing rocks, debris flows, floods, etc., have changed the local natural landscape tremendously and caused heavy soil erosion in the earthquake-hit areas. Using thematic mapper images taken before the earthquake and airborne images taken after the earthquake, we extracted information about the destroyed landscape by utilizing remote sensing and geographical information system techniques. Then, taking into account multi-year precipitation, vegetation cover, soil type, land use, and elevation data, we evaluated the soil erosion area and intensity using the revised universal soil loss equation. Results indicate that the soil erosion in earthquake-hit areas was exacerbated, with the severe erosion area increasing by 279.2 km2, or 1.9% of the total statistical area. Large amounts of soil and debris blocked streams and formed many barrier lakes over an area of more than 3.9 km2. It was evident from the spatial distribution of soil erosion areas that the intensity of soil erosion accelerated in the stream valley areas, especially in the valleys of the Min River and the Jian River.

  19. Improving rangeland seeding success in post-fire water repellent soil using surfactant seed coating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe disturbance from catastrophic wildfires often requires that native plant materials be reintroduced through reseeding, but the success rate of these restoration efforts in arid environments is notoriously low. Post-fire soil water repellency can limit reseeding success by decreasing soil moist...

  20. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  1. 冷凝法油气回收技术与应用%Technology and application of condensing oil vapor recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪志华; 张林; 王蒙; 张贵德; 朱志平; 王铁军

    2011-01-01

    油品在储运和销售过程中部分轻烃组分挥发进入大气,造成资源浪费和环境危害.油气回收既可实现油气污染治理又能产生可观的经济效益.结合中国油气储运和销售环节的现状以及相关技术的发展,对几种油气回收的方法进行了对比分析,认为采用多元工质复叠(或自复叠)制冷技术的冷凝法具有较好的经济性和可靠性.介绍了自主研发的冷凝式油气回收设备的关键技术.工程应用结果表明,不仅达到油气污染治理目标,而且经济效益显著.%Light hydrocarbon components of petroleum products evaporate into atmosphere in the process of stockpiling and transportation and distribution, which cause energy consumption and environment pollution. Oil vapor recovery can solve pollution problem and also can bring economic benefits. Combined with the developments of the current status of the process of stockpiling and transportation and compared with other methods for oil vapor recovery, the low temperature condensation method for oil vapor recovery, which utilizes multi -components cascade (or auto -cascade) cycle technique, was thought more economic and reliable. The key techniques of the condensation unit for oil vapor recovery developed independently were introduced. The result of the engineering application shows that it can not only reach the goal of environment - protection but also bring significant economic benefits.

  2. Integration of Sensor Technologies into Respirator Vapor Cartridges as End-of-Service-Life Indicators: Literature and Manufacturer’s Review and Research Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-06

    energy from micro- 25 solar cells , (3) high surface area, nanostructured aerogels for higher energy storage capacity, and (4) new nanostructured... interdigital microelectrode. The sensor operates by absorbing vapors into the organic monolayer, which causes a large modulation in the electrical...single-wall carbon nanotubes on an interdigitated electrode. The sensor responses were linear for concentrations of sub ppm to hundreds of ppm with

  3. 油气回收技术在凝析油加工企业的应用%Application of oil vapor recovery technology in condensate oil processing enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光辉; 贾中堂; 杨继东; 徐建京; 于瑞香

    2012-01-01

    针对凝析油易挥发且轻质油品收率高的特点,以中海石油葫芦岛精细化工有限责任公司为例,介绍了吸附法与吸收法相结合的油气回收技术工艺流程,对技术改造后该公司的环境效果、经济效益和社会效益进行监测和分析.结果表明:油气回收技术改造后,储油库油气排放检测浓度符合GB20950-2007要求,油气回收率超过95%,尾气排放质量分数小于5 g/m3;回收轻质油品100.24t,每年可产生经济效益60.14×104元,净利润55×104元;保证了装车站台的安全生产,提高了企业的清洁生产水平.%Condensate oil is more volatile and light oil has a high recovery rate. Taking CNOOC Huludao Fine Chemical Industry LLC as an example, this paper introduces the oil vapor recovery technology process flow with combined method of adhesion and adsorption, and carries out monitoring and analysis of environmental benefits, economic benefits and social benefits of the company after technical transformation. The results show that after technical transformation of oil vapor recovery technology, the detected concentration of oil vapor emissions complies with the requirements specified in GB20950-2007, the oil vapor recovery rate is greater than 95%, exhaust emission concentration is less than 5 g/m3, and recovered light oil is up to 100.24 t, with an annual income at 601,400 CNY and net income at 5.15 million CNY. The application of the technology provides a support to safe operation for oil loading station and improves cleaning running level for the enterprise.

  4. J.R. SIMPLOT EX-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT OF TNT-CONTAMINATED SOILS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the findings of the second evaluation of the J.R. Simplot Ex-situ Bioremediation Technology also known as the Simplot Anaerobic Bioremediation (SABRE™) process. This technology was developed by the J.R. Simplot Company to biologically degrade nitroaromatic...

  5. J.R. SIMPLOT EX-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT OF DINOSEB-CONTAMINATED SOILS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the J.R. Simplot Ex-Situ Bioremediation Technology on the degradation of dinoseb (2-set-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol) an agricultural herbicide. This technology was developed by the J.R. Simplot Company (Simplot) to biologically ...

  6. In situ oxidation remediation technologies: kinetic of hydrogen peroxide decomposition on soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Arturo; Santos, Aurora; Vicente, Fernando; Rodriguez, Sergio; Lafuente, A Lopez

    2009-10-30

    Rates of hydrogen peroxide decomposition were investigated in soils slurries. The interaction soil-hydrogen peroxide was studied using a slurry system at 20 degrees C and pH 7. To determine the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, several experiments were carried out with two soils with different SOM content (S1=15.1%, S2=10%). The influence of the oxidant dosage ([H2O2](o) from 10 to 30 g L(-1) and soil weight to liquid phase volume ratio=500 g L(-1)) was investigated using the two calcareous loamy sand soil samples. The results showed a rate dependency on both SOM and hydrogen peroxide concentration being the H2O2 decomposition rate over soil surface described by a second-order kinetic expression r(H2O2) = -dn(H2O2) / W(SOM) dt = kC(H2O2) C(SOM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to evaluate the effect caused by the application of this oxidant on the SOM content. It was found a slightly increase of SOM content after treatment with hydrogen peroxide, probably due to the incorporation of oxygen from the oxidant (hydrogen peroxide).

  7. Soil characterisation by bacterial community analysis for forensic applications: A quantitative comparison of environmental technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtom, Habteab; Demanèche, Sandrine; Dawson, Lorna; Azulay, Chen; Matan, Ofra; Robe, Patrick; Gafny, Ron; Simonet, Pascal; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Pasternak, Zohar

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquity and transferability of soil makes it a resource for the forensic investigator, as it can provide a link between agents and scenes. However, the information contained in soils, such as chemical compounds, physical particles or biological entities, is seldom used in forensic investigations; due mainly to the associated costs, lack of available expertise, and the lack of soil databases. The microbial DNA in soil is relatively easy to access and analyse, having thus the potential to provide a powerful means for discriminating soil samples or linking them to a common origin. We compared the effectiveness and reliability of multiple methods and genes for bacterial characterisation in the differentiation of soil samples: ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of the rpoB gene, and five methods using the 16S rRNA gene: phylogenetic microarrays, TRFLP, and high throughput sequencing with Roche 454, Illumina MiSeq and IonTorrent PGM platforms. All these methods were also compared to long-chain hydrocarbons (n-alkanes) and fatty alcohol profiling of the same soil samples. RISA, 16S TRFLP and MiSeq performed best, reliably and significantly discriminating between adjacent, similar soil types. As TRFLP employs the same capillary electrophoresis equipment and procedures used to analyse human DNA, it is readily available for use in most forensic laboratories. TRFLP was optimized for forensic usage in five parameters: choice of primer pair, fluorescent tagging, concentrating DNA after digestion, number of PCR amplifications per sample and number of capillary electrophoresis runs per PCR amplification. This study shows that molecular microbial ecology methodologies are robust in discriminating between soil samples, illustrating their potential usage as an evaluative forensic tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of More Cost-Effective Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive-Adsorptive Sampling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    SAN DIEGO , CA.................................. 15 4.2 OF THE STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM RESEARCH HOUSE NEAR HILL...Technology Development Working Group; and Drs. D. Bart Chadwick and Ignacio Rivera - Duarte from SSC Pacific were the project directors. The ESTCP...provided in this section and the scope of work performed at each site is described in Section 5. 4.1 OLD TOWN CAMPUS BUILDING 3, SAN DIEGO , CA The

  9. 污染土壤修复技术的探讨%An analysis of Several Remediation Technologies of the Contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金一凡; 周连杰; 杰克; 叶旭明

    2012-01-01

    污染土壤修复技术目前广泛应用的是生物、换土、固化及淋洗修复技术等,对前3种修复技术在处理污染土壤的效果和过程上进行分析和对比,其结果表明都存在着优缺点.通过对污染土壤淋洗技术的定义及分类的了解和与前3种修复技术的比较,并在此基础上产生了移动式异位淋洗修复技术介绍了它的工艺流程及各机械装置的作用,通过对照原有的污染土壤淋洗修复技术,其表明移动式异位淋洗修复技术具有可移动性、修复效率高等特点,具有很大的工程应用价值.%Most commonly used remediation technologies for soil contamination include bioremediation technology,soil replacement remediation technology and solidification technology at present. Through analysis and comparison, the disadvantages of these three remediation technologies were listed. The drip washing technology of contaminated soil was defined and classified. On this basis, a mobile drip washing remediation technology for contaminated soils was developed. The function of each mechanical device in drip washing technological process was introduced. By comparing the original drip washing remediation technology of contaminated soils, a conclusion was drawed that mobile drip washing remediation technology of contaminated soils has mobility and high efficiency characteristics and has a great application value.

  10. Extracting change information of land-use and soil-erosion based on RS & GIS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-feng; LI You-cai

    2007-01-01

    Rapid land-use change has taken place in many arid regions of China such as Yulin prefecture over the last decade due to rehabilitation measures. Land-use change and soil erosion dynamics were investigated by the combined use of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). The objectives were to determine land-use transition rates and soil erosion change in Yulin prefecture over 15 years from 1986 to 2000. Significant changes in land-use and soil erosion occurred in the area over the study period. The results show the significant decrease in barren land mainly due to conversion to grassland. Agricultural land increased associated with conversions from grassland and barren land. The area of water erosion and wind erosion declined. The study demonstrates that the integration of satellite remote sensing and GIS is an effective approach for analyzing the direction, rate, and spatial pattern of land-use and soil erosion change.

  11. Challenges in Ecohydrological Monitoring at Soil-Vegetation Interfaces: Exploiting the Potential for Fibre Optic Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalari, A.; Ciocca, F.; Krause, S.; Hannah, D. M.; Blaen, P.; Coleman, T. I.; Mondanos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Birmingham Institute of Forestry Research (BIFoR) is using Free-Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) experiments to quantify the long-term impact and resilience of forests into rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The FACE campaign critically relies on a successful monitoring and understanding of the large variety of ecohydrological processes occurring across many interfaces, from deep soil to above the tree canopy. At the land-atmosphere interface, soil moisture and temperature are key variables to determine the heat and water exchanges, crucial to the vegetation dynamics as well as to groundwater recharge. Traditional solutions for monitoring soil moisture and temperature such as remote techniques and point sensors show limitations in fast acquisition rates and spatial coverage, respectively. Hence, spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of heat and water fluxes at this interface can only be monitored to a certain degree, limiting deeper knowledge in dynamically evolving systems (e.g. in impact of growing vegetation). Fibre optics Distributed Temperature Sensors (DTS) can measure soil temperatures at high spatiotemporal resolutions and accuracy, along kilometers of optical cable buried in the soil. Heat pulse methods applied to electrical elements embedded in the optical cable can be used to obtain the soil moisture. In July 2015 a monitoring system based on DTS has been installed in a recently forested hillslope at BIFoR in order to quantify high-resolution spatial patterns and high-frequency temporal dynamics of soil heat fluxes and soil moisture conditions. Therefore, 1500m of optical cables have been carefully deployed in three overlapped loops at 0.05m, 0.25m and 0.4m from the soil surface and an electrical system to send heat pulses along the optical cable has been developed. This paper discussed both, installation and design details along with first results of the soil moisture and temperature monitoring carried out since July 2015. Moreover, interpretations

  12. Remediation of PCB contaminated soils in the Canadian Arctic: excavation and surface PRB technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinovich, Indra; Rutter, Allison; Poland, John S; Cairns, Graham; Rowe, R Kerry

    2008-12-15

    The site BAF-5 is located on the summit of Resolution Island, Nunavut, just southeast of Baffin Island at 61 degrees 35'N and 60 degrees 40'W. The site was part of a North American military defense system established in the 1950s that became heavily contaminated with PCBs during and subsequent, its operational years. Remediation through excavation of the PCB contaminated soil at Resolution Island began in 1999 and at its completion in 2006 approximately 5 tonnes of pure PCBs in approximately 20,000 m3 of soil were remediated. Remediation strategies were based on both quantity of soil and level of contamination in the soil. Excavation removed 96% of the PCB contaminated soil on site. In 2003, a surface funnel-and-gate permeable reactive barrier was design and constructed to treat the remaining contamination left in rock crevices and inaccessible areas of the site. Excavation had destabilized contaminated soil in the area, enabling contaminant migration through erosion and runoff pathways. The barrier was designed to maximize sedimentation through settling ponds. This bulk removal enabled the treatment of highly contaminated fines and water through a permeable gate. The increased sediment loading during excavation required both modifications to the funnel and a shift to a more permeable, granular system. Granulated activated charcoal was chosen for its ability to both act as a particle retention filter and adsorptive filter. The reduction in mass of PCB and volume of soils trapped by the funnel of the barrier indicate that soils are re-stabilizing. In 2007, nonwoven geotextiles were re-introduced back into the filtration system as fine filtering could be achieved without clogging. Monitoring sites downstream indicate that the barrier system is effective. This paper describes the field progress of PCB remediation at Resolution Island.

  13. Green technology for keeping soil-water-nutrient fluxes on cultivated steep land and climate change mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effiom Oku

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of vetiver as a green technology can address African farmers’ ecological problems through protecting farmlands on steep lands. In addition, it offers the opportunity to integrate smallholders into the green economy as it sequesters carbon, keep water and nutrient fluxes within the system, sustain high crop yield with climate change adaptation potentials. This is particularly important as more slopes are converted to agricultural lands due to increase in population density and poverty. Thus, the study investigated the optimal strip width for increases in soil productivity and farmers’ preferences for space. The study planted maize and cassava in between vetiver field structures (VFS installed on the contour at 5, 15 , 25 m apart and compared it with Farmers’ Practice (FP on a 45 % slope and quantified the amount of soil displaced, water and plant nutrient losses and crop yields. Vetiver installed at 5 m surface interval spacing significantly enhanced carbon sequestration indicating potentials for GHGs mitigation and reduced N, P, Ca, Mg, Na and K losses when compared with FP. Vetiver allowed only 7 % rainfall lost as against 29 % on FP this demonstrates the climate change adaptation potentials of vetiver. Soil displaced under FP was 68 times higher than the soil loss tolerance limit of 12 t ha-1 yr-1 whereas under VFS at 5, 15 and 25 m it was 2½, 13 and 12 times higher. Maize grain yield were 35, 23 and 24 % higher on the VFS field at 5, 15 and 25 m respectively when compared to FP. The corresponding values for cassava fresh tuber were 43, 32 and 29 % higher. Unlike other technologies, vetiver grass contributes to the livelihood of the farmers by providing raw material for house thatching, handicrafts and fodder for livestock during lean seasons.

  14. Efficiency evaluation for remediating paddy soil contaminated with cadmium and arsenic using water management, variety screening and foliage dressing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Guojian; Wu, Qianhua; Feng, Renwei; Guo, Junkang; Wang, Ruigang; Xu, Yingming; Ding, Yongzhen; Fan, Zhilian; Mo, Liangyu

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soils in many regions of China have been seriously polluted by multiple heavy metals or metalloids, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In order to ensure the safety of food and take full advantage of the limited farmland resources of China, exploring an effective technology to repair contaminated soils is urgent and necessary. In this study, three technologies were employed, including variety screening, water management and foliage dressing, to assess their abilities to reduce the accumulation of Cd and As in the grains of different rice varieties, and meanwhile monitor the related yields. The results of variety screening under insufficient field drying condition showed that the As and Cd contents in the grains of only four varieties [Fengliangyouxiang 1 (P6), Zhongzheyou 8 (P7), Guangliangyou 1128 (P10), Y-liangyou 696 (P11)] did not exceed their individual national standard. P6 gained a relatively high grain yield but accumulated less As and Cd in the grains despite of the relatively high As and Cd concentrations in the rhizosphere soil. However, long-playing field drying in water management trial significantly increased Cd but decreased As content in the grains of all tested three varieties including P6, suggesting an important role of water supply in controlling the accumulation of grain As and Cd. Selenium (Se) showed a stronger ability than silicon (Si) to reduce As and Cd accumulation in the grains of Fengliangyou 4 (P2) and Teyou 524 (P13), and keep the yields. The results of this study suggest that combined application of water management and foliage dressing may be an efficient way to control As and Cd accumulation in the grains of paddy rice exposing to As- and Cd-contaminated soils.

  15. Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

  16. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A. T.; Deshpande, M.; O'Neill, P. E.; Miles, L.

    2017-01-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earths surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil.

  17. 客土改良技术及其在砷污染土壤修复中的应用展望%Application and outlook of alien earth soil-improving technology in arsenic-contaminated soil remediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯李云; 曾希柏; 张杨珠

    2015-01-01

    砷是一种毒性很强且对人体健康威胁很大的金属元素,土壤砷污染与修复长期以来受到各国政府和科学家的广泛关注。客土改良技术是污染土壤修复中较常用和有效的方法之一,近年来逐渐受到关注。本文在简述土壤中砷来源及其危害的基础上,重点对近年来该技术在土壤改良及污染土壤修复中的应用进行了系统整理,并以此为基础,比较了砷污染土壤的物理、化学及生物修复的效果。结合我国部分地区耕地砷污染较严重的现状,认为客土改良技术见效快、改良较彻底、且具有较高的实用性。同时,论文还对客土技术在砷污染土壤修复中的研究重点及应用前景等进行了展望。%Arsenic is a metalloid element with severe toxicity that poses a huge threat to human health. Arsenic-contaminated soils and the remediation of these soils have drawn widespread concerns from governments and the scientific community. There has been a growing interest in alien earth soil-improving technology in recent years, evident in the more frequent use of this technology in the remediation of contaminated soils that has so far proven to be one of the most effective methods. Based on the sources and toxicity of arsenic soils, a systematic review was conducted on the application of alien earth soil-improving technology in remediating arsenic- contaminated soils. The effectiveness of the physical, chemical and biological remediation techniques in arsenic-contaminated soils was also compared. In terms of serious arsenic pollution in some cultivated lands in China, alien earth soil-improving technology was noted to be an effective and practical method of restoration of contaminated soils. Based on this finding, further in-depth researches on the application and outlook of alien earth soil-improving technology in remediating arsenic-contaminated soils were proposed.

  18. A Study on capacities of activated carbon with different sulfur contents for adsorbing Mercury-Vapor in soil%不同载硫量活性炭对土壤汞蒸汽的吸附能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖银锋; 张军方

    2016-01-01

    活性炭由于具有较大的比表面积,可用于汞污染土壤中汞蒸汽的吸附。改性载硫活性炭利用汞的亲硫性,可有效提高汞吸附效率。本研究利用5种不同载硫量活性炭吸附汞蒸汽,考察了活性炭载硫量对汞蒸汽吸附能力的影响。研究结果表明:活性炭的载硫量与吸附能力并不呈现完全对应关系,载硫量为10%的活性炭的吸附性能最好,而20%的载硫活性炭的吸附性能最差。采用300 g的基础活性炭,5%、10%、15%及20%载硫活性炭的饱和吸附量分别为26.38、42.70、43.53及16.26 mg。%Activated carbon has a large specific surface area,which can be used to adsorb Mercury-Vapor in mercury contaminated soils. Modified activated carbon loaded by sulfur can effectively im-prove the adsorption capacity of mercury. In this study,5 groups of activated carbon loaded with dif-ferent amount of sulfur were employed for studying their adsorption capacity of mercury vapor. The results of the study show that the sulfur contents in activated carbon is not completely co-related with the adsorption capacity ,best performance in terms of adsorption capacity was witnessed as sulfur content in activated carbon is about at 10%,while worst performance was obtained as sulfur content increased to about 20%. The saturated adsorption capacities for 5%,10%,15%and 20% sulfur-loaded activated carbon(300g base activated carbon)were 26. 38mg,42. 70 mg,43. 53mg and 16. 26mg respectively.

  19. McClellan AFB SVE Off-Gas Characterization, Literature Review, and Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    McClellan Air Force Base ( AFB ) in Sacramento , California, is part of the National Environmental Technology Test Site (NETTS) program. NETTS is a... McClellan AFB uses soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems to remove contamination from soils. The SVE systems draw air through the pore spaces between...of the NETTS program, with respect to McClellan AFB , is to develop a treatment process to remove the VOCs from the off-gas before it is discharged into

  20. The effect of nanoparticles and humic acid on technology critical element concentrations in aqueous solutions with soil and sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepka, Zane; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2017-08-23

    As a consequence of their growing use in electronic and industrial products, increasing amounts of technology critical elements (TCEs) are being released to the environment. Currently little is known about the fate of many of these elements. Initial research on their potential environmental impact identifies TCEs as emerging contaminants. TCE movement in the environment is often governed by water systems. Research on "natural" waters so far demonstrates that TCEs tend to be associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which influences TCE aqueous concentrations (here: concentration of TCEs in dissolved form and attached to SPM) and transport. However, the relative potential of different types of SPM to interact with TCEs is unknown. Here we examine the potential of various types of particulate matter, namely different nanoparticles (NPs; Al2O3, SiO2, CeO2, ZnO, montmorillonite, Ag, Au and carbon dots) and humic acid (HA), to impact TCE aqueous concentrations in aqueous solutions with soil and sand, and thus influence TCE transport in soil-water environments. We show that a combination of NPs and HA, and not NPs or HA individually, increases the aqueous concentrations of TCEs in soil solutions, for all tested NPs regardless of their type. TCEs retained on SPM, however, settle with time. In solutions with sand, HA alone is as influential as NPs+HA in keeping TCEs in the aqueous phase. Among NPs, Ag-NPs and Au-NPs demonstrate the highest potential for TCE transport. These results suggest that in natural soil-water environments, once TCEs are retained by soil, their partitioning to the aqueous phase by through-flowing water is unlikely. However, if TCEs are introduced to soil-water environments as part of solutions rich in NPs and HA, it is likely that NP and HA combinations can increase TCE stability in the aqueous phase and prevent their retention on soil and sand, thus facilitating TCE transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Integration of GIS, Geostatistics, and 3-D Technology to Assess the Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, M.; Tsegaye, T.; Tadesse, W.; Coleman, T. L.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of near surface soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many physical, biological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes. However, knowledge of these space-time dynamics and the processes which control them remains unclear. The integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics together promise a simple mechanism to evaluate and display the spatial and temporal distribution of this vital hydrologic and physical variable. Therefore, this research demonstrates the use of geostatistics and GIS to predict and display soil moisture distribution under vegetated and non-vegetated plots. The research was conducted at the Winfred Thomas Agricultural Experiment Station (WTAES), Hazel Green, Alabama. Soil moisture measurement were done on a 10 by 10 m grid from tall fescue grass (GR), alfalfa (AA), bare rough (BR), and bare smooth (BS) plots. Results indicated that variance associated with soil moisture was higher for vegetated plots than non-vegetated plots. The presence of vegetation in general contributed to the spatial variability of soil moisture. Integration of geostatistics and GIS can improve the productivity of farm lands and the precision of farming.

  2. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT "FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL" HORIBA INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED OCMA-350 CONTENT ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The OCMA-350 Oil Content Analyzer(OCMA-350) developed by Horiba Instruments Incorporated (Horiba), was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County site in Port Huen...

  3. TECHNOLOGY OF SOIL BIOREMEDIATION AND CONVERSION OF CONTAMINATED PHYTOMASS INTO USABLE ENERGY FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej ULICNY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The work solves scientific problem of decontamination of the soil using biomass. Our investigation was subject to Cu, Pb, Hg and As with aim to examine whether plants are able to accumulate heavy metals. The laboratory experiment was performed in order to determine heavy metals content is the soil before plast sowing and after is harvesting. Amaranth (amaranthus was used as a bioaccumulator. As significant amount of the heawy metals is accumulated in the root, there arise task to harvest plant and its root. Roots leaving in the soil mean retrograde contamination after the plant decomposition. But, there is lack of agricultural machinery able to harvest amaranth together with the root. Next part of the study is focused on the amaranth utilization as energy. Energy value is comparable with other biomass materials as wooden sawdust, grain straw etc. The final phase of the research is dealing with means suitable to trip the solid remainders after burning in the smoke.

  4. [Study on ecological risk assessment technology of fluoride pollution from arid oasis soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Su-Yin; Li, Ping; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    According to translocation regulation of fluoride in the typical oasis soil-plant system under field, an ecological risk assessment model of fluoride was established, and this model was used to assess ecological risk to fluoride pollution from suburban oasis soils in Baiyin City, which was specifically expressed with the potential ecological risk of bioavailability (ER(bc)) model to assess ecological risk of fluoride pollution in oasis regions. Results showed that the ecological risk indices of fluoride pollution from this region were 1.37-24.81, the level of risk at most sites was high to very high, the average ecological risk index was 11.28, belonged to very high risk. This indicated that in the suburb soil of Baiyin City needs to be concerned about the remediation of fluoride pollution.

