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Sample records for technology japan status

  1. Status and issue of coal mine safety technology development in Japan and international co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakmura, K. [Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Mine Safety Division, Environmental Protection and Industrial Location Bureau

    2001-03-01

    Recent trends in coal mine accidents in Japan are reviewed and the incident of mine fire at the Ikeshima coal mine in Nagasaki Prefecture in February 2000 reported. An overview is given of safety projects underway in Japan or jointly with Australia. Cooperative projects to prevent spontaneous combustion to develop underground monitoring techniques, and to transfer safety technologies from Japan abroad are outlined. Other projects carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) are listed. Japan's long-term policy for safety technology development is outlined. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    This is Japan Report with Science and Technology. It contains the issues with different topics on biotecnology , defense industry, nuclear engineering, Marine technology, science and technology policy.

  3. The current status of the development of the technology on 3D computer simulation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Park, Seung Kook; Chung, Un Soo; Jung, Ki Jung

    2002-05-01

    The development background and property of the COSIDA, which is the 3D computer simulation system for the analysis on the dismantling procedure of the nuclear facilities in Japan was reviewed. The function of the visualization on the work area, Kinematics analysis and dismantling scenario analysis, which are the sub systems of the COSIDA, has been investigated. The physical, geometrical and radiological properties were modelled in 2D or 3D in the sub system of the visualization of the work area. In the sub system of the kinematics analysis, the command set on the basic work procedure for the control of the motion of the models at a cyber space was driven. The suitability of the command set was estimated by the application of COSIDA to the programming on the motion of the remote dismantling tools for dismantling the components of the nuclear facilities at cyber space.

  4. Robotics Technology In Japan And Its Impact On Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    1984-08-01

    Japan's capabilities in robotics technology has developed with amazing speed. The nation has gone from an importer of robotics technology to the leading exporter in a little more than fifteen years. How did Japan manage to achieve such a feat? Are workers happy with this new technology? In order to answer these and other questions, the author spent several weeks in Japan in the summer of 1983 visiting many organizations and interviewing individuals. This paper summarizes the author's findings on the current status of Japan's robotization and its implications to workers.

  5. High Technology Ceramics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-14

    of evolutionary charoge T’LE i a Markt She of tlh-T o Japan. 1m (in 4min t4 dolkla)" Japaman Percer""g Sector Appkhi DoamiC Sale" of Total Etcvo... segments populated by buyers willing to acquire products embodying the new technology, even though the cost ma, he somewhat grcmterthan that of...looking for new ways to segment the market in order ,o rekindle consumer interest. New technology like ceramics may well be onewa, to do this. for there is

  6. Recent status of Legionella issues in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Akira; Hisamatsu, Takaya; Uchida, Takahiko [Kurita Water Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The ''Japanese Guideline for the Prevention of Legionellosis'' is introduced and the status of Legionella inhibition in cooling water systems in Japan is reviewed. About 9,000 sampling data on Legionella in cooling water systems are discussed. A seasonal trend has been observed based on cooling water sample numbers and positive Legionella findings. Moreover, the percentage of positive findings with a registered chemical treatment program at the Japanese Association of Air Conditioning Water Treatment Chemicals for Legionella is about half that without chemical treatment. It is concluded that the registered chemical treatment program is successful in Japan. (orig.)

  7. Advanced USC technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Masafumi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). High Temperature Materials Center

    2010-07-01

    The 600deg-C class Ultra Super-Critical(USC) steam condition technology was mainly developed through projects led by J-Power in the '80s and 90s'. In 2001, the project was successfully finished with newly developed 9-12% chromium steels. These materials were selected for the major parts of the USC power plants in Japan and almost half of the coal power plants have the USC steam condition today. However, aged plants, which were built in the '70s and early '80s will reach the point where they will need to be rebuilt or refurbished in the near future. The steam temperatures of the older plants are 538 deg-C or 566deg-C. We did a case study, retrofitting these plants with the USC and an advanced USC technology that takes a 700deg-C class steam temperature to increase thermal efficiency and to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The study showed that the advanced USC Technology(A-USC) is suitable for the retrofitting of aged plants and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 15%. The Japanese government launched the ''Cool Earth-Innovative Energy Technology Program'' in 2008 March to promote international cooperation and actively contribute to substantial global greenhouse gas emissions reductions. 21 technologies that will contribute to substantial reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions by efficiency improvement and low carbonization were selected. The A-USC that aims at 46% (net, HHV) thermal efficiency of coal power generation is included in the technologies. We started a large-scale development project of the A-USC technology in 2008 August. 700deg-C class boiler, turbine and valve technologies, which include high temperature material technology, will be developed. Some candidate materials for boilers are being tested. Turbine rotor and casing materials are being developed and tested, as well. Two years from the beginning of the project, we have obtained some useful test results regarding the candidate materials. (orig.)

  8. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    include water temperature, water quality, ocean currents, sea ice, wave conditions, coastal conditions, and marine resources. Environmental polution ... air , and food supplies (procured in Japan) to the station for use by its crew. It is also a real possibility that Japan’s data relay satellite (DRTS...the pressurized unit via a mechanical manipulator and an air lock to permit the exchange of equipment and samples and the assembly of space

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    8 MOX to Undergo Post-Irradiation Test for Plutonium Thermal Use [GENSHIR YOKU SANGYO SHIMB UN, I Mar 90...Irradiation Testing of MOX Fuel Rods for Water Reactors: Thermal Behavior of IFA-529 Fuel Rods [K. Kamimura, et al; ATOMIC ENERGY SOCIETY OF JAPAN, 2...Apr 90] ........................................... 16 Irradiation Testing of MOX Fuel Rods for Water Reactors: Mechanical Behavior of IFA-529 Fuel

  10. Japan Report - Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-17

    Stock of Bacillus Subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a relative of bacillus natto that has been in use in Japan from the ancient times. It is safe and...secretes a large volume of pro- tein. Thus it is used industrially. By using this bacillus subtilis as a base, an ambitious research concerning (1...the said secretion vector were tried. Follow- ing results were obtained. (1) Neutral proteazoa genes of bacillus subtilis were processed to suit the

  11. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu, E-mail: yamashita.kiyonobu@jaea.go.jp [Visiting Professor, at the Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); General Advisor Nuclear HRD Centre, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, TOKAI-mura, NAKA-gun, IBARAKI-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    energy conservation technology R&D: (international cooperation on S&T related high- efficency gas turbines, new batteries, to mining and manufacturing...297 20. Nuclear Energy Peace-Use Technology ...... 301 Part 1. Research Plans of the Government Industrial 21. Environmental Pollution...25 Scale Project) .............................................. 359 (2) Mechanical Engineering Lab ....................... 28 2. New Energy

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-10

    34Prediction and automatic measurement technologies for changes of plankton composition in the coastal areas" (budget of Y5 million through FY92), will...try to develop a system which processes information on the number and variety of plankton and is necessary for the observation of nutriment-rich...functional sheet materials to be made from acid polysaccharides, the main constituent of seaweed . As a technology to collect rare and scarce solubilized

  14. Ubiquitous Technology for Language Learning: The U-Japan Movement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the u-Japan movement and recent reforms in the higher educational system in Japan, examines the needs as well as readiness for ubiquitous learning in Japanese universities, and reports on a selection of mobile-assisted language learning projects (MALL). It analyzes the current status of ubiquitous technology applications in…

  15. Ubiquitous Technology for Language Learning: The U-Japan Movement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the u-Japan movement and recent reforms in the higher educational system in Japan, examines the needs as well as readiness for ubiquitous learning in Japanese universities, and reports on a selection of mobile-assisted language learning projects (MALL). It analyzes the current status of ubiquitous technology applications in…

  16. [Current status of food-borne diseases in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Akemi

    2012-08-01

    The current status of food-borne diseases in Japan was described. Although the number of outbreaks caused by Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Escherichia coli(except enterohaemorrhagic E. coli) is decreasing, outbreaks by Campylobacter or Norovirus are increasing.

  17. JPRS Report; Science & Technology Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    be fully used at a temperature exceeding 1,350°C. References 1. Kazumori Kishi, Masaki Umebayashi, Eiji Tani, and Kazuo Kobayashi, Journal of...Recently, the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Prof. Yoshikawa , et al, has successfully developed a new polishing technique for diamond thin films. The

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    personalization of information use and access. In the coming information society , all fields of human activities will be connected by information...of infrastructure and qualitative aspects of information technology utilization. To realize an advanced information society , it is necessary to...Software Promotion Programs A stable supply of high-quality software is essential to the realization of an advanced information society . The rapid

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-29

    Accelerated The discovery of perovskite -based superconductivity substances by Müller of IBM Zurich Research Institute in Switzerland created the...intensity of 10 roentgens per hour. For this effort, the Institute is earmarking 69 million yen from this year’s budget. Nuclear power plants have a...development of a basic technology toward the construction of a harsh environment sensor system capable of withstanding a radiation rate of 10 roentgens

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    space infrastructure. Structural materials, specially composite materials, technology is an important theme, so we are putting emphasis on research...attack is large, we also prepared a winglet -shaped main wing. A tail wing with a 90 degree angle of intersection was also prepared due to fears that...studies on aerodynamically flexible tailoring techniques for main wings, the models used in flutter wind tunnel tests are built with composite

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Ford Aerospace of the U.S. or Aerospatiale of France. It will be equipped with two infrared-ray cameras to improve observation capabilities. The...and by scanning it with a laser beam. An X-ray fiber is not only effective as a sensor technology but expected to trigger social demand more than...omitted]. With regard to the Compton type free electron laser using high-energy small- current electron beam sources (linear accelerator, electron

  2. Japan Report, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Ishikawa; OPTRONICS, Oct 86) 47 NEW MATERIALS /9986 High Thermal Conductive Aluminum Nitride Discussed (Kazuo Shinozaki, Akihiko Tsuge; CERAMICS...cooling systems (kerosene and gas) in terms of convenience, safety, and cleanliness . It will attract consumers’ attention in the future if its thermal...constant demands for safety, cleanliness , low cost, and convenience. The development of technology is indispensable to the management of electric

  3. Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.

  4. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed.

  5. 日本21世纪四大“终极”能源技术发展现状%Development Status of the Four“Ultimate”Energy Technologies for 21st Century in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕志

    2013-01-01

    日本是化石能源资源极为贫乏的国家,2011年“3.11”大地震引发的严重核泄漏事故,又导致绝大多数的核电站目前处于停堆状态。日本的能源供应正面临前所未有的压力,可以说进一步开发利用可再生能源成为日本21世纪应对能源问题的“终极”手段。通过对日本政府和产业界在光伏电池、海流发电、超导、热泵等四大新能源技术领域的投入进行重点考察,全面分析日本上述四大新能源技术的发展现状、技术流派和应用前景,以期为同样面临能源与环境两大问题的我国相关部门提供有益参考。%Japan is an island country extremely lacking in fossil fuel resources. The large“3.11”Earthquake in 2011 triggered a serious nuclear accident, for which the most nuclear power plants were shutdown even now. Japan’s energy supply is facing unprecedented pressure, so further developing the renewable energy has become“ultimate”means to deal with energy issues for Japan in the 21st century. This paper focuses on the efforts of the Japanese government and industry in the ifeld of four new energy technologies including solar power, ocean current power generation, superconducting, heat pumps, and analyzes the development status, technical category and application prospects of four new energy technologies, hoping to provide useful information for China’s relevant departments in the process of resolving energy and environment problems.

  6. Faster and more efficient [maritime technology in Japan]; Hoe sneller hoe zuiniger [maritieme technologie in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroeks, R.

    2010-01-15

    By means of technological innovations marine superpower Japan anticipates a growing market for sea ships that are both fast and efficient. The combinations of fast and efficient offers Japan large benefits. Next to political motives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, fuel savings also mean lower costs and smaller dependency on foreign energy sources. Moreover, the maritime transport sector is positioning itself as a better alternative for road and air transport and the international competitive position of Japan on the maritime market is strengthened. [Dutch] Met technologische vernieuwingen anticipeert marinegrootmacht Japan op een groeiende markt voor zeeschepen die tegelijkertijd snel en zuinig zijn. Voor Japan levert de combinatie van snel en zuinig grote voordelen op. Naast politieke motieven om de emissie van broeikasgassen terug te dringen, betekent brandstofbesparing lagere kosten en minder afhankelijkheid van buitenlandse energiebronnen. Daarnaast positioneert de maritieme transportsector zich beter als alternatief voor weg- en luchttransport en versterkt de internationale concurrentiepositie van Japan op de maritieme markt.

  7. Development of clean coal technologies in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

    2013-07-01

    In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

  8. History of healthcare technology assessment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisashige, Akinori

    2009-07-01

    There has been a rapid growth of healthcare technology assessment (HTA) activities among health service researchers and physicians in Japan in the younger generation since the mid-1980s. HTA has become visible since the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (MHLW) set up the several committees related to HTA in the late 1990s. The MHLW had to participate in regulatory and administrative reform, coping with the serious economic stagnation since 1991, following the economic recession in the 1980s. However, HTA has not been developed as expected. The most important failure is that the application of HTA to health policy has been neglected by the MHLW. Only application to clinical practice has been implemented by developing evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. The MHLW had the main aim of containing costs by reducing excess or useless healthcare services through guidelines, rather than to implement a radical reform. Without a central organization for HTA, several researchers have still continued to do HTA studies, but most researchers and physicians promoting HTA have been moved into diverse related areas. Ultimately, increasing efficiency may be the only way of reconciling rising demands for health care with public financing constraints. Therefore, the reconsideration and reorganization of HTA, which covers not only healthcare services but also the healthcare system as a whole, is becoming an urgent matter for healthcare reform.

  9. MRAM Technology Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidecker, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (MRAM) is much different from conventional types of memory like SRAM, DRAM, and Flash, where electric charge is used to store information. Instead of exploiting the charge of an electron, MRAM uses its spin to store data. This new type of electronics is known as "spintronics." The primary focus of this report is the current generation of MRAM technology, and its reliability, vendors, and space-readiness.

  10. Research; BOSS Study Trip Japan '09: Architecture, Urbanism, Real Estate & Housing and Technology in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Japan is a land of many faces as we discovered: from seasonal changes, and thereby heavy rainfall, high humidity, tropical cyclones; to a stunning 127,300,000 inhabitants; or what about the only 10% buildable surface of the continent; seismic activity; fast going technological developments like electronic gadgets, robots, and supersonic trains without even a second delay (in contrast of the Dutch situation)... Even in its names Nihon, Nippen, Nippon, Japon or Japan, one gets fascinated by the...

  11. Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues.

  12. Research; BOSS Study Trip Japan '09: Architecture, Urbanism, Real Estate & Housing and Technology in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, R.; Van Beelen, C.; Wamelink, J.W.F.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Japan is a land of many faces as we discovered: from seasonal changes, and thereby heavy rainfall, high humidity, tropical cyclones; to a stunning 127,300,000 inhabitants; or what about the only 10% buildable surface of the continent; seismic activity; fast going technological developments like elec

  13. Research; BOSS Study Trip Japan '09: Architecture, Urbanism, Real Estate & Housing and Technology in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, R.; Van Beelen, C.; Wamelink, J.W.F.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Japan is a land of many faces as we discovered: from seasonal changes, and thereby heavy rainfall, high humidity, tropical cyclones; to a stunning 127,300,000 inhabitants; or what about the only 10% buildable surface of the continent; seismic activity; fast going technological developments like

  14. Present status of refurbishment and irradiation technologies in JMTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo; Ishihara, Masahiro; Niimi, Motoji; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency is a testing reactor for various neutron irradiation tests on nuclear fuels and materials, as well as for radioisotope production. The operation of JMTR stopped temporarily in August 2006 for refurbishment and improvement. The renewed JMTR will resume operation in Japanese fiscal year 2011. The renewal of aged reactor components, the preparation of new irradiation facilities, and the development of irradiation technologies have been carried out for the resumption of the new JMTR. The new JMTR with the new irradiation facilities and the irradiation technologies will be utilized for the research and development of fission and fusion reactor fuels and materials. This paper describes the present status of the refurbishment and the irradiation technologies focused on instrumentation such as the multi-paired thermocouple which is applicable to irradiation temperature control and a ceramic oxygen sensor in JMTR.

  15. Japan society for software science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Reiji; Hagino, Tatsuya

    1990-01-01

    Advances in Software Science and Technology, Volume 1 provides information pertinent to the advancement of the science and technology of computer software. This book discusses the various applications for computer systems.Organized into three parts encompassing 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the phase structure grammar for Japanese called JPSG, and a parser based on this grammar. This text then explores the logic-based knowledge representation called Uranus, which uses a multiple world mechanism. Other chapters consider the optimal file segmentation techniques for multi-at

  16. Present status and future trends of R and D for HTS rotational machines in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Osami, E-mail: osami-t@ynu.ac.jp

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • R and D statuses of various HTS rotating machines developed in Japan are overviewed. • Design studies of various types of HTS wind power generators conducted in Japan are assessed. • Based on the present R and D statuses, future technical trends of HTS machines are discussed. • Introduction of iron cores into HTS windings drastically reduces amount of HTS wires and cost of HTS machines. - Abstract: Various HTS rotating machines, from multiple MW class to several 10 kW class, are being developed in Japan. R and D statuses of those machines are reviewed. Design studies of various types of HTS wind power generators are also conducted in Japan and their merits and demerits are discussed. Based on the present R and D statuses, future technical trends of HTS machines are discussed.

  17. Do you know `food irradiation`?. A survey of consumer status toward food irradiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu [Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In Japan potatoes have been irradiated for the purpose of sprout inhibition for more than 20 years and more than ten thousand irradiated potatoes are circulated in Japanese market in recent years. Nevertheless, there are few surveys about the consumer status toward food irradiation in Japan. We have been held `Radiation Fair -- The relationship between daily life and radiation--` during summer vacation season in August for more than 10 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan, for the purpose of public education and information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology especially to school kids. We displayed 200 kg of irradiated potatoes together with explanatory panels. We distributed questionnaires to the senior high school students (16 years old) and upward visitor for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes as well as impression toward the displays. According to the survey results in 1997, the ratio of respondents who had heard of irradiated potatoes was 51% of 228 answers. This value was smaller than those of the Gallop survey conducted in the United States (73%). After viewing the display and description of irradiated potatoes, almost half of the respondents indicated a positive feeling for tasting the irradiated potatoes. Most of the respondents chose one of the following issues, Freshness` (37%), `Open date` (13%), or `Food additives` (34%) as the major concerns about food safety. Interestingly, `Pesticide` and/or `Foodborne pathogen` highly were chosen by only 15% of the respondents in total even though these issue were highly ranked in the US surveys. These results indicate that original methodology is necessary for distributing the information related food irradiation related food irradiation efficiently. (J.P.N)

  18. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  19. Latest trends in natural gas vehicle technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshiharu [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Higashino, Koji [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Usui, Akira [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Yamaguchi, Eiji [Saibu Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Out of the necessity for finding a solution to the air pollution and alternative fuel in Japan, the gas companies have been promoting the development and introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) with the cooperation of vehicle manufacturers. The target was the development of dedicated CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) vehicles with cleaner emissions, and several types of vehicles have been achieved, from small vans to large transit buses. As at September 1996, 800 NGVs have been introduced in Japan. It is increasing steadily. They are modified from gasoline or diesel vehicles. But the vehicle manufacturers themselves are doing the modifications and much dedicated CNG vehicle technology is being included. For instance, engine combustion systems include conventional stoichiometric air fuel ratio combustion with a three-way catalyst, the lean burn system without catalyst and a combination of both using lean burn for low loads and stoichiometric ratio combustion for high loads. This report summarizes the latest trends in natural gas vehicle technology in Japan based on examples of representative types of vehicles. (au)

  20. Present status of underground thermal utilization in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, Kasumi [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Takasugi, Shinji [GeoSystem Co Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    Utilization of low-enthalpy geothermal energy in Japan, especially with the application of geothermal heat pumps, is far behind other industrial countries. In 1998, a feasibility study was made of utilizing Japan's low-enthalpy geothermal resources. Since 2001 the Geo-Heat Promotion Association of Japan (GeoHPJ) began its activities with the objective of installing 140,000 heat pump systems in private houses by the target year of 2010. The Geothermal Research Society of Japan has also launched new activities in this sector. Research groups in universities and other national institutes have started geoscientific research on the utilization of low-enthalpy resources and private, academic and governmental sectors have consequently begun promoting geothermal heat pump utilization. (author)

  1. Current Status and Perspectives of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases repor...

  2. Current status of fiber optic gyro efforts for space applications in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Shinji; Mizutani, Tadahito; Sakai, Shin-ichiro

    2016-05-01

    In response to the maturation of Fiber Optic Gyro technologies, FOGs are being used in various applications. Also in Japan, the demand for FOG is high, and is used in some space applications. In this paper, we introduce examples of Japanese products that apply to space-use. It also describes some efforts for high-grade navigation use in Japan.

  3. Introduction to the Special Issue on "State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan 2015".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumitsu, Masahiro; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2016-08-23

    This Special Issue, "State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan 2015", collected papers on different kinds of sensing technology: fundamental technology for intelligent sensors, information processing for monitoring humans, and information processing for adaptive and survivable sensor systems.[...].

  4. The current status of the blood program in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigeru TAKAMOTO

    2006-01-01

    @@ First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude for the invitation to the 4th Congress of CSBT in Hangzhou. The first blood transfusion in Japan was implemented in 1919. After this, the blood program was constructed following many twists and turns. Among them, the most striking was the attempted assassination of the American ambassador by a terrorist in 1964.

