WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology series flue

  1. EB technology for the purification of flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Takuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in flue gas from coal-combustion boilers in power plants, dioxins in flue gas from municipal waste incineration facilities and toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in off-gas from painting or cleaning factories are among air pollutants for which emission is regulated by a law in Japan. Electron beam is the effective and easy controllable radiation source for treatment of these flue gases. This report describes outline of the results so far obtained at JAERI on electron beam treatment of flue gas. The removal performance higher than 90% at 10 kGy for flue gas containing 800 ppm SOx and 225 ppm NOx were achieved and being applied to real-scale power plants in Poland and China with expectation of cost reduction of 20% compared to conventional plants. Decomposition of dioxins in flue gas from solid waste incinerators is another project. Using an accelerator of 300 keV and 40 mA for treatment of real incineration gas at 200degC, we obtain 90% decomposition of dioxins at 15 kGy irradiation. Expansion of these flue gas purification technologies combined with low-energy electron accelerators is expected. (S. Ohno)

  2. Review of mercury removal from flue gas using non-thermal plasma technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury with various constituents in flue gas produced by burning coal could be an attractive alternative to non-thermal plasma process for mercury control. The mechanism of removal for pollutants using non-thermal plasma technology and the electric discharge form of non-thermal plasma are introduced. Then, we summary the research progress of mercury removal by non-thermal plasma in recent years, especially focus on how to oxide the elemental mercury from flue gas. We hope the non-thermal plasma technology can be improved to apply in the industry in the near future.

  3. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Final report, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Tagg, T.; Riggs, T.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this work by SRI International was to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency, hollow fiber contactors (HFCs) were proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system would be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process would generate only marketable by-products, if any (no waste streams are anticipated). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, the approach was to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency, hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The authors also introduced new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The process and progress in its development are described.

  4. Economic Comparison of Three Gas Separation Technologies for CO2 Capture from Power Plant Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hongjun; FAN Shuanshi; LANG Xuemei; WANG Yanhong; NIE Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    Three gas separation technologies,chemical absorption,membrane separation and pressure swing adsorption,are usually applied for CO2 capture from flue gas in coal-fired power plants.In this work,the costs of the three technologies are analyzed and compared.The cost for chemical absorption is mainly from $30 to $60 per ton(based on CO2 avoided),while the minimum value is $10 per ton(based on CO2 avoided).As for membrane separation and pressure swing adsorption,the costs are $50 to $78 and $40 to $63 per ton(based on CO2 avoided),respectively.Measures are proposed to reduce the cost of the three technologies.For CO2 capture and storage process,the CO2 recovery and purity should be greater than 90%.Based on the cost,recovery,and purity,it seems that chemical absorption is currently the most cost-effective technology for CO2 capture from flue gas from power plants.However,membrane gas separation is the most promising alternative approach in the future,provided that membrane performance is further improved.

  5. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  6. Purification technology of flue gas from remelting process of aluminum alloy tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩亭; 曾光明; 魏先勋; 袁兴中; 王丽平

    2002-01-01

    Through a practical example of treatment of the flue gas from the remelting process of aluminum alloy tailings, the design and calculation method of exhaust hood, as well as the principles and the equipments of dust removal, smoke abatement and harmful gas elimination were studied. Combination of centrifugal and wet dust removal can purify the dust high efficiently. The carbon black and harmful gases in the flue gas can be removed by adding a small quantity of activator to the absorption solution. The application results are that the dedusting efficiency is 97.43%, Cl2 control efficiency is 88.03%, the exhaust fume blackness is lower than Ringelman number I, and the purification device resistance is 1126Pa.

  7. [Intermediate experiment and mechanism analysis of flue gas desulfurization technology by circulating fluidized bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xudong; Wu, Shaohua; Ma, Chunyuan; Qin, Yukun

    2002-03-01

    A new Circulating Fluidized Bed was designed for intermediate experiment of flue gas desulphurization, in which the flue gas flow rate was 3500 m3/h. By using it, the basic experiments were carried out to study the influence of Ca/S and supersaturated temperature on desulphurization efficiency and the effect of the recycling solid particle in the sulfur removal column on desulphurization performance. The results showed when Ca/S = 1.2, the desulphurization efficiency was increased by 15% through the recycle of solid particle; the gas velocity inside the bed could be designed higher. The mechanism analysis were also studied and the method to increase effective resident time was introduced.

  8. Research Progress in Flue Gas Desulfurization Technologies%烟气脱硫处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵鲁华; 黄冲; 潘一; 杨双春

    2013-01-01

      烟气脱硫是从废气中去除含硫物质如 SO2,SO3,H2S 的一种工艺,怎样脱除烟气中的含硫物质,减少含硫物质排放已逐步成为全球关注的热点。笔者主要介绍了国内外烟气脱硫处理技术研究现状及进展,包括醇胺类离子液体法、石灰石(石灰)/石膏法、双碱法、金属氧化物法、生物膜法、非生物膜法等,对各种方法进行了评价和比较,并对今后烟气脱硫处理技术的发展提出了建议。%The flue gas desulfurization is to remove sulfur substances from exhaust gas,such as SO2,SO3,H2S. It has gradually become the focus of global attention to remove sulfur containing materials in flue gas and reduce sulfur material discharge. In this paper,flue gas desulfurization treatment technologies at home and abroad were introduced, such as alcohol amine ion liquid method,lime method,dual alkali method,metal oxide method,biofilm process, non biofilm process,and so on. At last, above methods were compared and the future research suggestions were presented.

  9. Experimental study on SO2 recovery using a sodium-zinc sorbent based flue gas desulfurization technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhang; Tao Wang; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Xuyi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A sodium–zinc sorbent based flue gas desulfurization technology (Na–Zn-FGD) was proposed based on the experiments and analyses of the thermal decomposition characteristics of CaSO3 and ZnSO3·2.5H2O, the waste products of calcium-based semi-dry and zinc-based flue gas desulfurization (Ca–SD-FGD and Zn–SD-FGD) tech-nologies, respectively. It was found that ZnSO3·2.5H2O first lost crystal H2O at 100 °C and then decomposed into SO2 and solid ZnO at 260 °C in the air, while CaSO3 is oxidized at 450 °C before it decomposed in the air. The ex-perimental results confirm that Zn–SD-FGD technology is good for SO2 removal and recycling, but with problem in clogging and high operational cost. The proposed Na–Zn-FGD is clogging proof, and more cost-effective. In the new process, Na2CO3 is used to generate Na2SO3 for SO2 absorption, and the intermediate product NaHSO3 reacts with ZnO powders, producing ZnSO3·2.5H2O precipitate and Na2SO3 solution. The Na2SO3 solution is clogging proof, which is re-used for SO2 absorption. By thermal decomposition of ZnSO3·2.5H2O, ZnO is re-generated and SO2 with high purity is co-produced as well. The cycle consumes some amount of raw material Na2CO3 and a small amount of ZnO only. The newly proposed FGD technology could be a substitute of the traditional semi-dry FGD technologies.

  10. Optimization and reconstruction technology of SCR flue gas denitrification ultra low emission in coal fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhao

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from thermal power plant increased year by year in China. A large number of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions caused by the growing environmental problems have been widely attached importance to people. SCR denitrification technology has the advantages of cleanliness and high efficiency. At present, it has been the major technology to control NOx emission because of its high denitrification efficiency, reliable operation, no by-products and simple structure of the device. The denitrification efficiency can be stabilized at 70%. In this paper, three different denitrification methods are compared. The factors influencing the denitrification efficiency, the system arrangement and the key factors of the denitrification system are discussed in detail. And the numerical simulation of how to use this calculation software in the SCR reactor flue, baffle, reactor, spray ammonia grille and spray ammonia, mixer, etc. are reviewed, as well as the effect of system operation control on the deoxidation performance.

  11. 烟气-蒸汽辅助重力泄油模拟技术%Numerical simulation technology of flue gas-steam assisted gravity drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林日亿; 李魏; 李兆敏; 杨立强; 杨建平

    2012-01-01

    采用加拿大CMG软件公司的CMG-STARS模拟器,对烟气-蒸汽辅助重力泄油技术中烟气在蒸汽腔中的运移规律进行数值模拟.研究烟气注入后蒸汽腔的扩展速度及形态变化规律,分析含油饱和度、黏度、压力、温度的变化规律.在优化的注入参数下,对烟气-蒸汽辅助重力泄油和常规蒸汽辅助重力泄油(SAGD)技术的开发效果进行对比.研究结果表明:优化的蒸汽注入温度为280 ℃、注入速度为150 m3/d、烟气与蒸汽比为1.0.在优化的注入参数下,烟气-蒸汽辅助重力泄油比SAGD的累积采油量提高2.0 kt,采收率提高7%,油气比增加0.7%.烟气-蒸汽辅助重力泄油技术的开发效果更好.%By using the CMG-STARS simulator, the migration laws of flue gas in the steam chamber at flue gas-steam assisted gravity drainage technology were researched. The speed of the steam chamber expanding and the variation of the shape of the steam chamber were studied after flue gas injected. The change rules of oil saturation, viscosity, pressure and temperature were analyzed. The injection parameters of flue gas were optimized by reservoir numerical simulation. With the optimized injection parameters, the development effects of flue gas-steam assisted gravity drainage technology and conventional SAGD were compared. The results show that the optimized steam injection temperature is 280℃ , the injection rate is 150 m /d, and the flue gas and steam ratio is 1.0. With the optimized injection parameters, the cumulative oil production increases by 2. 0 kt, and oil recovery efficiency increases by 7% using the flue gas-steam assisted gravity drainage technology compared with conventional SAGD. The development effect of flue gas-steam assisted gravity drainage technology is better.

  12. What is possible to achieve on flue gas cleaning using the CFB technology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianglin Yi; Harald Sauer; Frank Leuschke; Ruediger Baege [Fujian Longking Co. Ltd (China)

    2005-07-01

    As one of more than forty different circulating fluidised bed (CFB) applications LURGI has introduced the CFB principle for dry flue gas cleaning in the world market. In the past 20 years some technical changes have improved the basic CFB FGD system, as already reported by the authors. These main developments are as follows: multiple nozzle venturi for the inlet gases for more than 400,000 m{sup 3}/h gas flow rates; solids recirculation and the hydrated lime feed upstream of the venturi nozzle; clean gas recirculation for unlimited part load of the gas flow; The design of the absorber top and the connection to the precipitator to avoid deposits in the ducts; low pressure pulse jet fabric filter system to avoid scaling on the bag surfaces; the use of burnt lime instead of hydrated lime by dry hydrating on site; the use of limestone respectively unreacted burnt lime in the fly ash, which has been produced in the boiler by calcination of limestone and which is hydrated directly in the downstream CFB FGD absorber. 23 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  14. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  15. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  16. Flue gas dehydration using polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbesma, Hylke; Nymeijer, Kitty; Marwijk, van Rob; Heijboer, Rob; Potreck, Jens; Wessling, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants produce electricity and in addition to that large volume flows of flue gas. To prevent condensation of the water vapor present in this flue gas stream, water has to be removed before emission to the atmosphere. The application of membrane technology for this separation is att

  17. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO₂ Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and

  18. 燃煤烟气脱硝技术研究进展%Research Progress of Denitrification Technologies of Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高续春; 代宏哲; 梁颖; 白小慧; 马亚军

    2016-01-01

    燃煤尾气脱硝处理是控制电厂氮氧化物排放的主要方法。本文主要综述了脱硝技术在国内外烟气的研究和发展状况,着重介绍了还原法、吸收法、等离子体法,简要说明了各种技术的特点,并对烟气脱硝技术的发展进行了展望。%Denitrification Technologies of flue gas is an effective method to control the emission of NOx. In this pa-per,research progress of denitrification technologies have been mainly reviewed,and reduction,absorption and PPCP have been introduced emphatically. The characters of the various technologies have been illustrated. Then, the paper finally looks into the future of denitrification technologies.

  19. 活性焦烟气脱硫技术及其应用前景%Desulfurization Technology for Flue Gas by Active Coke and Its Application Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家铭

    2012-01-01

    Desulfurization technology for flue gas by active coke was using its inherent functions of adsorption, catalysis and filtration,it was a dry purification treatment for the sulfur contained flue gas, in same one of reactor the three functions of desulfurization, de-nitride and de-dust were finished. Author hasintroduced the basic principle,process flow,technical feature,studying and developing situation taking coal as mainraw material to produce the active coke ; has compared the desulfurization hy active coke with the other some kinds of conventional desulfurization processes. Result indicates that the desulfurization technology of flue gas by active coke has an obvious superiority in the aspects of desulfurization rate,utilization of by-product,investment of plant and operating cost etc.%活性焦烟气脱硫技术利用活性焦特有的吸附、催化和过滤功能,对含硫烟气进行干法净化处理,在同1个反应器内完成脱硫、脱硝、除尘3种功能。介绍了以煤为主要原料生产活性焦的基本原理、工艺流程、技术特点和研发概况;将活性焦脱硫工艺与其他几种常用的脱硫工艺进行了对比,结果表明,活性焦烟气脱硫技术在脱硫率、副产品利用、装置投资及运行费用等方面均具有明显优势。

  20. Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish R. [Linde LLC, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) technology offers flexibility to treat the flue gas from both existing and new coal-fired power plants and can be applied to treat all or a portion of the flue gas. Solvent-based technologies are today the leading option for PCC from commercial coal-fired power plants as they have been applied in large-scale in other applications. Linde and BASF have been working together to develop and further improve a PCC process incorporating BASF’s novel aqueous amine-based solvent technology. This technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirements using novel solvents that are very stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. In addition, long-term small pilot-scale testing of the BASF solvent has been performed on a lignite-fired flue gas. In coordination with BASF, Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based PCC technology. This report provides a summary of the work performed and results from a project supported by the US DOE (DE-FE0007453) for the pilot-scale demonstration of a Linde-BASF PCC technology using coal-fired power plant flue gas at a 1-1.5 MWe scale in Wilsonville, AL at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). Following a project kick-off meeting in November 2011 and the conclusion of pilot plant design and engineering in February 2013, mechanical completion of the pilot plant was achieved in July 2014, and final commissioning activities were completed to enable start-up of operations in January 2015. Parametric tests were performed from January to December 2015 to determine optimal test conditions and evaluate process performance over a variety of operation parameters. A long-duration 1500-hour continuous test campaign was performed from May to

  1. Study on Effect of Engran Series of Microbial Organic Fertilizers on Flue-cured Tobacco%"恩格兰"牌系列微生物有机肥在烤烟中效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛云; 田峰; 张明; 陈红丽; 钟军

    2016-01-01

    Objective] This study was conducted to provide theoretic support for im-proving yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco by applying microbial organic fertiliz-ers. [Method] A field plot experiment was conducted to study the effects of the En-gran series of microbial organic fertilizers on growth and development, diseases and pests and economic traits of flue-cured tobacco. [Result] The result showed that the treatment of conventional fertilization + Engran microbial agent could promote the growth and dry matter accumulation of flue-cured tobacco during the growth period in the field, enhance the disease resistance of tobacco, and improve yield and out-put value of flue-cured tobacco and income of tobacco growers. Compared with T1, the proportion of high-grade tobacco, the proportion of mid-high grade tobacco, yield, output value and average price increased by 4.4%, 3.8%, 5.48%, 11.51% and 5.73% respectively. [Conclusion] The treatment of conventional fertilization + Engran microbial agent showed outstanding performance, is optimum for field production, and could be applied to Flue-cured tobacco.%[目的]为烟草生产中施用微生物有机肥等肥料提高烤烟的产质量提供理论技术支持。[方法]通过田间对比试验,研究了"恩格兰"牌系列微生物有机肥对烤烟生长发育、烟草病虫害及烤烟经济性状的影响。[结果]研究表明,常规施肥+恩格兰微生物菌剂处理在大田生育期能促进烤烟生长发育及烤烟干物质积累,增强烟株的抗病能力,提高烤烟的产量、产值及烟农收入。和 T1相比,上等烟比例、上中等烟比例、产量、产值和均价分别提高了4.4%、3.8%、5.48%、11.51%和5.73%。[结论]常规施肥+恩格兰微生物菌剂处理表现突出,最适宜大田生产,可在烤烟上推广应用。

  2. Flue gas desulfurization technology of thermal power plant%热电厂烟气脱硫技术浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌

    2013-01-01

    当今社会,环境污染问题越来越严重,特别是火电厂排放的二氧化硫,使人类的生存环境受到很大的危害,因此,国家重新修订了《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》,利用法律来对火电厂排放的烟气采取强制措施,要求必须安装烟气脱硫装置来净化排放的烟气。%In modern society,the increasingly serious problem of environmental pollution,particularly sulfur dioxide emissions from thermal power plants,have greatly harmed the survival environment of human beings,therefore,Thermal Power Plant Air Pollutant E-mission Standards was revised to require thermal power plants to install flue gas desulfurization device in law,by which flue gas of thermal power plant will be purified before emission into the atmosphere.

  3. Application of Heat Pipe Technology in Flue Gas Waste Heat Recycling of Organic Heat Carrier Boiler%热管技术在有机热载体锅炉烟气余热回收上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云燕

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more construction units use heat pipe technology to reduce exhaust gas temperature for reducing flue gas heat loss. Industrial managers should attach great importance to the application of heat pipe technology in the flue gas waste heat recycling of organic heat carrier boiler. From energy consumption situation of organic heat carrier boiler, this paper introduces the main purpose of flue gas waste heat recycling of organic heat carrier boiler, carries on a brief introduction for application of heat pipe technology in flue gas waste heat recycling of organic heat carrier boiler.%近些年来,越来越多建设单位采用热管技术降低排烟温度来减少烟气热损失,工业管理者应该高度重视热管技术在有机热载体锅炉烟气余热回收上的应用。本文从有机热载体锅炉能耗状况着手,介绍了有机热载体锅炉烟气余热回收的主要用途,对热管技术在有机热载体锅炉烟气余热回收上的应用做了简单介绍。

  4. 燃煤烟气中汞吸附技术的研发进展%Research Progress of Mercury Adsorption Technology for Coal-fired Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建星; 邓双; 姚福德; 王琳琳; 陈小鹏; 张凡

    2013-01-01

    At present mercury sorbents technology is the special technology to remove mercury in coal-fired flue gas.The present research situation of mercury-removing sorbents used in coal-fired flue gas were summarized.The sorbents by carrier type could be divided into carbon-based sorbents,fly ash,mineral sorbents,metal sorbents,metal compound sorbents and complex sorbents.The mercury removal efficiencies,costs,and application conditions of various sorbents were summarized.The influence factors of adsorption process were especially analyzed.The influences of form distribution,smoke components,nature of the sorbents,temperature and evaluation device were also illustrated.And finally,the future research directions in this field were suggested.%指出了汞吸附剂脱汞技术是目前燃煤烟气专门脱汞技术,并概述了国内外燃煤烟气中脱汞吸附剂的研究现状.目前研发的汞吸附剂按载体类型可分为:碳基吸附剂、飞灰、矿物类吸附剂、金属类吸附剂、金属化合物类吸附剂和络合吸附剂.综合评述了不同种类吸附剂的脱汞效率、成本和适用条件等;尤其对吸附过程的影响因素进行了分析,阐明了汞的形态分布、吸附剂性质、烟气成分、温度和评价装置的影响,最后对该领域的研究方向做了展望.

  5. Intensified technology for microalgal CO2 fixation and conversion from flue gas%微藻固定转化烟气CO2强化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜加伟; 程丽华; 徐新华; 张林; 陈欢林

    2014-01-01

    全球气候变暖和能源危机是21世纪影响人类生存发展的重要问题。微藻由于具有利用太阳能、固定CO2并转化为油脂等产物的能力以及环境适应性强、光合效率高、繁殖快等优势,微藻固碳技术有望成为缓解温室效应和能源危机的有效方法之一,但是该技术目前仍存在去除烟气 CO2转化油脂效率低的问题。本文分析了微藻固碳过程中碳传递转化途径,介绍了强化微藻固定与转化烟气 CO2的技术研究,包括微藻固碳与转化油脂的生物强化、微藻固定 CO2的反应器强化、微藻固定与转化 CO2技术的耦合,重点讨论了强化微藻固碳与转化的生物技术和膜技术研究现状及存在问题。最后指出微藻固碳的生物技术、膜技术及其他多技术的耦合有望进一步提升烟气CO2的高效固定与转化,是强化微藻固定转化烟气CO2的重要研究方向。%Microalgae has the strong ability to convert CO2 into cellular lipid product , better environmental adaptability , higher photosynthetic efficiency and the higher reproduction rate. Therefore,carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae has become one of the effective solutions to greenhouse effect and energy crisis. The bottle neck of this technology lies in the low efficiency of CO2 fixation and conversion into cellular lipid product. This paper introduced the process of CO2 fixation and conversion into organic carbon components of microalgae cell. The progresses on intensified fixation and conversion of CO2 from flue gas,including the stimulated CO2 fixation and conversion into lipid,the intensified CO2 fixation by membrane technology in a photobioreactor and the coupling of various technologies. The application of biotechnology and the membrane technology in microalgae field were elaborated and discussed. This paper also discussed the integration of microalgae biotechnology,membrane technology and the coupling of other technologies

  6. Waste Heat Recovery Technology for the Flue Gas of Hot Rolling Heating Furnace%热轧加热炉烟气余热回收利用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2014-01-01

    介绍一种热轧加热炉烟气余热回收利用技术的系统流程、工艺设计方案、主要参数及经济效益。利用这套技术将加热炉烟气潜在余热进行梯级高效利用,并通过生产实践证明,达到了理想的应用效果。%The systematic process, technological design, main parameters and economic benefits of the waste heat recovery technology for the flue gas of hot rolling heating furnace are introduced.Potential waste heat from the heating furnace flue gas was efficiently utilized in a cascade model through adopting the technology, the ideal effect of which has been proved by production practice.

  7. Analysis on Control Technology of Mercury Emission in Flue Gas from Coal-fired Power Plant%燃煤电厂烟气中汞排放控制技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓勇; 张金池; 张布伟; 蔡同锋

    2014-01-01

    介绍了煤中汞燃烧后的排放形态,并较为详细地论述了各种汞排放控制技术,同时对烟气脱汞技术进行了展望。认为,加强对汞产生源头控制,加强对新型吸附剂的研究,可以实现大幅度脱除烟气中汞的目标。%This paper introduces emission form of mercury after burning, discusses the control technology of mercury emission, forecasts flue gas mercury control technology. Reinforcing controlling of mercury producing and researching new adsorption can help achieve the purpose of removing mercury in flue gas sharply.

  8. Integrative flue-gas pollutants removal technology for coal-fired utility boilers%燃煤电站锅炉烟气污染物一体化协同治理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚明宇; 聂剑平; 张立欣; 李红智

    2016-01-01

    Against the increasingly serious pollutant emissions from coal-fired utility boilers,this paper puts forward the integrative removing technology for flue gas pollutants emission from coal-fired power plants. In this technology,the removal of each single pollutant depends on the synergistic effect of two or more equipments.Integrative design and layout are necessary for the existing environmental protection equip-ments.The practical engineering application shows that,the synergistic integration of flue gas pollutants removal technology is an effective way to achieve ultra-low flue gas pollutants emission from coal-fired power plants.%针对燃煤电站污染物排放日益严重的问题,提出了燃煤电站锅炉烟气污染物一体化协同治理技术,即对单一污染物,采取多设备协同治理,设备设置和系统参数一体化考虑,从整体的角度对各环保设备的工程设计及运行进行优化。实际工程应用表明,采用烟气污染物一体化协同脱除技术是实现燃煤电站烟气超低排放的有效途径。

  9. The Westinghouse Series 1000 Mobile Phone: Technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Mobile satellite communications will be popularized by the North American Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system. The success of the overall system is dependent upon the quality of the mobile units. Westinghouse is designing our unit, the Series 1000 Mobile Phone, with the user in mind. The architecture and technology aim at providing optimum performance at a low per unit cost. The features and functions of the Series 1000 Mobile Phone have been defined by potential MSAT users. The latter portion of this paper deals with who those users may be.

  10. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  11. New Technology of Drying Sludge with Flue Gas Waste Heat and Solar%烟气废热/太阳能预干化污泥新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉桥; 原宏梅; 王兵帅; 耿贵强; 徐仙; 杨伟

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the energy consumption of sewage sludge drying, the new drying technology with flue gas waste heat and solar was presented by combining the drying technologies of solar greenhouse and flue gas waste heat from power plants. The process flow was constructed and the process units were determined. The energy balance calculation was carried out on the basis of the pilot result for drying sludge with flue gas waste heat and solar.%为降低污水厂污泥干燥能耗,结合太阳能温室干燥技术和电厂烟气废热干燥技术,提出了烟气废热/太阳能预干化新工艺,构建了工艺流程并对工艺单元进行了确定,并通过烟气余热/太阳能预干化污泥中试试验结果进行了能量衡算。

  12. 基于夹点技术的烟气处理系统的优化与评价%Optimization and evaluation of flue gas processing systems based on pinch technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中良; 王远亚; 张克舫; 李艳霞

    2014-01-01

    二氧化碳捕集系统节能技术受到了人们的广泛关注,但基本上集中在系统本身,鲜见有关烟气余热回收利用方面的研究报道,缺少具体的应用方案。然而,要进一步提高二氧化碳捕集系统的效率,就必须对烟气余热进行有效利用。为此,本文以某发电厂与660MW热电联产装置相配套的烟气处理系统为研究对象,首先采用问题表法确定了换热网络的夹点温度,然后通过冷、热物流间的“新”匹配对原换热网络进行改造,得出3种改造方案:烟气余热回收一级换热网络是高温烟气与胺补液之间进行匹配;烟气余热直接回收二级换热网络是高温烟气依次与富液、胺补液之间进行匹配;而烟气余热间接回收二级换热网络包括高温烟气与富液之间的间接换热。通过对以上3种改造方案投资费用的比较,发现烟气余热回收一级换热网络的投资成本最低,是最优改造方案。%Energy saving technologies for CO2 capture systems are receiving extensive attentions from both academic researchers and industries. However,most of these researches focused on the CO2 capture systems,instead of the waste heat utilization of the flue gas and practical recovery schemes. However,in order to improve the energy efficiency of the CO2 capture systems,it was very important to recover the thermal energy from the flue gas. This paper took the flue gas processing system coupled with a 660MW coal-fired power plant as an example,the temperature of pinch point was determined by use of“problem table”method. The initial heat exchanger network (HEN)was optimized by matching hot flows and cold flows. And three new retrofit schemes were obtained:The one-stage HEN for energy recovery of the flue gas was to use the flue gas to heat the makeup mono ethanol amine (MEA) solvent;the two-stage HEN could be further divided into two networks-the first one recovered the heat of the

  13. The Application of Flue Gas Recirculation Technology in Capacity Increasing Revamp of Shagang Sintering System%烟气循环技术在沙钢烧结系统增产改造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟颖

    2016-01-01

    阐述沙钢烧结增产改造思路,并指出面临的主要问题是对外排烟气的处理。应用烟气循环技术,既可提高烧结系统设备利用率,增加烧结矿产量,又不会给环保设施增加负担。介绍沙钢烧结烟气循环工艺具体内容,并沙钢3号烧结机为例对烟气循环技术的应用情况进行分析,为国内烧结系统改造提供了崭新的思路。%The paper describes the thinking of capacity increasing revamp of Shagang sintering,and points outthat the main problem is the treatment of the discharged flue gas. Using flue gas recirculation technology,it can improve the rate of equipment utilization of sintering system,increase the output of sinter,and it will not increase the burden of environmental protection facility. The paper also introduces the detailed content of Shagang sintering flue gas recirculation process,and analyzes the application of fule gas recirculation situation taking Shagang No.3 sintering machine as an example. It provides a new thinking for domestic sintering system improvement.

  14. A Probe into the Waste Heat Recovery Technology of Sinter Tail Flue at a Steelmaker%某钢厂烧结机大烟道余热回收技术探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建红

    2015-01-01

    The waste heat recovery technology of sinter tail flue has entered a stage of rapid development of practical application. In this paper the waste heat recovery and utiliza-tion project of sinter flue at some steel plant is investigated in depth, and the design princi-ple and attention points in designing of the waste heat recovery project are presented, to pro-vide guidance for design and operation of waste heat recovery of sinter tail flue.%烧结机大烟道余热回收技术已进入实际应用快速发展期。深入探讨了某钢厂烧结机大烟道余热回收利用项目,阐述了大烟道余热回收设计中的设计原则和注意事项,以期为烧结机大烟道余热回收的设计、运行提供指导。

  15. The secondary release of mercury in coal fly ash-based flue-gas mercury removal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingfeng; Duan, Chenlong; Lei, Mingzhe; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    The secondary release of mercury from coal fly ash is a negative by-product from coal-fired power plants, and requires effective control to reduce environmental pollution. Analysing particle size distribution and composition of the coal fly ash produced by different mercury removing technologies indicates that the particles are generally less than 0.5 mm in size and are composed mainly of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3. The relationships between mercury concentration in the coal fly ash, its particle size, and loss of ignition were studied using different mercury removing approaches. The research indicates that the coal fly ash's mercury levels are significantly higher after injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when compared to regular cooperating-pollution control technology. This is particularly true for particle size ranges of >0.125, 0.075-0.125, and 0.05-0.075 mm. Leaching experiments revealed the secondary release of mercury in discarded coal fly ash. The concentration of mercury in the coal fly ash increases as the quantity of injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon increases. The leached concentrations of mercury increase as the particle size of the coal fly ash increases. Therefore, the secondary release of mercury can be controlled by adding suitable activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when disposing of coal fly ash. Adding CaBr2 before coal combustion in the boiler also helps control the secondary release of mercury, by increasing the Hg(2+) concentration in the leachate. This work provides a theoretical foundation for controlling and removing mercury in coal fly ash disposal.

  16. Technology Development Trend Analysis of Sintering Flue Gas Pollutants Emission Reduction%烧结烟气污染物减排技术发展趋势浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷旭; 樊响

    2015-01-01

    Combining with the layout of the atmospheric pollution control work at present in our country and analysis on the advantages and disadvantages of new environmental protection emission reduction, this paper puts forward a more suitable way for metallurgical industry sintering flue gas treatment technology and the technology development direction. After the development course of work in sintering flue gas are summarized, it points out focus and developing direction in this field in the next few years.%结合目前我国大气污染治理工作的布局与新型环保减排技术的优缺点分析,有针对性地提出了更适合冶金行业烧结烟气治理的工艺与技术发展方向;在总结了烧结烟气治理工作的发展历程之后,指出了在未来几年该领域内的工作重点与研发方向。

  17. Investigation of the moving-bed copper oxide process for flue gas cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Hoffman, J.S.; Yeh, J.T. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Resnik, K.P.; Vore, P.A. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is a dry, regenerable sorbent technique that uses supported copper oxide sorbent to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from flue gas generated by coal combustion. The process can be integrated into the design of advanced power systems, such as the Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) or the High-Performance Power System (HIPPS). This flue gas cleanup technique is currently being evaluated in a life-cycle test system (LCTS) with a moving-bed flue gas contactor at DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. An experimental data base being established will be used to verify reported technical and economic advantages, optimize process conditions, provide scaleup information, and validate absorber and regenerator mathematical models. In this communication, the results from several process parametric test series with the LCTS are discussed. The effects of various absorber and regenerator parameters on sorbent performance (e.g., SO{sub 2} removal) were investigated. Sorbent spheres of 1/8-in diameter were used as compared to 1/16-in sized sorbent of a previous study. Also discussed are modifications to the absorber to improve the operability of the LCTS when fly ash is present during coal combustion.

  18. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  19. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  20. Robotics-Control Technology. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the materials required for presenting an 8-day competency-based technology learning activity (TLA) designed to introduce students in grades 6-10 to advances and career opportunities in the field of robotics-control technology. The guide uses hands-on exploratory experiences into which activities to help students develop…

  1. 燃煤烟气SO3检测及控制技术探讨%Discussion on SO3 Detection and Control Technology in Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵媛; 徐劲松

    2016-01-01

    燃煤电厂烟气中SO3含量约为SO2含量的0�8%~3�5%,检测难度大,对人体危害极大。随着环保标准日益严格,电厂对SO3的管控应提上日程。文中研究了燃煤电厂烟气中SO3的生成途径,对SO3检测技术进行探讨,提出了SO3的控制方法。%The content of SO3 in coal-fired power plant flue gas is about 0�8%~3�5% of SO2 content, SO3 is very harmful and there are a lot of difficulties to detect. With increasingly stringent environmental standards, management and control of SO3 should be put on the agenda. By analyzing the formation of SO3 in the coal-fired power plant flue gas, SO3 detection techniques are discussed, SO3 con⁃trol methods are proposed.

  2. 垃圾焚烧烟气汞的治理技术与评价%Control Technologies and Evaluation of Mercury in Flue Gas of Waste Incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰儒; 罗津晶; 牛强

    2012-01-01

    The mercury speciation distribution in flue gas of waste incineration was introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of different ways on mercury controlling were analyzed, including using the existing equipment, Na2S injection and sorbent trapping. A laboratory-scale activated carbon adsorption-desorption system was developed, and the adsorption properties of different activated carbon in nitrogen atmosphere were compared to control gaseous mercury in flue gas of waste incineration.%介绍了当前垃圾焚烧烟气中汞形态分布,对利用现有设备脱汞、Na2S喷射、吸附剂捕集等方法在烟气脱汞运用中的优缺点进行分析,建立实验室规模的活性炭吸附-脱附系统,对比氮气氛围不同活性炭对气态汞的吸附性能,以更好地控制垃圾焚烧烟气中气态汞的排放行为.

  3. Research Progress of Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification Technologies of Flue Gas%燃煤烟气联合脱硫脱硝技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高续春; 代宏哲; 马亚军

    2015-01-01

    燃煤尾气进行脱硫脱硝处理是一种有效地控制大气污染的方法。联合脱硫脱硝技术因其具有明显的经济性而成为当前环保领域的研究热点。主要综述了相关的联合脱硫脱硝技术的研究进展,着重介绍了固体吸附催化法、等离子体法和化学湿法,简要说明了各种技术的特点。并对联合脱硫脱硝技术的发展进行了展望。%Desulfurization and denitrification technology of flue gas is an effective method to control tmospheric pollution. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technology has become a research hotspot in environmental protection area because of its economy. In this paper, research progress of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technologies was reviewed.And solid adsorption catalytic method, PPCP and chemical wet method were introduced emphatically. Characteristics of various technologies were discussed. At last, development trend of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technologies was prospected.

  4. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.; Dahlin, R.S.

    1996-03-20

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) initiated this project as part of a program to study the control of fine particles from coal combustion. Our project focus was flue gas conditioning. Various conditioning processes have lowered operating costs and increased collection efficiency at utility particulate control devices. By improving fine particle collection, flue gas conditioning also helps to control the emission of toxic metals, which are concentrated in the fine particle fraction. By combining a review of pertinent literature, laboratory characterization of a variety of fine powders and ashes, pilot-scale studies of conditioning mechanisms, and field experiences, Southern Research Institute has been able to describe many of the key processes that account for the effects that conditioning can have on fine-particle collection. The overall goal of this research project was to explain the mechanisms by which various flue gas conditioning processes alter the performance of particulate control devices. Conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of the forces acting on the fly ash particles. Resistivity, chemistry, cohesivity, size distribution, and particle morphology are among the basic properties of fly ash that significantly influence fine particle collection. Modifications of particulate properties can result in improved or degraded control device performance. These modifications can be caused by (1) changes to the process design or operation that affect properties of the flue gas, (2) addition of particulate matter such as flue-gas desulfurization sorbents to the process effluent stream, (3) injection of reactive gases or liquids into the flue gas. We recommend that humidification be seriously considered as a flue gas conditioning option. 80 refs., 69 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. 亚硫酸镁清液法脱硫技术在金隆环集烟气处理中的应用%Application of desulphurization supernatant in treatment of flue gas technology using magnesium sulphite collected from fugitive emission in Jiniong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晏; 梁海卫

    2012-01-01

    Application of a desulphurization technology using magnesium sulphite supernatant in treatment of flue gas collected from fugitive emission in Jinlong is described. The technology has features of low investment low energy consumption, low operating costs, moderate plot space and reasonable block layout according to actual situation. The application of this technology opened up a new avenue for high flow flue gas desulphurization.%介绍了金隆铜业环集烟气脱硫装置所使用的亚硫酸镁清液法脱硫技术,该技术具有投资省,能耗低,运行成本低,占地面积适中等特点,并能根据实际情况合理分块布局。该技术的应用为行业大烟气量脱硫开辟了新的途径。

  6. Flue gas conditioning today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southam, B.J.; Coe, E.L. Jr. [Wahlco Engineering International Ltd., Santa Ana, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Many relatively small electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s) exist which collect fly ash at remarkably high efficiencies and have been tested consistently at correspondingly high migration velocities. But the majority of the world`s coal supplies produce ashes which are collected at much lower migration velocities for a given efficiency and therefore require correspondingly large specific collection areas to achieve acceptable results. Early trials of flue gas conditioning (FGC) showed benefits in maximizing ESP performance and minimizing expense which justified continued experimentation. Trials of several dozen ways of doing it wrong eventually developed a set of reliable rules for doing it right. One result is that the use of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) for adjustment of the resistivity of fly ash from low sulfur coal has been widely applied and has become an automatically accepted part of the option of burning low sulfur coal for compliance with the Clean Air Act of l990 in the U.S.A. Currently, over 100,000 MW of generating capacity is using FGC, and it is estimated that approximately 45,800 MW will utilize coal-switching with FGC for Clean Air Act emission compliance. Guarantees that this equipment will be available to operate at least 98 percent of the time it is called upon are routinely fulfilled.

  7. Recent developments in novel sorbents for flue gas clean up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Bisson, Teresa M.; Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Coal combustion is one of the most important energy sources for electricity generation, but also produces airborne pollutants. The amount of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} for example, is in the order of hundreds to thousands of ppm, and tens to hundreds of ppm, respectively, while Hg in flue gases could be up to tens to hundreds of ppb. Flue gas desulphurization technology is already in place for SO{sub 2} removal, and new sorbents such as zeolites are being investigated for such an application. NO{sub x} can be removed by selective catalytic reduction with various catalysts. Mercury is the hardest to remove due to its persistent nature and relatively low concentration in flue gases. New sorbents have also been developed for mercury removal applications. A current trend in flue gas emission control is to remove Hg, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} simultaneously. Various catalytic sorbents have been investigated to remove two or more of these pollutants concurrently. This article reviews recent developments made for emission control of coal-fired power plant flue gases using novel sorbents to target individual or multiple pollutants. (author)

  8. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder; ,Edgar B.

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  9. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue gas desulfurization processes such as lime/limestone have beendiscussed.

  10. Existing and Emerging Technologies in Education: A Descriptive Overview. CREATE Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Thomas W.