  5. Investigation of Copper Vapor Pulsed Laser with Industrial Active Elements of “Kulon” Series using One Convex Mirror Mode and Its Capabilities for Technological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Lyabin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the given paper spatial, time and energy characteristics of a copper vapor laser (CVL| have been investigated in the mode of one convex mirror using the most powerful industrial sealed-off active elements (AE of “Kulon” series: 15 W GL-206D model and 20 W GL-206I model in order to define the capabilities of using its one-beam radiation for effective microprocessing of materials.The carried out calculations and experimental investigations showed that one can vary the radiation beam divergence within a wide range by changing the radius of curvature of CVL convex mirror; and one can reach values close to diffraction limit at radii of curvature one-two orders lower than the distance from the mirror to AE output aperture. At small radii of mirror curvature (R = 6-30 mm the CVL output radiation beam divergence can only 2-3 times (0.15- 0.35 mrad differ from diffraction limit. At these divergences the peak power density in a focused spot can reach 109…1010 W/cm2 values.With the increase of AE discharge channel length the CVL output radiation beam divergence in one-mirror mode decreases and tends to diffraction limit, while power increases, which in the aggregate leads to the sharp increase of peak power density. Therefore, from practical point of view the industrial AEs “Crystal” GL-205А and GL-205B with 0.93 and 1.23 m discharge channel length and 20 mm diameter are the most effective ones. Besides the formation of one high quality beam, the advantages of one-mirror mode include a high axis stability of directivity pattern of this beam and pulsed energy, which increase the quality of microprocessing of materials.Practical experience of using CVL with one convex mirror shows that 109 W/cm2 peak power density level is sufficient only for efficient microprocessing of foiled materials and solder cutouts (0.02-0.1 мм. The use of this CVL as a driving oscillator (DO in a copper vapor laser system (CVLS of the type: driving

  6. Influence of Soil Constituent and Properties on NIRS Technology in Soil Water Monitoring%土壤组成与性质对近红外光谱检测土壤含水量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祯

    2011-01-01

    以湖北地区的红壤、黄棕壤和潮土为供试土壤,研究了外源添加黏土矿物(高岭石、水云母、针铁矿、蒙脱石、蛭石)含量、有机质含量和模拟土壤颗粒大小、土壤水稳性团聚体大小对近红外光谱检测土壤含水量的影响,并分别建立了相关模式方程.结果表明,土壤的光谱特性是土壤中多因子作用的综合结果,土壤组成与性质明显地影响着近红外光谱检测土壤水分时土壤光谱反射率的变化.在土壤中添加这些黏土矿物和有机质,其光谱反射率下降;在沙土、粉沙土范围内,土壤颗粒直径由大变小,其光谱反射率增大,但至<0.002 mm黏粒时,其反射率减小;土壤水稳性团聚体由大变小,其光谱反射率增大.%Based on red soil , yellow brown soil and alluvial soil in Hubei Province , the influence of soil clay mineral(kaolinite,hydromica, goethite, montmorillonit and vermiculite)content, organic matter content ,soil particle size, soil water stable aggregate size on NIRS technology in soil water monitoring by adding soil constituent and modeling soil properties are studied. Therefore the relevant model equations are established. The results show that soil spectroscopy properties are the result of the influence of multifactors. Soil constituent and properties affects greatly the reflectance change when the soil water is monitored by NIRS. The reflectance decreases as these clay minerals and organic matter content increase in soil; the reflectance increases as soil particle diameter decreases, but the reflectance decreases as soil particle diameter <0. 002 mm clay in different soils; the reflectance increases as the soil aggregate diameter decreases.

  7. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  8. In situ bioremediation of nitrate and perchlorate in vadose zone soil for groundwater protection using gaseous electron donor injection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Patrick J; Trute, Mary M

    2006-12-01

    When present in the vadose zone, potentially toxic nitrate and perchlorate anions can be persistent sources of groundwater contamination. Gaseous electron donor injection technology (GEDIT), an anaerobic variation of petroleum hydrocarbon bioventing, involves injecting electron donor gases, such as hydrogen or ethyl acetate, into the vadose zone, to stimulate biodegradation of nitrate and perchlorate. Laboratory microcosm studies demonstrated that hydrogen and ethanol promoted nitrate and perchlorate reduction in vadose zone soil and that moisture content was an important factor. Column studies demonstrated that transport of particular electron donors varied significantly; ethyl acetate and butyraldehyde were transported more rapidly than butyl acetate and ethanol. Nitrate removal in the column studies, up to 100%, was best promoted by ethyl acetate. Up to 39% perchlorate removal was achieved with ethanol and was limited by insufficient incubation time. The results demonstrate that GEDIT is a promising remediation technology warranting further validation.

  9. Effects of Atmospheric Conditions and the Land/Atmospheric Interface on Transport of Chemical Vapors from Subsurface Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. K.; Smits, K. M.; Cihan, A.; Howington, S. E.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the movement of chemical vapors and gas through variably saturated soil subjected to atmospheric thermal and mass flux boundary conditions at the land/atmospheric interface is important to many applications, including landmine detection, methane leakage during natural gas production from shale and CO2 leakage from deep geologic storage. New, advanced technologies exist to sense chemical signatures and gas leakage at the land/atmosphere interface, but interpretation of sensor signals remains a challenge. Chemical vapors are subject to numerous interactions while migrating through the soil environment, masking source conditions. The process governing movement of gases through porous media is often assumed to be Fickian diffusion through the air phase with minimal quantification of other processes, such as convective gas flow and temporal or spatial variation in soil moisture. Vapor migration is affected by atmospheric conditions (e.g. humidity, temperature, wind velocity), soil thermal and hydraulic properties and contaminant properties, all of which are physically and thermodynamically coupled. The complex coupling of two drastically different flow regimes in the subsurface and atmosphere is commonly ignored in modeling efforts, or simplifying assumptions are made to treat the systems as de-coupled. Experimental data under controlled laboratory settings are lacking to refine the theory for proper coupling and complex treatment of vapor migration through porous media in conversation with atmospheric flow and climate variations. Improving fundamental understanding and accurate quantification of these processes is not feasible in field settings due to lack of controlled initial and boundary conditions and inability to fully characterize the subsurface at all relevant scales. The goal of this work is to understand the influence of changes in atmospheric conditions to transport of vapors through variably saturated soil. We have developed a tank apparatus

  10. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: VITRIFICATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY HAZARDOUS AND/OR RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A performance summary of an advanced multifuel-capable combustion and melting system (CMS) for the vitrification of hazardous wastes is presented. Vortex Corporation has evaluated its patented CMS for use in the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclid...

  11. Application of Geo-Information Technology in the Study of Soil and Nutrients Loss by Water Erosion for three Different Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtak T. Jabbar

    2005-01-01

    exposed to slight soil loss. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Geo-information technology in generating a soil and nutrient loss map.

  12. Rapid and fully automated Measurement of Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    Eminent environmental challenges such as remediation of contaminated sites, the establishment and maintenance of nuclear waste repositories, or the design of surface landfill covers all require accurate quantification of the soil water characteristic at low water contents. Furthermore, several...... essential but difficult-to-measure soil properties such as clay content and specific surface area are intimately related to water vapor sorption. Until recently, it was a major challenge to accurately measure detailed water vapor sorption isotherms within an acceptable time frame. This priority...... and pesticide volatilization, toxic organic vapor sorption kinetics, and soil water repellency are illustrated. Several methods to quantify hysteresis effects and to derive soil clay content and specific surface area from VSA-measured isotherms are presented. Besides above mentioned applications, potential...

  13. Leidenfrost Vapor Layer Stabilization on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan; Patankar, Neelesh; Marston, Jeremy; Chan, Derek; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-11-01

    We have performed experiments to investigate the influence of the wettability of a superheated metallic sphere on the stability of a thin vapor layer during the cooling of a sphere immersed in water. For high enough sphere temperatures, a continuous vapor layer (Leidenfrost regime) is observed on the surface of non-superhydrophobic spheres, but below a critical sphere temperature the layer becomes unstable and explosively switches to nuclear boiling regime. In contrast, when the sphere surface is textured and superhydrophobic, the vapor layer is stable and gradually relaxes to the sphere surface until the complete cooling of the sphere, thus avoiding the nuclear boiling transition altogether. This finding could help in the development of heat exchange devices and of vapor layer based drag reducing technologies.

  14. An Approach that Uses the Concentrations of Hydrocarbon Compounds in Soil Gas at the Source of Contamination to Evaluate the Potential for Intrusion of Petroleum Vapors into Buildings (PVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    If motor fuels are spilled from underground storage tanks, petroleum hydrocarbons can vaporize from the spill and move as a vapor through the unsaturated zone. If a building is sited above or near the spill, the hydrocarbons may intrude into the air space of the building. This ...

  15. An Approach that Uses the Concentrations of Hydrocarbon Compounds in Soil Gas at the Source of Contamination to Evaluate the Potential for Intrusion of Petroleum Vapors into Buildings (PVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    If motor fuels are spilled from underground storage tanks, petroleum hydrocarbons can vaporize from the spill and move as a vapor through the unsaturated zone. If a building is sited above or near the spill, the hydrocarbons may intrude into the air space of the building. This ...

  16. Radio Frequency Heating for Soil Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephen L; Kasevich, Raymond S; Johnson, Mark A; Wiberg, Dan; Marley, Michael C

    1999-02-01

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) is a technology that increases the cost-effectiveness of a variety of site remediation technologies by accelerating the rate of contaminant removal. Heating makes the physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials such as contaminants, soil, and groundwater more amenable to remediation. RFH brings controlled heating to the subsurface, enhancing the removal of contaminants by soil vapor extraction (SVE), groundwater aeration (air sparging), bioremediation, and product recovery. The results presented are from a bench-scale study and a field demonstration that both used RFH to enhance the performance of SVE. The bench-scale study performed on PCE-contaminated soil revealed an increase, by a factor of 8, in the removal rate when RFH was used to heat soil to 90 °C. The application of RFH for a three-week period at a former gasoline station near St. Paul, MN, resulted in raising the ambient soil temperature from 8 °C to 100 °C in the immediate vicinity of the RFH applicator and to 40 °C 1.5 m (5 ft) away. Most significantly, the use of an integrated RFH/SVE system achieved an overall 50% reduction in gasoline range organics (GRO) in soil over a two- to three-month period. The discussion includes applications of RFH for enhancing bioremediation and product recovery.

  17. Derivation of Soil Gas Screening Value for Vapor Intrusion Scenario%蒸气入侵暴露情景下土壤气筛选值推导与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟茂生; 姜林; 贾晓洋; 姚珏君; 夏天翔; 蔡月华

    2013-01-01

    采用J&E模型推导了典型蒸气入侵暴露情形下土壤气中ρ(苯)、ρ(甲苯)、ρ(氯仿)及ρ(1,1-二氯乙烯)的筛选值,并与US EPA(美国国家环境保护局)及美国各州的颁布值进行比较.结果表明,具有致癌效应的苯、氯仿相同暴露情形下的筛选值低于非致癌效应的甲苯、1,1-二氯乙烯3~4个数量级,表明VOCs污染场地应重点关注致癌性污染物.其中,浅层土壤气居住暴露情形下ρ(苯)、ρ(甲苯)、ρ(氯仿)及ρ(1,1-二氯乙烯)的筛选值分别为9.6×102、2.7×102、1.1×107、4.0×105μg/m3,工商业暴露情形下分别为4.6×103、1.3 ×103、6.3 ×107、2.4×106 μg/m3.深层土壤气居住暴露情形下ρ(苯)、ρ(甲苯)、ρ(氯仿)及ρ(1,1-二氯乙烯)的筛选值分别为1.1×103、3.1×102、1.2×107、4.5×105 μg/m3,工商业暴露情形下分别为5.2×103、1.5×103 、7.1×107、2.7×106 μg/m3.筛选值大小的决定因素包括污染物的室内允许浓度、土壤气衰减系数及建筑物参数.浅层与深层土壤气中各污染物筛选值无明显差异,但与US EPA及美国各州的颁布值差异较大,这主要是由污染物室内允许浓度及衰减系数确定方法的不同所致.浅层土壤气平均衰减系数为2.3 ×10-4,与深层土壤气平均衰减系数(2.0 ×10-4)无明显差异,但均低于US EPA对应经验值[0.1(浅层)、0.01(深层)]2 ~3个数量级.在不考虑吸附及生物降解时,污染源上方清洁土壤对污染物的衰减作用不明显.%Soil gas screening values for benzene,toluene,chloroform and 1,1-dichloroethylene were derived by the J&E model according to typical vapor intrusion scenarios,and compared with values issued by US EPA and its member states.The results revealed that the screening values of carcinogenic benzene and chloroform are three to four orders of magnitude lower than the values of non-carcinogenic toluene and 1,1-dichloroethylene.This result indicated that more attention should be paid

  18. Archimedes Mass Filter Vaporizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putvinski, S.; Agnew, A. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Ohkawa, T.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.; Dresvin, S. V.; Kuteev, B. V.; Feygenson, O. N.; Ivanov, D. V.; Zverev, S. G.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Egorov, S. M.; Kiesewetter, D. V.; Maliugin, V. I.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group, Inc., is developing a plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter that separates waste oxide mixtures ion by ion into two mass groups: light and heavy. Since high-level waste at Hanford has 99.9its radioactivity associated with heavy elements, the Archimedes Filter can effectively decontaminate over three-quarters of that waste. The Filter process involves some preprocessing followed by volatilization and separation by the magnetic and electric fields of the main plasma. This presentation describes the approach to volatilization of the waste oxy-hydroxide mixture by means of a very high heat flux (q > 10 MW/m2). Such a high heat flux is required to ensure congruent evaporation of the complex oxy-hydroxide mixture and is achieved by injection of small droplets of molten waste into an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch. This presentation further addresses different issues related to evaporation of the waste including modeling of droplet evaporation, estimates of parameters of plasma torch, and 2D modeling of the plasma. The experimental test bed for oxide vaporization and results of the initial experiments on oxide evaporation in 60 kW ICP torch will also be described.

  19. Assessment of Mitigation Systems on Vapor Intrusion: Temporal Trends, Attenuation Factors, and Contaminant Migration Routes under Mitigated and Non-mitigated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of subsurface vapors, including radon and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in soil gas from the subsurface to indoor air. Vapor intrusion happens because there are pressure and concentration differentials between indoor air and soil gas. Indoor ...

  20. Implementation of deep soil mixing at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, F.G.; Korte, N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Strong-Gunderson, J.; Siegrist, R.L.; West, O.R.; Cline, S.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Baker, J. [AlliedSignal, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Kansas City Plant (KCP), AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), conducted field-scale tests of in situ soil mixing and treatment technologies within the Northeast Area (NEA) of the KCP at the Former Ponds site. This demonstration, testing, and evaluation effort was conducted as part of the implementation of a deep soil mixing (DSM) innovative remedial technology demonstration project designed to test DSM in the low-permeability clay soils at the KCP. The clay soils and groundwater beneath this area are contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE). The demonstration project was originally designed to evaluate TCE and 1,2-DCE removal efficiency using soil mixing coupled with vapor stripping. Treatability study results, however, indicated that mixed region vapor stripping (MRVS) coupled with calcium oxide (dry lime powder) injection would improve TCE and 1,2-DCE removal efficiency in saturated soils. The scope of the KCP DSM demonstration evolved to implement DSM with the following in situ treatment methodologies for contaminant source reduction in soil and groundwater: DSM/MRVS coupled with calcium oxide injection; DSM/bioaugmentation; and DSM/chemical oxidation using potassium permanganate. Laboratory treatability studies were started in 1995 following collection of undisturbed soil cores from the KCP. These studies were conducted at ORNL, and the results provided information on optimum reagent concentrations and mixing ratios for the three in situ treatment agents to be implemented in the field demonstration.

  1. Role of natural attenuation, phytoremediation and hybrid technologies in the remediation of a refinery soil with old/recent petroleum hydrocarbons contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Maria Nazaré P F S; Pinto, Dorabela; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, Teresa S D

    2012-09-01

    Within a search for a biological remediation technology to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) from a contaminated soil from a refinery, the potential of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) was compared with the use of transplants of Cortaderia selloana both in the absence and in the presence of soil amendments. After 31 months of experiments, MNA was effective in removing most of the recent PHC contamination (50% of the initial total contamination) at 5-20 cm depth. The presence of weathered contamination explains the existence of an established community of PHC degraders, as can be inferred by the most probable number technique. C. selloana, in its turn, showed capacity to mobilize the most recalcitrant fraction of PHC to its roots, nevertheless masking its remediation capacity. The use of a hybrid technology (C. selloana together with treatments with a surfactant and a bioaugmentation product) improved the removal of PHC at 15-20 cm depth, the presence of C. selloana facilitating the migration of additives into the deeper layers of soil, which can be considered a secondary but positive role of the plant. In the surface soil layer, which was exposed to both microorganisms and the atmosphere, a further 20% of weathered PHC contamination disappeared (70% total removal) as a result of photo- and chemical degradation. Periodic revolving of the soil, like tillage, to expose all the contaminated soil to the atmosphere will therefore be a reliable option for reducing the contamination of the refinery soil if conditions (space and equipment) permit this operation.

  2. Reduction of potatos due to hydric soil erosion using space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, E. C.; Ríos, V. H.; Zelaya, D. K.; Soria, F.; Ríos, E.; Padilla, P.

    The potato's crop is in the fourth ranking of economic importance in the agricultural Gross Income of Tucuman. The geographical location of its production area makes essential the handling of the hydric soil erosion problems. The purpose of this work is to improve potato crop irrigation management using space information combined with farm practice. The field measurements were carried out using Wide Area Differential Global Position Systems FUGRO OMNISTAR, total station, and double frequency Global Position Systems. The crop irrigation was pursued through scheduling irrigation's software whose input comes from satellites of the Matutinal Constellation (LandSat 7, SACC and TERRA). The preliminary results allowed reprograming the irrigation practices for the new crop's campaign in order to decrease hydric soil erosion.

  3. Phytomining of heavy metals from soil by Croton bonplandianum using phytoremediation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, K. J.; Dave, B. R.; Parmar, P. P.; Subramanian, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Metal ions are not only valuable intermediates in metal extraction, but also important raw materials for technical applications. They possess some unique but, identical physical and chemical properties, which make them useful probes of low temperature geochemical reactions. Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. Metal concentration in soil typically ranges from less than one to as high as 100,000 mg/kg. Heavy metal contaminations of land resources continue to be the focus of numerous environmental studies and attract a great deal of attention worldwide. This is attributed to no--biodegradability and persistence of heavy metals in soils. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Complexation, separation, and removal of metal ions have become increasingly attractive areas of research and have led to new technical developments like phytoremediation that has numerous biotechnological implications of understanding of plant metal accumulation. Croton bonplandianum is newly identified as a potential heavy metal hypreaccumulator. In this study Croton bonplandianum was subjected for in vitro heavy metal accumulation, to explore the accumulation pattern of four heavy metals viz Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Zinc in various parts of Croton bonplandianum plant parts. It was found that the efficiency of Croton bonplandianum to accumulate heavy metals is Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni. The absorption of these heavy metals in plant parts revealed that the highest translocation of metals from ground to root was ground to be in the order of Pb (1.12) > Zn (0.26) > Ni (0.18) > Cd (0.15). The distribution of Cd in Croton bonplandianum followed the trend Root>Stem>Leaf; with Ni it was Root>Leaf>Stem, while Pb showed leaf>stem>root. Translocation of metals in Croton bonplandianum plant parts

  4. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I.; Major, David W.; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale exper...

  5. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    saturation 7%) and agree satisfactory well with model predictions. In contrast, much larger mineralization rates are measured for wet conditions (water saturation of 68%). This discrepancy originates from extensive cell dispersal, not accounted for in the model, which occurs in wet conditions...... but is restricted in dry conditions, as confirmed by performing cell counts. This highlights the potential of entrapped cells when they act as seeds for soil colonization....

  6. Study of sintering behavior of vapor forms of 1-octanethiol coated copper nanoparticles for application to ink-jet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jinhyeong; Park, Shinyoung; Haque, Md Mominul; Kim, Young-Seok; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2012-04-01

    Sub-50 nm copper nanoparticles coated with sub-5 nm 1-octanethiol layer for oxidation inhibition were examined to confirm the 1-octanethiol removal temperature as the sub-50 nm copper nanoparticles are sintered. As a result, 1-octanethiol Self-Assembled Multi-layers (SAMs) on sub-50 nm copper nanoparticles were successfully removed before sintering of copper nanoparticles so that a high density of copper line could be obtained. Finally, the line resistivity was measured and compared to verify the effect of sintering in different atmospheres. As a result, electrical resistivity of the copper pattern sintered in hydrogen atmosphere was measured at 6.96 x 10(-6) ohm-cm whereas that of the copper pattern sintered in mixed gas atmosphere was measured at 2.62 x 10(-5) ohm-cm. Thus, sintering of copper patterns was successfully done to show low electrical resistivity values. Moreover, removal of 1-octanethiol coating after sintering process was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. By showing no sulfur content, XPS results indicate that 1-octanethiol is completely removed. Therefore, the vapor form of 1-octanethiol coating layers can be safely used as an oxidation inhibition layer for low temperature sintering processes and ink-jet applications.

  7. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alicia; Deshpande, Manohar; O'Neill, Peggy; Miles, Lynn

    2017-04-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earth's surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil. This presentation describes a new and less expensive technique for SM as well as RZSM direct measurement using Signal of Opportunity transmitters. Being less expensive and needing only passive simple RF receiver, the SoOp concept has the potential for being used for space borne applications, thus providing global SM and RZSM measurements. This study will describe

  8. Engineering Issue: Technology Alternatives for the Remediation of PCB Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Engineering Issue papers are a series of documents that summarize the available information on specific contaminates, selected treatment and site remediation technologies, and related issues. This Engineering Issue paper is intended...

  9. FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT MTI INC'S PDV 6000 STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring Technologies International Pty. Ltd. (MTI) has developed a Portable Digital Voltammeter (PDV) designed to identify and measure the concentration of heavy metal ions. MTI's PDV 6000 was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Tec...

  10. Building components for an outpost on the Lunar soil by means of a novel 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Giovanni; Dini, Enrico; De Kestelier, Xavier; Colla, Valentina; Pambaguian, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    3D-printing technologies are receiving an always increasing attention in architecture, due to their potential use for direct construction of buildings and other complex structures, also of considerable dimensions, with virtually any shape. Some of these technologies rely on an agglomeration process of inert materials, e.g. sand, through a special binding liquid and this capability is of interest for the space community for its potential application to space exploration. In fact, it opens the possibility for exploiting in-situ resources for the construction of buildings in harsh spatial environments. The paper presents the results of a study aimed at assessing the concept of 3D printing technology for building habitats on the Moon using lunar soil, also called regolith. A particular patented 3D-printing technology - D-shape - has been applied, which is, among the existing rapid prototyping systems, the closest to achieving full scale construction of buildings and the physical and chemical characteristics of lunar regolith and terrestrial regolith simulants have been assessed with respect to the working principles of such technology. A novel lunar regolith simulant has also been developed, which almost exactly reproduces the characteristics of the JSC-1A simulant produced in the US. Moreover, tests in air and in vacuum have been performed to demonstrate the occurrence of the reticulation reaction with the regolith simulant. The vacuum tests also showed that evaporation or freezing of the binding liquid can be prevented through a proper injection method. The general requirements of a Moon outpost have been specified, and a preliminary design of the habitat has been developed. Based on such design, a section of the outpost wall has been selected and manufactured at full scale using the D-shape printer and regolith simulant. Test pieces have also been manufactured and their mechanical properties have been assessed.

  11. Using remote-sensing technologies in combination with Cesium-137 measurements to estimate soil-erosion quantity in semi-arid steppe areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanJiang Sha; HaiZhou Ma; LingQin Li; Jinzhou Du; FeiQuan Wu; QiShun Fan

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion by wind is one of the most important processes in the changing the earth's surface in semi-arid areas, Thus it is of great importance to study soil-erosion action. Using integrated technologies of remote sensing and geochemistry radioactivity isotope to extract regional soil-erosion information and to calculate quantity of soil erosion is accomplished successfully in this paper by means of beneficial experiments in the Talatan region of the Gonghe Basin, which is located in northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. The results show that the soil erosion by wind is not intensive in this region; the erosion types belong to the classes of very-soft erosion and soft-erosion type, which account for 47.12 percent and 35.58 percent, respectively, of the total study area.In total, two kinds of soil erosion account for 82.70 percent of the study area; only a small area belongs to the classes of severe erosion and very-severe erosion; this area is about 22.14 km2. Severe deposition activity has taken place in this region, and has appeared in a large area (322.67 km2), which accounts for 11.78 percent of the total study area. The results of this study show that soil erosion and deposition inventories are 870,000-1,150,000 tons and 550,000-780,000 tons, respectively, per year. The soil inventory shows about 320,000-370,000 tons from Talatan to Longyangxia reservoir per year. Using remote-sensing technology and 137Cs techniques is a valid means to analyze and to evaluate the quantity of soil erosion by wind in semi-arid environments.