  5. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  6. Current status and problems of lung transplantation in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Lung transplantation has been performed worldwide and recognized as an effective treatment for patients with various end-stage lung diseases. Shortage of lung donors is one of the main obstacles in most of the countries, especially in Japan. Every effort has been made to promote organ donation during the past 20 years. In 2010, Japanese transplant low was revised so that the family of the brain dead donors can make a decision for organ donation. Since then, the number of cadaveric lung donor has increased by 5-fold. However, the average waiting time is still more than 800 days resulting in considerable number of deaths on the waiting list. Lung transplantation in the use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) has now been increasingly performed in Europe, Australia and North America with promising results. However, controlled death is not permitted in Japan making it difficult to accept this strategy. Use of marginal donors is one of the strategies for organ shortage. In Japan, the rate of lung usage is now well over 60% because of careful donor management by medical consultants and aggressive use of marginal donors. Living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) has been developed to offset the mismatch between supply and demand for those patients awaiting cadaveric lung transplantation (CLT) and it is often the most realistic option for very ill patients. Between 1998 and 2015, lung transplantation has been performed in 464 patients (55 children, 419 adults) at 9 lung transplant centers in Japan. CLT was performed in 283 patients (61%) and LDLLT was performed in 181 patients (39%). The 5-year survival was 72.3% and 71.6%, respectively. Of note, only seven children received CLT. In conclusion, lung transplantation in Japan has grown significantly with excellent results but the shortage of cadaveric lung donor remains to be an important unsolved problem. LDLLT is often the only realistic option for very ill patients especially for children. PMID:27651939

  7. [Stem cell research and science and technology policy in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Yoshimi

    2011-12-01

    In this paper I review the present condition of the regeneration medicine research using pluripotency and a somatic stem cell, and I describe the subject of the science and technology policy in Japan towards realization of regeneration medicine. The Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) supported research promotion by the prompt action in 2007 when establishment of the iPS cell was reported by Shinya Yamanaka. Although the hospitable support of the Japanese government to an iPS cell is continued still now, there are some problems in respect of the support to other stem cell researches, and industrialization of regeneration medicine. In order to win a place in highly competitive area of investigation, MEXT needs to change policy so that funds may be widely supplied also to stem cell researches other than iPS cell research.

  8. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  9. Thermionic fuel element technology status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. W.; Horner, M. W.; Yang, L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of research, conducted between the mid-1960s and 1973, on the multiconverter thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) that comprise the reactor core of an SP-100 thermionic reactor system are presented. Fueled-emitter technology, insulator technology and cell and TFE assembly technology of the prototypical TFEs which were tested in-pile and out-of-pile during these years are described. The proto-TFEs have demonstrated reproducible performance within 5 percent and no premature failures within the 1.5 yr of operation (with projected 3-yr lifetimes). The two primary life-limiting factors had been identified as thermionic emitter dimensional increase due to interactions with the fuel and electrical insulator structural damage from fast neutrons. Multiple options for extending TFE lifetimes to 7 yr or longer are available and will be investigated in the 1984-1985 SP-100 program for resolution of critical technology issues. Design diagrams and test graphs are included.

  10. Progress of ITER full tungsten divertor technology qualification in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezato, K., E-mail: ezato.koichiro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyma, Naka-shi, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, S.; Seki, Y.; Mohri, K.; Yokoyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyma, Naka-shi, Ibaraki (Japan); Escourbiac, F.; Hirai, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Kuznetcov, V. [NIIEFA, 3 doroga na Metallostroy, Metallostroy, St. Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • JAEA has demonstrated tungsten monoblock technology for ITER divertor that needs to withstand the repetitive heat load as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2}. This includes as follows; • Bonding technologies between W and Cu interlayer, and between Cu interlayer and CuCrZr tube. • Non-destructive examination techniques, especially, ultrasonic testing method, and. • Load carrying capability of W monoblock attachment to support structure of ITER divertor. - Abstract: Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is in progress for technology qualification toward full-tungsten (W) ITER divertor outer vertical target (OVT), especially, tungsten monoblock technology that needs to withstand the repetitive heat load as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2}. To demonstrate the armor heat sink bonding technology and heat removal capability, 6 small-scale W monoblock mock-ups manufactured by different bonding technologies using different W materials in addition to 4 full-scale prototype plasma-facing units (PFUs). After non-destructive test, the W components were tested under high heat flux (HHF) in ITER Divertor Test Facility (IDTF) at NIIEFA. Consequently, all of the W monoblocks endured the repetitive heat load at 20 MW/m{sup 2} for 1000 cycles (requirements 20 MW/m{sup 2} for 300 cycles) without any failure. In addition to the armor to heat sink joints, the load carrying capability test on the W monoblock with a leg attachment was carried out. In uniaxial tensile test, all of the W monoblock attachments with different bonding technologies such as brazing and HIPping withstand the tensile load exceeding 20 kN that is the value more than twice the design value. The failures occurred at the leg attachments or the W monoblocks, rather than the bonding interface of the W monoblocks to the leg attachment.

  11. Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  12. Public Status and Prevalence of Acupuncture in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Ishizaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture originated in China and is widespread throughout Asia. It is expected that a higher utilization of this remedy exists in these countries compared to Western countries. We conducted annual nationwide surveys from 2003 through 2006 on the utilization of acupuncture in Japan. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 2000 individuals randomly chosen from the resident database. Annual utilization percentages, based on the number of respondents, from 2003 to 2006 were 6.5%, 4.8%, 6.4%, and 6.7%, respectively, while lifetime experiences determined in each surveys were estimated as 26.7, 19.4, 24.4 and 25.4, respectively. Respondents who had utilized acupuncture and/or moxibustion tended to be older than those who had no experience. Acupuncture was mainly used for musculoskeletal symptoms, and a detailed breakdown of the musculoskeletal symptoms identified in the 2005 survey showed 50.9% for low back pain, 35.9% for shoulder stiffness and 12.0% for knee pain. Reasons given for continuing therapy included the effective amelioration of symptoms, comfort of the procedure and low number of side-effects, while those who decided against continuing cited no improvement of symptoms, cost and lack of time for treatment. In conclusion, annual utilization of acupuncture and/or moxibustion was estimated at more than 6%, and the percentage of those with a lifetime experience was ∼25%, thus demonstrating the relatively higher utilization of the remedy in Japan over utilization in western countries. Application of the treatment for musculoskeletal problems and utilization by the older population were specific standouts of the use of acupuncture and/or moxibustion in Japan.

  13. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  14. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  15. 76 FR 44503 - Availability of a Risk Analysis Evaluating the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Analysis Evaluating the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... concerning the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) status of Japan and the risk of susceptible animals and animal... animal diseases, including rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Section 94.1 of the......

  16. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  17. Lost circulation technology development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D.; Wright, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April 1991--March 1992. 8 refs.

  18. [Current Status and Future Perspectives of SCRUM-Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Atsushi; Goto, Koichi; Yoshino, Takayuki; Okamoto, Wataru; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2017-08-01

    SCRUM-Japan was launched as a nation-wide genome screening consortium for recruiting patients to 35 sponsor-/investigator- initiated registration trials in collaboration with 15 pharmaceutical companies and 240 hospitals. During the first period between February 2015 and March 2017, a total of 4,805 patients have been enrolled. Genomic profiling of each cancer were analyzed and newdrug applications of label expansion are in preparation based on the results of several registration studies including investigator-initiated trial of vandetanib for RET fusion gene positive non-small cell lung cancer. In addition, on-time clinical-genome data sharing with industries and academic institutions and prospective cohort registry for new drug evaluation as a historical control data have already initiated, which will facilitate new agent development in Japan. In the second period started from April 2017, new studies using cutting-edge liquid biopsy and immune-genome panel for precision medi- cine will start soon. These efforts are attempted towards a leading group for innovative clinical/translations researches in the world.

  19. Family Dynamics and Mental Status of Japanese Families Who Live in a Northern Prefecture of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    SEKITO, Yoshiko

    2010-01-01

    Abstract :The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of family dynamics and mental status of Japanese families who live in a northern prefecture of Yamagata, Japan. Data were collected using Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) and a questionnaire including questions about socio-demographic characteristics and mental status. Data were collected by convenience sampling from residents of community groups and care personnel. Participation was voluntary. Findings: The majority of pa...

  20. Biochemical Engineering Education in Japan - A Survey of the Status as It Is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    Summary of the survey questionnaire on biochemical engineering education in Japanese universities. The questionnaire was distributed to the academic professors whose research fields included biochemical engineering. The questionnaire was intended to sufficiently realize the present status of biochemical engineering education in Japan. (Author/SAH)

  1. Socioeconomic status and health communication inequalities in Japan: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality is one potential mechanism linking social determinants, particularly socioeconomic status, and health inequalities. This study aimed to examine how dimensions of health communication outcomes (health information seeking, self-efficacy, exposure, and trust are patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan. METHODS: Data of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2,455 people aged 15-75 years in Japan were used for secondary analysis. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, subjective health, recent health information seeking, self-efficacy in seeking health information, and exposure to and trust in health information from different media. RESULTS: A total of 1,311 participants completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 53.6%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that education and household income, but not employment, were significantly associated with health information seeking and self-efficacy. Socioeconomic status was not associated with exposure to and trust in health information from mass media, but was significantly associated with health information from healthcare providers and the Internet. CONCLUSION: Health communication outcomes were patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan thus demonstrating the prevalence of health communication inequalities. Providing customized exposure to and enhancing the quality of health information by considering social determinants may contribute to addressing social disparities in health in Japan.

  2. New stage of clean coal technology in Japan; Clean coal technology no aratana tenkai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y. [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The paper described the positioning and new development of clean coal technology. Coal is an important resource which supplies approximately 30% of the energy consumed in all the world. In the Asian/Pacific region, especially, a share of coal in energy is high, around 60% of the world, and it is indispensable to continue using coal which is abundantly reserved. Japan continues using coal as an important energy among petroleum substituting energies taking consideration of the global environment, and is making efforts for development and promotion of clean coal technology aiming at further reduction of environmental loads. Moreover, in the Asian region where petroleum depends greatly upon outside the region, it is extremely important for stabilization of Japan`s energy supply that coal producing countries in the region promote development/utilization of their coal resources. For this, it is a requirement for Japan to further a coal policy having an outlook of securing stable coal supply/demand in the Asian region. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Proton beam therapy in Japan: current and future status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hideyuki; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    The number of patients treated by proton beam therapy in Japan since 2000 has increased; in 2016, 11 proton facilities were available to treat patients. Notably, proton beam therapy is very useful for pediatric cancer; since the pediatric radiation dose to normal tissues should be reduced as much as possible because of the effect of radiation on growth, intellectual development, endocrine organ function and secondary cancer development. Hepatocellular carcinoma is common in Asia, and most of the studies of proton beam therapy for liver cancer have been reported by Japanese investigators. Proton beam therapy is also a standard treatment for nasal and paranasal lesions and lesions at the base of the skull, because the radiation dose to critical organs such as the eyes, optic nerves and central nervous system can be reduced with proton beam therapy. For prostate cancer, comparative studies that address adverse effects, safety, patient quality of life and socioeconomic issues should be performed to determine the appropriate use of proton beam therapy for prostate cancer. Regarding new proton beam therapy applications, experience with proton beam therapy combined with chemotherapy is limited, although favorable outcomes have been recently reported for locally advanced lung cancer, esophageal cancer and pancreatic cancer. Therefore, 'chemoproton' therapy appears to be a very attractive field for further clinical investigations. In conclusion, there are cost issues and considerations regarding national insurance for the use of proton beam therapy in Japan. Further studies and discussions are needed to address the use of proton beam therapy for several types of cancers, and for maintaining the quality of life of patients while retaining a high cure rate.

  4. Research on carbon dioxide miscible flooding by Technology Research Center of Japan National Oil Corporation. Current status of CO/sub 2/ flooding field application, Work honored with the 31st JAPT award

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanakadate, Tadao

    1988-03-01

    The application examples in world on carbon dioxide miscible flooding which is an enhanced oil recovery method and the outline of field pilot test in Japan which will start from fiscal 1989 were reported. In the USA, there are fifty three examples on carbon dioxide miscible flooding and thirty one examples on carbon dioxide immiscible flooding. The enhanced rates of oil recovery by carbon dioxide miscible flooding are 7 to 13 %. In Hungary, the oil reservior pressures were increased rapidly due to the carbon dioxide injection and the push by water, and the recovery rates of 24 % and more were achieved. In Turkey, carbon dioxide immiscible flooding is in a trial stage. In these countries, carbon dioxide can be provided comparatively easily owing to the existences of the carbon dioxide fields, and the advantageous conditions are utilized. In Japan, the pilot tests are carried out with main research subjects on the phase behavior of carbon dioxide-oil system, prospect for performance of carbon dioxide miscible flooding by oil reservior simulation. (10 figs, 2 tabs, 5 refs)

  5. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazujo Suzuki

    2000-01-01

    This contribution aims to introduce the situation of qualitative research in social science in Japan, with an emphasis on qualitative research in psychology. At first, the history of psychology in Japan is briefly discussed and qualitative research in the history of the Japanese psychology is described. Then trends and problems of qualitative research in present-day psychology are mentioned. Finally, qualitative research in the other social sciences are briefly touched on. URN: urn:nbn:de:...

  6. Status quo of supply technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Shigeo

    1987-09-01

    Problems for gas supply function, activity of the Gas Association, and technological development mainly of the presented subjects are reported. According to the materials released by the Gas Associattion, demands for city gas by the 21st Century is expected to be rather high with 3.6% annual growth rate. It is premissed on an assumption that the superior quality of the city gas satisfying customer requirements would be further upgraded. The problems confronted by the supply function for this purpose are the pursuit for less cost, improvement in security, and stable gas supply. The Gas Association carried out research, investigation, preparation of standards, etc., and published instructive materials such as guide for main and branch piping, guide for supply piping, technical standards for gas related works, etc. It also has been endeavoring to popularize the use of polyethylene pipies, and studying the evaluation method for the renewal and repair of gas conduits and house regulator supply system, etc. The supply function has been working on the cutting dowm of costs, inprovement in security, and developing technologies such as underground probing radar, inteligent pipe locator, identifier for gas and water supply tubes, estimation of ground subsidence, inspection of inside of pipes by a television camera, etc. (1 tab)

  7. Cooperating internationally. US/Japan Civil Industrial Technologies (CIT) Arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Civil Industrial Technologies (CIT) Arrangement was signed in July 1994 between governments of the US and Japan. Areas of research range from scientific and technical databases and bioprocessing to precompetitive processing of functionally-gradient materials and ceramics. Papers presented in this symposium include studies on thin polymer films generated by vapor deposition polymerization, development of manufacturing technique of fusing 3D C/C composite materials, measurement and analysis for high performance computing systems, low-cost fabrication of ceramic components, bioprocessing, data exchange for mass spectral databases, development of high performance aluminum nitride ceramics, precompetitive processing of functionally-gradient materials, purity determination of organic reference materials, definitive methods traceable to SI unit, development of biocompatible artificial hard tissue materials, development of photoassisted catalysis technologies, surface analysis for catalysts by electron spectroscopy, development of ultra-solid lubricant with cluster diamond, precise determination of impurities in high-purity rare-earth metals, and highly accurate acceleration measurement system. 22 refs., 86 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. [ILO conventions on occupational safety and health with reference to ratification status of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Okubo, T

    1995-07-01

    This paper grouped together recent ILO conventions relevant to occupational safety and health (OSH) in order to clarify their characteristics and form an overview. There are 13 such conventions adopted by ILO during the period 1960-1993. Each of these conventions have distinct goals to cover respective areas of OSH, which was contrasted with each other. Conventions are subject to ratification, thus the ratification status of Japan was statistically compared to that of ILO and OECD member states. As at June 1993, Japan ratified three of such conventions, which was slightly higher than the average number ratified by all ILO member states and ranked 11th among 24 OECD member states. The relative ratification status of Japan on ILO Conventions fared better with those relevant to OSH than others. ILO Conventions are inter-related by reference and note, thus ratification of basic conventions such as C. 155 (Occupational Safety and Health Convention) and C. 148 (Working Environment Convention), neither of which is ratified by Japan, should be prioritized to further promote ratification status in the OSH area.

  9. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

    2010-10-01

    Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

  10. [Pulmonary function testing in Japan: present status and new developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Naoko

    2012-09-01

    In 2004, the Japanese Respiratory Society issued an initial set of recommendations on the standardized measurement of the most frequently used tests for pulmonary function, i.e., tests to assess slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. This statement has not been updated, and the prediction equations for pulmonary function testing are not fully established. Thus, the guidelines will need to be periodically updated in accordance with new developments in this rapidly evolving field. Nitric oxide (NO) is now recognized as a biological mediator in animals and humans. The human lung produces NO and exhales it in breath. The fractional nitric oxide (NO) concentration in exhaled breath (FE(NO)) can be quantitatively measured by a simple, safe, and noninvasive procedure as a complementary tool for assessing airway inflammation in airway diseases such as asthma. While the measurement of exhaled NO is standardized for clinical use, FE(NO) measurement is not approved or covered under the public health insurance system in Japan.

  11. Status of reduced enrichment programs for research reactors in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Keiji; Nishihara, Hedeaki [Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan); Shirai, Eiji; Oyamada, Rokuro; Sanokawa, Konomo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The reduced enrichment programs for the JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the KUR of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) have been partially completed and are mostly still in progress under the Joint Study Programs with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The JMTR and JRR-2 have been already converted to use MEU aluminide fuels in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The operation of the upgraded JRR-3(JRR-3M) has started in March 1990 with the LEU aluminide fuels. Since May 1992, the two elements have been inserted in the KUR. The safety review application for the full core conversion to use LEU silicide in the JMTR was approved in February 1992 and the conversion has been done in January 1994. The Japanese Government approved a cancellation of the KUHFR Project in February 1991, and in April 1994 the U.S. Government gave an approval to utilize HEU in the KUR instead of the KUHFR. Therefore, the KUR will be operated with HEU fuel until 2001. Since March 1994, Kyoto University is continuing negotiation with UKAEA Dounreay on spent fuel reprocessing and blending down of recovered uranium, in addition to that with USDOE.

  12. A technology roadmap of assistive technologies for dementia care in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Taro; Fujinami, Tsutomu; Phaal, Robert; Ikawa, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    The number of elderly people in Japan is growing, which raises the issue of dementia, as the probability of becoming cognitively impaired increases with age. There is an increasing need for caregivers, who are well-trained, experienced and can pay special attention to the needs of people with dementia. Technology can play an important role in helping such people and their caregivers. A lack of mutual understanding between caregivers and researchers regarding the appropriate uses of assistive technologies is another problem. A vision of person-centred care based on the use of information and communication technology to maintain residents' autonomy and continuity in their lives is presented. Based on this vision, a roadmap and a list of challenges to realizing assistive technologies have been developed. The roadmap facilitates mutual understanding between caregivers and researchers, resulting in appropriate technologies to enhance the quality of life of people with dementia.

  13. [Current status on storage, processing and risk communication of medical radioactive waste in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Maehara, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Atsuko; Koizumi, Mitsue; Kimura, Yumi; Horitsugi, Genki

    2013-03-01

    Decay-in-storage for radioactive waste including that of nuclear medicine has not been implemented in Japan. Therefore, all medical radioactive waste is collected and stored at the Japan Radioisotope Association Takizawa laboratory, even if the radioactivity has already decayed out. To clarify the current situation between Takizawa village and Takizawa laboratory, we investigated the radiation management status and risk communication activities at the laboratory via a questionnaire and site visiting survey in June 2010. Takizawa laboratory continues to maintain an interactive relationship with local residents. As a result, Takizawa village permitted the acceptance of new medical radioactive waste containing Sr-89 and Y-90. However, the village did not accept any non-medical radioactive waste such as waste from research laboratories. To implement decay-in-storage in Japan, it is important to obtain agreement with all stakeholders. We must continue to exert sincere efforts to acquire the trust of all stakeholders.

  14. National Registry of Designated Intractable Diseases in Japan: Present Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    KANATANI, Yasuhiro; TOMITA, Naoko; SATO, Yoko; ETO, Akiko; OMOE, Hiroe; MIZUSHIMA, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Japan promotes research related to intractable diseases and financially supports patients with these diseases. Intractable diseases are designated as those that fulfill the following criteria: (1) rarity (affecting less than 0.1% of the population in Japan), (2) unknown etiology, (3) lack of effective treatment, (4) necessity of long-term treatment, and (5) existence of objective diagnostic criteria and not necessarily equal to rare diseases in other countries. The construction of a national database is required to promote research to clarify the pathogenesis of these diseases and to develop pharmaceutical products and medical devices. The Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare launched an online registration system in 2001, but many problems associated with gathering and utilizing information on patients with intractable diseases remain. In this paper, we describe the present status of the national registry of designated intractable diseases in Japan and discuss future prospects. PMID:27666154

  15. Present status and future perspectives of research and test reactor in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko [Atomic Energy Research Laboratory, Musashi Institute of Technology, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Kaieda, Keisuke [Department of Research Reactor, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Since 1957, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has constructed several research and test reactors to fulfill a major role in the study of nuclear energy and fundamental research. At present four reactors, the Japan Research Reactor No. 3 and No. 4 (JRR-3M and JRR-4 respectively), the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) are in operation, and a new High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has recently reached first criticality and now in the power up test. In 1966, the Kyoto University built the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and started its operation for joint use program of the Japanese universities. This paper introduces these reactors and describes their present operational status and also efforts for aging management. The recent tendency of utilization and future perspectives is also reported. (author)

  16. Technological status of organic photovoltaics (OPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a technological status of organic and polymer photovoltaics (OPV) for both single and tandem junctions. We list the current state-of-the-art at the laboratory level for very small rigid and mostly vacuum processed devices to larger area flexible and printed devices. In comparison...

  17. Status and assessment of photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, L. L.

    The history and status of the current photovoltaic technologies are reviewed and evaluated. The problems and strengths of single-crystal, polycrystalline, and amorphous technologies are discussed, compared, and assessed. Single-junction and multiple-junction or tandem cell configurations are evaluated for performance, processing, and engineering criteria. Some emphasis is placed on the emerging thin film options for low cost terrestrial applications. The basic photovoltaic system building block, the solar cell, is discussed along with important module developments and problems. Future technology and research directions are provided for materials, cells, and modules.

  18. Status and assessment of photovoltaic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The history and status of the current photovoltaic technologies are reviewed and evaluated. The problems and strengths of single-crystal, polycrystalline, and amorphous technologies are discussed, compared and assessed. Single-junction and multiple-junction or tandem cell configurations are evaluated for performance, processing, and engineering criteria. Some emphasis is placed on the emerging thin film options for low cost terrestrial applications. Discussions centre around the basic photovoltaic system building block, the solar cell, but important module developments and problems are cited. Future technology and research directions are provided for materials, cells, and modules. (author).