    Second in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled students, the paper offers a descriptive overview of new technologies. Topics addressed include the following: (1) techniques for sharing computer resources (including aspects of networking, sharing information through databases, and the use…

  11. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  12. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulisa Angelo G

    2012-02-01

    can achieve the correction of a curve by inverting the abnormal load distribution during skeletal growth. Results Since its introduction in 1976, several studies have been published supporting the validity of the biomechanical principles to which the brace is inspired. In this article, we present the outcome of a case series comprising 110 patients with lumbar and thoraco-lumbar curves treated with PASB brace. Antero-posterior radiographs were used to estimate the curve magnitude (CM and the torsion of the apical vertebra (TA at 5 time points: beginning of treatment (t1, one year after the beginning of treatment (t2, intermediate time between t1 and t4 (t3, end of weaning (t4, 2-year minimum follow-up from t4 (t5. The average CM value was 29.3°Cobb at t1 and 13.0°Cobb at t5. TA was 15.8° Perdroille at t1 and 5.0° Perdriolle at t5. These results support the efficacy of the PASB in the management of scoliotic patients with lumbar and thoraco-lumbar curves. Conclusion The results obtained in patients treated with the PASB confirm the validity of our original biomechanical approach. The efficacy of the PASB derives not only from its unique biomechanical features but also from the simplicity of its design, construction and management.

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  14. The method of determination of mercury adsorption from flue gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyń Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For several recent years Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow conduct intensive studies on the occurrence of mercury contained in thermal and coking coals, as well as on the possible reduction of fossil-fuel mercury emissions. This research focuses, among others, on application of sorbents for removal of mercury from flue gases. In this paper we present the methodology for testing mercury adsorption using various types of sorbents, in laboratory conditions. Our model assumes burning a coal sample, with a specific mercury content, in a strictly determined time period and temperature conditions, oxygen or air flow rates, and the flow of flue gases through sorbent in a specific temperature. It was developed for particular projects concerning the possibilities of applying different sorbents to remove mercury from flue gases. Test stand itself is composed of a vertical pipe furnace inside which a quartz tube was mounted for sample burning purposes. At the furnace outlet, there is a heated glass vessel with a sorbent sample through which flue gases are passing. Furnace allows burning at a defined temperature. The exhaust gas flow path is heated to prevent condensation of the mercury vapor prior to contact with a sorbent. The sorbent container is positioned in the heating element, with controlled and stabilized temperature, which allows for testing mercury sorption in various temperatures. Determination of mercury content is determined before (coal and sorbent, as well as after the process (sorbent and ash. The mercury balance is calculated based on the Hg content determination results. This testing method allows to study sorbent efficiency, depending on sorption temperature, sorbent grain size, and flue-gas rates.

  15. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  16. Flue gas condensing with heat pump; Roekgaskondensering med vaermepump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Pettersson, Camilla [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Flue gas condensing is often both a technically and economically efficient method to increase the thermal efficiency in a plant using fuels with high moisture and/or high hydrogen content. The temperature of the return water in district heating systems in Sweden is normally 50 deg C, which gives quite high efficiency for a flue gas condenser. The flue gas after the flue gas condenser still contains energy that to some extent can be recovered by a combustion air humidifier or a heat pump. The object of this project is to technically and economically analyse flue gas condensing with heat pump. The aim is that plant owners get basic data to evaluate if a coupling between a flue gas condenser and a heat pump could be of interest for their plant. With a heat pump the district heating water can be 'sub cooled' to increase the heat recover in the flue gas condenser and thereby increase the total efficiency. The project is set up as a case study of three different plants that represent different types of technologies and sizes; Aabyverket in Oerebro, Amagerforbraending in Copenhagen and Staffanstorp district heating central. In this report a system with a partial flow through the condenser of the heat pump is studied. For each plant one case with the smallest heat pump and a total optimization regarding total efficiency and cost for investment has been calculated. In addition to the optimizations sensitivity analyzes has been done of the following parameters: Moisture in fuel; Type of heat pump; Temperature of the return water in the district heating system; and, Size of plant. The calculations shows that the total efficiency increases with about 6 % by the installation of the heat pump at a temperature of the return water in the district heating system of 50 deg C at Aabyverket. The cost for production of heat is just below 210 kr/MWh and the straight time for pay-off is 5,4 years at 250 kr/MWh in heat credit and at 300 kr/MWh in basic price for electricity. The

  17. The impact of flue gas cleaning technologies in coal-fired power plants on the CCN distribution and cloud properties in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, M.; Vogel, B.; Junkermann, W.; Brachert, L.; Schaber, K.

    2013-05-01

    Gas-cleaning technologies used in modern coal-fired power plants cause an unintended nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol droplets during the cleaning process. As a result, high concentrations of ultra-fine aerosol droplets are emitted into the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of these emissions on the atmospheric aerosol distribution, on the cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, and consequently on cloud properties is investigated. Therefore, a sophisticated modeling framework is used combining regional simulations of the atmospheric aerosol distribution and its impact on cloud properties with detailed process simulations of the nucleation during the cleaning process inside the power plant. Furthermore, the simulated aerosol size distributions downwind of the coal-fired power plants are compared with airborne aerosol measurements performed inside the plumes.

  18. Global Information Technology Education: Issues and Trends. Series in Global Information Technology Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrowpour, Mehdi; Loch, Karen D.

    This book provides insight into how countries around the world currently define their information science (IS) and information technology (IT) masters degree curriculum, and how they are responding to the challenge of internationalization. Global IT programs from both developed and developing countries are presented. Faculty and researchers are…

  19. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  20. Improvement of flue gas selective catalytic reduction technology and equipment for propane dehydrogenation (PDH) unit%丙烷脱氢装置烟气脱硝技术与设备改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘唯奇; 张国甫; 高海见; 陈金锋

    2016-01-01

    为降低烟气中的氮氧化物含量,采用丹麦托普索公司催化剂和工艺技术,在烟气余热锅炉内增加脱硝段,以满足达标排放的目的.并与工程公司合作,优化脱硝注氨系统的工艺流程,减少氨水消耗量,降低氨逃逸浓度.技术与设备改进后,烟色得到改善,烟气中的NOx含量大幅降低,同时氨水消耗量低于设计值,产生了良好的环境效益和经济效益.%The NOx concentration in the flue gas is reduced for standardized emission by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor installed in the waste heat boiler.The catalyst and reactor design are provided by Denmark HALDOR TOPSOE.New ammonia injection process is studied with engineering company to reduce ammonia consumption and slip concentration.After the improvement of process and equipment,the colour of flue gas looks better than before.The flue gas NOx concentration is significantly decreased and ammonia consumption is lower than hte design value,which produce good environmental and economic benefits.

  1. Discussion on Flue Gas Waste Heat Utilization technology of Heavy(F Class)Gas-steam Combined Cycle Power Plant%大型F级燃气蒸汽联合循环烟气余热利用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章正传; 殷俊; 李懿靓

    2014-01-01

    本文探讨了大型F级联合循环机组利用烟气余热进行凝结水/给水加热、燃料气加热,进气冷却,以及利用烟气余热制冷和采暖方面的应用,分析表明,大型联合循环电厂烟气余热利用潜力较大,充分利用烟气余热,具有一定的节能意义。%This paper discusses flue gas waste heat utilization of Heavy(F Class)Gas- steam Combined Cycle Power Plant ,which used in condensed water /feed water heating, fuel gas heating, air cooling, and refrigeration and heating. Analysis shows that, the large combined cycle power plant flue gas waste heat utilization potential, make full use of the waste heat of the flue gas, has certain significance of energy saving.

  2. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  3. Application of Pt/CdS for the Photocatalytic Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization technology was designed to control emissions of SO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels. With the photocatalytic technology, we cannot only achieve the purpose of solving the problem of SO2 emissions but also realize the desire of hydrogen production from water. CdS loaded with Pt were selected as the model photocatalyst for the photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization. The factors influencing the rate of hydrogen production and ammonia sulfite solution oxidation were detected.

  4. Simultaneous Waste Heat and Water Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gases for Advanced Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dexin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This final report presents the results of a two-year technology development project carried out by a team of participants sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this project is to develop a membrane-based technology to recover both water and low grade heat from power plant flue gases. Part of the recovered high-purity water and energy can be used directly to replace plant boiler makeup water as well as improving its efficiency, and the remaining part of the recovered water can be used for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), cooling tower water makeup or other plant uses. This advanced version Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) with lower capital and operating costs can be applied to existing plants economically and can maximize waste heat and water recovery from future Advanced Energy System flue gases with CO2 capture in consideration, which will have higher moisture content that favors the TMC to achieve higher efficiency.

  5. Modified sorbents for flue gas desulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bis, Z.; Radecki, M. [Czestochowa Technical Univ., Dabrowskiego (Poland). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Nowak, W.; Szymanek, A. [Czestochowa Technical Univ., Dabrowskiego (Poland). Dept. of Heting, Ventilation and Air Protection

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a technological description of modified sorbents that are highly reactive and which offer possibilities for economic ash utilization from atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed boilers (ACFB). Effective methods to use solid combustion products are becoming a necessity to reduce emissions to the atmosphere. Desulphurization products and limestone are compounds derived from ash from fluidized bed and other boilers where dry, or self-dry methods, of desulphurization are used. The safe disposal or effective utilization of solid waste produced during simultaneous processes of combustion and waste gas desulphurization is a challenge because of the high cost of capturing sulphur from flue gases and the high cost of sorbents. Efforts are being made to find new kinds of sorbents so that their consumption can be lowered substantially. The economic use of solid wastes from combustion and desulphurization processes is also being investigated. This paper described the basic aspects of sulphur capture by calcined sorbents, and the mechanical activation of sorbents. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P. [Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The overall goal of this research project has been to formulate a model describing effects of flue gas conditioning on particulate properties. By flue gas conditioning we mean any process by which solids, gases, or liquids are added to the combustor and/or the exhaust stream to the extent that flue gas and particulate properties may be altered. Our modeling efforts, which are included in our Final Report, are based on an understanding of how ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Flue gas conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of forces acting on the fly ash particles, and can take place through many different methods. Modification of particulate properties can alter ash resistivity or ash cohesivity and result in improved or degraded control device performance. Changes to the flue gas, addition or particulate matter such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sorbents, or the addition of reactive gases or liquids can modify these properties. If we can better understand how conditioning agents react with fly ash particles, application of appropriate conditioning agents or processes may result in significantly improved fine particle collection at low capital and operating costs.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.; Stephens, T.; McManus, W.

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways. An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, Steve [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McManus, Walter [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Effects of flue gas compositions on nitrosamine and nitramine formation in postcombustion CO2 capture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2014-07-01

    Amine-based technologies are emerging as the prime contender for postcombustion CO2 capture. However, concerns have arisen over the health impacts of amine-based CO2 capture associated with the release of nitrosamines and nitramines, which are byproducts from the reactions between flue gas NOx and solvent amines. In this study, flue gas compositions were systematically varied to evaluate their effects on the formation of nitrosamines and nitramines in a lab-scale CO2 capture reactor with morpholine as a model solvent amine. The accumulation of N-nitrosomorpholine in both the absorber and washwater increased linearly with both NO and NO2 for concentrations up to ∼20 ppmv. These correlations could be extrapolated to estimate N-nitrosomorpholine accumulation at extremely low NOx levels (0.3 ppmv NO2 and 1.5 ppmv NO). NO played a particularly important role in driving N-nitrosomorpholine formation in the washwater, likely following partial oxidation to NO2 by O2. The accumulation of N-nitromorpholine in both the absorber and washwater positively correlated with flue gas NO2 concentration, but not with NO concentration. Both N-nitrosomorpholine and N-nitromorpholine accumulated fastest in the absence of CO2. Flue gas humidity did not affect nitrosamine accumulation in either the absorber or the washwater unit. These results provide a basis for estimating the effects of flue gas composition on nitrosamine and nitramine accumulation in postcombustion CO2 capture systems.

  10. Telemedicine through the use of digital cell phone technology in pediatric neurosurgery: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirris, Stephen M; Monaco, Edward A; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C

    2010-05-01

    Advances in medicine have largely followed advances in technology. Medical strides have been made when physicians and researchers have adapted growing science to target specific problems. A new medical field, telemedicine, has emerged that links physicians with colleagues and patients. Cell phone technology is affordable for almost everyone, and basic models include digital photography. We present a case series exhibiting the utility of digital pictures taken with patients' cell phones. Our patients had wound infections requiring daily intravenous antibiotics and dressing changes. In years past, these patients would have required prolonged hospitalizations. In the era of managed care, patients with these infections are discharged from the hospital, but close outpatient observation is required to monitor the wound. Our patients lived up to 8 hours away from the hospital. Daily appointments for wound checks in the clinic were not practical. Wounds were thus monitored via cell phone images without the inconvenience of travel and the expense of staying in a local hotel, along with leaving appointments in the clinic available for others with new neurosurgical issues. Wound evaluations were conducted with the cameras on patients' cell phones. These images were transmitted to the surgeon via text messaging and emails. This application of cell phone technology has been documented previously in the literature of other specialties and could attain greater stature as a legitimate method for close outpatient observation by neurosurgeons if medicolegal issues are addressed.

  11. AN ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEM FOR REMOVING AND RECOVERING ELEMENTAL MERCURY FROM FLUE-STACK GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    the impending EPA regulations on the control of mercury emissions from the flue stacks of coal-burning electric utilities has resulted in heightened interest in the development of advanced mercury control technologies such as sorbent injection and in-situ mercury oxidation. Altho...

  12. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON REMOVAL OF NOX IN FLUE GAS AT THE NONEQUILIBRIUM PLASMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 许世森; 顾璠

    2004-01-01

    Removal of nitrogen oxides (NOX) in flue gas by means of nonequilibrium plasma technology is a very prospect and attractive method. As the nonequilibrium plasma micro discharges can generate a powerful energy flux, imparted to the flue gas, the molecules and atoms of pollutants are motivated and decomposed, and then NOX in the flue gas are decomposed and conversed in the particular conditions. Based on nonequilibrium plasma in combination with catalytic principle, an experimental investigation on NOX decomposition and conversion with Al2O3 catalysts was carried out and the NOX removal rate up to 95% was obtained. The NOX decomposition and conversion principle with Al2O3 catalysts was also discussed.

  13. Study on membrane contactor and operating technology for flue gas desulfurization by seawater%海水烟气脱硫膜吸收单元及工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 关毅鹏; 张召才; 郭春刚; 刘国昌; 李晓明

    2011-01-01

    以海水作为吸收剂,采用自行研制的中空纤维管式膜接触器作为吸收单元,进行膜吸收法海水烟气脱硫过程模拟试验研究.考察膜接触器结构、膜填充密度、膜吸收单元工艺方式、模拟烟气SO2浓度、温度、气液流量等因素对脱硫效率的影响.结果表明,提高烟气温度、海水流量、膜接触器内气液分布均匀程度、气液相有效接触面积、增加膜吸收级数,均有利于提高脱硫率;烟气流量及SO2浓度的增大不利于SO2的脱除;烟气流经管程的气液流程方式利于提高脱硫率,但是气阻大,进气压力高,工程化应用难以实现.提高膜材料传质特性和优化设计膜接触器结构是提高膜吸收法烟气脱硫效率的根本途径.%A comprehensive investigation of flue gas desulfurization was carried out by hydrophobic polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor with seawater as absorbent. The effects of various factors, such as membrane packing density, flow path of gas and fluid, concentration of SO2, gas temperature, configuration and connecting form of membrane contactors on desulfurization efficiency were studied. It is beneficial to absorption efficiency of SO2, with the increase in flue gas temperature, seawater flux, the contacting area between gas and seawater, stage numbers of membrane contactors, as well as the distribution degree of uniformity of gas and liquid in the membrane contactor. The absorption process could be enhanced when the flue gas was fed into the HF lumen side of the membrane, but the gas pressure was too high for the pracrtical utilization. The module configuration plays an important role in improving the mass transfer. The development of new module of membrane contactor and membrane structure/materials for improving mass transferring would be fundamental factor to increase the absorption efficiency.

  14. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  15. Investigation and optimization of the depth of flue gas heat recovery in surface heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, V. V.; Bespalov, V. I.; Melnikov, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    Economic issues associated with designing deep flue gas heat recovery units for natural gas-fired boilers are examined. The governing parameter affecting the performance and cost of surface-type condensing heat recovery heat exchangers is the heat transfer surface area. When firing natural gas, the heat recovery depth depends on the flue gas temperature at the condenser outlet and determines the amount of condensed water vapor. The effect of the outlet flue gas temperature in a heat recovery heat exchanger on the additionally recovered heat power is studied. A correlation has been derived enabling one to determine the best heat recovery depth (or the final cooling temperature) maximizing the anticipated reduced annual profit of a power enterprise from implementation of energy-saving measures. Results of optimization are presented for a surface-type condensing gas-air plate heat recovery heat exchanger for the climatic conditions and the economic situation in Tomsk. The predictions demonstrate that it is economically feasible to design similar heat recovery heat exchangers for a flue gas outlet temperature of 10°C. In this case, the payback period for the investment in the heat recovery heat exchanger will be 1.5 years. The effect of various factors on the optimal outlet flue gas temperature was analyzed. Most climatic, economical, or technological factors have a minor effect on the best outlet temperature, which remains between 5 and 20°C when varying the affecting factors. The derived correlation enables us to preliminary estimate the outlet (final) flue gas temperature that should be used in designing the heat transfer surface of a heat recovery heat exchanger for a gas-fired boiler as applied to the specific climatic conditions.

  16. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  17. A Flue Gas Tube for Thermoelectric Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a flue gas tube (FGT) (1) for generation of thermoelectric power having thermoelectric elements (8) that are integrated in the tube. The FTG may be used in combined heat and power (CHP) system (13) to produce directly electricity from waste heat from, e.g. a biomass boiler...

  18. System and method for treatment of a flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Perry, Robert James; McDermott, John Brian

    2017-09-19

    A method for treatment of a flue gas involves feeding the flue gas and a lean solvent to an absorber. The method further involves reacting the flue gas with the lean solvent within the absorber to generate a clean flue gas and a rich solvent. The method also involves feeding the clean flue gas from the absorber and water from a source, to a wash tower to separate a stripped portion of the lean solvent from the clean flue gas to generate a washed clean flue gas and a mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent. The method further involves treating at least a portion of the mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent via a separation system to separate the water from the stripped portion of the lean solvent.

  19. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  20. The FCC Flue Gas SOx Transfer Additive RFS Developed by RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Beiyan; Jiang Wenbin; Song Haitao; Shen Ningyuan; Tian Huiping; He Mingyuan

    2007-01-01

    The present paper introduces the development of FCC flue gas SOx transfer additives by RIPP with a brief discussion of SOx transfer mechanism. The second-generation SOx transfer additives of the RFS series are RIPP's proprietary additives with significantly improved performances. The results of commercial tests indicate that the RFS additive can effectively control SOx emission of the FCC regenerator while maintaining product yields and product quality when the additive is used in a proper concentration range.

  1. 低分压CO2回收新技术捕集水泥窑气中CO2的侧线试验%Bypass experiment for capturing CO2 from cement furnace flue gas by low pressure CO2 recovery technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄汉根

    2011-01-01

    A bypass experiment facility for capturing CO2 from cement furnace flue gas is designed. A self-developed blended amine is used for CO2 capturing. The experimental results show that the CO2 volume content in the purified gas is lower than 1.41%, while the CO2 purity of the product gas is higher than 99 %. Using this technology, CO2 emission reduction can be realized. At the same time, CO2 product with high purity can be produced. This technology can be used as an effective technological support for enterprises to reduce CO2 emission.%设计了一套水泥窑气CO2捕集的侧线试验装置,利用自主研发的复合胺溶剂捕集窑气中的CO2.试验结果表明.新型复合胺溶剂能使净化气中CO2体积分数降至1.41%以下,产品气中CO2体积分数达到99%以上.采用该技术,可实现CO2减排并获得高纯度的CO2产品气,为企业的CO2减排提供技术支持.

  2. Desulphurization Technology of Flue Gas for Jinan Steel’s 400 m2 Sinter Methane%济钢400 m2烧结机烟气脱硫技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亮; 路亮

    2012-01-01

      结合济钢400 m2烧结机烟气特点,应用旋转喷雾干燥法脱硫技术进行脱硫,采用BOT管理模式,确保达到治污减排的目的,实现经济高效运行,吨矿脱硫成本5元,在线监测SO2排放浓度为60 mg/m3左右。%  Combined with the characters of Sintering flue gas on 400 m2 sinter in Jinan Steel,the Spray Drying Absorption to Desulphurization has been applied and the mode of BOT has been adopted, ensuring the purpose of pollution abatement and economic efficiency operation, its cost is 5 Yuan per ton sinter. On-line monitoring of SO2 emission concentration is about 60 mg/m3.

  3. Approaches to Research on Teacher Education and Technology. Society for Technology and Teacher Education Monograph Series. No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Hersholt C., Ed.; Bright, George W., Ed.

    This document addresses the use of technology to enrich education. Twelve papers discuss research programs and perspectives and methods of research in technology and teacher education. Titles are: "Research Methods and Paradigms in Technology and Teacher Education" (Hersholt C. Waxman and George W. Bright); "Past and Future Stages in Educational…

  4. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  5. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  6. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  7. Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) by seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Arce, A.; Baalina Insua, A.; Rodriguez Suarez, E.; Santaballa Lopez, J.A. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1995-12-31

    Emission of large sulphur dioxide quantities proceeding from combustion processes is one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. These emissions may be controlled and reduced by means of the flue gases treatment before releasing them into the atmosphere. In this sense, seawater scrubbing process applied in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) have a great industrial application and constitute an interesting method for atmospheric pollution control. In the seawater scrubbing, SO{sub 2} is absorbed and returned to the sea in the original form of sulphate salts. This paper presents an experimental research on sulphur dioxide scrubbing processes in a packed tower that uses seawater as absorbent agent, with the aim of studying the absorption conditions with different packing and effluent characteristics, in order to understand the real conditions in which FGD occurs. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  9. Electron beam flue gas treatment process. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkonen, V.A. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Chmielewski, A.G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The basis of the process for electron beam flue gas treatment are presented in the report. In tabular form the history of the research is reviewed. Main dependences of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal efficiencies on different physico-chemical parameters are discussed. Trends concerning industrial process implementation are presented in the paper,finally. (author). 74 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab.

  10. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liping; Cao, Yan; Li, Wenying; Xie, Kechang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se). The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues. It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal. A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It has been determined that Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples. Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is high in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(IV)). The toxicity of Se(IV) is the strongest of all Se species. Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  11. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhong; Yan Cao; Wenying Li; Kechang Xie; Wei-Ping Pan

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se).The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues.It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal.A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS).It has been determined that Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 μg/L, respectively.The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples.Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is nigh in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(Ⅳ)).The toxicity of Se(Ⅳ) is the strongest of all Se species.Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  12. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  13. Operational experience of the industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Licki, Janusz; Pawelec, Andrzej; Tymiński, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew

    2004-09-01

    Electron beam flue gas treatment technology is one of the most advanced technologies among new generation processes for air pollution control. The process, which has been developed in Japan, the United States, Germany and Poland allows simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO x with high efficiency and by-product generated can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial installations using this technology have been constructed in the world, one in China and the second in Poland. Other plants are constructed in Japan and China. Chinese installation is mostly SO 2 removal oriented (since the NO x emission limits in China are not imposed up to now), so Polish plant one is as a matter of fact the first installation for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases. The plant located in EPS Pomorzany in Szczecin treats the flue gases emitted from two Benson boilers of 65 MW e and 100 MW th each. The flue gases of maximum flow of 270 000 N m 3/h are irradiated by four accelerators of 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each. Description of the plant and the results obtained have been presented in this paper. The plant has been in operation for more than 2500 h (5500 h including one accelerator set operation). Removal efficiencies up to 95% for SO 2 and up to 70% for NO x were achieved. Several thousand tons of the by-product was sold in the form of NPK fertilizer. Economically, the technology is competitive with the conventional ones.

  14. The use of flue gas for the growth of microalgal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, K.G.; Kadam, K.L.; Heacox, D.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by microalgae is a promising technology to help reduce emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Microalgae are of particular interest because of their rapid growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions. Laboratory work is directed toward investigating the effects of simulated flue gas on microalgae, while engineering studies have focused on the economics of the technology. One strain of a green algae, Monoraphidium minutum, has shown excellent tolerance and growth when exposed to simulated flue gas which meets the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). Biomass concentrations of {similar_to}2g/L have been measured in batch culture. Several other microalgae have also shown tolerance to simulated flue gas; however, the growth of these strains is not equivalent to that observed for M. minutum. Coupling the production of biodiesel or other microalgae-derived commodity chemicals with the use of flue gas carbon dioxide is potentially a zero-cost method of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide contributed to the atmosphere by fossil fuel-fired power plants. We have identified two major biological performance parameters which can provide sufficient improvement in this technology to render it cost-competitive with other existing CO{sub x} mitigation technologies. These are algal growth rate and lipid content. An updated economic analysis shows that growth rate is the more important of the two, and should be the focus of near term research activities. The long term goal of achieving zero cost will require other, non-biological, improvements in the process.

  15. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Rubber Co. FMC ( Soda Ash Plant ) General Motors General Motors General Motors General Motors General Motors Georgia-Pacific Paper Co. Great...use of alkali, especially caustic (NaOH), also requires increased concern with safety procedures for operating personnel. Limestone flue gas...proven technology was available at the time for SOx removal from stack gas at coal burning heating plants . This meant that coal burning units either

  16. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-01

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  17. Writing Assessment and the Revolution in Digital Texts and Technologies. Language & Literacy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Writing and the teaching of writing is changing at a rapid pace. How can educators understand writing assessment "as" and "with" technology in the 21st-century classroom? Michael Neal contends that new technologies are neither the problem nor the solution. Instead, educators need to tap into digital resources only inasmuch as they promote writing…

  18. Evaluating Assistive Technology in Early Childhood Education: The Use of a Concurrent Time Series Probe Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.

    2009-01-01

    As assistive technology applications are increasingly implemented in early childhood settings for children who are at risk or who have disabilities, it is critical that teachers utilize observational approaches to determine whether targeted assistive technology-supported interventions make a difference in children's learning. One structured…

  19. Flexible Pedagogies: Technology-Enhanced Learning. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This publication is part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future". It focuses on a better understanding of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) and: (1) identifies key international drivers in the move towards technology-enhanced learning; (2) highlights some of the challenges and opportunities…

  20. Evaluating Assistive Technology in Early Childhood Education: The Use of a Concurrent Time Series Probe Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.

    2009-01-01

    As assistive technology applications are increasingly implemented in early childhood settings for children who are at risk or who have disabilities, it is critical that teachers utilize observational approaches to determine whether targeted assistive technology-supported interventions make a difference in children's learning. One structured…

  1. 49 CFR 230.31 - Flues to be removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.31 Flues to be removed. (a) Inspection of the boiler interior. During the 1472... inspecting the entire interior of the boiler and its bracing. After removing the flues, the steam...

  2. Educational Applications of Communications Satellites in Canada. New Technologies in Canadian Education Series. Paper 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J. Murray

    Canada has explored the use of satellites as a means to provide information and communications services to geographically isolated populations since 1962. Between 1972 and 1984, five series of satellites known as Anik A, B, C, and D and Hermes were launched. Each satellite provided expanded communications services, and each led to research and…

  3. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  4. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  5. Software for Application of HHT Technologies to Time Series Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a robust and user-friendly software environment where NASA researchers can customize the latest HHT technologies for the LISA (and LIGO)...

  6. Software for Application of HHT Technologies to Time Series Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NLNS software developed in phase I is a robust and user-friendly environment that NASA researchers can use to customize the latest HHT technologies for their...

  7. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that

  8. Regenerable copper-based sorbents for high temperature flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.; Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Williams, B.E.; Khalili, N.R.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-07-01

    During conventional combustion process the sulfur in the coal is converted to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). This hazardous air pollutant combines with the moisture in the atmosphere and creates what is commonly known as acid rain. Thus the removal of this pollutant from flue gas prior to its discharge is very important. Government regulations have been introduced and have become progressively more stringent. In the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, for example, legislation was introduced requiring electric utilities to adopt available technology for removal of pollutant gases and particulates from coal combustion flue gases so that the increased use of coal is done in an environmentally acceptable manner. A number of processes have been developed for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The moving bed copper oxide process has been regarded as one of the most promising emerging technologies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal from flue gases at elevated temperatures. This process is based on the utilization of a dry, regenerable sorbent, that consists of copper oxide (CuO) supported on gamma alumina ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), in a cross flow moving-bed reactor. This study has been directed toward evaluation of the commercially available alumina-supported copper-based (ALCOA) sorbent to establish the baseline for development of new and improved sorbents for the copper oxide process. Evaluation of the baseline sorbent included determination of effective sulfur capacity and sulfur removal efficiency of the sorbent, the effects of operating parameters on the performance of the sorbent, as well as long term durability of the sorbent. Physical and chemical properties of the baseline sorbent were also determined.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T.

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. The Application of RUF Series Catalysts and Its Grading Optimization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Changling

    2008-01-01

    Qilu Petrochemical Company in order to synchronize the replacement of catalysts in the upflow reactor (UFR) and fixed-bed reactors and achieve the 1.5-year operating cycle of the residue hydrotreating unit has revamped the UFR and optimized catalysts grading. Commercial operation results have revealed that the series of catalysts for residue hydrotreating after optimized grading achieved an operating cycle of 1.5 years with the quality of hydrotreated oil products meeting the requirements for FCC feedstock.

  12. A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloß, P.; Jüttner, G.; Jacob, S.; Löser, C.; Michaelis, J.; Krajewsky, P.

    2014-05-01

    Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved. Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process "all" thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail.

  13. A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloß, P., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jüttner, G., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jacob, S., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Löser, C., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Michaelis, J., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Krajewsky, P., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de [Kunststoff-Zentrum in Leipzig gGmbH (KuZ), Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved. Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process 'all' thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail.

  14. Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-25

    application of radiation processing: radiation crosslinking of polymers and radiation sterilization of health care products have developed into substantial...municipal waste water, • radiation inactivation of bioterrorism agents, • electron beam processing of flue gases, • radiation crosslinking , • radiation...Electron beam processing of flue gases 6. Radiation crosslinking 7. Radiation curing 3 Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism L.G. Gazsó and G

  15. Preparing for High Technology: CAD/CAM Programs. Research & Development Series No. 234.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Robert; And Others

    This guide is one of three developed to provide information and resources to assist in planning and developing postsecondary technican training programs in high technology areas. It is specifically intended for vocational-technical educators and planners in the initial stages of planning a specialized training option in computer-aided design (CAD)…

  16. MISAT : Designing a Series of Powerful Small Satellites Based upon Micro Systems Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, E.; Monna, G.L.E.; Scherpen, J.M.A.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    MISAT is a research and development cluster which will create a small satellite platform based on Micro Systems Technology (MST) aiming at innovative space as well as terrestrial applications. MISAT is part of the Dutch MicroNed program which has established a microsystems infrastructure to fully

  17. MISAT : Designing a Series of Powerful Small Satellites Based upon Micro Systems Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, E.; Monna, G.L.E.; Scherpen, J.M.A.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    MISAT is a research and development cluster which will create a small satellite platform based on Micro Systems Technology (MST) aiming at innovative space as well as terrestrial applications. MISAT is part of the Dutch MicroNed program which has established a microsystems infrastructure to fully ex

  18. A breakthrough in flue gas cleanup, CO2 mitigation and H2S removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolf; Wasas, James; Stenger, Raymond; Howell, Evan

    2010-09-15

    SWAPSOL Corp. is developing commercial processes around a newly discovered reaction that reduces H2S below detectable levels while reacting with CO2 to form water, sulfur and carsuls, a carbon-sulfur polymer. The Stenger-Wasas Process (SWAP) stands to simplify sulfur removal technology as it consumes CO2 in an exothermic reaction. The SWAP has applications in landfill, sour, flue and Claus tail gas cleanup and may replace Claus technology. Destruction of waste hydrocarbons provides a source of H2S. The primary reactions and variants have been independently verified and the chemical kinetics determined by a third party laboratory.

  19. A breakthrough in flue gas cleanup, CO2 mitigation and H2S removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolf; Wasas, James; Stenger, Raymond; Howell, Evan

    2010-09-15

    SWAPSOL Corp. is developing commercial processes around a newly discovered reaction that reduces H2S below detectable levels while reacting with CO2 to form water, sulfur and carsuls, a carbon-sulfur polymer. The Stenger-Wasas Process (SWAP) stands to simplify sulfur removal technology as it consumes CO2 in an exothermic reaction. The SWAP has applications in landfill, sour, flue and Claus tail gas cleanup and may replace Claus technology. Destruction of waste hydrocarbons provides a source of H2S. The primary reactions and variants have been independently verified and the chemical kinetics determined by a third party laboratory.

  20. Series-Bosch Technology for Oxygen Recovery During Lunar or Martian Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Mansell, J. Matthew; Rabenberg, Ellen; Stanley, Christine M.; Edmunson, Jennifer; Alleman, James E.; Chen, Kevin; Dumez, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration surface missions to the Moon or Mars will require life support systems that maximize resource recovery to minimize resupply from Earth. To address this need, NASA previously proposed a Series-Bosch (S-Bosch) oxygen recovery system, based on the Bosch process, which can theoretically recover 100% of the oxygen from metabolic carbon dioxide. Bosch processes have the added benefits of the potential to recover oxygen from atmospheric carbon dioxide and the use of regolith materials as catalysts, thereby eliminating the need for catalyst resupply from Earth. In 2012, NASA completed an initial design for an S-Bosch development test stand that incorporates two catalytic reactors in series including a Reverse Water-Gas Shift (RWGS) Reactor and a Carbon Formation Reactor (CFR). In 2013, fabrication of system components, with the exception of a CFR, and assembly of the test stand was initiated. Stand-alone testing of the RWGS reactor was completed to compare performance with design models. Continued testing of Lunar and Martian regolith simulants provided sufficient data to design a CFR intended to utilize these materials as catalysts. Finally, a study was conducted to explore the possibility of producing bricks from spent regolith catalysts. The results of initial demonstration testing of the RWGS reactor, results of continued catalyst performance testing of regolith simulants, and results of brick material properties testing are reported. Additionally, design considerations for a regolith-based CFR are discussed.

  1. Silicon carbide based sensor system for minimized emissions in flue gases; Kiselkarbidbaserat sensorsystem foer minimering av emissioner i roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd Spetz, Anita; Bjorklund, Robert

    2012-02-15

    Control of the combustion process is necessary in order to operate boilers in an economic and environmentally acceptable manner. Large power plants can afford expensive measurement instruments to continuously monitor the composition of flue gas. Smaller facilities often lack complete gas analysis systems and it would be to their advantage to have access to inexpensive measurement equipment which could be installed at several points in the flue gas channel. Since oxygen concentration is such an important parameter for describing the combustion process the lambdasond is currently being used as an oxygen sensor in flue gas. It has the advantage of usage for more than 30 years in the automobile industry. Experience from that application has aided its introduction in the power industry. Conditions are not the same in the two branches but the lambdasond is an established technology, produced in large volume, widely available and inexpensive. Vehicle manufacturers continue to develop sensor technology and monitoring capabilities have been extended to CO, NOx and NH3. The latter is the result of SCR (selective catalytic reduction) of NOx by addition of NH3 (from urea), which has been introduced as an exhaust gas aftertreatment technology in diesel powered vehicles. The power industry can be expected to follow this trend by incorporating sensors for monitoring and control of SCR and SNCR (non-catalytic selective reduction) in flue gas applications. This report describes evaluation of silicon carbide based transistors, which have previously been studied in diesel exhaust gas and small boiler flue gas, for applications in larger power plants

  2. Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Tyminski, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew; Pawelec, Andrzej; Licki, Janusz

    2003-08-01

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants, like SO2, NOx, HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however, the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First, using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture, and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan, the USA, Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland, third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany, Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators, 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world, nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

  3. Preparation of nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment by recycling of blast furnace flue dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lazhen; Qiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Yong; Tan, Junru

    2010-05-15

    Blast furnace (BF) flue dust is one of pollutants emitted by iron and steel plants. The recycling of BF flue dust can not only reduce pollution but also bring social and environmental benefits. In this study, leaching technique was employed to the treatment of BF flue dust at first. A mixed solution of ferrous and ferric sulfate was obtained and used as raw material to prepare nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment (Fe(3)O(4), magnetite) with NaOH as precipitant. The optimal technological conditions including total iron ion concentration, Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) mole ratio, precipitant concentration and reaction temperature were studied and discussed carefully. The spectral reflectance and oil absorption were used as major parameters to evaluate performance of pigment. Furthermore, Fe(3)O(4) particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under optimized conditions obtained pigment has low average spectral reflectance (<4%), good oil absorption ( approximately 23%), high black intensity, and narrow size distribution 60-70 nm.

  4. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  5. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  6. Discussion on “Control in Coordination” Technology of Flue Gas Emission in Coal-ifred Power Plant%燃煤电厂烟气排放“协同控制”技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江得厚; 王贺岑; 张营帅

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces the“Control in Coordination”technology of lfue gas emission in coal-ifred power plants abroad and at home, and the main scenarios of current implementation in the country; probes into and analyzes the problems of the“Control in Coordination”technology of lfue gas.%介绍了国内外燃煤电厂烟气排放“协同控制”技术,以及国内目前实施的主要方案,探讨分析了烟气“协同控制”技术各个环节应该注意的问题。

  7. Efficient Lignite-fired Power Generation Technology Based on Open Pulverizing Systems With Flue Gas Drying Fan Mill and Recovery of Heat and Water From Pulverizing Exhaust%基于炉烟干燥及水回收风扇磨仓储式制粉系统的高效褐煤发电技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马有福; 郭晓克; 肖峰; 施登宇

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种基于炉烟干燥及水回收风扇磨仓储式制粉系统的高效褐煤发电技术,并以某在役600 MW超临界褐煤(全水分39.5%)机组为对比工程,对应用炉烟干燥及水回收仓储式制粉系统的安全性、节能性及水回收效益进行了计算比较和分析讨论.结果表明:该技术可降低机组标煤发电煤耗10 g/(kW·h)左右,同时锅炉岛投资有所减小,厂用电基本不变;通过高湿制粉乏气的冷却,可回收大量原煤中水资源,若将其用于补充电厂水耗,有望实现“零水耗”褐煤电厂;以惰性烟气为制粉系统干燥剂,解决了困扰燃褐煤机组安全运行的制粉系统爆炸问题;在实现上述效果的同时,未产生新的污染物排放.该技术工艺及设备成熟,工程可行性佳;而且与以提高蒸汽参数为主要思路的超临界、超超临界、二次再热及700℃发电技术均可组合应用.该技术对加快褐煤产区电源基地建设和改善当地生态环境具有重大社会意义和显著经济效益,是值得深入研究与推广应用的绿色高效燃煤发电技术.%This paper advanced an efficient lignite-fired power generation technology based on open pulverizing system with flue gas drying fan mill and recovery of heat and water from pulverizing exhaust. In order to demonstrate the security, energy saving and water recovery advantages of this new technology, a detailed comparative calculation and analysis was performed by comparison with an operating 600 MW power generating unit which fired Chinese lignite with total moisture 39.5% and applied traditional direct-fired pulverizing system. The calculation results show that the gross standard coal consumption rate could be reduced about 10 g/(kWh) by applying this new technology, meanwhile the investment of boiler island could be slightly reduced and the service power remained unchanged on the whole. On the other hand, a mass of water resource could be recovered from

  8. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR "C-SERIES" POLYESTER PANEL FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar "C-Series" Polyester Panel Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 126 Pa clean and 267...