  12. Using remote-sensing technologies in combination with Cesium-137 measurements to estimate soil-erosion quantity in semi-arid steppe areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion by wind is one of the most important processes in the changing the earth’s surface in semi-arid areas,Thus it is of great importance to study soil-erosion action.Using integrated technologies of remote sensing and geochemistry radioactivity iso-tope to extract regional soil-erosion information and to calculate quantity of soil erosion is accomplished successfully in this paper by means of beneficial experiments in the Talatan region of the Gonghe Basin,which is located in northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Pla-teau in China.The results show that the soil erosion by wind is not intensive in this region;the erosion types belong to the classes of very-soft erosion and soft-erosion type,which account for 47.12 percent and 35.58 percent,respectively,of the total study area.In total,two kinds of soil erosion account for 82.70 percent of the study area;only a small area belongs to the classes of severe erosion and very-severe erosion;this area is about 22.14 km2.Severe deposition activity has taken place in this region,and has appeared in a large area(322.67 km2),which accounts for 11.78 percent of the total study area.The results of this study show that soil erosion and deposition inventories are 870,000-1,150,000 tons and 550,000-780,000 tons,respectively,per year.The soil in-ventory shows about 320,000-370,000 tons from Talatan to Longyangxia reservoir per year.Using remote-sensing technology and 137Cs techniques is a valid means to analyze and to evaluate the quantity of soil erosion by wind in semi-arid environments.

  13. Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

  14. Characterization and remediation of Soil Contaminated with Explosives: Development of Practical Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-06

    and TK6 human lymphoblastic cells (Lachance eta!. 1999). No mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test) was observed with or without a rat...limit (42.3 mg/L at 20°C [1]), RDX is neither mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TAlOO with or without S9 [9,10] nor cytotoxic to...organisms. Simini et al. [13] reported that RDX concentrations (~100 mg/kg in soil) caused significant biomass reduction in cucumber seedlings

  15. Geothermal energy plants. Technologies and risk of soil and groundwater pollution; Jordvarmeanlaeg. Teknologier og risiko for jord- og grundvandsforurening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villumsen, B. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    Ground source heat systems utilise the natural heat in the ground to heat houses and domestic hot water. The technology is energy-saving and can therefore contribute to the targets of reducing Denmark's CO{sub 2} emissions. All else being equal, a ground source heat system containing chemicals poses a potential contamination risk to soil and groundwater. Therefore a permit is required when installing a ground source heat system, and the general regulations for implementing the system etc. combined with the municipality's administrative procedures for the area must ensure sufficient protection of the groundwater. This project only deals with the heat exchanging system, which is the part of the ground source heat system which involves risk of soil and groundwater contamination. The aim of the project is to procure an overall updated knowledge base about the different types of ground source heat systems and the contamination risk associated with them. The project also reviews how disadvantages can be managed or minimized. (au)

  16. Membrane Based Measurement Technology for in situ Monitoring of Gases in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Geistlinger

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The representative measurement of gas concentration and fluxes in heterogeneous soils is one of the current challenges when analyzing the interactions of biogeochemical processes in soils and global change. Furthermore, recent research projects on CO2-sequestration have an urgent need of CO2-monitoring networks. Therefore, a measurement method based on selective permeation of gases through tubular membranes has been developed. Combining the specific permeation rates of gas components for a membrane and Dalton’s principle, the gas concentration (or partial pressure can be determined by the measurement of physical quantities (pressure or volume only. Due to the comparatively small permeation constants of membranes, the influence of the sensor on its surrounding area can be neglected. The design of the sensor membranes can be adapted to the spatial scale from the bench scale to the field scale. The sensitive area for the measurement can be optimized to obtain representative results. Furthermore, a continuous time-averaged measurement is possible where the time for averaging is simply controlled by the wall-thickness of the membrane used. The measuring method is demonstrated for continuous monitoring of O2 and CO2 inside of a sand filled Lysimeter. Using three sensor planes inside the sand pack, which were installed normal to the gas flow direction and a reference measurement system, we demonstrate the accuracy of the gas-detection for different flux-based boundary conditions.

  17. Treatment technologies used for the removal of As, Cr, Cu, PCP and/or PCDD/F from contaminated soil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemiza, Karima; Coudert, Lucie; Metahni, Sabrine; Mercier, Guy; Besner, Simon; Blais, Jean-François

    2017-07-05

    The contamination of soils by metals such as arsenic, chromium, copper and organic compounds such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) and dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) is a major problem in industrialized countries. Excavation followed by disposal in an appropriate landfilling is usually used site to manage these contaminated soils. Many researches have been conducted to develop physical, biological, thermal and chemical methods to allow the rehabilitation of contaminated sites. Thermal treatments including thermal desorption seemed to be the most appropriate methods, allowing the removal of more than 99.99% of organic contaminants but, they are ineffective for inorganic compounds. Biological treatments have been developed to remove inorganic and hydrophobic organic contaminants but their applications are limited to soils contaminated by easily biodegradable organic compounds. Among the physical technologies available, attrition is the most commonly used technique for the rehabilitation of soils contaminated by both organic and inorganic contaminants. Chemical processes using acids, bases, redox agents and surfactants seemed to be an interesting option to simultaneously extract organic and inorganic contaminants from soils. This paper will provide an overview of the recent developments in the field of decontamination technologies applicable for the removal of As, Cr, Cu, PCP and/or PCDD/F from contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Fracturing Technology in Coal Bin Vapor Blocking%气相压裂技术在煤仓清堵中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩世勇

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the gas fracturing technology ,the main technical features and the specific implementation steps in the application to eliminate the blockage of coal bunker .And the blockage of Changcun Coal Mine coal bunker experiment by eliminating , it proved that the method has many advantages of fast ,efficient,safe in the treatment of coal blockage ,the application of gas fracturing technology provides reference .%介绍了煤仓清堵中气相压裂技术工艺、主要技术特点和具体实施步骤,并通过常村煤矿煤仓清堵实验,证明了该方法在处理煤仓堵塞中具有快速、高效、安全等众多优点,为气相压裂技术的应用研究提供了借鉴。

  19. AMTEC vapor-vapor series connected cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark L.; Williams, Roger M.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Nakamura, Barbara J.; Oconnor, Dennis E.

    1995-08-01

    An alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) having a plurality of cells structurally connected in series to form a septum dividing a plenum into two chambers, and electrically connected in series, is provided with porous metal anodes and porous metal cathodes in the cells. The cells may be planar or annular, and in either case a metal alkali vapor at a high temperature is provided to the plenum through one chamber on one side of the wall and returned to a vapor boiler after condensation at a chamber on the other side of the wall in the plenum. If the cells are annular, a heating core may be placed along the axis of the stacked cells. This arrangement of series-connected cells allows efficient generation of power at high voltage and low current.

  20. Geodetect: a new step for the use of fibre Bragg grating technology in soil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voet, Marc R.; Nancey, Alain; Vlekken, Johan

    2005-05-01

    Geodetect is an innovative geotextile-based monitoring system, developed for the measurement of strain and deformation of earthwork structures reinforced with geosynthetics. This paper presents the background and the results of the development and the practical experience acquired in real time jobs with this new technology.

  1. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  2. Vapor Control Layer Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-08

    This information sheet describes the level of vapor control required on the interior side of framed walls with typical fibrous cavity insulation (fibreglass, rockwool, or cellulose, based on DOE climate zone of construction.

  3. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 5. Appendix V-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 5, Appendix V - D. This appendix includes the final verification run data package (PAH, TCLP herbicides, TCLP pesticides).

  4. Vapor Compressor Driven Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will demonstrate a vapor compressor driven hybrid two-phase loop technology. The hybrid two-phase loop...

  5. Examination of the U.S. EPA's vapor intrusion database based on models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2013-02-05

    In the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)'s vapor intrusion (VI) database, there appears to be a trend showing an inverse relationship between the indoor air concentration attenuation factor and the subsurface source vapor concentration. This is inconsistent with the physical understanding in current vapor intrusion models. This article explores possible reasons for this apparent discrepancy. Soil vapor transport processes occur independently of the actual building entry process and are consistent with the trends in the database results. A recent EPA technical report provided a list of factors affecting vapor intrusion, and the influence of some of these are explored in the context of the database results.

  6. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  7. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  8. Physicochemical Analysis of Ichamati River and Estimation of Soil Parameters using Geospatial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ismail; Bandyopadhyay, Jatisankar

    2016-10-01

    Ichamati is a meandering tidal river of West Bengal. While meandering, the river forms of sharp loops and horse-shoes. During the formation of those horse-shoes severe damage is caused to the valuable lands and villages located on its concave banks. It appears that the formation of horse-shoes along the course is a characteristic of the river itself. It has, therefore, been proposed to study its characteristics by model experiments and to devise adequate means of protection which will successfully combat the river against washing away the costly lands and villages. In this connection, it has been felt necessary to make borings at the most affected reaches of the river in order to find out the nature of the soils underlying the existing bank. In September 2013, heavy rainfall occurred in earlier days of second sampling and the place was inundated by local runoff. Water coming down from locality reduced the total soluble salt and salinity value to a great extent. But after recession of the monsoon the values of total soluble salt salinity gradually increased and in April 2014 the values of total soluble salts were well over 1000 ppm, i.e. the water was `brackish' in salinity term. However, the suspended load values were well low to medium in all the cases. So the rapid deposition or silting is not likely to be correlated with the salinity increase or similar chemical reason. Siltation may rather be attributed to physical phenomena.

  9. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-03-21

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000 mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000 mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy.

  10. Zebrafish and clean water technology: assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Incardona, J P; Stark, J D; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L

    2014-12-01

    Urban stormwater contains a complex mixture of contaminants that can be acutely toxic to aquatic biota. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is a set of evolving technologies intended to reduce impacts on natural systems by slowing and filtering runoff. The extent to which GSI methods work as intended is usually assessed in terms of water quantity (hydrology) and quality (chemistry). Biological indicators of GSI effectiveness have received less attention, despite an overarching goal of protecting the health of aquatic species. Here we use the zebrafish (Danio rerio) experimental model to evaluate bioinfiltration as a relatively inexpensive technology for treating runoff from an urban highway with dense motor vehicle traffic. Zebrafish embryos exposed to untreated runoff (48-96h; six storm events) displayed an array of developmental abnormalities, including delayed hatching, reduced growth, pericardial edema, microphthalmia (small eyes), and reduced swim bladder inflation. Three of the six storms were acutely lethal, and sublethal toxicity was evident across all storms, even when stormwater was diluted by as much as 95% in clean water. As anticipated from exposure to cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), untreated runoff also caused heart failure, as indicated by circulatory stasis, pericardial edema, and looping defects. Bioretention treatment dramatically improved stormwater quality and reversed nearly all forms of developmental toxicity. The zebrafish model therefore provides a versatile experimental platform for rapidly assessing GSI effectiveness.

  11. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Volume 1, Phase 1: Annual report, September 28, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant.

  12. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  13. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verevkin, Sergey P., E-mail: sergey.verevkin@uni-rostock.de [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Dr-Lorenz-Weg 1, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Emel' yanenko, Vladimir N. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Dr-Lorenz-Weg 1, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Algarra, Manuel [Centro de Geologia do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Manuel Lopez-Romero, J. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Malaga. Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. > We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. > Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub l}{sup g}H{sub m} of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  14. Life cycle assessment of soil and groundwater remediation technologies: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming an increasingly widespread tool in support systems for environmental decision-making regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites. In this study, the use of LCA to compare the environmental impacts of different remediation...... and scope definition and the applied impact assessment. The studies differ in their basic approach since some are prospective with focus on decision support while others are retrospective aiming at a more detailed assessment of a completed remediation project. Literature review The literature review showed...... scenarios in terms of their associated environmental burden. Main features An overview of the assessed remediation technologies and contaminant types covered in the literature is presented. The LCA methodologies of the 12 reviewed studies were compared and discussed with special focus on their goal...

  15. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T.; Katayama, K.; Uehara, K.; Fukada, S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Takeishi, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    A large amount of cooling water is used in a D-T fusion reactor. The cooling water will contain tritium with high concentration because tritium can permeate metal walls at high temperature easily. A development of tritium handling technology for confining tritiated water in the fusion facility is an important issue. In addition, it is also important to understand tritium behavior in environment assuming severe accidents. In this study, percolation experiments of tritiated water in soil packed bed were carried out and tritium behavior in soil was discussed. Six soil samples were collected in Hakozaki campus of Kyushu University. These particle densities were of the same degree as that of general soils and moisture contents were related to BET surface area. For two soil samples used in the percolation experiment of tritiated water, saturated hydraulic conductivity agreed well with the estimating value by Creager. Tritium retention ratio in the soil packed bed was larger than water retention. This is considered to be due to an effect of tritium sorption on the surface of soil particles. The isotope exchange capacity estimated by assuming that H/T ratio of supplied tritiated water and H/T ratio of surface water of soil particle was equal was comparable to that on cement paste and mortar which were obtained by exposure of tritiated water vapor. (authors)

  16. Vapor intrusion in urban settings: effect of foundation features and source location

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yijun; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In many urban settings, groundwater contains volatile organic compounds, such as tricholoroethene, tetrachloroethene, benzene, etc., at concentrations that are at or slightly below non-potable groundwater standards. Some non-potable groundwater standards do not protect against human health risks that might result from vapor intrusion. Vapor intrusion is a process by which vapor phase contaminants present in the subsurface migrate through the soil and ultimately enter a building through founda...

  17. Vapor concentration monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayly, John G.; Booth, Ronald J.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

  18. 重金属污染土壤稳定/固化修复技术研究进展%Recent advance in solidification/stabilization technology for the remediation of heavy metals contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝汉舟; 陈同斌; 靳孟贵; 雷梅; 刘成武; 祖文普; 黄莉敏

    2011-01-01

    Remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil is still a difficulty and a hotspot of international research projects. At present. the technologies commonly adopted for the remediation of contaminated sites mainly include excavation. solidification/stabilization ( S/S) . soil washing, soil vapor extraction ( SVE) . thermal treatment. and bioremediation. Based on the S/S technical guidelines of Unite State Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA) and United Kingdom Environment Agency ( EA) and the domestic and foreign patents, this paper introduced the concepts of S/S and its development status at home and abroad, and discussed its future development directions. Solidification refers to a process that binds contaminated media with a reagent, changing the media' s physical properties via increasing its compressive strength, decreasing its permeability, and encapsulating the contaminants to form a solid material. Stabilization refers to the process that involves a chemical reaction which reduces the leachability of a waste. chemically immobilizes the waste and reduces its solubility, making the waste become less harmful or less mobile. S/S technology includes cement solidification, lime pozzolanic solidification, plastic materials stabilization. vitrification. and regent-based stabilization. Stabilization ( or immobilization) treatment processes convert contaminants to less mobile forms through chemical or thermal interactions. In stabilization technology, the aim of adding agents is to change the soil physical and chemical properties through pH control technology, redox potential technology, precipitation techniques, adsorption technology, and ion-exchange technology that change the existing forms of heavy metals in soil. and thus. reduce the heavy metals bioavailability and mobility. This review also discussed the S/S evaluation methods. highlighted the need to enhance S/S technology in the molecular bonding, soil polymers. and formulation of China ' s S/S technical

  19. Relationship between vapor intrusion and human exposure to trichloroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    ARCHER, NATALIE P.; BRADFORD, CARRIE M.; VILLANACCI, JOHN F.; CRAIN, NEIL E.; Corsi, Richard L; Chambers, David M.; BURK, TONIA; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater has the potential to volatilize through soil into indoor air where it can be inhaled. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals living above TCE-contaminated groundwater are exposed to TCE through vapor intrusion. We examined associations between TCE concentrations in various environmental media and TCE concentrations in residents. For this assessment, indoor air, outdoor air, soil gas, and tap water samples were collected in and aro...

  20. 铅污染土壤修复工艺技术研究%Process of lead-contaminated soil remediation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘舒

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, with the acceleration of the process of urban development , pollution, corporate legacy of contaminated sites attracted more and more attention , business-contaminated soils have a great adverse environmental problems .Since the soil began to be concerned about heavy metal pollution prevention , soil contamination is very difficult to repair , pollutant treatment cost is very expensive , requires fast and efficient technique to accelerate the repair of contaminated land .In this article, select a typical lead-contaminated soil as research, discusses lead-acid batteries contaminated land restoration technology , the value of contaminated sites by soil characteristics and environmental risk assessment to determine the feasibility of restoration and repair , by cleaning soil remediation technologies , to optimize the basic parameters of soil remediation , soil remediation test analysis derived optimal technology .%近年来,随着城市建设进程的加快,污染企业遗留下来的污染场地引起越来越多的关注,企业对土壤的污染产生很大不良的环境问题。自土壤重金属污染防治被关注开始,土壤污染的修复是很困难的,污染物处理费用非常昂贵,需要快速而有效的技术来加速修复土地的污染区。在本文中,选取一个典型铅污染土壤为研究方向,论述铅蓄电池中铅酸污染地块的修复工艺技术,对受污染场地土壤特性和环境风险进行评估,确定修复的可行性和修复的价值,通过土壤修复清洗技术,优化土壤修复基本参数,测试分析得出土壤修复最优工艺技术。

  1. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  2. Implementation monitoring temperature, humidity and mositure soil based on wireless sensor network for e-agriculture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarudin, A.; Ghozali, A. L.; Hasyim, A.; Effendi, A.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesian agriculture has great potensial for development. Agriculture a lot yet based on data collection for soil or plant, data soil can use for analys soil fertility. We propose e-agriculture system for monitoring soil. This system can monitoring soil status. Monitoring system based on wireless sensor mote that sensing soil status. Sensor monitoring utilize soil moisture, humidity and temperature. System monitoring design with mote based on microcontroler and xbee connection. Data sensing send to gateway with star topology with one gateway. Gateway utilize with mini personal computer and connect to xbee cordinator mode. On gateway, gateway include apache server for store data based on My-SQL. System web base with YII framework. System done implementation and can show soil status real time. Result the system can connection other mote 40 meters and mote lifetime 7 hours and minimum voltage 7 volt. The system can help famer for monitoring soil and farmer can making decision for treatment soil based on data. It can improve the quality in agricultural production and would decrease the management and farming costs.

  3. 多氯联苯污染土壤修复技术研究进展%Remediation Technologies of PCBs-Contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟; 谯华; 方振东; 郝全龙; 张楷; 余海波

    2014-01-01

    多氯联苯是环境中广泛存在的一种持久性有机化合物,具有三致作用。多氯联苯具有疏水性和亲脂性,土壤是其在环境中的最终归宿,因此,多氯联苯污染土壤的修复越来越受到重视。简介了多氯联苯的基本性质、土壤环境中多氯联苯的污染现状,综述了国内外多氯联苯污染土壤修复技术的研究进展,并对其发展前景进行了展望。%Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)are ubiquitous and persistent organic pollutants in environ-ment,which are toxic,carcinogenic and mutagenic.For PCBs are hydrophobic and lipophilic,soil is its final des-tination in environment.Hence,PCBs-contaminated soil is increasingly attaining more and more attention.In this paper,basic properties of PCBs and the situation of PCBs-contaminated soil were described.Remediation technologies of PCBs-contaminated soil were reviewed both at home and abroad.The prospect of technology de-velopment was also presented.

  4. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soil and Restoration Technology%土壤重金属污染及其修复技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄占斌; 焦海华

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution was an important problem influencing on agricultural production and threatening people's health and safety in China. The authors introduced the definition, resources, harming and the main restoration technology of heavy metal in farmland soil, and discussed the development of restoration technology for heavy metal pollution soil and its application.%重金属污染已经成为影响中国农业生产和威胁人民健康安全的重要环境问题.笔者借此对重金属污染,农田重金属的来源、危害及其主要的修复技术进行分析,并对重金属污染土壤的修复技术的发展进行探讨.

  5. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination: the heritage of industrial development Contamination is only a part of a whole set of soil degradation processes, but it is one of paramount importance since soil pollution greatly influences the quality of water, food and human health. Soil contamination has been identified as an important issue for action in the European strategy for soil protection, it has been estimated that 3.5 million of sites are potentially contaminated in Europe. Contaminated soils have been essentially discovered in industrial sites landfills and energy production plants, but accumulation of heavy metals and organic compounds can be found also in agricultural land . Remediation strategies. from incineration to bioremediation The assessment of soil contamination is followed by remedial action. The remediation of contaminated soils started using consolidates technologies (incineration inertization etc.) previously employed in waste treatment,. This has contributed to consider a contaminated soil as an hazardous waste. This rough approximation was unfortunately transferred in many legislations and on this basis soil knowledge have been used only marginally in the clean up procedures. For many years soil quality has been identified by a value of concentration of a contaminant and excavation and landfill disposal of soil has been largely used. In the last years the knowledge of remediation technology has rapidly grown, at present many treatment processes appear to be really feasible at field scale, and soil remediation is now based on risk assessment procedures. Innovative technologies, largely dependent on soil properties, such as in situ chemical oxidation, electroremediation, bioventing, soil vapor extraction etc. have been successfully applied. Hazardous organic compounds are commonly treated by biological technologies, biorememdiation and phytoremediation, being the last partially applied also for metals. Technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on

  6. Thermogravimetric study of vapor pressure of TATP synthesized without recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Jonathan; Knott, Debra; Steward, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at characterizing the vapor pressure signatures generated by triacetone triperoxide (TATP) that was synthesized without recrystallization by thermogravimmetric analysis (TGA) for exploitation by standoff detection technologies of explosive devices. The thermal behavior of the nonrecrystallized sample was compared with reported values. Any phase change, melting point and decomposition identification were studied by differential scanning calorimeter. Vapor pressures were estimated by the Langmuir method of evaporation from an open surface in a vacuum. Vapor pressures of TATP at different temperatures were calculated using the linear logarithmic relationship obtained from benzoic acid reference standard. Sublimation of TATP was found to follow apparent zero-order kinetics and sublimes at steady rates at 298 K and above. While the enthalpy of sublimation found, 71.7 kJ mol(-1), is in agreement with reported values the vapor pressures deviated significantly. The differences in the vapor pressures behavior are attributable to the synthesis pathway chosen in this study.

  7. Remote Monitoring of Soil Water Content, Temperature, and Heat Flow Using Low-Cost Cellular (3G) IoT Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    New microprocessor boards, open-source sensors, and cloud infrastructure developed for the Internet of Things (IoT) can be used to create low-cost monitoring systems for environmental research. This project describes two applications in soil science and hydrology: 1) remote monitoring of the soil temperature regime near oil and gas operations to detect the thermal signature associated with the natural source zone degradation of hydrocarbon contaminants in the vadose zone, and 2) remote monitoring of soil water content near the surface as part of a global citizen science network. In both cases, prototype data collection systems were built around the cellular (2G/3G) "Electron" microcontroller (www.particle.io). This device allows connectivity to the cloud using a low-cost global SIM and data plan. The systems have cellular connectivity in over 100 countries and data can be logged to the cloud for storage. Users can view data real time over any internet connection or via their smart phone. For both projects, data logging, storage, and visualization was done using IoT services like Thingspeak (thingspeak.com). The soil thermal monitoring system was tested on experimental plots in Colorado USA to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of different temperature sensors and 3D printed housings. The soil water experiment included comparison opens-source capacitance-based sensors to commercial versions. Results demonstrate the power of leveraging IoT technology for field research.

  8. Development of a national geodatabase (Greece) for soil surveys and land evaluation using space technology and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilas, George; Dionysiou, Nina; Karapetsas, Nikolaos; Silleos, Nikolaos; Kosmas, Konstantinos; Misopollinos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    This project was funded by OPEKEPE, Ministry of Agricultural Development and Food, Greece and involves development of a national geodatabase and a WebGIS that encompass soil data of all the agricultural areas of Greece in order to supply the country with a multi-purpose master plan for agricultural land management. The area mapped covered more than 385,000 ha divided in more than 9.000 Soil Mapping Units (SMUs) based on physiographic analysis, field work and photo interpretation of satellite images. The field work included description and sampling in three depths (0-30, 30-60 and >60 cm) of 2,000 soil profiles and 8,000 augers (sampling 0-30 and >30 cm). In total more than 22,000 soil samples were collected and analyzed for determining main soil properties associated with soil classification and soil evaluation. Additionally the project included (1) integration of all data in the Soil Geodatabase, (2) finalization of SMUs, (3) development of a Master Plan for Agricultural Land Management and (4) development and operational testing of the Web Portal for e-information and e-services. The integrated system is expected, after being fully operational, to provide important electronic services and benefits to farmers, private sector and governmental organizations. An e-book with the soil maps of Greece was also provided including 570 sheets with data description and legends. The Master Plan for Agricultural Land Management includes soil quality maps for 30 agricultural crops, together with maps showing soil degradation risks, such as erosion, desertification, salinity and nitrates, thus providing the tools for soil conservation and sustainable land management.

  9. Simple, Efficient, and Rapid Methods to Determine the Potential for Vapor Intrusion into the Home: Temporal Trends, Vapor Intrusion Forecasting, Sampling Strategies, and Contaminant Migration Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current practice for evaluating the vapor intrusion pathway involves a multiple line of evidence approach based on direct measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater, external soil gas, subslab soil gas, and/or indoor air. No single line of evide...

  10. Quality Assurance Project Plan for waste tank vapor characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suydam, C.D. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-013, applies to four separate vapor sampling tasks associated with Phases 1 and 2 of the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program and support of the Rotary Mode Core Drilling Portable Exhauster Permit. These tasks focus on employee safety concerns and tank ventilation emission control design requirements. Previous characterization efforts and studies are of insufficient accuracy to adequately define the problem. It is believed that the technology and maturity of sampling and analytical methods can be sufficiently developed to allow the characterization of the constituents of the tank vapor space.