  19. Nutritional status of patients with phenylketonuria in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Okano

    2016-09-01

    continuously with age and environment in PKU patients. We recommend the addition of selenium and biotin to Phe-free milk in Japan and the need to review the composition of microelements and vitamins in A-1 and MP-11 preparations.

  20. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Japan. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing bus...

  1. Status of Animal Experiments on International Space Station, and Animal Care Activities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Ryutaro; Ishioka, Noriaki; Yumoto, Akane; Ito, Isao; Shirakawa, Masaki

    We would like to introduce animal experiments status on International Space Station (ISS) of Japan. Aquatic Habitat (AQH) was launched at 2012 July, by H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV, ‘Kounotori’) from Tanegashima island in Japan, which could house small fish (Medaka, or Zebrafish) at most three months. First experiment using AQH was carried out for two months from Oct. 26, 2012, and second experiment would start from February, 2014. Mice housing hardware is now under development. For animal care activities, current topic in Japan is self-estimation for animal experiment status by each institute, and to open the result for public. JAXA conducted self-estimation of fiscal year 2011 (from 2011 April until 2012 March) for the first time, and would continue every fiscal year. JAXA already have its own animal care regulation, under animal care law and policy in Japan, and also referred COSPAR animal care guideline. And this year, JAXA made handbook for animal experiments in space (only Japanese).

  2. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, Simon P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Bett, Andreas W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the status of the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) market and industry as well as current trends in research and technology. This report is intended to guide research agendas for Fraunhofer ISE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and other R&D organizations. Version 1.1 of this report includes recent progress in CPV. The recent record module efficiency of 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve.

  3. Community-level socioeconomic status and parental smoking in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kenji; Aida, Jun; Morita, Manabu; Ando, Yuichi; Osaka, Ken

    2012-08-01

    Community-level social environment has been considered to be associated with smoking behavior. However, no study has examined the association between community-level environmental factors and parental smoking behavior in families with young children. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and parental smoking behavior. We used data from a cross-sectional study conducted from 2005 to 2006. We randomly selected 44 Japanese municipalities, 39 of which municipalities agreed to participate in this survey. The study subjects were participants in health check-ups for three-year-old children. Smoking status and individual demographic characteristics were obtained using self-administered questionnaires. Community-level variables were obtained from national census data for 2005. The prevalence of employment in tertiary industries and of unemployment was used to measure community-level SES. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) for smoking. Of 4143 subjects, a total of 3301 parents in 39 municipalities participated in our survey. Among the 2975 participants (71.8%) included in our analysis, 59.0% were smokers. There was no association between the job of the head of the household considered as an indicator of individual-level SES and smoking. By contrast, when we examined the relationship between prevalence of employment in tertiary industries as community-level SES and smoking, parents living in low middle SES municipalities had a significantly higher prevalence ratio for smoking, compared to parents living in the highest SES municipalities. This result suggested that those with lower community-level SES tended to have a higher prevalence of parental smoking regardless of individual-level SES. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Status of space science and technology - An Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, J. H.

    The ``Tyranny of Distance'' has had a profound influence on Australian history and reaction to it has been an important factor in determining national scientific and technological goals. Because of its size and geographical remoteness, Australia is one of the countries to have gained substantially from the applications of space technology particularly in the fields of communications, meteorology and remote sensing. Australia is the fifth largest investor in INTELSAT which carries a major fraction of the nation's overseas telecommunications. A domestic satellite system, AUSSAT, is being acquired to improve telecommunications within the country. Australia is heavily dependent on satellite data for routine meteorological forecasting. Data from the Australian Landsat Station are in strong demand, particularly for mineral exploration. In the field of space science, Australia is collaborating with Canada and the United States in feasibility studies for STARLAB, a free-flying UV-optical one metre telescope proposed for launch by the US Space Shuttle beginning in 1989. These scientific and technological programs in which Australia is participating are all dependent upon the space programs of other nations and in describing the status of space science and technology from an Australian perspective some comments will be made on particular aspects of the space programs of the United States and Japan.

  5. University of Michigan Japan Technology Management Prgm U.S.-Japan Industry and Technology Management Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Involvement in Automotive Component Design: Are there really large US/Japan differences?," Research Policy , Vol. 25: 59-89, 1996. David T. Meth6, "Living...Japan differences’?," to appear in Research Policy . Jeffrey K. Liker, Durward Sobek, Allan C. Ward, and John Cristiano, "Involving Suppliers in Product

  6. Nationwide survey for current clinical status of amniocentesis and maternal serum marker test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hidehiko; Yamada, Shigehito; Fujii, Yosuke; Sawai, Hideaki; Arimori, Naoko; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Ozasa, Yuka; Kanai, Makoto; Sago, Haruhiko; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Takada, Fumio; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Matsubara, Yoichi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Kugu, Koji

    2016-10-01

    Prenatal testing has been provided in Japan over the past several decades. However, it is difficult to assess the clinical status of amniocentesis (AC) and maternal serum markers (MSM) because obstetricians can perform these tests without registration. This study aims to investigate the current clinical status of AC and MSM in Japan. We conducted a questionnaire study that was intended for a total of 5622 Japanese obstetrics/gynecology facilities during October 2013 to January 2014. The response rate was 40.8% (2295/5622). Of the 2295 facilities, 864 performed MSM (37.7%), 619 performed AC (27.0%) and 412 performed both (18.0%). The average number of MSM tests was 2.0 per month (range 0-52), and the average number of AC tests was 2.4 per month (range 0-30). Involvement of genetic professionals, such as clinical geneticists (CGs) and certified genetic counselors (CGCs), contribute to a content-rich explanation and management of difficult issues and lengthened the explanation time. Nevertheless, relatively few facilities employed these specialists (MSM: 96/864 and AC: 128/619). This is the first study to highlight the current clinical status of AC and MSM tests in Japan. Active involvement of CGs and CGCs can provide more appropriate genetic counseling for prenatal tests.

  7. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kazujo

    2000-01-01

    Mit diesem Beitrag wird das Ziel verfolgt, einen ersten Überblick über die Lage der qualitativen Forschung in den Sozialwissenschaften in Japan zu geben. Dabei werden u.a. folgende Themenbereiche fokussiert: Qualitativ-psychologische Forschung (auch unter einer historischen Perspektive), das japanische Verständnis von Sozialwissenschaften, verwendete qualitative Verfahren, sowie die aktuelle Situation der qualitativen Forschung in der Psychologie und in anderen Sozial- und Humanwissenschaften...

  8. Medical technology in Japan the politics of regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Altenstetter, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Compared to its American and European counterparts, Japan lags in adopting innovative medical devices and making new treatments and procedures available. Christa Altenstetter examines the contextual conditions of Japan's medical profession and its regulatory framework. Altenstetter looks into how physicians and device companies connect to the government and bureaucracy, the relationships connecting Japanese patients to their medical system and governmental bureaucracy, and how relationships between policymakers and the medical profession are changing.

  9. The status of fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, J.B.

    1991-02-20

    This brief status report provides an introduction to what fuel cells are, why they are important, what uses have been made of them to date, the goals and timetables of current programs, and who the players are in this vital technology. Copies of most of the slides presented and additional diagrams are appended to this paper. Further details can be obtained from the comprehensive texts cited in the bibliography. 11 refs., 44 figs.

  10. Japan sharpens its waste processing technologies; Le Japon affute ses technologies de traitement des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantelet, J.

    2000-09-01

    With the inevitable saturation of rubbish tips in Japan, the mastery of waste processing techniques has become a priority for the government. The law about plastics recycling was enforced in April 2000 and the new standard about dioxins emission has led the industrialists of this sector to develop new technologies. This paper gives an overview of the recent advances in this domain: recycling of packaging materials (liquefaction, gasification, liquefaction, use as fuel substitutes), recycling of biological wastes (dehydration, food processing, methane production), control of dioxins emission from incinerators (treatment of smokes and ashes). (J.S.)

  11. Current Status of Doping in Japan Based on Japan Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panels of the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA): A Suggestion on Anti-Doping Activities by Pharmacists in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Takashi; Kawabata, Takayoshi; Takayama, Akira

    2017-01-01

     In 2009, the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) established the "Sports Pharmacist Accreditation Program" to prevent doping in sports. Since then, anti-doping activities in Japan have been attracting attention. In this study, we investigated research about the current status of doping from 2007 to 2014 in Japan to make anti-doping activities more concrete, and we also discussed future anti-doping activities by pharmacists. In Japan, bodybuilding was the sporting event with the highest number and rate of doping from 2007 to 2014. Many of the positive doping cases were detected for class S1 (anabolic agents), S5 (diuretics and masking agents), and S6 (stimulants). Within class S1, supplements were the main cause of positive doping. Within class S5, medicines prescribed by medical doctors were the main cause of positive doping. Within class S6, non-prescription medicines (e.g., OTC) were the main cause of positive doping. When we looked at the global statistics on doping, many of the positive doping cases were detected for class S1. On comparing the Japanese statistics with the global statistics, the rate of positive doping caused by class S1 was significantly lower, but that caused by classes S5 and S6 was significantly higher in Japan than in the world. In conclusion, pharmacists in Japan should pay attention to class S1, S5, and S6 prohibited substances and to the sport events of bodybuilding. Based on this study, sports pharmacists as well as common pharmacists should suggest new anti-doping activities to prevent doping in the future.

  12. The age of alternative energies: the current status of new energy technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines Japan's Sunshine Project and presents the current status of the principal research and development programs involved. These are as follows: 1) solar energy (solar photovoltaic power generation, solar energy systems for industrial use); 2) geothermal energy (technology for geothermal exploration and excavation, hydrothermal power generation, discovery of high-temperature rock); 3) coal energy (coal liquefaction and gasification technology); 4) hydrogen energy (technology for production, transport, storage and utilization of hydrogen); 5) others (wind power and ocean thermal power generation). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Endangered vascular plants in Japan--present status and a proposal for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus.

  14. Report on the present status of scientific and engineering accelerators in Japan (I)

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    For the purpose to know the present status of possible joint researches in use of accelerators in Japan, the Specialist Committee of Quantum Beam conducted a questionnaire to 69 organizations, of which 54 answered. The organizations have 97 accelerator facilities, which had 108 machines for research and educational purpose, and 7 for medical use. Of 97 facilities, 86 are found open for joint and cooperative researches. Based on the questionnaire results, following discussions are made: Definition and classification of quantum beam; Positioning of accelerators for research purpose among all machines in Japan (Increase of accelerator usage, economical scale and social contribution); Usage form of accelerators for research purpose (sort of accelerators, sort of secondary ions like neutron, synchrotron radiation, positron, radioisotope beam, muon and neutrino, high current accelerator for fusion, measurement and analyses, new elements, PET and gamma-ray); and The questionnaire results of the accelerators for rese...

  15. The health care system for female workers and its current status in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, M; Kagawa, J

    2000-11-01

    In this paper we describe female workers' health care, the women's and maternal protection system within the Japanese legal system, the current status of female workers in Japan, and problems regarding methods of advancing health care and the women's or maternal protection system. Motherhood is respected in the workplace in Japan, and in order to provide an environment in which women can work and still bear and rear children with a sense of security, laws concerning maternal protection of female workers, and revisions in terms of the system have been made, and a new system has been in effect since the fiscal year of 1998. Nevertheless, gender discrimination against women and the disparagement of women, rooted in gender role stereotypes concerning the division of labor, remain firmly planted in the social environment and in long-established custom.

  16. Prospects for new technology of meat processing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ryoichi

    2010-09-01

    This review starts by introducing the history and underlying culture of meat production and consumption in Japan since early times, and the effects of social change on these parameters. Meat processing in Japan is described, and certain other related papers are also introduced. Automatic machines for meat cutting have been developed by the Japanese food industry and are currently being used throughout the world, particularly in Europe. Soft meat products specially produced for the elderly, along with diet meat products low in salt and calorie content for middle aged persons have recently gone into production. The intensification of color formation of meat using naturally occurring materials, and tenderization of sausage casing are discussed.

  17. Trends and current status of general thoracic surgery in Japan revealed by review of nationwide databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Meinoshin

    2016-08-01

    Nationwide databases of cases treated for thoracic disease have been established by several academic associations in Japan, which contain information showing trends and current status in regard to surgical treatment. The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS), Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS), Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS), Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy (JSRE) have maintained databases of lung cancer cases treated in Japan. In 1986, the number of general thoracic surgery cases was 15,544, which increased to 75,306 in 2013. Furthermore, the number of lung cancer operations performed in 2013 was 37,008, occupying 49.1% of all general thoracic operations. Also, the proportions of adenocarcinoma, female patients, aged patients, stage I disease, and limited resection procedures are increasing in lung cancer surgery cases. While the 5-year overall post-operative survival rate of lung cancer patients was 47.8% in those undergoing surgery in 1989, it was 69.6% in those of 2004, which means 22% increase during 15 years. JATS, JACS, and the Japanese Association for Research of the Thymus (JART) have maintained retrospective databases of thymic epithelial tumor cases. The number of mediastinal tumors surgically treated is also increasing and was 4,780 in 2013, among which thymoma was the most prevalent. The Japanese Association for Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation has developed a prospective nationwide database of lung transplantation cases in Japan, which contains clinical data for 466 patients who received lung transplantation or heart-lung transplantation from 1998 to 2015. Nationwide databases are currently being utilized for clinical studies and will also contribute to international projects related to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification system.

  18. Self-regulation of recombinant DNA technology in Japan in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroyuki; Nukaga, Yoshio; Saeki, Koji; Akabayashi, Akira

    2009-07-01

    Recombinant DNA technology was developed in the United States in the early 1970s. Leading scientists held an international Asilomar Conference in 1975 to examine the self regulation of recombinant DNA technology, followed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health drafting the Recombinant DNA Research Guidelines in 1976. The result of this conference significantly affected many nations, including Japan. However, there have been few historical studies on the self-regulation of recombinant technologies conducted by scientists and government officials in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the Science Council of Japan, the Ministry of Education, Science adn Culture, and the Science and Technology Agency developed self-regulation policies for recombinant DNA technology in Japan in the 1970s. Groups of molecular biologist and geneticists played a key role in establishing guidelines in cooperation with government officials. Our findings suggest that self-regulation policies on recombinant DNA technology have influenced safety management for the life sciences and establishment of institutions for review in Japan.

  19. JPRS Report, Science and Technology Japan, 18th FRP Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    user part ( ISUP ) for line switching, and X.75 interface for packet switching. It is expected that Japan will adopt these interfaces. terminal ISD...terminal-to-terminal transfers will become possible in 1990 when the No 7 ISUP signal mode is introduced for communications between international terminal

  20. Science and Technology in Japan -- A Brief Analytic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    on fermentation processes to produce such foods and beverages as sake, soy sauce, and soy paste. This is perhaps the major reason the Japanese...Professor M. Gato , built Japan’s first relay computers, and Fujitsu, which cooperated on the ETL project, produced the first commercial relay computer, the

  1. A mainstay of functional food science in Japan--history, present status, and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S; Osawa, T; Ohigashi, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kaminogawa, S; Watanabe, M; Ogawa, T; Okubo, K; Watanabe, S; Nishino, H; Shinohara, K; Esashi, T; Hirahara, T

    2001-01-01

    The development of food science in the near future probably depends on the advance in functional food science, the concept of which was proposed first in Japan nearly 15 years ago. The new science has been internationally distributed and accepted as conceptually being beyond nutrition. In Japan, however, it traced a unique path of progress in the form of a product-driven rather than concept-driven science. Actually, a number of substances and products with potential for disease risk reduction rather than simply for health maintenance have been investigated for their body-modulating functions. Some of them have been applied in practice to the industrialization of functional foods in terms of "foods for specified health uses" legally defined by new legislation. A variety of sophisticated methods have been introduced as well, including the so-called "XYZ" evaluation system, database construction for assessment of the function, and even the DNA microarray technique. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) also commenced their scientific as well as political activity, with its spread to industries which almost simultaneously began to vigorously investigate functional food products for enlargement of the food market. With all of this as a background, the Japan Liaison of the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) hold a function food science symposium on behalf of related scientific bodies including the Japan Section of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI). This paper is an overview compiled from 12 presentations made in the symposium, with the aim of internationally publicizing the activity of functional food science in Japan.

  2. METC Clean Coal Technology status -- 1995 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, L.K.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is assisting the private sector by funding demonstration programs to validate that CCT technologies are a low-risk, environmentally attractive, cost-competitive option for utility and industrial users. Since 1987, DOE has awarded 45 CCT projects worth a total value of $7 billion (including more than $2.3 billion of DOE funding). Within the CCT Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is responsible for 17 advanced power generation systems and major industrial applications. METC is an active partner in advancement of these technologies via direct CCT funding and via close cooperation and coordination of internal and external research and development activities. By their nature, METC projects are typically 6-10 years in duration and, in some cases, very complex in nature. However, as a result of strong commercial partnerships, progress in the development and commercialization of major utility and industrial projects has, and will continue to occur. It is believed that advanced power generation systems and industrial applications are on the brink of commercial deployment. A status of METC CCT activities will be presented. Two projects have completed their operational phase, operations are underway at one project (two others are in the latter stages of construction/shakedown), four projects are in construction, six restructured. Also, present a snapshot of development activities that are an integral part of the advancement of these CCT initiatives will be presented.

  3. Present status of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genka, Tsuguo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Asia Cooperation Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In Japan most of the demand of {sup 99m}Tc is relying on fission produced {sup 99}Mo imported from overseas. The (n, {gamma}) {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator is not in the state of practical use but research and development are going on. Since 1995, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Kaken Co. Ltd. have been collaborating to develop the Mo adsorbent material of poly zirconium compound (PZC) fit for so called (n, {gamma}) method. In 2000 the Kaken and the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) of Indonesia has facilitated to promote the technology of PZC based {sup 99m}Tc generator under the joint research agreement. Along with the cooperative experiments between two bodies, very promising results are coming out. Some of these results will be disclosed in the present workshop. (author)

  4. US/Japan workshop on mitigation and adaptation technologies related to global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernthal, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    It is a great pleasure for me to have the honor of delivering the keynote address for this important gathering, an honor enhanced further because of the many activities and historic relationships represented by this workshop. First of all, it represents the spirit of continuing cooperation and good relations between the United States and Japan. With the aid of the framework provided by the U.S./Japan Science and Technology Agreement, our two nations can come together to address a problem that has no national boundaries {hor_ellipsis} and we can think about solutions of potential benefit to all citizens of the global community. This workshop also symbolizes the spirit of cooperation so characteristic of the conduct of research in science and technology -- cooperation between us as individual scientists and engineers, between the various institutions we represent, and across our diverse disciplines. This workshop is only the second of its kind. The first US/Japan Workshop on global climate change was held last year in Japan. That workshop focused on cooperative scientific research in the United States and Japan. Out of it came a general agreement to continue collaborative work and to extend cooperation into the area of global change-related technologies, in particular those technologies that hold promise for mitigation and adaptation.

  5. Health status of male preparatory school students lodging at a dormitory in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, I; Kido, T; Suwazono, Y; Kobayashi, E; Kinouchi, N; Nogawa, K

    1999-04-01

    An investigation on the health status of 79 male preparatory school students lodging at a dormitory in Japan was carried out by questionnaire on lifestyles, subjective symptoms and mental status, as compared with two control groups: 73 medical students and 36 new employees. About 83 % of them slept less than 6 hours and 70 % of them did not exercise. Many students are troubled with back pain or lumbago(47%), sensation of incomplete bladder emptying(l6%), loss of visual acuity(55%) and eye fatigue(65%). Self-rating depression scale score of preparatory school students was not significantly higher than those of the control groups. The lifestyles of preparatory school students found to be very restricted and strained. However, no significant differences on mental adverse health effects was found among three groups.

  6. The current status and problems confronted in delivering precision medicine in Japan and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hideaki

    Precision medicine has been defined as "a predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory health care service delivery model." Today, developments in next-generation sequencing and information technology have made precision medicine possible, with massive amounts of genetic, "omics," clinical, environmental, and lifestyle data now available. Unfortunately, differences in governmental support and health care regulations have resulted in heterogeneous progress among countries. In Japan, for example, precision cancer screening and treatments are increasingly being promoted, with collaboration among research, governmental, and pharmaceutical agencies taking place in the nationwide SCRUM-Japan cancer genome screening project. The missions of SCRUM-Japan are to deliver the most appropriate therapeutic agents to the most suitable patients, and to play key roles in the development of multiplex diagnostic products and new indications for targeted therapy. Starting in February 2015 and ending in March 2017, the aim is to enroll 4750 patients with cancer (2350 patients with lung cancer and 2400 patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer). Compared with other developed countries, investments in scientific innovation for biomedical and omics research are matched or even surpassed in Europe, but regulatory differences in each countries are a major hurdle to rapid implementation. Although market approval for pharmaceuticals is centralized through the European Medicines Agency, access to health care is heterogeneously regulated at national levels, which undermines the consistency, comparability, and quality of precision medicine for cancer patients in Europe. In this review, we focus on the current progress of precision medicine in Japan and Europe, and clarify the differences in progress and the hurdles faced moving forward. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of teaching intensity and academic status on medical resource utilization by teaching hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2012-11-01

    Teaching hospitals require excess medical resources to maintain high-quality care and medical education. To evaluate the appropriateness of such surplus costs, we examined the impact of teaching intensity defined as activities for postgraduate training, and academic status as functions of medical research and undergraduate teaching on medical resource utilization. Administrative data for 47,397 discharges from 40 academic and 12 non-academic teaching hospitals in Japan were collected. Hospitals were classified into three groups according to intern/resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio. Resource utilization of medical services was estimated using fee-for-service charge schedules and normalized with case mix grouping. 15-24% more resource utilization for laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications were observed in hospitals with higher IRB ratios. With multivariate adjustment for case mix and academic status, higher IRB ratios were associated with 10-15% more use of radiological imaging, injections, and medications; up to 5% shorter hospital stays; and not with total resource utilization. Conversely, academic status was associated with 21-33% more laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications; 13% longer hospital stays; and 10% more total resource utilization. While differences in medical resource utilization by teaching intensity may not be associated with indirect educational costs, those by academic status may be. Therefore, academic hospitals may need efficiency improvement and financial compensation.