  10. Development and application potential analysis of carbon dioxide capture technology from flue gas in steel works%钢厂烟气CO2捕捉技术的开发及其应用前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛艳丽; 曲余玲; 李博; 景馨; 朱剑兵

    2016-01-01

    The iron and steel industries in several countries have been carried out the development of carbon capture and sequestration(CCS)technology in recent years. The carbon dioxide capture cost approximately accounts for 70 per-cent of the total cost of CCS. Therefore,the reduction of the cost to capture the carbon dioxide becomes the major prob-lem. The carbon dioxide capture processes developed by the steel works so far are mainly chemical absorption methods and physical adsorption methods,the costs in experimental scale have been reduced. The carbon dioxide capture technol-ogies developed by Japanese steel works,such as Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal,South Korea's POSCO and China-Taiwan's China Steel etc are described and the industrial application potentials of the technologies are analyzed.%近年来,许多国家开展钢铁工业CO2捕捉与封存(CCS)技术研究。在CCS成本中,CO2捕捉成本约占70%,因此,降低CO2捕捉成本是CCS首先要解决的问题。目前钢厂开发的CO2捕捉工艺主要以化学吸收法和物理吸附法为主,并在试验规模取得成本降低的效果。介绍日本新日铁和JFE、韩国浦项、中国台湾中钢等开发的CO2捕捉技术,并对CO2捕捉技术的工业化应用前景进行分析。

  11. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe

  12. Introduction to the Minireview Series on Modern Technologies for In-cell Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2016-02-19

    The last decade has seen enormous progress in the exploration and understanding of the behavior of molecules in their natural cellular environments at increasingly high spatial and temporal resolution. Advances in microscopy and the development of new fluorescent reagents as well as genetic editing techniques have enabled quantitative analysis of protein interactions, intracellular trafficking, metabolic changes, and signaling. Modern biochemistry now faces new and exciting challenges. Can traditionally "in vitro" experiments, e.g. analysis of protein folding and conformational transitions, be done in cells? Can the structure and behavior of endogenous and/or non-tagged recombinant proteins be analyzed and altered within the cell or in cellular compartments? How can molecules and their actions be studied mechanistically in tissues and organs? Is personalized cellular biochemistry a reality? This thematic series summarizes recent studies that illustrate some first steps toward successfully answering these modern biochemical questions. The first minireview focuses on utilization of three-dimensional primary enteroids and organoids for mechanistic studies of intestinal biology with molecular resolution. The second minireview describes application of single chain antibodies (nanobodies) for monitoring and regulating protein dynamics in vitro and in cells. The third minireview highlights advances in using NMR spectroscopy for analysis of protein folding and assembly in cells.

  13. 烟气余热深度回收方法研究%Research Progress of Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢正和; 陈鹏; 贾向东; 刘英杰; 朱迎春; 李洋

    2016-01-01

    To solve the current energy and environment problems,must be to increase rate of energy to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction.The depth of the flue gas waste heat recovery technology for energy conservation and emissions reduction has substantial significance.This paper expounds several typical flue gas waste heat recovery units and its research progress,technology of flue gas waste heat was predicated.%烟气余热深度回收技术是提高能源利用率的重要途径。本文阐述了几种具有代表性的烟气余热深度回收装置,介绍了技术研究进展情况,并在此基础上对烟气余热深度技术进行了展望。

  14. Biopolymer nanocomposites: processing, properties, and applications (wiley series on polymer engineering and technology)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Interest in biopolymer nanocomposites is soaring. Not only are they green and sustainable materials, they can also be used to develop a broad range of useful products with special properties, from therapeutics to coatings to packaging materials. With contributions from an international team of leading nanoscientists and materials researchers, this book draws together and reviews the most recent developments and techniques in biopolymer nano-composites. It describes the preparation, processing, properties, and applications of bio- polymer nanocomposites developed from chitin, starch, and cellulose, three renewable resources.Biopolymer Nanocomposites features a logical organization and approach that make it easy for readers to take full advantage of the latest science and technology in designing these materials and developing new products and applications. It begins with a chapter reviewing our current understanding of b...

  15. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  16. Improvement of Drying Temperature Control Method in Tobacco-Flue-Cured Barn%烤烟烘烤房干温度控制方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英俊; 金珖龙

    2011-01-01

    为了提高烤烟烘烤房的干温度精度和烤烟的烘烤质量,降低耗煤量,对往复推动式烟叶烘烤仪的干温度的控制方法进行了改进.通过利用模糊控制技术控制推煤电动机工作时间和停止工作时间,实现了根据烘烤工艺的要求对烤烟烘烤房的干温度进行实时监测的精确控制目标.%To improve the precision of drying temperature control of tobacco-flue-cured barn and the quality of flue-cured tobacco,and to reduce coal consumption for flue-cured tobacco,the drying temperature control method for the flue-cured tobacco apparatus with reciprocating transport function was improved.The working time and halting time of a coal-transport electric motor were controlled by fuzzy control technology,with the technology above the real-time of the accuracy control of the drying temperature of tobacco flue-cured barn was realized.

  17. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  18. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, John B. L.; Doctor, Richard D.; Wingender, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  19. Studies of Leaning-type-air-distributing-plate Loose-leaf Bulk Curing Technology on Flue-cured Tobacco%烟叶背靠式分风板散叶密集烘烤技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹吉平; 卢雨; 杜超凡; 童旭华; 王峰吉

    2015-01-01

    The application effects of leaning-type-air-distributing-plate on loose-leaf bulk curing technology were studied in this paper. The results showed that: the application of leaning-type-air-distributing-plate technology on loose-leaf bulk curing increased the tobacco leaves loading capacity by 66.54%. The curing cost of dry tobacco leaves reduced 0.62 yuan per kg. The economic benefit of the cured tobacco leaves of one bulk curing barn increased by 8 559.06 yuan. The ratio of high quality leaves, average price, single leaf weight, output value of the cured tobacco leaves were all higher than that of the control. The smoking quality of it was improved.%研究了背靠式分风板散叶密集烘烤技术在烤烟上的应用效果,结果表明:应用背靠式分风板散叶密集烘烤技术,可增加密集烤房装烟容量61.51%,每千克干烟叶减少烘烤成本0.62元,单炉经济效益增加8559.06元;烤后烟叶上等烟比例、均价、单叶重、产值均高于对照,烟叶感官评吸质量有所提高。

  20. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer

  1. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer

  2. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  3. A study of flue gas emission reduction from cremation processes by the "Amalgator"

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    On 1 April 1999 a study, commissioned by Vermeulen Product Engineering, was conducted by the Department of Thermal Conversion Technology of TNO-MEP of the filter efficiency of the Amalgator at the Crematorium Nedermaas in Geleen in the Netherlands. At this crematorium a cremator of the "warm-start"type is in-stalled. The Amalgator is a filter system developed for the reduction of mercury, dust and PCDD/PCDF emissions in the flue gasses of cremators. It consists of a dustfilter, a catalytic be...

  4. Introduction to thematic minireview series: Development of human therapeutics based on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mahendra; Gottesfeld, Joel M

    2014-02-21

    With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, it is now possible to derive patient-specific cell lines that are of great potential in both basic research and the development of new therapeutics for human diseases. Not only do hiPSCs offer unprecedented opportunities to study cellular differentiation and model human diseases, but the differentiated cell types obtained from iPSCs may become therapeutics themselves. These cells can also be used in the screening of therapeutics and in toxicology assays for potential liabilities of therapeutic agents. The remarkable achievement of transcription factor reprogramming to generate iPSCs was recognized by the award of the Nobel Prize in Medicine to Shinya Yamanaka in 2012, just 6 years after the first publication of reprogramming methods to generate hiPSCs (Takahashi, K., Tanabe, K., Ohnuki, M., Narita, M., Ichisaka, T., Tomoda, K., and Yamanaka, S. (2007) Cell 131, 861-872). This minireview series highlights both the promises and challenges of using iPSC technology for disease modeling, drug screening, and the development of stem cell therapeutics.

  5. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  6. Applying ACF to Desulfurization Process from Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义; 张智刚; 唐强; 曹子栋

    2004-01-01

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used.Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO2. Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost.

  7. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toy, Lora [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO

  8. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by

  9. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  11. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  12. Wet flue gas desulphurization and new fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Michelsen, M.L.

    1998-04-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigations of wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD). A review of the current knowledge of the various rate determining steps in wet FDG plants is presented. The mechanism underlying the rate of dissolution of finely grained limestone particles was examined in a laboratory batch apparatus using acid titration. Three Danish limestones of different origin were tested. A transient, mass transport controlled, mathematical model was developed to describe the dissolution process. Model predictions were found to be qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data. Empirical correlations for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients in a pilot plant (falling-film column) were determined. The presence of inert particles in the liquid phase was found to decrease the rate of gas phase mass transport with up to 15%, though the effect could not be correlated. A detailed model for a wet FGD pilot plant, based on the falling film principle, was developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup -}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH-profiles, solids contents of slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. The possibility of co-firing straw and coal was investigated in a full-scale power plant. No effects on the overall performance of the wet FGD plant were observed, though laboratory experiments with fine dust and fly ash from the full-scale experiments showed a decrease in limestone reactivity. (EG) EFP-95. 45 refs.; Also ph.d. thesis of Soeren Kiil

  13. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  14. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  15. Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used.

  16. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  17. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

  18. Experimental investigation of a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental parameter study was conducted in a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). The pilot plant is downscaled from a limestone-based, gypsum producing full-scale wet FGD plant. Important process parameters, such as slurry pH, inlet...... flue gas concentration of SO2, reactor temperature, and slurry concentration of Cl- have been varied. The degree of desulphurisation, residual limestone content of the gypsum, liquid phase concentrations, and solids content of the slurry were measured during the experimental series. The SO2 removal...... efficiency increased from 66.1% to 71.5% when the reactor slurry pH was changed from 3.5 to 5.5. Addition of Cl(in the form of CaCl2 . 2H(2)O) to the slurry (25 g Cl-/l) increased the degree of desulphurisation to above 99%, due to the onset of extensive foaming, which substantially increased the gas...

  19. Hydrophobic Catalysts For Removal Of NOx From Flue Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.; Voecks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Improved catalysts for removal of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) from combustion flue gases formulated as composites of vanadium pentoxide in carbon molecular sieves. Promotes highly efficient selective catalytic reduction of NOx at relatively low temperatures while not being adversely affected by presence of water vapor and sulfur oxide gases in flue gas. Apparatus utilizing catalyst of this type easily integrated into exhaust stream of power plant to remove nitrogen oxides, generated in combustion of fossil fuels and contribute to formation of acid rain and photochemical smog.

  20. Heat Transfer in Flue Gas with Vapor Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾力; 彭晓峰

    2002-01-01

    This paper combines the film model with Nusselt's condensation theory to analyze the effects of water vapor condensation on the heat transfer performance of flue gas flowing through a vertical tube. The analysis compares the condensation and convective heat transfer rates. For the concentration range investigated, the water vapor condensation transfers more energy than the flue gas convection, but the convective heat transfer can not be neglected. The heat transfer intensification due to the condensation increased as the water vapor fraction increased. The theoretical results compared well with experimental data.

  1. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested.

  2. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  3. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  4. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  5. Absorption of Flue-Gas Components by Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Thomassen, Peter Langelund; Mossin, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    for absorption of NOX, CO2 and SO2 are demonstrated and the possible mechanism of absorption described on the molecular level. Special focus regards the interaction of the ILs with water vapor, which is an important feature in envisaged application of flue gas cleaning in power plants, waste incineration plants...

  6. Performance of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilot Plant under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Fogh, Folmer; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2011-01-01

    vol % CO2, at a holding tank pH 5.4, reduced the limestone dissolution rate significantly and thereby increased the residual, particulate limestone concentration in the gypsum slurry from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L slurry relative to a base-case (air-firing) experiment with a flue gas CO2 concentration around 7......, but an additional increase in desulfurization degree, from 94 to 97%, was obtained. Using a holding tank pH 5.0 (no adipic acid) returned both parameters to the levels observed in the base-case experiment.......Oxy-fuel firing is a promising technology that should enable the capture and storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as power plants and heavy industry. However, this new technology has a high energy demand for air separation and CO2 compression and storage...

  7. Pure Air`s advanced flue gas desulfurization clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generating Station. This project received a $60 million grant from the DOE Clean Coal II program. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The facility was designed, built and is owned and operated by Pure Air of Allentown, Pennsylvania, through its project company, Pure Air on the Lake, Limited Partnership. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum.

  8. Carbon dioxide capture strategies from flue gas using microalgae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniya M; Mechery, Jerry; Paulose, Sylas V

    2016-09-01

    Global warming and pollution are the twin crises experienced globally. Biological offset of these crises are gaining importance because of its zero waste production and the ability of the organisms to thrive under extreme or polluted condition. In this context, this review highlights the recent developments in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gas using microalgae and finding the best microalgal remediation strategy through contrast and comparison of different strategies. Different flue gas microalgal remediation strategies discussed are as follows: (i) Flue gas to CO2 gas segregation using adsorbents for microalgal mitigation, (ii) CO2 separation from flue gas using absorbents and later regeneration for microalgal mitigation, (iii) Flue gas to liquid conversion for direct microalgal mitigation, and (iv) direct flue gas mitigation using microalgae. This work also studies the economic feasibility of microalgal production. The study discloses that the direct convening of flue gas with high carbon dioxide content, into microalgal system is cost-effective.

  9. Important engineering issues in FCC regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing process%催化裂化可再生湿法烟气脱硫工艺应关注的工程问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏; 郭宏昶; 胡永龙; 汤红年; 王刻文; 谭忻; 朱雷鸣

    2012-01-01

    The two typical and industrialized FCC regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing processes I. E. LABSORB process of DuPont BELCO and CANSOLV process of Shell Global Solutions are introduced and the main technical indexes and technical features of the two processes are compared. The main characteristics of RASO process and associated engineering technologies developed by SINOPEC Luoyang Petrochemical Engineering Corporation are described, and the ion liquid recycle flue gas scrubbing process developed by Chengdu Huaxi Chemical Technology Co, Ltd. Are discussed. The impacts of application of regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing process in FCC units on the upstream flue gas expander, waste heat boiler or CO boiler and on operating parameters and capacity of the downstream sulfur recovery unit are studied in detail. It is pointed out that the absorbent ( scrubbing liquid) is the core technology of the regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing process, which determines the advance of the technology as well as capital investment and energy consumption of the flue gas scrubbing unit. The engineering technologies for application of regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing technology in FCC unit need to be further improved in respect of long-term operation, equipment layout & plot area requirement, capital vestment, energy consumption and operating costs, etc. When selecting the regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing for FCC unit, the impacts on upstream flue gas expander, waste heat boiler or CO boiler and the downstream sulfur recovery unit have to be considered to design FCC unit, flue gas scrubbing unit and sulfur recovery unit into an integrated complex.The two typical and industrialized FCC regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing processes I. E. LABSORB. Process of DuPont, BELCO, And CANSOLV, Process of Shell Global Solutions are introduced and the main technical indexes and technical features of the two processes are compared. The main characteristics of RASO process and associated engineering

  10. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  11. State-of-the-art review of materials-related problems in flue gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiya, P. S.

    1980-10-01

    This report characterizes the chemical and mechanical environments to which the structural components used in flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) are exposed. It summarizes the necessary background information pertinent to various FGD processes currently in use, with particular emphasis on lime/limestone scrubbing technology, so that the materials problems and processing variables encountered in FGD systems can be better defined and appreciated. The report also describes the materials currently used and their performance to date in existing wet scrubbers. There is little doubt that with more extensive use of coal and flue-gas scrubbers by utilities and other segments of private industry, a better understanding of the material failure mechanisms, performance limitations, and potential problem areas is required for the design of more reliable and cost-effective FGD systems. To meet the above objectives, a materials evaluation program is proposed. The important experimental variables and the number of tests required to evaluate a given material are discussed. 55 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  12. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  13. JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

    2009-03-31

    This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

  14. Ni supported on activated carbon as catalyst for flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ni supported on activated carbon are prepared by excessive impregnation and the desulfurization activity is investigated. It has been shown that the activated carbon-supported Ni is an efficient solid catalyst for flue gas desulfurization. The activated carbon treated by HNO3 exhibits high desulfurization activity, and different amounts of loaded-Ni on activated carbon significantly influence the desulfurization activity. The catalysts are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of XRD and XPS indicate that the activated carbon treated by HNO3 can increase oxygen-containing functional groups. Ni on activated carbon after calcination at 800 °C shows major Ni phase and minor NiO phase, and with increasing Ni content on activated carbon, Ni phase increases and affects the desulfurization activity of the catalyst, which proves that Ni is the main active phase.

  15. Aapplication of Activated Coke in Flue Gas Purification%活性焦在烟气净化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盼宋; 李建军; 张序; 贺尧祖; 余洋

    2016-01-01

    活性焦烟气净化技术具有流程简单、投资少、无二次污染等特点,很好地顺应了目前国家发展循环性经济、推广产物可资源化、干法节水和高性能的环保技术的现状。文章分析了活性焦烟气净化的机理、流程及影响其净化效率的因素,提出活性焦烟气净化技术作为目前比较前卫的烟气净化技术,具有广阔的应用前景。%With simple process, less investment and no secondary pollution etc,the flue gas purification technology used of activated coke was well complied with the countries’present situation, needing to develop circular economy and promoting environmental protection technology that whose product could recycle, saving water and high performance. The mechanism, process and factors which affected its purification efficiency of these technology were analyzed. It was found that flue gas purification technology used of activated coke as currently compares halfback flue gas purification technology had broad application prospects.

  16. Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Clean Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generation Station. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The project was built by a joint venture company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc., utilizing Mitsubishi`s wet limestone flue gas desulfurization technology. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced 936,000 metric tons of high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum. The AFGD system was designed, built, owned and operated by Pure Air and will continue to serve NIPSCO`s Bailly Station for at least another 15{1/2} years under an Own and Operate contract. The project enabled NIPSCO to cost effectively achieve full system wide compliance with the Phase 2 emission requirements for SO{sub 2} of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 almost eight years before the target date. The project was the recipient of the Outstanding Engineering Achievement Award from the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1993 and the 1993 Powerplant Award from Power magazine. The data presented in this paper are based on performance during the first three years of operation.

  17. Low water FGD technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Conventional flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems require large supplies of water. Technologies which reduce water usage are becoming more important with the large number of FGD systems being installed in response to ever tightening emission regulations. Reducing water loss is particularly important in arid regions of the world. This report reviews commercial and near commercial low water FGD processes for coal-fired power plants, including dry, semi-dry and multi-pollutant technologies. Wet scrubbers, the most widely deployed FGD technology, account for around 10–15% of the water losses in power plants with water cooling systems. This figure is considerably higher when dry/air cooling systems are employed. The evaporative water losses can be reduced by some 40–50% when the flue gas is cooled before it enters the wet scrubber, a common practice in Europe and Japan. Technologies are under development to capture over 20% of the water in the flue gas exiting the wet scrubber, enabling the power plant to become a water supplier instead of a consumer. The semi-dry spray dry scrubbers and circulating dry scrubbers consume some 60% less water than conventional wet scrubbers. The commercial dry sorbent injection processes have the lowest water consumption, consuming no water, or a minimal amount if the sorbent needs hydrating or the flue gas is humidified to improve performance. Commercial multi-pollutant systems are available that consume no water.

  18. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  19. Performance improvement of a 330MWe power plant by flue gas heat recovery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a utility boiler, the most heat loss is from the exhaust flue gas. In order to reduce the exhaust flue gas temperature and further boost the plant efficiency, an improved indirect flue gas heat recovery system and an additional economizer system are proposed. The waste heat of flue gas is used for high-pressure condensate regeneration heating. This reduces high pressure steam extraction from steam turbine and more power is generated. The waste heat recovery of flue gas decreases coal consumption. Other approaches for heat recovery of flue gas, direct utilization of flue gas energy and indirect flue gas heat recovery system, are also considered in this work. The proposed systems coupled with a reference 330MWe power plant are simulated using equivalent enthalpy drop method. The results show that the additional economizer scheme has the best performance. When the exhaust flue gas temperature decreases from 153℃ to 123℃, power output increases by 6.37MWe and increment in plant efficiency is about 1.89%. For the improved indirect flue gas heat recovery system, power output increases by 5.68MWe and the increment in plant efficiency is 1.69%.

  20. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  1. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3]. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U. S. coal.

  2. Caregiver Use of the Core Components of Technology-Enhanced Helping the Noncompliant Child: A Case Series Analysis of Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T; Jones, Deborah J; Cuellar, Jessica; Forehand, Rex; Gonzalez, Michelle; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Newey, Greg; Edwards, Alex; Jacobs, Mary; Pitmman, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Children from low-income families are more likely to develop early-onset disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) compared to their higher income counterparts. Low-income families of children with early-onset DBDs, however, are less likely to engage in the standard-of-care treatment, behavioral parent training (BPT), than families from other sociodemographic groups. Preliminary between-group findings suggested technology-enhanced BPT was associated with increased engagement and boosted treatment outcomes for low-income families relative to standard BPT. The current study used a case series design to take this research a step further by examining whether there was variability in use of, and reactions to, the smartphone enhancements within technology-enhanced BPT and the extent to which this variability paralleled treatment outcome. Findings provide a window into the uptake and use of technology-enhanced service delivery methods among low-income families, with implications for the broader field of children's mental health.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesch, David A

    2010-06-30

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs

  4. Flue gas treatment with membrane gas absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Dutch researchers from the TN0 Institute have developed a technique to carry out gas-liquid contacting operations using hollow fibre membranes in combination with an absorption liquid. The method known as membrane gas absorption, aims to combine the advantages of membrane technology (compactness, fl

  5. Industrial demonstration plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Iller, Edward; Zimek, Zbigniew; Romanowski, Micna; Koperski, Kazimierz

    1995-09-01

    The positive results of the tests performed on laboratory and pilot installations in Poland, Japan, USA and Germany have led to decision concerning design and construction of the industrial demonstration plant for electron beam flue gas treatment. The planned flue gas purification installation will treat tlue gases from a block which consists of two Benson type boilers of power 56 MWe each supplying additional steam for heating purposes up to 40 MWth each. The 270 000 Nm3 /h tlue gases (half of produced by the block) will be treated with efficiency of 90% for SO2 and 70% for NOx. This meets Polish regulations which will be imposed in 1997. The technical and economical description of the project is presented in the paper.

  6. Capture of CO2 From Recirculating Flue Gas Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochs, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The possible need for an economical method for the separation of CO2 from flue gas adds a new set of challenges to power plant design, construction, operation, and maintenance. Many of the new requirements of CO2 separation are similar in nature to those addressed by the mature chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refining and industrial chemical production. Chemical engineering processes are regularly used to separate heterogeneous vapors in processes such as the fractionation of hydrocarbons or the separation of the components of air. This paper addresses the application of chemical engineering processes to the mixtures of gases and vapors found in the flue gas of recirculating boilers. Adaptation of these techniques can lead to a reduction in the energy required to capture CO2.

  7. Algal biomass production and carbon fixation from flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ling; ZHU Jing

    2016-01-01

    Algal biofuel has established as one of renewable energy. In this study, Nannochloropsis salina was cultured to test feasibility of biomass production and CO2 fixation from flue gas. Firstly, cultivation was conducted under different light intensity. Results showed that the highest dry biomass of 1.25±0.061 g/L was achieved at light intensity of 10klux, while the highest total lipids was 33.677±1.9% at light intensity of 15klux. The effect of mercury on algae growth was also investigated, the algae growth was serious limited at the presence of mercury, and there was no any difference at the range of 10-50 ug/m3. These results provide useful information for algal biomass production and CO2 fixation from flue gas.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-09-30

    This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

  9. Profiles in Online Learning: A Series on Leadership--Tom Layton: Judo and the Art of Technology Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Profiles a high school technology teacher and creator of CyberSchool, a distance learning program of the Eugene (Oregon) School District. Discusses Tom Layton's education, early work experience, establishment of a high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, integration of computers into the classroom, reputation as a technology leader,…

  10. Profiles in Online Learning: A Series on Leadership--Tom Layton: Judo and the Art of Technology Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Profiles a high school technology teacher and creator of CyberSchool, a distance learning program of the Eugene (Oregon) School District. Discusses Tom Layton's education, early work experience, establishment of a high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program, integration of computers into the classroom, reputation as a technology leader,…

  11. Industrial applications of electron beam flue gas treatment—From laboratory to the practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-08-01

    The electron beam technology for flue gas treatment (EBFGT) has been developed in Japan in the early 1980s. Later on, this process was investigated in pilot scale in the USA, Germany, Japan, Poland, Bulgaria and China. The new engineering and process solutions have been developed during the past two decades. Finally industrial plants have been constructed in Poland and China. The high efficiency of SO x and NO x removal was achieved (up to 95% for SO x and up to 70% for NO x) and by-product is a high quality fertilizer. Since the power of accelerators applied in industrial installation is over 1 MW and requested operational availability of the plant is equal to 8500 h in year, it is a new challenge for radiation processing applications.

  12. 90`s for the 90`s: High efficiency dry flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, T.E.; Buschmann, J.C. [ABB Environmental Systems, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendments with additional State regulation have pushed the requirements for SO{sub 2} reduction on coal fired boiler emissions to 90% and above. The development and application of spray dryer reactors in the 1990`s to meet these increasingly difficult requirements has continued. This paper describes two spray dryer absorption processes which are capable of high efficiency. A cost benefit comparison between the two is included. Specific design features at several plants are presented. Full scale application and operation of spray dryer reactors with fabric filters on coal fired boilers has demonstrated that the dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) process is a proven technology for high SO{sub 2} removal. Low capital cost coupled with high SO{sub 2} removal makes the DFGD process attractive, competitive and proven for meeting the performance requirements in the 1990`s.

  13. Technical description of parameters influencing the pH value of suspension absorbent used in flue gas desulfurization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głomba, Michał

    2010-08-01

    As a result of the large limestone deposits available in Poland, the low cost of reagent acquisition for the largescale technological use and relatively well-documented processes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies based on limestone sorbent slurry, wet scrubbing desulfurization is a method of choice in Poland for flue gas treatment in energy production facilities, including power plants and industrial systems. The efficiency of FGD using the above method depends on several technological and kinetic parameters, particularly on the pH value of the sorbent (i.e., ground limestone suspended in water). Consequently, many studies in Poland and abroad address the impact of various parameters on the pH value of the sorbent suspension, such as the average diameter of sorbent particles (related to the limestone pulverization degree), sorbent quality (in terms of pure calcium carbonate [CaCO3] content of the sorbent material), stoichiometric surfeit of CaCO3 in relation to sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbed from flue gas circulating in the absorption node, time of absorption slurry retention in the absorber tank, chlorine ion concentration in sorbent slurry, and concentration of dissolved metal salts (Na, K, Mg, Fe, Al, and others). This study discusses the results of laboratory-scale tests conducted to establish the effect of the above parameters on the pH value of limestone slurry circulating in the SO2 absorption node. On the basis of the test results, a correlation equation was postulated to help maintain the desirable pH value at the design phase of the wet FGD process. The postulated equation displays good coincidence between calculated pH values and those obtained using laboratory measurements.

  14. Stress analysis of the O-element pipe during the process of flue gases purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekvasil R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Equipment for flue gases purification from undesired substances is used throughout power and other types of industry. This paper deals with damaging of the O-element pipe designed to remove sulphur from the flue gases, i.e. damaging of the pipe during flue gases purification. This purification is conducted by spraying the water into the O-shaped pipe where the flue gases flow. Thus the sulphur binds itself onto the water and gets removed from the flue gas. Injection of cold water into hot flue gases, however, causes high stress on the inside of the pipe, which can gradually damage the O-element pipe. In this paper initial injection of water into hot pipe all the way to stabilization of temperature fields will be analyzed and the most dangerous places which shall be considered for fatigue will be determined.

  15. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...... reversibleabsorption and supported ionic liquid deNOX catalysis. Furtherdevelopment of the methods will hopefully make them suitable forinstallation in different positions in the flue gas duct ascompared to the industrial methods available today....

  16. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  17. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  18. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  19. Analysis of waste heat recovery from coke oven waste gas flue%焦炉烟道气余热回收工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆达; 丁震; 李昌胤; 刘云

    2014-01-01

    By comparison of old and new technologies in waste gas flue heat exchange,with descrip-tion of waste heat recovery unit and by analysis of economic benefit for the new technology,the waste heat recovery unit from coke oven waste gas flue is highlighted in this paper,which is characterized with lower investment,short payback period,lower operational & maintenance cost and a remarkable economic benefit.%对比了烟道废气换热新、旧工艺,介绍了废气余热回收装置。分析了新工艺的经济效益。焦炉烟道废气热回收装置投资省,见效快,运行、维护成本低,经济效益明显。

  20. Optimize flue gas settings to promote microalgae growth in photobioreactors via computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lian; Chen, Amelia B; Yu, Yi; Kucera, Leah; Tang, Yinjie

    2013-10-01

    Flue gas from power plants can promote algal cultivation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions(1). Microalgae not only capture solar energy more efficiently than plants(3), but also synthesize advanced biofuels(2-4). Generally, atmospheric CO2 is not a sufficient source for supporting maximal algal growth(5). On the other hand, the high concentrations of CO2 in industrial exhaust gases have adverse effects on algal physiology. Consequently, both cultivation conditions (such as nutrients and light) and the control of the flue gas flow into the photo-bioreactors are important to develop an efficient "flue gas to algae" system. Researchers have proposed different photobioreactor configurations(4,6) and cultivation strategies(7,8) with flue gas. Here, we present a protocol that demonstrates how to use models to predict the microalgal growth in response to flue gas settings. We perform both experimental illustration and model simulations to determine the favorable conditions for algal growth with flue gas. We develop a Monod-based model coupled with mass transfer and light intensity equations to simulate the microalgal growth in a homogenous photo-bioreactor. The model simulation compares algal growth and flue gas consumptions under different flue-gas settings. The model illustrates: 1) how algal growth is influenced by different volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO2; 2) how we can find optimal CO2 concentration for algal growth via the dynamic optimization approach (DOA); 3) how we can design a rectangular on-off flue gas pulse to promote algal biomass growth and to reduce the usage of flue gas. On the experimental side, we present a protocol for growing Chlorella under the flue gas (generated by natural gas combustion). The experimental results qualitatively validate the model predictions that the high frequency flue gas pulses can significantly improve algal cultivation.

  1. 湿法烟气脱硫技术进展%Technical Progress in Flue Gas Desulphurization with Wet Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰琳; 王海芳

    2012-01-01

    The pollution of sulfur dioxide caused widespread concern in the world,through the comparative study of several major wet flue gas desulphurization(FGD) process,a wet flue gas desulfurization technology-cystine desulfurization technology was concluded from the ferrous cysteine solution of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technology.The situation of research,the reaction mechanism and the relative advantages and merits of cystine desulfurization were also described,which conformed to be a promising desulfurization method.%二氧化硫的污染情况已引起世界各国的广泛关注,通过对几种主要湿式脱硫工艺的对比研究,从半胱氨酸亚铁溶液同时脱硫脱氮工艺技术中归纳出一种湿法烟气脱硫技术———胱氨酸脱硫技术,阐述了胱氨酸脱硫技术的反应机理和国内外研究现状,并总结出此方法的优缺点,是一种很有潜力的脱硫方法。

  2. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 4, April--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  3. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 8, April--June, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U. S. coal.

  4. Complex Deformation Monitoring over the Linfen–Yuncheng Basin (China with Time Series InSAR Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-sheng Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Linfen–Yuncheng basin is an area prone to geological disasters, such as surface subsidence, ground fissuring, fault activity, and earthquakes. For the purpose of disaster prevention and mitigation, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR was used to map ground deformation in this area. After the ground deformation characteristics over the Linfen–Yuncheng basin were obtained, the cross-correlations among regional ground subsidence, fault activity, and underground water level were analyzed in detail. Additionally, an area of abnormal deformation was found and examined. Through time series deformation monitoring and mechanism inversion, we found that the abnormal deformation was related mainly to excessive groundwater exploitation.

  5. Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments. A Report from the NAEP Technology-Based Assessment Project, Research and Development Series. NCES 2007-466

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Randy Elliot; Persky, Hilary; Weiss, Andrew R.; Jenkins, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments (TRE) study was designed to demonstrate and explore innovative use of computers for developing, administering, scoring, and analyzing the results of National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessments. Two scenarios (Search and Simulation) were created for measuring problem solving…

  6. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  7. Flue Gas Desulfurization at Navy Bases, Navy Energy Guidance Study. Phase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    inconvenient 19 Reagent feed rate Weight belt mechanism Wear System becomes inoperable control if not repaired 20 Flue gas flow meter Annubar type flow Plugging...required: 3) Rotor NI System becomes S - Normal operation balance inoperable A - Rebalance fan Flue gas flow 4) Annubar Plugging with System function

  8. Capture and separation of CO2 from flue gas by coupling free and immobilized amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel system has been proposed for the capture and separation of CO2 from flue gas. In this method, a resin isemployed to regenerate the amine capturing CO2 from flue gas atroom temperatures. The feasibility for the resin to regenerateamines such as MEA, MAE, TEA, and ammonia has been demonstrated. It was also discovered that the resin could be regenerated by hotwater.

  9. CO2 , NOx and SOx removal from flue gas via microalgae cultivation: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-06-01

    Flue gas refers to the gas emitting from the combustion processes, and it contains CO2 , NOx , SOx and other potentially hazardous compounds. Due to the increasing concerns of CO2 emissions and environmental pollution, the cleaning process of flue gas has attracted much attention. Using microalgae to clean up flue gas via photosynthesis is considered a promising CO2 mitigation process for flue gas. However, the impurities in the flue gas may inhibit microalgal growth, leading to a lower microalgae-based CO2 fixation rate. The inhibition effects of SOx that contribute to the low pH could be alleviated by maintaining a stable pH level, while NOx can be utilized as a nitrogen source to promote microalgae growth when it dissolves and is oxidized in the culture medium. The yielded microalgal biomass from fixing flue gas CO2 and utilizing NOx and SOx as nutrients would become suitable feedstock to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals. In addition to the removal of SOx , NOx and CO2 , using microalgae to remove heavy metals from flue gas is also quite attractive. In conclusion, the use of microalgae for simultaneous removal of CO2 , SOx and NOx from flue gas is an environmentally benign process and represents an ideal platform for CO2 reutilization. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Blythe; B. Marsh; S. Miller; C. Richardson; M. Richardson

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI have co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems and to future FGD installations. Field tests have been conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit has been used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998 and at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal in the fall of 1999. Testing at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, began in June 2000 and was completed at the end of January 2001. This Topical Reports includes results from Site 3; results from Sites 1 and 2 were reported previously. At Site 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in a commercially available form as a coated honeycomb structure. Field testing has been supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 3 field effort are also included and discussed in this Topical Report.

  11. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  12. Heat and mass transfer in a vertical flue ring furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Mona

    1997-12-31

    The main emphasis of this thesis was the design of a mathematical simulation model for studying details in the baking of anodes in the Hydro Aluminium anode baking furnace. The change of thermal conductivity, density, porosity and permeability during heat treatment was investigated. The Transient Plane Source technique for measuring thermal conductivity of solids was used on green carbon materials during the baking process in the temperature range 20-600 {sup o}C. Next, change of mass, density, porosity and permeability of anode samples were measured after being baked to temperatures between 300 and 1200 {sup o}C. The experimental data were used for parameter estimation and verification of property models for use in the anode baking models. Two distinct mathematical models have been modified to study the anode baking. A transient one-dimensional model for studying temperature, pressure and gas evolution in porous anodes during baking was developed. This was extended to a two-dimensional model incorporating the flue gas flow. The mathematical model which included porous heat and mass transfer, pitch pyrolysis, combustion of volatiles, radiation and turbulent channel flow, was developed by source code modification of the Computational Fluid Dynamics code FLUENT. The two-dimensional geometry of a flue gas channel adjacent to a porous flue gas wall, packing coke and anode was used for studying the effect of different firing strategies, raw materials properties and packing coke thickness. The model proved useful for studying the effects of heating rate, geometry and anode properties. 152 refs., 73 figs, 11 tabs.

  13. Time-Series Analysis Technologies Applied to the Study of Carbon Element Distribution Along Casting Direction in Continuous-Casting Billet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zibing; Cheng, Guoguang; Wu, Chengchuan; Chen, Chao

    2012-12-01

    The carbon element distributions along casting direction at centerline position, V-shaped segregation band, and columnar to equiaxed transformation (CET) position in continuous-casting billet have been first obtained by the original position statistic distribution analysis (OPA). Different location points at a certain position were formed along the opposite direction of casting direction with the lapse of the time, so the carbon mass fractions of different location points at a certain position can be considered as a time series. Based on the actual result, some typical time-series analysis technologies, such as the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, were used to analyze the characteristics of the three time series. It is found that there is some periodicity in the carbon element distribution at centerline position, and the correlation relationship between centerline position and CET position is closer than that between the centerline position and V-shaped segregation band at the same location point along the casting direction. Moreover, the element distribution along the casting direction is one of the solidifying results with the lapse of the time, so it is possible to investigate the characteristics of the system about the solidification process of continuous-casting billet by using these time series. Then it shows that there is a chaos feature in the system about the solidification process of studied continuous-casting billet on the basis of Hurst exponents and saturated correlative dimensions. Meanwhile, the formation process of carbon element distribution along casting direction can be described as fractional Brownian motion, and the upper and lower limits of the number of internal independent variables were determined in order to describe the formation process of carbon element distributions at different positions of the studied billet. Finally, the stochastic extent at V-shaped segregation band is found to be the largest, and it needs

  14. Exploration of Comprehensive Treatment New Measurements of Sintering Flue Gas%浅谈烧结烟气综合治理新举措

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾颖

    2015-01-01

    Sintering process is a big energy consumer and pollution maker. With emission reduction and collaborative treatment both focused on,sintering flue gas circulation process is adopted by combining with active coke flue gas purification technology,which possesses vast development potential and is worth to be popularized.%烧结工序是钢铁企业中的耗能和污染大户,将烧结烟气循环工艺与活性焦烟气净化技术配合使用,减量与协同治理并举,有着广阔的发展空间和推广意义。

  15. Flue-gas-influenced heavy metal bioaccumulation by the indigenous microalgae Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisami, Swaminathan; Lee, Keesoo; Balakrishnan, Baskar; Nam, Paul Ki-souk

    2015-01-01

    Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002 was cultivated using flue gas originating from a coal-fired power plant as a carbon dioxide (CO2) source. The flue gas contains various heavy metals. For investigating the fate of flue-gas-introduced metals on the cultivation system, bioaccumulation was measured in the microalgal biomass and milieu. The accumulated biomass was found to contain eight heavy metals: arsenic, chromium, barium, lead, selenium, silver, cadmium, and mercury. High heavy metal accumulations were also found in the control group of algae grown without the addition of flue gas at the same location. Further testing revealed that some of the heavy metals originated from well water used in the cultivation. The flue-gas-influenced bioaccumulation pattern of different heavy metals was observed. The responses of individual heavy metals and the influence of well water microbial flora on the algal growth were investigated, this study showed that hormesis was developed by the D. communis LUCC 002.