  11. Soils, Crops and Fertilizer Use. A What, How and Why Guide. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, David

    This manual, prepared for use by Peace Corps volunteers in developing countries, has been designed as an on-the-job reference for soil management and fertilizer use at the small farmer level. It provides information on yield-boosting techniques, especially in the areas of soil conservation, organic and chemical fertilizer use, and the safe and…

  12. Improved Assessment Strategies for Vapor Intrusion Passive Samplers and Building Pressure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive- Adsorptive Sampling Techniques,” Mr. Todd McAlary is...on Henry’s Law Constant as >1 × 10-5 atm-m3 mol-1 and a vapor pressure >1 mm Hg Pathway Screening Criteria: For sites with volatile chemicals in...Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive- Adsorptive Sampling Techniques.” The focus of the

  13. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for Abreu & Johnson numerical vapor intrusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Yan, Guangxu; Li, Haiyan; Guo, Shaohui

    2016-03-05

    This study conducted one-at-a-time (OAT) sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for a numerical vapor intrusion model for nine input parameters, including soil porosity, soil moisture, soil air permeability, aerobic biodegradation rate, building depressurization, crack width, floor thickness, building volume, and indoor air exchange rate. Simulations were performed for three soil types (clay, silt, and sand), two source depths (3 and 8m), and two source concentrations (1 and 400 g/m(3)). Model sensitivity and uncertainty for shallow and high-concentration vapor sources (3m and 400 g/m(3)) are much smaller than for deep and low-concentration sources (8m and 1g/m(3)). For high-concentration sources, soil air permeability, indoor air exchange rate, and building depressurization (for high permeable soil like sand) are key contributors to model output uncertainty. For low-concentration sources, soil porosity, soil moisture, aerobic biodegradation rate and soil gas permeability are key contributors to model output uncertainty. Another important finding is that impacts of aerobic biodegradation on vapor intrusion potential of petroleum hydrocarbons are negligible when vapor source concentration is high, because of insufficient oxygen supply that limits aerobic biodegradation activities.

  14. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  15. Application and research progress of fluidized bed-chemical vapor deposition technology%流化床-化学气相沉积技术的应用及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣正; 刘马林; 邵友林; 刘兵

    2016-01-01

    Fluidized bed-chemical vapor deposition (FB-CVD) is widely used in industrial production owing to the combined advantages of both fluidized bed and chemical vapor deposition. Providing good heat and mass transfer,it can obtain a pure product with uniform deposition. Based on its basic principle,the applications of FB-CVD in areas of particle coating,preparation of one-dimensional nano-materials, polycrystalline silicon,powder synthesis and powder surface modification are reviewed. The progress of process simulation and reactor structure design of FB-CVD is introduced. From the discussion,the scientific connotation of FB-CVD shows multi-scale features,namely material preparation at microscopic level, particle fluidization at mesoscopic level and reactor structure design at macroscopic level. Future development of FB-CVD technology depends on coupling analysis of these three scales,and research should be focused on the effect of interaction between different scales,such as coupling between homogeneous nucleation material/non-homogeneous nucleation in materials preparation and particle fluidization in the reactor.%流化床-化学气相沉积(FB-CVD)技术是一种多学科交叉的材料制备技术,兼有流化床传热传质性能良好以及化学气相沉积均匀、产物单一等优点,在工业生产中有着广泛的应用,但因其属于交叉学科,散见于各种研究,没有进行专门的进展评述。本文拟对 FB-CVD 的工业应用进行专题综述,分析其发展和研究趋势。首先探讨了 FB-CVD 的基本原理,分别综述了其在颗粒包覆、一维纳米材料、多晶硅制备、颗粒表面改性及粉体制备等方面的应用,介绍了 FB-CVD 的过程模拟及反应器结构优化方面的研究进展。通过以上讨论,梳理了FB-CVD研究的科学内涵。可以看出,该过程具有明显的多尺度特征,即材料制备的微观层次、颗粒流化均匀性的介观层次以及反应器结构

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM THE NEVADA TEST SITE IN SUPPORT OF EVALUATION OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrao, Guilhermina; Carlino, Robert; Hoeffner, Steve L.; Navratil, James D.

    2003-02-27

    The removal of plutonium from Nevada Test Site (NTS) area soils has previously been attempted using various combinations of attrition scrubbing, size classification, gravity based separation, flotation, air flotation, segmented gate, bioremediation, magnetic separation and vitrification. Results were less than encouraging, but the processes were not fully optimized. To support additional vendor treatability studies soil from the Clean Slate II site (located on the Tonopah Test Range, north of the NTS) were characterized and tested. These particular soils from the NTS are contaminated primarily with plutonium-239/240 and Am-241. Soils were characterized for Pu-239/240, Am-241 and gross alpha. In addition, wet sieving and the subsequent characterization were performed on soils before and after attrition scrubbing to determine the particle size distribution and the distribution of Pu- 239/240 and gross alpha as a function of particle size. Sequential extraction was performed on untreated soil to provide information about how tightly bound the plutonium was to the soil. Magnetic separation was performed to determine if this could be useful as part of a treatment approach. The results indicate that about a 40% volume reduction of contaminated soil should be achievable by removing the >300 um size fraction of the soil. Attrition scrubbing does not effect particle size distribution, but does result in a slight shift of plutonium distribution to the fines. As such, attrition scrubbing may be able to slightly increase the ability to separate plutonium-contaminated particles from clean soil. This could add another 5-10% to the mass of the clean soil, bringing the total clean soil to 45-50%. Additional testing would be needed to determine the value of using attrition scrubbing as well as screening the soil through a sieve size slightly smaller than 300 um. Since only attrition scrubbing and wet sieving would be needed to attain this, it would be good to conduct this

  17. Engineering vapor-deposited polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-Yu

    The vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) of PMDA-ODA polyimide was studied parametrically to produce microcapsules and thin films with desirable properties and quality for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments. The mechanical properties and gas permeability were determined at temperatures from 10 to 573 K. The VDP polyimide possessed distinct properties including lower gas permeability and stronger tensile properties from those of solution-cast Kapton, which were attributed to the presence of cross-linking. Processing parameters determining the properties of the VDP polyimide were identified: (1) utilizing air instead of nitrogen as the atmosphere of imidization increased the permeability by 140%, lowered the activation energy for permeation, and reduced the tensile strength by 30% without affecting the Young's modulus; (2) imidizing at faster heating rates increased the permeability by up to 50% and reduced the activation energy for permeation with 50% lowered tensile strength and impervious Young's modulus; (3) bi-axial stretching increased the permeability by up to three orders of magnitude. Analyses via IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and density measurement revealed that the effects of the processing parameters were results of the modifications in the crystallinity and molecular weight. The VDP polyimide underwent minor degradation in the tensile strength and elongation at break with unaffected Young's modulus and permeability upon absorbing 120 MGy of beta-radiation. Substituting a fluorinated dianhydride monomer, 6FDA, for PMDA in the optimized VDP process yielded 6FDA-ODA polyimide microcapsules and films with 50-fold increased permeability and comparable mechanical properties. The results of this study enable the production of polyimide microcapsules that will greatly facilitate the ICF experiments, and will broaden the applications of vapor-deposited polyimides in other technology fields.

  18. Air exchange rates and alternative vapor entry pathways to inform vapor intrusion exposure risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Rivka; Roghani, Mohammadyousef; Willett, Evan J; Shirazi, Elham; Pennell, Kelly G

    2016-11-12

    Vapor intrusion (VI) is a term used to describe indoor air (IA) contamination that occurs due to the migration of chemical vapors in the soil and groundwater. The overall vapor transport process depends on several factors such as contaminant source characteristics, subsurface conditions, building characteristics, and general site conditions. However, the classic VI conceptual model does not adequately account for the physics of airflow around and inside a building and does not account for chemical emissions from alternative "preferential" pathways (e.g. sewers and other utility connections) into IA spaces. This mini-review provides information about recent research related to building air exchange rates (AERs) and alternative pathways to improve the accuracy of VI exposure risk assessment practices. First, results from a recently published AER study for residential homes across the United States (US) are presented and compared to AERs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The comparison shows considerable differences in AERs when season, location, building age, and other factors are considered. These differences could directly impact VI assessments by influencing IA concentration measurements. Second, a conceptual model for sewer gas entry into buildings is presented and a summary of published field studies is reported. The results of the field studies suggest that alternative pathways for vapors to enter indoor spaces warrant consideration. Ultimately, the information presented in this mini-review can be incorporated into a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach for assessing site-specific VI exposure risks.

  19. A two-dimensional analytical model of petroleum vapor intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we present an analytical solution of a two-dimensional petroleum vapor intrusion model, which incorporates a steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil and piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation limited by oxygen availability. This new model can help practitioners to easily generate two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles for both hydrocarbons and oxygen and estimate hydrocarbon indoor air concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. The soil gas concentration profiles generated by this new model are shown in good agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations and two-dimensional measured soil gas data from a field study. This implies that for cases involving diffusion dominated soil gas transport, steady state conditions and homogenous source and soil, this analytical model can be used as a fast and easy-to-use risk screening tool by replicating the results of 3-D numerical simulations but with much less computational effort.

  20. Imaging pH and oxygen at the soil-root interface by planar optodes: a challenging technology to study dynamic rhizosphere processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudin, Gabrielle; Oburger, Eva; Schmidt, Hannes; Borisov, Sergey; Pradier, Céline; Jourdan, Christophe; Marsden, Claire; Obermaier, Daniela; Woebken, Dagmar; Richter, Andreas; Wenzel, Walter; Hinsinger, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Roots do not only take up water and nutrients from surrounding soil but they also release a wide range of exudates, such as low molecular weight organic compounds, CO2 or protons. Root-soil interactions trigger heterogeneous rhizosphere processes based on differences in root activity along the root axis and with distance from the root surface. Elucidating their temporal and spatial dynamics is of crucial importance for a better understanding of these interrelated biogeochemical processes in the rhizosphere. Therefore, monitoring key parameters at a fine scale and in a non-invasive way at the root-soil interface is essential. Planar optodes are an emerging technology that allows in situ and non-destructive imaging of mainly pH, CO2 and O2. Originated in limnology, planar optodes have recently been applied to soil-root systems in laboratory conditions. This presentation will highlight advantages and challenges of using planar optodes to image pH and O2 dynamics in the rhizosphere, focusing on two RGB (red-green-blue) approaches: a commercially available system (PreSens) and a custom-made one. Important insights into robustness, accuracy, potentials and limitations of the two systems applied to different laboratory/greenhouse-based experimental conditions (flooded and aerobic rhizobox systems, plant species) will be addressed. Furthermore, challenges of optode measurements in the field, including a first case study with Eucalyptus grandis in Brazil, will be discussed.

  1. THE ESTIMATION OF SOME CHANGES OF SOIL PHYSICAL STATE UNDER THE EFFECT OF LAND RECLAMATION TECHNOLOGIES, IN THE CONDITION OF SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE IN BAIA-MOLDOVA DEPPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pedo-climatic conditions of Suceava County that extends on a total surface of 855 300 ha, the balance of agricultural land affected by humidity excess with temporar or permanent character is differenciated from south to north and from east to west, between 30 % till 40%, which means almost 100 000 ha. On these soils with underground water or pluvial excess hydro ameliorative drainage systems have been installed, associated to a complex agroameliorative works. For long effect estimation of the underground drainage asociated with the agropedoameliorative works upon the some physical and hydrophysical characteristics, there were analyzed the soil and the environment conditions from Baia field. For this reason, we analyzed the agrophysical conditions for luvisol albic pseudogleic (SRCS-1980, respectively luvosol albic stagnic-glosic (SRTS-2003 albic luvosoil drained and cultivated, after a period of 28 years (1978-2006 use. The obtained data regarding to te water balance and the evolution of the major physical properties of soil, under the influence of drainage and amelioration works, put into evidence in the first stage (1978-1986 a general improvement of the aerohidrycal state and physical-chemical conditioning. In the next two experimental cycles of 10 years each, have been noticed a increased of compaction degree of soil drained and cultivated on 0-30 cm depth, from weak loose to moderately compaction depending on the remanence of the reclamation technologies.

  2. Development and application of a three-dimensional finite element vapor intrusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Kelly G; Bozkurt, Ozgur; Suuberg, Eric M

    2009-04-01

    Details of a three-dimensional finite element model of soil vapor intrusion, including the overall modeling process and the stepwise approach, are provided. The model is a quantitative modeling tool that can help guide vapor intrusion characterization efforts. It solves the soil gas continuity equation coupled with the chemical transport equation, allowing for both advective and diffusive transport. Three-dimensional pressure, velocity, and chemical concentration fields are produced from the model. Results from simulations involving common site features, such as impervious surfaces, porous foundation sub-base material, and adjacent structures are summarized herein. The results suggest that site-specific features are important to consider when characterizing vapor intrusion risks. More importantly, the results suggest that soil gas or subslab gas samples taken without proper regard for particular site features may not be suitable for evaluating vapor intrusion risks; rather, careful attention needs to be given to the many factors that affect chemical transport into and around buildings.

  3. Estimation of contaminant subslab concentration in petroleum vapor intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Yang, Fangxing; Suuberg, Eric M; Provoost, Jeroen; Liu, Weiping

    2014-08-30

    In this study, the development and partial validation are presented for an analytical approximation method for prediction of subslab contaminant concentrations in PVI. The method involves combining an analytic approximation to soil vapor transport with a piecewise first-order biodegradation model (together called the Analytic Approximation Method, including Biodegradation, AAMB), the result of which calculation provides an estimate of contaminant subslab concentrations, independent of building operation conditions. Comparisons with three-dimensional (3-D) simulations and another PVI screening tool, BioVapor, show that the AAMB is suitable for application in a scenario involving a building with an impermeable foundation surrounded by open ground surface, where the atmosphere is regarded as the primary oxygen source. Predictions from the AAMB can be used to determine the required vertical source-building separation, given a subslab screening concentration, allowing identification of buildings at risk for PVI. This equation shows that the "vertical screening distance" suggested by U.S. EPA is sufficient in most cases, as long as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) soil gas concentration at the vapor source does not exceed 50-100mg/L. When the TPH soil gas concentration of the vapor source approaches a typical limit, i.e. 400mg/L, the "vertical screening distance" required would be much greater.

  4. Estimation of contaminant subslab concentration in petroleum vapor intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Yang, Fangxing; Suuberg, Eric M.; Provoost, Jeroen; Liu, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the development and partial validation are presented for an analytical approximation method for prediction of subslab contaminant concentrations in PVI. The method involves combining an analytic approximation to soil vapor transport with a piecewise first-order biodegradation model (together called the analytic approximation method, including biodegradation, AAMB), the result of which calculation provides an estimate of contaminant subslab concentrations, independent of building operation conditions. Comparisons with three-dimensional (3-D) simulations and another PVI screening tool, BioVapor, show that the AAMB is suitable for application in a scenario involving a building with an impermeable foundation surrounded by open ground surface, where the atmosphere is regarded as the primary oxygen source. Predictions from the AAMB can be used to determine the required vertical source-building separation, given a subslab screening concentration, allowing identification of buildings at risk for PVI. This equation shows that the “vertical screening distance” suggested by U.S. EPA is sufficient in most cases, as long as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) soil gas concentration at the vapor source does not exceed 50–100 mg/L. When the TPH soil gas concentration of the vapor source approaches a typical limit, i.e. 400 mg/L, the “vertical screening distance” required would be much greater. PMID:25124892

  5. Characteristics of Soil Moisture on Sloping Farmland in Different Soil and Water Conservation Technology Modes%不同水土保持模式下坡耕地的土壤水分特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓艳; 王存国; 魏永霞; 陈伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on the problems of draught and soil and water loss on the sloping farmland in the gentle hilly region of the northern of Song-nen Plain,six technology modes of furrow damming,mole drain,the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe,the combination of mole drain and furrow damming,the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe and furrow damming,conventional tillage were selected.The paper studied on the variation characteristics of soil moisture.The results showed that the soil water storage in different soil and water conservation technology modes changed same trend as hourly precipitation on the whole.The order of soil water storage from big to small was the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe and furrow damming,the combination of mole drain and furrow damming,furrow damming,the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe,mole drain,conventional tillage.The order of total evapotranspiration in different soil and water conservation technology modes from big to small was the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe and furrow damming,the combination of mole drain and furrow damming,the combination of mole drain and subsurface pipe,mole drain,furrow damming,conventional tillage.The research results can provide reference for reasonable selection of soil and water conservation technology mode in the gentle hilly region of the northern of Song-nen Plain.%针对松嫩平原北部丘陵漫岗区坡耕地存在的干旱与水土流失并存的问题,选取了垄向区田、鼠道、鼠道+暗管、鼠道+垄向区田、鼠道+暗管+垄向区田、常规耕作等6种水土保持技术模式,研究了土壤水分变化特征。结果表明,从整体上看,不同水土保持技术模式0~100cm土层土壤储水量与时段降雨量变化趋势一致,土壤储水量大小的技术模式依次为,鼠道+暗管+垄向区田〉鼠道+垄向区田〉垄向区田〉鼠道+暗管〉鼠道〉常规耕作。各水土保持技术模式

  6. A Review on Bioremediation Technologies of Organic Pollutants Contaminated Soils%土壤有机污染物生物修复技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周际海; 袁颖红; 朱志保; 姚春阳; 张谷雨; 高琪

    2015-01-01

    biphenyls (PCBs) and Antibiotics (ATBs), worsen soil organic matter pollution, thus making remediation of organic pollutants contaminated soils a pressing issue. The remediation of contaminated soils is a qualitative process in which pollutant concentration is reduced to an acceptable level, or poisonous and harmful pollutants transformed into innoxious substances through absorption, degradation, transfer and transformation in soils using physical, chemical or biological methods. It includes physical remediation technology, chemical remediation technology and bioremediation technology. Among all kinds of soil remediation techniques, bioremediation is receiving more and more attention because of its safety and low cost. Besides, it won’t cause secondary pollution. The bioremediation of organic pollutants contaminated soils consists of phytoremediation technologies, soil fauna remediation technologies and microbial remediation technologies. The microbial bioremediation as an important component of the bioremediation of contaminated soils, boasts the most value in development and application in biological environmental protection. This paper systematically introduces the bioremediation technologies of organic pollutants contaminated soils at home and abroad in terms of their principles, the research progresses, the advantages and limitations. In the meantime, we cast a brief look into the prospects of the research of soil fauna remediation in future. Hopefully, it will provide references for research on bioremediation of organic pollutants contaminated soils.

  7. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF MULTI-SPECIES TRANSPORT IN SOILS UNDER ELECTRIC FIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project investigated an innovative approach for transport of inorganic species under the influence of electric fields. This process, commonly known as electrokinetics uses low-level direct current (dc) electrical potential difference across a soil mass applied through inert...

  8. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF MULTI-SPECIES TRANSPORT IN SOILS UNDER ELECTRIC FIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project investigated an innovative approach for transport of inorganic species under the influence of electric fields. This process, commonly known as electrokinetics uses low-level direct current (dc) electrical potential difference across a soil mass applied through inert...

  9. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  10. Trazability assays in polluted soils recovering by biorremediation technology; Ensayos de tratabilidad en la recuperacion de suelos contaminados por la tecnologia de la biorremediacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, M.; Sabate, J.; Grifoll, M.; Solanas, A. M. [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    biorremediation is based on the naturally occurring process by which micro-organisms either immobilize or transform environmental contaminants to innocuous end products. biorremediation is an important soil and groundwater remediation strategy, because it destroys or immobilised contaminants rather than transferring them from one environmental medium to another. An additional advantage is that it implies lower capital expenditure than many other remediation technologies. In this publication the scientific basis of bio stimulation are described. Likewise, a protocol for treatability assays is presented. This protocol has several steps, which identify: first the metabolic activity of indigenous microbial populations, then the biodegradability of contaminants, and finally, the conditions and type of bio stimulation or bio augmentation. The application to two types of soil is described. (Author) 3 refs.

  11. Three Dimensional Vapor Intrusion Modeling: Model Validation and Uncertainty Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbariyeh, S.; Patterson, B.; Rakoczy, A.; Li, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), such as chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons, are prevalent groundwater contaminants due to their improper disposal and accidental spillage. In addition to contaminating groundwater, VOCs may partition into the overlying vadose zone and enter buildings through gaps and cracks in foundation slabs or basement walls, a process termed vapor intrusion. Vapor intrusion of VOCs has been recognized as a detrimental source for human exposures to potential carcinogenic or toxic compounds. The simulation of vapor intrusion from a subsurface source has been the focus of many studies to better understand the process and guide field investigation. While multiple analytical and numerical models were developed to simulate the vapor intrusion process, detailed validation of these models against well controlled experiments is still lacking, due to the complexity and uncertainties associated with site characterization and soil gas flux and indoor air concentration measurement. In this work, we present an effort to validate a three-dimensional vapor intrusion model based on a well-controlled experimental quantification of the vapor intrusion pathways into a slab-on-ground building under varying environmental conditions. Finally, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo simulations is implemented to determine the probability distribution of indoor air concentration based on the most uncertain input parameters.

  12. High precision, continuous measurements of water vapor isotopes using a field deployable analyzer with a novel automated calibration system to facilitate ecohydrological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Crosson, E.; Richman, B. A.; Apodaca, R. L.; Green, I.

    2009-12-01

    The use of stable isotopic analysis techniques has proved quite valuable in establishing links between ecology and hydrology. We present an alternative and novel approach to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for making high-precision D/H and 18O/16O isotope ratio measurements of water vapor at a field site using wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) based technology. This WS-CRDS analyzer allows continuous real-time measurements of water vapor with automated periodic calibration using liquid standards, needing no human intervention for weeks during deployment. The new automated calibration system, designed specifically for field deployment, uses syringe pumps and is robust, consistent and reliable. The advanced temperature and pressure control within the analyzer are some of the key design features that allow high precision (0.2‰ for δ18O and 1.0‰ for δD) performance at extremely low drift (water vapor analyzer, a field trial was conducted where the common isotopologues of water vapor were measured at a local ecological site over a period of a few days. The resulting high resolution data gives us the ability to understand the impact of meteorology and plant physiology on the isotopic composition of water vapor in ambient air. Such measurements of water vapor, when combined with measurements of the isotopic composition of liquid water in plants, soil water and local water bodies, will close the eco-hydrological loop of any region. The ability of the WS-CRDS analyzer to make continuous, real-time measurements with a resolution on the order of a few seconds will aid in understanding the complex interdependencies between ecological and hydrological processes and will provide critical information in refining existing models of water transport in ecosystems. These studies are critical to understanding the impact of global climate change on landscapes.

  13. Decontamination of soils and materials containing medium-fired PuO{sub 2} using inhibited fluorides with polymer filtration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temer, D.J.; Villarreal, R.; Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The decontamination of soils and/or materials from medium-fired plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) with an effective and efficient decontamination agent that will not significantly dissolve the matrix requires a new and innovative technology. After testing several decontamination agents and solutions for dissolution of medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, the most successful decontamination solutions were fluoride compounds, which were effective in breaking the Pu-oxide bond but would not extensively dissolve soil constituents and other materials. The fluoride compounds, tetra fluoboric acid (HBF{sub 4}) and hydrofluorosilicic acid (H{sub 2}F{sub 6}Si), were effective in dissolving medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, and did not seem to have the potential to dissolve the matrix. In both compounds, the fluoride atom is attached to a boron or silicon atom that inhibits the reactivity of the fluoride towards other compounds or materials containing atoms less attracted to the fluoride atom in an acid solution. Because of this inhibition of the reactivity of the fluoride ion, these compounds are termed inhibited fluoride compounds or agents. Both inhibited fluorides studied effectively dissolved medium-fired PuO{sub 2} but exhibited a tendency to not attack stainless steel or soil. The basis for selecting inhibited fluorides was confirmed during leaching tests of medium-fired PuO{sub 2} spiked into soil taken from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When dissolved in dilute HNO{sub 3}, HCl, or HBr, both inhibited fluoride compounds were effective at solubilizing the medium-fired PuO{sub 2} from spiked INEL soil.

  14. Three-dimensional calculation of pollutant migration via compressible two-phase flow, for analysis of the methods of in situ air sparging and soil vapor extraction; Raeumliche Berechnung des Schadstofftransportes mit einer kompressiblen Zweiphasenstroemung zur Untersuchung der Drucklufteinblasung und Bodenluftabsaugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepper, S.

    1997-12-01

    In this study an analysis method is presented which allows numerical simulation of in situ air sparging coupled with soil vapor extraction. The improved FE-program takes the following phenomena into account: - Two-phase flow of compressible air and incompressible water - convective-dispersive contamination migration with air and water - transfer of volatile components from liquid phase to gas and water phase - sorption of contaminants onto soil - transfer of contaminants between air and water phase - biological processes. By means of back calculations of the results of laboratory experiments made by Eisele (1989) it was shown that with the developed program GWLCOND some of the necessary parameters for the numerical simulation of remedial systems can be determined. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wird ein Verfahren vorgestellt, mit dem eine numerische Simulation der Drucklufteinblasung und Bodenluftabsaugung durchgefuehrt werden kann. Das weiterentwickelte FE-Programmsystem beinhaltet folgende Ablaeufe: - Zweiphasenstroemung der kompressiblen Luft- und der inkompressiblen Wasserphase - Konvektiv-dispersiver Schadstofftransport mit der Gas- und der Wasserphase - Uebergang fluessiger Schadstoffe in die Gas- und in die Wasserphase - Sorption der Schadstoffe an der Feststoffphase - Uebergang der Schadstoffe zwischen der Gas- und der Wasserphase - Biologischer Abbau. Anhand der Nachrechnung eines Laborversuches von Eisele (1989) wird gezeigt, wie mit dem entwickelten Transportprogramm GWLCOND ein Teil der fuer die numerische Simulation des Sanierungsverfahrens benoetigten Kennwerte ermittelt werden kann. (orig./SR)

  15. Identification Of Soil Erosion Prone Zones Using Geomatics Technology In Parts Of North Arcot And Dharmapuri District.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is the removal and subsequent loss of soil by the action of water, ice, wind and gravity. Soil erosion is a process that occurs naturally at a slow rate. The average natural geologic rate of soil erosion is approximately 0.2 tons per acre per year. Erosion is the process were by the earth or rock is loosened or dissolved and removed from any part of earth‟s surface. Geological erosion is the rate at which the catchment or land would normally be eroded without any disturbance by human activity. If man alters the natural system by means of various land use practices that is caused accelerated erosion. The present study area is covering Parts of North Arcot The area is lies between E78°30'-E78°45' lattitudes N12°15'-N12°30„. The total aerial extent of the study area is 720 sq.km. It falls in the survey of India Toposheet 58 L11 on 1:50,000 scale. The IRS – 1D satellite imagery data were subjected to different types of image enhancement techniques and soil erosion areas were mapped out and GIS databases were generated showing the soil erosion areas using Arc Map 9.1 version. GIS overlay function was executed between soil erosion prone areas and the various controlling variables and the area has been fragmented into a number of polygons of land segments depending upon the controlling variables. Finally, the remedial measures were suggested for each land segment according to the controlling variables.