  8. Transforming healthcare with information technology in Japan: a review of policy, people, and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Chon; Nishihara, Eitaro; Akiyama, Miki

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare reform as part of the economic recovery plan in Japan is placing emphasis on the use of healthcare information technology (HIT). This research mainly focuses on the HIT efforts in Japan with reference to the US for context. The purpose is to: (a) provide detail on governmental policy impacting promotion of HIT adoption to provide services to the people of Japan, (b) describe the outcomes of past and present policy impacting progress based on a case study of HIT use in the Kyoto Yamashina area, and (c) discuss issues for refinement of current policy. The method is case study, and data collection techniques include: (a) interviews of people involved in policy making for HIT in Japan (Japanese healthcare professionals, government officials, and academics involved in HIT research in Japan) and use in the medical community of HIT in the Kyoto Yamashina area, (b) archived document analysis of reports regarding government policy for HIT policy and user assessment for HIT mainly in the case study site, and (c) the literature review about HIT progression and effectiveness assessments to explore and describe issues concerning the transformation with HIT in Japan. This study reveals the aspects of governmental policy that have been effective in promoting successful HIT initiatives as well as some that have been detriments in Japan to help solve pressing social issues regarding healthcare delivery. For example, Japan has stipulated some standardized protocols and formats for HIT but does not mandate exactly how to engage in inter-organizational or intra-organizational health information exchange. This provides some desired autonomy for healthcare organizations and or governments in medical communities and allows for more advanced organizations to leverage current resources while providing a basis for lesser equipped organizations to use in planning the initiative. The insights gained from the Kyoto Yamashina area initiative reflect the success of past governmental

  9. Marital status and mortality among Japanese men and women: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ai; Iso, Hiroyasu; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Inaba, Yutaka; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2007-05-07

    Several studies have indicated a significant association between marital status and mortality risks. However, most of these studies have compared married and unmarried people without differentiating among single, divorced and widowed status. Moreover, gender differences in mortality rates associated with marital status have not been sufficiently clarified. With significant increases in the percentages of divorced and widowed people and a corresponding drop in the marriage rate in Japan during the past two or three decades, it can be expected that these changes will have a significant impact on mortality rates. This investigation used a prospective study of a total of 94,062 Japanese men and women aged 40-79 who completed self-administered questionnaires at baseline and during a followed-up of 9.9-years. Compared with married men, never-married men showed higher risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease [relative risk (RR) = 3.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.03-4.60], respiratory disease (RR = 2.43, 95%CI 1.27-4.63), external causes (RR = 2.18, 95%CI 1.05-4.54) and all causes (RR = 1.91, 95%CI 1.51-2.42) after adjustment for potentially confounding variables. For never-married women, there was a smaller but significantly higher risk of mortality from all causes (RR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.15-1.84). Divorced and widowed men showed moderately higher risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease, external causes and all causes compared with married men, but such a trend was not observed in women. Single status was associated with a higher risk of mortality than was married status for both men and women. Divorce and widowhood were associated with elevated risk for men, but not for women. These findings suggest single, divorce and widowhood status constitute potentially adverse health effects.

  10. Marital status and mortality among Japanese men and women: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura Takesumi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have indicated a significant association between marital status and mortality risks. However, most of these studies have compared married and unmarried people without differentiating among single, divorced and widowed status. Moreover, gender differences in mortality rates associated with marital status have not been sufficiently clarified. With significant increases in the percentages of divorced and widowed people and a corresponding drop in the marriage rate in Japan during the past two or three decades, it can be expected that these changes will have a significant impact on mortality rates. Methods This investigation used a prospective study of a total of 94,062 Japanese men and women aged 40–79 who completed self-administered questionnaires at baseline and during a followed-up of 9.9-years. Results Compared with married men, never-married men showed higher risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease [relative risk (RR = 3.05, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.03–4.60], respiratory disease (RR = 2.43, 95%CI 1.27–4.63, external causes (RR = 2.18, 95%CI 1.05–4.54 and all causes (RR = 1.91, 95%CI 1.51–2.42 after adjustment for potentially confounding variables. For never-married women, there was a smaller but significantly higher risk of mortality from all causes (RR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.15–1.84. Divorced and widowed men showed moderately higher risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease, external causes and all causes compared with married men, but such a trend was not observed in women. Conclusion Single status was associated with a higher risk of mortality than was married status for both men and women. Divorce and widowhood were associated with elevated risk for men, but not for women. These findings suggest single, divorce and widowhood status constitute potentially adverse health effects.

  11. The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Script Policy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2009-01-01

    Information and communication technology appears to have had a profound impact on language use in Japan. An important issue arising from this is said to be the increase in the use of Chinese characters (kanji) outside the official standard. This development has made a re-appraisal of the existing script policy necessary in order to accommodate the…

  12. Planetary Protection Technology Definition Team: Tasks, Status, and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Rummel, J. D.

    2016-10-01

    A Planetary Protection and Technology Definition Team will assess challenges to meeting planetary protection requirements to instruments and will suggest technological solutions. Status and initial findings will be reported.

  13. Decomposition analysis of green chemical technology inventions from 1971 to 2010 in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Shirakawa, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Green chemistry plays an important role in achieving sustainable development. This study examines the determinant factors for technology invention related to green chemistry in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. Our main findings are that the number of green chemical technologies applied to production processes have increased because of the scale-up of overall research activities and increased priority. Additionally, the number of patent applications f...

  14. Status of Renewable Energy in Europe, U.S., and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathom Attaviriyanupap

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As a countermeasure to reduce CO2 emission and secure energy supply, usage of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy is supported by government bodies around the world. Although, renewable energy contributes to CO2 reduction and energy security, there are concerns about the potential negative impacts on power system operation because of the existing electric power system is not ready for a significant deployment of renewable energy sources, particularly wind and photovoltaic power generation which their outputs are varied with the weather condition. In this paper, the author summarizes current status and projection of wind and photovoltaic power generation in Europe, U.S. and Japan. Possible impacts of large penetration of these intermittent energy sources on power system operation are also addressed.

  15. R & D Activities and the Technology Game: A Dynamic Model of U.S.-JapanCompetition

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuzo Sato

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an international comparison of R&D activities in basic and applied research. The commonly-held view that Japan is not spending much on basic technology development cannot be empirically substantiated from the study of the historical trends. However, the fact that in the U.S.A. the largest proportion of industrial R&D expenditures is spent on the defense and aero-space related industries (60%) ,while Japan is spending the largest proportion (60%) on the chemical, electronic...

  16. Japan acts to speed technology transfer from universities

    CERN Multimedia

    Saegusa, A

    1999-01-01

    A Japanese law will take effect in the autumn to promote technology transfer from universities and laboratories. The new measures aim to encourage collaborations with the commercial sector and allow industrial research partners to retain title to inventions (1 page).

  17. Parental Smoking and Smoking Status of Japanese Dental Hygiene Students: A Pilot Survey at a Dental Hygiene School in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Naito; Koichi Miyaki; Mariko Naito; Masahiro Yoneda; Takao Hirofuji; Nao Suzuki; Takeo Nakayama

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of smoking and to explore factors associated with the smoking habits of female students at a dental hygiene school in Japan. Questionnaires regarding cigarette smoking were given to 168 female students. The response rate was 97.6%. The prevalence of smoking, including current and occasional smokers, was 20.3%. Among family members, only the smoking status of their mother significantly influenced the smoking status of the students. The odds ratio for...

  18. Technology and Thematic Units: An Elementary Example on Japan (Technology Links to Literacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepner, Shelley B.

    1993-01-01

    Uses a thematic unit on Japan to show how software can become an additional resource for elementary students' literacy learning in social studies, science, language arts, and art. Notes that the five-week unit addresses Japan's culture and customs. (RS)

  19. Salinity status of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami affected agricultural lands in northeast Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingshuk Roy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As Japan has abundant annual rainfall (1,000 to 2,500 mm, soil salinity of agricultural lands has rarely been a major problem. Following the 2011 earthquake in the Pacific, large stretches of land along the coast in northeast Japan were devastated by a powerful tsunami. Saltwater damage of agricultural lands was so severe that agricultural crops could not be grown on large parts of the tsunami-inundated farmlands even two years after the disaster. This paper summarizes the status of agricultural lands in northeast Japan's Tohoku region that were affected by the tsunami. The paper presents the results of a field study of agricultural lands in Miyagi Prefecture, where the extent of the seawater damage was the most severe, representing 67% of the total tsunami-affected agricultural lands. Forty samples from surface and underlying (undisturbed soil were collected from 30 different locations in coastal and tsunami-inundated farmlands and from inland sites located beyond the limit of the tsunami inundation. The analyses and measurements showed that the extent of soil salinity varied greatly across these sites, with the highest electrical conductivity (EC value of 3.72 dS m−1 found in the surface soil of Minamisanriku cho. In addition, two study sites adjacent to each other, Watari cho and Yamamoto cho, had maximum and minimum EC values of 2.0 dS m−1 and 0.21 dS m−1, respectively, in their underlying soils. A comparison of the major soil properties revealed that the salinity status of the tsunami-inundated farmlands was dependent on particle size distribution and therefore on the infiltration rate of the soil, as well as the relative physical position (elevation of the farmland. This study led us to carry out further investigations and experiments (still on-going related to restoration and mitigation work in the tsunami-inundated agricultural lands, giving the highest priority to the major soil properties of different field sites in Miyagi

  20. Teaching Mathematics to Electrical Engineering Students by Electrical Engineering Staff in College of Technology in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Fujimoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical engineering staff (reorganized to Electrical and Computer engineering in 2004 has taught electrical engineering students for mathematics classes in Wakayama National College of Technology (WNCT in Japan from 2007. Effects of the mathematics classes by the electrical engineering staff were evaluated by using the results of the mathematics placement tests. The results of the tests are compared with averages of other National Colleges of Technology in Japan and other divisions of WNCT. As a result, an ability of electrical engineering students for mathematics improved dramatically with increasing the ratio of mathematics classes by the electrical engineering staff. It should seem that these good results were achieved by eagerness and strong motivation of the staff with electrical specialty for improving the ability of their division's students. The reasons for the improvement are discussed and the unique class of mathematics for college of technology is also introduced.

  1. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  2. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  3. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  4. Current status of the medical expenses for the treatment of arteriosclerosis obliterans in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaji, T; Takayama, T; Endo, A; Akai, A; Kudo, M; Kagaya, H; Suzuki, J; Hashimoto, T; Hoshina, K; Kimura, H; Okamoto, H; Shigematsu, K; Miyata, T

    2010-04-01

    We aimed to determine the current status of the medical expenses for the treatment of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) and evaluate the cost effectiveness of the medical practices employed in ASO treatment in Japan. We performed a prospective observational study using 140 ASO patients. The cost of the medical practices comprised the costs of outpatient treatment, pharmacological agents, and hospitalization. To compare the average monthly costs, the patients were divided into preintervention, postintervention, or conservative-therapy groups. To compare the total costs and effectiveness of each treatment, the patients who had first visited our division during the study period were classified into surgery, endovascular-revascularization (EVR), or conservative-therapy groups. The adverse reactions of the 4 most popular agents for ASO were investigated, and bleeding events were assessed specifically. The average monthly costs for outpatient treatment and pharmacological agents were yen 168,002 in conservative cases, yen 149,871 in preoperation cases, and yen 128,527 in postoperation cases. The mean total costs were yen 5,407,950 in conservative cases, yen 7,375,290 in surgical cases, and yen 2,631,650 in EVR cases. The average change of the gauge in clinical status was 0.57 in conservative cases, 2.13 in surgical cases, and 2.25 in EVR cases. Warfarin induced more bleeding complications than the other agents. The costs of pharmacological agents represented much of the medical costs in any treatment groups.

  5. Impact of gender-based career obstacles on the working status of women physicians in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kyoko; Gohchi, Kengo

    2012-11-01

    Research has shown that women physicians work fewer hours and are more likely to become inactive professionally and to switch to part-time labor, compared with their male counterparts. The published literature suggests that a gender disparity still exists in medicine which may decrease work motivation among women physicians. The authors investigated whether the experience and the perception of gender-based career obstacles among women physicians in Japan are associated with their working status (i.e., full-time vs. part-time). The present cross-sectional study is based on surveys of alumnae from 13 private medical schools in Japan conducted between June 2009 and May 2011. Of those who agreed to participate in this study, 1684 completed a self-administered questionnaire (overall response rate 83%). Experience of gender-based obstacles was considered affirmative if a woman physician had been overlooked for opportunities of professional advancement based on gender. Perception of gender-based obstacles referred to the self-reported degree of difficulty of promotion and opportunities for a position in higher education. Approximately 20% of the study participants responded that they experienced gender-based obstacles while 24% answered that they were not sure. The scores for perception of gender-based career obstacles were statistically higher among part-time workers compared with full-time workers (mean difference = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.39-2.00). Adjusting for age, marital status, the presence of children, workplace, board certification, holding a PhD degree, overall satisfaction of being a physician, and household income, stepwise logistic regression models revealed that physicians with the strongest perception of gender-based career obstacles were more likely to work part-time rather than full-time (OR, 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Although the experience of gender-based obstacles was not associated with working status among women physicians, the results demonstrated that a

  6. Marital status and having children and mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer (JACC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakauchi, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    Marital status has been identified as an important social factor associated with mortality. Interesting results were obtained in the present analyses of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Death of spouse was positively associated with risks of male death from all causes, all cancers, and ischemic heart diseases, compared with married status. Divorce or separation was positively associated with risks from all causes among men and women, all cancers among women, and single status was also positively associated with risks from all causes among men and women, and ischemic heart diseases among men. Having large numbers of children was also found to be a risk factor.

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, White Paper on Science & Technology 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    apparent in many areas such as resources, energy, market and so on. We are-therefore required to find ways and means of achieving a "sustainable development...3 Reseacher /engineer exchanges between Japan and other countries (1989) Japan _e_ _ departure> <departure> Developed 112 thousands <departure> 35...of Single Market in 1992. (Figure 21) 18 Figure 20 Percentage of private corporations having overseas R&D facility M% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

  8. Japan's Refugee Status Determination System%论日本的难民甄别制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵向华

    2012-01-01

    日本难民甄别制度的建立始于1981年《出入境管理与难民认定法》的制定。虽然该制度明确了法务大臣在难民甄别事务上的权限,规定了难民甄别的标准和程序,但同时也因存在一系列问题而导致国会于2004年对《出入境管理与难民认定法》进行了修订。此次修订一定程度上完善了既存的难民甄别制度,但是,与国际标准及先进国家的实践相比,日本现行的难民甄别制度中仍存在一系列需要改进的问题。%Japan's refugee status determination system was established with the enactment of 1981 Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act.This mechanism not only recognized the powers of the Minister of Justice to determine a refugee status application,but also clarified the criteria for being recognized as a refugee,as same as the procedures by which the application should be dealt with.Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act was amended in 2004 in order to refine the mechanism above mentioned.Nevertheless,it is indicated that reform is still necessary for the current refugee status determination mechanism in order to make it keep in line with international standards.

  9. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Technology Preparedness and Status Report Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacker, P.B.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Cannon, P.G.; Hyde, R.A.; Watson, L.R.

    1994-04-01

    A Technology Preparedness and Status Report is required for each Technical Task Plan funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. This document provides guidance for the preparation of that report. Major sections of the report will include a subset of the need for the technology, objectives of the demonstration, technology description and readiness evaluation, demonstration requirements, and preparedness checklist and action plan.

  10. The present status of international training and education in nuclear field held in Japan for Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This report summarizes the training and educational courses for Asian countries carried out in Japan by the related institutions. The 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on 27 and 28 of November 2000, based on FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) organized by the Nuclear Energy Commission, and then the following day ''The Present Status of the International Training and Education in Japan for Asian Countries'' was reported for Asian participants on 29, November. This report is the Japanese edition of the handout distributed at the meeting. I believe it can be helpful for the related institutions in Japan to support the human resources development in the nuclear field efficiently and effectively in future. (author)

  11. US hospital payment adjustments for innovative technology lag behind those in Germany, France, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, John; Machacz, Susanne F; Robinson, James C

    2015-02-01

    Medicare pioneered add-on payments to facilitate the adoption of innovative technologies under its hospital prospective payment system. US policy makers are now experimenting with broader value-based payment initiatives, but these have not been adjusted for innovation. This article examines the structure, processes, and experience with Medicare's hospital new technology add-on payment program since its inception in 2001 and compares it with analogous payment systems in Germany, France, and Japan. Between 2001 and 2015 CMS approved nineteen of fifty-three applications for the new technology add-on payment program. We found that the program resulted in $201.7 million in Medicare payments in fiscal years 2002-13-less than half the level anticipated by Congress and only 34 percent of the amount projected by CMS. The US program approved considerably fewer innovative technologies, compared to analogous technology payment mechanisms in Germany, France and Japan. We conclude that it is important to adjust payments for new medical innovations within prospective and value-based payment systems explicitly as well as implicitly. The most straightforward method to use in adjusting value-based payments is for the insurer to retrospectively adjust spending targets to account for the cost of new technologies. If CMS made such retrospective adjustments, it would not financially penalize hospitals for adopting beneficial innovations. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Current status of health among workers in Japan: Results from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Sasaki, Naoko; Ogasawara, Takayuki; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Tomita, Kentaro; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Nagahama, Satsue; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Makiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-12-07

    Data are limited on the sex-specific prevalence of diseases and their risk factors in middle-aged and older workers in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the age- and sex-specific prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (defined using joint statement criteria), obesity, underweight, abdominal obesity, and smoking among approximately 70,000 to 90,000 Japanese workers (predominantly men) aged 20-69 years in 2014. We also investigated the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness in 2012 and no leisure-time exercise in 2014. In both sexes, the prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and abdominal obesity, was increased with aging. In contrast, the prevalence of underweight was decreased with aging. Smoking prevalence exceeded 30% in men regardless of age, whereas the prevalence was around 10% in women of all age groups. Prevalence of no leisure-time exercise exceeded 50% among middle-aged and older workers in both sexes. Among workers aged 50-64 years, less than half of men had low fitness, whereas more than half of women had low fitness. Given the high prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors among middle-aged and older workers, effective strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease in this age group are needed in Japan.

  13. Technology Status of Thermionic Fuel Elements for Space Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. W.; Yang, L.

    1984-01-01

    Thermionic reactor power systems are discussed with respect to their suitability for space missions. The technology status of thermionic emitters and sheath insulator assemblies is described along with testing of the thermionic fuel elements.

  14. Impact of subsidies and socioeconomic status on varicella vaccination in Greater Tokyo, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eNagaoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the control of varicella outbreaks is an important health issue, cost could present a major barrier for vaccination The aim of this study is to investigate the association of vaccine subsidies and caregivers’ socioeconomic status with varicella vaccine coverage of their children in Greater Tokyo, Japan, before the period that varicella vaccination was included as routine immunization program.Methods: Participants were recruited from two different cities. In Chiba city, parents of 18-month-old infants (N = 378 undergoing a medical examination in July 2013 were recruited at a clinic where no subsidy for varicella immunization was provided. In Nishitokyo city, parents of 24- to 30-month-old children (N=315 undergoing a health check-up in July and August 2013 were recruited at a clinic where a partial subsidy was provided. The association between household income and varicella immunization was investigated by multivariate logistic regression stratified by city.Results: Vaccine coverage was 61.0% in Chiba city and 73.3% in Nishitokyo city. In Chiba city, odds ratios of middle and high household income for varicella immunization were 4.22 (95% CI (confidence interval: 1.65-10.7 and 5.94 (95% CI: 1.89-18.6 compared to low household income, respectively. However, household income was not associated with varicella vaccination in Nishitokyo city. Neither working status nor education was associated with vaccination in both cities. Conclusions: While household income was associated with high vaccine coverage in the city with no vaccine subsidy, this association was not observed in the city where the subsidy was given, which suggests that cost is a barrier for varicella immunization.Thus, in countries where varicella vaccination is not included in routine immunization program, introducing subsidies nationwide or routine immunization programs for varicella vaccination would be an important approach to eliminate inequality in vaccine

  15. Dental implant status of patients receiving long-term nursing care in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Toru; Wada, Masahiro; Suganami, Toru; Miwa, Shunta; Hagiwara, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Yoshiobu

    2015-01-01

    The increase in implant patients is expected to give rise to a new problem: the changing general health status of those who have had implants placed. The aim of this present study was to find out the needs of and proper measures for elderly implant patients in long-term care facilities. A questionnaire was sent by mail to 1,591 long-term care health facilities, daycare services for people with dementia, and private nursing homes for the elderly in the Osaka area, which is in the middle area of Japan, in order to extract patients with cerebrovascular disease or dementia who were possibly at risk of inadequate oral self-care, as well as patients with implants. Approximately half of all facilities responded that they cannot recognize implants, and many facilities did not know anything about oral care for implant patients. Residents with implants were reported at 19% of all facilities. Also, the facilities pointed out problems with implants relating to the difference in oral care between implants and natural teeth. There are people with implants in some 20% of caregiving facilities, and there is a low level of understanding regarding implants and their care among nurses and care providers who are providing daily oral care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Present Status of SiC/SiC R and D for Nuclear Application in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohyama, Akira, E-mail: kohyama@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    SiC/SiC R and D for nuclear application in Japan is quite active under the coordinated activities of Atomic Energy Society of Japan's committee on 'Applications of Ceramic Materials for Advanced Nuclear Power Systems' and mainly government funded nuclear engineering/materials activities collaborating academia and industries. Start with the brief introduction of those activities, representing research activities are introduced. ITER and BA related SiC/SiC activities are emphasized, followed by introductions of extensive OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology activities. The importance of international collaboration and strategic planning is mentioned.

  17. A comparative analysis of Photovoltaic Technological Innovation Systems including international dimensions: the cases of Japan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the developmen

  18. A comparative analysis of Photovoltaic Technological Innovation Systems including international dimensions: the cases of Japan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the developmen

  19. Wireless power transmission - Applications and technology status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Bradford W.; Brown, Alan M.