  16. Separation of Flue Gas Components by SILP (Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase) Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, P.; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Mossin, Susanne L.

    2013-01-01

    -Phase (SILP) absorber materials. The use of solid SILP absorbers with selected ILs were found to significantly improve the absorption capacity and sorption dynamics at low flue gas concentration, thus making the applicability of ILs viable in technical, continuous flow processes for flue gas cleaning......Reversible absorption of the flue gas components CO2, NO, NO2 and SO2 has been tested for different ionic liquids (ILs) at different temperatures and flue gas compositions where porous, high surface area carriers have been applied as supports for the ionic liquids to obtain Supported Ionic Liquid....... The results show that CO2, NO and SO2 can be reversible and selective absorbed using different ILs and that Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorbers are promising materials for industrial flue gas cleaning. Absorption/desorption dynamics can be tuned by temperature, pressure and gas concentration. © 2012...

  17. Study of flue gas condensers with reference to corrosion risks, biofuel quality, techniques and choice of material; Kartlaeggning av roekgaskondenseringsanlaeggningar med avseende paa korrosionsrisker, biobraenslekvaliteter, teknik och materialval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenqvist, Per-Aake

    2012-02-15

    Corrosion in flue gas appliances installed in small and medium sized biomass fired boiler plants has become a problem in an increasing number of sites around Sweden. A trend seems to be that the problems are greater in those plants that use so called terminal chips than those that utilize more homogeneous fuels. In pace with the increasing number of biomass power plants in the country, the demand for cheaper fuel is increased. Through the increasing number of fuel terminals the market is provided even with biofuel mixes in the form of traditional wood chips mixed with bark, forest residue, sawdust, willow, returned wood, etc. Both users and suppliers of boiler and flue gas systems, and fuel suppliers have currently no clear rules or guidelines for relationships between different chemical properties of fuels, technologies, operating data and material. In this report has experience in the form of questionnaires completed by field visits, interviews of operational personnel and literature studies been compiled from a number of plants using different types of flue gas condensers for increased energy output from various types of bio fuels. The purpose of this assignment is to survey the flue gas condensation plant in biomass fired boiler plants for the presence of corrosion damage made in relation to the use of technologies and fuel qualities. A milestone is that the report will be able to be used to support the selection of materials and appropriate techniques for both new facilities and for the repair and improvement of existing ones. Another objective is to compile existing experience and assessment criteria which are reported in the literature. This report describes some typical construction techniques, whenever applicable harmful images and links to various substances present in fuels, ash and condensate

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL GAS PRESSURIZED STRIPPING (GPS)-BASED TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM POST-COMBUSTION FLUE GASES Topical Report: Techno-Economic Analysis of GPS-based Technology for CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    This topical report presents the techno-economic analysis, conducted by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) and Nexant, for a nominal 550 MWe supercritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant utilizing CCS patented Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) technology for post-combustion carbon capture (PCC). Illinois No. 6 coal is used as fuel. Because of the difference in performance between the GPS-based PCC and the MEA-based CO2 absorption technology, the net power output of this plant is not exactly 550 MWe. DOE/NETL Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture and Case 12 supercritical PC plant with benchmark MEA-based CO2 capture are chosen as references. In order to include CO2 compression process for the baseline case, CCS independently evaluated the generic 30 wt% MEA-based PCC process together with the CO2 compression section. The net power produced in the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 647 MW, greater than the MEA-based design. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) over a 20-year period is adopted to assess techno-economic performance. The LCOE for the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC, not considering CO2 transport, storage and monitoring (TS&M), is 97.4 mills/kWh, or 152% of the Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture, equivalent to $39.6/tonne for the cost of CO2 capture. GPS-based PCC is also significantly superior to the generic MEA-based PCC with CO2 compression section, whose LCOE is as high as 109.6 mills/kWh.

  19. Continental AG Demonstrate Series of Latest New Products and Technology at IAA 2016%大陆集团积极推动商用车互联技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云清

    2016-01-01

    During IAA 2016 held last Sept. German based Continental AG demonstrated a series of latest new products and technologies, including tyre-pressure test system and dynamic screen, etc. Themed as “High-efifciency, Internet and Safety”, the company is contributing greatly to the fast development of commercial vehicles integrated with internet technology.

  20. Use of i-scan Endoscopic Image Enhancement Technology in Clinical Practice to Assist in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Hancock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. i-scan is a software-driven technology that allows modifications of sharpness, hue, and contrast to enhance mucosal imaging. It uses postimage acquisition software with real-time mapping technology embedded in the endoscopic processor. Aims. To review applications of i-scan technology in clinical endoscopic practice. Methods. This is a case series of 20 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic procedures where i-scan image enhancement algorithms were applied. The main outcome measures were to compare mucosal lesions with high-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE and i-scan image enhancement for the application of diagnostic sampling and therapy. Results. 13 cases involving the upper GI tract and 7 cases of the lower GI tract are included. For upper GI tract pathology i-scan assisted in diagnosis or therapy of Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia, esophageal adenocarcinoma, HSV esophagitis, gastric MALT lymphoma, gastric antral intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia, duodenal follicular lymphoma, and a flat duodenal adenoma. For lower GI tract pathology i-scan assisted in diagnosis or therapy of right-sided serrated adenomas, flat tubular adenoma, rectal adenocarcinoma, anal squamous cell cancer, solitary rectal ulcer, and radiation proctitis. Conclusions. i-scan imaging provides detailed topography of mucosal surfaces and delineates lesion edges, which can directly impact endoscopic management.

  1. Materials in flue gas condensation plants; Materialval vid roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Nordling Magnus

    2003-02-01

    This project is the first part of a larger project. In the part reported here, materials for flue gas condensers have been investigated by contact with plant owners and suppliers and by a literature review of reported failures. If it is decided to continue with another part of the project, a number of materials will be long term tested on site. The project is complementary to an earlier project, which investigated the operating experiences from flue gas condensers in biomass fired cogeneration plants. In the project materials (steel and polymeric) suitable for long term testing in existing plants are discussed. It is proposed that testing in the second part of the project is made with material coupons in one plant fired with only biomass and one plant where biomass is co fired with other fuels. In the biomass fired plant a number of steel materials should be tested. In the co fired plant, with its harsher operating conditions, the same steel materials plus a number of polymeric materials should be tested. Materials suitable for testing are summarised in the report.

  2. Process for flue gas cleaning. Verfahren zur Rauchgasreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-03-05

    It is well known fact that for the simultaneous separation of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ from flue gases, the redox potential must be taken into the minus area in a controlled way. To set the redox potential of the washing liquid, additives like sodium ditionite are used, for example. It is also well-known that the redox potential can be controlled electrolytically and/or by means of an iron reactor. In order to guarantee high availability of flue gas desulphurisation plant, the invention proposes that the washing liquid should have metallic granulate balls added in the direct washer sump or in a bypass and the washing liquid should be taken through a fluidized bed reactor, in which the iron granulate takes over the task of controlling the redox potential. The casing of the fluidized bed reactor can be made of plastic, so that the quantity of liquid and metal granulate can be controlled electrolytically as a fluidized bed.

  3. Training program for energy conservation in new building construction. Volume III. Energy conservation technology for plan examiners and code administrators. Energy Conservation Technology Series 200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, a Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. The subject of regulation of new building construction to assure energy conservation is recognized as one in which code officials have not had previous exposure. It was also determined that application of the model code would be made at varying levels by officials with both a specific requirement for knowledge and a differing degree of prior training in the state-of-the-art. Therefore, a training program and instructional materials were developed for code officials to assist them in the implementation and enforcement of energy efficient standards and codes. The training program for Energy Conservation Tehnology for Plan Examiners and Code Administrators (ECT Series 200) is presented.

  4. No technological innovation is a panacea: a case series in quality improvement for primary care mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Garner, Andrew; Macknin, Michael; Phelps, Thomas; Wexberg, Steven; Foley, Conrad; Lock, Joseph C; Hazen, Jacalyn E; Sturner, Raymond; Howard, Barbara; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2008-09-01

    Evaluations of quality improvement efforts targeted at mental health services in primary care pediatrics are rare. We evaluated a short-targeted educational session, a Web-based system, the Child Health and Development Interactive System, and a local area mental health services resource guide. Most physicians believed the information in the educational session was at least somewhat likely to change their practice. However, only 9.2% of the families invited to complete the Web-based system did so. Physicians found access to the Web-based system time consuming and, because the billing code for the screening activity was carved out of most of Ohio's privately-insured contract, physicians received no reimbursement for the screenings. Physicians were unenthusiastic about the local resource guide because the resources were not rated for quality. This quality improvement effort demonstrates that there are not easy solutions to practice change and highlights the need for implementation support when introducing new technology.

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Technical progress report, first quarter, 1993, January 1993--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 NM capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project will be funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  6. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  7. Encoded library technology screening of hepatitis C virus NS4B yields a small-molecule compound series with in vitro replicon activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arico-Muendel, Christopher; Zhu, Zhengrong; Dickson, Hamilton; Parks, Derek; Keicher, Jesse; Deng, Jianghe; Aquilani, Leah; Coppo, Frank; Graybill, Todd; Lind, Kenneth; Peat, Andrew; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To identify novel antivirals to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4B protein, we utilized encoded library technology (ELT), which enables purified proteins not amenable to standard biochemical screening methods to be tested against large combinatorial libraries in a short period of time. We tested NS4B against several DNA-encoded combinatorial libraries (DEL) and identified a single DEL feature that was subsequently progressed to off-DNA synthesis. The most active of the initial synthesized compounds had 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 50 to 130 nM in a NS4B radioligand binding assay and 300 to 500 nM in an HCV replicon assay. Chemical optimization yielded compounds with potencies as low as 20 nM in an HCV genotype 1b replicon assay, 500 nM against genotype 1a, and 5 μM against genotype 2a. Through testing against other genotypes and genotype 2a-1b chimeric replicons and from resistance passage using the genotype 1b replicon, we confirmed that these compounds were acting on the proposed first transmembrane region of NS4B. A single sequence change (F98L) was identified as responsible for resistance, and it was thought to largely explain the relative lack of potency of this series against genotype 2a. Unlike other published series that appear to interact with this region, we did not observe sensitivity to amino acid substitutions at positions 94 and 105. The discovery of this novel compound series highlights ELT as a valuable approach for identifying direct-acting antivirals to nonenzymatic targets.

  8. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  9. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.G. [Tampella Power Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vilala, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  10. Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstov, Georgi P

    1962-01-01

    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  11. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; Hillamo, Risto; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200-300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation) concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  12. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  13. Experiences of membrane technique in flue gas condensate treatment applications; Utvaerdering av erfarenheter av membranteknik foer rening av roekgaskondensat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Ekdahl, Emma; Hellman, Mats

    2009-07-01

    Investing in a flue gas condensate treatment plant often turns out to be very profitable. The profitability comes from savings in energy and water consumption when treated waste water is recirculated, and also from savings in the NO{sub x} fee as condensate treatment allows for higher ammonia injection rates in the SNCR (NO{sub x} reduction) system. The membrane based technologies for flue gas treatment, which were investigated in this report, have proven to be successful and are operating well. However, they require that the project management is committed and acquaint themselves with the technology to avoid problems during commissioning and operation. In this project, experience with membrane based flue gas condensate treatment at ten different plants was investigated and evaluated. The ten plants are either biomass fired plants or co-combustion plants using a mixture of biomass and industrial waste. Membrane based flue gas condensate treatment is used by circa ten Swedish plants (Ultra Filtration membranes and/or Reverse Osmosis membranes, and at some plants also membranes for ammonia and carbon dioxide removal). All plants are biomass fired plants or co-combustion plants using a mixture of biomass and industrial waste. In Sweden, no plant firing municipal waste has yet been equipped with membrane based flue gas condensate treatment. These plants usually use precipitation and filtration technologies instead. Also the purpose of the condensation step is primarily to operate as a wet flue gas cleaning step. The heat recovery is of subordinate importance. Typical for these plants is also that they use condensation in several steps. The condensates from the different steps are often treated separately, as they may be of very different qualities. The RO unit is the main equipment in a membrane based water treatment plant. Pre-treatment and post-treatment of the RO water is adjusted to the incoming condensate quality, and to the requirements on the effluent. The

  14. Design, construction, and operation of a life-cycle test system for the evaluation of flue gas cleanup processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Yeh, James T.; Hoffman, J.S. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Longton, E.J.; Vore, P.A.; Resnik, K.P.; Gromicko, F.N. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Library, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has designed, constructed, and operated a Life-Cycle Test Systems (LCTS) that will be used primarily for the investigation of dry, regenerable sorbent flue gas cleanup processes. Sorbent continuously cycles from an absorber reactor where the pollutants are removed from the flue gas, to a regenerator reactor where the activity of the spent sorbent is restored and a usable by-product stream of gas is produced. The LCTS will initially be used to evaluate the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process by determining the effects of various process parameters on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removals. The purpose of this paper is to document the design rationale and details, the reactor/component/instrument installation, and the initial performance of the system. Although the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process will be investigated initially, the design of the LCTS evolved to make the system a multipurpose, versatile research facility. Thus, the unit can be used to investigate various other processes for pollution abatement of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates, air toxics, and/or other pollutants.

  15. Study on Influence of Different Comprehensive Drought Resistance Technology on Flue-cured Tobacco Agronomic and Economic Characters%不同综合抗旱技术对烤烟农艺性状和经济性状的影响比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高福宏; 詹莜国; 张晓海; 马溪; 李跃平; 岳绍起

    2012-01-01

    为了解决昆明烟区烤烟移栽季节烟垄墒情差,保苗促早发困难的问题,在昆明市嵩明县杨林镇采用随机区组试验研究了地膜覆盖、秸秆覆盖、地膜覆盖+保水剂、秸秆覆盖+保水剂、前膜后秸覆盖、保水剂、裸栽烟等几种抗旱技术对烤烟农艺性状和经济性状的影响.试验结果表明:(1)前地膜+后秸秆的双覆盖、地膜覆盖+保水剂、秸秆覆盖+保水剂均可改善烟株生长的环境条件,有效降低烟株生育前期的干旱胁迫,促进烟株早长快发,提高烤烟的产量、产值和品质,以前地膜+后秸秆的双覆盖处理最好.(2)盖膜、移栽时施用保水剂和秸秆覆盖3种处理,随着干旱时间的延长而抗旱作用力减弱.(3)无抗旱措施的裸栽烟生长缓慢,经济性状和农艺性状均最差.%In order to solve the problem of low soil moisture of tobacco field' s ridge during transplanting season and saving seedlings as well as promoted the tobacco plants to grow rapidly in Kunming Flue-cured Tobacco Area. We adopted randomized block experiment in Yanglin, Songming Country of Kunming City to study the effect that the drought-resistance techniques such as film mulching, straw mulching, film mulching with water retaining agent, straw mulching with water retaining agent, double mulch with film before and straw after, water retaining agent and no film mulching have on the agronomic and economic characters of flue-cured tobacco. The experiment result showed that: (1) double mulch with film before and straw after, plastic mulch + SAP, straw mulch + SAP, all these could improve the environmental condition of tobacco growth, effectively reduced the drought stress of tobacco in early growth period, and promoted tobacco growth as soon as possible, also increased the production, output value and quality, among the best was double mulch with film before and straw after. (2)For applying SAP, straw mulch while covering with film, transplanting

  16. Novel regenerable sorbent based on Zr-Mn binary metal oxides for flue gas mercury retention and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangkun; Qu, Zan; Yan, Naiqiang; Yang, Shijian; Chen, Wanmiao; Hu, Lingang; Huang, Wenjun; Liu, Ping

    2013-10-15

    To capture and recover mercury from coal-fired flue gas, a series of novel regenerable sorbents based on Zr-Mn binary metal oxides were prepared and employed at a relatively low temperature. PXRD, TEM, TPR, XPS, and N2-adsorption methods were employed to characterize the sorbents. The Hg(0) adsorption performance of the sorbents was tested, and the effects of the main operation parameters and the gas components on the adsorption were investigated. Zr significantly improved the sorbent's mercury capacity, which was nearly 5mg/g for Zr0.5Mn0.5Oy. Furthermore, the spent sorbent could be regenerated by heating to 350°C, and the highly concentrated elemental mercury released could be facilely recycled. Therefore, a much greener process for mercury capture and recovery could be anticipated based on this regenerable sorbent.

  17. The influence of biomass quality on the purification of flue gases and multicyclone assembly material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Čikić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types, forms and states affect the heating value of biomass and its conversion into exploitable energy forms. As a result of biomass quality investigations, the share of solid particles in flue gases purified in a multicyclone was measured and analyzed at various heating loads of a boiler, the maximum power of which amounts to 2,2 MW. This paper presents the influence of flue gases on the roughness and corrosiveness of multicyclone material inner wall. A corrective dimensional parameter of the multicyclone was suggested for the purpose of maximum purification of flue gases at unfavorable incineration conditions and biomass characteristics.

  18. Experimental and mechanism studies on seawater flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (Seawater FGD) process has a number of advantages, but the study on mechanism of seawater FGD is little. The effects of absorbing efficiency of SO2 by the constant component and part of trace transition elements in seawater are studied by the experiment. The results indicate that the effect factors of absorption of SO2 by seawater are alkaline, ion intensity, catalysis of Cl- and transition metal ions Fe, Mn. The degree of effect is alkaline > the catalysis of Cl-, Fe2+ and Mn > ion intensity. The mechanisms of catalysis oxidation for S(IV) by Cl, Feand Mnare discussed. According to the results, some measures can be used to improved the capability of desulfurization.

  19. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz

    2001-01-01

    Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.

  20. Application of Evaporative Cooling for the Condensation of Water Vapors from a Flue Gas Waste Heat Boilers CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashov Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study are boilers that burn organic fuel and the recovery boilers (RB of the combined cycle plant (CCP, which are al-so working on the products of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The purpose of research is to find technologies that increase efficiency of the thermal power plant (TPP and technologies that reduce the environmental impact on the environment by burning fossil fuels. The paper deals with the technology of the boilers burning hydrocarbon fuel with condensation of water vapor from the exhaust flue gases. Considered the problems caused by using of this technology. Research shows that the main problem of this technology in the boilers is the lack of reliable methods of calculation of heat exchangers, condensers. Particular attention is paid to the application of this technology in the recovery boilers combined-cycle plants, which are currently gaining increasing use in the generation of electricity from the combustion of gas in power plants. It is shown that the application of technology of condensation of water vapor in RB CCP, the temperature decreases of exhaust gases from 100 to 40 °С, allows increasing the effi-ciency of the RB with 86.2 % to 99.5 %, i.e. at 12.3 %, and increase the ef-ficiency of the CCP at 2.8 %.

  1. Research on Circular Flue Application in Flue Gas Desulfurization System%圆形烟道在烟气脱硫装置中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石亚超; 朱桂明; 郝若锦; 王鲁斐

    2013-01-01

    The square flue' s strength of the flue gas desulfurization system in a power plant was calculated with ANSYS,including the analysis of both inner and outer pressure and the dead weight which influencing the flue's structural stress and the load-carrying capability of cross-section circular flue,as well as the specifications of lateral reinforcement ribs of the circular flue with large diameter.the research results can provide the reference for the later engineering design.%利用大型有限元分析软件ANSYS对某电厂发电机组烟气脱硫装置的方形烟道进行了强度计算,并针对烟道内压、外压及自重等因素对结构应力的影响进行了分析,并以此为基础,研究了等截面的圆形烟道的受力情况,延伸了大直径圆形烟道横向加固肋的规格型号,研究结果可作为日后工程优化设计的参考.

  2. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis

  3. Flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants; Roeggaskondensation i halmfyrede kraftvarmeanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-15

    The high price of straw and a general demand for increased use of straw in power and heat production are expected to result in an increased need for efficient fuel utilization. The use of flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants can contribute to a higher exploitation of energy, and at the same time open of the possibility of utilization of wet (cheaper) fuels without energy loss. Furthermore flue gas condensation can contribute to the flue gas cleaning process through removal of HCl and SO{sub 2} as well as in particle cleaning in wet cleaning processes. With starting point in a straw fired CHP plant the technical and economic consequences of installation of a flue gas condensation system are investigated. Fuel exploitation and power/heat production distribution is included in the investigation. (BA)

  4. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a bigdifficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaustcan meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  5. Utilization of carbon dioxide in industrial flue gases for the cultivation of microalga Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chien-Ya; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Yu-Bin; Chiu, Tzai-Wen; Lin, Hsiun-Yu; Chen, Chun-Da; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The biomass and lipid productivity of Chlorella sp. MTF-15 cultivated using aeration with flue gases from a coke oven, hot stove or power plant in a steel plant of the China Steel Corporation in Taiwan were investigated. Using the flue gas from the coke oven, hot stove or power plant for cultivation, the microalgal strain obtained a maximum specific growth rate and lipid production of (0.827 d(-1), 0.688 g L(-1)), (0.762 d(-1), 0.961 g L(-1)), and (0.728 d(-1), 0.792 g L(-1)), respectively. This study demonstrated that Chlorella sp. MTF-15 could efficiently utilize the CO₂, NOX and SO₂ present in the different flue gases. The results also showed that the growth potential, lipid production and fatty acid composition of the microalgal strain were dependent on the composition of the flue gas and on the operating strategy deployed.

  6. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; XU PeiYao; SUN XiaoJun; WANG LiDong

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash, industry lime, and an oxidizing additive M. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification. Removal efficiencies of 95.5% for SO2 and 64.8% for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods. The results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was proposed according to the experimental results.

  7. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  8. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  9. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the amonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO, and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project will be funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  10. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Quarterly report No. 7, January--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the amonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO, and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project will be funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  11. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3] and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  14. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, municipal solid waste incinerators, and biomass burning. Mercury in coal, ores and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+, with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp. Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g.,TiO2, Fe2O3, etc. on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs, affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR system promotes mercury oxidation by 34–85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP and fabric filter (FF remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD captures 60–95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs. For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher fraction (66–82 % of total mercury in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29–90

  15. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Technical progress report, second & third quarters, 1993, April 1993--June 1993, July 1993--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by constructing and operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  17. Microbial reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO[sub 2]/No[sub x] removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO[sub 2]/NO[sub x] removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O[sub 2] in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O[sub 2] partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction. These inhibiting levels of O[sub 2] are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  18. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, June 11, 1992--September 11, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO{sub 2}/No{sub x} removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O{sub 2} in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction. These inhibiting levels of O{sub 2} are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  19. Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

    2008-07-01

    The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

  20. INTERACTION BETWEEN SO2 FROM FLUE GAS AND SORBENT PARTICLES IN DRY FGD PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiying; Qi; Changfu; You; Xuchang; Xu

    2005-01-01

    Among the technologies to control SO2 emission from coal-fired boilers, the dry flue gas desulphurization (FGD) method,with appropriate modifications, has been identified as a candidate for realizing high SO2 removal efficiency to meet both technical and economic requirements, and for making the best quality byproduct gypsum as a useful additive for improving alkali soil.Among the possible modifications two major factors have been selected for study:(1) favorable chemical reaction kinetics at elevated temperatures and the sorbent characteristics;(2) enhanced diffusion of SO2 to the surface and within the pores of sorbent particles that are closely related to gas-solid two-phase flow patterns caused by flue gas and sorbent particles in the reactor.To achieve an ideal pore structure, a sorbent was prepared through hydration reaction by mixing lime and fly ash collected from bag house of power plants to form a slurry, which was first dewatered and then dried. The dry sorbent was found capable of rapid conversion of 70% of its calcium content at 700 ℃, reaching a desulphurization efficiency of over 90% at a Ca/S ratio of 1.3.Experiments confirmed that the diffusion effect of SO2 is an important factor and that gas-solid two-phase flow plays a key role to mixing and contact between SO2 and sorbent particles. For designing the FDG reactor, a new theoretical drag model was developed by combination of CFD with the Energy Minimization Multi-Scale (EMMS) theory for dense fluidization systems. This new drag model was first verified by comparing calculated and measured drag values, and was then implemented in simulation of gas-solid two-phase flow in two circulating fluidized beds with different sizes and flow parameters. One riser has diameter and height of 0.15 m×3 m and another one 0.2 m×14.2 m. Their superficial gas velocities The results show that not only the static pressure drop along the riser height, but also radial distributions of particle volume fraction have

  1. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  2. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.; Lima, I.M.; Boihem, L.L.; Wartelle, L.H. [USDA, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. The purpose of the work was to obtain preliminary data to investigate if activated chars made from different poultry manures could adsorb mercury from simulated flue gas. In laboratory experiments, activated chars made from chicken cake and litter removed mercury from the gas as well as a commercial alternative. It was also found that acid-washing these chars after activation may improve pore structure but does not influence the mercury removal efficiency. Activated chars were also made from turkey cake and litter. These raw materials produced activated chars with similar pore structure as those made from chicken manure, but they did not adsorb mercury as well. Acid-washing the turkey manure-based chars improved their performance, but this step would add to the cost of production. Preliminary evaluations suggest that unwashed activated chars may cost as little as $0.95/kg to produce.

  3. Development of durable and reactive regenerable sorbents for high temperature flue gas desulphurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Abbasian, J.; Khalili, N.R.; Slimane, R.B.; Ho, K.K. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2002-07-01

    One of the emerging technologies for combined SO{sub 2} and NOx removal from flue gases is the copper oxide process, which is based on the use of a regenerable sorbent. Sorbent properties such as SO{sub 2} sorption capacity, reactivity, crush strength, and long-term durability have significant impact on the overall process cost. In this study, a number of sorbents were prepared by using various modifications of the sol-gel techniques. Compared to the commercially available sorbent used for evaluation of the process, sorbents prepared by wet impregnation of sol-gel alumina exhibited comparable sulphur capacity and about seven times higher crush strength, while those prepared by incorporation of copper in the sol resulted in three times higher sulphur capacity and 55% higher crush strength. Significant improvement in long-term durability was also achieved with these sorbents. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that these new sorbents have the potential to reduce the projected levelized process cost down to 3.17 mil/kWh, which is lower than the cost of current SO{sub 2} emission allowance. 46 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Crystallisation of Gypsum and Prevention of Foaming in Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun

    of reliability of operation and consistency of the gypsum quality obtained. This work may furthermore be of interest to other industrial systems in which foaming or gypsum crystallisation may take place. FGD is an industrial process, which removes sulphur dioxide (SO2) from flue gasses generated by fossil fuel...... combustion at power plants and other heavy industries, thereby abating the detrimental effects known as “acid rain”. The majority of the 680 FGD-plants installed at power plants worldwide in 1999 (2.41•105 MWe) were using the wet FGD-technology. This process absorbs ~ 99 % of the SO2 by an alkaline slurry....... Experiments in a falling film wet FGD pilot plant have shown a strong non-linear behaviour (in a ln(n(l)) vs. l plot) at the lower end of the particle size range, compared to the well-known linear “mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR)” model. A transient population balance model, fitted...

  5. Simulation Study of Multicomponent Mixing Characteristics Between Flue Gas and Droplet for Improved (SNCR + SCR) DeNOx Technology%改进型(SNCR+SCR)混合脱硝工艺气液多组分混合特性的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周英贵; 金宝昇

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of NH3 concentration distribution at the outlet of boiler economizer and a new uniform flow component module for the second generation (SNCR + SCR) hybrid de-nitrification technique. Numerical study on the mixing process between urea-water-solution droplet and flue gas in the steering room of the second generation (SNCR + SCR) system of a large scale coal-fired boiler was conducted based on Fluent platform, the effect of the mixing and distribution characteristics behind the SNCR reaction region was studied, and meanwhile the correlations of mixing process and complex temperature field were discussed. The simulation shows that SNCR de-nitrification efficiency and NH3 leakage are not in a linear relationship with urea-water-solution emitted-dose, which will significantly decrease de-nitrification efficiency when the molar ratio of NH3 to NO is greater than 1.15. The second generation (SNCR + SCR) system greatly reduces the consumption of urea-water-solution as a result of postinjec-tion of urea in the steering room of boiler. The new uniform flow component module solves the problems of vortex and secondary flow and improves the uniformity of molar ratio of NH3 to NO. The flue gas velocity deviation is less than 10% and the concentration field deviation is less than 5% at the first catalyst layer inlet. However, considering NH3 leakage in the SCR outlet, molar ratio of NH3 to NO should be controlled bellow 1.5 when the general (SNCR+SCR) denitrfication efficiency is 70%. Finally, the correctness and reliability of the CFD mode are verified by feedback information from power station.%提出了改进型(SNCR+ SCR)混合法脱硝工艺,建立了省煤器出口烟道NH3逃逸的摩尔分数分布模型和SCR入口烟道流场均流导流组件模块装置,基于Fluent平台,对大型燃煤锅炉改进型(SNCR+ SCR)混合脱硝工艺在锅炉转向角处还原剂液滴与烟气的混合过程进行数值模拟,并进一步掌握SNCR后段烟

  6. Investigation of a combined gas-steam system with flue gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielniak Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents changes in the operating parameters of a combined gas-steam cycle with a CO2 capture installation and flue gas recirculation. Parametric equations are solved in a purpose-built mathematical model of the system using the Ebsilon Professional code. Recirculated flue gases from the heat recovery boiler outlet, after being cooled and dried, are fed together with primary air into the mixer and then into the gas turbine compressor. This leads to an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the flue gases fed into the CO2 capture installation from 7.12 to 15.7%. As a consequence, there is a reduction in the demand for heat in the form of steam extracted from the turbine for the amine solution regeneration in the CO2 capture reactor. In addition, the flue gas recirculation involves a rise in the flue gas temperature (by 18 K at the heat recovery boiler inlet and makes it possible to produce more steam. These changes contribute to an increase in net electricity generation efficiency by 1%. The proposed model and the obtained results of numerical simulations are useful in the analysis of combined gas-steam cycles integrated with carbon dioxide separation from flue gases.

  7. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  8. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  9. Skull Bone Defects Reconstruction with Custom-Made Titanium Graft shaped with Electron Beam Melting Technology: Preliminary Experience in a Series of Ten Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Natale; Maugeri, Rosario; Odierna Contino, Antonino; Meli, Francesco; Fiorenza, Vito; Costantino, Gabriele; Giammalva, Roberto Giuseppe; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Cranioplasty represents a challenge in neurosurgery. Its goal is not only plastic reconstruction of the skull but also to restore and preserve cranial function, to improve cerebral hemodynamics, and to provide mechanical protection of the neural structures. The ideal material for the reconstructive procedures and the surgical timing are still controversial. Many alloplastic materials are available for performing cranioplasty and among these, titanium still represents a widely proven and accepted choice. The aim of our study was to present our preliminary experience with a "custom-made" cranioplasty, using electron beam melting (EBM) technology, in a series of ten patients. EBM is a new sintering method for shaping titanium powder directly in three-dimensional (3D) implants. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a skull reconstruction performed by this technique. In a 1-year follow-up no postoperative complications have been observed and good clinical and esthetic outcomes were achieved. Costs higher than those for other types of titanium mesh, a longer production process, and the greater expertise needed for this technique are compensated by the achievement of most complex skull reconstructions with a shorter operative time.

  10. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1997-08-31

    A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfurization of flue-gas from burning high sulfur coal. The amount of this sludge is expected to increase in the near future due to ever increasing governmental regulation concerning the amount of sulfur emissions. Scrubber sludge is a fine, grey colored powder that contains calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), silicates, and iron oxides. This material can continue to be landfilled at a steadily increasing cost, or an alternative for utilizing this material can be developed. This study explores the characteristics of a naturally oxidized wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge and uses these characteristics to develop alternatives for recycling this material. In order for scrubber sludge to be used as a feed material for various markets, it was necessary to process it to meet the specifications of these markets. A physical separation process was therefore needed to separate the components of this sludge into useful products at a low cost. There are several physical separation techniques available to separate fine particulates. These techniques can be divided into four major groups: magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, physico-chemical separation, and density-based separation. The properties of this material indicated that two methods of separation were feasible: water-only cycloning (density-based separation), and froth flotation (physico-chemical separation). These processes could be used either separately, or in combination. The goal of this study was to reduce the limestone impurity in this scrubber sludge from 5.6% by weight to below 2.0% by weight. The resulting clean calcium

  11. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  12. SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MICHAEL GRUTZECK

    1998-10-31

    It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SO2 from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The overall objective of the current work has been to evaluate the feasibility of having a utility synthesize its own zeolites, on-site, from fly ash and other recycled materials and then use these zeolites to adsorb SO2 from their flue gases. Work to date has shown that the efficiency of the capture process is related to the degree of crystallinity and the type of zeolite that forms in the samples. Normally, those samples cured at 150°C contained a greater proportion of zeolite and as such were more SO2 adsorptive than their low-temperature counterparts. However, in order for the project to be successful, on site synthesis must remain an option, i.e. _100°C synthesis. In light of this, the experimental focus now has two aspects. First, compositions of the starting materials are being altered by blending the current suite of fly ashes with other fly ashes, ground glass cullet and silica fume to promote the formation and growth of well crystallized and highly adsorptive zeolites. Second, greater degrees of reaction at significantly lower temperatures are being promote by ball milling the fly ash prior to use, by the use of more concentrated caustic solutions, and by the addition of zeolite seeds to the reactants. In all cases studies will focus on the effect of structure type and degree of conversion on SO2 adsorption. Future work will concentrate on the study of the effect of weathering on the suitability of converting fly ash into zeolites. This is an especially important study, considering the acres of fly ash now in storage throughout the country.

  13. SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Grutzeck

    1999-04-30

    It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SO{sub 2} from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The overall objective of the current work has been to evaluate the feasibility of having a utility synthesize its own zeolites, on-site, from fly ash and other recycled materials and then use these zeolites to adsorb SO{sub 2} from their flue gases. Work to date has shown that the efficiency of the capture process is related to the degree of crystallinity and the type of zeolite that forms in the samples. Normally, those samples cured at 150 C contained a greater proportion of zeolite and as such were more SO{sub 2} adsorptive than their low-temperature counterparts. However, in order for the project to be successful, on site synthesis must remain an option, i.e. 100 C synthesis. In light of this, the experimental focus now has two aspects. First, compositions of the starting materials are being altered by blending the current suite of fly ashes with ground glass cullet and silica fume to promote the formation and growth of well crystallized and highly adsorptive zeolites. Second, greater degrees of reaction at significantly lower temperatures are being promote by ball milling the fly ash prior to use, by the use of more concentrated caustic solutions, and by the addition of zeolite seeds to the reactants. In all cases studies will focus on the effect of structure type and degree of conversion on SO{sub 2} adsorption. Future work will concentrate on the study of the effect of weathering on the suitability of converting fly ash into zeolites. This is an especially important study, considering the acres of fly ash now in storage throughout the US.

  14. Cycle development and design for CO2 capture from flue gas by vacuum swing adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Webley, Paul A

    2008-01-15

    CO2 capture and storage is an important component in the development of clean power generation processes. One CO2 capture technology is gas-phase adsorption, specifically pressure (or vacuum) swing adsorption. The complexity of these processes makes evaluation and assessment of new adsorbents difficult and time-consuming. In this study, we have developed a simple model specifically targeted at CO2 capture by pressure swing adsorption and validated our model by comparison with data from a fully instrumented pilot-scale pressure swing adsorption process. The model captures nonisothermal effects as well as nonlinear adsorption and nitrogen coadsorption. Using the model and our apparatus, we have designed and studied a large number of cycles for CO2 capture. We demonstrate that by careful management of adsorption fronts and assembly of cycles based on understanding of the roles of individual steps, we are able to quickly assess the effect of adsorbents and process parameters on capture performance and identify optimal operating regimes and cycles. We recommend this approach in contrast to exhaustive parametric studies which tend to depend on specifics of the chosen cycle and adsorbent. We show that appropriate combinations of process steps can yield excellent process performance and demonstrate how the pressure drop, and heat loss, etc. affect process performance through their effect on adsorption fronts and profiles. Finally, cyclic temperature profiles along the adsorption column can be readily used to infer concentration profiles-this has proved to be a very useful tool in cyclic function definition. Our research reveals excellent promise for the application of pressure/vacuum swing adsorption technology in the arena of CO2 capture from flue gases.

  15. Method of and apparatus for the discharge of a flue gas into the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.; Hein, K.R.G.; Gebhard, G.

    1989-03-28

    Desulfurized flue gas from a fossil-fuel power plant, for example, is discharged into the atmosphere through a low-slung cooling tower by passing this gas upwardly through a duct within the tower and terminating at a level with respect to the mist, dust, and smoke collector of the tower such that the collector is not traversed by the flue gas as it rises in the tower to mix with the cooling air. The duct is formed as an additional washing stretch so as to effect an afterwashing of the flue gas. This duct opens at a level above the level of the collector, and may be provided with a droplet separator which lies at or near the duct mouth. The additional scrubbing stage formed by the duct can be supplied with fresh scrubbing water. This eliminates any need for special treatment of the sump liquids of the cooling tower since droplets from the flue gas are not contributng anything to the sump. Furthermore, additional treatment of the flue gases in the duct significantly reduces the SO/sub 2/ content of the gases traversing the tower. Any traces of toxic and noxious components which may remain are diluted. The further scrubbing in the duct reduces cooling of the flue gases which might otherwise cause condensate formation and the deposit of fine droplets therefrom to cause deterioration of the sump liquid of the tower. The water which is collected from the duct and is thus enriched in SO/sub 2/ can be returned as the process water required for the original flue gas scrubbing step. 2 figs.