  16. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  17. 机械蒸汽再压缩技术处理反渗透浓水的中试研究%Pilot Study on Mechanical Vapor Recompression Technology for Treatment of Concentrated Water from Reverse Osmosis Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金鸿; 侯霙; 李海芳; 唐运平

    2011-01-01

    近年来,反渗透(RO)在污水厂二级出水深度处理中的应用越来越多.然而,RO浓水的含盐量较高、有机物难于降解,采用常规方法处理时出水水质难于达到排放标准.采用机械蒸汽再压缩技术(MVR)对某污水厂的反渗透浓水进行了6倍浓缩的中试,其出水COD≤50 mg/L、NH-N≤10 mg/L,可以达到(GB/T 18920-2002)的要求;COD、TDS、Mg和色度等指标的浓缩倍数与体系的浓缩倍数基本一致,而浓缩水中的TP、SiO、TN、NH-N浓度却低于原水的,这主要是由于磷酸盐、硅酸盐的沉淀和氨气逸出所致.另外,钙盐等的沉淀作用还造成浓缩水中SS浓度的增加.由此可见,利用MVR处理反渗透浓水在技术上是可行的,但是需要增加沉淀物的预处理和排出气体的收集处理装置.%Recently, the application of reverse osmosis (RO) in advanced treatment of effluent form WWTP becomes very popular. However, due to high salinity and refractory organic compounds in concentrated water of RO, the effluent treated by traditional processes can not meet the discharge standard. A pilot experiment at a concentration factor of 6 was conducted to treat concentrated water from reverse osmosis (RO) process in a sewage treatment plant using mechanical vapor recompression (MVR)technology. COD and NH3 -N in the effluent from MVR process are equal to or less than 50 mg/L and 10 mg/L, meeting the Reuse of Urban Recycling Water-Water Quality Standard for Urban Miscellaneous Water Consumption (GB/T 18920 -2002). The concentration factors of COD, TDS, Mg2+ and color in concentrated water of MVR are similar to those in concentrated water of RO. However, the concentration factors of TP, SiO2, TN and NH3 - N are lower than those in concentrated water of RO due to escape of ammonia and precipitation of phosphate and silicate. In addition, precipitation of calcium salt causes increase of SS in concentrated water of MVR. The experiment shows that MVR technology is

  18. A review of porous media enhanced vapor-phase diffusion mechanisms, models, and data: Does enhanced vapor-phase diffusion exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.K.; Webb, S.W.

    1996-05-01

    A review of mechanisms, models, and data relevant to the postulated phenomenon of enhanced vapor-phase diffusion in porous media is presented. Information is obtained from literature spanning two different disciplines (soil science and engineering) to gain a diverse perspective on this topic. Findings indicate that while enhanced vapor diffusion tends to correct the discrepancies observed between past theory and experiments, no direct evidence exists to support the postulated processes causing enhanced vapor diffusion. Numerical modeling analyses of experiments representative of the two disciplines are presented in this paper to assess the sensitivity of different systems to enhanced vapor diffusion. Pore-scale modeling is also performed to evaluate the relative significance of enhanced vapor diffusion mechanisms when compared to Fickian diffusion. The results demonstrate the need for additional experiments so that more discerning analyses can be performed.

  19. Proposed Tier 2 Screening Criteria and Tier 3 Field Procedures for Evaluation of Vapor Intrusion (ESTCP Cost and Performance Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    point with groundwater (3 clusters) Leak tracer (for each soil gas point) 15 Sulfur hexafluoride ( SF6 ) Each soil gas sample point (3 clusters) Soil...zone soil characteristics and groundwater to deep soil gas attenuation factors: site-based evaluation. ...................................... 21 Table...Security Technology Certification Program ETV Environmental Technology Verification GC gas chromatography HGL HydroGeoLogic, Inc. ITRC

  20. Performance of in-situ soil and groundwater treatment systems at McClellan Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E. [BDM Federal, McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Mook, P.H. Jr.; Wong, K.B. [Sm-ALC/EMR, McClellan AFB, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    McClellan Air Force Base (AFB), located near Sacramento, California, is one of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s National Environmental Technology Test Sites. The US Air Force has evaluated, as part of the on-going environmental clean-up of McClellan AFB, several innovative and conventional in situ soil and groundwater technologies for the treatment of volatile organic compounds. This paper presents an overview and comparison of the performance and cost of three innovative technologies tested at McClellan AFB. Conventional groundwater extraction systems are effective but costly. Operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for treatment systems are increasingly becoming a major component of the environmental clean-up budget. The performance, limitations, costs, and lessons learned from the implementation of conventional soil vapor and groundwater extraction systems are compared with those of two innovative dual phase extraction systems. Both the Xerox 2-Phase{trademark} Extraction system and a standard dual phase extraction system are more effective than their conventional counterparts, but only over a discrete range of soil permeabilities. Discussions on McClellan AFB`s experiences with cometabolic bioremediation of groundwater and thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction systems are also included.

  1. Solvents and vapor intrusion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Scott D; Krieger, Gary R; Palmer, Robert B; Waksman, Javier C

    2004-08-01

    Vapor intrusion must be recognized appropriately as a separate pathway of contamination. Although many issues resemble those of other forms of contamination (particularly its entryway, which is similar to that of radon seepage), vapor intrusion stands apart as a unique risk requiring case-specific action. This article addresses these issues and the current understanding of the most appropriate and successful remedial actions.

  2. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  3. Vapor phase heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of various forms of a vapor transport system for solar space heating, which could also be applied to service water heating. Refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector, which may be located on the external wall or roof of a building. The vapor is condensed in a passively discharged thermal storage unit located within the building. The condensed liquid can be returned to the collector either by a motor-driven pump or by a completely passive self-pumping mechanism in which the vapor pressure lifts the liquid from the condenser to the collector. The theoretical investigation analyzes this self-pumping scheme. Experiments in solar test cells compare the operation of both passive and active forms of the vapor system with the operation of a passive water wall. The vapor system operates as expected, with potential advantages over other passive systems in design flexibility and energy yield.

  4. 33 CFR 154.828 - Vapor recovery and vapor destruction units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vapor recovery and vapor... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.828 Vapor recovery and vapor destruction units. (a) The inlet to a vapor recovery unit...

  5. Biodegradation of DIMP, Dieldrin, Isodrin, DBCP, and PCPMSO in Rocky Mountain Arsenal Soils. Installation Restoration Program, Environmental Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    a mixture of seven parts methoxyethanol to one part monoethanol amine (v/v). After sam- pling was completed, each scintillation vial received 10...glycerol) was also required, suggesting cometabolic transformation of DBCP. Biotin and thy- amine were also added to the test soil. A maximum of 63

  6. Facilitated learning in soil fertility management: assessing potentials of low-external-input technologies in east African farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.; Onduru, D.; Walaga, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the facilitated learning process of farm households and district policy makers in addressing the problem of soil nutrient depletion. The process is applied in a case study in four districts in Kenya and Uganda during the period 1997-1999, where the potentials of low-external inpu

  7. Measurement of Vapor Flow As an Important Source of Water in Dry Land Eco-Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; He, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Hishida, K.

    2014-12-01

    When the temperature of land surface is lower than that of air and deeper soils, water vapor gathers toward the ground surface where dew maybe formed depending on the prevailing dew point and wind speed. Some plants are able to absorb the dew and vapor flow while the soil can readily absorb both. Certain animals such as desert beetles and ants harvest the dew or fog for daily survival. Recently, it is also realized that the dew and vapor flow can be a life-saving amount of water for plant survival at the driest seasons of the year in arid and semi-arid regions. Researches are conducted to quantify the amount of near-surface vapor flow in arid and semi-arid regions in China and USA. Quantitative leaf water absorption and desorption functions were derived based on laboratory experiments. Results show that plant leaves absorb and release water at different speeds depending on species and varieties. The "ideal" native plants in the dry climates can quickly absorb water and slowly release it. This water-holding capacity of plant is characterized by the absorption and desorption functions derived for plant physiology and water balance studies. Field studies are conducted to measure the dynamic vapor flow movements from the atmosphere and the groundwater table to soil surface. Results show that dew is usually formed on soil and plant surfaces during the daily hours when the temperature gradients are inverted toward the soil surface. The amount of dew harvested using gravels on the soil surface was enough to support water melon agriculture on deserts. The vapor flow can be effectively intercepted by artificially seeded plants in semi-arid regions forming new forests. New studies are attempted to quantify the role of vapor flow for the survival of giant sequoias in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  8. Present Situation and Prospect of Bioremediation Technology for Soil Pollution%土壤污染的生物修复技术及其研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋红; 吕航; 宋倩; 但德忠

    2009-01-01

    近年来土壤污染呈现加重的趋势,有关污染土壤的修复研究正日益受到重视.生物修复技术是一项用于污染土壤治理的新技术.介绍了污染土壤生物修复技术,综述了近年来国内外土壤生物修复技术的研究和应用现状,并评述了土壤生物修复技术存在的问题以及污染土壤生物修复的发展方向.%In recent years,soil pollution was increasingly becoming an important environmental problem.Bioremediation technology was rapidly developing for treating soil pollution.And it was considered of the most promising technology.This paper briefly introduced the concept of bioremediation and the methods,and focused on the application of bioremediation of organic and heavy metals contamination,as well as reviewed the present problems of bioremediafion and its prospect.

  9. 加筋土技术的研究现状与展望%Research Status and Prospect of Reinforced Soil Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁东进

    2016-01-01

    Reinforced soil technology is widely used in civil engineering, and it is a hot research topic in the field of civil engineering. Through the experimental research of reinforced soil, reinforcement mechanism research, calculation method of the analysis of the present situation, this paper pointed out the characteristics of current research, and aiming at the deficiencies of the reinforcement technology at present, from the problems and the development trend of the current reinforcement, it put forward the future research needs to be discussed further concern.%加筋土技术在土木工程中应用较广,是目前研究的一个热点.通过加筋土实验研究、加筋机理的研究、计算方法的研究等现状分析,指出当前研究的特点,针对加筋技术目前研究的不足之处,从目前加筋的问题和发展的趋势,提出今后研究尚待进一步探讨关注的问题.

  10. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  11. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  12. A Lithium Vapor Box similarity experiment employing water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ja; Jagoe, C.; Goldston, Rj; Jaworski, Ma

    2016-10-01

    Handling high power loads and heat flux in the divertor is a major challenge for fusion power plants. A detached plasma will likely be required. However, hydrogenic and impurity puffing experiments show that detached operation leads easily to X-point MARFEs, impure plasmas, degradation in confinement, and lower helium pressure at the exhaust. The concept of the Lithium Vapor Box Divertor is to use local evaporation and strong differential pumping through condensation to localize the gas-phase material that absorbs the plasma heat flux, and so avoid those difficulties. In order to design such a box first the vapor without plasma must be simulated. The density of vapor required can be estimated using the SOL power, major radius, poloidal box length, and cooling energy per lithium atom. For an NSTX-U-sized machine, the Knudsen number Kn spans 0.01 to 1, the transitional flow regime. This regime cannot handled by fluid codes or collisionless Monte Carlo codes, but can be handled by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes. To validate a DSMC model, we plan to build a vapor box test stand employing more-convenient water vapor instead of lithium vapor as the working fluid. Transport of vapor between the chambers at -50C will be measured and compared to the model. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Designing polymer surfaces via vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Asatekin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD methods significantly augment the capabilities of traditional surface modification techniques for designing polymeric surfaces. In CVD polymerization, the monomer(s are delivered to the surface through the vapor phase and then undergo simultaneous polymerization and thin film formation. By eliminating the need to dissolve macromolecules, CVD enables insoluble polymers to be coated and prevents solvent damage to the substrate. Since de-wetting and surface tension effects are absent, CVD coatings conform to the geometry of the underlying substrate. Hence, CVD polymers can be readily applied to virtually any substrate: organic, inorganic, rigid, flexible, planar, three-dimensional, dense, or porous. CVD methods integrate readily with other vacuum processes used to fabricate patterned surfaces and devices. CVD film growth proceeds from the substrate up, allowing for interfacial engineering, real-time monitoring, thickness control, and the synthesis of films with graded composition. This article focuses on two CVD polymerization methods that closely translate solution chemistry to vapor deposition; initiated CVD and oxidative CVD. The basic concepts underlying these methods and the resultant advantages over other thin film coating techniques are described, along with selected applications where CVD polymers are an enabling technology.

  14. Research of remote sensing technology of atmospheric water vapor by using ground-based GPS and application system of meteorological operations%地基GPS水汽监测技术及气象业务化应用系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国平

    2011-01-01

    ,precipitation and other surface meteorological elements was also analyzed.The relationship of PWV derived by GPS among local circulation,water vapor cycle and topography.The evolution characteristics of GPS water vapor products in some kinds of typical severe weather(for example Southwest China heavy rain,sustained rain,freezing rain,snow and heavy fog) and rain stimulations by artificial means were studied.In addition,the study also revealed application methods of remote sensing technology of atmospheric water vapor by using GPS and its products in weather forecast operations,carried out composite analysis of diurnal cycle of GPS-PWV,and studied the applications of GPS-PWV in North China heavy rain,Southwest China heavy rain,West China autumn rain,Sichuan Basin nocturnal rain and so on.The comparative analyses of GPS-PWV between the detail rain processes with different clouds and different weather systems were also given.For example,comparisons of the precipitable water vapor derived from ground-based GPS in different types of precipitation show that an abrupt increase of GPS-PWV before 5—10 h of the summer rainstorm may well indicate the subsequent heavy rainfall.GPS-PWV continuous increasing or decreasing substantially and above average suggests the beginning or the end of the rainfall in autumn continuous rain.The different features of diurnal variation of precipitable water vapor in different types of precipitation can reflect timely the changes of local water vapor.As a strong signal in water vapor transport,the consecutive observation data of precipitable water vapor would be instructive for the forecasting of actual rainfall.

  15. Estimation of contaminant subslab concentration in vapor intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yijun; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with developing a method to estimate subslab perimeter crack contaminant concentration for structures built atop a vapor source. A simple alternative to the widely-used but restrictive one-dimensional (1-D) screening models is presented and justified by comparing to predictions from a three-dimensional (3-D) CFD model. A series of simulations were prepared for steady-state transport of a non-biodegradable contaminant in homogenous soil for different structure construct...

  16. Estimation of contaminant subslab concentration in petroleum vapor intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yijun; Yang, Fangxing; Suuberg, Eric M.; Provoost, Jeroen; Liu, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the development and partial validation are presented for an analytical approximation method for prediction of subslab contaminant concentrations in PVI. The method involves combining an analytic approximation to soil vapor transport with a piecewise first-order biodegradation model (together called the analytic approximation method, including biodegradation, AAMB), the result of which calculation provides an estimate of contaminant subslab concentrations, independent of buildin...

  17. Ultrafast deposition of silicon nitride and semiconductor silicon thin films by Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, R.E.I.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Verlaan, V.; Rath, J.K.; Li, H. B. T.

    2009-01-01

    The technology of Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) or Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition (Cat-CVD) has made great progress during the last couple of years. This review discusses examples of significant progress. Specifically, silicon nitride deposition by HWCVD (HW-SiNx) is highlighted, a

  18. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - 4100 VAPOR DETECTOR - ELECTRONIC SENSOR TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) FIELD ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES. The demonstration design was subjected to extensive review and comment by EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Environmen...

  20. 石油污染土壤长料堆式异位生物修复技术研究%n off site petroleum-contaminated soil bioremediation technology: soil compesttng in windrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜昌亮; 孙铁珩; 李培军; 张春桂; 张海荣; 马学军; 姚德明; 杨桂芬 杨桂芬

    2001-01-01

    With off-site bioremediation tectmolgy, a soil contaminated by crude oil from Liaohe Oil Field was treated on a 20 ×10m prepared bed. 8 composting windrow units were set, each measured 8m in length, 2m in width, and 0.35m in height. The results showed that when the pollutant petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)was within the range of 4.16~7.72g· 100g- 1 soil, the total degradation rate of TPH reached 45.19 96 ~ 56.74 96 after 53 days operation, which indicared that a technological basis would be provided for the oremediafion of oil-contaminated soil.%应用长料堆式处理技术在长20m、宽10m的实用规模预制床上对辽河油田不同类型原油污染土壤进行了处理.处理工程设8个长条状堆料单元,每个堆料单元长8m、宽2m、高0.35m.当稀油、稠油和高凝油污染土壤中石油烃总量(TPH)为4.16~7.72g·100g-1土时,经过53d的运行,TPH去除率45.19%~56.74%.本研究为石油污染土壤异位生物修复实用化提供了技术支持.

  1. 基于玻璃态膜组件的油气污染排放控制技术研究%Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control with galssy membrane separation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 陈家庆; 张宝生; 王建宏; 赵岩

    2011-01-01

    针对加油站收油和发油过程中产生的油气污染,采用新型的玻璃态油气截留型PEEK中空纤维膜组件,在自行设计建造的膜分离设备上,分别考察了膜组件和整个膜系统对油气污染治理和回收的效果,提出了一种研究膜法油气回收过程的新思路。对于膜组件的分离实验结果发现,处理流量在2.5~7.5 m3/h、系统压力在525~825 Pa之间的中试规模运行条件下,膜组件对油气-氮气混合气有很好的净化能力,尾气能够达标排放;在渗余的富油气返回油罐的模拟加油站实际运行情况的循环实验条件下,尾气也低于25g/m3的国标。%A new type of vapor retained galssy membrance, which was based on PEEK hollow fiber membranes , was used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receieving and transfering gasoline in oil stations. The efficiencies of the membrance module and the membrance system were evaluated respectively in the facalities which were designed and set up by ourselves, and the results of these experiments may provide a new method for membrance seperation on oil vapor recovery. It was found that the membrance module had high efficiency for the seperation of VOCs-N2 mixed gases, with the operational capacity from 2. 5 mVh to 7. 5 mVh and the systemic pressure from 525 Pa to 825 Pa. The outlet vapor after treatment can meet the national standard. When the residue vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g/m3.

  2. Polymer-Silicon Flexible Structures for Fast Chemical Vapor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Engineering and School of Polymer, Textile and Fiber Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332 (USA) E-mail: vladimir@mse.gatech.edu Dr...induce differential stress in a bimaterial cantilever for vapor sensing.[40] However, these coatings, amongst others (such as spin-coating, and inkjet

  3. Progress in Soil Heavy Metal Pollution Monitoring via Remote Sensing Technology%土壤重金属污染遥感监测研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文娟; 蒋超群; 侍昊; 王春红; 李明诗

    2014-01-01

    本文总结了基于样点地面实测光谱分析和基于遥感影像的多光谱和高光谱定量化监测方法在土壤重金属污染中应用的优劣势,分析出现有研究数据和方法的不足与需改进之处,并指出整合多源数据和多变量方法用于连续动态监测并制图土壤重金属污染将是遥感定量化监测新的发展趋势。尺度的变化和定量遥感的不确定性影响土壤重金属污染遥感监测的精度。%How to map the pollution quality and severity in an accurate,timely,and large scale manner has definitely been recognized as the crux of bringing the pollution under control.Remote sensing technology,with the monitoring advantages of wide coverage,expeditiousness,affordable price and suitable revisit frequency remains irreplaceable in monitoring large-scale soil pollution.In this paper,the advantages and disadvantages of monitoring methods for soil heavy metal pollution evaluation based on the measured spectral analysis of the samples as well as the quantitative detection by the multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing imagery were summarized and the deficiency of the existing research data and methods and which need to be improved were analyzed.Finally,it pointed out that the continuous dynamic monitoring and mapping soil heavy metal pollution by the integration of multi-source data and multivariate methods will be the new development trend of quantitative monitoring via remote sensing technology.Scale changes in detection and the uncertainty of quantitative remote sensing affect the accuracy of remote sensing monitoring on soil heavy metal pollution.

  4. Multiwavelength Strontium Vapor Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. N.; Yudin, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    Based on an analysis of experimental and theoretical works, modern notion on conditions of forming of population density inversion on self-terminating IR transitions of alkali-earth metals is given. It is demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the inversion formation in lasers on self-terminating transitions in the visible and near-IR ranges and lasers on self-terminating transitions of alkali-earth metals lasing IR lines in the mid-IR range. It is shown that in the discharge circuit of lasers on self-terminating metal atom transitions (LSMT) there are processes strengthening the influence of the known mechanism limiting the frequency and energy characteristics (FEC) of radiation caused by the presence of prepulse electron concentration. The mechanism of influence of these processes on FEC of the LSMT and technical methods of their neutralization are considered. The possibility of obtaining average lasing power of ~200 W from one liter volume of the active medium of the strontium vapor laser is demonstrated under conditions of neutralization of these processes.

  5. Examination of the U.S. EPA’s vapor intrusion database based on models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)’s vapor intrusion (VI) database, there appears to be a trend showing an inverse relationship between the indoor air concentration attenuation factor and the subsurface source vapor concentration. This is inconsistent with the physical understanding in current vapor intrusion models. This paper explores possible reasons for this apparent discrepancy. Soil vapor transport processes occur independently of the actual building entry process, and are consistent with the trends in the database results. A recent EPA technical report provided a list of factors affecting vapor intrusion, and the influence of some of these are explored in the context of the database results. PMID:23293835

  6. Considering Organic Carbon for Improved Predictions of Clay Content from Water Vapor Sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per;

    2014-01-01

    to water vapor sorption isotherms that can be rapidly measured with a fully automated vapor sorption analyzer are a viable alternative. In this presentation we evaluate the performance of recently developed regression models based on comparison with standard CF measurements for soils with high organic...... carbon (OC) content and propose a modification to improve prediction accuracy. Evaluation of the CF prediction accuracy for 29 soils with clay contents ranging from 6 to 25% and with OC contents from 2.0 to 8.4% showed that the models worked reasonably well for all soils when the OC content was below 2.......4%. For soils with OC>2.4% and CFcontent. Based on 20 soils with CF between 3 and 15% and OC between 2.6 and 8.4%, we propose correction factors to account for the sorbed water content associated with OC. Evaluation of the OC...

  7. Reference Guide to Non-combustion Technologies for Remediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Soil, Second Edition - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is the second edition of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) 2005 report and provides a high level summary of information on the applicability of existing and emerging noncombustion technologies for the remediation of...

  8. Evaluation on Sustainability of Technological Dimension Biopore Absorption Hole Management for Soil Water Conservation in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elesvera Destry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopore technology innovation is an easy and cheap technology that can be applied in any class of society. Biopore Absorption Hole (BAH is a cylincric vertical hole with a relatively small diameter. Eventhough the diameter is not so big, it is still effective to absorb groundwater.The dimension of technology reflected how this BAH tecnology is applied to the Management of BAH within the society of Semarang City.In order to achieve maximum results, an evaluation toward the sustainability of the dimension of BAH Management technology in Semarang City needs to be performed.The objectives of this research are to:1 studying the status of technology dimension in maintaining BAH, 2 studying sensitive attributes having influence toward index value and the sustainability status of technology dimension in maintaining BAH, as well as 3 formulating the priorities for policies applicable to technology in maintaining BAH in Semarang.The research took place in three administrative villages (Srondol Wetan, Jatingaleh, and Bendan Ngisor in the city of Semarang.Those three locations were chosen to represent upper, middle, and lower regions of Semarang as water absorption area.The analysis of status determining data and leveraging factor was conducted using RAP – biopore method, while the the making of policy priorities was performed by using Analitycal Hierarchy Process (AHP.Results suggest that the status of the sustainability of Semarang’s BAH Management technology dimension was on “less sustainable” status (25,01 – 50,00. The strategy of enhancing influential sensitive attributes to improve sustainability status was a great success in affecting the values and sustainability status.

  9. Monitoring laboratory-scale bioventing using synchronous scan fluorescence spectroscopy: analysis of the vapor phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, J; Kanan, S M; Patterson, H H

    2001-01-01

    Bioventing is an improved method of soil remediation that is being used with increasing frequency. In this paper, we refine techniques to measure the progress of petroleum hydrocarbon decomposition by monitoring vapor phase composition with synchronous scan fluorescence spectroscopy (SSFS). Analysis of the vapor phase has advantages compared to standard extraction techniques that require extensive sample handling and clean up. For comparison, hydrocarbon contamination in the soil was measured by analysis of Soxhlet extractions with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Comparison of the GC-MS and SSFS data showed that changes in hydrocarbon composition measured in the vapor phase provide an accurate measure of decomposition reactions taking place in the soil.

  10. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  11. Vapor Intrusion Facilities - South Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — POINT locations for the South Bay Vapor Instrusion Sites were derived from the NPL data for Region 9. One site, Philips Semiconductor, was extracted from the...

  12. Understanding Latent Heat of Vaporization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Ed

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple exercise for students to do in the kitchen at home to determine the latent heat of vaporization of water using typical household materials. Designed to stress understanding by sacrificing precision for simplicity. (JRH)

  13. Modeling vapor dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconcini, R.; McEdwards, D.; Neri, G.; Ruffilli, C.; Schroeder, R.; Weres, O.; Witherspoon, P.