    The history of wireless power transmission systems is reviewed and current and future applications and technology are discussed. Design constraints for terrestrial systems, airborne platforms, and space systems are presented.

  20. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.; Prokopius, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the current phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development efforts is presented both for multimegawatt systems for electric utility applications and for multikilowatt systems for on-site integrated energy system applications. Improving fuel cell performance, reducing cost, and increasing durability are the technology drivers at this time. Electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, and fuel selection are discussed.

  1. Gasification - Status and Technology; Foergasning - Status och teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2011-07-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect atmospheric gasification and Pressurized oxygen blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them is based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others more advantageous solutions, still need further development. The report deals to a minor extent with the conversion of syngas to synthetic fuels. The ongoing research and development of gasification techniques is extensive, both on national and international level. Although many process concepts and components have been demonstrated, there is still no full-scale plant for the production of synthetic fuels based on biomass. Factors affecting the choice of technology are plant size, operating conditions, the possibility for process integration, access to feedstock, market aspects, incentives and economic instruments et cetera. Increased competition for biofuels will inevitably lead to higher raw material costs. This in turn means that the fuel chains with high efficiency, such as biomethane through gasification and methanation, are favored

  2. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-13

    Fact sheet describing the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project. NREL is seeking fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible analysis of commercially available fuel cell products to benchmark the current state of the technology and support industry growth.

  3. Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. U.-S.

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  4. Fiber Optic Communications Technology. A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joseph A.

    Fiber optic communications (communications over very pure glass transmission channels of diameter comparable to a human hair) is an emerging technology which promises most improvements in communications capacity at reasonable cost. The fiber transmission system offers many desirable characteristics representing improvements over conventional…

  5. Extravehicular Activity Technology Development Status and Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of NASA s current EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be to reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA hardware life and limited availability of the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) will eventually become a critical issue. The current EMU has successfully served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability will be needed and the current architectures and technologies under development offer significant improvements over the current flight systems. In addition to ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for missions to Near Earth Objects (NEO), Phobos, or future surface missions. Surface missions could include either exploration of the Moon or Mars. Providing an

  6. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  7. Prevalence of immunity presumed using rabies vaccination history and household factors associated with vaccination status among domestic dogs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidano, Arata; Hayama, Yoko; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Rabies was eliminated in Japan over 50 years ago; however, the recent increase in the movement of humans and animals across the world highlights the potential threat of disease reentry into the country. The immune status against rabies among the dog population in Japan is not well known; thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dogs with effective immunity from the vaccination history using a web-based survey. We found that 76.9% (95% confidence interval, 75.8-78.1) of dogs in this study population belonged to the population in which 90% were assumed to have the internationally accepted antibody titer. We showed that dogs taken less frequently for walks were less likely to be vaccinated. Additionally, the frequency of encounters with other dogs during walks and the number of individuals in households were associated with vaccination history. To our knowledge, this study is the first report estimating the prevalence of dogs in Japan with effective immunity against rabies. Further, we identified the population with low vaccination coverage as well as the heterogeneous characteristics of vaccination history among the dog population. These findings contribute to the implementation of an efficient strategy for improving the overall vaccination coverage in Japan and the development of a quantitative risk assessment of rabies.

  8. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-15

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  9. Health economic evaluation in Japan: a case study of one aspect of health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam

    2003-02-01

    There is a burgeoning literature in health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the health policy making level in a number of countries. However, a search of the literature reveals that in Japan, the world's second largest health care market, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest in economic evaluation is that the fee-for-service and strict price regulation that characterises the system of health care financing in Japan is not conducive to this form of analysis. Moreover, the government and many researchers are satisfied that the current organisation of health care has given long life and low infant mortality at low cost. Even if it is accepted that low health care costs and good health prevail in Japan, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population and the development of new medical technologies will place increasing pressure on health care resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Good economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, has an important role to play.

  10. The Development and Current Status of Library and Information Science Education in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-hua Chen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Library and information science (LIS education of Japan has been established in the early 20th century, but destroyed during the World War II. Thanks to the help provided by the United States, the LIS education revived. However, it influenced a lot, especially the thoughts of public librarianship in the Library Law of Japan. At present, 8 universities offer formal LIS degree program and over 200 universities or colleges offer LIS courses as qualifications for public librarians. This article will introduce the curriculum designs, full-time faculty, and program characteristics of Library and Information Science in Japan. [Article content in Chinese

  11. Bodies, technologies, and aging in Japan: thinking about old people and their silver products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Susan O

    2012-06-01

    Contemporary Japan is known both for its high tech culture and its rapidly aging population, with 22 % of people currently 65 years and older. Yet there has been little attention to the material culture of the elderly. This paper explores the way aging bodies, official ideology, and consumption of what are called "assistive devices" and "life technologies" come together in the experience of frail old people who depend not only on human caregivers but on "things" such as walkers, kidney dialysis machines, and electric massage chairs. It begins to consider the questions: What technology to aid failing bodies is available, and to whom? How does the advocacy of independence create new forms of consumption? How do "things" mediate ideological change regarding elder care and help to create new understandings of self and one's relation to others? Data come from interviews conducted in 2003-2007 as part of a study of elder care in Japan under the public long term care insurance system that began in 2000. These interviews point both to acceptance of the technology as a way to avoid over-dependence on caregivers, and to resistance to the limitations of aging and to its 21st century definition by the state.

  12. Database use and technology in Japan: JTEC panel report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiederhold, G.; Beech, D.; Bourne, C.; Farmer, N.; Jajodia, Sushil; Kahaner, D.; Minoura, Toshi; Smith, D.; Smith, J.M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a group of database experts, sponsored by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC), based on an intensive study trip to Japan during March 1991. Academic, industrial, and governmental sites were visited. The primary findings are that Japan is supporting its academic research establishment poorly, that industry is making progress in key areas, and that both academic and industrial researchers are well aware of current domestic and foreign technology. Information sharing between industry and academia is effectively supported by governmental sponsorship of joint planning and review activities, and enhances technology transfer. In two key areas, multimedia and object-oriented databases, the authors can expect to see future export of Japanese database products, typically integrated into larger systems. Support for academic research is relatively modest. Nevertheless, the senior faculty are well-known and respected, and communicate frequently and in depth with each other, with government agencies, and with industry. In 1988 there were a total of 1,717 Ph.D.`s in engineering and 881 in science. It appears that only about 30 of these were academic Ph.D.`s in the basic computer sciences.

  13. Maternal work conditions, socioeconomic and educational status, and vaccination of children: a community-based household survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Michiko; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    This study examined how maternal work-related factors, including the availability of paid maternal leave, affect childhood vaccination status. Relatively little is known about the association between the employment status of mothers and the vaccination status of their children. We examined data from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE), an ongoing epidemiologic household panel study in Japan. We used surveys taken in 2010-2011 in this study. We found that mothers who returned to work after giving birth were much less likely to follow recommended vaccine schedules for their children compared with mothers who stayed at home and those who had left the workforce by the time of childbirth. However, taking parental leave significantly reduced the risk of not being up-to-date with the vaccination schedule at 36 months of age. We also found that children whose mother was younger and less educated, and those from an economically deprived family were at a high risk of not being up-to-date with the vaccination status at 36 months of age. Because vaccination is free and widely available in Japan, our findings indicate that provision of free vaccinations is not sufficient to achieve high vaccination rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-adjusted relative suicide risk by marital and employment status over the past 25 years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, T; Fujita, T; Tachimori, H; Takeshima, T; Inagaki, M; Sudo, A

    2013-03-01

    There have been no longitudinal studies in Japan examining national-level data for suicide risk by marital and employment status. We examined the age-adjusted relative suicide risk (RR) by marital and employment status from national data acquired for all suicides in Japan occurring in the past 25 years. All deaths identified as suicides according to ICD-9 and ICD-10 were extracted from vital statistics data of Japan for the years 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. Population statistics for Japanese residents aged ≥15 years were obtained from the census. Suicide rates for almost all categories analyzed decreased in both genders between 1985 and 1990 and increased between 1995 and 2000, especially among men. Unemployed and divorced men had a consistently higher RR in each year analyzed. Unemployed and divorced women had a higher risk than those in other categories, especially in 2000 and 2005. In women, particularly in 1980, 1985 and 1990, those who were unemployed and never married had a similar RR to those who were unemployed and divorced. Unemployed and divorced people were at a high risk of suicide over the past 25 years, particularly in 2000 and 2005. Our findings suggest that the effects of divorce and unemployment on suicide risk are synergistic.

  15. Status of solar sail technology within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2011-12-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced. NASA has successfully completed functional vacuum testing in their Glenn Research Center's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by Alliant Techsystems Space Systems and L'Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support each sail. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and are scalable to much larger solar sails - perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were performed in order to assess the scalability of the technology to the larger sizes that are required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Furthermore, life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials was also conducted.NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30 M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board a Falcon-1 rocket, launched August 2, 2008. As a result of the failure of that rocket, the NanoSail-D was never successfully given the opportunity to achieve orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare was flown in the Fall of 2010. This review paper summarizes NASA's investment in solar sail technology to date and discusses future opportunities.

  16. Present status of phosphorus removal technology and its future prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kazuaki

    1988-10-10

    This report outlines the special features of two representative processes of the technology for phosphorus removal from municipal sewage: a physical and chemical method and a biological method. In Japan, coagulating precipitation is carried out using aluminum sulphate or polyaluminum chloride but it is pointed out that this method increases the developed amount of sludge and drops the concentration and dehydration of sludge. Recently, crystallization dephosphorization technology is drawing much attention. This technology precipitates phosphorus as hydroxyapatite using phosphorus ore and bone black as crystal druse under the condition of the addition of lime. For biological dephosphorization, a phostrip method and an anaerobic-aerobic method are being developed. According to the estimation in Japan, it is possible to lower the concentration of total phosphorus in municipal sewage from 5mg*1/sup /minus/1/ to less than 1.0mg*1/sup /minus/1/ by this anaerobic-aerobic method. It is desirable that in the future technical features of the physical and chemical phosphorus removal method and the biological phosphorus removal method will be comparatively studied and a most effective and economic method of preventing eutrophication will be developed and selected. 6 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. Gender differences in information technology usage: a U.S.-Japan comparison

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether there are differences in men’s and women’s use of computers and the Internet in the United States and Japan and how any such gender gaps have changed over time. The authors focus on these two countries because information technology is widely used in both, but there are substantial differences in institutions and social organizations. They use microdata from several surveys during the 1997–2001 period to examine differences and trends in computer and Internet usage...

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technology Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Prabhakar; Minh, Nguyen Q.

    2004-08-01

    In its most common configuration, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) uses an oxygen ion conducting ceramic electrolyte membrane, perovskite cathode and nickel cermet anode electrode. Cells operate in the 600-1000 C temperature range and utilize metallic or ceramic current collectors for cell-to-cell interconnection. Recent development in engineered electrode architectures, component materials chemistry, cell and stack designs and fabrication processes have led to significant improvement in the electrical performance and performance stability as well as reduction in the operating temperature of such cells. Large kW-size power generation systems have been designed and field demonstrated. This paper reviews the status of SOFC power generation systems with emphasis on cell and stack component materials, electrode reactions, materials reactions and corrosion processes

  19. Diamond detector technology: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Harris; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H P; Bellini,, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; De Boer, W; Dehning, B; Dorfer, C; Dunser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Mcfadden, N; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Reichmann, M; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz, D; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Schreiner, T; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Taylor, Aaron; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, Stephen; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2017-01-01

    The status of material development of poly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident par-ticle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition the first beam test results from 3D detectors made with poly-crystalline CVD diamond are presented. Finally the first analysis of LHC data from the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) which is based on pixelated poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors bump-bonded to pixel readout elec-tronics is shown.

  20. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  1. The role of research in nuclear regulation: Status and future activities in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soda, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chyiyodaku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    The role of nuclear regulation is grouped into the three categories in the Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, the INSAG-3 document of IAEA published in 1988. First category is to specify and develop standards and regulations for safety, and to issue licenses to operating organization. Second category is to inspect, monitor and review the safety performances of nuclear power plants and operating organizations. In the second category, corrective action may be ordered if it is found necessary after inspection, monitoring and review. The third category is to advocate safety research and disseminate safety information. Nuclear safety research is closely related to nuclear regulation. The licensing procedures of nuclear facilities requires a two step approach in Japan, that is, those who wish to construct and operate a nuclear plant must apply for a government approval for construction and operation. Safety examination is then performed first by the government, and the second examination is carried out by the Nuclear Safety Commission. In this process, research information is supplied to the Advisory Committee on Technical Matters which is under the Ministry of Trade and Industry and to the Committee on Examination of Reactor Safety which is under the Science and Technology Agency. Research organizations are asked by those Committees to provide data needed for safety examination and to perform safety analyses for verification of analyses submitted to the Committees by the licensees. in addition in the licensing procedures, examination guides needed for the safety examination are based on experimental data and analyses performed by research organizations by the government request.

  2. Mental Health Status of Children After the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiko, Hirobumi; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Itagaki, Syuntaro; Kunii, Yasuto; Shiga, Tetsuya; Miura, Itaru; Suzuki, Yuriko; Yasumura, Seiji; Iwasa, Hajime; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    The disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, might have affected the mental health status of children. To assess the mental health status, we measured the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in 15 274 children (aged 4-15 years). The proportions of those who scored above the cutoff (≥16) of SDQ, reflecting the clinical range of the mental health status, were 25.0% (aged 4-6 years), 22.0% (aged 7-12 years, and 16.3% (aged 13-15 years), which were higher than that in the usual state (9.5%). We also explored the possibility that the distribution on the Fukushima prefectural map of the proportions of those who scored above the cutoff (≥16) of SDQ might correspond with the environmental radiation levels, but there was no significant correlation.

  3. Healthcare Databases in Thailand and Japan: Potential Sources for Health Technology Assessment Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saokaew, Surasak; Sugimoto, Takashi; Kamae, Isao; Pratoomsoot, Chayanin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2015-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) has been continuously used for value-based healthcare decisions over the last decade. Healthcare databases represent an important source of information for HTA, which has seen a surge in use in Western countries. Although HTA agencies have been established in Asia-Pacific region, application and understanding of healthcare databases for HTA is rather limited. Thus, we reviewed existing databases to assess their potential for HTA in Thailand where HTA has been used officially and Japan where HTA is going to be officially introduced. Existing healthcare databases in Thailand and Japan were compiled and reviewed. Databases' characteristics e.g. name of database, host, scope/objective, time/sample size, design, data collection method, population/sample, and variables were described. Databases were assessed for its potential HTA use in terms of safety/efficacy/effectiveness, social/ethical, organization/professional, economic, and epidemiological domains. Request route for each database was also provided. Forty databases- 20 from Thailand and 20 from Japan-were included. These comprised of national censuses, surveys, registries, administrative data, and claimed databases. All databases were potentially used for epidemiological studies. In addition, data on mortality, morbidity, disability, adverse events, quality of life, service/technology utilization, length of stay, and economics were also found in some databases. However, access to patient-level data was limited since information about the databases was not available on public sources. Our findings have shown that existing databases provided valuable information for HTA research with limitation on accessibility. Mutual dialogue on healthcare database development and usage for HTA among Asia-Pacific region is needed.

  4. Status of SOFCo SOFC technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privette, R.; Perna, M.A.; Kneidel, K. [SOFCo, Alliance, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    SOFCo, a Babcock & Wilcox/Ceramatec Research & Development Limited Partnership, is a collaborative research and development venture to develop technologies related to planar, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). SOFCo has successfully demonstrated a kW-class, solid-oxide fuel cell module operating on pipeline natural gas. The SOFC system design integrates the air preheater and the fuel processor with the fuel cell stacks into a compact test unit; this is the platform for multi-kW modules. The cells, made of tape-cast zirconia electrolyte and conventional electrode materials, exhibit excel lent stability in single-cell tests approaching 40,000 hours of operation. Stack tests using 10-cm and 15-cm cells with ceramic interconnects also show good performance and stability in tests for many thousands of hours.

  5. Cellulosic ethanol. Potential, technology and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rarbach, M. [Sued-Chemie AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In times of rising oil prices and a growing energy demand, sustainable alternative energy sources are needed. Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable biofuel, made from lignocellulosic feedstock such as agricultural residues (corn stover, cereal straw, bagasse) or dedicated energy crops. Its production is almost carbon neutral, doesn't compete with food or feed production and induces no land use changes. It constitutes a new energy source using an already existing renewable feedstock without needing any further production capacity and can thus play a major role on the way to more sustainability in transport and the chemical industry and reducing the dependence on the import of fossil resources. The potential for cellulosic ethanol is huge: In the US, the annual production of agricultural residues (cereal straw and corn stover) reached almost 384 million tons in 2009 and Brazil alone produced more than 670 million tons of sugar cane in 2009 yielding more than 100 million tons of bagasse (dry basis). And alone in the European Union, almost 300 million tons of crop straw are produced annually. The last years have seen success in the development and deployment in the field of cellulosic ethanol production. The main challenge thereby remains to demonstrate that the technology is economically feasible for the up-scaling to industrial scale. Clariant has developed the sunliquid {sup registered} process, a proprietary cellulosic ethanol technology that reaches highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings while cutting production costs to a minimum. The sunliquid {sup registered} process for cellulosic ethanol matches the ambitious targets for economically and ecologically sustainable production and greenhouse gas reduction. It was developed using an integrated design concept. Highly optimized, feedstock and process specific biocatalysts and microorganisms ensure a highly efficient process with improved yields and feedstock-driven production costs. Integrated, on

  6. NanoJapan: international research experience for undergraduates program: fostering U.S.-Japan research collaborations in terahertz science and technology of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sarah R.; Matherly, Cheryl A.; Kono, Junichiro

    2014-09-01

    The international nature of science and engineering research demands that students have the skillsets necessary to collaborate internationally. However, limited options exist for science and engineering undergraduates who want to pursue research abroad. The NanoJapan International Research Experience for Undergraduates Program is an innovative response to this need. Developed to foster research and international engagement among young undergraduate students, it is funded by a National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) grant. Each summer, NanoJapan sends 12 U.S. students to Japan to conduct research internships with world leaders in terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, nanophotonics, and ultrafast optics. The students participate in cutting-edge research projects managed within the framework of the U.S-Japan NSF-PIRE collaboration. One of our focus topics is THz science and technology of nanosystems (or `TeraNano'), which investigates the physics and applications of THz dynamics of carriers and phonons in nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this article, we will introduce the program model, with specific emphasis on designing high-quality international student research experiences. We will specifically address the program curriculum that introduces students to THz research, Japanese language, and intercultural communications, in preparation for work in their labs. Ultimately, the program aims to increase the number of U.S. students who choose to pursue graduate study in this field, while cultivating a generation of globally aware engineers and scientists who are prepared for international research collaboration.

  7. The current status of education and career paths of students after completion of medical physicist programs in Japan: a survey by the Japanese Board for Medical Physicist Qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Noriyuki; Karasawa, Kumiko; Sumida, Iori; Arimura, Hidetaka; Yamada, Syogo

    2015-07-01

    To standardize educational programs and clinical training for medical physics students, the Japanese Board for Medical Physicist Qualification (JBMP) began to accredit master's, doctorate, and residency programs for medical physicists in 2012. At present, 16 universities accredited by the JBMP offer 22 courses. In this study, we aimed to survey the current status of educational programs and career paths of students after completion of the medical physicist program in Japan. A questionnaire was sent in August 2014 to 32 universities offering medical physicist programs. The questionnaire was created and organized by the educational course certification committee of the JBMP and comprised two sections: the first collected information about the university attended, and the second collected information about characteristics and career paths of students after completion of medical physicist programs from 2008 to 2014. Thirty universities (16 accredited and 14 non-accredited) completed the survey (response rate 94 %). A total of 209, 40, and 3 students graduated from the master's, doctorate, and residency programs, respectively. Undergraduates entered the medical physicist program constantly, indicating an interest in medical physics among undergraduates. A large percentage of the students held a bachelor's degree in radiological technology (master's program 94 %; doctorate program 70 %); graduates obtained a national radiological technologist license. Regarding career paths, although the number of the graduates who work as medical physicist remains low, 7 % with a master's degree and 50 % with a doctorate degree worked as medical physicists. Our results could be helpful for improving the medical physicist program in Japan.

  8. Association of marital status with the incidence of suicide: a population-based Cohort Study in Japan (Miyagi cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Naru; Kakizaki, Masako; Sugawara, Yumi; Tanji, Fumiya; Watanabe, Ikue; Fukao, Akira; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-09-25

    Marital status is one of the most frequently replicated predictors of suicide. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of marital status on the risk of suicide by gender, using a large population-based cohort in Japan. The Miyagi cohort study was a population-based, prospective cohort study of Japanese adults aged between 40 and 64 years. Between June and August 1990, 47,604 participants residing in 14 municipalities of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, completed a questionnaire on various health-related lifestyles, including marital status. During 18 years of follow-up, 146 of the participants committed suicide. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for suicide mortality according to marital status with adjustment for potential confounders. A total of 106 and 40 deaths from suicide were recorded during 344,813 and 365,524 person-years of follow-up among 20,671 men and 21,076 women, respectively. We found that marital status was significantly associated with the risk of completing suicide only in men. Among men, after multivariate adjustment, HRs in reference to married were as follows: widowed or divorced, 2.84 (95% CI: 1.37-5.90); unmarried, 1.56 (95% CI: 0.67-3.64). A significantly increased risk of suicidal death was observed among widowed or divorced men, whereas no such trend was evident for women. Our results suggest that men who are widowed or divorced, or unmarried, are at increased risk of suicide, whereas no such risk is evident for women. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inventing Japan's 'robotics culture': the repeated assembly of science, technology, and culture in social robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanović, Selma

    2014-06-01

    Using interviews, participant observation, and published documents, this article analyzes the co-construction of robotics and culture in Japan through the technical discourse and practices of robotics researchers. Three cases from current robotics research--the seal-like robot PARO, the Humanoid Robotics Project HRP-2 humanoid, and 'kansei robotics' - show the different ways in which scientists invoke culture to provide epistemological grounding and possibilities for social acceptance of their work. These examples show how the production and consumption of social robotic technologies are associated with traditional crafts and values, how roboticists negotiate among social, technical, and cultural constraints while designing robots, and how humans and robots are constructed as cultural subjects in social robotics discourse. The conceptual focus is on the repeated assembly of cultural models of social behavior, organization, cognition, and technology through roboticists' narratives about the development of advanced robotic technologies. This article provides a picture of robotics as the dynamic construction of technology and culture and concludes with a discussion of the limits and possibilities of this vision in promoting a culturally situated understanding of technology and a multicultural view of science.