  16. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-28

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O), calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column.

  17. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  18. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  19. [Flue gas desulfurization by a novel biomass activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Ling; Tang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Wen-Ju; Jiang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1% -0.3%. The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h(-1). The optimal bed temperature was 80 degrees C, and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10%. When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13%, the desulfurization performance of activated carbon was the highest. Under the optimal operating conditions, the sulfur capacity of activated carbon was 252 mg x g(-1), and the breakthrough time was up to 26 h when the SO2 inlet concentration was 0.2%.

  20. SO2/Hg removal from flue gas by dry FGD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fan; Wang Hongmei; Zhang Fan; Zhu Jinwei; Tian Gang; Liu Yu; Mao Jixian

    2012-01-01

    To study the mechanism of SO2 and Hg removal from flue gas,an experimental packed bed reactor was designed to simulate the dry FGD,where a mixture of lime and fly ash in ratio 1∶3 w/w was used as the SO2 and Hg sorbent,and steam at temperature of 100 ℃ was applied for activation of the sorbent,while the activation time set to 20 min.The experimental factors including the SO2/Hg sorbent characteristics,50% breakthrough time for SO2/Hg removal,sorbent packed bed depth and reaction temperature were investigated.The experimental results show that after steam activation,the BET specific surface area and specific pore volume increased from 37.8 to 45.5 m2/g and from 0.42 to 0.51 cm3/g,respectively.With activation of the sorbent by steam,the 50% breakthrough times of SO2 and Hg removal increased from 34 to 42 min and from 23 to 45 min,respectively.When the packed bed depth was increased from 5 to 25 mm,the 50% breakthrough times for Hg and SO2 removal increased from 12 to 52 min and from 6 to 47 min,respectively.With the increase of the reaction temperature,the 50% breakthrough of SO2/Hg removal decreased accordingly.Steam activation can efficiently improve SO2/Hg removal simultaneously.

  1. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P. Brown

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and –independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems.

  2. Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Alana, L.A.; Moreno, A; Pérez-de-Gracia, F. (Fernando)

    2011-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed a considerable increase in the use of time series techniques in econometrics. The articles in this important set have been chosen to illustrate the main themes in time series work as it relates to econometrics. The editor has written a new concise introduction to accompany the articles. Sections covered include: Ad Hoc Forecasting Procedures, ARIMA Modelling, Structural Time Series Models, Unit Roots, Detrending and Non-stationarity, Seasonality, Seasonal Adju...

  3. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash,industry lime,and an oxidizing additive M.Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed(CFB).The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification.Removal efficiencies of 95.5%for SO2 and 64.8%for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods.The results in- dicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species.A scanning electron microscope(SEM)and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples,including fly ash,oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent.The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was pro- posed according to the experimental results.

  4. Industrial-scale experiments of desulfuration of coal flue gas using a pulsed corona discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Wang, N.H.; Li, G.F.; Huang, Q.N. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Inst. of Electrostatics

    2003-06-01

    The flow rate of flue gas in the industrial experiments was 3000 Nm{sup 3}/h. The flue gas from the boiler burning coal was used. The influences of operating parameters on the efficiency of desulfurization (DeSO{sub 2}) were studied, which include the retention period of flue gas in the reactor, the initial concentration of SO{sub 2} in flue gas, a mole ratio of NH{sub 3} to SO{sub 2} in the gas, the temperature of the gas, as well as the power consumption of pulsed corona discharges. The experimental results shown that the efficiency of DeSO{sub 2} was above 80%, when the initial concentration of SO{sub 2} was 1000 -2000 ppm, the gas temperature was 60 - 75 {degree}C, the retention period was more than 5.8 s, a mole ratio of NH{sub 3} to SO{sub 2} was 2:1, the water content in flue gas was above 6%, and the consumption was 2.5-3.5 Wh/Nm{sup 3}.

  5. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  6. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01

    Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation

  7. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  8. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  9. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  10. Flue gas dry scrubbing using pulsed electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1996-02-20

    Electron beam dry scrubbing is a technique for removing in a single step both nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the off-gas generated by utilities burning high sulfur coal. The use of pulsed electron beams may provide the most cost-effective solution to the implementation of this technique. This paper presents the results of plasma chemistry calculations to study the effect of dose rate, pulse length and pulse repetition rate on pulsed electron beam processing of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in flue gases. The main objective is to determine if the proposed combinations of dose rate, pulse length and pulse repetition rate would have any deleterious effect on the utilization of radicals for pollutant removal. For a dose rate of 2x10{sup 5} megarads per second and a pulse length of 30 nanoseconds, the average dose per pulse is sufficiently low to prevent any deleterious effect on process efficiency because of radical-radical recombination reactions. During each post-pulse period, the radicals are utilized in the oxidation of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in a timescale of around 200 microseconds; thus, with pulse frequencies of around 5 kilohertz or less, the radical concentrations remain sufficiently low to prevent any significant competition between radical-pollutant and radical-radical reactions. The main conclusion is that a pulsed electron beam reactor, operating with a dose rate of 2x10{sup 5} megarads per second, pulse length of 30 ns and pulse repetition rate of up to around 5 kHz, will have the same plasma chemistry efficiency as an electron beam reactor operating with a very low dose rate in continuous mode.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-12-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE {number_sign}FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0{sub 2} absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0{sub 2} absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m{sub 2}, gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m{sub 2}, and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  12. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... warehouse floors in designated markets. 29.75b Section 29.75b Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. Each lot of baled flue-cured tobacco displayed for sale on auction warehouse floors shall have...

  13. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  14. Study of Zinc Leaching of EAF Flue Dust Using Sodium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Abdul Ghani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the production of steel from Electric Arc Furnace (EAF, large amount of by-product called EAF flue dust is generated. The major proportion of flue dust is comprised of Zn (41.5 % wt.. Different phases identified by XRD analysis are zincite, franklinite and magnetite with zincite being dominant. In this study, we have performed flue dust treatment using sodium hydroxide as leaching medium. Different concentrations of alkali were used to optimize maximum recovery of Zn. XRF and Wet Chemical method were used to characterize the dust samples both before and after leaching. The optimum alkali concentration for selective leaching of zinc was found to be 4 M with a zinc recovery of 90 %.

  15. Modeling and parametric analysis of hollow fiber membrane system for carbon capture from multicomponent flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2011-08-12

    The modeling and optimal design/operation of gas membranes for postcombustion carbon capture (PCC) is presented. A systematic methodology is presented for analysis of membrane systems considering multicomponent flue gas with CO 2 as target component. Simplifying assumptions is avoided by namely multicomponent flue gas represented by CO 2/N 2 binary mixture or considering the co/countercurrent flow pattern of hollow-fiber membrane system as mixed flow. Optimal regions of flue gas pressures and membrane area were found within which a technoeconomical process system design could be carried out. High selectivity was found to not necessarily have notable impact on PCC membrane performance, rather, a medium selectivity combined with medium or high permeance could be more advantageous. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. Selection and adaptation of microalgae to growth in 100% unfiltered coal-fired flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Mughal, Tahira Aziz; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae have been considered for biological carbon capture and sequestration to offset carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This study shows that mixed biodiverse microalgal communities can be selected for and adapted to tolerate growth in 100% flue gas from an unfiltered coal-fired power plant that contained 11% CO2. The high SOx and NOx emissions required slow adaptation of microalgae over many months, with step-wise increases from 10% to 100% flue gas supplementation and phosphate buffering at higher concentrations. After a rapid decline in biodiversity over the first few months, community profiling revealed Desmodesmus spp. as the dominant microalgae. To the authors' knowledge this work is the first to demonstrate that up 100% unfiltered flue gas from coal-fired power generation can be used for algae cultivation. Implementation of serial passages over a range of photobioreactors may contribute towards the development of microalgal-mediated carbon capture and sequestration processes.

  17. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  18. Simultaneous flue gas bioremediation and reduction of microalgal biomass production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douskova, I.; Doucha, J.; Livansky, K.; Umysova, D.; Zachleder, V.; Vitova, M. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Cell Cycles of Algae; Machat, J. [Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic). Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Novak, P. [Termizo Inc., Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2009-02-15

    A flue gas originating from a municipal waste incinerator was used as a source of CO{sub 2} for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, in order to decrease the biomass production costs and to bioremediate CO{sub 2} simultaneously. The utilization of the flue gas containing 10-13% ({nu}/{nu}) CO2 and 8-10% ({nu}/{nu}) O{sub 2} for the photobioreactor agitation and CO{sub 2} supply was proven to be convenient. The growth rate of algal cultures on the flue gas was even higher when compared with the control culture supplied by a mixture of pure CO{sub 2} and air (11% ({nu}/{nu}) CO{sub 2}). Correspondingly, the CO{sub 2} fixation rate was also higher when using the flue gas (4.4 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}) than using the control gas (3.0 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}). The toxicological analysis of the biomass produced using untreated flue gas showed only a slight excess of mercury while all the other compounds (other heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls) were below the limits required by the European Union foodstuff legislation. Fortunately, extending the flue gas treatment prior to the cultivation unit by a simple granulated activated carbon column led to an efficient absorption of gaseous mercury and to the algal biomass composition compliant with all the foodstuff legislation requirements. (orig.)

  19. Engineering practice of sintering main flue gas waste heat recovery in steel factory%钢铁厂烧结主抽烟道余热回收工程实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜蒙; 王辉; 王丽丽; 李鹏元; 徐永权

    2014-01-01

    The technological process of sintering main flue gas waste heat recovery , practical applica-tion, problems in the application and solutions , and economic evaluation of application in Fujian San-ming steel 180 m2 sintering machine were introduced , and the experience was provided for the future sintering main flue gas waste heat recovery .%介绍了福建三钢180 m2烧结机主抽烟道余热回收的工艺流程、实际应用、遇到的问题、解决办法及经济评价,为今后烧结主抽烟道余热回收提供了经验。

  20. Experimental study on performance of flow & desulfurisation of a gas-liquid screen scrubber for wet flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, the gas-liquid two-phase flow performance and desulfurisation performance of the gasliquid screen scrubber were experimentally studied when limestone wag used as absorbent. Experiments were carried out at varying the flue gas velocity and slurry flux in concurrent and countercurrent tower respectively. The experimental results showed that the flow resistance of absorber increased rapidly with an increase of the flue gas velocity whether in concurrent or in countercurrent tower, and the up trend of the flow resistance in the countercurrent tower was higher than those in the concurrent one. The influence of the flue gas velocity on the flow resistance of absorber was more than those of the slurry flux density. Whether in the concurrent tower or in the countercurrent one, increasing the flue gas velocity or the slurry flux density would enhance the desulphurization efficiency. The influence of the slurry flux density on the desulfurisation efficiency was greater than those of the flue gas velocity.

  1. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  2. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  3. Alternative deNO{sub x} catalysts and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Due-Hansen, J.

    2010-06-15

    Two approaches are undertaken in the present work to reduce the emission of NO{sub x}: by means of catalytic removal, and by NO absorption in ionic liquids. The commercial catalyst used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides exhibits high activity and selectivity towards N{sub 2}. However, the vanadia-titania-based catalyst used is very sensitive to deactivation by alkali-species (primarily potassium), which are typically present in high amounts in the flue gas when biomass is combusted. By co-firing with large amounts of CO{sub 2}-neutral straw or wood (to meet stringent CO{sub 2} emission legislation), the lifetime of the traditional SCR catalyst is thus significantly reduced due to the presence of deactivating species originating from the fuel. To develop a catalyst less susceptible to the poisons present in the flue gas, a number of catalysts have been synthesized and tested in the present work, all based on commercially available supports. A highly acidic support consisting of sulfated zirconia was chosen based on preliminary studies. A number of different active species distributed on the support were investigated, such as iron, copper and vanadium oxides. However, based on the catalysts performance in the SCR reaction and their resistances towards potassium, the most promising candidate of the formulations studied was the vanadia-loaded catalyst, i.e. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SO{sub 4}2-ZrO{sub 2}. This work, together with an introduction to the catalytic removal of NO{sub x}, are described in chapter 3. The remainder of the first part is concerned with the catalytic NO{sub x} removal (chapter 4) and it addresses the upscaling of the best catalyst candidate. The catalyst was mixed with the natural binding clay (sepiolite) to upscale the selected catalyst to the monolithic level, suitable for installation in gas stream with high flows, e.g. a flue gas duct of a power plant. A series of catalyst pellets with increasing levels of sepiolite were

  4. Reduction of NO2 in Flue Gas by CO and Propylene over CuO-CeO2/SiO2 in the Presence of O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU,Mo-Hong; LI,Ming-Shi; SHAN,Yu-Hua; SESHAN,K.; LEFFERTS,Leon

    2008-01-01

    Catalytic reduction of NO2 with CO and/or propylene in the presence of NO and excess oxygen,a model mixture for flue gas,was studied over a series of CuO-CeO2/SiO2 catalysts between 120-260℃.The effect of HC1,an impurity in flue gas,on the activity of the catalysts was evaluated.It was found that a binary oxide catalyst,2% CuO-8% CeO2/SiO2,was active for the reduction of NO2 by CO and/or propylene.CO was effective for selective reduction of NO2 in the presence of NO and O2 in a temperature window between 160-200 ℃ while propylene was effective at temperature higher than 200 ℃.In the presence of HC1,the activity of the catalyst for reduction of NO2 with CO was irreversibly deactivated.However,the activity for reduction of NO2 with propylene was not influenced by HC1.

  5. The nucleation of aerosols in flue gases with a high content of alkali - a laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Joakim Reimer; Schultz-Møller, Christina; Wedel, Stig;

    2000-01-01

    The formation of particles during cooling of a synthetic flue gas with vapors of sodium and potassium species is studied in a laboratory tubular reactor with laminar flow. It is shown to agree well with a theoretical model for the process. The kinetics of homogeneous nucleation of the pure chloride...... are determined from the measurements. The homogeneous nucleation of the pure chlorides is suppressed by even relatively small concentrations of foreign seed particles and is therefore unlikely to contribute to the creation of new particles in real flue gases. The addition of SO2 to the chloride vapor feed...

  6. Removal of dust from flue gas in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghui Wang; Keting Gui; Mingheng Shi; Changfeng Li

    2008-01-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB, φ 500mm x 2100mm) was designed to study dust removal from flue gas. Based on the mechanism of dust removal in a fixed bed, the effects on collection efficiency of magnetic field intensity, ratio of flue gas velocity to minimum fluidization velocity, bed height, and particle average diameter, were investigated. Then feasible methods for MSFB to better remove dust were proposed. Over 95% of dust removal with MSFB can be achieved, when stable fluidization is maintained and when magnetic particles are frequently renewed.

  7. Investigation of the Corrosion Behavior of Electroless Ni-P Coating in Flue Gas Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hejie Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of Ni-P coating deposited on 3003 aluminum alloy in flue gas condensate was investigated by electrochemical approaches. The results indicated that nitrite acted as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of nitrite was reduced in solutions containing sulfate or nitrate. Chloride and sulfate accelerated the corrosion of Ni-P coatings greatly. This can provide important information for the researchers to develop special Ni-P coatings with high corrosion resistance in the flue gas condensate.

  8. Catalytic Activity and Deactivation of SO2 Oxidation Catalysts in Simulated Power Plant Flue Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Chrissanthopoulos, Asthanassios; Eriksen, Kim Michael

    1997-01-01

    The catalyst deactivation and the simultaneious formation of compounds in commercial SO2 oxidation catalysts have been studied by combined activity measurements and in situ EPR spectroscopy in the temperature range 350-480 C in wet and dry simulated power plant flue gas.......The catalyst deactivation and the simultaneious formation of compounds in commercial SO2 oxidation catalysts have been studied by combined activity measurements and in situ EPR spectroscopy in the temperature range 350-480 C in wet and dry simulated power plant flue gas....

  9. 山东烟叶精益生产的探索与思考%Exploration on Lean Production of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴开成; 王暖春; 刘中庆

    2014-01-01

    During the process of advancing modern tobacco agriculture, some related measures for developing were proposed, such as changing operation ideas, innovating production mode, strengthening the guidance, exploring lean production and so on. After a few year exploration, the lean production mode for flue-cured tobacco leaves has been roughly developed, which includes accurate information, sophisticated technology, precision operation, and fine management. The application of this mode increased land output rate, resource utilization rate and labor productivity, improved the quality and profit of flue-cured tobacco leaves, promoted the development of modern tobacco agriculture in Shandong. The strategy and issues on lean production for flue-cured tobacco leaves were evaluated and summarized in this paper.%在推进现代烟草农业深化提升的过程中,山东烟区切实转变思想观念,创新生产方式,加强示范引导,积极探索烟叶精益生产。通过实践,初步形成了以信息精确化、技术精良化、作业精准化、管理精细化为主要内容的烟叶精益生产模式,提高了土地产出率、资源利用率和劳动生产率,提升了烟叶品质,较好地推动了山东现代烟草农业发展,促进了烟农持续增收和原料保障上水平,并对山东今后推进烟叶精益生产的思路进行了探讨。

  10. Conference Report: The Nour Foundation Georgetown University & Blackfriars Hall, Oxford University Symposium Series Technology, Neuroscience & the Nature of Being: Considerations of Meaning, Morality and Transcendence Part I: The Paradox of Neurotechnology 8 May 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palchik Guillermo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This reviews the first of a tripartite symposia series dealing with novel neuroscientific technologies, the nature of consciousness and being, and the questions that arise from such interactions. The event took place on May 8 2009, at Georgetown University, and brought together ten leading figures on fields ranging from Neuroscience and Robotics to Philosophy, that commented on their research and provided ethical, moral and practical insight and perspectives into how these technologies can shape the future of neuroscientific and human development, as well as denoting the potential abuses and the best way to proceed about them.

  11. Conference Report: The Nour Foundation Georgetown University & Blackfriars Hall, Oxford University Symposium Series Technology, Neuroscience & the Nature of Being: Considerations of Meaning, Morality and Transcendence Part I: The Paradox of Neurotechnology 8 May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchik, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    This reviews the first of a tripartite symposia series dealing with novel neuroscientific technologies, the nature of consciousness and being, and the questions that arise from such interactions. The event took place on May 8 2009, at Georgetown University, and brought together ten leading figures on fields ranging from Neuroscience and Robotics to Philosophy, that commented on their research and provided ethical, moral and practical insight and perspectives into how these technologies can shape the future of neuroscientific and human development, as well as denoting the potential abuses and the best way to proceed about them. PMID:19615065

  12. Chart Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offers several different Chart Series with data on beneficiary health status, spending, operations, and quality...

  13. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... Upper cervical spine injuries: a management of a series of 70 cases. El Fatemi ... women, with traffic accidents being the major traumatic cause. .... osteosynthesis is preferred to respect the biomechanics of the cervical spine ...

  14. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  15. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  16. The Politics of Technology Utilization: From Microcomputers to Distance Learning. Trends & Issues Series, Number 3. A Series of Papers Highlighting Recent Developments in Research and Practice in Educational Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    The external politics of technology utilization in schools involving local, state, and federal levels of government is the central focus of this paper. Interest group politics are also examined, especially as practiced at the state level by professional associations representing teachers, administrators, and school board members. The first chapter…

  17. Critical review of mercury chemistry in flue gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M. H.; Livengood, C. D.

    2006-11-27

    Mercury (Hg) and its compounds have long been recognized as potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Many man-made sources of mercury have been reduced in recent years through process changes and control measures. However, emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants, while exceedingly dilute by the usual pollution standards, still constitute a major source when considered in the aggregate. Concerns over those emissions and the prospect of impending emissions regulations have led to a wide range of research projects dealing with the measurement and control of mercury in flue gas. This work has made considerable progress in improving the understanding of mercury emissions and their behavior, but inconsistencies and unexpected results have also shown that a better understanding of mercury chemistry is needed. To develop a more complete understanding of where additional research on mercury chemistry is needed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a critical review of the available information as reported in the technical literature. The objectives were to summarize the current state of the art of chemistry knowledge, identify significant knowledge gaps, and recommend future research to resolve those gaps. An initial evaluation of potential review topics indicated that the scope of the review would need to be limited and focused on the most important topics relative to mercury control. To aid in this process, Argonne developed a brief survey that was circulated to researchers in the field who could help identify and prioritize the many aspects of the problem. The results of the survey were then used to design and guide a highly focused literature search that identified key papers for analysis. Each paper was reviewed, summarized, and evaluated for the relevance and quality of the information presented. The results of that work provided the basis for conclusions regarding the state of knowledge

  18. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  19. 电改袋技术在回转窑窑头烟气净化中的应用%Application of ESP Retroft to FF Technology in Rotary Kiln Back’s Flue Gas Cleaning System of New Dry Cement Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章潮鸿

    2012-01-01

      在对水泥生产线篦冷机尾气除尘进行分析的基础上,提出了电除尘改袋式除尘的必要性,可有效控制新型干法窑烟尘和粉尘的排放浓度;针对具体案例的使用结果进行了阐述。%  The important point of environmental protection at the new dry cement kiln is that how to effectively control the concentration of dust emission under the new environmental standards in China. This paper puts forward the necessity of ESP retroft to FF technology based on the analysis on cement processing tail gas dedusting, and an introduction of the use result of specifc case concerned.

  20. Series Bosch System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Evans, Christopher; Mansell, Matt; Swickrath, Michael

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art (SOA) carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology for the International Space Station produces methane as a byproduct. This methane is subsequently vented overboard. The associated loss of hydrogen ultimately reduces the mass of oxygen that can be recovered from CO2 in a closed-loop life support system. As an alternative to SOA CO2 reduction technology, NASA is exploring a Series-Bosch system capable of reducing CO2 with hydrogen to form water and solid carbon. This results in 100% theoretical recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. In the past, Bosch-based technology did not trade favorably against SOA technology due to a high power demand, low reaction efficiencies, concerns with carbon containment, and large resupply requirements necessary to replace expended catalyst cartridges. An alternative approach to Bosch technology, labeled "Series-Bosch," employs a new system design with optimized multi-stage reactors and a membrane-based separation and recycle capability. Multi-physics modeling of the first stage reactor, along with chemical process modeling of the integrated system, has resulted in a design with potential to trade significantly better than previous Bosch technology. The modeling process and resulting system architecture selection are discussed.

  1. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  2. Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at investigating the production of pellets resulting from these fines, using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of iron ore. The sintering experiments were performed using flue dust as pellets as a substitute of coke breeze. The results revealed that, sintering properties such as inter strength increases with using the flue dust pellets, while productivity of both the sinter machine and sinter machine at blast furnace yard decreases. Also the vertical velocity of the sinter machine and the weight loss during the reduction of produced the sinter by hydrogen decrease.

  3. An inverse method for flue gas shielded metal surface temperature measurement based on infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Xu, C. L.; Wang, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    The infrared temperature measurement technique has been applied in various fields, such as thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, and remote temperature sensing. In the problem of infrared measurement of the metal surface temperature of superheater surfaces, the outer wall of the metal pipe is covered by radiative participating flue gas. This means that the traditional infrared measurement technique will lead to intolerable measurement errors due to the absorption and scattering of the flue gas. In this paper, an infrared measurement method for a metal surface in flue gas is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The spectral emissivity of the metal surface, and the spectral absorption and scattering coefficients of the radiative participating flue gas are retrieved simultaneously using an inverse method called quantum particle swarm optimization. Meanwhile, the detected radiation energy simulated using a forward simulation method (named the source multi-flux method) is set as the input of the retrieval. Then, the temperature of the metal surface detected by an infrared CCD camera is modified using the source multi-flux method in combination with these retrieved physical properties. Finally, an infrared measurement system for metal surface temperature is built to assess the proposed method. Experimental results show that the modified temperature is closer to the true value than that of the direct measured temperature.

  4. A pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulfurization with pyrolusite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shi-jun; ZHU Xiao-fan; LIU Yong-jun; JIANG Wen-ju; JIN Yan

    2005-01-01

    MnO2 in pyrolusite can react with SO2 in flue gas and obtain by-product MnSO4· H2 O. A pilot scale jet bubbling reactor was applied in this work. Different factors affecting both SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate have been investigated, these factors include temperature of inlet gas flue, ration of liquid/solid mass flow rate(L/S), pyrolusite grade, and SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas. In the meantime, the procedure of purification of absorption liquid was also discussed. Experiment results indicated that the increase of temperature from 30 to 70 K caused the increase of SO2 absorption efficiency from 81.4% to 91.2%. And when SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas increased from 500 to 3000 ppm, SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate decreased from 98.1% to 82.2% and from 82.8% to 61.7%, respectively. The content of MnO2 in pyrolusite had a neglectable effect on SO2 absorption efficiency. Low L/S was good for both removal of SO2 and Mn2+ extraction. The absorption liquid was filtrated and purified to remove Si,standards.

  5. Relationship Between Hyperspectral Parameters and Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of Flue-Cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-yang; LIU Guo-shun; YANG Yong-feng; ZHAO Chun-hua; YU Qi-wei; SONG Shi-xu

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was set up for examining the physiological and biological indexes quickly and exactly, for obtaining information of tobacco-field fertilizing and tobacco growing. The ASD Field spec FR 2500 was used to measure spectra reflectance of flue-cured tobacco and the relationship between hyperspectral parameters and biochemical contents (total nitrogen, chlorophyll, carotenoid), and physiological indexes (fresh weight, dry weight, moisture content) of flue-cured tobacco leaves was studied by correlation and stepwise regression statistic methods at different nitrogen and potassium levels. The results indicated that the spectra curves of different treatments had obvious rules and great diversities. There were high correlations between different types of spectra parameters and ten physiological and biochemical indexes of flue-cured tobacco leaves. Hyperspectral characteristic variables of ten physiological and biochemical indexes were found through stepwise regression, and SDr/SDb was the characteristic variable closest to seven biochemical contents. Simultaneously, the R2 and regression coefficient of equations reached 0.05 significant level and the equations had good estimating effects through the examination of other samples. Accordingly, this study suggested that the ten physiological and biochemical indexes could be estimated quickly by the estimating models, at the same time nitrogen-potassium fertilization and growth condition of flue-cured tobacco could be inspected.

  6. Effects of cement flue dusts from a Nigerian cement plant on air, water and planktonic quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, Victor F; Oluyemi, Emmanuel A

    2010-03-01

    Effects of cement flue dust from Ewekoro cement Kilns were monitored at some aquatic receptor locations. High levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and atmospheric deposition rates (ADRs) were recorded within the factory compared to ancillary locations outside the factory. The TSP and ADR levels which were location dependent were significantly higher (P cement factory catchment areas.

  7. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas using Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    difficult. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions. A number of advantages make amino acid salt solutions attractive solvents for CO2 capture from flue gas. In the present study CO2 absorption in aqueous solutions of 0.5 M potassium glycinate and 0.5 M...

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of multi-layer ceramics for electrochemical flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Cristine Grings; Ippolito, Davide; Bentzen, Janet Jonna;

    2013-01-01

    Multi-layered ceramics for electrochemical flue gas purification were fabricated by tape casting and lamination or by multi-layer tape casting. The sintered bodies were studied by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was shown that the samples made by multi...

  9. Use of sulfate reducing cell suspension bioreactors for the treatment of SO2 rich flue gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Gastesi, R.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel bioscrubber concept for biological flue gas desulfurization, based on the recycling of a cell suspension of sulfite/sulfate reducing bacteria between a scrubber and a sulfite/sulfate reducing hydrogen fed bioreactor. Hydrogen metabolism in sulfite/sulfate reducing cell

  10. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  11. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas by Ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Han, Yinghui; Ma, Tianzhong; Guo, Tianxiang

    2011-05-01

    An innovative semidry process has been developed to simultaneously remove NO and SO₂ from flue gas. According to the conditions of the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system, ferrate(VI) absorbent was prepared and added to humidified water, and the effects of the various influencing factors, such as ferrate(VI) concentration, humidified water pH, inlet flue gas temperature, residence time, molar ratio of Ca/(S+N), and concentrations of SO₂ and NO on removal efficiencies of SO₂ and NO were studied experimentally. Removal efficiencies of 96.1% for SO₂ and 67.2% for NO were obtained, respectively, under the optimal experimental conditions, in which the concentration of ferrate(VI) was 0.03 M, the humidified water pH was 9.32, the inlet flue gas temperature was 130 °C, the residence time was 2.2 s, and the molar ratio of Ca/(S+N) was 1.2. In addition, the reaction mechanism of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using ferrate(VI) was proposed.

  12. Characterization and Regeneration of Pt-Catalysts Deactivated in Municipal Waste Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2006-01-01

    that siloxanes were the most severe catalyst poisons, although acidic sulfur compounds also caused deactivation. Furthermore, a method for on-site regeneration without shutdown of the catalytic flue gas cleaning system has been developed, i.e. an addition of H-2/N-2 gas to the off-gas can completely restore...

  13. Decreasing phosphorus loss in tile-drained landscapes using flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural non-point source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P...

  14. The Effect of Water Spray upon Incineration Flue Gas Clean—up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaigangWang; BinLi; 等

    2000-01-01

    The existence of liquid water was found very important in incineration flue gas clean-up systems for enhancing the absorption of acid components contained.In a newly developed incineration flue gas clean-up tower,which works in a semi-dry mode,the water is injected in the form of spray to maximum its contact surface with the gas.The criteria for the design of the water nozzles would be high water concentration but no liquid impinging on the solid wall and complete evaporation inside the tower,In order to optimize the atomizer design,the effects of the spray type (hollow or solid cone),their initial droplet size distribution and water flow rate on the performance of the acid gas absorption were investigated.The liquid behaviour was studied with a fluid dynamic simulation code,and the overall performance was checked experimentally.This paper presents the use of a commercial CFD code,FLUENT,and some modifications made during such investigation.The modification includes the viscosity of the flue gas defined as a function of the temperature,and the initial mass fraction of different droplet size group described with an exponential distribution formula of Rosin-Rammler.The investigation results (the optimal spray parameters)were used to guide the water nozzle design.The general performance of the flue gas clean-up system measured during the plant operation complied with the design criteria.

  15. Regulations and Practice on Flue Gas Denitrification for Coal-Fired Power Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fahua; Zhao Guohua

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China, according to the relative up-to-date regulations and standards, the maincontrol measure for Nox emission of coal-fired power plants is, in principle, low Noxcombustion. However, in recent years, more and more newly approved coal-fired plantswere required to install flue gas denitrification equipment.

  16. Use of sulfate reducing cell suspension bioreactors for the treatment of SO2 rich flue gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Gastesi, R.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel bioscrubber concept for biological flue gas desulfurization, based on the recycling of a cell suspension of sulfite/sulfate reducing bacteria between a scrubber and a sulfite/sulfate reducing hydrogen fed bioreactor. Hydrogen metabolism in sulfite/sulfate reducing cell s

  17. Structure and Change of Costs for Flue-cured Tobacco Production:A Case Study of Liuyang Tobacco Growing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiafeng; CHEN; Kun; CHEN; Jianyong; LI; Liangjiao; LIU

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of consulting related information and data,costs for flue-cured tobacco production were surveyed and analyzed with Liuyang tobacco growing areas as an example.Results showed that there is rise and fall in fertilizer cost for flue-cured tobacco production;change in pesticide and agricultural plastic film is little;other costs for flue-cured tobacco production rise rapidly in recent years.Besides,there is certain reduction in labor units per mu for flue-cured tobacco production;labor price has an annual growth rate of 15%-25%.The proportion of labor cost to total cost for flue-cured tobacco production is increasing,thus rise of labor cost is the major factor promoting rise of costs for flue-cured tobacco production.Through adjustment of purchasing price and various subsidies,the change of per mu yield is a decisive factor influencing benefits of flue-cured tobacco production.

  18. Effect of Flue Gas on Microalgae Population and Study the Heavy Metals Accumulation in Biomass from Power Plant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendraperumal Guruvaiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have high photosynthetic efficiency that can fix CO2 from the flue gas directly without any upstream CO2 separation, and concomitantly produce biomass for biofuel applications. These gases, both untreated and treated into current discharge standards, contain CO2, N2, H2O, O2, NOx, SOx, CxHy, CO, particulate matter, halogen acids and heavy metals. Microalgae population studies were conducted in a batch mode experiments at Power plant site of Chamois, Missouri. The experiments were conducted in different period (June to December 2011 of time. This study evaluated the effect of several heavy metals that are present in flue gases on the algae, focusing on the growth and accumulation of lipids in the algae that can be converted to biodiesel. The genus Scenedesmus presented the greatest richness of species and number of counted individuals in the flue gas ponds compare than non flue gas treatment ponds. Among the diatomaceae the genus Navicula sp, Nitizchia sp and Synedra sp. presented the next subdominant richness in the ponds. The last results of counted green algae Ulothrix sp and Coelastrum sp were least number of cells reported in these ponds. The heavy metal-contaminated in flue gas and also enter into the microalgae biomass population. Comparative studies were carried out by flue gas and control system of open ponds. Control system of microalgae population was represented in less amount of heavy metals compare than flue gas ponds.

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-07-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

  20. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  1. Possibilities of mercury removal in the dry flue gas cleaning lines of solid waste incineration units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    Dry methods of the flue gas cleaning (for HCl and SO2 removal) are useful particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units. The amount and forms of mercury emissions depend on waste (fuel) composition, content of mercury and chlorine and on the entire process of the flue gas cleaning. In the case of high HCl/total Hg molar ratio in the flue gas, the majority (usually 70-90%) of mercury is present in the form of HgCl2 and a smaller amount in the form of mercury vapors at higher temperatures. Removal of both main forms of mercury from the flue gas is dependent on chemical reactions and sorption processes at the temperatures below approx. 340 °C. Significant part of HgCl2 and a small part of elemental Hg vapors can be adsorbed on fly ash and solid particle in the air pollution control (APC) processes, which are removed in dust filters. Injection of non-impregnated active carbon (AC) or activated lignite coke particles is able to remove mainly the oxidized Hg(2+) compounds. Vapors of metallic Hg(o) are adsorbed relatively weakly. Much better chemisorption of Hg(o) together with higher sorbent capacity is achieved by AC-based sorbents impregnated with sulfur, alkali poly-sulfides, ferric chloride, etc. Inorganic sorbents with the same or similar chemical impregnation are also applicable for deeper Hg(o) removal (over 85%). SCR catalysts convert part of Hg(o) into oxidized compounds (HgO, HgCl2, etc.) contributing to more efficient Hg removal, but excess of NH3 has a negative effect. Both forms, elemental Hg(o) and HgCl2, can be converted into HgS particles by reacting with droplets/aerosol of poly-sulfides solutions/solids in flue gas. Mercury captured in the form of water insoluble HgS is more advantageous in the disposal of solid waste from APC processes. Four selected options of the dry flue gas cleaning with mercury removal are analyzed, assessed and compared (in terms of efficiency of Hg-emission reduction and costs) with wet methods and retrofits for more

  2. Analysis of the impact of heat pump technology on the Irish energy system to the year 2000. Energy case study series: No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, J.

    1977-09-15

    An analysis of the impact of existing and new heat pump technology on the Irish energy system to the year 2000 was undertaken. The methodology used involved the measurement of the potential impact against a base Reference Energy System for various heat pump strategies. A short analysis of the implementation rates and their effect on technology impact was also carried out.

  3. Photocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide from simulated flue gas by wet scrubbing using ultraviolet/TiO2/H2O2 process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 仲兆平; 付宗明

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) from flue gas is hard to remove because of low solubility and reactivity. A new technology for photocatalytic oxidation of NO using ultraviolet (UV)/TiO2/H2O2 process is studied in an efficient laboratory-scale reactor. Effects of several key operational parameters on NO removal efficiency are studied, including TiO2 content, H2O2 initial concentration, UV lamp power, NO initial content, oxygen volume fraction and TiO2/H2O2 solution volume. The results illustrate that the NO removal efficiency increases with the increasing of H2O2 initial concentration or UV lamp power. Meanwhile, a lower NO initial content or a higher TiO2/H2O2 solution volume will result in higher NO removal efficiency. In addition, oxygen volume fraction has a little effect. The highest NO removal efficiency is achieved at the TiO2 content of 0.75 g/L, H2O2 initial concentration of 2.5 mol/L, UV lamp power of 36 W, NO initial content of 206×10−6 and TiO2/H2O2 solution volume of 600 mL. It is beneficial for the development and application of NO removal from coal-fired flue gas with UV/TiO2/H2O2 process.

  4. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, third quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1995--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-06-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. This project is studying the characteristics of flue-gas scrubber sludges from several sources. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  5. The role of outlet temperature of flue gas in organic Rankine cycle considering low temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shuang Ying; Li, Chun; Xiao, Lan; Li, You Rong; Liu, Chao [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2014-12-15

    This paper gives a special focus on the role of outlet temperature of flue gas (T{sub go}) in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for low temperature flue gas waste heat recovery. The variations of performance indicators: net work (W{sub net}), exergy efficiency (η{sub ex}) and levelized energy cost (LEC) versus T{sub go} are discussed. Considering the corrosion of low temperature flue gas, the necessity and reasonability of limiting T{sub go} at its minimum allowed discharge temperature (355.15 K) are analyzed. Results show that there exist optimal T{sub go} (T{sub go,opt}) for W{sub net} and LEC, while T{sub go,opt} for η{sub ex} does not appear under the investigated range of T{sub go}. Moreover, the T{sub go,opt} for W{sub net} is always lower than 355.15 K, the T{sub go,opt} for LEC, despite being greater than the one for W{sub net}, is just slightly higher than 355.15 K when the inlet temperature of flue gas varies from 408.15 K to 463.15 K. For the waste heat recovery of low temperature flue gas, it is reasonable to fix T{sub go} at 355.15K if W{sub net} or LEC is selected as primary performance indicator under the pinch point temperature difference of evaporator (ΔT{sub e}) below 20K.

  6. Application Study of Renewable Energy Sources in Curing of Flue -cured Tobacco%可再生能源在烟草调制中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骏; 杨征宇

    2012-01-01

    在介绍我国烤烟调制耗能现状的基础上,从生物质能、电能、太阳能、纳米及远红外技术4个方面综述了我国烟草调制中可再生能源应用进展,指出了可再生能源在烟草调制应用过程中存在的问题及发展方向.%Based on the introduction of the current situation of energy consumption in the curing of flue - cured tobacco in our country, the article summarized the advance in the application of renewable energy sources in the curing of flue - cured tobacco from 4 aspects: biomass energy, electric energy, solar energy, nanometer and far infrared technology, and pointed out the existing problems and developmental direction of renewable energy sources application in flue - cured tobacco curing.