    1977-09-12

    The unresolved questions with regard to vapor-dominated reservoir production and longevity are reviewed. The simulation of reservoir behavior and the LBL computer program are discussed. The geology of Serrazzano geothermal field and its reservoir simulation are described. (MHR)

  14. Relationship between vapor intrusion and human exposure to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Natalie P; Bradford, Carrie M; Villanacci, John F; Crain, Neil E; Corsi, Richard L; Chambers, David M; Burk, Tonia; Blount, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater has the potential to volatilize through soil into indoor air where it can be inhaled. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals living above TCE-contaminated groundwater are exposed to TCE through vapor intrusion. We examined associations between TCE concentrations in various environmental media and TCE concentrations in residents. For this assessment, indoor air, outdoor air, soil gas, and tap water samples were collected in and around 36 randomly selected homes; blood samples were collected from 63 residents of these homes. Additionally, a completed exposure survey was collected from each participant. Environmental and blood samples were analyzed for TCE. Mixed model multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine associations between TCE in residents' blood and TCE in indoor air, outdoor air, and soil gas. Blood TCE concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (LOQ; ≥ 0.012 µg L(-1)) in 17.5% of the blood samples. Of the 36 homes, 54.3%, 47.2%, and >84% had detectable concentrations of TCE in indoor air, outdoor air, and soil gas, respectively. Both indoor air and soil gas concentrations were statistically significantly positively associated with participants' blood concentrations (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.04, respectively). Geometric mean blood concentrations of residents from homes with indoor air concentrations of >1.6 µg m(-3) were approximately 50 times higher than geometric mean blood TCE concentrations in participants from homes with no detectable TCE in indoor air (P < .0001; 95% CI 10.4-236.4). This study confirms the occurrence of vapor intrusion and demonstrates the magnitude of exposure from vapor intrusion of TCE in a residential setting.

  15. Trichloroethylene volatilization enhancement by alcohol/salt cycling injection in unsaturated clayey soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, M. L.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2008-05-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is the most widely detected organic contaminant at National Priority List (NPL) sites. In many sites, TCE is trapped as dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in formations of low permeability, and serve as long-term source of contamination. Remediation of these formations is extremely difficult and expensive. It is, therefore, necessary to develop enhanced, cost effective remediation technologies that can be applied to tight formations of low permeability. This study investigates the applicability of enhanced TCE soil vapor extraction (SVE) from unsaturated clayey soils using capillary delivery of alcohol/salt water cycles. Short chain alcohols are used to modify NAPL air tension and enhance dissolution into the aqueous phase. Brine delivery is used to induce TCE salting out and enhance volatilization. Experimental work involves the use of a 2-D laboratory-scale column packed with tropical clay and contaminated with non-aqueous phase TCE. Rigid porous membranes are inserted into the clay and used to deliver alcohol and brine solutions through competitive capillary forces. Vapor extraction is applied through vacuum well points, whereas a liquid drainage boundary is applied at the bottom of the column. Solution delivery rates and concentrations of TCE, alcohol, and salt solution are monitored to: determine removed and resident mass; assess reactive and transfer processes and develop optimal remedial technologies and parameters (e.g., delivery rates, imposed boundary conditions, contact times). This presentation addresses the preliminary work being conducted to determine the most appropriate alcohol and salt solution. It also discusses the testing of porous membranes of different rigid materials (e.g., stainless steel, Teflon, ceramic) and pore sizes, and the selection of the best one to deliver the selected alcohol and brine solution in unsaturated clays under the imposed boundary conditions. Keywords: Trichloroethylene (TCE), Soil vapor

  16. iSOIL: Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Sauer, Uta

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution soil property maps are one major prerequisite for the specific protection of soil functions and restoration of degraded soils as well as sustainable land use, water and environmental management. To generate such maps the combination of digital soil mapping approaches and remote as well as proximal soil sensing techniques is most promising. However, a feasible and reliable combination of these technologies for the investigation of large areas (e.g. catchments and landscapes) and the assessment of soil degradation threats is missing. Furthermore, there is insufficient dissemination of knowledge on digital soil mapping and proximal soil sensing in the scientific community, to relevant authorities as well as prospective users. As one consequence there is inadequate standardization of techniques. At the poster we present the EU collaborative project iSOIL within the 7th framework program of the European Commission. iSOIL focuses on improving fast and reliable mapping methods of soil properties, soil functions and soil degradation risks. This requires the improvement and integration of advanced soil sampling approaches, geophysical and spectroscopic measuring techniques, as well as pedometric and pedophysical approaches. The focus of the iSOIL project is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high resolution soil property maps. At the same time the developments will reduce costs compared to traditional soil mapping. ISOIL tackles the challenges by the integration of three major components: (i)high resolution, non-destructive geophysical (e.g. Electromagnetic Induction EMI; Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR; magnetics, seismics) and spectroscopic (e.g., Near Surface Infrared, NIR) methods, (ii)Concepts of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) and pedometrics as well as (iii)optimized soil sampling with respect to profound soil scientific and (geo)statistical strategies. A special focus of iSOIL lies on the

  17. STUDY ON BIODEGRADATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN BULK IN THE REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodecontaminare methods are based on biodegradation in the subsurface presence of microorganisms capable of degrading most of carbonaceous organic pollutants and much of inorganic pollutants. Biodegradation in bulk meet that principle biological decontamination several ways. These methods are intended solely for solids, and is often used for on-site remediation of soils contaminated with organic products. Station bioremediation ensure reducing the harmfulness of residues from oil exploitation activities considered hazardous, using a bioremediation process. Bioremediation process will lead to reduction of oil content and thus reducing the hazard of waste.

  18. Dispensing fuel with aspiration of condensed vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkovich, M.S.; Strock, D.J.

    1993-08-10

    A vapor recovery process is described, comprising the steps of: fueling a motor vehicle with gasoline by discharging gasoline into a fill opening or filler pipe of a tank of said vehicle through a fuel outlet conduit of a nozzle; emitting gasoline vapors from said tank during said fueling; substantially collecting said vapors during said fueling with a vapor return conduit of said nozzle and passing said vapors through said vapor return conduit in counter current flow relationship to said discharging gasoline in said fuel conduit; conveying said vapors from said vapor return conduit to a vapor return hose; at least some of said vapors condensing to form condensate in said vapor return hose; substantially removing said condensate from said vapor return hose during said fueling with a condensate pickup tube from said nozzle by passing said condensate through said condensate pickup tube in counter current flow relationship to said conveying vapors in said vapor return hose; sensing the presence of gasoline with a liquid sensing tube in said vapor return conduit of said nozzle between inner and outer spouts of said nozzle to detect when said tank of said vehicle is filled with said fuel conduit being within the inner spout of said nozzle; and automatically shutting off said fueling and condensate removing when said liquid sensing tube detects when said tank of said vehicle is filled and fuel enters said vapor return conduit.

  19. Estimation of heat load in waste tanks using average vapor space temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, R.D.; Kummerer, M.; Postma, A.K.

    1993-12-01

    This report describes a method for estimating the total heat load in a high-level waste tank with passive ventilation. This method relates the total heat load in the tank to the vapor space temperature and the depth of waste in the tank. Q{sub total} = C{sub f} (T{sub vapor space {minus}} T{sub air}) where: C{sub f} = Conversion factor = (R{sub o}k{sub soil}{sup *}area)/(z{sub tank} {minus} z{sub surface}); R{sub o} = Ratio of total heat load to heat out the top of the tank (function of waste height); Area = cross sectional area of the tank; k{sub soil} = thermal conductivity of soil; (z{sub tank} {minus} z{sub surface}) = effective depth of soil covering the top of tank; and (T{sub vapor space} {minus} T{sub air}) = mean temperature difference between vapor space and the ambient air at the surface. Three terms -- depth, area and ratio -- can be developed from geometrical considerations. The temperature difference is measured for each individual tank. The remaining term, the thermal conductivity, is estimated from the time-dependent component of the temperature signals coming from the periodic oscillations in the vapor space temperatures. Finally, using this equation, the total heat load for each of the ferrocyanide Watch List tanks is estimated. This provides a consistent way to rank ferrocyanide tanks according to heat load.

  20. Assessment and remediation of a historical pipeline release : tools, techniques and technologies applied to in-situ/ex-situ soil and groundwater remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, N. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kohlsmith, B. [Kinder Morgan Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Tools, techniques, and technologies applied to in-situ/ex-situ soil and groundwater remediation were presented as part of an assessment and remediation of a historical pipeline release. The presentation discussed the initial assessment, as well as a discussion of remediation of hydrophobic soils, re-assessment, site specific criteria, a remediation trial involving bioventing and chemical oxidation, and a full scale remediation. The pipeline release occurred in the summer of 1977. The event was followed by a complete surface remediation with a significant amount of topsoil being removed and replaced. In 2004, a landowner complained of poor crop growth in four patches near the area of the historical spill. An initial assessment was undertaken and several photographs were presented. It was concluded that a comprehensive assessment set the base for a careful staged approach to the remediation of the site including the establishment of site specific criteria. The process was made possible with a high level of communication between all stakeholders. In addition, the most appropriate solution for the site was realized. figs.

  1. Heating Unsaturated Sediments Using Solar Energy to Enhance Passive Sediment Remediation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sediment heating has been shown to enhance passive sediment remediation technologies such as bioremediation and barometric pumping (passive soil venting). Sediment heating raises the slow remediation rates that often limit the widespread use of these technologies. In bioremediation applications, a 10 degree C increase in subsurface temperature is expected to double the microbial activity, and thus the remediation rate. The removal rate of tetracholorethylene (PCE - a common subsurface contaminant) by passive soil vapor extraction is expected to nearly double in low-permeable sediments when the subsurface is heated 10 degree C from ambient temperatures due to an increased vapor pressure in the PCE. When the sediment is heated using renewable energy sources, these thermally enhanced remediation technologies can be environmentally benign alternatives to conventional remediation techniques that rely on large external energy inputs. The thermally enhanced passive technologies may be particularly useful for remediating unsaturated, low-permeable lenses that are troublesome to most conventional remediation technologies such as conventional soil vapor extraction and co-solvent flushes. The main objective of this work was to quantify subsurface sediment heating using a solar powered heat injection well. To do this, a pilot sediment heating system was installed in Vermont and high resolution meteorological and sediment temperature data were collected using a stand-alone data acquisition system. Unsaturated, silty sediments were heated in-situ by converting the direct and indirect solar energy available at the surface to heat energy in the subsurface using stand-alone renewable energy sources and a resistive element heat injection well. The heat injection well was powered by a 600-W passively tracking photovoltaic (PV) array and a small 1.2-m swept area wind turbine. It is envisioned that the heat injection well would be placed directly into an area of high subsurface

  2. Technologies on Soil Microbiology Diversity%土壤微生物多样性的研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴才武; 赵兰坡

    2011-01-01

    In order to be more effective and completive to research soil microbiology diversity, a series of laboratory methods for the current study soil microbial diversity at home and abroad were reviewed, including plate count, Biolog micro-plates, PFLA analysis and molecular biological techniques. The author illustrated the advantages and disadvantages of several methods, especially emphasis on which method should be selected during the experiment, provided a lot of basic information and advice for researchers.%为了更加全面有效地研究土壤微生物多样性,笔者通过对于当前国内外研究土壤微生物多样性的研究方法,包括微生物稀释平板记数法、Biolog微平板法、PLFA分析法、分子生物学方法进行阐述,说明了几种方法操作性的优缺点,重点说明了在实验过程中应该选取的方法,为研究者选取研究方法时提供基本信息及建议.

  3. Grafting, metham sodium, soil solarization and virtually impermeable films as alternative technologies to methyl bromide for Chinese protected tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Xuemei; Cao Zhiping; Chen Yunfeng; Chen Guokang; Andrea Camponogara; Yang Hang; Maria Lodovica Gullino

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of the Sino-ltalian Cooperation Program for Environmental Protection,jointly launched in the year 2000 by the Italian Ministry for Environment and Territory and Sea (IMETS) and the China State Environ nental Protection Administration (SEPA),experimental trials were carried out in Qingzhou city (Shandong Prov ince,China) during 2001-2003 to test several methyl bromide alternative methods to control soilborne diseases in greenhouse tomatoes.Grafting tomatoes on resistant rootstock (Lycopersicon lycopersicum×L.hirsutum),metham sodium applied under traditional polyethylene ptastic films,metham sodium applied at low rate under virtually im permeable films and soil solarization combined with biocontrol agents were the alternatives tested and compared to methyl bromide applied under virtually impermeable plastic films too.Collected data show that resistant rootstock (Lycopersicon lycopersicum × L.hirsutum) introduced from Italy is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for to cal tomato cultivars.Metham sodium applied under traditional polyethylene plastic films is an effective alternative Moreover,virtually impermeable.films demonstrate the help to reduce methyl bromide and metham sodium rates.Finally,soil solarization combined with biocontrol agents does not provide satisfactory resuhs in terms of disease control.

  4. 浅议覆膜保墒旱作节水农业技术%Film Preservation of Soil Moisture Water-saving Agricultural Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晓林

    2013-01-01

    Laminating moisture conservation technology is an important scientific and technological support for the development of water-saving agriculture. Including the autumn coated and early spring laminating coating in the modern sense of the soil moisture water-saving agricultural technology in the coating time semi film coverage and film coverage, including in the coating way to stay membranes, including the extension of the cover film using with stubble wintering and a film two years. Compared with the traditional plastic film cover cropping, the modern coating soil moisture water-saving agriculture technology to achieve the basic "five changes": GM crops sowing date coating for the fall or early spring coating change semimembranosus coverage for the whole film coverage, change a film for a film two years with a one-year change ridge surface level multicast double furrow sowing, five changed almost all planting corn planting corn for local conditions, potato, sunflower, melon, millet drought-resistant crops and other characteristics.%覆膜保墒技术是发展旱作节水农业的重要科技支撑。现代意义上的覆膜保墒旱作节水农业技术在覆膜时间上包括秋覆膜和早春覆膜,在覆膜方式上包括半膜覆盖和全膜覆盖,在覆盖膜延期利用上包括留膜留茬越冬和一膜两年用。与传统地膜覆盖种植方式相比,现代覆膜保墒旱作节水农业技术基本实现了“五改”:一是改作物播期覆膜为秋季或早春覆膜,二是改半膜覆盖为全膜覆盖,三是改一膜一年用为一膜两年用,四是改垄面平播为双垄沟播,五是改几乎全部种植玉米为因地制宜种植玉米、马铃薯、向日葵、西甜瓜、谷子等各种特色抗旱作物。

  5. Recent advances in vapor intrusion site investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Thomas; Loll, Per; Eklund, Bart

    2017-02-22

    Our understanding of vapor intrusion has evolved rapidly since the discovery of the first high profile vapor intrusion sites in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research efforts and field investigations have improved our understanding of vapor intrusion processes including the role of preferential pathways and natural barriers to vapor intrusion. This review paper addresses recent developments in the regulatory framework and conceptual model for vapor intrusion. In addition, a number of innovative investigation methods are discussed.

  6. EVALUACIÓN DE TECNOLOGÍAS PARA LA RECUPERACIÓN DE SUELOS DEGRADADOS POR SALINIDAD EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF SOILS DEGRADED BY SALINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Zúñiga Escobar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de salinidad y sodio en los suelos interfiere en el crecimiento adecuado de la mayoría de los cultivos y por lo tanto constituye uno de los problemas más serios que enfrenta la agricultura sostenible. Se evaluaron una serie de tecnologías no convencionales utilizadas en recuperación de suelos afectados por salinidad según la respuesta agronómica de un cultivo de maíz. Se planteó la aplicación de 3 tratamientos alternativos: 1 Biofertilizantes, 2 Biopolimeros y 3 Electromagnetismo comparados frente a la propuesta: 4 Convencional con base en la teoría del USDA (United States Departament of Agriculture de enmiendas químicas (yeso - azufre. Además de un testigo absoluto (Sólo drenaje. Los tratamientos más efectivos en cuanto respuesta fisiológica y productividad fueron los biológicos con uso de microorganismos (biofertlizantes y electromagnetismo, se incluyó la estimulación electromagnética la cual acelera la actividad microbiana para disminuir el tiempo de recuperación de suelos afectados por salinidad del suelo.Salinity and sodium content in soils interferes with proper growth of most crops and therefore constitutes a serious problem facing sustainable agriculture. The objective of this research was to evaluate a series of unconventional technologies used in recovery of salt-affected soils according to the agronomic response of a maize crop. The application of three alternative treatments with Biofertilizers, Biopolymers and Electromagnetism were proposed to make a comparison with the USDA-based conventional theory approach (United States Department of Agriculture of chemical amendments (gypsum - sulfur. In addition to an absolute control (drainage only. The most effective treatments in terms of physiological response and productivity were the biological using microorganisms (biofertilizers and electromagnetism, clarifying that electromagnetic stimulation was included to accelerate microbial activity and lower soil

  7. The Use of a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Technology for Monitoring Land Use and Soil Carbon Change in the Subtropical Dry Forest Life Zone of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Rodriguez, Linda L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Aerial photography, one of the first form of remote sensing technology, has long been an invaluable means to monitor activities and conditions at the Earth's surface. Geographic Information Systems or GIS is the use of computers in showing and manipulating spatial data. This report will present the use of geographic information systems and remote sensing technology for monitoring land use and soil carbon change in the subtropical dry forest life zone of Puerto Rico. This research included the south of Puerto Rico that belongs to the subtropical dry forest life zone. The Guanica Commonwealth Forest Biosphere Reserve and the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve are studied in detail, because of their location in the subtropical dry forest life zone. Aerial photography, digital multispectral imagery, soil samples, soil survey maps, field inspections, and differential global positioning system (DGPS) observations were used.

  8. The Effects of Disturbance and Climate on Carbon Storage and the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor and Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Beverly E.; Thomas, Christoph K.

    2011-09-20

    This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture

  9. Water vapor absorption in arthropods by accumulation of myoinositol and glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark; Holmstrup

    1999-01-01

    Hydrophilic soil arthropods have been thought to respond to soil desiccation exclusively by migrating to deeper soil layers. Numerous studies have shown that their survival below 90 percent relative humidity dry weight, is limited to hours. However, little attention has been paid to physiological....... A reevaluation of the water physiology of this widespread and diverse animal group is required....... adaptations to more realistic desiccation regimes, such as at the permanent wilting point of plants (98.9 percent relative humidity). A water vapor absorption mechanism is described that allows a common soil collembolan, Folsomia candida, to remain active down to below the permanent wilting point...

  10. The fourth-generation Water Vapor Millimeter-Wave Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, R. Michael; Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Neal, Helen L.; McDermid, I. Stuart

    2012-02-01

    For 20 years the Naval Research Laboratory has been making continuous water vapor profile measurements at 22.235 GHz with the Water Vapor Millimeter-Wave Spectrometer (WVMS) instruments, with the program expanding from one to three instruments in the first 6 years. Since the initial deployments there have been gradual improvements in the instrument design which have improved data quality and reduced maintenance requirements. Recent technological developments have made it possible to entirely redesign the instrument and improve not only the quality of the measurements but also the capability of the instrument. We present the fourth-generation instrument now operating at Table Mountain, California, which incorporates the most recent advances in microwave radiometry. This instrument represents the most significant extension of our measurement capability to date, enabling us to measure middle atmospheric water vapor from ˜26-80 km.

  11. Vapor intrusion from entrapped NAPL sources and groundwater plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illangasekare, Tissa H.; Sakaki, Toshihiro; Christ, John; Petri, Bejamin; Sauck, Carolyn; Cihan, Abdullah

    2010-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are commonly found entrapped as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the soil pores or dissolved in groundwater at industrial waste sites and refineries. Vapors emitted from these contaminant sources readily disperse into the atmosphere, into air-filled void spaces within the soil, and migrate below surface structures, leading to the intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor air through basements and other underground structures. This process referred to as vapor intrusion (VI) represents a potential threat to human health, and is a possible exposure pathway of concern to regulatory agencies. To assess whether this exposure pathway is present, remediation project managers often rely in part on highly simplified screening level models that do not take into consideration the complex flow dynamics controlled by subsurface heterogeneities and soil moisture conditions affected by the mass and heat flux boundary conditions at the land/atmospheric interface. A research study is under way to obtain an improved understanding of the processes and mechanisms controlling vapor generation from entrapped NAPL sources and groundwater plumes, their subsequent migration through the subsurface, and their attenuation in naturally heterogeneous vadose zones under various natural physical, climatic, and geochemical conditions. Experiments conducted at multiple scales will be integrated with analytical and numerical modeling and field data to test and validate existing VI theories and models. A set of preliminary experiments where the fundamental process of vapor generation from entrapped NAPL sources and dissolved plumes under fluctuating water were investigated in small cells and two-dimensional test tanks. In another task, intermediate scale experiments were conducted to generate quantitative data on how the heat and mass flux boundary conditions control the development of dynamic VI pathways. The data from the small cell and tank experiments were

  12. Estimation of contaminant subslab concentration in vapor intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2012-09-15

    This study is concerned with developing a method to estimate subslab perimeter crack contaminant concentration for structures built atop a vapor source. A simple alternative to the widely-used but restrictive one-dimensional (1-D) screening models is presented and justified by comparing to predictions from a three-dimensional (3-D) CFD model. A series of simulations were prepared for steady-state transport of a non-biodegradable contaminant in homogenous soil for different structure construction features and site characteristics. The results showed that subslab concentration does not strongly depend on the soil diffusivity, indoor air pressure, or foundation footprint size. It is determined by the geometry of the domain, represented by a characteristic length which is the ratio of foundation depth to source depth. An extension of this analytical approximation was developed for multi-layer soil cases.

  13. Stage 2 vapor recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, W.H.; Strock, D.J.; Butkovich, M.S.; Hartman, H.B.

    1993-05-25

    A vapor recovery system is described, comprising: a set of elongated underground storage tanks, each storage tank containing a different grade of gasoline; vent pipes; a series of dispensing units; fuel flow lines; vapor return lines; an array of fuel pumps for pumping gasoline from said storage tanks to said dispenser units; an elongated condensate liquid pickup tube; an elongated inner spout providing a fuel conduit and having an outer tip defining a fuel outlet for discharging gasoline into a filler pipe of a motor vehicle tank during fueling; an outer spout assembly; extending into and engaging said spout-receiving socket, said outer spout assembly comprising an outer spout providing a vapor return conduit and defining apertures providing a vapor inlet spaced from said fuel outlet for withdrawing, removing, and returning a substantial amount of gasoline vapors emitted during said fueling; an elongated liquid sensing tube; a manually operable level; a flow control valve assembly; an automatic shutoff valve assembly; and a venturi sleeve assembly positioned in said venturi sleeve receiving chamber.

  14. The Lithium Vapor Box Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, Robert; Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Gregory; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Schwartz, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    Projections of scrape-off layer width to a demonstration power plant suggest an immense parallel heat flux, of order 12 GW/m2, which will necessitate nearly fully detached operation. Building on earlier work by Nagayama et al. and by Ono et al., we propose to use a series of differentially pumped boxes filled with lithium vapor to isolate the buffering vapor from the main plasma chamber, allowing stable detachment. This powerful differential pumping is only available for condensable vapors, not conventional gases. We demonstrate the properties of such a system through conservation laws for vapor mass and enthalpy, and then include plasma entrainment and ultimately an estimate of radiated power. We find that full detachment should be achievable with little leakage of lithium to the main plasma chamber. We also present progress towards solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically for the chain of vapor boxes, including self-consistent wall boundary conditions and fully-developed shocks, as well as concepts for an initial experimental demonstration-of-concept. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. The Effects of Disturbance and Climate on Carbon Storage and the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor and Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Beverly E.; Thomas, Christoph K.

    2011-09-20

    This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture

  16. Optimization of metal vapor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanov, V. V.; Molodykh, E. I.; Tykotskii, V. V.

    1983-03-01

    The method proposed here for performing numerical calculations on a computer in order to predict and optimize the characteristics of metal vapor lasers is based on the use of a universal program for numerical experiments designed expressly for metal vapor lasers and on a simultaneous application of an algorithm for multifactor optimization of the output parameters. The latter, in turn, is based on the complex Boks method (Himmelblau, 1970) and on the Gel'fand-Tsetlin ravine method (Himmelblau, 1970). Calculations carried out for a metal with a copper vapor in neon reveal that for optimization with respect to the geometry of the active zone and the parameters of the electrical circuits (including the voltage pulses and excitation frequency) it is sufficient to use the Boks method. The objective function optimum regarding the concentration of the metal particles and the buffer gas found using this algorithm calls for further refinement; this can be performed efficiently with the Gel'fand-Tsetlin ravine method.