  10. Japan Fulbright Memorial Fund Program Opens New Avenues for Effective Technology Integration into Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Franco; Carlucci, Lisa Marie

    2006-04-01

    Technology is increasingly playing a major role in today's education often integrated into instruction to become one of the teacher's most effective and often indispensable tools used in the classroom. It can be said that the use of technology at the beginning of this new millennium is affecting the instructional process and it is changing some of its basic connotations. The presented work analyzes the impact of various technologies on education emphasizing the advantages provided by a successful integration, the obstacles encountered along the way, and the methodologies currently used in the process. ``Educational exchange can turn nations into people, contributing as no other form of communication can to the humanizing of international relations'' (Senator J.M. Fulbright). Technology of this modern era is providing the indispensable tool to achieve this superior level of communication overcoming historical, cultural, and language barriers. In the context of the Japan Fulbright Memorial Fund (JFMF) Teacher Program, we analyze the impact of technology on educational cross-cultural exchanges to raise awareness and interest of the scientific/educational community on the need of establishing stronger international relations promoting world peace and global prosperity.

  11. Client-Server Connection Status Monitoring Using Ajax Push Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamongie, Julien R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how simple client-server connection status monitoring can be implemented using Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML), JSF (Java Server Faces) and ICEfaces technologies. This functionality is required for NASA LCS (Launch Control System) displays used in the firing room for the Constellation project. Two separate implementations based on two distinct approaches are detailed and analyzed.

  12. The current status and future perspectives of organ donation in Japan: learning from the systems in other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    The revised Organ Transplant Law came into effect in Japan in July 2010. The law allows for organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent from subjects who had not previously rejected organ donation. Nevertheless, the number of cadaveric organ donations has not increased as expected. The Spanish Model is widely known as the most successful system in the field of organ donation. The system includes an earlier referral of possible donors to the transplant coordination teams, a new family-based approach and care methods, and the development of additional training courses aimed at specific groups of professionals, which are supported by their corresponding societies. South Korea, a country which neighbors Japan, has recently succeeded in increasing the rates of organ donation by introducing several systems, such as incentive programs, an organ procurement organization, a donor registry, and a system to facilitate potential donor referral. In this review, we present the current status of organ donation in Japan and also explore various factors that may help to improve the country's low donation rate based on the experiences of other developed countries.

  13. Current status of bariatric surgery in Japan and effectiveness in obesity and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The rate of obesity in Japan, defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 or greater, is reportedly at 24 %, a lower level of severe obesity than in the EU and US. However, the incidence of obesity-related health problems is reportedly higher among Asians. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is the most frequently performed bariatric surgery in Japan and accounted for 54 % of such surgeries in 2011; procedures such as laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic Roux-e...

  14. Status note on solar cell technology; Statusnotat om solcelleteknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This status note briefly describes development and perspectives for solar cell technology internationally and nationally. The note will form part of the background for a coming proposal for a national solar cell strategy. The strategy will be prepared by the Danish Energy Authority in collaboration with the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Elkraft System, Eltra, representatives from the industry and others. The proposal is expected to give an overall picture of Danish R and D niches and opportunities within solar cell technology. (BA)

  15. Development of the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence to Assess Functional Capacity in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Iwasa PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in the health of older people and changes in their lifestyles necessitate a scale that can better measure their competence at a higher level. This study describes the development process of the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence (JST-IC by (a refining conceptual definitions and developing preliminary items and (b examining the basic properties of the items. Participants were 1,253 septuagenarians (539 men and 714 women living in communities, who were asked to judge whether they were independent via 88 items. To examine the basic properties of the preliminary items, five different analyses were conducted. Thirty-four items were considered as inappropriate (6 overlapped between the analyses: (a 9 due to very high or low ratios of responders who answered “yes,” (b 4 due to gender or regional differences, (c 5 due to their weak association with health status, (d 9 due to low communalities in factor analysis, and (e 13 due to redundancy of meaning with other items. Conceptual definitions and preliminary items were developed, and the basic properties of the items were examined to create the JST-IC. The next step would be to screen the remaining 54 items to create the final version of the scale.

  16. Current status of research on cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yutaka; Furukawa, Toshi A; Shimizu, Eiji; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakagawa, Akiko; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Ishii, Tomoko; Nakajima, Satomi

    2011-03-01

    Cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy was introduced into the field of psychiatry in the late 1980s in Japan, and the Japanese Association for Cognitive Therapy (JACT), founded in 2004, now has more than 1500 members. Along with such progress, awareness of the effectiveness of cognitive therapy/cognitive behavioral therapy has spread, not only among professionals and academics but also to the public. The Study Group of the Procedures and Effectiveness of Psychotherapy, funded by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, has conducted a series of studies on the effectiveness of cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy since 2006 and shown that it is feasible for Japanese patients. As a result, in April 2010 cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy for mood disorders was added to the national health insurance scheme in Japan. This marked a milestone in Japan's psychiatric care, where pharmacotherapy has historically been more common. In this article the authors review research on cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy in Japan.

  17. Coal technologies of Japan in 1988 and 1989. 1988, 1989 nen no sekitan gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-25

    The 8th coal policy of Japan which has been in effect since 1987 has passed its half way and during the above period, coal mines such as Mitsubishi Takashima, Mitsui Sunagawa, Hokutan Horonai and Mitsubishi Minami-Ohyubari, etc. were closed and further concentration and rationalization of the production systems has been continued. Total coal production in FY 1988 as well as FY 1989 was 11.1 million tons and 9.7 million tons respectively, and concerning the development surveys of coal resources, maritime geophysical explorations and test drillings were done in Ariake Sea and off Kushiro, etc. and land geophysical explorations and test drillings at Asajino, etc.. International interchange concerning coal technologies was also very active and the amount of imported coal of various kinds exceeded that of the preceding fiscal year in both fiscal years, irrespective of the unconsumed year-end surplus coal storage in the domestic coal production. As shown above, domestic coal is inferior to overseas coal pricewise, hence domestic coal mines are pushing concentration of faces and introduction of larger coal mining machines. With regard to coal mine safety, the research and development of technologies of prediction and safety against gas issue, spontaneous combustion and mine fire, etc. is under way and coal processing technologies as well as coal utilization technologies such as fluidized bed incineration, etc. are now being developed. 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Integrated Magnetic MEMS Relays: Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Schiavone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of magnetic technologies employing microfabricated magnetic structures for the production of switching components has generated enormous interest in the scientific and industrial communities over the last decade. Magnetic actuation offers many benefits when compared to other schemes for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, including the generation of forces that have higher magnitude and longer range. Magnetic actuation can be achieved using different excitation sources, which create challenges related to the integration with other technologies, such as CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, and the requirement to reduce power consumption. Novel designs and technologies are therefore sought to enable the use of magnetic switching architectures in integrated MEMS devices, without incurring excessive energy consumption. This article reviews the status of magnetic MEMS technology and presents devices recently developed by various research groups, with key focuses on integrability and effective power management, in addition to the ability to integrate the technology with other microelectronic fabrication processes.

  19. Breeding research on sake yeasts in Japan: history, recent technological advances, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Sake is an alcoholic beverage of Japan, with a tradition lasting more than 1,300 years; it is produced from rice and water by fermenting with the koji mold Aspergillus oryzae and sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Breeding research on sake yeasts was originally developed in Japan by incorporating microbiological and genetic research methodologies adopted in other scientific areas. Since the advent of a genetic paradigm, isolation of yeast mutants has been a dominant approach for the breeding of favorable sake yeasts. These sake yeasts include (a) those that do not form foams (produced by isolating a mutant that does not stick to foams, thus decreasing the cost of sake production); (b) those that do not produce urea, which leads to the formation of ethyl carbamate, a possible carcinogen (isolated by positive selection in a canavanine-, arginine-, and ornithine-containing medium); (c) those that produce an increased amount of ethyl caproate, an apple-like flavor (produced by isolating a mutant resistant to cerulenin, an inhibitor of fatty-acid synthesis); and (d) those that produce a decreased amount of pyruvate (produced by isolating a mutant resistant to an inhibitor of mitochondrial transport, thus decreasing the amount of diacetyl). Given that sake yeasts perform sexual reproduction, sporulation and mating are potent approaches for their breeding. Recently, the genome sequences of sake yeasts have been determined and made publicly accessible. By utilizing this information, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the brewing characteristics of sake yeasts have been identified, which paves a way to DNA marker-assisted selection of the mated strains. Genetic engineering technologies for experimental yeast strains have recently been established by academic groups, and these technologies have also been applied to the breeding of sake yeasts. Sake yeasts whose genomes have been modified with these technologies correspond to genetically modified organisms (GMOs

  20. Knowledge and Innovation: A Comparative Study of the USA, the UK and Japan. Routledge Studies in Innovation, Organizations and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This new book presents case studies from the US, the UK and Japan. Packed full of vignettes from cases studies and subscribing to a socio-cultural approach rather than the often tacit assumption that knowledge and "technology transfer" is a logistical problem, this excellent volume illuminates the often misunderstood process of knowledge transfer.…

  1. Reflections on the Research Status of Kampo Medicine:A Most Rewarding Visit to Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hao; YIN Hui-jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Traditional medicine in Japan originated from Chinese medicine(CM),on the basis of which the abdominal diagnosis and treatment by differentiation of diseases were developed.It was also called Kampo medicine(KM),natural medicine or oriental medicine.KM had been on the verge of extinction by suffering from serious loss during the Meiji Restoration,and only started to revive in the beginning of the 1950s,and has had considerable progress up to now.

  2. Application and development status of coal gasification technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Xue-peng; XU Zhen-gang

    2004-01-01

    Introduced the application and development status of coal gasification technology in China. The most widely used coal gasification technology in China is the atmospheric fixed-bed gasifier, its total number is about 9 000. About 30 pressurized fixed-bed gasifiers are in operation, and more than 10 atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifiers were used. There are 13 Texaco entrained-flow bed gasifiers are under operation,10 Texaco and 11 Shell gasifiers that are being installed or imported. About 10 underground gasifiers are under running now. The present R&D of coal gasification technologies are to improve the operation and controlling level of fixed-bed gasification technology, and developing or demonstration of fluidized-bed and entrained-flow bed gasifiers.

  3. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, E. L., Jr.; Williams, M. C.; George, T. J.

    The MCFC technology has been identified by the DOE as a promising product for commercialization. Development of the MCFC technology supports the National Energy Strategy. Review of the status of the MCFC technology indicates that the MCFC technology developers are making rapid and significant progress. Manufacturing facility development and extensive testing is occurring. Improvements in performance (power density), lower costs, improved packaging, and scale up to full height are planned. MCFC developers need to continue to be responsive to end-users in potential markets. It will be market demands for the correct product definition which will ultimately determine the character of MCFC power plants. There is a need for continued MCFC product improvement and multiple product development tests.

  4. Evaluation of kidney allograft status using novel ultrasonic technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of kidney allograft injury contributes to proper decisions regarding treatment strategy and promotes the long-term survival of both the recipients and the allografts. Although biopsy remains the gold standard, non-invasive methods of kidney allograft evaluation are required for clinical practice. Recently, novel ultrasonic technologies have been applied in the evaluation and diagnosis of kidney allograft status, including tissue elasticity quantification using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS. In this review, we discuss current opinions on the application of ARFI and CEUS for evaluating kidney allograft function and their possible influencing factors, advantages and limitations. We also compare these two technologies with other non-invasive diagnostic methods, including nuclear medicine and radiology. While the role of novel non-invasive ultrasonic technologies in the assessment of kidney allografts requires further investigation, the use of such technologies remains highly promising.

  5. Influence of living environments and working status on low back pain for survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Yutaka; Sugawara, Yumi; Sato, Mari; Watanabe, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kenji; Sonofuchi, Kazuaki; Koide, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Tsuji, Ichiro; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-03-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and devastating Tsunami caused irreparable damage on the northeastern coast of Japan. This study aimed to examine the influencing factors of "Living environment" and "Working status" on low back pain for the survivors of the earthquake evaluated by a self-report questionnaire. Between 2011 and 2013, survivors replied to the self-report questionnaire, and 986 people consented to join this study. The living environment was divided into 3 categories (1. Living in the same house as before the earthquake, 2. Living in a safe shelter or temporary small house, 3. Living in a house of relatives or apartment house) and working status was divided into 5 categories (1. Unemployed before the earthquake, 2. Unemployed after the earthquake, 3. Decrease in income, 4. Different occupation after the earthquake, 5. The same occupation as before the earthquake). Age, gender, living areas, past history of arthritis, arthropathy, osteoporosis, sleep disturbance, psychological distress, and economic status were considered as confounding factors. Generalized estimating regression models with logit link function were used because outcome variables are repeatedly measured and binomial. We evaluated the correlation between the presence/severity of low back pain over time and housing status/working status at 1 year after the earthquake. There were no significant differences between age, gender, living areas, working status, or living environment before or after the earthquake. There was no significant difference in the risk of having low back pain in living environment or gender. There was significant difference in the risk of having low back pain in those with "Decrease in income" (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.23-3.03) and "The same occupation as before the earthquake" (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.1-2.52). Though living environment has little effect, "Decrease in income" and "The same occupation as before the earthquake" have strong influences on low back pain

  6. Decontamination and decommissioning technology tree and the current status of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H.J.; Kim, G.N.; Lee, K.W.; Chol, W.K.; Jung, C.H.; Kim, C.J.; Kim, S.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Chung, C.M

    2001-03-01

    A technology tree diagram was developed on the basis of the necessary technologies applicable to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The technology tree diagram is consist of 6 main areas such as characterization, decontamination, decommissioning and remote technology, radwaste management, site restoration, and decommissioning plan and engineering. Characterization is divided into 4 regions such as sampling and data collection, general characterization, chemical analysis and radiological analysis. Decontamination is also divided into 4 regions such as chemical decontamination, mechanical decontamination, the other decontamination technologies and new decontamination technologies. Decommissioning and remote technology area is divided into 4 regions such as cutting techniques, decommissioning technologies, new developing technologies and remote technologies. Radwaste management area is divided into 5 regions such as solid waste treatment, sludge treatment, liquid waste treatment, gas waste treatment and thermal treatment. Site restoration area is divided into 3 regions such as the evaluation of site contamination, soil decontamination and ground water decontamination. Finally, permission, decommissioning process, cost evaluation, quality assurance and the estimation of radionuclide inventory were mentioned in the decommissioning plan and engineering area. The estimated items for each technology are applicable domestic D and D facilities, D and D problem area and contamination/requirement, classification of D and D technology, similar technology, principle and overview of technology, status, science technology needs, implementation needs, reference and contact point.

  7. Congenital hypothyroidism after assisted reproductive technology in Japan: comparison between multiples and singletons, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooki Syuichi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between congenital hypothyroidism (CH and multiple pregnancy has not been fully studied in Japan. Methods Complete nationwide data of assisted reproductive technology (ART in Japan from 2005 to 2009 presented by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which include information on CH and birth defects were used for analyses. Diseases were reclassified according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition (ICD-10, 2003 version. The relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI of the incidence rate for CH was calculated with singletons as the reference group. Additional birth defects with CH were examined. The probandwise concordance rate of multiples and recurrence risk ratio were calculated. Results There were 18 patients with CH, consisting of 12 singletons and 6 multiples. The incidence rates of CH per 1,000 live births in singletons and multiples are 0.14 (=12/87,145 and 0.31 (=6/19,533, respectively. The incidence rate was more than twofold higher in multiple births than in singleton births, but the difference was not statistically significant (RR=2.2, 95% CI 0.8–5.9. Additional birth defects were present in three patients with CH (17%=3/18. The multiples were affected by other birth defects more frequently (33%=2/6 than the singletons (8%=1/12. The six multiple-births patients were derived from one concordant twin pair, which consisted of two twin patients; three discordant twin pairs, which consisted of three twin patients; and one discordant triplets set, which consisted of one triplet patient. Thus, the probandwise concordance rate was 33.3% (=2/(2+4. The estimated recurrence risk ratio was 1976 (for the total ART population or 609 (for the Japanese general population. Conclusions CH was more frequent in multiples compared to singletons. A higher percentage of additional birth defects was also observed in multiples compared to singletons. The familial aggregation of CH

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan: Symposium on Applications of Advanced Technology: Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-02

    R + E/ FADH 2 (1) uses the purple membrane. Needless to say, the construc- E/FADH2 + 02 , E/FAD + H 2 0 2 (2) tion of "molecular composite systems...technologies. In that sense, some of oxidized version, while E/FAD and E/ FADH 2 represent, our attempts are still in their infancy and the distance...1992 CH-oH RCONH HA 0 H S-CH2CHCOOH lo. ""-• (--NADP----’ I • S-CH2 CHCOOH H OH Glucose Flovin adenine a-:-glucose dehydrogenose dinucleolide FADH 2

  9. Status of sex reassignment surgery for gender identity disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumori, Naoya

    2012-05-01

    An incongruence between one's physiological sex and the gender identity that is one's basic sense of self as a man or a woman is known as gender identity disorder. In general, the conditions of physiological men having female gender identity and physiological women having male gender identity are called male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder, respectively. Although the precise pathogenesis of gender identity disorder remains unclear, the prevalence of gender identity disorder is quite high, with the rates calculated for male-to-female to be 1:25,000 and female-to-male to be 1:12,000 in Hokkaido, Japan. The diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder in Japan are based on the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Gender Identity Disorder, 4th edition. Although gender identity disorder was previously thought to be a psychiatric condition, it is extremely difficult to assign gender identity to physiological sex by psychiatric and psychological treatments. To adapt the figure of the body to the native gender identity, physical treatments such as administration of cross-sex steroids and sex reassignment surgery are considered. However, there are very few institutions that routinely carry out sex reassignment surgery in Japan, even though it is mandatory for changing sex on the census register at the present time. Sex reassignment surgery for male-to-female and female-to-male patients includes orchiectomy, penectomy, clitoroplasty, vaginoplasty and vulvoplasty, and hysterectomy, ovariectomy, metoidioplasty and phalloplasty, respectively. To provide accurate information about physical treatment for patients with gender identity disorder, even urologists who are not actively involved in the diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder should understand the fundamental aspects and contemporary problems of gender identity disorder.

  10. Imaging plant leaves to determine changes in radioactive contamination status in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Tanihata, Isao; Saito, Tadashi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Todo, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant leaves often reflects environmental contamination. The authors analyzed images of plant leaves to investigate the regional radioactivity ecology resulting from the 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, Japan. The present study is not an evaluation of the macro radiation dose per weight, which has been performed previously, but rather an image analysis of the radioactive dose per leaf, allowing the capture of various gradual changes in radioactive contamination as a function of elapsed time. In addition, the leaf analysis method has potential applications in the decontamination of food plants or other materials.

  11. Characteristics of “Abstracts of Science and Technology in Japan, Agro-Industries” and Related Agricultural Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Shukuko; Sasaki, Toshio

    Japan Agricultural Library Council has cooperated with JICST in making abstracts of “Abstracts of Science and Technology in Japan, Agro-Industries” published by JICST over these five years. Taking this opportunity of starting computerized edition of the Title and changing the coverage the author and others reviewed the abstracting work so far. The outline of the Title is first described. Then the number of journals and citations covered in it by subject are compared with those of Japan Agriculture Literature Article Index of which main users are agricultural scientists and researchers and which is used as reference tool of selecting papers to be included in English titles. The characteristics and points to be improved are explained. Characteristics of agriculture literature, which are seen through making English abstracts are also described.

  12. Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Takehito

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

  13. Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Keiko; Takano, Takehito

    2005-05-27

    Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women), the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups), individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income) and regional (N = 60) indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate) were examined by multilevel analysis. Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

  14. Research status and application prospects of digital technology in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-xi; Zhang, Kun; Hao, Yi-ni; Hu, Yong-cheng

    2012-08-01

    In the last 10 years, basic and clinical research in orthopaedics has developed rapidly. Understanding of orthopaedic disorders involves not only routine diagnosis, but also the pursuit of highly efficient and accurate three-dimensional imaging of the intra- and extra-medullary distribution, form and structure of orthopaedic disorders, thus allowing scientific evaluation of the indications for surgery, drawing up of the best surgical plan, minimization of operative trauma and the earliest possible restoration of limb function. Meanwhile, the most important type of basic research, which was previously biomechanical research, has gradually become computational biomechanics based on in vitro cadaver experiments. This review aims to summarize the research status and application prospects of digital technology in orthopaedics, including virtual reality technology, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping techniques, computational biomechanics, computer navigation technology and management of digitization of medical records. © 2012 Tianjin Hospital and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Current status of bariatric surgery in Japan and effectiveness in obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Akira; Wakabayashi, Go; Yonei, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    The rate of obesity in Japan, defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater, is reportedly at 24 %, a lower level of severe obesity than in the EU and US. However, the incidence of obesity-related health problems is reportedly higher among Asians. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is the most frequently performed bariatric surgery in Japan and accounted for 54 % of such surgeries in 2011; procedures such as laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), practiced frequently worldwide, were uncommon. Possible reasons include concern over delayed postoperative discovery of gastric cancer in LRYGB, and rapid adoption of the comparatively simple LSG procedure. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, where continued pursuit of medical treatment is difficult and a potential exists for future deterioration of diabetes-complicated diseases, the criterion for surgical indication in the EU and US is a BMI of 30-35 kg/m(2), with priority given to BMI >35 kg/m(2). For Asian patients, the recommendation is to lower this indication criterion by 2.5 kg/m(2). Efficacy of metabolic surgery is anticipated particularly among T2DM patients with obesity complication, a short history of insulin treatment, and intact insulin secreting ability, and in these cases bariatric surgery should be contemplated.