  7. Study on Sulfation of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 Sorbent in Simulated Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The sulfation of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbent in simulated flue gas was studied. A series of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbents with different CeO2 loadings were prepared by impregnation and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Thermogravimetric technique was used to study the sulfation of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbents, mainly on the CeO2 loading, sulfation cycles, and intrinsic kinetics. The study revealed that monolayer coverage of CeO2 supported on γ-Al2O3 was 0.125 g CeO2/g (γ-Al2O3). Below monolayer coverage, CeO2 was highly dispersed on γ-Al2O3. The optimal CeO2 loading on sulfation was 0.03 g CeO2/g (γ-Al2O3). CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbent was recyclable by controlling sulfation time. Intrinsic kineticd equation was R=1.1394×10-4×exp (-1,508.39/T) mg·mg-1·s-1. Activation energy and reaction order were 12.54 kJ·mol-1 and first order, respectively.

  8. Prevention of PCDD/F formation by chemical inhibitor injection into the flue gases in the incineration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruuskanen, J.; Halonen, I.; Ruokojaervi, P.; Tuppurainen, K.; Tarhanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Environmental Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    Three series of inhibition tests were performed at the laboratory and the pilot scale plants during the years 1995-1996. In the laboratory tests chemical inhibitors were added to fly ash before the thermal treatment. Inhibitors were not found to have any effects on destruction of PCDD/Fs at the torment temperature of 160 and 300 deg C compared to the situation without inhibitors. The thermal treatment at 300 deg C alone reduced and dechlorinated PCDD/Fs effectively. In the pilot scale tests both gaseous and liquid inhibitors were injected to the flue gases at 700 deg C, and gaseous inhibitors also at 400 deg C. The total PCDD/F reductions were between 0-95 % depending on the inhibitor, injection temperature and the amount of inhibitors. In the gaseous inhibitor tests the PCDD/F reductions especially high in the particle phase, being even 98 % in dimethylamine injection. In the liquid inhibitor tests the PCDD/F reductions were also high in the gas phase being even 96 % in sodium ammonium hydrogen phosphate injection. (orig.)

  9. Optimizing the locations of the measuring points for an online calculation of the exhaust flue-gas loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobnic, B.; Oman, J.; Kustrin, I.; Rotnik, U. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Uros Rotnik Sostanj Power Plant, Sostanj (Slovenia)

    2005-03-01

    Flue gas properties are very important for evaluation of a boiler's performance. Non-homogeneity of the properties and large dimensions of flue-gas ducts require measurements with large number of measuring points to provide high accuracy of measurement results. An analysis of simpler measuring methods is presented. It is shown that high accuracy can be achieved with small number of measuring points if their positions are optimised with respect to pre-determined conditions in the flue gas duct. The methods can be used as operational measurements to monitor boiler's performance and for on-line calculation of boiler's efficiency. (orig.)

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  12. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  13. New research advancement in electrical engineering field of China-Reviews on special issue of Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI ShengWei; MA Jin

    2009-01-01

    Based on,but not limited to the research results of electrical engineering published in the special issue of Science in China Series E,June 2008,this essay gives a brief review on a wide range of state-of-art advancement in electrical engineering field of China,which includes power system modeling,analysis and control,risk assessments in power system,etc.

  14. The importance of the location of sodium chlorite application in a multipollutant flue gas cleaning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzynska, Renata; Hutson, Nick D

    2012-06-01

    In this study, removing sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and mercury (Hg) from simulated flue gas was investigated in two laboratory-sized bubbling reactors that simulated an oxidizing reactor (where the NO and Hg(0) oxidation reactions are expected to occur) and a wet limestone scrubber, respectively. A sodium chlorite solution was used as the oxidizing agent. The sodium chlorite solution was an effective additive that enhanced the NO(x), Hg, and SO2 capture from the flue gas. Furthermore, it was discovered that the location of the sodium chlorite application (before, in, or after the wet scrubber) greatly influences which pollutants are removed and the amount removed. This effect is related to the chemical conditions (pH, absence/presence of particular gases) that are present at different positions throughout the flue gas cleaning system profile. The research results indicated that there is a potential to achieve nearly zero SO2, NO(x), and Hg emissions (complete SO2, NO, and Hg removals and -90% of NO(x) absorption from initial values of 1500 ppmv of SO2, 200 ppmv of NO(x), and 206 microg/m3 of Hg(0)) from the flue gas when sodium chlorite was applied before the wet limestone scrubber. However applying the oxidizer after the wet limestone scrubber was the most effective configuration for Hg and NO(x) control for extremely low chlorite concentrations (below 0.002 M) and therefore appears to be the best configuration for Hg control or as an additional step in NO(x) recleaning (after other NO(x) control facilities). The multipollutant scrubber, into which the chlorite was injected simultaneously with the calcium carbonate slurry, appeared to be the least expensive solution (when consider only capital cost), but exhibited the lowest NO(x) absorption at -50%. The bench-scale test results presented can be used to develop performance predictions for a full- or pilot-scale multipollutant flue gas cleaning system equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization

  15. Conditions for lowering the flue gas temperature; Foerutsaettning foer saenkning av roekgastemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus

    2012-02-15

    In heat and power production, the efficiency of the power plant increases the larger share of heat from the flue gas that is converted to power. However, this also implies that the temperature of the heat exchanging surfaces is lowered. If the temperature is lowered to a temperature below the dew point of the flue gas, this would result in condensation of the gas, which in turn elevates the risk of serious corrosion attack on the surfaces where condensation occurs. Thus, it is important to determine the dew point temperature. One way of determining the dew point temperature is to use data on composition of the fuel together with operation parameters of the plant, thus calculating the dew point temperature. However, this calculation of the dew point is not so reliable, especially if hygroscopic salts are present. Therefore, for safety reasons, the temperature of the flue gas is kept well above the dew point temperature. This results in lowered over-all efficiency of the plant. It could also be expected that for a certain plant, some construction materials under certain operation conditions would have corrosion characteristics that may allow condensation on the surface without severe and unpredictable corrosion attack. However, by only using operation parameters and fuel composition, it is even harder to predict the composition of the condensate at different operation temperatures than to calculate the dew point temperature. If the dew point temperature was known with a greater certainty, the temperature of the flue gas could be kept lower, just above the estimated value of the dew point, without any increased risk for condensation. If, in addition, also the resulting composition of the condensate at different temperatures below the dew point is known, it can be predicted if the construction materials of the flue gas channel were compatible with the formed condensate. If they are compatible, the flue gas temperature can be further lowered from the dew point

  16. Influence of carbonation under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas on the leachability of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Xiong, Zhuo; Tian, Chong; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the high cost of pure CO2, carbonation of MSWI fly ash has not been fully developed. It is essential to select a kind of reaction gas with rich CO2 instead of pure CO2. The CO2 uptake and leaching toxicity of heavy metals in three typical types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated with simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas under different reaction temperatures, which was compared with both pure CO2 and simulated air combustion flue gas. The CO2 uptake under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas were similar to that of pure CO2. The leaching concentration of heavy metals in all MSWI fly ash samples, especially in ash from Changzhou, China (CZ), decreased after carbonation. Specifically, the leached Pb concentration of the CZ MSWI fly ash decreased 92% under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas, 95% under pure CO2 atmosphere and 84% under the air combustion flue gas. After carbonation, the leaching concentration of Pb was below the Chinese legal limit. The leaching concentration of Zn from CZ sample decreased 69% under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas, which of Cu, As, Cr and Hg decreased 25%, 33%, 11% and 21%, respectively. In the other two samples of Xuzhou, China (XZ) and Wuhan, China (WH), the leaching characteristics of heavy metals were similar to the CZ sample. The speciation of heavy metals was largely changed from the exchangeable to carbonated fraction because of the carbonation reaction under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas. After carbonation reaction, most of heavy metals bound in carbonates became more stable and leached less. Therefore, oxy-fuel combustion flue gas could be a low-cost source for carbonation of MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Removal of Hg{sup 0} from flue gases in wet FGD by catalytic oxidation with air - An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrej Stergarsek; Milena Horvat; Peter Frkal; Jost Stergarsek [' Jozef Stefan' Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Research efforts are being focused on the development of mercury removal technologies, mainly directed to two alternative approaches: (I) the enhancement of homogeneous oxidation in the flue gases of Hg{sup 0} to water soluble Hg{sup 2+} by the addition of chlorides or bromides to the boiler or; (ii) the adsorption of Hg{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 0} on impregnated activated carbon (AC). A third option gaining more attention lately is based on the oxidation and retention of dissolved Hg{sup 0} in the wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) system. The experimental evidence of the present work showed that Hg{sup 0} present in the gaseous phase can be dissolved and oxidized to a high degree (70-90%) by air together with SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} in wet FGD solutions. Transition metals such as Fe{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} act as catalysts, chloride enhances the reaction, while some oxosulphur compounds, e.g. tetrathionate, inhibit the oxidation. A combination of several catalysts at a concentration of sulphite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) below 100 mg L{sup -1} and an adequate redox potential of the solution can assure reasonable mercury removal even in the presence of oxidation inhibiting compounds. The main competitive reactions that govern final Hg{sup 0} removal in the FGD are as follows: (1) oxidation of Hg{sup 0} together with SO{sub 2} with air, enhanced by catalysts; (2) removal of catalysts by precipitation in the form of Fe(OH){sub 3} and eventually as MnO{sub 2} (to overcome this problem continuous addition of catalysts to the solution is required); (3) reduction of Fe{sup 3+} by tetrathionate to Fe{sup 2+} which (4) may reduce Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0} and probably (5) the complexation of Hg{sup 2+} by anions present which may play an important role in the mechanism by complexing the product(s) of the Hg{sup 0} oxidation reaction. 35 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Energy requirements for CO2 capture from ambient air (DAC) competitive with capture from flue-gas (PCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Capture of CO2, whether from a flue gas source (PCC) or from distributed sources via ambient air (DAC), is a key enabling technology to provide carbon for sustainable synthetic energy carriers such as solar fuels. Based on thermodynamic minimum considerations, DAC is often expected to require about 3 times more energy (per ton CO2 captured) than PCC because CO2 in ambient air is more dilute. Here, we calculate the energy required for a humidity swing-based DAC installation that uses an anionic exchange resin as sorbent. The calculation uses recently measured equilibrium CO2 loadings of the sorbent as function of partial CO2 pressure, temperature, and humidity. We calculate the installation's electricity consumption to be about 45 kJ per mole of pure CO2 at 1 bar (scenario-dependent). Furthermore, we estimate the amount of heat provided by ambient air and thus provide context of the overall energy and entropy balance and thermodynamic minimum views. The electricity consumption is competitive with typical parasitic loads of PCC-equipped coal-fired power plants (40-50 kJ per mole at same pressure) and significantly lower than predicted for other DAC installations such as Na(OH) sorbent-based systems. Our analyses elucidate why DAC is not always more energy-intensive that PCC, thus alleviating often cited concerns of significant cost impediments. Financial support by ABB for research presented herein is gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  20. Flue-gas and direct-air capture of CO2 by porous metal-organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, David G; Scott, Hayley S; Kumar, Amrit; Chen, Kai-Jie; Sanii, Rana; Bajpai, Alankriti; Lusi, Matteo; Curtin, Teresa; Perry, John J; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2017-01-13

    Sequestration of CO2, either from gas mixtures or directly from air (direct air capture), is a technological goal important to large-scale industrial processes such as gas purification and the mitigation of carbon emissions. Previously, we investigated five porous materials, three porous metal-organic materials (MOMs), a benchmark inorganic material, ZEOLITE 13X: and a chemisorbent, TEPA-SBA-15: , for their ability to adsorb CO2 directly from air and from simulated flue-gas. In this contribution, a further 10 physisorbent materials that exhibit strong interactions with CO2 have been evaluated by temperature-programmed desorption for their potential utility in carbon capture applications: four hybrid ultramicroporous materials, SIFSIX-3-CU: , DICRO-3-NI-I: , SIFSIX-2-CU-I: and MOOFOUR-1-NI: ; five microporous MOMs, DMOF-1: , ZIF-8: , MIL-101: , UIO-66: and UIO-66-NH2: ; an ultramicroporous MOM, NI-4-PYC: The performance of these MOMs was found to be negatively impacted by moisture. Overall, we demonstrate that the incorporation of strong electrostatics from inorganic moieties combined with ultramicropores offers improved CO2 capture performance from even moist gas mixtures but not enough to compete with chemisorbents.This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  1. NOx removal from simulated flue gas by chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated approach in a biofilter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi-Han Zhang; Ling-Lin Cai; Xu-Hong Mi; Jin-Lin Jiang; Wei Li [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Department of Environmental Engineering

    2008-05-15

    A chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated approach, which combines the advantages of both the chemical and biological technologies, is employed to achieve the removal of nitrogen monoxide (NO) from the simulated flue gas. The biological reduction of NO to nitrogen gas (N{sub 2}) and regeneration of the absorbent Fe(II)EDTA (EDTA:ethylenediaminetetraacetate) take place under thermophilic conditions (50 {+-} 0.5{sup o}C). The performance of a laboratory-scale biofilter was investigated for treating NOx gas in this study. Shock loading studies were performed to ascertain the response of the biofilter to fluctuations of inlet loading rates (0.48-28.68 g NO m{sup 3} h{sup -1}). A maximum elimination capacity (18.78 g NO m{sup 3} h{sup -1}) was achieved at a loading rate of 28.68 g NO m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and maintained 5 h operation at the steady state. Additionally, the effect of certain gaseous compounds (e.g., O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}) on the NO removal was also investigated. A mathematical model was developed to describe the system performance. The model has been able to predict experimental results for different inlet NO concentrations. In summary, both theoretical prediction and experimental investigation confirm that biofilter can achieve high removal rate for NO in high inlet concentrations under both steady and transient states. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Flue-gas and direct-air capture of CO2 by porous metal-organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, David G.; Scott, Hayley S.; Kumar, Amrit; Chen, Kai-Jie; Sanii, Rana; Bajpai, Alankriti; Lusi, Matteo; Curtin, Teresa; Perry, John J.; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2, either from gas mixtures or directly from air (direct air capture), is a technological goal important to large-scale industrial processes such as gas purification and the mitigation of carbon emissions. Previously, we investigated five porous materials, three porous metal-organic materials (MOMs), a benchmark inorganic material, Zeolite 13X and a chemisorbent, TEPA-SBA-15, for their ability to adsorb CO2 directly from air and from simulated flue-gas. In this contribution, a further 10 physisorbent materials that exhibit strong interactions with CO2 have been evaluated by temperature-programmed desorption for their potential utility in carbon capture applications: four hybrid ultramicroporous materials, SIFSIX-3-Cu, DICRO-3-Ni-i, SIFSIX-2-Cu-i and MOOFOUR-1-Ni; five microporous MOMs, DMOF-1, ZIF-8, MIL-101, UiO-66 and UiO-66-NH2; an ultramicroporous MOM, Ni-4-PyC. The performance of these MOMs was found to be negatively impacted by moisture. Overall, we demonstrate that the incorporation of strong electrostatics from inorganic moieties combined with ultramicropores offers improved CO2 capture performance from even moist gas mixtures but not enough to compete with chemisorbents. This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  3. Improving the Quality of Life for People with Disablities: Potential Uses of Technology. Policy Analysis Series: Issues Related to Welsch v. Levine, Paper No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Planning Agency, St. Paul.

    The paper describes the current use of technology by persons with disabilities, and examines ways to increase its use. Current use is analyzed for the following aspects: communication (including modified keyboards and adaptive switches), mobility and positioning (including orthotics), independent living (including telecommunications and robotic…

  4. Culture et Gestion d'Etangs a Poissons d'Eau Douce (Freshwater Fish Pond Culture and Management). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual Series--M37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Marilyn; Druben, Laurel, Ed.

    This is the French translation of a "how-to" manual, designed as a working and teaching tool for extension agents as they establish and/or maintain local fish pond operations. The manual presents information to facilitate technology transfer and to provide a clear guide for warm water fish pond construction and management. Major topic…

  5. Improving the Quality of Life for People with Disablities: Potential Uses of Technology. Policy Analysis Series: Issues Related to Welsch v. Levine, Paper No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Planning Agency, St. Paul.

    The paper describes the current use of technology by persons with disabilities, and examines ways to increase its use. Current use is analyzed for the following aspects: communication (including modified keyboards and adaptive switches), mobility and positioning (including orthotics), independent living (including telecommunications and robotic…

  6. 烟气含氧量软测量方法研究%Research on the Soft Sensing Methods of Oxygen Content in Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 张彬文

    2016-01-01

    For solving some problems in detection process of the oxygen content in flue gas, the main factors influencing measurement of Zirconia analyzer are analyzed. Soft measurement technology provides a new measuring method for Oxygen content in flue gas. The common seen modeling methods for soft sensing of oxygen content in flue gas are given, and the key technologies including selection and processing of secondary variables, selection and processing of samples, calibration of dominant variable, and model updating and correction, etc. , are analyzed emphatically. The analysis shows that although the soft sensing model offers higher accuracy and higher dynamic response speed, some of the problems in direct measurement still cannot be resolved, such as big error, time lagging and so on. Because of hardware measurement is used as a reference of soft measurement model, the aspects of hardware should be firstly considered in improving measurement precision and speed accordingly.%针对火电厂烟气含氧量测量过程中存在的一些问题,分析了氧化锆氧分析器运行中的主要影响因素。软测量技术为烟气含氧量提供了新的测量手段。给出了常见的烟气含氧量软测量建模方法,并且重点分析了软测量建模过程中辅助变量的选取与处理、样本的选择与处理、主导变量的校准以及模型的更新校正等关键技术。分析表明,尽管软测量模型具有较高的精度和动态响应速度,但是现有的研究并不能完全解决直接测量结果误差大、滞后等问题。由于软测量模型以硬件测量作为参考,因此应首先考虑从硬件方面提升测量的精准度和响应速度。

  7. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  8. {sup 29}Si-NMR study of the absorbent for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Hideshi; Kanuka, Nariyasu; Kanai, Ryu-ichi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The flue gas from a coal fired boiler contains a high concentration of SO{sub 2} which should be removed before emitted from a chimney for protection of environment from pollution. A wet desulfurization system is commonly adopted for flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in the absorbent, but needs a large amount of water. As dry FDD systems, a duct injection and a slurry spraying are adopted. The efficiency, however, is not so high as compared to a wet FGD system. Recently, the SO{sub 2} absorbent which exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in a dry FGD process was prepared from a coal fly-ash, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaSO{sub 4} by hydrothermal reaction. In this project, we studied the structural changes of the absorbent during the hydrothermal reation and sulfur dioxide absorption by silicon 29-MASNMR.

  9. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite.

  10. Transport—Reaction Process in the Reaction of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanYan; DuuJongLee; 等

    2000-01-01

    A theoreticasl investigation was conducted to study the transport-reaction process in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization.A transport-reaction model of single particle was proposed,which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time.BHased on this model,the reaction rate and t6he absorbent utilization can be calculated.The most appropriate particle radius and the initial absorbent concentration can be deduced through comparing the wet lifetime with the residence time,the result shows in the case that the partial pressure of vapor in the bulk flue gas is 2000Pa,the optimum initial radius and absorent concentration are 210-310μm and 23% respectively.The model can supply the optimum parameters for semi-dry FGD system designed.

  11. Amino acid salt solutions as solvents in CO2 capture from flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    New solvents based on the salts of amino acids have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions, for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. But only few studies on amino acids as CO2 capturing agents have been performed so far. One of the interesting features of amino acid salt...... solutions is their ability to form solid precipitates upon the absorption of CO2. The occurrence of crystallization offers the possibility of increasing the CO2 loading capacity of the solvent. However, precipitation can also have negative effect on the CO2 capture process. The chemical nature of the solid...... of glycine, taurine, and lysine, while in the case of proline, and glutamic acid, the precipitate was found to be bicarbonate. These results give an important contribution to further understanding the potential of amino acid salt solutions in CO2 capture from flue gas....

  12. Analytical methods and monitoring system for E-beam flue gas treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licki, J.; Chmielewski, A. G.; Iller, E.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.; Tokunaga, O.; Hashimoto, S.

    1998-06-01

    The results of reliable and precise measurement of gas composition in different key points of e-beam installation are necessary for its proper operation and control. Only the composition of flue gas coming into installation is adequate to composition of flue gas emitted from coal-fired boiler. At other points of e-b installation the gas composition is strongly modified by process conditions therefore specific measuring system (sampling and conditioning system and set of gas analyzers) for its determination are required. In the paper system for gas composition measurement at inlet and outlet of e-b installation are described. Process parameters are continuously monitoring by CEM system and occasionally by the grab sample system. Both system have been tested at pilot plant at EPS Kawȩczyn.

  13. A Selection of Amine Sorbents for CO2 Capture from Flue Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amine absorption processes are widely used in the industry to purify refinery gases, process gases or natural gas. Recently, amine absorption has also been considered for CO2 removal from flue gases. It has a number of advantages, but there is one major disadvantage - high energy consumption. This can be reduced by using an appropriate sorbent. From a group of several dozen solutions, three amine sorbents were selected based on primary, tertiary and sterically hindered amines. The solutions were used to test CO2 absorption capacity, absorption kinetics and heat of CO2 absorption. Additional tests were performed on the actual absorber-desorber system to indicate the most appropriate sorbent for capturing CO2 from flue gases.

  14. Hg⁰ removal from flue gas by ionic liquid/H₂O₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangwen; Bai, Bofeng; Zhang, Qiang; Cai, Ming

    2014-09-15

    1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids ([Cnmim] Cl, n=4, 6, 8) were prepared. The ionic liquid was then mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to form an absorbent. The Hg(0) removal performance of the absorbent was investigated in a gas/liquid scrubber using simulated flue gas. It was found that the ionic liquid/H2O2 mixture was an excellent absorbent and could be used to remove Hg(0) from flue gas. When the mass ratio of H2O2 to ionic liquid was 0.5, the absorbent showed high Hg(0) removal efficiency (up to 98%). The Hg(0) removal efficiency usually increased with the absorption temperature, while decreased with the increase of alkyl chain length in ionic liquid molecule. The Hg(0) removal mechanism involved with Hg(0) oxidation by H2O2 and Hg(2+) transfer from aqueous phase to ionic liquid phase.

  15. Optimized wood/pellet heater with flue gas condensation; Optimerad ved/pelletspanna med roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Christian; Ramstroem, Erik; Berge, Niklas [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of small-scale combustion equipment it is possible to cool the flue gas and condense the water vapor in the flue gas in a flue gas condenser. This also makes it possible to reduce the emissions of particles and unburnt hydrocarbon if the condenser is designed in a suitable way. This work concerns flue gas condensation with respect to the design of the condenser, the handling of the condensate and the integration of the flue gas condenser in a heating system from a technical and an economical point of view. The results from laboratory experiments shows that a flue gas condenser, designed as a plate heat exchanger, connected to a wood pellet fired heater reduces the emissions of both particles and unburnt hydrocarbons. A reduction of 10 to 77% of the particle content in the gas was achieved, the content of hydrocarbons (BTX) was reduced by 50 to 91 %. It was not possible to see any effect on the emissions by changing the design of the condenser, due to the relatively large scatter in the determined particle content in the gas. When it comes to cooling capacity the trends were however more clear; the cooling capacity was strongly dependent on the design of the condenser. It was possible to increase the cooling capacity of the condenser with 124% by changing the condenser design from a reference case with conventional design of the condenser with flat walls, to a design with a corrugated shape of the wall. For a typical domestic wood stove heater of 30 kW this means that the cooling capacity in a condenser under similar conditions increases from 3.3 to 7.4 kW. The addition of water in a spray in the gas upstream of the condenser had only a limited effect on the cooling capacity. The condensate from the condenser was analyzed with respect to the components that currently are regulated for disposal to the district sewer system. The analyses showed that the condensate most likely could be disposed to the sewer system directly without any

  16. Biosequestration of atmospheric CO2 and flue gas-containing CO2 by microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Show, Pau Loke; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching

    2015-05-01

    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass.

  17. Processing and characterization of porous electrochemical cells for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Keel, Li

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, porous electrode materials lanthanum strontium manganate (LSM)-gadolinium-doped cerium oxide (CGO) and electrochemical cells LSM-CGO + CGO were fabricated via the processes of slurry preparation, tape casting and lamination, and sintering. Graphite, wheat starch, and polyamide......, flat, and crack-free electrochemical cells were successfully achieved using the present ceramic processing route. The produced cells could potentially be used for flue gas purification....

  18. Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Scrubber of Flue Gas Heat Recovery Device

    OpenAIRE

    Veidenbergs, I; Blumberga, D; Vīgants, E; Kozuhars, G

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the heat and mass transfer process research in a flue gas heat recovery device, where complicated cooling, evaporation and condensation processes are taking place simultaneously. The analogy between heat and mass transfer is used during the process of analysis. In order to prepare a detailed process analysis based on heat and mass process descriptive equations, as well as the correlation for wet gas parameter calculation, software in the Microsoft Office Excel environment...

  19. Crystallisation of Gypsum and Prevention of Foaming in Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate two operational problems, which have been experienced during wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) operation, i.e. poor gypsum dewatering properties and foaming. The results of this work can be used for the optimization of wet FGD-plants in terms of reliability of operation and consistency of the gypsum quality obtained. This work may furthermore be of interest to other industrial systems in which foaming or gypsum crystallisation may take place. FGD is...

  20. Investigation of Parameters Affecting Gypsum Dewatering Properties in a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization Pilot Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plants with forced oxidation, installed at coal and oil fired power plants for removal of SO2(g), must produce gypsum of high quality. However, quality issues such as an excessive moisture content, due to poor gypsum dewatering properties, may occur from time to time. In this work, the particle size distribution, morphology, and filtration rate of wet FGD gypsum formed in a pilot-scale experimental setup, operated in forced oxidation mode, have been studied...

  1. Utilization of heat pipes for transfer heat from the flue gas into the heat transfer medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Richard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is listed possible application of heat pipes in systems for obtaining heat from flue gas of small heat sources. It is also stated in the contribution design an experimental device on which to study the impact of fill (the quantity, type of load at various temperature parameters (temperature heating and cooling thermal power transferred to the heat pipe. Is listed measurement methodology using heat pipes designed experimental facility, measurement results and analysis of the results obtained.

  2. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  3. Growth response of Spirulina platensis PCC9108 to elevated CO2 levels and flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmahdi Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because their ability to capture CO2, photosynthetical microorganisms have some advantages to CO2 mitigation from high CO2 streams such as flue gases and they can use CO2 as carbon source. Recently, experts have made efforts to exploit microorganisms intended for recovering CO2 from power plants. Materials and methods: To achieve this purpose, we studied the growth response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis PCC9108 under different concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036% to 10% and flue gas in a bench-scale system. Preparation of different concentrations of CO2 and injection into Erlenmeyer flasks was performed by a system including air compressor, CO2 capsule, pressure gauge and flow meter. Results: The main goal of studying this paper is a survey of organism's potential to grow by generated CO2 from flue gas of power plant. It already had the potential and highest biomass production recorded at 8% CO2 (v/v. Also we proved that S.platensis PCC9108 can be grown under flue gas, although biomass production decreased fairly. Total lipid content of algae interestingly enhanced with elevated CO2 levels from ambient air to 4% and 6% which ranged from 14.5 to 15.8 and 16 dry weight (wt. % respectively. In contrast, total protein content illustrated no difference between all treatment and its value was about 46 wt.%. Discussion and conclusion: The results of present study suggested that understudied S.platensis PCC9108 is appropriate for mitigating CO2 because of its carbon fixation ability. Also due to its high protein content, this cyanobacterium is a good candidate to produce SCP (single cell protein.

  4. Role of Oxides of Nitrogen in Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Formation in Flue-Cured Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor TB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is known to contain a class of nitrosamines known as tobacco-specific nitrosamines or TSNA. Nitrosation of naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids is commonly accepted as the mechanism of TSNA formation in tobacco. Because green and freshly harvested tobaccos are virtually free of TSNA, formation and accumulation of TSNA are generally considered to occur during the curing process. Most recent hypotheses have focused on microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and other oxides of nitrogen (NOcompounds that react with tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA during curing. This natural microbial process remains the prevalent hypothesis for TSNA formation in burley and other air-cured tobaccos. However, a different mechanism for the formation of TSNA in flue-cured tobacco, independent of microbial activity, is documented in this paper. It is common practice to flue-cure Virginia or blonde tobacco in bulk barns that incorporate forced air ventilation and temperature control. For the last thirty-five years, many modern bulk barns in North America generally have used liquid propane gas (LPG with direct-fired burners that exhaust combustion gases directly into the barn where the tobacco is exposed to those gases. Our studies indicate that LPG combustion by-products in the exhaust stream, namely NO, react with naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA. Heat exchange curing methods preclude exposure of the tobacco to combustion gases and by-products, thereby eliminating this significant source of TSNA formation, without degrading leaf quality or smoking character. Research findings from 1998 and 1999 are presented to demonstrate the role of NOgases in TSNA formation and the significance of direct-fired curing as a primary source of TSNA formation in flue-cured tobacco. Also, data from an extensive barn conversion program in 2000, which resulted in a 94% average reduction in TSNA levels in cured flue-cured leaf, are presented.

  5. Technical and economic feasibility study of flue gas injection in an Iranian oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2015-09-01

    The main aim of this research is to investigate various gas injection methods (N2, CO2, produced reservoir gas, and flue gas in one of the northern Persian gulf oil fields by a numerical simulation method. Moreover, for each scenario of gas injection technical and economical considerations are took into account. Finally, an economic analysis is implemented to compare the net present value (NPV of the different gas injection scenarios in the aforementioned oil field.

  6. Hydrometallurgical treatments of steel making flue dusts. Tratamientos hidrometalurgicos de polvos de aceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguacil, F.J.; Caravaca, C.; Cobo, A. (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgica, CSIC, Madrid, (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Steel making flue dusts are classified in most industrialized countries as hazardous residues because the metals contained such as cadmium, chromium and lead, among others metals, tend to leach under slightly acidic rainfall conditions. In the present work a number of hydrometallurgical processes in various stages of development, including some industrial ones, have surveyed. Those processes have been critically described in terms of chemistry, produced recovery and detoxification of the dusts. (Author) 21 refs.

  7. Highly integrated CO2 capture and conversion: Direct synthesis of cyclic carbonates from industrial flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Barthel, Alexander

    2016-02-08

    Robust and selective catalytic systems based on early transition metal halides (Y, Sc, Zr) and organic nucleophiles were found able to quantitatively capture CO2 from diluted streams via formation of hemicarbonate species and to convert it to cyclic organic carbonates under ambient conditions. This observation was exploited in the direct and selective chemical fixation of flue gas CO2 collected from an industrial exhaust, affording high degrees of CO2 capture and conversion.

  8. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  9. Review of technologies for mercury removal from flue gas from cement production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a pollutant of concern and mercury emissions from cement plants are under environmental regulation. After coal-fired power plants, mercury emissions from cement and mineral production are the second largest anthropogenic sources. Compared to fuels, cement raw materials are the major....... The sorbent injection system should be installed downstream of the main kiln filter and upstream of a new added polishing fabric filter to avoid the cement kiln dust recycling and disposal issues. To reduce the sorbent cost and possible disposal expense, non-carbon based sorbents that could be added to cement...... or regenerated in-situ are desired and should be developed.Various mathematical models have been developed to simulate mercury removal in fixed-bed reactors and by sorbent injection upstream of a fabric filter. The fabric filter adsorption models use the adsorption isotherms coupled with diffusion in the sorbent...

  10. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  11. Investigation of sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Izabella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigation of low-temperature sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent. Tests were conducted in a laboratory stand, equipped with a gasification reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. During presented tests, gas mixture with a composition of typical flue gases was used as a gasifying agent. The measuring system ensures online measurements of syngas composition: CO, CO2, H2, CH4. As a result of gasification process a syngas with combustible components has been obtained. The aim of the research was to determine the usability of sewage sludge for indirect cofiring in power boilers with the use of flue gas from the boiler as a gasifying agent and recirculating the syngas to the boiler’s combustion chamber. Results of presented investigation will be used as a knowledge base for industrial-scale sewage sludge gasification process. Furthermore, toxicity of solid products of the process has been determined by the use of Microtox bioassay. Before tests, solid post-gasification residues have been ground to two particle size fractions and extracted into Milli-Q water. The response of test organisms (bioluminescent Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria in reference to a control sample (bacteria exposed to 2% NaCl solution was measured after 5 and 15 minutes of exposure. The obtained toxicity results proved that thermal treatment of sewage sludge by their gasification reduces their toxicity relative to water organisms.

  12. Suppression of dioxins formation in flue gas by removal of hydrogen chloride using foaming water glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuyumoto, I. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is an acidic air pollutant emitted from municipal or industrial waste incinerators, and this causes the de novo synthesis of dioxins in flue gas. It is essential to remove hydrogen chloride from the flue gas to reduce dioxins emissions as well as to avoid air pollution. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) is often used as a dry sorbent injected in a spray reactor to remove HCl from the flue gas. However, usage of Ca(OH){sub 2} has disadvantage in reaction efficiency, and Ca(OH){sub 2} powder is usually injected in large excess over ten times its chemical reaction stoichiometry. This brings about the increase of fly ash and the rise in pH, which is undesirable to reduce solid wastes and to suppress the elution of amphoteric metals such as Pb, Zn, Sn. Recently, we have developed ''foaming water glass (FWG)'' as a new wet sorbent for injection in a cooling tower to remove HCl and simultaneously to suppress dioxins formation. FWG is a kind of sodium silicate hydrate (lNa{sub 2}OmSiO{sub 2}nH{sub 2}O) and has a special property to form a foam over about 80 C. Here we present the properties of FWG as a HCl remover and investigate the potential to replace Ca(OH){sub 2}.

  13. Effect of flue gas recirculation on heat transfer in a supercritical circulating fluidized bed combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczuk, Artur

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on assessment of the effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR) on heat transfer behavior in 1296t/h supercritical coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The performance test in supercritical CFB combustor with capacity 966 MWth was performed with the low level of flue gas recirculation rate 6.9% into furnace chamber, for 80% unit load at the bed pressure of 7.7 kPa and the ratio of secondary air to the primary air SA/PA = 0.33. Heat transfer behavior in a supercritical CFB furnace between the active heat transfer surfaces (membrane wall and superheater) and bed material has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameters of 0.219 and 0.246 mm. Bed material used in the heat transfer experiments had particle density of 2700 kg/m3. A mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach was used in this work. A heat transfer analysis of CFB combustion system with detailed consideration of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient distributions along furnace height is investigated. Heat transfer data for FGR test were compared with the data obtained for representative conditions without recycled flue gases back to the furnace through star-up burners.

  14. Simultaneous removal of multi-pollutants from flue gas by a vaporized composite absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Hao, Runlong; Xue, Fangming; Feng, Yanan

    2017-01-05

    An economical process that was used to remove SO2, NO and Hg(0) simultaneously was developed, based on the pre-oxidations of Hg(0) and NO by a vaporized Fenton-based complex oxidant (FO) consisted of Fenton and NaClO. The effects of concentrations of FeSO4 and NaClO in the oxidant, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutant, the oxidant solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants, the flue gas flow and the concentrations of coexistence gases in flue gas on the simultaneous removals were investigated experimentally. The results showed that the removals of NO and Hg(0) were significantly depended on FeSO4 and NaClO concentrations, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutants, the FO solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants and flue gas flow. And higher concentration of SO2 and an appropriate concentration of NO had the promotion for Hg(0) removal. The average simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO2, 81% for NO and 91% for Hg(0) were obtained under the optimal reaction conditions. According to the characterization of the reaction removal products by SEM, EDS, XRD and AFS, the reaction mechanism was speculated.

  15. Effect of flue gas recirculation on heat transfer in a supercritical circulating fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczuk Artur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on assessment of the effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR on heat transfer behavior in 1296t/h supercritical coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB combustor. The performance test in supercritical CFB combustor with capacity 966 MWth was performed with the low level of flue gas recirculation rate 6.9% into furnace chamber, for 80% unit load at the bed pressure of 7.7 kPa and the ratio of secondary air to the primary air SA/PA = 0.33. Heat transfer behavior in a supercritical CFB furnace between the active heat transfer surfaces (membrane wall and superheater and bed material has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameters of 0.219 and 0.246 mm. Bed material used in the heat transfer experiments had particle density of 2700 kg/m3. A mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach was used in this work. A heat transfer analysis of CFB combustion system with detailed consideration of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient distributions along furnace height is investigated. Heat transfer data for FGR test were compared with the data obtained for representative conditions without recycled flue gases back to the furnace through star-up burners.

  16. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  17. Multi-Agent-Based Control Technology for Timed Process Series%基于多Agent的定时事件序列控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏洪山; 张瑶新

    2000-01-01

    Timed process series(TPS)is the time-based process flow in MIS. It not only has all properties of normal workflow in MIS,but also has the concurrent process based on timing system. This paper presents the statements describing the timing properties of TPS in MIS,and then the analysis to it is given. The impacts of timing and controlling characteristics on information flow in TPS are analyzed. The definition of agent function,data sharing,communication and synchronization among agents in multi-agent system are described and a multi-agent-based TPS system model is given sequentially. In this paper,an application of the model in civil airport flight scheduling system and the evaluations are presented finally.

  18. Experimental and numerical study on combustion of baled biomass in cigar burners and effects of flue gas re-circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erić Aleksandar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental and numerical investigation addressing combustion of baled agricultural biomass in a 50 kW experimental furnace equipped with cigar burners. Experiments performed included measurements of all parameters deemed important for mass and energy balance, as well as parameters defining quality of the combustion process. Experimental results were compared with results of numerical simulations performed with previously developed CFD model. The model takes into account complex thermo mechanical combustion processes occurring in a porous layer of biomass bales and the surrounding fluid. The combustion process and the corresponding model were deemed stationary. Comparison of experimental and numerical results obtained through research presented in this paper showed satisfactory correspondence, leading to the conclusion that the model developed could be used for analysis of different effects associated with variations in process parameters and/or structural modifications in industrial biomass facilities. Mathematical model developed was also utilized to examine the impact of flue gas recirculation on maximum temperatures in the combustion chamber. Gas recirculation was found to have positive effect on the reduction of maximum temperature in the combustion chamber, as well as on the reduction of maximum temperature zone in the chamber. The conclusions made provided valuable inputs towards prevention of biomass ash sintering, which occurs at higher temperatures and negatively affects biomass combustion process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42011: Development and improvement of technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound use of several types of agricultural and forest biomass and possible utilization for cogeneration i br. TR33042: Fluidized bed combustion facility improvements as a step forward in developing energy efficient and environmentally sound waste combustion

  19. DCP Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Stearns

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photo essay. A collection of Images produced by intentionally corrupting the circuitry of a Kodak DC280 2 MP digitalcamera. By rewiring the electronics of a digital camera, glitched images are produced in a manner that parallels chemically processing unexposed film or photographic paper to produce photographic images without exposure to light. The DCP Series of Digital Images are direct visualizations of data generated by a digital camera as it takes a picture. Electronic processes associated with the normal operations of the camera, which are usually taken for granted, are revealed through an act of intervention. The camera is turned inside­out through complexes of short­circuits, selected by the artist, transforming the camera from a picture taking device to a data capturing device that renders raw data (electronic signals as images. In essence, these images are snap­shots of electronic signals dancing through the camera's circuits, manually rerouted, written directly to the on­board memory device. Rather than seeing images of the world through a lens, we catch a glimpse of what the camera sees when it is forced to peer inside its own mind.