  17. Water as a Reagent for Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, Indira S.; Marti-Perez, Montserrat; Diaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2003-03-06

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise, and the implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and provide a standalone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  18. Development of vapor deposited thin films for bio-microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Ketul Chandrakant

    Increasing demands for more biocompatible and sophisticated bio-microsystems in recent years has led to the development of a new technology called BioMEMS (biological micro-electro-mechanical systems). The foundation of this technology is the same as that of the traditional field of IC (integrated circuits), but an emphasis on developing new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Micro- and nano-fabrication techniques are currently being used to develop implants that can record, sense, stimulate and deliver to biological systems. Micromachined substrates can provide unique advantages over traditional implantable devices in terms of their ability to control surface micro-architecture, topography and feature size in micron and nano sizes. However, as BioMEMS technology is rapidly being developed, the practical use of these bio-microsystems is limited due to the inability to effectively interface with the biological system in non-immunogenic and stable manner. This is one of the most important considerations, and hence it is useful to focus on the fundamental scientific issues relating to material science, surface chemistry and immunology of silicon based bio-microsystems. This results in development of biomolecular interfaces that are compatible with both microfabrication processing and biological systems. The overall thrust of this research is to develop, characterize and integrate vapor deposited thin films with bio-microsystems in a manner that it is both reproducible and fully integrated with existing technologies. The main strategy is to use silane coatings precursor coatings on which poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) will be coated in vapor phase. Silane has been coated user vapor phase, but its chemical and biological characterization and stability of the films under physiological conditions has not been investigated for biological applications. PEG has been coated in solution phase on silicon surface. However, it has not been coated under vapor phase. Here we are

  19. Colloidal Cutin-like Siderophoric Molecules Mobilize Plutonium from Contaminated Soils of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C.; Santschi, P; Roberts, K; Zhong, J; Hatcher, P; Hung, C; Francis, A; Dodge, C; Honeyman, B

    2008-01-01

    Relatively recently, inorganic colloids have been invoked to reconcile the apparent contradictions between expectations based on classical dissolved-phase Pu transport and field observations of 'enhanced' Pu mobility (Kersting et al. Nature 1999, 397, 56-59). A new paradigm for Pu transport is mobilization and transport via biologically produced ligands. This study for the first time reports a new finding of Pu being transported, at sub-pM concentrations, by a cutin-like natural substance containing siderophore-like moieties and virtually all mobile Pu. Most likely, Pu is complexed by chelating groups derived from siderophores that are covalently bound to a backbone of cutin-derived soil degradation products, thus revealing the history of initial exposure to Pu. Features such as amphiphilicity and small size make this macromolecule an ideal collector for actinides and other metals and a vector for their dispersal. Cross-linking to the hydrophobic domains (e.g., by polysaccharides) gives this macromolecule high mobility and a means of enhancing Pu transport. This finding provides a new mechanism for Pu transport through environmental systems that would not have been predicted by Pu transport models.

  20. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Contaminant characterization and three dimensional spatial modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mitchell, T.J.; Pickering, D.A.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    Fine-textured soils and sediments contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated organics present a serious environmental restoration challenge at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a research and demonstration project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of the project was to demonstrate a process for closure and environmental restoration of the X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The X-231B Unit was used from 1976 to 1983 as a land disposal site for waste oils and solvents. Silt and clay deposits beneath the unit were contaminated with volatile organic compounds and low levels of radioactive substances. The shallow groundwater was also contaminated, and some contaminants were at levels well above drinking water standards. This document begins with a summary of the subsurface physical and contaminant characteristics obtained from investigative studies conducted at the X-231B Unit prior to January 1992 (Sect. 2). This is then followed by a description of the sample collection and analysis methods used during the baseline sampling conducted in January 1992 (Sect. 3). The results of this sampling event were used to develop spatial models for VOC contaminant distribution within the X-231B Unit.

  1. Field data and numerical modeling: A multiple lines of evidence approach for assessing vapor intrusion exposure risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Kelly G; Scammell, Madeleine K; McClean, Michael D; Suuberg, Eric M; Moradi, Ali; Roghani, Mohammadyousef; Ames, Jennifer; Friguglietti, Leigh; Indeglia, Paul A; Shen, Rui; Yao, Yijun; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J

    2016-06-15

    USEPA recommends a multiple lines of evidence approach to make informed decisions at vapor intrusion sites because the vapor intrusion pathway is notoriously difficult to characterize. Our study uses this approach by incorporating groundwater, soil gas, indoor air field measurements and numerical models to evaluate vapor intrusion exposure risks in a Metro-Boston neighborhood known to exhibit lower than anticipated indoor air concentrations based on groundwater concentrations. We collected and evaluated five rounds of field sampling data over the period of one year. Field data results show a steep gradient in soil gas concentrations near the groundwater surface; however as the depth decreases, soil gas concentration gradients also decrease. Together, the field data and the numerical model results suggest that a subsurface feature is limiting vapor transport into indoor air spaces at the study site and that groundwater concentrations are not appropriate indicators of vapor intrusion exposure risks in this neighborhood. This research also reveals the importance of including relevant physical models when evaluating vapor intrusion exposure risks using the multiple lines of evidence approach. Overall, the findings provide insight about how the multiple lines of evidence approach can be used to inform decisions by using field data collected using regulatory-relevant sampling techniques, and a well-established 3-D vapor intrusion model.

  2. Using of the geoinformation technologies for estimation of heavy metals distribution in the soils of urban ecosystems (on example of the city of Kaliningrad, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupakhina, Nataliia; Skrypnik, Lubov; Maslennikov, Pavel; Belov, Nicolai; Feduraev, Pavel; Chupakhina, Galina

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization can be described as a global socio-economic process, accompanied by a profound change of the anthropogenic environment and as a replacement of the natural ecosystems by the urban ones. Heavy metals occupy an important place among the different types of urban environmental pollutants. Since they do not undergo physico-chemical and biological degradation, they can accumulate in the surface soil layer for a long time, being available for the roots of plants and actively involved in the migration processes via trophic pathways. Study of accumulation of heavy metals in the most important component of urban ecosystems, which is soils, allows us to get a reliable estimate of the intensity of technogenic processes and to trace the major migration flows of these toxicants in the urbanized area. The geographic information systems (GIS) are a useful tool for collection, analysis, processing, synthesis and management of the spatially-distributed and other types of data. They provide the two-way communication between cartographic objects and databases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using of GIS technologies for estimating of distribution of heavy metals in the soil of the city of Kaliningrad. A Kaliningrad land region of 18.4 sq.km was investigated. Locations for the collection of samples were determined based on the analysis of anthropogenic loading of the streets of Kaliningrad. The total number of the locations was 57. The selected locations were marked with squares of 1.5 km per 1.5 km. Within each square 7-9 soil samples were collected using the "envelope" method, each sample was collected three times. The abundances of heavy metals (strontium, lead, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, arsenic) in the soil was determined using the X-ray fluorescence method (Spectroscan Max, NPO Spektron, Saint-Petersburg, Russia). Each sample was purified, in order to remove roots, large rocks, glass, etc., before placing to the cell of the

  3. Fiscal Year 2007 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RSI

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR) is to present the fiscal year (FY) 2007 results of characterization activities and recommended remedial actions (RAs) for 11 exposure units (EUs) in Zone 2 (Z2-01, Z2-03, Z2-08, Z2-23, Z2-24, Z2-28, Z2-34, Z2-37, Z2-41, Z2-43, and Z2-44) at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), which is located in the northwest corner of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Fig. 1). ETTP encompasses a total land area of approximately 5000 acres that has been subdivided into three zones--Zone 1 ({approx}1400 acres), Zone 2 ({approx}800 acres), and the Boundary Area ({approx}2800 acres). Zone 2, which encompasses the highly industrialized portion of ETTP shown in Fig. 1, consists of all formerly secured areas of the facility, including the large processing buildings and direct support facilities; experimental laboratories and chemical and materials handling facilities; materials storage and waste disposal facilities; secure document records libraries; and shipping and receiving warehouses. The Zone 2 Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2005) (Zone 2 ROD) specifies the future end use for Zone 2 acreage as uncontrolled industrial for the upper 10 ft of soils. Characterization activities in these areas were conducted in compliance with the Zone 2 ROD and the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS) and data quality objectives (DQOs) presented in the Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2007) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP). The purpose of this PCCR is to address the following: (1) Document DVS characterization results for the accessible EUs in FY 2007; (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation for each EU, and determine if the EU met the Zone 2 ROD requirements

  4. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  5. Treatability of TCE-contaminated clay soils at the Rinsewater Impoundment, Michoud Assembly Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, A.J.; Gilbert, V.P.; Hewitt, J.D.; Koran, L.J. Jr.; Jennings, H.L.; Donaldson, T.L.; West, O.R.; Cline, S.R.; Marshall, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted treatability studies on clay soils taken from the Rinsewater Impoundment at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Michoud Assembly Facility. The soils are contaminated with up to 3000 mg/kg of trichloroethylene and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, less than 10 mg/kg of trans-1,2-DCE, and less than 10 mg/kg of vinyl chloride. The goal of the study described in this report was to identify and test in situ technologies and/or develop a modified treatment regime to remove or destroy volatile organic compounds from the contaminated clay soils. Much of the work was based upon previous experience with mixed-region vapor stepping and mixed-region peroxidation. Laboratory treatments were performed on intact soil cores that were taken from contaminated areas at the Rinsewater Impoundment at MAF. Treatability studies were conducted on soil that was close to in situ conditions in terms of soil structure and contaminant concentrations.

  6. Treatability of TCE-contaminated clay soils at the Rinsewater Impoundment, Michoud Assembly Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, A.J.; Gilbert, V.P.; Hewitt, J.D.; Koran, L.J. Jr.; Jennings, H.L.; Donaldson, T.L.; West, O.R.; Cline, S.R.; Marshall, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted treatability studies on clay soils taken from the Rinsewater Impoundment at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Michoud Assembly Facility. The soils are contaminated with up to 3000 mg/kg of trichloroethylene and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, less than 10 mg/kg of trans-1,2-DCE, and less than 10 mg/kg of vinyl chloride. The goal of the study described in this report was to identify and test in situ technologies and/or develop a modified treatment regime to remove or destroy volatile organic compounds from the contaminated clay soils. Much of the work was based upon previous experience with mixed-region vapor stepping and mixed-region peroxidation. Laboratory treatments were performed on intact soil cores that were taken from contaminated areas at the Rinsewater Impoundment at MAF. Treatability studies were conducted on soil that was close to in situ conditions in terms of soil structure and contaminant concentrations.

  7. 青海省盐渍土地区公路路基施工技术研究%Research on the Construction Technology of Highway Subgrade in Salty Soil Regions of Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓莉

    2014-01-01

    盐渍土在青海省分布广泛,尤其是海西地区。本文通过具体实例就盐渍土地区公路路基施工技术进行探讨,为今后类似工程提供参考。%Salty soils are widely distributed in Qinghai province ,especially in Haixi .This paper discussed the construction technology of highway subgrade in salty soil regions by analyzing a few engineering examples , and provided a reference for similar engineering aftertime .

  8. Biodegradation of methanol vapor in a biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Durai Arulneyam; T. Swaminathan

    2003-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a new class of air pollutants posing threat to the environment. Newer technologies are being developed for their control among which biofiltration seem to be most attractive. Biofiltration of methanol vapor from air stream was evaluated in this study. Experimental investigations were conducted on a laboratory scale biofilter, containing mixture of compost and polystyrene inert particles as the filter materials. Mixed consortium of activated sludge was used as an inoculum. The continuous performance of biofilter for methanol removal was monitored for different concentrations and flow rates. The removal efficiencies decreased at higher concentrations and higher gas flow rates. A maximum elimination capacity of 85 g/(m3.h) was achieved. The response of biofilter to upset loading operation showed that the biofilm in the biofilters was quite stable and quickly adapted to adverse operational conditions.

  9. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  10. 山西省输变电工程水土保持低扰动工程技术%Low Disturbance Engineering Technology of Soil and Water Conservation in Power Transfer and Transformation Construction Project in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王露露; 孙中峰; 朱清科

    2013-01-01

    Power transfer and transformation projects have the large span.So their natural conditions,social conditions,economic conditions and the source of soil and water loss are complex.Moreover,the projects temporarily cover large area and disturb a wide range.To explore the low disturbance engineering technology in soil and water conservation of power transmission construction and to help optimize the design of both the main work and soil and water conservation measures,eighteen 500 kV power transfer and transformation projects in Shanxi Province were selected as research samples.By comprising the extent of disturbances and the amount of soil and water losses caused by the traditional main work and soil and water conservation engineering and the low disturbance ones,it was found that the low disturbance engineering technology,including unequal legs and basis transmission tower,haulage methods of aerial cableway and actinobacillus without touching the ground,can significantly reduce the ranges of disturbance and the amount of soil and water loss.In the design of soiland water conservation measures,if the suitable surface soil stripping technology can be used based on the feature of soil and water loss and the soil condition in different control areas and temporary covering technology can be used in some temporary land,the secondary disturbance as well as the investments of the soil and water conservation engineering can be reduced.It was suggested that the low disturbance engineering technology which can reduce soil and water loss should be given priority in the design of main works as well as soil and water conservation measures of power transfer and transformation projects.%输变电工程跨度大,自然、社会经济条件及水土流失来源复杂多变,且临时占地多,扰动范围大.为探索输变电工程水土保持低扰动工程技术,为输变电主体工程及水土保持措施优化设计提供参考依据,以山西省18项500 kV输变电工程为研

  11. Development of new remediation technologies for contaminated soils based on the application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles and bioremediation with compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galdames

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop new techniques for the remediation of contaminated soils based on the application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI and bioremediation with compost from organic wastes and a mixed technique of both. An assessment of the effectiveness of remediation in two soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals was carried out, with the aim of looking for positive synergies by combining the two techniques, and demonstrating their viability on an industrial scale. The application of nZVI for in situ immobilization of As and Cr in two different soils (Soil I from a contaminated industrial site and Soil II, contaminated artificially showed a decrease in the concentration of As in Soil I and Soil II, as well as a decrease in Cr concentration for Soil I and Soil II in the leachate of both soils. The addition of compost and nanoparticles under uncontrolled environmental conditions in biopiles was able to produce a decrease in the concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons of up to 60% in the two soils. Especially, degradation and transformation of longer chains occurred. A significant reduction of ecotoxicity was observed throughout the process in the biopile of soil II, not reaching the LC50 even with 100% of the sample after the treatment, in both earthworm and seeds growth tests.

  12. Boiler for generating high quality vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, V. H.; Marto, P. J.; Joslyn, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Boiler supplies vapor for use in turbines by imparting a high angular velocity to the liquid annulus in heated rotating drum. Drum boiler provides a sharp interface between boiling liquid and vapor, thereby, inhibiting the formation of unwanted liquid droplets.

  13. A numerical investigation of oxygen concentration dependence on biodegradation rate laws in vapor intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Shen, Rui; Pennel, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2013-12-01

    In subsurface vapor intrusion, aerobic biodegradation has been considered as a major environmental factor that determines the soil gas concentration attenuation factors for contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. The site investigation has shown that oxygen can play an important role in this biodegradation rate, and this paper explores the influence of oxygen concentration on biodegradation reactions included in vapor intrusion (VI) models. Two different three dimensional (3-D) numerical models of vapor intrusion were explored for their sensitivity to the form of the biodegradation rate law. A second order biodegradation rate law, explicitly including oxygen concentration dependence, was introduced into one model. The results indicate that the aerobic/anoxic interface depth is determined by the ratio of contaminant source vapor to atmospheric oxygen concentration, and that the contaminant concentration profile in the aerobic zone was significantly influenced by the choice of rate law.

  14. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  15. Exposure assessment modeling for volatiles--towards an Australian indoor vapor intrusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turczynowicz, Leonid; Robinson, Neville I

    2007-10-01

    Human health risk assessment of sites contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons involves site-specific evaluations of soil or groundwater contaminants and development of Australian soil health-based investigation levels (HILs). Exposure assessment of vapors arising from subsurface sources includes the use of overseas-derived commercial models to predict indoor air concentrations. These indoor vapor intrusion models commonly consider steady-state assumptions, infinite sources, limited soil biodegradation, negligible free phase, and equilibrium partitioning into air and water phases to represent advective and diffusive processes. Regional model construct influences and input parameters affect model predictions while steady-state assumptions introduce conservatism and jointly highlight the need for Australian-specific indoor vapor intrusion assessment. An Australian non-steady-state indoor vapor intrusion model has been developed to determine cumulative indoor human doses (CIHDs) and to address these concerns by incorporating Australian experimental field data to consider mixing, dilution, ventilation, sink effects and first-order soil and air degradation. It was used to develop provisional HILs for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), naphthalene, and volatile aliphatic and aromatic total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) < or = EC16 fractions for crawl space dwellings. This article summarizes current state of knowledge and discusses proposed research for differing exposure scenarios based on Australian dwelling and subsurface influences, concurrent with sensitivity analyses of input parameters and in-field model validation.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIR-TO-LEAF VAPOR PHASE TRANSFER FACTOR FOR DIOXINS AND FURANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of an experiment in which grass was grown in a greenhouse and outdoors, and in soils of different concentration levels of dioxins and furans, were used in a modeling exercise to derive an air-to-leaf vapor phase transfer factor. The purpose of the experiment was to under...

  17. Using Conventional Monitoring Wells to Collect Data Necessary to Understand Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent work has clearly established that the possibility for vapor intrusion of petroleum hydrocarbons is greatly reduced by aerobic biodegradation of the hydrocarbons in unsaturated soil. The rate and extent of aerobic biodegradation of benzene (or any other fuel hydrocarbon) in...

  18. Using Conventional Monitoring Wells to Collect Data Necessary to Understand Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent work has clearly established that the possibility for vapor intrusion of petroleum hydrocarbons is greatly reduced by aerobic biodegradation of the hydrocarbons in unsaturated soil. The rate and extent of aerobic biodegradation of benzene (or any other fuel hydrocarbon) in...

  19. Diurnal variations in water vapor over Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Diurnal variations in atmospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) are studied employing IWV estimates, with a 30 minutes sampling rate, derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations during the period 2007-2013. The analysis was performed in 73 GNSS tracking sites (GPS + GLONASS) which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, with different diurnal variations of the integrated total humidity content. There are many processes that could induce diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor (Dai et al, 1999 a,b), the most relevant causes are: surface evapotranspiration, atmospheric large-scale vertical motion, atmospheric low-level moisture convergence and precipitation and vertical mixing (which affects the vertical distribution of water vapor but does not affect the IWV). The numerical tools, Singular Value Decomposition and classical Multidimensional Scaling methods, are used to study these variations, considering the measurements made at each stations, as sample in the analysis. The aim of this investigation is to identify the IWV variability with respect to the local time associated to the different climate regions. In order to improve our analysis, all available weather information, such as radiosondes measurements (which are few), measurements of pressure and temperature and Numerical Weather Models reanalysis data, are used. Reference: Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. R. Karl, 1999 a: Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation and water vapor on diurnal temperature range. J. Climate, 12, 2451-2473. Dai, A., F. Giorgi, and K. E. Trenberth, 1999 b: Observed and model simulated precipitation diurnal cycle over the contiguous United States.J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6377-6402. KEYWORDS: water vapor, diurnal cycle, GNSS

  20. Temporal moisture content variability beneath and external to a building and the potential effects on vapor intrusion risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Weaver, James W

    2007-06-15

    Migration of vapors from organic chemicals residing in the subsurface into overlying buildings is known as vapor intrusion. Because of the difficulty in evaluating vapor intrusion by indoor air sampling, models are often employed to determine if a potential indoor inhalation exposure pathway exists and, if such a pathway is complete, whether long-term exposure increases the occupants' risk for cancer or other toxic effects to an unacceptable level. For site-specific vapor intrusion assessments, moisture content is, at times, determined from soil cores taken in open spaces between buildings. However, there is little published information on how moisture content measured outside a building structure compares with the moisture content directly beneath the building - where the values are most critical for vapor intrusion assessments. This research begins to address these issues by investigating the movement of soil moisture next to and beneath a building at a contaminated field site and determining the effect on vapor intrusion risk assessment. A two-dimensional, variably-saturated water flow model, HYDRUS-2D, is used with 2 years of hourly, local rainfall data to simulate subsurface moisture content in the vicinity of a hypothetical 10 x 10-m building slab at a contaminated field site. These moisture content values are used in vapor intrusion risk assessment simulations using the Johnson and Ettinger model with instantaneous and averaged moisture contents. Results show that vapor intrusion risk assessments based on moisture content determined from soil cores taken external to a building structure may moderately-to-severely underestimate the vapor intrusion risk from beneath the structure. Soil under the edges of a slab may be influenced by rainfall events and may show reduced vapor intrusion risk as a consequence. Data from a building instrumented with subslab moisture probes showed results similar to the modeling, but with a smaller difference between the subslab and

  1. Temporal moisture content variability beneath and external to a building and the potential effects on vapor intrusion risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, Fred D. [National Research Council (United States); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecosystems Research Division, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605-2700 (United States); Weaver, James W. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecosystems Research Division, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605-2700 (United States)]. E-mail: Weaver.Jim@epa.gov

    2007-06-15

    Migration of vapors from organic chemicals residing in the subsurface into overlying buildings is known as vapor intrusion. Because of the difficulty in evaluating vapor intrusion by indoor air sampling, models are often employed to determine if a potential indoor inhalation exposure pathway exists and, if such a pathway is complete, whether long-term exposure increases the occupants' risk for cancer or other toxic effects to an unacceptable level. For site-specific vapor intrusion assessments, moisture content is, at times, determined from soil cores taken in open spaces between buildings. However, there is little published information on how moisture content measured outside a building structure compares with the moisture content directly beneath the building - where the values are most critical for vapor intrusion assessments. This research begins to address these issues by investigating the movement of soil moisture next to and beneath a building at a contaminated field site and determining the effect on vapor intrusion risk assessment. A two-dimensional, variably-saturated water flow model, HYDRUS-2D, is used with 2 years of hourly, local rainfall data to simulate subsurface moisture content in the vicinity of a hypothetical 10 x 10-m building slab at a contaminated field site. These moisture content values are used in vapor intrusion risk assessment simulations using the Johnson and Ettinger model with instantaneous and averaged moisture contents. Results show that vapor intrusion risk assessments based on moisture content determined from soil cores taken external to a building structure may moderately-to-severely underestimate the vapor intrusion risk from beneath the structure. Soil under the edges of a slab may be influenced by rainfall events and may show reduced vapor intrusion risk as a consequence. Data from a building instrumented with subslab moisture probes showed results similar to the modeling, but with a smaller difference between the

  2. Vapor intrusion in urban settings: effect of foundation features and source location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In many urban settings, groundwater contains volatile organic compounds, such as tricholoroethene, tetrachloroethene, benzene, etc., at concentrations that are at or slightly below non-potable groundwater standards. Some non-potable groundwater standards do not protect against human health risks that might result from vapor intrusion. Vapor intrusion is a process by which vapor phase contaminants present in the subsurface migrate through the soil and ultimately enter a building through foundation cracks. The end result is a decrease in air quality within the building. Predicting whether or not vapor intrusion will occur at rates sufficient to cause health risks is extremely difficult and depends on many factors. In many cities, a wide-range of property uses take place over a relatively small area. For instance, schools, commercial buildings and residential buildings may all reside within a few city blocks. Most conceptual site models assume the ground surface is open to the atmosphere (i.e. green space); however the effect that an impervious surface (e.g. paving) may have on vapor transport rates is not routinely considered. Using a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model, we are investigating how the presence of impervious surfaces affects vapor intrusion rates. To complement our modeling efforts, we are in the initial stages of conducting a field study in a neighborhood where vapor intrusion is occurring.

  3. Risk-based evaluation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in vapor intrusion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Roger; Nagashima, Josh; Kelley, Michael; Heskett, Marvin; Rigby, Mark

    2013-06-13

    This paper presents a quantitative method for the risk-based evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in vapor intrusion investigations. Vapors from petroleum fuels are characterized by a complex mixture of aliphatic and, to a lesser extent, aromatic compounds. These compounds can be measured and described in terms of TPH carbon ranges. Toxicity factors published by USEPA and other parties allow development of risk-based, air and soil vapor screening levels for each carbon range in the same manner as done for individual compounds such as benzene. The relative, carbon range makeup of petroleum vapors can be used to develop weighted, site-specific or generic screening levels for TPH. At some critical ratio of TPH to a targeted, individual compound, the overwhelming proportion of TPH will drive vapor intrusion risk over the individual compound. This is particularly true for vapors associated with diesel and other middle distillate fuels, but can also be the case for low-benzene gasolines or even for high-benzene gasolines if an adequately conservative, target risk is not applied to individually targeted chemicals. This necessitates a re-evaluation of the reliance on benzene and other individual compounds as a stand-alone tool to evaluate vapor intrusion risk associated with petroleum.

  4. Risk-Based Evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Vapor Intrusion Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Brewer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative method for the risk-based evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH in vapor intrusion investigations. Vapors from petroleum fuels are characterized by a complex mixture of aliphatic and, to a lesser extent, aromatic compounds. These compounds can be measured and described in terms of TPH carbon ranges. Toxicity factors published by USEPA and other parties allow development of risk-based, air and soil vapor screening levels for each carbon range in the same manner as done for individual compounds such as benzene. The relative, carbon range makeup of petroleum vapors can be used to develop weighted, site-specific or generic screening levels for TPH. At some critical ratio of TPH to a targeted, individual compound, the overwhelming proportion of TPH will drive vapor intrusion risk over the individual compound. This is particularly true for vapors associated with diesel and other middle distillate fuels, but can also be the case for low-benzene gasolines or even for high-benzene gasolines if an adequately conservative, target risk is not applied to individually targeted chemicals. This necessitates a re-evaluation of the reliance on benzene and other individual compounds as a stand-alone tool to evaluate vapor intrusion risk associated with petroleum.

  5. Climate-smart soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian, Keith; Lehmann, Johannes; Ogle, Stephen; Reay, David; Robertson, G. Philip; Smith, Pete

    2016-04-01

    Soils are integral to the function of all terrestrial ecosystems and to food and fibre production. An overlooked aspect of soils is their potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Although proven practices exist, the implementation of soil-based greenhouse gas mitigation activities are at an early stage and accurately quantifying emissions and reductions remains a substantial challenge. Emerging research and information technology developments provide the potential for a broader inclusion of soils in greenhouse gas policies. Here we highlight ‘state of the art’ soil greenhouse gas research, summarize mitigation practices and potentials, identify gaps in data and understanding and suggest ways to close such gaps through new research, technology and collaboration.

  6. Weather and climate analyses using improved global water vapor observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vonder Haar, Thomas H; Bytheway, Janice L; Forsythe, John M

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP) dataset is a global (land and ocean) water vapor dataset created by merging multiple sources of atmospheric water vapor to form a global data base of total and layered precipitable water vapor...