  16. Current Status and Future Outlook of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuro; Yoshii, Ryosuke

    2007-07-01

    For Japan, a country poor in natural resources, in light of the tough energy situation in recent times, a National Energy Strategy with energy security at its core was established in May 2006. The key point of the Strategy is nuclear power generation, and the aim is to ensure that nuclear power generation continues to account for 30 to 40 percent or more of total electricity generated even after 2030. The first step to achieving this goal is to make maximum use of existing plants (55 plants, 49580MWe), and the aim is to achieve a 60-year service life by making improvements to plant operation and maintenance, such as extending current monitoring and maintenance of plant condition, and the implementation of plant aging management. In Japan, plant construction has been continuous since the 1970s. The current new plant construction plan (13 plants, 17230MWe) is to be achieved with a concerted, cohesive national effort. In addition, in order to complete the nuclear fuel cycle, a reprocessing plant is being constructed strictly for peaceful use, and construction of a site for disposing of high-level radioactive waste is also proceeding. Development of the next generation light water reactors and fast breeder reactor cycle is also underway. (auth)

  17. Status of QNDE and NDC research for nuclear power plant in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Teruo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Advanced and Science]|[National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, MITI (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    Nuclear power plants in Japan have been fabricated and constructed in compliance with the standards developed by MITI in 1980. These standards were developed as design standards taking aging phenomena during service lifetime into consideration. But these standards do not specify the requirements for flaw evaluation and repair methods, though they include some maintenance requirements. Therefore, MITI decided to develop Maintenance Standards which commensurate with plant age, and entrusted Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) with survey of ASME Sec. XI. Draft of Maintenance Standards was developed in March, 1996, and will be legislated by 1999. Structural materials of nuclear power plants would sustain damage owing to cyclic stress, high temperature or neutron irradiation etc. during operation. And damage would change mechanical properties of materials, such as tensile strength, charpy absorption energy, fracture toughness and so on. As integrity of nuclear power station depends on these mechanical properties of materials, it will become very important to be able to evaluate mechanical properties of materials nondestructively especially for older nuclear power plants. These circumstances made MITI entrust JAPEC with verification test to develop nondestructive characterization methods. This verification test started in the 1990 fiscal year and was completed in 1997 fiscal year. (orig./DGE)

  18. Current Status of Regulatory Science Education in Faculties of Pharmaceutical Science in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohkin, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

     I introduce the current pharmaceutical education system in Japan, focusing on regulatory science. University schools or faculties of pharmaceutical science in Japan offer two courses: a six-year course for pharmacists and a four-year course for scientists and technicians. Students in the six-year pharmaceutical course receive training in hospitals and pharmacies during their fifth year, and those in the four-year life science course start research activities during their third year. The current model core curriculum for pharmaceutical education requires them to "explain the necessity and significance of regulatory science" as a specific behavior object. This means that pharmacists should understand the significance of "regulatory science", which will lead to the proper use of pharmaceuticals in clinical practice. Most regulatory science laboratories are in the university schools or faculties of pharmaceutical sciences; however, there are too few to conduct regulatory science education. There are many problems in regulatory science education, and I hope that those problems will be resolved not only by university-based regulatory science researchers but also by those from the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory authorities.

  19. Status of QNDE and NDC research for nuclear power plant in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Teruo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Advanced and Science]|[National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, MITI (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    Nuclear power plants in Japan have been fabricated and constructed in compliance with the standards developed by MITI in 1980. These standards were developed as design standards taking aging phenomena during service lifetime into consideration. But these standards do not specify the requirements for flaw evaluation and repair methods, though they include some maintenance requirements. Therefore, MITI decided to develop Maintenance Standards which commensurate with plant age, and entrusted Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) with survey of ASME Sec. XI. Draft of Maintenance Standards was developed in March, 1996, and will be legislated by 1999. Structural materials of nuclear power plants would sustain damage owing to cyclic stress, high temperature or neutron irradiation etc. during operation. And damage would change mechanical properties of materials, such as tensile strength, charpy absorption energy, fracture toughness and so on. As integrity of nuclear power station depends on these mechanical properties of materials, it will become very important to be able to evaluate mechanical properties of materials nondestructively especially for older nuclear power plants. These circumstances made MITI entrust JAPEC with verification test to develop nondestructive characterization methods. This verification test started in the 1990 fiscal year and was completed in 1997 fiscal year. (orig./DGE)

  20. The Current Status of Nursing Professionalism Among Nursing Faculty in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Michiko; Taketomi, Kikuko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Kawamoto, Rieko

    2017-02-01

    The faculty of nursing schools plays an important role in the successful execution of nursing education. Therefore, faculty behavior strongly affects the professional development of nurses. However, few studies have examined professional nursing behaviors from the perspective of nursing faculty. Members of nursing faculty in Japan were surveyed regarding their perspectives on behaviors related to professionalism. The model, Miller's Wheel of Professionalism in Nursing, was used as the theoretical framework. The Behavioral Inventory for Professionalism in Nursing (BIPN) was completed by 74 full-time nursing faculty who were currently working at 10 institutes of nursing education in Japan. The mean BIPN score for the participants was 11.56 (SD = 6.08) of a possible total of 27. The highest and lowest BIPN category scores were for "research development, use, and evaluation" and "community service," respectively. Professionalism was found to relate significantly to higher educational preparation (F = 32.17, p professionalism (p professionalism and both educational preparation (r = .85, p nursing educator (r = .31, p = .0077). The results support the idea that a higher level of educational preparation and more years of experience as a member of a nursing faculty are associated with higher levels of nursing professionalism. The professional behavior scores suggest that "community service" is an issue that requires further improvement among Japanese nursing faculty. Awareness of extrinsic factors such as education is important to maximize nursing professionalism. The findings of this study may help nursing faculty continue their self-development.

  1. Relationships between sarcopenia and household status and locomotive syndrome in a community-dwelling elderly women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoki, Chika; Habu, Daiki; Ogura, Juri; Tada, Arisa; Hasei, Ai; Sakurai, Kotone; Watanabe, Hatsumi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly women in Japan. A total of 186 women aged over 65 years attending preventive care classes were enrolled in the study. Muscle mass was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass and low muscle strength in accord with the consensus report of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Data regarding household status (living alone, with a spouse, or with children and/or grandchildren), calf circumference and the presence of locomotive syndrome were obtained, as well as dietary variety score, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence and Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form, and 10-item Eating Assessment Tool scores. Sarcopenia was identified in 21.0% of participants. Participants with sarcopenia were older, had a lower body mass index and calf circumference, and were more likely to have locomotive syndrome, and living with children and/or grandchildren. In multivariate analysis, age, body mass index sarcopenia, as were associated living alone (OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.45-6.41), and living with children and/or grandchildren (OR 2.46, 95% CI 0.71-8.54) and dietary variety score ≥9 (OR 4.98, 95% CI 0.97-25.56). Age, body mass index, dietary variety score, locomotive syndrome and household status were associated with sarcopenia. Early interventions are required for older adults identified as having a higher risk of sarcopenia to prevent its adverse health consequences. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 54-60. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  3. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  4. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  5. Microbiological status of live eel and processed fish products for export to Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaya, M A; Chuink, B H; Aniran, K

    1997-01-01

    Live eels and processed fish products from Malaysia are routinely checked for microbial pathogens before export to Japan. The eels and water from the ponds are screened for Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella spp, whereas the processed fish products are tested for microbial contamination (aerobic plate count), coliforms, E. coil and Vibrio cholerae. Results showed that live eels and water samples were negative for Vibrio cholerae but Salmonella spp were isolated occasionally. Various types of processed fish products had counts below 1.0 x 10(5) whilst coliforms, E. coli and Vibrio cholerae were absent. Records available showed that procedures involved in the production and transportation of live eel, preparation and processing of fish products have resulted in relatively safe food products.

  6. Japan Returns to Atom. Current Status and Prospects of the Japanese Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Tolak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a year and a half after the events of March 2011, Japan excluded all their nuclear reactors, returning to fossil fuels as a basis in the energy field. The shock associated with nuclear disaster seemed to indicate an ultimate end of Japanese adventure with the atom. The situation has, however, significantly changed during the last several months, and the first nuclear reactor connected again to the electric network, is a proof of the change of the energy policy. The article aims to identify the current state of knowledge on the future of nuclear energy in the Japanese energy sector and adjustments proposed in the future energy mix. At the same time, it is an attempt to analyze the reasons that led the current Government of Prime Minister Abe to take very unpopular decisions to return to nuclear energy.

  7. Contamination status and spatial distribution of organochlorine compounds in fishes from Nansei Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Takahashi, Shin; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Sudaryanto, Agus; Miyagi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masaru; Yasumura, Shigeki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Two species of fishes (n=52; tilapia and mullet) from industrialized and urbanized areas of Okinawa Island (Manko-Noha river, Hija river and Shikaza river) and from a remote area of Ishigaki Island (Anparu mudflat), Japan were collected between August 2005 and July 2006, and analyzed for five organochlorine compounds (OCs), viz., DDTs, PCBs, CHLs, HCHs and HCB. Concentrations and the contamination patterns of OCs in fishes varied between locations. Considerable residue levels of OCs, especially CHLs and DDTs were found in both fishes from the main Okinawa Island. These levels were relatively higher than the reported values for seafood from Japanese coasts, indicating that even now pollution sources of these contaminants still exist in this region. On the other hand, lower concentrations of OCs were detected in fishes from Ishigaki Island waters than those of other Japanese coastal waters, suggesting that this region is less contaminated by OC contaminants.

  8. Vorinostat approved in Japan for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Akinori SatoDepartment of Urology, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, JapanAbstract: Histone acetylation and deacetylation play important roles in the regulation of gene transcription and in the modulation of chromatin structure. The levels of histone acetylation are determined by the activities of histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs. HDACs are associated with a number of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and can be aberrantly expressed and/or inappropriately activated in cancer cells. HDAC inhibitors have therefore recently emerged as a novel treatment modality against malignancies. They regulate gene expression by enhancing the acetylation of not only histones but also nonhistone proteins, including transcription factors, transcription regulators, signal transduction mediators, and DNA repair enzymes, and they inhibit cancer growth. Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is one of the most potent HDAC inhibitors, and was approved in Japan in 2011 for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Numerous clinical trials have shown it to be effective against cutaneous T-cell lymphoma but less so against other types of cancer. Because vorinostat can overcome resistance to or enhance the efficacy of other anticancer agents, such as 5-fluorouracil, carboplatin, paclitaxel, bortezomib, and tamoxifen, combination therapies using vorinostat and these agents have been investigated. This review introduces the background and mechanism of action of vorinostat and describes the results of clinical trials using vorinostat, both as a single agent and in combination with other anticancer agents, against cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and other malignancies.Keywords: vorinostat, T-cell lymphoma, cancer, novel treatment

  9. Dr Hiroshi Ikukawa Director Planning and Evaluation Division Science and Technology Policy Bureau Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan and Mr Robert Aymar signed an accord for the CERN.

    CERN Document Server

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    Dr Hiroshi Ikukawa Director Planning and Evaluation Division Science and Technology Policy Bureau Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan and Mr Robert Aymar signed an accord for the CERN.

  10. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  11. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  12. Get Oriented: Study Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1981-01-01

    Recommends that students in social studies classes be exposed to a study of Japan because of the wide array of contrasts possible between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on Japan's modernization, global status, language, decision-making processes, and ancient traditions. (DB)

  13. VRdose: an exposure dose evaluation system based on virtual reality technology - current status and future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Yukihiro; Louka, Michael; Johnsen, Terje

    2004-07-01

    The Fugen Nuclear Power Station (NPS) was shut down permanently in March 2003, and preparatory activities are underway to decommission the Fugen NPS. It is necessary to accomplish the decommissioning economically and rationally by optimizing the workload, exposure dose and waste mass. This is important at the planning stage of the decommissioning. Virtual reality (VR) technology may prove beneficial to this process with regard to minimizing the workers' radiation exposure as well as contributing towards achieving efficient use of manpower. It could also be a valuable tool in the actual dismantling phase. In addition to this, VR provides an effective medium in presentations for public acceptance as well as for communication with relevant engineers. The VRdose project conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Halden Virtual Reality Centre is doing research and development of VR technology for use in the decommissioning process at the Fugen NPS. This is technically an extensive project, touching on many of the present challenges in the VR area such as visual simulation and animation, interaction with objects in a virtual environment and scenario generation and optimisation. This paper describes the present status and future of the system. (Author)

  14. Status of radiation detector and neutron monitor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y K; Ha, J H; Han, S H; Hong, S B; Hwang, I K; Lee, W G; Moon, B S; Park, S H; Song, M H

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe the current states of the radiation detection technology, detectors for industrial application, and neutron monitors. We also survey the new technologies being applied to this field. The method to detect radiation is the measurement of the observable secondary effect from the interaction between incident radiation and detector material, such as ionization, excitation, fluorescence, and chemical reaction. The radiation detectors can be categorized into gas detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors according to major effects and main applications. This report contains the current status and operational principles of these detectors. The application fields of radiation detectors are industrial measurement system, in-core neutron monitor, medical radiation diagnostic device, nondestructive inspection device, environmental radiation monitoring, cosmic-ray measurement, security system, fundamental science experiment, and radiation measurement standardization. The st...

  15. [Contribution of socioeconomic status to smoking behavior of parents of 4th grade elementary school students in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Shuichi; Inoue, Takao; Yamazaki, Akimi; Hata, Akira

    2011-05-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and social factors on smoking behavior of parents of fourth grade elementary school students in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to a total of 4,179 households of fourth grade elementary school students. A total of 3,522 responses including actual numbers of children, smoking behavior of parents, and marital status were available for the analysis. Current smoking rate in mothers was 21.2%. In mothers, "smoking of spouse" "single mother", "under the age of 34", "not taking child-care leave;", "mother's parents not alive", "mothers from Chiba", "nursery use", "not use parenting circles", "unvaccinated measles or inoculation unknown" and "life dissatisfaction" were statistically associated with smoking behavior. The current smoking rate in fathers was 51.4%. Four factors of "smoking of spouse", "under the age of 34", "non-skilled labor, sales work" and "employees of private companies of less than 1,000 employees" were statistically associated with smoking behavior. The present study demonstrated a close link between smoking behavior and individual socioeconomic status in Japanese parents. Especially, smoking of spouse and being a single female parent were important factors for smoking.

  16. Nutritional status and dietary intake among pregnant women in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kaoru; Takemi, Yukari; Hayashi, Fumi; Hosokawa, Momo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study examined nutritional status and dietary intake of pregnant women in Japan in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).Methods Participants included 141 Japanese women with singleton pregnancies, from the outpatient department of the S hospital, Gunma prefecture, Japan. Two-day food records, dietary assessment questionnaires, and clinical records were obtained at 20 weeks gestation. Nine patients were excluded from the study due to morning sickness. The remaining 132 participants were divided into 3 groups according to pre-pregnancy BMI: underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Nutritional status and dietary intake were analyzed in relation to BMI using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, and analysis of covariance with adjustment for age, employment status, and total energy intake.Results Women who were underweight before pregnancy were more frequently working full-time than normal weight and overweight women. Underweight women were also more frequently anemic (P=0.038, underweight 39.3%, normal weight 24.7%, overweight 0%) and had lower mean hemoglobin (Hb) (P=0.021, underweight 11.3 g/dL, normal weight 11.6 g/dL, overweight 12.1 g/dL) and hematocrit (Hct) levels (P=0.025, underweight 33.7%, normal weight 34.3%, overweight 36.0%). Their dietary intake of protein, iron, magnesium, and folic acid was lower than that of normal weight and overweight women. Their meals tended to include fewer meat, fish, egg, and soybean dishes (underweight, mean of 4.7 servings per day; normal weight, 6.1 servings; overweight, 6.1 servings).Conclusion Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy had increased risk of anemia as well as reduced Hb and Hct levels. They had lower dietary intake of protein, iron and folic acid compared to women in the other BMI categories. Anemia and these nutrient deficiencies are known risk factors for low birth weight. Our findings suggest

  17. Social Environment and Control Status of Companion Animal-Borne Zoonoses in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, Hiromi; Omoe, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary The risk of companion animal-borne zoonoses has been rising in Japan with the tendency for increasing number of households to ever-growing numbers and varieties of animals as pets. In response, the Japanese government has implemented measures for the domestic and border control of zoonoses. However, it is impossible to determine whether these measures have adequately controlled the transmission of companion animal-borne zoonoses, due to a lack of (i) direct evidence linking companion animal involvement in disease and (ii) understanding of current trends in disease outbreak. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data necessary to make this determination and identify these trends. Abstract Changing social and environmental factors have been the cause of an increase in the number and variety of animals are being imported into Japan. Moreover, the number of Japanese households are keeping companion animals has also risen. These factors, along with the high density of the Japanese population and the low percentage of registered dogs, have increased the risk of animal-to-human transmission of zoonoses. To control zoonosis outbreaks, the Japanese government has implemented a three-stage approach for the border control of zoonoses and has stipulated the monitoring and reporting of eight companion animal-borne zoonoses under the Rabies Prevention Law and the Infectious Diseases Control Law. The fact that no case of human and animal rabies has been reported over the past 50 years indicates that these measures are highly effective in preventing rabies transmission. Although it is known that the total number of possible companion animal-borne zoonosis outbreaks decreased between 2005 and 2009 when compared with numbers between 2001 and 2004, the number of zoonosis cases that can be attributed to transmission by companion animals remains unclear. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data

  18. Overview of superconductivity in Japan Strategy road map and R&D status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, O.

    2008-09-01

    Superconducting technology benefits society in broad fields; environment/energy, life science, manufacturing industry and information and communication. Superconducting equipments and devices used in various fields are divided into two categories, electric and electronic applications. Technologies in those applications are progressing remarkably owing to firm and consistent supports by various national projects. The final target of the NEDO R&D project of fundamental technology for superconductivity applications to develop 500 m long coated conductors (CCs) of the critical current 300 A/cm (at 77 K, 0 T) will be fulfilled by the end of JFY 2007 and manufacturing process to produce extremely low-cost CCs is to be developed to make the applications realistic. Preliminary works to develop power apparatuses using CCs have started in the frame of the R&D project for the fundamental technology and have produced significant results. Performance of BSCCO/Ag-sheathed wires has been improved greatly and various applications using those wires are being developed. R&D projects for SMES, power cable, flywheel energy storage and rotating machines are going to introduce those equipments to the real world. Technologies of SQUID and SFQ, basic devices of the electronic applications, are progressing dramatically also owing to various national projects. In this back ground the technology strategy map in the field of superconducting technology was formulated to prioritize investments in R&D by clearly defining the objectives and inspire autonomous R&D actives in various fields of industries. R&D activities in the superconducting technologies are to be scheduled following this strategy map.

  19. Contamination status and accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in pet dogs and cats from Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nakanishi, Shigeyuki [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Abe, Takao [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Nakatsu, Susumu [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Kawauchi, Sakio [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Sano, Akihiko [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Horii, Akira [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Kano, Yasumasa [Japan Small Animal Veterinary Association, Shiba 2-5-7, Minato-ku 105-0014 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-08-15

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and their metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds were determined in genital organs of pet dogs and cats and pet foods from Japan. Levels of OCs in dogs were relatively lower than those in cats, while residue levels in their diets were almost similar, implying that accumulation and elimination mechanisms of these contaminants are different between dogs and cats. When bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were estimated from concentrations of OCs in dogs, cats, and their diets, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs exceeded 1.0 in cats. On the other hand, in all the dogs, BCFs of DDTs were below 1.0, suggesting that dogs do not bioconcentrate DDTs. Furthermore, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs in dogs were notably lower than those in cats, suggesting that dogs have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for these contaminants than cats. When residue levels of OCs in livers, adipose tissue, and genital organs of two pet dogs were examined, hepatic sequestration of PCDD/DFs and oxychlordane was observed. - Pet dogs may have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for organochlorines than pet cats.

  20. Contamination status of persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from Japan: recent levels and temporal trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Muraoka, Masayoshi; Ohtake, Masako; Sudaryanto, Agus; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Ueno, Daisuke; Higaki, Yumi; Ochi, Miyuki; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Kamikawa, Satoko; Tonegi, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Yumi; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Junya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-08-01

    Contamination levels of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs) was examined in human breast milk collected during 2001-2004 from Fukuoka prefecture in Japan. The concentrations of OCs such as dioxins and related compounds, DDTs, CHLs and HCB in human breast milk from primiparae were comparable to or slightly higher than the data obtained during 1998, indicating that the levels of these contaminants in Japanese human breast milk have not decreased since 1998 and Japanese are continuously exposed to these chemicals, presumably via fish intake. In addition, OC levels in human breast milk from primiparae were significantly higher than those from multiparae, implying elimination of OCs via lactation. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were observed between levels of OCs in human breast milk and the age of primiparae. These results indicate that the mothers with higher age may transfer higher amounts of OCs to the first infant than to the infants born afterwards through breast-feeding, and hence the first born children might be at higher risk by OCs.

  1. In-house R&D versus external technology acquisitions : small technology-based firms in the U.S. and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Susumu

    1992-01-01

    This research is an investigation of the relationship between in-house R&D and external technology acquisitions--e.g.,licensing,R&D contracts,collaborative R&D projects,joint ventures or mergers--based on the data derived from small technology-based firms in the U.S. and Japan. There are three major parts to this research.In Part 1. we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of in-house R&D versus external technology acquisitions,and examine key factors which affect "make-or-buy. decisions i...

  2. 日本大数据技术服务现状研究%Research on the Current Situation of Big Data Technology Service in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏阙; 王戴尊

    2015-01-01

    本文通过对日本大数据技术服务市场应用现状和问题的探讨,为我国大数据技术服务产业敲响警钟。我国相关部门可以针对日本在大数据技术服务提供产业中所遇到的问题及早布局,减少某些尚未暴露或者已经暴露出的行业发展问题对行业发展潜在的威胁。本文的结论对于保障我国大数据技术服务产业健康发展,加快培育我国大数据技术服务提供企业的核心竞争力有较高的现实意义和参考价值。%This paper probes into the discussion of the application status and problems of big data technolo⁃gy services market in Japan, ringing the alarm bells in the service industry of big data technology in China. The relevant departments of China, against the problems encountered by Japan in the service of big data technology, could provide an early layout to reduce some industry development problems that have not been exposed or have been exposed and the potential threat to the development of the industry. The conclusion of this paper has a higher practical significance and reference value to ensure the healthy development of China's big data technolo⁃gy services industry,accelerate the development of China's big data technology services and provide the core competitiveness of enterprises.