  20. Research on Series Products Rapid Design Technology Based on IPD%基于IPD的系列产品快速设计技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗彦; 马士良; 吴淑芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the need of the rapid design for product updates, according to the characteristics of series products development, product design principles under integrated product development (IPD) model was described.By considering the product resource plan, product design process based on IPD was constructed.In order to achieve products rapid development and smart design, parametric design methods based IPD was discussed in detail.Flexible modular structure under the IPD model was analyzed, and knowledge integration architecture based on IPD was established.The effectiveness was verified by a model of gantry crane taken as an example.%为了适应不同需求系列产品的快速更新设计,根据系列产品开发的特点,阐述了1PD(Integrated Product Development)模式下的产品设计原理,在资源规划基础上构建基于IPD的产品设计过程,详细讨论了基于IPD的参数化设计方法,分析了IPD模式下的柔性模块化结构,建立了基于IPD的知识集成体系结构,以实现产品的智能开发和快速设计,最后以门式起重机为例验证了方法的有效性.

  1. 燃煤烟气汞排放与控制研究进展%Review on the research progress of the mercury emission in flue gas in coal burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伯雄; 左琛

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to make a review on the research progress of the mercury emission in flue gas in coal burning. As is known, mercury is known for its hypertoxicity, volatility and cumula-tiveness. To reduce and even get rid of such harmful effects of mercury on human body and environment, wide research has been done in the world in recent years, particularly in Asia, the most seriously polluted area in the world, for it is one of the continents fastest in accelerated industrialization. Mercury pollution and contamination can be summarized in the form of its distributions, such as Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp in the coal fire flue gas, which can be determined by the relevant temperatures, Cl concentration, other contents in flue gas, coal chips, combustion devices, etc. The research results reveal that mercury can be removed by injecting adsorbents in the furnace. Since the commonly-used air pollution control systems can help to obtain different Hg removing results in various complicated ways, such as injection of adsorbents, the activated carbon or modified activated carbon absorption. Of all the ways, modified activated carbon absorption displays greatest efficiency on Hg removal though its cost is high. Catalytic oxidation technology by means of the action of SCR and other catalysts has also been tested to transfer Hg° to Hg2+ with a purpose to improve the Hg removal efficiency. Other novel mercury control methods are also under study, such as Low temperature plasma, ozone and UV irradiation, and so on. Comparing different technologies, we prefer to recommend the general integrated air pollution technology, such as bag-type dust collector with adsorbent injection or catalytic oxidation. The kinds of cheap Hg adsorbents, such as the modified fly ash should also be recommended. The next best available methods, just followed by flue gas desulfidation, are the catalysis, for example, SCR de-NOx, which can be used to oxidize Hg. Thus, it can be seen that the above review

  2. Planet Imaging Coronagraphic Technology Using a Reconfigurable Experimental Base (PICTURE-B): The Second in the Series of Suborbital Exoplanet Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Supriya; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Cook, Timothy A.; Martel, Jason F.; Finn, Susanna C.; Howe, Glenn A.; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S.

    2016-03-01

    The PICTURE-B sounding rocket mission is designed to directly image the exozodiacal light and debris disk around the Sun-like star Epsilon Eridani. The payload used a 0.5m diameter silicon carbide primary mirror and a visible nulling coronagraph which, in conjunction with a fine pointing system capable of 5milliarcsecond stability, was designed to image the circumstellar environment around a nearby star in visible light at small angles from the star and at high contrast. Besides contributing an important science result, PICTURE-B matures essential technology for the detection and characterization of visible light from exoplanetary environments for future larger missions currently being imagined. The experiment was launched from the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico on 2015 November 24 and demonstrated the first space operation of a nulling coronagraph and a deformable mirror. Unfortunately, the experiment did not achieve null, hence did not return science results.

  3. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    -based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

  4. Globe: Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The LHC: an accelerator of science This series of lectures is all about understanding the scientific and technological challenges of the phenomenal LHC project and assessing its innovations through their everyday applications. Come and take a sneak preview of the LHC! Communicate: the Grid, a computer of global dimensions François Grey, head of communication in CERN’s Information Technology Department How will it be possible for the 15 million billion bytes of data generated by the LHC every year to be handled and stored by a computer that doesn’t have to be the size of a skyscraper? The computer scientists have the answer: the Grid, which will harness the power of tens of thousands of computers all over the world by creating a network of computers and making them operate as one. >>> Lectures are free and require no specialist knowledge. In french. 
 >>> By reservation only: tel. +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  5. New developments in the Denox technology. Plant optimization by means of computer calculations and model experiments. Neueste Entwicklungen in der Denox-Technologie. Optimierung von Anlagen durch Berechnungsprogramme und Modellversuche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrlander, B. (Flaekt Industriella Processer AB, Flaekt (Sweden))

    1991-03-01

    NO{sub x} contained in the flue gases of power plants and waste incineration plants cause acidifiction of soil and water. Plants for emission reduction are already in use and are being further developed. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is the leading technology worldwide for NO{sub x} removal from flue gases. A Swedish company offers plant optimisation on the basis of computer programs and model experiments; their technique has been tested in a member of reference plants. (orig.).

  6. Anatomy of an upgraded pulverized coal facility: Combustion modification through flue gas scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, J.U. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center; Savichky, W.J.; O`Dea, D.T. [New York State Electric and Gas Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Regeneration is a biological term for formation or creating anew. In the case of Milliken station, a species of steam generation (Tangentus coali) regeneration refers to refitting critical systems with the latest technological advances to reduce emissions while maintaining or improving performance. The plant has undergone a series of operations which provided anatomical changes as well as a face lift. Each of the two units were place in suspended animation (outage) to allow these changes to be made. The paper describes the project which includes retrofitting combustion systems, pulverizers, boiler liners, scrubbers, and control room. This retrofit is meant to increase thermal efficiency while reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides.

  7. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanfir, Monica; Solunke, Rahul; Shah, Minish

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon's catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full

  8. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanfir, Monica; Solunke, Rahul; Shah, Minish

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon's catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full

  9. Modern air protection technologies at thermal power plants (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Realization of the ecologically safe technologies for fuel combustion in the steam boiler furnaces and the effective ways for treatment of flue gases at modern thermal power plants have been analyzed. The administrative and legal measures to stimulate introduction of the technologies for air protection at TPPs have been considered. It has been shown that both the primary intrafurnace measures for nitrogen oxide suppression and the secondary flue gas treatment methods are needed to meet the modern ecological standards. Examples of the environmentally safe methods for flame combustion of gas-oil and solid fuels in the boiler furnaces have been provided. The effective methods and units to treat flue gases from nitrogen and sulfur oxides and flue ash have been considered. It has been demonstrated that realization of the measures for air protection should be accompanied by introduction of the systems for continuous instrumentation control of the composition of combustion products in the gas path of boiler units and for monitoring of atmospheric emissions.

  10. Study of flue gas condensing for biofuel fired heat and power plants; Studie av roekgaskondensering foer biobraensleeldade kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Gustafsson, J.O.; Nystroem, Johan; Johansson, Kent

    2000-11-01

    This report considers questions regarding flue gas condensing plants connected to bio-fuelled heat and power plants. The report consists of two parts, one where nine existing plants are described regarding technical issues and regarding the experience from the different plants. Part two is a theoretical study where heat balance calculations are made to show the technical and economical performance in different plant configurations and operating conditions. Initially the different parts in the flue gas condensing plant are described. Tube, plate and scrubber condensers are described briefly. The different types of humidifiers are also described, rotor, cross-stream plate heat exchanger and scrubber. Nine flue gas-condensing plants have been visited. The plants where chosen considering it should be bio-fuel fired plant primarily heat and power plants. Furthermore we tried to get a good dissemination considering plant configuration, supplier, geographical position, operating situation and plant size. The description of the different plants focuses on the flue gas condenser and the belonging components. The fuel, flue gas and condensate composition is described as well as which materials are used in the different parts of the plant. The experience from operating the plants and the reasons of why they decided to chose the actual condenser supplier are reported.

  11. Do different clinical evidence bases lead to discordant health-technology assessment decisions? An in-depth case series across three jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinner DS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Daryl S Spinner,1 Julie Birt,2 Jeffrey W Walter,1 Lee Bowman,2 Josephine Mauskopf,1 Michael F Drummond,3 Catherine Copley-Merriman11RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, United States; 3University of York, York, UKBackground: Health-technology assessment (HTA plays an important role in informing drug-reimbursement decision-making in many countries. HTA processes for the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC in Australia, the Common Drug Review (CDR in Canada, and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE in England and Wales are among the most established in the world. In this study, we performed nine in-depth case studies to assess whether different clinical evidence bases may have influenced listing recommendations made by PBAC, CDR, and NICE.Methods: Nine drugs were selected for which the three agencies had provided listing recommendations for the same indication between 2007 and 2010. We reviewed the evidence considered for each listing recommendation, identified the similarities and differences among the clinical evidence bases considered, and evaluated the extent to which different clinical evidence bases could have contributed to different decisions based on HTA body comments and public assessment of the evidence.Results: HTA agencies reached the same recommendation for reimbursement (recommended for listing for four drugs and different recommendations for five drugs. In all cases, each agency used different evidence bases in their recommendations. The agencies considered overlapping sets of clinical comparators and trials when evaluating the same drug. While PBAC and NICE considered indirect and/or mixed-treatment comparisons, CDR did not. In some cases, CDR and/or NICE excluded trials from review if the drug and/or the comparator were not administered according to the relevant marketing authorization.Conclusions: In the listing recommendations

  12. Series: Clinical Epidemiology in South Africa. Paper 3: Logic models help make sense of complexity in systematic reviews and health technology assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Anke; Pfadenhauer, Lisa; Burns, Jacob; Brereton, Louise; Gerhardus, Ansgar; Booth, Andrew; Oortwijn, Wija; Rehfuess, Eva

    2017-03-01

    To describe the development and application of logic model templates for systematic reviews and health technology assessments (HTAs) of complex interventions. This study demonstrates the development of a method to conceptualize complexity and make underlying assumptions transparent. Examples from systematic reviews with specific relevance to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) illustrate its usefulness. Two distinct templates are presented: the system-based logic model, describing the system in which the interaction between participants, intervention, and context takes place; and the process-orientated logic model, which displays the processes and causal pathways that lead from the intervention to multiple outcomes. Logic models can help authors of systematic reviews and HTAs to explicitly address and make sense of complexity, adding value by achieving a better understanding of the interactions between the intervention, its implementation, and its multiple outcomes among a given population and context. They thus have the potential to help build systematic review capacity-in SSA and other LMICs-at an individual level, by equipping authors with a tool that facilitates the review process; and at a system-level, by improving communication between producers and potential users of research evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of Copper Vapor Pulsed Laser with Industrial Active Elements of “Kulon” Series using One Convex Mirror Mode and Its Capabilities for Technological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Lyabin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the given paper spatial, time and energy characteristics of a copper vapor laser (CVL| have been investigated in the mode of one convex mirror using the most powerful industrial sealed-off active elements (AE of “Kulon” series: 15 W GL-206D model and 20 W GL-206I model in order to define the capabilities of using its one-beam radiation for effective microprocessing of materials.The carried out calculations and experimental investigations showed that one can vary the radiation beam divergence within a wide range by changing the radius of curvature of CVL convex mirror; and one can reach values close to diffraction limit at radii of curvature one-two orders lower than the distance from the mirror to AE output aperture. At small radii of mirror curvature (R = 6-30 mm the CVL output radiation beam divergence can only 2-3 times (0.15- 0.35 mrad differ from diffraction limit. At these divergences the peak power density in a focused spot can reach 109…1010 W/cm2 values.With the increase of AE discharge channel length the CVL output radiation beam divergence in one-mirror mode decreases and tends to diffraction limit, while power increases, which in the aggregate leads to the sharp increase of peak power density. Therefore, from practical point of view the industrial AEs “Crystal” GL-205А and GL-205B with 0.93 and 1.23 m discharge channel length and 20 mm diameter are the most effective ones. Besides the formation of one high quality beam, the advantages of one-mirror mode include a high axis stability of directivity pattern of this beam and pulsed energy, which increase the quality of microprocessing of materials.Practical experience of using CVL with one convex mirror shows that 109 W/cm2 peak power density level is sufficient only for efficient microprocessing of foiled materials and solder cutouts (0.02-0.1 мм. The use of this CVL as a driving oscillator (DO in a copper vapor laser system (CVLS of the type: driving

  14. Advanced treatment of flue gas condensate; Avancerad rening av roekgaskondensat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Ekengren, Oesten; Bjurhem, Jan Erik [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    The aim of the project is to study different techniques to recover water to the process and to reduce emission of ammonia to water and air. Membrane technology (ultra- (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO)) and a stripper have been studied for ammonia separation. The use of bio-fuel in energy production is increasing. The off-gases are often condensed to increase energy yield and to decrease emissions to air. Since the concentration of nitrogen (ammonium) is high in condensates from units with SNCR for NO{sub x}-reduction (selective non-catalytic reduction) this water has to be treated further. Another aim of the project is to replace a great part of the tap water used in the process. This can be accomplished with membrane technology. Laboratory tests revealed a certain degree of membrane fouling. However, both NF and RO worked well in the full-scale unit, in spite of problems in the condensate treatment that resulted in tar products in the water. There was no obvious negative effect on these membranes. Analyses of PAH have shown a low base concentration that may lead to fouling after a long time. UF removes most of these PAH and thus protects the following NF- or RO-membranes. NF gave about 3 times higher filtration capacity (flux) than RO for the condensate at 30 bars. This can save a lot of money, since the membrane area can be reduced to a third. High temperature also increases the flux. The results are of high interest but ought to be certified during long run tests. Fouling was low in both NF and RO, and initial flux was retained after cleaning. The reason is probably the good pre-treatment (UF). The concentration could proceed very far, which make it possibly to reuse the concentrate to the system. Simulations of an ammonia stripper showed some parameters to be critical in certain ranges, while others didn't affect the result. Airflow is a critical parameter during stable conditions within the design data. Simulated data were verified

  15. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walawska Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR. Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine impact mill and electromagnetic mill, differing in grinding technology. Grounded sorbent was thermally activated, what caused a significant development of surface area. During the studies of SO2 sorption, a model gas with a temperature of 300°C, of composition: sulfur dioxide at a concentration of 6292 mg/mn3, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a carrier gas, was used. The best development of surface area and the highest SO2 removal efficiency was obtained for the sorbent treated by electromagnetic grinding, with simultaneous high conversion rate.

  16. Development of stoker-burning technology; Stokeripolton kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuels Production; Nojonen, O. [Finntech Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Combustion Technology Research Group of VTT Energy had a project, funded by VTT and Vapo Oy, going on in 1993, the aim of which was to develop a chip/sod peat heating system for power range 50 1 00 kW, meeting the requirements of 1990s, the characteristics being high efficiency (> 85 %), low emissions (CO < 0.1 %), well operability and durability. The project has to be carried out so that the investment and operation costs are as low as possible. Hoegfors Laempoe Oy had simultaneously going on an industrial project, in which new ETNA bioenergy boiler series for the same power range was constructed. A 200 kW stoker burner prototype, suitable for wood chips and sod peat, was developed on the basis of VTT`s research. The boiler has been demonstrated later in power range 500 kW. The present stoker burners are based on downstream combustion principle, which means that the guel and the flue-gases flow into same direction. It is well known that the propagation of the ignition front restricts the power in this kind of combustion while using moist fuels. The heat formed in pyrolysis and carbonizing zone flows away from drying and ignition zone. VTT has an idea, by which it is possible to alter the stoker burner to operate so, that the heat formed in pyrolysis and carbonizing zone flow towards the ignition and drying zone, hence the drying of the moist fuel and ignition of it are intensified remarkably

  17. Determination of minor elements in steelmaking flue dusts using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coedo, A G; Padilla, I; Dorado, M T

    2005-07-15

    Element determination in solid waste products from the steel industry usually involves the time-consuming step of preparing a solution of the solid. Laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied to the analysis of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Sn, elements of importance from the point of view of their impact on the environment, in electric arc furnace flue dust (EAFD). A simple method of sample preparation as pressed pellets using a mixture of cellulose and paraffin as binder material was applied. Calibration standards were prepared spiking multielement solution standards to a 1:1 ZnO+Fe(2)O(3) synthetic matrix. The wet powder was dried and mechanically homogenised. Quantitative analysis were based on external calibration using a set of matrix matched calibration standards with Rh as a internal standard. Results obtained using only one-point for calibration without matrix matched, needing less time for standardization and data processing, are also presented. Data are calculated for flue dust reference materials: CRM 876-1 (EAFD), AG-6203 (EAFD), AG-6201 (cupola dust) and AG-SX3705 (coke ashes), and for two representative electrical arc furnace flue dusts samples from Spanish steelmaking companies: MS-1 and MS-2. For the reference materials, an acceptable agreement with certificate values was achieved, and the results for the MS samples matched with those obtained from conventional nebulization solutions (CN). The analytical precision was found to be better than 7% R.S.D. both within a single pellet and between several pellets of the same sample for all the elements.

  18. 烤烟秸秆压块代煤在烟叶烘烤中的应用效果研究%Research on Apllication Effect of Flue-cured Tobacco Straw Briquetting Replacing Coal on Tobacco Flue Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭仕平; 谢良文; 曾淑华; 向金友; 张吉亚

    2015-01-01

    In order to recycle the straw of flue-cured tobacco and find new fuel of flue curing which might substitute for coal,the straw was dried and crushed into blocks after tobacco leaves harvest for fuel of flue curing using the straw briquetting machine,and tests of flue curing replacing coal were carried out. The results showed that the flue curing curve of the straw briquetting was largely in line with that of coal,and it could satisfy the needs of flue curing,the grade qualities of tobacco leaves were equal to those by coal,and the straw briquetting consumption to coal was 1.64:1. The cost of flue curing reduced by 189 yuan/hm2. So it was possible to use straw briquetting instead of coal in tobacco flue curing,and also significant to reduce environmental pollution and develop circular economy of tobacco.%为了实现烤烟秸秆循环利用和寻找烟叶烘烤替代燃料,将烟叶采收后的秸秆晒干并粉碎,利用秸秆成型机压块制成烘烤燃料,进行了替代煤炭烘烤烟叶试验。结果表明:烤烟秸秆压块作燃料烘烤工艺曲线与煤炭基本吻合,可满足烟叶烘烤要求,烤后原烟等级质量与煤炭相当,秸秆压块消耗量与煤炭之比为1.64:1,可降低烘烤燃料成本约189元/hm2。因此,烤烟秸秆压块替代煤炭烘烤烟叶是可行的,对减少环境污染和促进烟叶循环经济发展也具有积极意义。

  19. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

  20. 新型电烤烟房的研究%Research on the New Electric Flue-cured Tobacco House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗锦; 胡建新; 郭川

    2012-01-01

    According to the basic principles of thermodynamics, the theoretical energy consumption of electric flue-cured tobacco house was obtained, based on which a standard flue-cured tobacco house was reconstructed and then compared with other traditional tobacco houses in Pingdi Town of Panzhihua City. The results showed that the new electric flue-cured tobacco house consumed less energy than the traditional house without much difference in their tobacco quality.%应用热力学基本原理,获取电烤房能耗的理论值,以此为依据,设计改造了攀枝花平地镇密集烤房群的一座标准烤烟房并进行了实际对比试验研究.结果表明,新烤房在能耗上低于传统烤房,而烤烟品质上无明显差异.

  1. Study on the reaction activity of CuO/y-Al2O3 for dry flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; ZHANG Chao; ZHENG Ying; ZHENG Chu-guang

    2004-01-01

    The copper oxide bed regenerable adsorber process can efficiently remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) and reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas with no solid or liquid byproducts. This paper investigates the dry flue gas desulfurization activities of the CuO/γ-Al2O3 under different operation conditions finding that the dispersion degree of copper oxide can achieve a threshold value, which is 0.47mg/m2 carriers. The conclusion confirms that the sulfur capacity of desulfurizer is associated with flue gas' space velocity, reaction temperature, copper content and the structure of sorbent pellet, etc. And with the condition of the desulfurization reaction temperature 673 K, the space velocity 11 200 h-1 and the S/Cu mole ratio under 1, the sulfur removal efficiency can go upwards to 95%.

  2. Mercury speciation and its emissions from a 220 MW pulverized coal-fired boiler power plant in flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.H.; Zhuo, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Chen, L.; Yang, L.G.; Zhang, L.A.; Jiang, Y.M.; Xu, X.C. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute

    2007-07-15

    Distributions of mercury speciation of Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup 2+} and Hg{sup P} in flue gas and fly ash were sampled by using the Ontario Hydro Method in a 220 MW pulverized coal-fired boiler power plant in China. The mercury speciation was varied greatly when flue gas going through the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The mercury adsorbed on fly ashes was found strongly dependent on unburnt carbon content in fly ash and slightly on the particle sizes, which implies that the physical and chemical features of some elemental substances enriched to fly ash surface also have a non-ignored effect on the mercury adsorption. The concentration of chlorine in coal, oxygen and NOx in flue gas has a positive correlation with the formation of the oxidized mercury, but the sulfur in coal has a positive influence on the formation of elemental mercury.

  3. Utilization of on-line corrosion monitoring in the flue gas cleaning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Nielsen, Lars V.; Petersen, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    The power plant unit 1 at Amager, Denmark is a 350 MWth multifuel suspension-fired plant commissioned in 2009 which uses biomass. Increasing corrosion problems in the flue gas cleaning system have been observed since 2011 in both the gas-gas preheater and the booster fan and booster fan duct...... fan. The corrosion rates measured with respect to time were correlated to plant data such as load, temperature, gas composition, water content as well as change in the fuel used. From these results it is clear that many shutdowns/start-ups influence corrosion and therefore cause decreased lifetime...

  4. Utilization of on-line corrosion monitoring in the flue gas cleaning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Nielsen, Lars V.; Petersen, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    such as HCl, KCl or chlorine containing corrosion products. Without knowing when corrosion occurs, it is difficult to take reasonable measures to reduce corrosion. In order to gain an improved understanding of the corrosion problem, an on-line corrosion measurement system was established before the booster....... A root cause analysis concluded that corrosion occurred due to corrosion products/deposit formed during operation; however it was unclear whether the majority of corrosion occurred during operation or downtime. In both cases the chlorine content in the flue gas results in the presence of chlorine species...

  5. Production of a half cell with a LSM/CGO support for electrochemical flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Described herein is the production of a half cell with a strontium-substituted lanthanum manganite/cerium gadolinium oxide support and dense cerium gadolinium oxide electrolyte for electrochemical flue gas purification. The half cells were constructed through tape casting a strontium......-substituted lanthanum manganite/cerium gadolinium oxide support and cerium gadolinium oxide electrolyte. The half cells were produced by laminating the support and electrolyte layers followed by sintering. Perfectly flat half cells were constructed with a porous strontium-substituted lanthanum manganite....../cerium gadolinium oxide support layer and dense cerium gadolinium oxide electrolyte by adjusting sintering shrinkage at the electrolyte layer and altering the sintering aid....

  6. Experimental Investigation and Modelling of a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO2, oxidation of HSO3-, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Population balance...... limestone in the gypsum. Simulations were found to match experimental data for the two limestone types investigated. A parameter study of the model was conducted with the purpose of validating assumptions and extracting information on wet FGD systems. The modelling tools developed may be applicable to other...... wet FGD plants....

  7. Fungi Isolated from Flue-Cured Tobacco Inoculated in the Field with Storage Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Ronald E.

    1971-01-01

    Flue-cured tobacco inoculated in the field with A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. repens, A. ruber, and a species of Penicillium was rarely invaded by these fungi. Regardless of inoculum, the predominant fungi reisolated from green tissue were species of Alternaria and Cladosporium. After curing, A. repens, A. niger, and species of Alternaria and a species of Penicillium were the most commonly isolated fungi. The fungus used as inoculum was not the predominant fungus reisolated from green or cured tissue. Conditions during handling and storage prior to marketing probably determine when storage fungi become associated with the leaf and which species becomes predominant. PMID:5102779

  8. Mercury Removal from Aqueous Solution and Flue Gas by Adsorption on Activated Carbon Fibres

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The use of two activated carbon fibres, one laboratorial sample prepared from a commercial acrylic textile fibre and one commercial sample of Kynol1, as prepared/received and modified by reaction with powdered sulfur and H2S gas in order to increase the sulfur content were studied for the removal of mercury from aqueous solution and from flue gases from a fluidized bed combustor. The sulfur introduced ranged from 1 to 6 wt.% depending on the method used. The most important parameter ...

  9. Treatment of waste water from flue gas cleaning; Behandlung von Abwasser der Rauchgasreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiermann, Klaus; Meyerhoff, Thomas [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Celle (Germany); Hagen, Klaus [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Bayreuth (Germany); Basabe, Juan Luis [HPD Process Engineering S.A., Bilbao (Spain); Vendrup, Michael [Krueger A/S, Soeborg (Denmark)

    2012-11-01

    Strict limits must be adhered to for treating waste water incurred during flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). One and two-stage precipitation processes have proven themselves in FGD waste water treatment. Metals can be removed with the MetClean {sup registered} process. Another option is evaporation. Waste water ZLD systems (Zero Liquid Discharge) recover, via a falling film evaporator with subsequent crystallisation, more than 98 % of the water and produce, aside from the condensate, only solid material that can be disposed of in landfill. A further development, named ZLD CoLD trademark, significantly reduces the investment and operating costs of this solution. (orig.)

  10. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  11. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  12. Biogeochemical oxidation of calcium sulfite hemihydrate to gypsum in flue gas desulfurization byproduct using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Duane; Smith, Jacques J; Chen, Linxi; Kreinberg, Allison; Wallace, Brianna; White, Robby

    2017-10-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a well-established air treatment technology for coal and oil combustion gases that commonly uses lime or pulverized limestone aqueous slurries to precipitate sulfur dioxide (SO2) as crystalline calcium salts. Under forced oxidation (excess oxygen) conditions, FGD byproduct contains almost entirely (>92%) gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), a useful and marketable commodity. In contrast, FGD byproduct formed in oxygen deficient oxidation systems contains a high percentage of hannebachite (CaSO3·0.5H2O) to yield a material with no commercial value, poor dewatering characteristics, and that is typically disposed in landfills. Hannebachite in FGD byproduct can be chemically converted to gypsum; however, the conditions that support rapid formation of gypsum require large quantities of acids or oxidizers. This work describes a novel, patent pending application of microbial physiology where a natural consortium of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was used to convert hannebachite-enriched FGD byproduct into a commercially valuable, gypsum-enriched product (US Patent Assignment 503373611). To optimize the conversion of hannebachite into gypsum, physiological studies on the SOB were performed to define their growth characteristics. The SOB were found to be aerobic, mesophilic, neutrophilic, and dependent on a ready supply of ammonia. They were capable of converting hannebachite to gypsum at a rate of approximately five percent per day when the culture was applied to a 20 percent FGD byproduct slurry and SOB growth medium. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the SOB consortium contained a variety of different bacterial genera including both SOB and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Halothiobacillus, Thiovirga and Thiomonas were the dominant sulfur-oxidizing genera. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Operating condition influences on PCDD/Fs emissions from sinter pot tests with hot flue gas recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongmei Yu; Minghui Zheng; Xianwei Li; Xiaolei He

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify the influence of operating conditions on the formation and emissions of polychlorinated-p- dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from a sintering process with hot flue gas recycling.A pilot scale sinter pot with simulated flue gas recycling was developed,and four key operational parameters,including temperature,oxygen content of the simulated waste,flue gas,the coke rate of the sintering mixture,and the quicklime quality,were selected for exploring PCDD/Fs formation.The results showed that the temperature of the recycled flue gas had a major affect on PCDD/Fs formation,and a high temperature could significantly increase their formation during sintering.A clear linear correlation between the temperature of recycling flue gas and PCDD/Fs emission (r =0.93) was found.PCDD/Fs could be reduced to a certain extent by decreasing the level of oxygen in the recycled flue gas,while sintering quality was unchanged.The coke rate had no significant influence on the formation of PCDD/Fs,but the quality of quicklime used in the sintering mixture could affect not only the amount of PCDD/Fs emissions but also the sintering productivity.Compared with a benchmark sinter pot test,PCDD/Fs emissions markedly decreased with improvements to quicklime quality.However,the reduction in PCDD/Fs emissions realized by using high-quality quicklime was limited by the temperature of the inlet gas.The highest reduction achieved was 51% compared with conventional quicklime when the temperature of the inlet gas was 150 ℃.

  14. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  15. Study Analysis of Flue Gas Utilization as Alternative Power Generation in Cement Plant Using Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Ranggonang Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Cement plant produce large amount of heat source in cement making process, due to inefficiency of system there still waste heat available in form of flue gas that can be utilize. Flue gas  in cement plant can be utilized as alternative power generation. With the 200-300oC temperature output range of flue gas from suspension preheater and air quenching cooler (AQC in cement plant, organic rankine cycle (ORC can be suitable option for alternative power generation. ORC is development of rankine cycle, the different is the working fluid in ORC using refrigerant. In cement plant that produce 8466 TPD kiln production, used flue gas from suspension preheater to dry raw material and produce 163888 m3/h flue gas from AQC that still not utilized. Flue gas with 235oC temperature from AQC can utilized for power generation purpose using ORC system. Waste heat recovery calculation carried out to know the potential recovery. Operating condition of the ORC system will determine power produced that can be generated and ORC components calculated and selected according to the operating condition of the system. Using R141b as working fluid with 8 bar pressure and 110oC temperature inlet to turbine, power produced by turbine is 666 kW. For the components, evaporator and condenser use shell and tube heat exchanger, with evaporator heat transfer area is 676.49 m2 while condenser has 510 m2 of heat transfer area. And for working fluid pump it needs 16.235 Kw power to pump R141b back to evaporator.

  16. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  17. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tielin Wang; Jon Hovland; KlauS J.Jens

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture.Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance,and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems.This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC).Thermal reclaiming,ion exchange,and electrodialysis,although principally developed for sour gas sweetening,have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas.The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses,and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs.An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  18. A new pilot absorber for CO2 capture from flue gases: Measuring and modelling capture with MEA solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Tim L.; Carlsen, Kim B.; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2013-01-01

    A pilot absorber column for CO2 recovery from flue gases was constructed and tested with aqueous 30wt% monoethanolamine (MEA), a primary amine, as capture solvent. The pilot plant data were compared with a mathematical rate based packed-column model. The simulation results compared well with the ......A pilot absorber column for CO2 recovery from flue gases was constructed and tested with aqueous 30wt% monoethanolamine (MEA), a primary amine, as capture solvent. The pilot plant data were compared with a mathematical rate based packed-column model. The simulation results compared well...

  19. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J

    2016-09-22

    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  20. Measurement of a gas-fired boiler flue gas condensate heat and water deep recycle and denitrification integration project%燃气锅炉烟气冷凝热和水深度回收与脱硝一体化工程实测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 朱爱明; 尹荣杰; 王随林; 禚玉群

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of high flue gas exhaust temperature,high nitrogen oxide content in flue gas and serious fog emissions in a gas-fired heating boiler room in Beijing,adopting the anti-corrosion high-efficient flue gas condensate heat and water recovery technology combined with catalytic oxidation denitrification technology,performs the reformation for the heating boiler and the field measurement.The results show that the temperature of exhaust gas can be reduced to 25 ~45 ℃,the efficiency of gas utilization can be increased by 6.7%~18%,and the system can recycle 10.3~28.8 t/d flue gas condensate water and decrease 43%~54% nitrogen oxide exhaust.%针对北京市某燃气供热锅炉房排烟温度高、氮氧化物等污染物排放量大和雾气大等问题,采用防腐高效烟气冷凝热和烟气冷凝水深度回收利用技术与氧化催化脱硝技术相结合,对锅炉进行了改造和跟踪实测。结果表明,改造后烟气温度降到25~45℃,节能率为6.7%~18%,回收烟气冷凝水10.3~28.8 t/d,氮氧化物减排43%~54%。

  1. NO x Reduction in the Iron Ore Sintering Process with Flue Gas Recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Fan, Xiaohui; Gan, Min; Chen, Xuling; Lv, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Flue gas recirculation (FGR) has been implemented for exhaust gas emissions reduction in iron ore sintering. However, the mechanism of NO x reduction through FGR is still unclear. In this paper, the laboratory pot-grate sintering test showed a 30% reduction in gas flow and 15.51% reduction in NO x emissions achieved with a 30% FGR ratio, and the sinter indexes almost matched those of the conventional process. In the sinter zone, NO-CO catalytic reduction occurs in the range of 500-900°C. When the sinter temperature is 700°C, the highest nitrogen reduction ratio (NRR) achieved is 8%; however, the NO x reduction is inhibited as the post-combustion of CO starts when the temperature increases beyond 700°C. NO x in the flue gas is mainly a product of the fuel combustion in the combustion zone, as the nitrogen conversion rate reaches 50-60%, because the N-containing intermediates exist during the fuel combustion. The existence of NO in the FGR gas inhibits the NO x generation from the fuel combustion, and the NO elimination—through the NO-carbon reaction—is significant in the combustion zone. The NRR in the combustion zone reaches a range of 18-20%.

  2. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  3. Effect of improving flue gas cleaning on characteristics and immobilisation of APC residues from MSW incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geysen, D. [Public Waste Agency of Flanders, OVAM, Stationsstraat 110, B-2800 Mechelen (Belgium)]. E-mail: daneel.geysen@ovam.be; Vandecasteele, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, K.U. Leuven, de Croylaan 46, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium); Jaspers, M. [INDAVER, Dijle 17 a, B-2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Brouwers, E. [INDAVER, Dijle 17 a, B-2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Wauters, G. [INDAVER, Dijle 17 a, B-2800 Mechelen (Belgium)

    2006-01-16

    The flue gas cleaning system of a MSW incinerator with a capacity of 350 kt/year was changed to improve the HCl elimination efficiency. Instead of the semi-wet operating spray reactor and subsequent baghouse, a two-step wet flue gas cleaning was added behind the baghouse. Elemental composition, X-ray powder diffraction patterns and TGA measurements showed that the resulting APC residue was totally different from the former residue. As a consequence, leaching characteristics of both residues also differed and another treatment was required prior to disposal. For the former residue, mainly leaching of Pb (>100 mg/l), necessitated treatment prior to landfilling. The lower alkalinity of the new residue resulted in a leachate pH of 9.7 and a Pb concentration of 0.8 mg/l. The leachate pH of the former residue was 12.4. The leaching of Pb and Zn increased above 100 mg/l when immobilising the new residue with cement. Better results were obtained when immobilising with micro silica. The high CaCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O content of the new residue brought along clogging of the bag filter system. Adding 1.4% of CaO (or 1.9% of Ca(OH){sub 2}) to the residue already improved these inconveniences but again significantly changed the leaching behaviour of the residue.

  4. Theoretical prediction the removal of mercury from flue gas by MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2016-07-19

    Removal of mercury from flue gas has been considered as one of the hot topics in both the scientific and industrial world. Adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg) and oxidized mercury species (HgCl, HgO, and HgS) on a novel metal organic framework (MOF) material, named Mg/DOBDC, with unsaturated metal centers was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that Hg stably physi-sorbed on the unsaturated metal center (magnesium ion) of Mg/DOBDC with a binding energy (BE) of −27.5 kJ/mol. A direct interaction between Hg and magnesium ion was revealed by the partial density of state (PDOS) analysis. HgCl multi-interacts with two neighboring magnesium ions simultaneously by its Cl endings and thus resulted in strong adsorption strength (−89.0 kJ/mol). The adsorption energies of HgO and HgS on the Mg/DOBDC were as high as −117.0 kJ/mol and −169.7 kJ/mol, respectively, indicating a strong chemisorption. Theoretical calculations in this study reveal that Mg/DOBDC has the potential to serve as an efficient material for removal of mercury from flue gas.

  5. Evaluation of carbon dioxide mass transfer in raceway reactors for microalgae culture using flue gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godos, I; Mendoza, J L; Acién, F G; Molina, E; Banks, C J; Heaven, S; Rogalla, F

    2014-02-01

    Mass transfer of CO2 from flue gas was quantified in a 100m(2) raceway. The carbonation sump was operated with and without a baffle at different liquid/gas ratios, with the latter having the greatest influence on CO2 recovery from the flue gas. A rate of mass transfer sufficient to meet the demands of an actively growing algal culture was best achieved by maintaining pH at ∼8. Full optimisation of the process required both pH control and selection of the best liquid/gas flow ratio. A carbon transfer rate of 10gCmin(-1) supporting an algal productivity of 17gm(-2)day(-1) was achieved with only 4% direct loss of CO2 in the sump. 66% of the carbon was incorporated into biomass, while 6% was lost by outgassing and the remainder as dissolved carbon in the liquid phase. Use of a sump baffle required additional power without significantly improving carbon mass transfer.

  6. Thermochemical recovery of heat contained in flue gases by means of bioethanol conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashchenko, D. I.

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper consideration is being given to the use of bioethanol in the schemes of thermochemical recovery of heat contained in exit flue gases. Schematic diagrams illustrate the realization of thermochemical heat recovery by implementing ethanol steam conversion and conversion of ethanol by means of products of its complete combustion. The feasibility of attaining a high degree of recovery of heat contained in flue gases at the moderate temperature (up to 450°C) of combustion components is demonstrated in the example of the energy balance of the system for thermochemical heat recovery. The simplified thermodynamic analysis of the process of ethanol steam conversion was carried out in order to determine possible ranges of variation of process variables (temperature, pressure, composition) of a reaction mixture providing the efficient heat utilization. It was found that at the temperature above 600 K the degree of ethanol conversion is near unity. The equilibrium composition of products of reaction of ethanol steam conversion has been identified for different temperatures at which the process occurs at the ratio H2O/EtOH = 1 and at the pressure of 0.1 MPa. The obtained results of calculation agree well with the experimental data.