  7. Torricelli, energia a vapor e o sentido tecnológico da Revolução Científica Torricelli, steam power, and the technological drift of the Scientific Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from Evangelista Torricelli's pneumatic discoveries, we try to show that the crucial discoveries in pure science associated with the Scientific Revolution, although they may not have found immediate practical applications, have markedly impelled technological progress in the medium term - contrary to the diffused notion which states that the links between science and technology during the modern period have been tenuous, at best. Torricelli's ideas have turned into one of the privileged research areas for then newborn experimental program, actively participating in a process of reformulation in scientific research's epistemological base, which have culminated in steam power productive application.

  8. Studying Frozen Soil with CT Technology: Present Studies and Prospects%利用CT扫描技术进行冻土研究的现状和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世杰; 赵淑萍; 马巍; 杜玉霞; 邢莉莉

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of CT technology are introduced, and the history and current situation of using CT technology on frozen soil study are reviewed, including auxiliary equipment specially designed for frozen soil testing, u-sing CT number to analyze frozen soil internal structure change, using CT number to define and explore damage evolution, and using CT images to observe soil mesostructure. In addition, representative achievements in frozen soil study in relation to CT technology are also summarized in this paper. Finally, problems, possible solutions and challenges in frozen soil study by using CT are pointed out. It is emphatically introduced how to obtain higher quality CT images and how to process digital CT images of frozen soil. The relations between CT number and each component of frozen soil specimens are also discussed. It is found that CT technology is one of the most ideal and effective technologies for studying frozen soil mesostructure as a non-destructive manner. CT technology will play more significant role in the study of frozen soil by means of auxiliary equipment and digital images processing.%介绍了CT扫描技术的特点,回顾了利用CT扫描试验进行冻土研究的历史和现状,包括研制与CT配套使用的用于冻土的辅助设备、利用CT数进行冻土内部结构变化分析、利用CT数定义损伤并进行损伤演化研究、利用CT图像进行细观结构分析等,总结了冻土研究领域的代表性成果.最后,指出在现有的技术条件下利用CT扫描技术进行冻土研究所遇到的问题、以及可能的解决办法.其中,着重介绍了高质量CT图像的获取、CT数的变化与冻土试样感兴趣区域内的各组分变化的联系、冻土CT图像的数字化处理方向.结果表明:CT扫描技术是现阶段对冻土内部细观结构进行无损检测的最理想有效的技术之一,借助辅助设备及图像数字化处理,势必对冻土领域的研究发展起到更大作用.

  9. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Bergander

    2005-08-29

    The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and

  10. A copper vapor laser by using a copper-vapor-complex reaction at a low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser performance by using ametal-vapor-complex reaction (Cu+AlBr3) is reported. The laser operation is obtained at a low temperature without externalheating because of the AlBr3 vapors evaporating at a room temperature. The copper vapor laser using this metal-vapor-complex reaction has an advantage of deposition-free of a metallic copper to the laser tube wall, which is different from the copper halide and the organometallic copper lasers.

  11. Bioslurping technology applications at naval middle distillate fuel remediation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppel, R.E.; Goetz, F.E. [Naval Facilities Engineering Services Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Kittel, J.A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Abbott, J.E. [Battelle Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Bioslurping technology, a combination of bioventing and vacuum-enhanced free-product recovery of light, nonaqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL), has been employed at Fallon Naval Air Station, Nevada, for over 2 years and was initiated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii and a radar station near Hofn, Iceland. These sites have low-volatility fuels on the groundwater table in low- to medium-permeability soils. LNAPL recovery rates from 48 wells in silty fine sand to clay loam profiles at Fallon have ranged from 57 to 227 L/day with an average of 170 L/day at 10 to 30 cm of mercury vacuum. Mass discharge from the bioslurper system for LNAPL and vapor averaged 97% and 2.7%, respectively, with an average soil gas extraction rate of 0.024 m{sup 3}/min. Based on periodic soil gas analyses from 90 isolated soil gas sampling points in the vadose zone of the treatment plot, bioslurping appeared to satisfy O{sub 2} limitations i the contaminated soil profile. Despite no apparent O{sub 2} limitations in the contaminated soil profile. Despite no apparent O{sub 2} limitation for fuel biodegradation, low oxygen utilization rates were observed while performing in situ respiration tests following system shutdown. Preliminary in situ respirometry, soil gas, laboratory microcosm, stable carbon isotope, and soil characterization data indicate that both a low fuel surface area to volume ratio and bacterial cell damage may be involved in the observed low LNAPL bioemulsification and biodegradation rates.

  12. DNAPLs at DOE sites: Background and assessment of characterization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    The Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP) within the Office of Technology Development (OTD) has responsibility for identification, evaluation, and delivery of technologies needed for the work of the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. This report addresses part of that responsibility by providing summary information on DNAPL site characterization. A dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) is a source of contamination that can persist in the subsurface for decades before dissipating completely into the vapor phase and groundwater. The DNAPL chemicals of particular concern to the DOE are chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl VOCS) such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethylene (TCE), and perchloroethylene (PCE). These Cl VOCs were used in multiple ton quantities at DOE sites and were often released to the subsurface. The predicted fate of released Cl VOC liquid is downward movement through the soil under the force of gravity. As it moves, some of the Cl VOC liquid becomes trapped in the soil pores as residual saturation. The liquid also moves rapidly downward if small fractures are present. This migration continues until an impermeable or semi-permeable layer is encountered. Then lateral movement or spreading occurs. The downward and lateral migration in the subsurface leads to DNAPL pools, lenses, and residual saturation that can cause long-term contamination of groundwater at levels well above drinking water standards. Although Cl VOCs have been detected as dissolved components in the groundwater and as vapor in the soil gas at several DOE sites, direct evidence of their presence as DNAPL is sparse and no measurements of the amounts of DNAPL present within a given volume of subsurface have been made. Consequently, unresolved DNAPL issues exist at DOE sites.

  13. What Good is Raman Water Vapor Lidar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, David

    2011-01-01

    Raman lidar has been used to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere for various scientific studies including mesoscale meteorology and satellite validation. Now the international networks of NDACC and GRUAN have interest in using Raman water vapor lidar for detecting trends in atmospheric water vapor concentrations. What are the data needs for addressing these very different measurement challenges. We will review briefly the scientific needs for water vapor accuracy for each of these three applications and attempt to translate that into performance specifications for Raman lidar in an effort to address the question in the title of "What good is Raman water vapor Iidar."

  14. In-situ Bioremediation Technology for Soil Pesticide Pollution and Its Research Progress%土壤农药污染原位生物修复技术及其研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新; 姚梦琴; 祝虹钰; 曹宇; 鲍佳; 张惠文

    2016-01-01

    介绍了农药污染土壤的生物修复和原位生物修复技术及其研究现状,分析了其研究方向与发展趋势,以期为农药污染土壤原位生物修复技术的理论研究和应用提供参考。%Based upon a review on the pesticide contaminated soil bioremediation and in situ bioremediation technology research progress , the research direction and development trend could be demonstrated, in order to provide a reference for theory research and application of pesti-cide-contaminated soil and in situ bioremediation technology.

  15. Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Mcbrearty, Charles F.; Curran, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    The Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS) was developed to detect vapors of hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) in air at parts-per-billion (ppb) concentration levels. The sampler consists of a commercial personal pump that draws ambient air through paper tape treated with vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). The paper tape is sandwiched in a thin cardboard housing inserted in one of the two specially designed holders to facilitate sampling. Contaminated air reacts with vanillin to develop a yellow color. The density of the color is proportional to the concentration of HZ or MMH. The AHVS can detect 10 ppb in less than 5 minutes. The sampler is easy to use, low cost, and intrinsically safe and contains no toxic material. It is most beneficial for use in locations with no laboratory capabilities for instrumentation calibration. This paper reviews the development, laboratory test, and field test of the device.

  16. Vapor stabilizing surfaces for superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Neelesh

    2010-11-01

    The success of rough substrates designed for superhydrophobicity relies crucially on the presence of air pockets in the roughness grooves. This air is supplied by the surrounding environment. However, if the rough substrates are used in enclosed configurations, such as in fluidic networks, the air pockets may not be sustained in the roughness grooves. In this work a design approach based on sustaining a vapor phase of the liquid in the roughness grooves, instead of relying on the presence of air, is explored. The resulting surfaces, referred to as vapor stabilizing substrates, are deemed to be robust against wetting transition even if no air is present. Applications of this approach include low drag surfaces, nucleate boiling, and dropwise condensation heat transfer, among others.

  17. Vaporization chambers and associated methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Shunn, Lee P.

    2017-02-21

    A vaporization chamber may include at least one conduit and a shell. The at least one conduit may have an inlet at a first end, an outlet at a second end and a flow path therebetween. The shell may surround a portion of each conduit and define a chamber surrounding the portion of each conduit. Additionally, a plurality of discrete apertures may be positioned at longitudinal intervals in a wall of each conduit, each discrete aperture of the plurality of discrete apertures sized and configured to direct a jet of fluid into each conduit from the chamber. A liquid may be vaporized by directing a first fluid comprising a liquid into the inlet at the first end of each conduit, directing jets of a second fluid into each conduit from the chamber through discrete apertures in a wall of each conduit and transferring heat from the second fluid to the first fluid.

  18. Construction and application of information platform of saline soil improvement technology integration%盐渍化土壤改良技术集成信息化平台的建设及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯琛; 解建仓; 孙博; 朱记伟; 汪妮

    2011-01-01

    【目的】建立盐渍化土壤改良技术集成信息化平台,为盐渍化土壤改良提供信息服务和决策依据。【方法】以渭南地区为研究对象,综合采用Java2平台企业版(J2EE)技术、遥感技术和地理信息系统与全球定位系统(3S)集成技术、高级应用框架(AAF)技术、数据库技术以及无线通讯技术,构建盐渍化土壤改良技术集成信息化平台,并对其主要功能进行分析。【结果】设计并构建了盐渍化土壤改良技术集成信息化平台,该平台不仅能够对盐渍化土壤的盐分分布及运移进行实时监控,而且可以针对该区域盐渍化的变化、分布和特点,筛选推荐对应的改良技术;同时,该平台具有无线应用系统——WAP移动门户的信息化服务功能,可通过无线手持设备访问应用数据和信息;此外,该平台还具有能反映不同地区盐渍化土壤时空演变的功能。【结论】构建的盐渍化土壤改良技术集成信息化平台,具有较强的操作性和适用性,提高了对盐渍化土壤改良技术集成应用的信息化、可视化、科学化和现代化,实现了土壤盐渍化监控和集成技术对盐渍化土壤改良的直接指导。%【Objective】 The information platform of saline soil improvement technology integration was constructed,aiming to improve saline soil to provide for information services and decision.【Method】 Taking Weinan region for study object,Java2 Platform-Enterprise Edition(J2EE) technology,Remote Sensing,Geographical information System,Global Positioning System(3S) integrated technology,Adcanced Application Framework(AAF) technology,database technology and wireless communication technology were used to construct,the information platform of saline soil improvement technology integration was built,and its main functions were analyzed.【Result】 The information platform of saline soil improvement technology integration was designed and

  19. Internal Water Vapor Photoacoustic Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Water vapor absorption is ubiquitous in the infrared wavelength range where photoacoustic trace gas detectors operate. This technique allows for discontinuous wavelength tuning by temperature-jumping a laser diode from one range to another within a time span suitable for photoacoustic calibration. The use of an internal calibration eliminates the need for external calibrated reference gases. Commercial applications include an improvement of photoacoustic spectrometers in all fields of use.

  20. The Processing Technology of the Core Dam Material of the High Gravel Soil Core Wall Dam%高砾石土心墙坝心墙料加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈庆余

    2011-01-01

    砾石土心墙堆石坝已逐渐成为世界高坝建设的主流坝型之一,砾石土心墙料加工是大坝施工的关键环节之一。从砾石土的筛分、级配骨料的加工、心墙料的掺合三个环节介绍了高砾石土心墙坝心墙料加工技术.对于高砾石土心墙坝施工具有指导意义。%The gravel soil core wall rock fill dam has become one of the mainstream dam types in high dam construction around the world and the gravel soil core wall material processing is one of the keys in dam construction. This paper introduces the processing technology of the core wall material high gravel soil core wall dam from the three process of the screening of gravel soil, the processing of graded aggregate and the blending of core wall material, which has a good practical and guiding significance to the construction of high gravel soil core wall dam.

  1. Water vapor diffusion membrane development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    An application of the water vapor diffusion technique is examined whereby the permeated water vapor is vented to space vacuum to alleviate on-board waste storage and provide supplemental cooling. The work reported herein deals primarily with the vapor diffusion-heat rejection (VD-HR) as it applies to the Space Shuttle. A stack configuration was selected, designed and fabricated. An asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane, used in reverse osmosis application was selected and a special spacer was designed to enhance mixing and promote mass transfer. A skid-mount unit was assembled from components used in the bench unit although no attempt was made to render it flight-suitable. The operating conditions of the VD-HR were examined and defined and a 60-day continuous test was carried out. The membranes performed very well throughout the test; no membrane rupture and no unusual flux decay was observed. In addition, a tentative design for a flight-suitable VD-HR unit was made.

  2. Critical points of metal vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomkin, A. L., E-mail: alhomkin@mail.ru; Shumikhin, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A new method is proposed for calculating the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid (insulator–metal) phase transition in vapors of metals with multielectron valence shells. The method is based on a model developed earlier for the vapors of alkali metals, atomic hydrogen, and exciton gas, proceeding from the assumption that the cohesion determining the basic characteristics of metals under normal conditions is also responsible for their properties in the vicinity of the critical point. It is proposed to calculate the cohesion of multielectron atoms using well-known scaling relations for the binding energy, which are constructed for most metals in the periodic table by processing the results of many numerical calculations. The adopted model allows the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid phase transition in metal vapors to be calculated using published data on the properties of metals under normal conditions. The parameters of critical points have been calculated for a large number of metals and show satisfactory agreement with experimental data for alkali metals and with available estimates for all other metals. Binodals of metals have been calculated for the first time.

  3. Role of the vapor compression cycle in solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kush, Jr, E A

    1978-01-01

    The vapor compression cycle lends itself to solar energy utilization in two important ways. Its ability to utilize a relatively low temperature heat supply to produce space heating via heat pumps allows the use of solar input to the evaporator to provide potential Coefficients of Performance which are 2 to 3 times higher than present electric driven heat pumps, and the use of relatively inexpensive solar collectors is possible since the collection temperatures can be low grade. Secondly, the compression process of the vapor cycle can be powered by a solar-driven heat engine, typically using a Rankine cycle, for solar cooling purposes. Discriminating coupling of solar with vapor compression allows the well-developed technology and manufacturing capability of the vapor compression industry to be brought into play in the solar field, widening its base and promoting its diversification. The cycle thermodynamics, potential practical hardware, and R and D projects in both of these areas are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the Solar Assisted Heat Pump and its characteristics and the heat pump simulator activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  4. Experiences of soil fertility management through legume based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    either sandy soils or sandy loam soils to compare soil rehabilitation benefits of ... to incorporate the legume crop residues in order to maximize the residual nitrogen benefit to the cereal crop. ... different legume technologies either in rotation or.

  5. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Basu

    2005-06-01

    Back scattered electron and transmission electron imaging of lunar soil grains reveal an abundance of submicrometer-sized pure Fe00 globules that occur in the rinds of many soil grains and in the submillimeter sized vesicular glass-cemented grains called agglutinates. Grain rinds are amorphous silicates that were deposited on grains exposed at the lunar surface from transient vapors produced by hypervelocity micrometeorite impacts. Fe0 may have dissociated from Fe-compounds in a high temperature (< 3000°C) vapor phase and then condensed as globules on grain surfaces. The agglutinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils. Reduction by solar wind hydrogen in agglutinitic melts may have produced immiscible droplets that solidified as globules. The exact mechanism of formation of such Fe0 globules in lunar soils remains unresolved.

  6. Performances of electrically heated microgroove vaporizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An electrically heated microgroove vaporizer was proposed. The vaporizer mainly comprised an outer tube, an inner tube and an electrical heater cartridge. Microgrooves were fabricated on the external surface of the inner tube by micro-cutting method,which formed the flow passage for fluid between the external surface of the inner tube and the internal surface of the outer tube.Experiments related to the temperature rise response of water and the thermal conversion efficiency of vaporizer were done to estimate the influences of microgroove's direction, feed flow rate and input voltage on the performances of the vaporizer. The results indicate that the microgroove's direction dominates the vaporizer performance at a lower input voltage. The longitudina lmicrogroove vaporizer exhibits the best performances for the temperature rise response of water and thermal conversion efficiency of vaporizer. For a moderate input voltage, the microgroove's direction and the feed flow rate of water together govern the vaporizer performances. The input voltage becomes the key influencing factor when the vaporizer works at a high input voltage, resulting in the similar performances of longitudinal, oblique and latitudinal microgroove vaporizers.

  7. Pharmacological effects of methamphetamine and alpha-PVP vapor and injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusich, Julie A; Lefever, Timothy W; Blough, Bruce E; Thomas, Brian F; Wiley, Jenny L

    2016-07-01

    Vaporizing drugs in e-cigarettes is becoming a common method of administration for synthetic cathinones and classical stimulants. Heating during vaporization can expose the user to a cocktail of parent compound and thermolytic degradants, which could lead to different toxicological and pharmacological effects compared to ingesting the parent compound alone via injection or nasal inhalation. This study examined the in vivo toxicological and pharmacological effects of vaporized and injected methamphetamine (METH) and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP). Male and female ICR mice were administered METH or α-PVP through vapor or i.p. injection. Dose-effect curves were determined for locomotor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB). METH and α-PVP vapor were also evaluated for place preference in male mice. Vapor exposure and injection led to more similarities than differences in toxicological and pharmacological effects. In the FOB, both routes of administration produced typical stimulant effects, and injection also increased some bizarre behaviors (e.g. licking, teeth chattering, darting). Both METH and α-PVP vapor exposure produced conditioned place preference. The two routes of administration had comparable efficacy in locomotor activation, with vapor producing longer lasting effects than injection. Females showed greater METH-induced locomotor activity, and greater incidence of a few somatic signs in the FOB than males. These results explore the toxicology of stimulant vapor inhalation in mice using an e-cigarette device. Despite the current technological and methodological difficulties, studying drug vapor promises to allow determination of toxicological effects of thermolytic products and flavor additives.

  8. Oxidation of trichloroethylene, toluene, and ethanol vapors by a partially saturated permeable reactive barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba G.; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; Hartog, Niels; Raoof, Amir

    2014-08-01

    The mitigation of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors in the unsaturated zone largely relies on the active removal of vapor by ventilation. In this study we considered an alternative method involving the use of solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier for oxidizing VOC vapors. Column experiments were carried out to investigate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene, and ethanol vapors using a partially saturated mixture of potassium permanganate and sand grains. Results showed a significant removal of VOC vapors due to the oxidation. We found that water saturation has a major effect on the removal capacity of the permeable reactive layer. We observed a high removal efficiency and reactivity of potassium permanganate for all target compounds at the highest water saturation (Sw = 0.6). A change in pH within the reactive layer reduced oxidation rate of VOCs. The use of carbonate minerals increased the reactivity of potassium permanganate during the oxidation of TCE vapor by buffering the pH. Reactive transport of VOC vapors diffusing through the permeable reactive layer was modeled, including the pH effect on the oxidation rates. The model accurately described the observed breakthrough curve of TCE and toluene vapors in the headspace of the column. However, miscibility of ethanol in water in combination with produced water during oxidation made the modeling results less accurate for ethanol. A linear relationship was found between total oxidized mass of VOC vapors per unit volume of permeable reactive layer and initial water saturation. This behavior indicates that pH changes control the overall reactivity and longevity of the permeable reactive layer during oxidation of VOCs. The results suggest that field application of a horizontal permeable reactive barrier can be a viable technology against upward migration of VOC vapors through the unsaturated zone.

  9. GRACE BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES - DARAMEND™ BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Dearborn's DARAMEND™ Bioremediation Technology was developed to treat soils/sediment contaminated with organic contaminants using solid-phase organic amendments. The amendments increase the soil’s ability to supply biologically available water/nutrients to micro...

  10. 机械蒸汽再压缩技术在石化废水处理系统中的应用研究%Application of the Mechanical Vapor Recompression Technology in Treatment of Petrochemical Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖昌建; 余良永; 赵利民; 王海波; 马和旭; 王晶晶

    2015-01-01

    According to properties of petrochemical wastewater, the mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) process using plate evaporator with forced circulation was proposed to recycle wastewater resources. Considering the influence of the boiling point elevation and forced circulation, the complete mathematical model of MVR process was developed for process optimization and analysis, and the influence of evporation temperature, wastewater temperature and compression ratio on the MVR system performance was analyzed. The results show that, the method of atmospheric evaporation can be used to reduce the energy consumption; higher waste water temperature can result in a slight decrease in specific heat transfer area; and when compression ratio increases, specific power consuption increases, but specific heat transfer area decreases. So the compression ratio is the controlling factor that determines the heat transfer temperature difference, specific power consumption and specific heat transfer area of the MVR system, and the compression ratio plays a key role in controlling investment and operation cost of the MVR system. When waste water temperature is 45 ℃, concentrated liquid recirculated flow rate is 10 m3/h, the economical compression ratio is 1.4 to 1.6.%针对某石化废水的水质特点,提出了采用板式蒸发强制循环机械蒸汽再压缩工艺回收废水资源。在考虑浓缩液沸点升高及强制循环对系统影响的条件下,建立了 MVR 系统工艺计算数学模型,分析了蒸发温度、废水温度及压缩比对 MVR 系统的影响。模型求解结果表明:该废水采用常压蒸发,可降低系统能耗,同时高温进料有利于降低系统的总比传热面积;随着压缩比的增加,压缩机比电耗增加,而系统总比传热面积减小,且其减少的速率减缓,压缩比是控制系统传热温差、压缩机比电耗和总比传热面积的主要因素,压缩比对MVR 系统的投资和运行成本的

  11. System of extraction of volatiles from soil using microwave processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor); Kaukler, William F. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A device for the extraction and collection of volatiles from soil or planetary regolith. The device utilizes core drilled holes to gain access to underlying volatiles below the surface. Microwave energy beamed into the holes penetrates through the soil or regolith to heat it, and thereby produces vapor by sublimation. The device confines and transports volatiles to a cold trap for collection.

  12. CONTROL OF AROMATIC WASTE AIR STREAMS BY SOIL BIOREACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three soils were examined for the ability to degrade hydrocarbon vapors of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene (BTEX). Each of these compounds are major aromatic constituents of gasolines. The soils examined were Rubicon Sand from Traverse City, Michigan, Durant Loam fro...

  13. The Remediation Technology and Remediation Practice of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil%重金属污染土壤修复技术及其修复实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄益宗; 郝晓伟; 雷鸣; 铁柏清

    2013-01-01

    近年来我国重金属污染事件频发,严重影响广大群众的身体健康,土壤重金属污染与防治成为人们关注的环境问题之一.作者结合多年的工作经验,综述了近年来国内外有关重金属污染土壤修复技术的研究进展,包括物理/化学修复技术、生物修复技术和农业生态修复技术等,对每种技术的基本修复原理、技术特点和应用范围进行了讨论.同时,对国内外典型的重金属污染土壤修复工程实践进行了介绍,以期为重金属污染土壤的修复提供借鉴和参考.%In recent years heavy metal pollution incidents happened frequently in our country, and they had serious impact on human health. How to control heavy metals-contaminated soil becomes one of the noted environmental problems. The present paper aims to provide a critical review on the remediation technology of soils contaminated by heavy metals, including physical / chemical remediation, bioremediation and agricultural ecological restoration technologies, and each kind of technology's remedial principle, technical characteristics and application range are discussed. At the same time, the domestic and foreign typical remediation practices of heavy metals-contaminated soil are introduced, in order to provide the reference for the remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil in China.

  14. Quantification of natural vapor fluxes of trichloroethene in the unsaturated zone at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Tisdale, Amy K.; Cho, H. Jean

    1996-01-01

    The upward flux of trichloroethene (TCE) vapor through the unsaturated zone above a contaminated, water-table aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, has been studied under natural conditions over a 12-month period. Vertical gas-phase diffusion fluxes were estimated indirectly by measuring the TCE vapor concentration gradient in the unsaturated zone and using Fick's law to calculate the flux. The total gas-phase flux (e.g., the sum of diffusion and advection fluxes) was measured directly with a vertical flux chamber (VFC). In many cases, the upward TCE vapor flux was several orders of magnitude greater than the upward TCE diffusion flux, suggesting that mechanisms other than steady-state vapor diffusion are contributing to the vertical transport of TCE vapors through the unsaturated zone. The measured total flux of TCE vapor from the subsurface to the atmosphere is approximately 50 kg/yr and is comparable in magnitude to the removal rate of TCE from the aquifer by an existing pump-and-treat system and by discharge into a nearby stream. The net upward flux of TCE is reduced significantly during a storm event, presumably due to the mass transfer of TCE from the soil gas to the infiltrating rainwater and its subsequent downward advection. Several potential problems associated with the measurement of total gas-phase fluxes are discussed.

  15. [Researches of soil normalized difference water index (NDWI) of Yongding River based on multispectral remote sensing technology combined with genetic algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hai-ying; Feng, Zhong-ke; Gong, Yin-xi; Yu, Jing-xin

    2014-06-01

    Basin soil type, moisture content and vegetation cover index are important factors affecting the basin water of Yongding River, using traditional sampling method to investigate soil moisture and the watershed soil type not only consuming a lot of manpower and material resources but also causing experimental error because of the instrument and other objective factors. This article selecting the Yongding River Basin-Beijing section as the study area, using total station instruments to survey field sampling and determination 34 plots, combined with 6 TM image data from 1978 to 2009 to extract soil information and the relationship between region's soil type, soil