  7. Recycling of an electric arc furnace flue dust to obtain high grade ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Oscar; Clemente, Carmen; Alonso, Manuel; Alguacil, Francisco Jose

    2007-03-06

    The production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. These steelmaking flue dusts are classified in most industrialized countries as hazardous residues because the heavy metals contained in them, tend to leach under slightly acidic rainfall conditions. However, and at the same time they contain zinc species which can be used as a source to obtain valuable by-products. The present investigation shows results on the processing of an EAF flue dust using ammonium carbonate solutions. Once zinc is dissolved: ZnO + 4NH3 + H2O --> Zn(NH3)4(2+) + 2OH- with other impurities (i.e. cadmium and copper), these are eliminated from the zinc solution via cementation with metallic zinc. The purified zinc solution was evaporated (distilled) until precipitation of a zinc carbonate species, which then was calcined to yield a zinc oxide of a high grade. For the unattacked dust residue from the leaching operation, mainly composed of zinc ferrite, several options can be considered: back-recycling to the furnace, further treatment by sodium hydroxide processing or a more safely dumping due to its relatively inertness.

  8. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas.

  9. Dynamic modeling of fixed-bed adsorption of flue gas using a variable mass transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jehun; Lee, Jae W. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    This study introduces a dynamic mass transfer model for the fixed-bed adsorption of a flue gas. The derivation of the variable mass transfer coefficient is based on pore diffusion theory and it is a function of effective porosity, temperature, and pressure as well as the adsorbate composition. Adsorption experiments were done at four different pressures (1.8, 5, 10 and 20 bars) and three different temperatures (30, 50 and 70 .deg. C) with zeolite 13X as the adsorbent. To explain the equilibrium adsorption capacity, the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model was adopted, and the parameters of the isotherm equation were fitted to the experimental data for a wide range of pressures and temperatures. Then, dynamic simulations were performed using the system equations for material and energy balance with the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data. The optimal mass transfer and heat transfer coefficients were determined after iterative calculations. As a result, the dynamic variable mass transfer model can estimate the adsorption rate for a wide range of concentrations and precisely simulate the fixed-bed adsorption process of a flue gas mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

  10. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  11. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  12. NO x Reduction in the Iron Ore Sintering Process with Flue Gas Recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Fan, Xiaohui; Gan, Min; Chen, Xuling; Lv, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Flue gas recirculation (FGR) has been implemented for exhaust gas emissions reduction in iron ore sintering. However, the mechanism of NO x reduction through FGR is still unclear. In this paper, the laboratory pot-grate sintering test showed a 30% reduction in gas flow and 15.51% reduction in NO x emissions achieved with a 30% FGR ratio, and the sinter indexes almost matched those of the conventional process. In the sinter zone, NO-CO catalytic reduction occurs in the range of 500-900°C. When the sinter temperature is 700°C, the highest nitrogen reduction ratio (NRR) achieved is 8%; however, the NO x reduction is inhibited as the post-combustion of CO starts when the temperature increases beyond 700°C. NO x in the flue gas is mainly a product of the fuel combustion in the combustion zone, as the nitrogen conversion rate reaches 50-60%, because the N-containing intermediates exist during the fuel combustion. The existence of NO in the FGR gas inhibits the NO x generation from the fuel combustion, and the NO elimination—through the NO-carbon reaction—is significant in the combustion zone. The NRR in the combustion zone reaches a range of 18-20%.

  13. Mercury oxidation in flue gas using gold and palladium catalysts on fabric filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdlicka, Jason A; Seames, Wayne S; Mann, Michael D; Muggli, Darrin S; Horabik, Carol A

    2008-09-01

    The feasibility of oxidizing elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas using catalytic material impregnated onto fabric filters was explored. TiO2, Au/TiO2, and Pd/Al2O3 were studied based on promising results in previous research. Several fabric coating methods were investigated to determine the best way to load a filter. A spray coat method was found to have the highest initial loading and had the lowest losses after simulated pulse-jet cleaning. The oxidation performance of the catalyst-coated filters was tested using a simulated flue gas in a bench-scale reactor under conditions similar to those found in a baghouse. Au/TiO2 and Pd/Al2O3 were effective, yielding mercury oxidation ranges of 40-60% and 50-80%, respectively. A 19 kW research combustor equipped with a baghouse was used to fire a range of coals and further test the performance of Pd/Al2O3. Results obtained warrant further development of this technique as a means of mercury pollution control.

  14. Mercury oxidation in flue gas using gold and palladium catalysts on fabric filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason A. Hrdlicka; Wayne S. Seames; Michael D. Mann; Darrin S. Muggli; Carol A. Horabik [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-09-01

    The feasibility of oxidizing elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas using catalytic material impregnated onto fabric filters was explored. TiO{sub 2}, Au/TiO{sub 2}, and Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were studied based on promising results in previous research. Several fabric coating methods were investigated to determine the best way to load a filter. A spray coat method was found to have the highest initial loading and had the lowest losses after simulated pulse-jet cleaning. The oxidation performance of the catalyst-coated filters was tested using a simulated flue gas in a bench-scale reactor under conditions similar to those found in a baghouse. Au/TiO{sub 2} and Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were effective, yielding mercury oxidation ranges of 40-60% and 50-80%, respectively. A 19 kW research combustor equipped with a baghouse was used to fire a range of coals and further test the performance of Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Results obtained warrant further development of this technique as a means of mercury pollution control. 19 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Lambda based control[Oxygen content of flue gases]; Lambdabaserad reglering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Mikael [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    A lambda sensor is useful to measure oxygen concentration in a gas. Unlike certain other methods to measure oxygen concentration, the lambda sensor is quite cheap. This makes it interesting to use in smaller heating plants for measuring oxygen concentration in flue gases because that gives a hint of in how optimised conditions the plant is running. The goal with this project has been to explore the possibilities to obtain useful data from a lambda sensor when installed in the simplest way in the exhaust flow of a plant and, if so, used this information as feedback to control the combustion process along with a simple algorithm for automatic control. The report contains two main parts, one that describes the work to getting useful data from lambda sensors and one part that describes the work to use the information from the lambda sensors as feedback and control the heat plant. The conclusion from the project is that lambda sensors could be used to obtain useful information about the combustion process and that it is possible to control the burning process so that the flue gases will contain a desired oxygen concentration by using the lambda sensor data.

  16. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide by MIL-101(Cr): Regeneration Conditions and Influence of Flue Gas Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Ning, Liqi; Zheng, Shudong; Tao, Mengna; Shi, Yao; He, Yi

    2013-10-01

    MIL-101(Cr) has drawn much attention due to its high stability compared with other metal-organic frameworks. In this study, three trace flue gas contaminants (H2O, NO, SO2) were each added to a 10 vol% CO2/N2 feed flow and found to have a minimal impact on the adsorption capacity of CO2. In dynamic CO2 regeneration experiments, complete regeneration occurred in 10 min at 328 K for temperature swing adsorption-N2-stripping under a 50 cm3/min N2 flow and at 348 K for vacuum-temperature swing adsorption at 20 KPa. Almost 99% of the pre-regeneration adsorption capacity was preserved after 5 cycles of adsorption/desorption under a gas flow of 10 vol% CO2, 100 ppm SO2, 100 ppm NO, and 10% RH, respectively. Strong resistance to flue gas contaminants, mild recovery conditions, and excellent recycling efficiency make MIL-101(Cr) an attractive adsorbent support for CO2 capture.

  17. Mercury removal from aqueous solution and flue gas by adsorption on activated carbon fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabais, João Valente; Carrott, P. J. M.; Carrott, M. M. L. Ribeiro; Belchior, Marisa; Boavida, Dulce; Diall, Tatiana; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim

    2006-06-01

    The use of two activated carbon fibres, one laboratorial sample prepared from a commercial acrylic textile fibre and one commercial sample of Kynol ®, as prepared/received and modified by reaction with powdered sulfur and H 2S gas in order to increase the sulfur content were studied for the removal of mercury from aqueous solution and from flue gases from a fluidized bed combustor. The sulfur introduced ranged from 1 to 6 wt.% depending on the method used. The most important parameter for the mercury uptake is the type of sulfur introduced rather than the total amount and it was found that the H 2S treatment of ACF leads to samples with the highest mercury uptake, despite the lower sulfur amount introduced. The modified samples by both methods can remove HgCl 2 from aqueous solutions at pH 6 within the range 290-710 mg/g (ACF) which can be favourably compared with other studies already published. The use of a filter made with an activated carbon fibre modified by powdered sulfur totally removed the mercury species present in the flue gases produced by combustion of fossil fuel.

  18. Evaluation of Doubled Haploid Derivatives of the Flue-cured Nicotianatabacum cv. Wislica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berbec A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 51 doubled haploid (DH derivatives of the flue-cured true-breeding tobacco variety Wislica were obtained via anther culture and colchicine-induced chromosome doubling. Of that number eight DH lines showed morphological aberrations and/or reduced vigour that made them unfit to be grown in the field. The remaining 43 DH lines were grown in 2001 under regular flue-cured tobacco management and evaluated for principal growth indicators, yield, curability and gross money returns from unit area. In 2002, the evaluation was scaled down to include 13 best performing DH lines of 2001. The DH lines showed a considerable variation for basic growth parameters. Usually, the DH lines had more leaves but were shorter than the parental genotype mostly due to shorter internodes. The majority of DH lines showed delayed flowering compared to the parental cultivar. Yields of cured leaves varied extensively, some of the DH lines yielding above and some below cv. Wislica. Curability measured as percentage of light (1st to 3rd grades was generally lower in DH lines compared to that in cv. Wislica. However, because of the high leaf yield some of the DH lines were not inferior to the parental cultivar with respect to money returns from unit area.

  19. Explaining the differential solubility of flue gas components in ionic liquids from first-principle calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B Ram; Senapati, Sanjib

    2009-04-09

    Flue gas is greatly responsible for acid rain formation and global warming. New generation ionic liquids (ILs) have potential in controlling the flue gas emissions, as they acquire high absorptivity for the component gases SO(2), CO(2), etc. The association of the IL-gas interactions to the absorptivity of gas molecules in ILs is, however, poorly understood. In this paper, we present a molecular level description of the interactions of ILs with SO(2), CO(2), and N(2) and show its implications to the differential gas solubility. Our results indicate that the IL anion-gas interactions play a key role in deciding the gas solubility in ILs, particularly for polar gases such as SO(2). On the other hand, regular solution assumption applies to N(2) solubility. In accordance with the previous theoretical and experimental findings, our results also imply that the IL anions dominate the interactions with gas molecules while the cations play a secondary role and the underlying fluid structures of the ILs remain unperturbed by the addition of gas molecules.

  20. Adsorption of carbon dioxide by MIL-101(Cr): regeneration conditions and influence of flue gas contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Ning, Liqi; Zheng, Shudong; Tao, Mengna; Shi, Yao; He, Yi

    2013-10-10

    MIL-101(Cr) has drawn much attention due to its high stability compared with other metal-organic frameworks. In this study, three trace flue gas contaminants (H2O, NO, SO2) were each added to a 10 vol% CO2/N2 feed flow and found to have a minimal impact on the adsorption capacity of CO2. In dynamic CO2 regeneration experiments, complete regeneration occurred in 10 min at 328 K for temperature swing adsorption-N2-stripping under a 50 cm(3)/min N2 flow and at 348 K for vacuum-temperature swing adsorption at 20 KPa. Almost 99% of the pre-regeneration adsorption capacity was preserved after 5 cycles of adsorption/desorption under a gas flow of 10 vol% CO2, 100 ppm SO2, 100 ppm NO, and 10% RH, respectively. Strong resistance to flue gas contaminants, mild recovery conditions, and excellent recycling efficiency make MIL-101(Cr) an attractive adsorbent support for CO2 capture.

  1. JV Task 125-Mercury Measurement in Combustion Flue Gases Short Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-09-30

    The short course, designed to train personnel who have an interest in measuring mercury in combustion flue gases, was held twice at the Drury Inn in Marion, Illinois. The short course helped to provide attendees with the knowledge necessary to avoid the many pitfalls that can and do occur when measuring mercury in combustion flue gases. The first short course, May 5-8, 2008, included both a classroom-type session and hands-on demonstration of mercury-sampling equipment. The hands-on demonstration of equipment was staged at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative. Not including the Illinois Clean Coal Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy project managers, there were 12 attendees. The second short course was conducted September 16-17, 2008, but only included the classroom portion of the course; 14 people attended. In both cases, lectures were provided on the various mercury measurement methods, and interaction between attendees and EERC research personnel to discuss specific mercury measurement problems was promoted. Overall, the response to the course was excellent.

  2. Heavy metal content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos from main production areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the influence of growing conditions on heavy metal content in virginia (flue cured and burley (air cured tobacco type. Moreover, some of these metals could appear in the tobacco cigarette smoke. This fact may cause negative consequences for cigarette consumers. Examinations were carried out in five various production areas, for each tobacco type, during two years, 1998 and 1999; those were extreme years for production.Considering the results, it can be concluded: The most important factor for heavy metal content in tobacco leaves are weather conditions especially the amount of rainfall, since there is a direct correlation between the rainfall and size of roots, a dominant vegetation organ. It is inevitable that the metals content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos grown at different experimental lots, is still below the legally prescribed values. Tobacco leaves from Šabac production area have a little higher metal content than tobacco grown in other production areas, because a larger amount of copper was found. The metal content in plants can increase because of its absorption from soil, atmosphere, or mineral fertilizers and pesticides, and, what is very important, the content of metals can be high due to the vicinity of large industrial centers.

  3. Mathematical modelling of flue gas tempered flames produced from pulverised coal fired with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breussin, A.; Weber, R.; Kamp, W.L. van de

    1997-10-01

    The combustion of pulverised coal in conventional utility boilers contributes significantly to global CO{sub 2} emissions. Because atmospheric air is used as the combustion medium, the exhaust gases of conventional pulverised coal fired utility boilers contain approximately 15 % CO{sub 2}. This relatively low concentration makes separating and recovering CO{sub 2} a very energy-intensive process. This process can be simplified if N{sub 2} is eliminated from the comburent before combustion by firing the pulverised coal with pure oxygen. However, this concept will result in very high flames temperatures. Flue gas recirculation can be used to moderate the flame temperature, whilst generating a flue gas with a CO{sub 2} concentration of 95 %. In this presentation, both experimental and modelling work will be described. The former deals with identifying the issues related to the combustion of pulverised coal in simulated turbine exhaust gas, particularly with respect to stability, burnout and pollutant emissions. The second part of this presentation describes mathematical modelling of type 2 as well as type 1 swirling pulverised coal flames. Future work will concentrate on high CO{sub 2} levels environments. (orig.)

  4. Developing low-cost carbon-based sorbents for Hg capture from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, R.; Lakatos, J.; Snape, C.E.; Sun, C. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2005-07-01

    To help reduce the cost of Hg capture from flue gas a number of low-cost carbons are being investigated, including activated tyre char and PFA carbon, in conjunction with some of the pre-treatments that have been found to be effective for commercial actived carbons. Experimental conditions for screening the sorbents have been selected to determine breakthrough capacities rapidly. The unactivated carbons have low breakthrough capacities under the test conditions employed (around 0.1 mg g{sup -1}) but these improve upon steam activation (around 0.25 mg g{sup -1}) but are still lower than those of non-impregnated commercial activated carbons (around 0.4-0.7 mg g{sup -1}), due to their lower surface areas. Comparable improvements to the commercial carbons have been achieved for impregnation treatments, including sulfur and bromine. However, certain gasification chars do have much higher breakthrough capacities than commercial carbons used for flue gas injection. Manganese oxide impregnation with low concentration is particularly effective for the activated and unactivated carbons giving breakthrough capacities comparable to the commercial carbons. Pointers for further increasing breakthrough and equilibrium capacities for carbon-based sorbents are discussed. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Electron beam technology for multipollutant emissions control from heavy fuel oil-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Ostapczuk, Anna; Licki, Janusz

    2010-08-01

    The electron beam treatment technology for purification of exhaust gases from the burning of heavy fuel oil (HFO) mazout with sulfur content approximately 3 wt % was tested at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology laboratory plant. The parametric study was conducted to determine the sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, absorbed irradiation dose, and ammonia stoichiometry process parameters. In the test performed under optimal conditions with an irradiation dose of 12.4 kGy, simultaneous removal efficiencies of approximately 98% for SO2, and 80% for NO(x) were recorded. The simultaneous decrease of PAH and one-ringed aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, and xylenes [BTX]) concentrations was observed in the irradiated flue gas. Overall removal efficiencies of approximately 42% for PAHs and 86% for BTXs were achieved with an irradiation dose 5.3 kGy. The decomposition ratio of these compounds increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The decrease of PAH and BTX concentrations was followed by the increase of oxygen-containing aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. The PAH and BTX decomposition process was initialized through the reaction with hydroxyl radicals that formed in the electron beam irradiated flue gas. Their decomposition process is based on similar principles as the primary reaction concerning SO2 and NO(x) removal; that is, free radicals attack organic compound chains or rings, causing volatile organic compound decomposition. Thus, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology ensures simultaneous removal of acid (SO2 and NO(x)) and organic (PAH and BTX) pollutants from flue gas emitted from burning of HFO. This technology is a multipollutant emission control technology that can be applied for treatment of flue gas emitted from coal-, lignite-, and HFO-fired boilers. Other thermal processes such

  6. High-throughput protein expression analysis using tissue microarray technology of a large well-characterised series identifies biologically distinct classes of breast cancer confirming recent cDNA expression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rehim, Dalia M; Ball, Graham; Pinder, Sarah E; Rakha, Emad; Paish, Claire; Robertson, John F R; Macmillan, Douglas; Blamey, Roger W; Ellis, Ian O

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies on gene molecular profiling using cDNA microarray in a relatively small series of breast cancer have identified biologically distinct groups with apparent clinical and prognostic relevance. The validation of such new taxonomies should be confirmed on larger series of cases prior to acceptance in clinical practice. The development of tissue microarray (TMA) technology provides methodology for high-throughput concomitant analyses of multiple proteins on large numbers of archival tumour samples. In our study, we have used immunohistochemistry techniques applied to TMA preparations of 1,076 cases of invasive breast cancer to study the combined protein expression profiles of a large panel of well-characterized commercially available biomarkers related to epithelial cell lineage, differentiation, hormone and growth factor receptors and gene products known to be altered in some forms of breast cancer. Using hierarchical clustering methodology, 5 groups with distinct patterns of protein expression were identified. A sixth group of only 4 cases was also identified but deemed too small for further detailed assessment. Further analysis of these clusters was performed using multiple layer perceptron (MLP)-artificial neural network (ANN) with a back propagation algorithm to identify key biomarkers driving the membership of each group. We have identified 2 large groups by their expression of luminal epithelial cell phenotypic characteristics, hormone receptors positivity, absence of basal epithelial phenotype characteristics and lack of c-erbB-2 protein overexpression. Two additional groups were characterized by high c-erbB-2 positivity and negative or weak hormone receptors expression but showed differences in MUC1 and E-cadherin expression. The final group was characterized by strong basal epithelial characteristics, p53 positivity, absent hormone receptors and weak to low luminal epithelial cytokeratin expression. In addition, we have identified significant

  7. Suitable Region for Flue-cured Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L.) Planting Based on Spatial Scene Similarity%Suitable Region for Flue-cured Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L.) Planting Based on Spatial Scene Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junxiang DONG; Danhuai GUO; Xiaodong SHAO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to establish a model based on spatial scene similarity, for which soil, slope, transport, water conservancy, light, social economic factors in suitable planting areas were all considered. A new suitable planting area of flue-cured tobacco was determined by comparison and analysis, with consideration of excellent area. [Method] Totaling thirty natural factors were chosen, which were clas- sified into nine categories, from Longpeng Town (LP) and Shaochong Town (SC) in Shiping County in Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture. [Result] According to weights, the factors from high to low were as follows: soil〉light〉elevation〉slope〉 water conservancy〉transport〉baking facility〉planting plans over the years〉others. The similarity of geographical conditions in the area was 0.894 3, which indicated that the planting conditions in the two regions are similar. If farmer population in unit area, farmland quantity for individual farmer, labors in every household, activity in planting flue-cured tobacco and work of local instructor were considered, the weights of different factors were as follows: farmer population in unit area〉farmland quantity for individual farmer〉farmers' activity in planting flue-cured tobacco〉educational back- ground〉labor force in every household〉instructor〉population of farmers' children at- tending school. The similarity of geographical conditions was 0.703 1, which indicated that it is none-natural factors that influence yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco. [Conclusion] According to analysis on suitable planting area of flue-cured tobacco based on assessment of spatial scene similarity, similarity of growing conditions in two spatial scenes can be analyzed and evaluated, which would promote further exploration on, influencing factors and effects on tobacco production.

  8. The combined effect of thermodynamic promoters tetrahydrofuran and cyclopentane on the kinetics of flue gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture through hydrate crystallization is a promising method among the new approaches for mitigating carbon emissions into the atmosphere. In this work, we investigate a combination of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and cyclopentane (CP) on the kinetics of flue gas (CO2:20 mol %/N2) ...

  9. A Component Prediction Method for Flue Gas of Natural Gas Combustion Based on Nonlinear Partial Least Squares Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis for the flue gas of natural gas-fired generator is significant for energy conservation and emission reduction. The traditional partial least squares method may not deal with the nonlinear problems effectively. In the paper, a nonlinear partial least squares method with extended input based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN is used for components prediction of flue gas. For the proposed method, the original independent input matrix is the input of RBFNN and the outputs of hidden layer nodes of RBFNN are the extension term of the original independent input matrix. Then, the partial least squares regression is performed on the extended input matrix and the output matrix to establish the components prediction model of flue gas. A near-infrared spectral dataset of flue gas of natural gas combustion is used for estimating the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with PLS. The experiments results show that the root-mean-square errors of prediction values of the proposed method for methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide are, respectively, reduced by 4.74%, 21.76%, and 5.32% compared to those of PLS. Hence, the proposed method has higher predictive capabilities and better robustness.

  10. Laboratory Experiments on Environmental Friendly Means to Improve Coalbed Methane Production by Carbon Dioxide/Flue Gas Injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazumder, S.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Van Hemert, P.; Busch, A.

    2008-01-01

    Scaled in situ laboratory core flooding experiments with CO2, N2 and flue gas were carried out on coal in an experimental high P,T device. These experiments will be able to give an insight into the design of the injection system, management, control of the operations and the efficiency of an ECBM pr

  11. Experimental study on the separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas using hollow fiber membrane contactors without wetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shui-ping; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, Shu-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Kang [Institute of Polymer Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2007-05-15

    Experiments on CO{sub 2} removal from flue gas using polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane contactors were conducted in this study. Absorbents including aqueous potassium glycinate (PG) solution, aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were used to absorb CO{sub 2} in the experiments. Based on the wetting experimental results, aqueous PG solution can offer a higher surface tension than water, aqueous MEA and MDEA solutions. Aqueous PG solution has a lower potential of membrane wetting after a continuously steady operation for 40 h to maintain CO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90%. Under moderate operating conditions, effects of the temperature, flow rate, and concentration of absorbents, and the flow rate of flue gas as well as the volumetric concentration of carbon dioxide in the flue gas on the mass transfer rate of CO{sub 2} were studied on a pilot-scale test facility. Unlike conventional absorbents, the mass transfer decreases with an increasing liquid temperature when using aqueous PG solution. Results show that CO{sub 2} removal efficiency was above 90% and the mass transfer rate was above 2.0 mol/(m{sup 2} h) using the PG aqueous solution. It indicates that the hollow fiber membrane contactor has a great potential in the area of CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas when absorbent's concentration and liquid-gas pressure difference are designed elaborately. (author)

  12. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  13. Heat recovery by flue gas heat exchangers in ceramic kilns; Waermerueckgewinnung mit Rauchgas-Waermetauschern an keramischen Oefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmenger, Patrick [Keramische und Waermetechnische Anlagen Strohmenger GmbH (KWS), Neunkirchen (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    The energy costs are on the rise, so it is becoming increasingly important to prevent energy losses and practice sustainability. Numerous ceramic kilns still have such high levels of flue gas heat losses, that it would be a thoroughly worthwhile investment to fit them out with heat exchangers. This contribution presents several completed projects as examples. (orig.)

  14. Energy Efficient Solvents for CO2 Absorption from Flue Gas: Vapor Liquid Equilibrium and Pilot Plant Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, Prachi; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    From solvent screening for new, amine based solvents for CO2 recovery from flue gas, two most promising solvent formulations, a 51 wt% New Solvent (NS) and a 26.7% AMP-11.9% HMDA mixture were selected and tested in an industrial pilot plant, mainly to identify the regeneration energy requirement. In

  15. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

  16. Chemically enhanced biological NOx removal from flue gases : nitric oxide and ferric EDTA reduction in BioDeNox reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der P.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere is a major environmental problem. To abate NOx emissions from industrial flue gases, to date, mainly chemical processes like selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are applied. All these processes require high temperatures (>300 °C) and expensi

  17. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  18. Simultaneous microalgal biomass production and CO2 fixation by cultivating Chlorella sp. GD with aquaculture wastewater and boiler flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chiu-Mei; Jian, Jhong-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Yu-Bin; Wan, Xin-Hua; Lai, Jinn-Tsyy; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    A microalgal strain, Chlorella sp. GD, cultivated in aquaculture wastewater (AW) aerated with boiler flue gas, was investigated. When AW from a grouper fish farm was supplemented with additional nutrients, the microalgal biomass productivity after 7days of culture was 0.794gL(-1)d(-1). CO2 fixation efficiencies of the microalgal strains aerated with 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3vvm of boiler flue gas (containing approximately 8% CO2) were 53, 51, 38, and 30%, respectively. When the microalgal strain was cultured with boiler flue gas in nutrient-added AW, biomass productivity increased to 0.892gL(-1)d(-1). In semi-continuous cultures, average biomass productivities of the microalgal strain in 2-day, 3-day, and 4-day replacement cultures were 1.296, 0.985, and 0.944gL(-1)d(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate the potential of using Chlorella sp. GD cultivations in AW aerated with boiler flue gas for reusing water resources, reducing CO2 emission, and producing microalgal biomass.

  19. Hydroquinone and quinone-grafted porous carbons for highly selective CO2 capture from flue gases and natural gas upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Krishna, R.; Yang, J.; Deng, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroquinone and quinone functional groups were grafted onto a hierarchical porous carbon framework via the Friedel-Crafts reaction to develop more efficient adsorbents for the selective capture and removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases and natural gas. The oxygen-doped porous carbons were

  20. A component prediction method for flue gas of natural gas combustion based on nonlinear partial least squares method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Yan, Xingyu; Li, Yaojiang; Wang, Yanxia; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Sanchun

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis for the flue gas of natural gas-fired generator is significant for energy conservation and emission reduction. The traditional partial least squares method may not deal with the nonlinear problems effectively. In the paper, a nonlinear partial least squares method with extended input based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used for components prediction of flue gas. For the proposed method, the original independent input matrix is the input of RBFNN and the outputs of hidden layer nodes of RBFNN are the extension term of the original independent input matrix. Then, the partial least squares regression is performed on the extended input matrix and the output matrix to establish the components prediction model of flue gas. A near-infrared spectral dataset of flue gas of natural gas combustion is used for estimating the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with PLS. The experiments results show that the root-mean-square errors of prediction values of the proposed method for methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide are, respectively, reduced by 4.74%, 21.76%, and 5.32% compared to those of PLS. Hence, the proposed method has higher predictive capabilities and better robustness.

  1. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat-integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, VA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available temperature. Recovery of the flue gas heat to preheat the boiler feedwater was demonstrated to be capable of further increasing the thermal efficiency of the plant. The methodology developed is divided into two parts, i.e., determining the maximum boiler...

  2. Proteomics Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins Relevant for Nicotine Synthesis in Flue-Cured Tobacco Roots Before and After Decapitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-qun; GUO Hong-xiang; LI Hao

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine is a secondary substance synthesized in tobacco roots.In flue-cured tobacco planting,tobacco decapitation is an effective practice to promote nicotine biosynthesis by regulation of the redistribution of total nitrogen amounts,However,proteins relevant to nicotine synthesis in tobacco roots has not been identified and characterized yet.It is important to explore the regulation of nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco roots.To identify the proteins relevant to nicotine synthesis,the protein patterns in roots of flue-cured tobacco (cv.K326) before and after decapitation were analyzed.In the present study,the protein patterns in roots of flue-cured tobacco were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE),and the differentially-expressed spots were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Paired comparison of 2-DE maps revealed 26 spots of differentially-expressed proteins in roots before and after decapitation.Furthermore,nine differentially-expressed spots were identified.There were four proteins which were enzymes possibly involved in nicotine biosynthesis.In addition,the roles of the four enzymes in nicotine biosynthesis were discussed in a putative network.Our results would contribute to the understanding of the regulation pathway of nicotine biosynthesis and further to the molecular manipulation on the nicotine contents in flue-cured tobacco.

  3. Removal of elemental Mercury from flue gas using wheat straw chars modified by K2FeO4 reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfei; Liu, Yangxian; Pan, Jianfeng

    2017-02-17

    In this article, wheat straw (WS) char, a common agricultural waste and renewable biomass, was pyrolyzed and then modified by K2FeO4 reagent to develop an efficient sorbent for removal of Hg(0) from flue gas. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, scanning electron microscopy with energy spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the sorbents. The effects of K2FeO4 loading, reaction temperature, Hg(0) inlet concentration and concentrations of gas mixtures O2, NO and SO2 in flue gas on Hg(0) removal were investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. The results show that K2FeO4-impregnation can improve pore structure of WS char and produce new active sites, which significantly enhance Hg(0) removal. Increasing Hg(0) inlet concentration significantly decreases Hg(0) removal efficiency. O2 in flue gas promotes Hg(0) oxidation by replenishing the oxygen groups on the surface of modified chars. The presence of NO obviously promotes Hg(0) removal since it can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(NO3)2. SO2 in flue gas significantly decreases Hg(0) removal efficiency due to the competition adsorption between SO2 and Hg(0). The increase in reaction temperature has a dual impact on Hg(0) removal.

  4. Laboratory Experiments on Environmental Friendly Means to Improve Coalbed Methane Production by Carbon Dioxide/Flue Gas Injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazumder, S.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Van Hemert, P.; Busch, A.

    2008-01-01

    Scaled in situ laboratory core flooding experiments with CO2, N2 and flue gas were carried out on coal in an experimental high P,T device. These experiments will be able to give an insight into the design of the injection system, management, control of the operations and the efficiency of an ECBM

  5. Three annual flue gas desulfurization gypsum applications on macronutrient and micronutrient losses in runoff from bermudagrass fertilized with poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable amounts of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are being produced as a by-product of generating electricity. As a result, beneficial reuse of this by-product is being sought to reduce landfilling and its associated cost. The use of this byproduct as a low-cost soil amendment for suppl...

  6. 密集烤房在烤烟生产中的优势及效益分析%Advantage and Benefit Analysis of Bulk Curing Barn in Production of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗元雄; 蔡坤伦; 龚德勇

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces the baking technologies and main operating points of bulk curing barn in the production of flue -cured tobacco. The bulk curing barn possesses the advantages of less labor cost, lower energy consumption, better quality, higher economic benefit and so on. The author puts forward the following suggestions: expediting the construction of bulk curing barn in Anlong county of Guizhou province, enhancing the study on the curing technologies of tobacco leaf, and gradually completing the operational mode of tobacco leaf specialization baking.%介绍了密集式烤房的烘烤工艺、操作要点比较优势和应用效益,提出了加快贵州安龙县密集烤房建设,加大对烟叶烘烤的技术工艺研究,逐步完善烟叶专业化烘烤运行模式的建议.

  7. Adsorption separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas of natural gas-fired boiler by a novel nanoporous 'molecular basket' adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaochun; Song, Chunshan; Miller, Bruce G.; Scaroni, Alan W. [Clean Fuels and Catalysis Program, The Energy Institute, and Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 209 Academic Projects Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    A novel nanoporous CO{sub 2} 'molecular basket' adsorbent has been developed and applied in the separation of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a natural gas fired boiler. The nanoporous CO{sub 2} 'molecular basket' adsorbent was prepared by uniformly dispersing polyethylenimine (PEI) into the pores of mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41. The use of MCM-41 and PEI had a synergetic effect on the CO{sub 2} adsorption. The rates of CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption of PEI were also greatly improved. Adsorption separation results showed that CO{sub 2} was selectively separated from simulated flue gas and flue gas of a natural gas-fired boiler by using this novel adsorbent. The adsorbent adsorbed very little N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO in the flue gas. Moisture had a promoting effect on the adsorption separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The adsorbent simultaneously adsorbed CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas. The adsorbed amount of CO{sub 2} was around 3000 times larger than that of NO{sub x}. The adsorbent was stable in several cyclic adsorption/desorption operations. However, very little NO{sub x} desorbed after adsorption indicating the need for pre-removal of NO{sub x} from flue gas before capture of CO{sub 2} by this novel adsorbent. (author)

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 19: Radiation Shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  9. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 8: Reactor Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutians in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course l: Radiation Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 28: Welding Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  12. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 27: Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 12: Reactor Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  14. 不同环剥时期对烤烟产质量的影响%Effects of Girdling at Different Stages on Quality and Yield of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春元; 刘正华; 李余湘; 时宏书; 张刚领; 葛永琴; 郭玉双

    2011-01-01

    为探讨不同环剥时期对烤烟产质量的影响,对打顶后的栽培品种云烟87进行不同环剥时期试验。结果表明:打顶后15d进行环剥烟草的产量、均价、产值、单叶重、上中等烟比例等综合表现较好。该研究进一步补充和完善了烤烟环剥技术的研究内容,为改进栽培措施对提高烟叶产质量的影响提供理论依据。%The effects of girdling at different stages on quality and yield of flue-cured tobacco were carried out using "Yunyan87" as the material.The results showed that girdling 15 days after topping had the best effect on yield,price,value,single-leaf weight and the proportion of classy leaves.The research could complement and improve the content of flue-cured tobacco girdling technology and provide a theoretical basis for improving cultivation practices for yield and quality of tobacco.

  15. 烟气余热回收装置在铝熔保炉除尘系统中的应用%Application of Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery Unit in Dust Removal System of Aluminum Melting and Holding Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊振国

    2016-01-01

    The paper described the necessity and technical requirements of application of flue gas waste heat recovery unit in dust removal system for aluminum melting and holding furnace;it presented critical technology issues needed to be resolved in dust removal system when using flue gas waste heat recovery unit with specific process scheme;it highlighted comparative analysis of economic and social benefits based on case studies.%文章阐述了在铝熔保炉除尘系统中应用烟气余热回收装置的必要性和技术要求;结合余热回收除尘系统工艺方案的设计,给出了烟气余热回收设备在除尘系统中使用时需要解决的关键技术;通过工程实例对比分析除尘系统中应用烟气余热回收设备的经济和社会环境效益。

  16. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  17. Sulfation behavior of CuO/γ-Al2O3 sorbent for the removal of SO2 from flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingchun Yu; Shichao Zhang; Xindong Wang; Jie Zhang; Zhenming Lu

    2008-01-01

    s: Cl10/γ-A12O3 has been considered as a promising and recycling sorbent to remove sulfur dioxide from flue gas. In this study, a series of CuO/γ-AI2O3 sorbents with different CuO loadings were prepared by impregnation. The monolayer coverage of CuO supported on γ,-AI2O3 determined by X-ray quantitative analysis was 0.275 g CuO/g (γ-AI2O3). Below the monolayer coverage, CuO was found highly dispersed on γ-AI2O3. Thermogravimetric technique was used to study sulfation kinetics and sulfation recycling. It was found that the Langmuir kinetic adsorption model described well the experimental data at the rapid sulfation region of the CuO/γ-AI2O3 sorbent. The adsorption activation energy was 19.98 kJ/mol and the pre-exponential factor was 9.97×10-5 s-1.Pa-1. The CuO/γ-AI2O3 sorbent has shown good performance on regeneration, but long sulfation time might cause the deactivation of the CuO/γ-AI2O3sorbent. It was also seen that the sulfatedγ-AI2O3 support could not be reduced at 400℃.

  18. 稳定焦炉边火道温度的措施%Measures of Keeping Stable Temperature in the Side Flue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 靳迎武; 苏战伟; 向宇; 张善学

    2012-01-01

      针对焦炉边火道温度经常偏低、偏高给炉体和环境带来不良影响的现象,结合不同的生产情况,采取加强蓄热室密封、减少煤气窜漏、及时调整孔板大小等措施,使炉头系数由原来的不到0.85提高到0.91以上,改善了环境并提高了炉头焦炭质量.%  Because the side flue temperature of the coke oven often was low or high to cause adverse effect on the coke oven body and the environment. Combing with different production situation, a series of improvement measures were taken. They are as follows:strengthening seal for the regenerator, reducing gas leaking and adjusting the orifice plate to suitable size in time. Then the jamb coefficient increased to 0.91 above from less than 0.85, improving the environment and coke quality in jamb.

  19. Novel mercury control technology for solid waste incineration: sodium tetrasulfide (STS) as mercury capturing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Xie, Shaodong; Li, Yaqiong; Liu, Yushan

    2007-03-01

    Traditional pollution control technologies are able to capture oxidized forms of mercury to some extent; however, they show low efficiency for the control of elemental mercury emissions. This study developed a novel mercury removal technology: injection of sodium tetrasulfide (Na2S4) dissolved in the sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution in the spray-dryer system. The effects of flue gas temperature and Na2S4 level in flue gas on the mercury removal efficiency were investigated. Na2S4 was decomposed into Na2S (S2-) and elemental S (S0), which reacted with HgCl2 and elemental Hg (Hg0), and HgS was then formed. Under the optimized operation parameters, this technology can simultaneously remove over 88% of HgCl2 and more than 90% of Hg0 from a flue gas stream containing about 400 microg m(-3) Hg0 and 1200 microg m(-3) HgCl2. The increased flue gas temperature (>170 degrees C) and the decreased Na2S4-to-Hg mass ratio (S-Hg-R) (hospital-waste incinerator with a capability of 20 tons per day (TPD).

  20. Radiation technology for environmental conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, S.

    The use of radiation technology for environmental conservation is becoming increasingly important. Commercial plants for the radiation treatment of sewage sludge to reduce pathogenic micro-organisms have been operating in the Federal Republic of Germany for the past ten years and their technical and economical feasibility has been demonstrated. Irradiation of dried sludge has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratory (USA) using Cs-137, and the construction of a commercial plant is planned in Albuquerque. At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), efforts are under way to increase the rate of composting of sludge by radiation. Regarding waste water treatment, a significant synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was found in the reduction of TOC. The construction of a gamma irradiation plant is in the planning stage in Canada, for the disinfection of virus-contaminated waste effluents from the Canadian Animal Disease Research Institute. The treatment of exhaust gases by electron beam has been studied in Japan using a large pilot plant which demonstrated that 90% of SO 2 and 80% of NO x can be removed from the flue gas of iron ore sintering furnaces. The US Department of Energy is assisting in projects for the further development of this technology for combined removal of SO 2 and NO x in flue gas from coal burning power stations.