  3. Status of Propulsion Technology Development Under the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David; Kamhawi, Hani; Patterson, Mike; Pencil, Eric; Pinero, Luis; Falck, Robert; Dankanich, John

    2014-01-01

    Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies for NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for future NASA Discovery, New Frontiers, Flagship and sample return missions currently under consideration. The ISPT program is currently developing technology in three areas that include Propulsion System Technologies, Entry Vehicle Technologies, and Systems/Mission Analysis. ISPT's propulsion technologies include: 1) the 0.6-7 kW NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) gridded ion propulsion system; 2) a 0.3-3.9kW Halleffect electric propulsion (HEP) system for low cost and sample return missions; 3) the Xenon Flow Control Module (XFCM); 4) ultra-lightweight propellant tank technologies (ULTT); and 5) propulsion technologies for a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The NEXT Long Duration Test (LDT) recently exceeded 50,000 hours of operation and 900 kg throughput, corresponding to 34.8 MN-s of total impulse delivered. The HEP system is composed of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HIVHAC) thruster, a power processing unit (PPU), and the XFCM. NEXT and the HIVHAC are throttle-able electric propulsion systems for planetary science missions. The XFCM and ULTT are two component technologies which being developed with nearer-term flight infusion in mind. Several of the ISPT technologies are related to sample return missions needs: MAV propulsion and electric propulsion. And finally, one focus of the Systems/Mission Analysis area is developing tools that aid the application or operation of these technologies on wide variety of mission concepts. This paper provides a brief overview of the ISPT program, describing the development status and technology infusion readiness.

  4. A Study on Cooperation between Japan and ASEAN in Science and Technology%日本与东盟科技合作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕世鸿

    2005-01-01

    Japan has been for long seeking opportunities to explore the South - East Asian market and continuously to enhance its cooperation with ASEAN countries in science and technology. Currently, Japan has become the most important resource of capital and technology for ASEAN countries, which plays a significant role in boosting economic development in those countries. In future, Japan will continue such close cooperation as well as providing them with corresponding aid so as to strengthen its influence on regional affairs in South - East Asia and its further expansion in ASEAN economy.

  5. Robotic technology in surgery: current status in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G; Hall, Rohan; Tong, Raymond; Goel, Rajiv; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing patient and surgeon interest in robotic-assisted surgery, particularly with the proliferation of da Vinci surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) throughout the world. There is much debate over the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of these systems. The currently available robotic surgical technology is described. Published data relating to the da Vinci system are reviewed and the current status of surgical robotics within Australia and New Zealand is assessed. The first da Vinci system in Australia and New Zealand was installed in 2003. Four systems had been installed by 2006 and seven systems are currently in use. Most of these are based in private hospitals. Technical advantages of this system include 3-D vision, enhanced dexterity and improved ergonomics when compared with standard laparoscopic surgery. Most procedures currently carried out are urological, with cardiac, gynaecological and general surgeons also using this system. The number of patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery in Australia and New Zealand has increased fivefold in the past 4 years. The most common procedure carried out is robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Published data suggest that robotic-assisted surgery is feasible and safe although the installation and recurring costs remain high. There is increasing acceptance of robotic-assisted surgery, especially for urological procedures. The da Vinci surgical system is becoming more widely available in Australia and New Zealand. Other surgical specialties will probably use this technology. Significant costs are associated with robotic technology and it is not yet widely available to public patients.

  6. Present Status and Internationalization Prospect of China Float Glass Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng, Shou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief account on the development course of China float glass technology accompanied by a detailed introduction of the current status of China float glass technology, covering the respects of production line scale, product variety, product quality, technology & equipment level, etc., and makes prospects for internationalized development trend of China flat glass industry.

    Este trabajo presenta una breve recopilación de los desarrollos en curso de la tecnología de vidrio flotado en China, acompañada por una introducción detallada de la situación de la industria y tecnología del vidrio plano en este país. Se cubren los aspectos de líneas de producción, variedad de productos, calidad de los productos, tecnología y nivel de equipamiento, etc. y se hacen algunas predicciones sobre las tendencias de desarrollo e internacionalización de la industria china de vidrio plano.

  7. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.

    2014-06-01

    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  8. The Status of Precision Agriculture in Japan%日本精确农业的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨印生; 吴才聪; 等

    2001-01-01

    精确农业作为基于知识的农业技术体系,被认为是实现农业可持续发展的先进生产方式。本文介绍了日本在精确农业领域的研究现状,并针对我国的精确农业研究提出几点思考与建议。%As a knowledge-based system that integrates many advanced technologies such as global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS), variable rate technology (VRT) and yield mapping, precision agriculture has emerged as a promising sustainable development way that could increase agricultural productivity with environmental stewardship by optimizing inputs such as fertilizers,pesticides,water,seeds and others, to gain the greatest return to the producer and the least impact on the environment. It is a necessary outcome of agricultural development. This paper reviewed the current state of the art of precision agriculture in Japan. And also, the paper presented some thoughts and proposals on the research and development of precision agriculture in China.

  9. Indian fast reactor technology: Current status and future programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Chetal; P Chellapandi

    2013-10-01

    The paper brings out the advantages of fast breeder reactor and importance of developing closed nuclear fuel cycle for the large scale energy production, which is followed by its salient safety features. Further, the current status and future strategy of the fast reactor programme since the inception through 40 MWt/13 MWe Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), is highlighted. The challenges and achievements in science and technology of FBRs focusing on safety are described with the particular reference to 500 MWe capacity Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), being commissioned at Kalpakkam. Roadmap with comprehensive R&D for the large scale deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs) and timely introduction of metallic fuel reactors with emphasis on breeding gain and enhanced safety are being brought out in this paper.

  10. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy - Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented of point-focusing, or 'dish' solar concentrator system features, development status, and performance levels demonstrated to date. In addition to the requirements of good optical efficiency and high geometric concentration ratios, the most important future consideration in solar thermal energy dish concentrator design will be the reduction of installed and lifetime costs, as well as the materials and labor costs of production. It is determined that technology development initiatives are needed in such areas as optical materials, design wind speeds and wind loads, structural configuration and materials resistance to prolonged exposure, and the maintenance of optical surfaces. The testing of complete concentrator systems, with energy-converting receivers and controls, is also necessary. Both reflector and Fresnel lens concentrator systems are considered.

  11. Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabić-Stanković Kata M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and mached to point current status. Results of analysis and discussion The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%, as well as, ADAC (43.7% and Focus (CMS (27.4% systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%, although classic ”simulation” is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%. About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CFRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.. CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day. Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. Technological aspects and conclusion In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in

  12. Changes in Mothers' Psychosocial Perceptions of Technology-dependent Children and Adolescents at Home in Japan: Acknowledgement of Children's Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Nishigaki, RN, PHN, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: First, mothers gradually accepted the conditions of their child after his/her disease and disability were known. Second, others managed technology-required care and concurrently considered the social participation of their child through daily care at home. Third, the level of preoccupation with the child was affected by the mothers' management of care and their attitude towards the social participation of their child in home care. In this study, as is widely alleged in historical recognition of Japan, mothers provided daily care almost without help from other family members. Additionally, they thought it natural and good for their children. Above all, especially in Japan, professional support for mothers are necessary so that they can take breaks from care.

  13. Current Status of Home Medical Care Waste Collection by Nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yukihiro

    2017-02-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the current status of home medical care (HMC) waste collection by nurses for individual items and whether the collection rate differs with city size. The questionnaire was mailed to 1,022 nursing offices, of which 645 offices provided valid responses. Offices were classified into three groups according to the local population size. Responses indicated that used syringes and needles, except for pen-type self-injection needles, were collected by >50% of HMC nurses. On the other hand, enteral nutrients, nutritional adjustment diet vessels, feeding tubes, portable injectors, ventilator masks, endotracheal suction catheters, tracheal cannulas, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) bags, and urinary catheters and bags had a low collection rate in comparison with syringes or needles. The collection percentage of used syringes, needles, and infusion needles (p < 0.05) and that for infusion bags, tubes, and catheters (p < 0.001) differed among the three population groups. Although municipalities are responsible for collect all HMC waste, sharp or infectious items should be collected by HMC doctors or nurses. On the contrary, nonhazardous HMC waste should be collected by municipalities. This paper illustrates the status of waste collection of individual home medical care (HMC) items by HMC nurses. Infectious waste, such as needles and syringes, is collected by nurses. The collection rate of infectious waste by nurses in large cities was low compared with that in small cities. Although municipalities are responsible for collecting all HMC waste, sharp or infectious items should be collected by HMC doctors or nurses, whereas nonhazardous HMC waste should be collected by the municipalities.

  14. Socioeconomic status and the risk of suspected autism spectrum disorders among 18-month-old toddlers in Japan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    2014-06-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified checklist for autism in toddlers were mailed to all families with 18-month-old toddlers in Chiba, a city near Tokyo (N = 6,061; response rate: 64%). The results of logistic regression analysis (which were adjusted for potential confounders) indicated that low maternal education, but not paternal education or family income, were associated with having suspected ASD offspring. Lower maternal education was associated with an increased risk of autistic traits in Japan.

  15. Current Requirements of the Society to the Professional Training of Specialists in Information Technology Industry in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pododimenko Inna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of professional training of skilled human personnel in the industry of information communication technology, the urgency of which is recognized at the state level of Ukraine and the world, has been considered. It has been traced that constantly growing requirements of the labour market, swift scientific progress require the use of innovative approaches to the training of future ІТ specialists with the aim to increase their professional level. The content of standards of professional training and development of information technologies specialists in foreign countries, particularly in Japan, has been analyzed and generalized. On the basis of analysis of educational and professional standards of Japan, basic requirements to the engineer in industry of information communication technology in the conditions of competitive environment at the labour market have been comprehensively characterized. The competencies that graduate students of educational qualification level of bachelor in the conditions of new state policy concerning upgrading the quality of higher education have been considered. The constituents of professional competence in the structure of an engineer-programmer’s personality, necessary on different levels of professional improvement of a specialist for the development of community of highly skilled ІТ specialists, have been summarized. Positive features of foreign experience and the possibility of their implementation into the native educational space have been distinguished. Directions for modernization and upgrading of the quality of higher education in Ukraine and the prospects for further scientific research concerning the practice of specialists in information technologies training have been suggested

  16. [Current status and issues in development of occupational physicians in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Training systems for occupational physicians (OPs) have existed since the Industrial Safety and Health Act was enacted in 1972. However, it is necessary to enhance them because of changes in the business environment of Japanese corporations and working patterns have brought about new needs of occupational health (OH) activities. In this paper, OPs were classified into three categories; doctors who spend a part of working time on OH activities, i.e. "non-specialist OPs", doctors who engage in OH activities full-time, i.e. "specialists OPs", and doctors who manage corporate-wide occupational health programs or lead programs at OH service institutes, i.e. "lead OPs", and the status and the issues were reviewed. The major concern identified for each of the three categories in training were found to be quality management for non-specialist OPs, short supply for specialists OPs, and development of competencies such as leadership and management skills for lead OPs, respectively. Current efforts and ideas to improve the training systems were discussed.

  17. Present Status of Venus Climate Orbiter (Planet-C) development in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masato

    Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) is the first Japanese Venus orbiter to be launched in 2010. It aims at studying the atmospheric dynamics of Venus. We keep the time schedule of VCO development at ISAS/JAXA with the collaboration with university researchers and industrial engineers. In this talk we will report the present status of the VCO development in 2008. We have finished the Proto-Model integration test of major components of VCO in December 2007. Mechanical engineering model of the spacecraft has been built and its evaluation was done at Tsukuba Space Center and Sagamihara campus. The vibration levels are mostly consistent with the results from the mathematical modeling. It has been converted to the Thermal test model and is under evaluation in the thermal vacuum chamber at Sagamihara. In March 2008, we had the CDR for the phase-up (to Phase D). After the CDR, flight model of VCO has been built by NEC Corp. and ISAS/JAXA. It will be finalized by 2009 and the final integration test will be done during whole 2009.

  18. Questionnaire survey regarding the current status of super-extended lymph node dissection in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shinji; Fukagawa, Takeo; Fujiwara, Hisataka; Katai, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To verify the current status of super-extended lymph node dissection for advanced gastric cancer according to a questionnaire survey. METHODS One-hundred and five institutions responded to the questionnaire. The survey included the following items: Number of experiences, whether performed prophylactically and/or therapeutically, whether preoperative chemotherapy was provided, number of preoperative chemotherapy rounds, and therapeutic options after chemotherapy. RESULTS Eighty-seven of the 105 institutions (83%) had performed D3 gastrectomy in the past or continued to perform D3 gastrectomy at present. However, D3 gastrectomy was rarely performed prophylactically in clinical practice. Seventy-eight institutions (74%) indicated that preoperative chemotherapy with curative intent was required for patients suspected of having para-aortic node (PAN) metastases. After chemotherapy, a D3 gastrectomy was scheduled for patients with a complete or partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease at 36 (46%), 28 (36%), and 13 (17%) of the institutions, respectively. CONCLUSION For patients with apparent PAN metastasis, a D3 gastrectomy is typically planned if a few courses of preoperative chemotherapy yield at least a stable disease condition. PMID:27672429

  19. Orodental status and medical problems of stroke inpatients undergoing rehabilitation at a rehabilitation hospital in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Yoshinao; Omichi, Shiro; Ono, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    Many stroke patients may have oral problems and systemic diseases, but clinical information on treatment provided to stroke patients for dental problems during inpatient rehabilitation is rare. The objective of this study was to research stroke inpatients' requirements for dental treatment and the accompanying risks. We included 165 stroke patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation at Morinomiya Hospital during the year 2010 and researched the causes of stroke and the patients' orodental status, underlying diseases, antithrombotic drugs prescribed and special considerations or difficulties in the treatment. Cerebral infarction was the most common causes of stroke. Many patients had hypertension, heart disease or diabetes mellitus, and 54.5% had been prescribed antithrombotic drugs. Dentists diagnosed 57.0% patients with untreated dental cavities. Approximately 30% did not use dentures despite having a requirement. In total, 142 patients underwent dental treatment including periodontal treatment, prosthetic treatment and tooth extraction under management of circulation and haemostasis such as monitoring vital signs and surgical splints in cases of the difficult extraction. The current study revealed a high requirement for dental treatment among stroke patients and demonstrated the effectiveness of performing dental treatment during inpatient rehabilitation of these patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Present status of beryllides for fusion and industrial applications in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, Yoshinao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G3-23 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: mishima@materia.titech.ac.jp; Yoshida, Naoaki [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Takahashi, Heishichiro [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ishida, Kiyohito [Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Aobayama 02, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kawamura, Hiroshi [Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Iwadachi, Takaharu [Engineering Department, New Metals Division, NGK Insulators Ltd., 1 Maegata-cho, Handa, Aichi 475-0825 (Japan); Shibayama, Tamaki [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ohnuma, Ikuo [Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Aobayama 02, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sato, Yoshiyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, 1-1 Tegata, Gakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Munakata, Kenzo; Iwakiri, Hirotomo [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Uchida, Munenori [Engineering Department, New Metals Division, NGK Insulators Ltd., 1 Maegata-cho, Handa, Aichi 475-0825 (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    Beryllides have remarkable characteristics besides their low density, such as high radiation resistance, high chemical stability, low hydrogen isotope retention and good high temperature mechanical strength especially for fusion applications. In order to have a practical usage for industrial applications, it is important to compile a set of quantitative data on such properties. It is also important to develop fabrication and processing paths to assure the processing of inherently brittle beryllides. The characterization and manufacturing technologies development have been carried out mainly on the Be{sub 12}Ti interemetallic compounds at the Be-rich side of the Be-Ti binary system. In the present paper, up-dated results on several properties are described for the compound fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and ingot metallurgy. Mechanical properties of the compounds having a duplex microstructure with neighboring phases are evaluated by compressive tests from room temperature to 1273 K. Radiation damage of the compound is preliminary studied by charged particle irradiation. Oxidation in air and the interaction with water vapor are evaluated. Thermal desorption of the deuterium is examined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). Through these evaluations it seems that Be{sub 12}Ti is superior as neutron multiplier with respect to pure Be metal.

  1. BepiColombo Euro-Japan Joint mission to Mercury: MMO Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, H.; Maejima, H.; BepiColombo MMO Project Team

    2011-12-01

    ) meeting, which discusses science related matters, will be held on Sep. 2009 following to the MESSENGER-BepiColombo Joint Workshop. In this paper, we will report the latest information of MMO project status.

  2. The Technology of Technology Transfer. The Case of the Japan-Singapore Technical Institute. Discussion Paper No. 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo e Oliveira, Joao Batista; Pillay, Gerald F.

    The new economic and industrial policies of the 1980s called for a major restructuring of the industrial profile of Singapore. The government decided to set up three new technical institutes to prepare and supply skilled workers to new investors: French-, German-, and Japan-Singapore Technical Institutes with the collaboration of the government…

  3. LNG - Status in Denmark. Technology and potential. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2012-05-15

    The interest for LNG both on a small and a large scale is increasing worldwide. The experiences and knowledge on LNG is limited in Denmark. The Danish gas companies' Technical Management Group (TCG) has asked for a status report including a technology description and an evaluation of the potential in Denmark. A survey of primarily small-scale LNG technology is done in the report. The focus is motivated by the new areas of gas utilisation that become possible with small-scale LNG. Small-scale LNG in this study is defined as LNG stored and used at the application or in an isolated gas grid. The small-scale use of LNG has today an almost negligible share of the total LNG trade but offers interesting new applications for gas utilisation. LNG on a small scale can be used primarily as: 1) Ship fuel. 2) Truck fuel (heavy duty long distance). 3) Individual users not connected to the natural gas grid. 4) Backup for upgraded biogas to individual users and vehicle fleets. 5) Security of supply or supply enhancement of heavily loaded parts of the gas grid. 6) Small-scale storage and/or peak shaving. All but the first topics are natural uses for the current Danish gas distributors. LNG as ship fuel may engage other specialized LNG companies. The report contains a technical description of the parts in primarily small-scale LNG handling and operation. Liquefaction, transport, storage, engine technologies, gas quality and safety aspects related to LNG are covered. There seem to be two more or less separate paths for LNG in Denmark, onshore and off-shore use. These are not, apparently, sharing their experiences and knowledge. Rules and regulations are also different which may create some problems in the interface, for example ship bunkering. Further studies are suggested in the area of gas quality and engine technologies and adaptation of foreign guidelines for small-scale installations to Danish conditions. These guidelines ought to be based on international standards and

  4. Effectiveness of Disaster-prevention Technologies against Quake-induced Damage of MR Scanners during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Machida, Yoshio; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Isoda, Haruo; Noguchi, Takashi; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have performed a statistical analysis to investigate damages in magnetic resonance (MR) scanners caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE, magnitude 9.0) and evaluated whether these disaster-prevention technologies contributed to the reduction of damages in the GEJE or not. It was confirmed that the extent of damage was significantly different between seismic scale (SS) 5 and SS over 6. Our survey study demonstrated that anchoring of MR facilities reduced damages due to quakes and demonstrated that anchoring is an efficient method for quake-induced damage prevention. The odds ratio revealed that base isolation was very useful to prevent damages in MR scanners.

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Molecular Ultrathin Film Control and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-11

    Layers in an [ITO/PDiPF-LB(N-L)/Al] MIM Device 27 References 1. M. Kakimoto , M. Suzuki, Y. Imai, M. Iwamoto, T. Hino, ACS Sympo., Ser. No 346...1987, p 484; idem., CHEM. LETT., Vol 395, 1987, p 823; Kakimoto , Nishikata, Imai, Spring Meeting of Japan Chemical Society, 3 IVA 46. 2. M. Uekita

  6. The status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Choi, Young Min; Han, Hyuck Dong

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to report the status of assisted reproductive technology (ART) therapy in South Korea between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. A localized online survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was first launched and provided to all available ART centers via email in 2015. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized as standard in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or half-ICSI. Thawed embryo transfer (TET) and other related procedures, including surgical sperm retrieval, were surveyed. Data from 33,956 ovum pick-up procedures were provided by 75 clinics in 2012. Of the 33,088 cycles in which ovums were retrieved, a complete transfer was performed in 90.5% (29,932 cycles). In addition, 10,079 FET cycles were confirmed to have resulted in clinical pregnancy, representing a pregnancy rate of 30.5% per ovum pick-up and 33.7% per ET. The most common number of embryos transferred in FET was 2 (41.6%), followed by 3 (34.0%), and non-elective single ETs (10.0%). Of the 10,404 TET cycles in which transfer was completed, 3,760 clinical pregnancies (36.1%) were confirmed by ultrasonography. The overall clinical pregnancy rate for FET and TET cycles in 2012 was higher than in 2011 (33.7% vs. 33.2% and 36.1% vs. 31.1%, respectively). The most common number of embryos transferred in FET cycles was 2, unlike in 2011.

  7. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2015-03-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea. This study was designed to report on the current status of ART therapy in South Korea between January 1 and December 31 of 2010. A revised survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was sent to all available ART centers via email in 2013. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized into standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injections. These cases, the thawing embryo transfer (TET) cases, and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 30,785 ART procedures were provided by 78 clinics. Of the 28,200 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, 92.2% of these cycles were completely transferred. In addition, 8,075 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, which represent a pregnancy rate of 28.6% per oocyte pick-up and 31.1% per embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET was three embryos (37.3%) followed by two embryos (36.3%) and one embryo (14.0%). Of the 6,648 TET cycles transferred, 2,356 clinical pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography. The most common number of embryos in the TET group was two embryos (43.4%) followed by three embryos (25.4%) and one embryo (18.9%). The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in the FET cycles was similar in 2009 and 2010. Among the FET cycles where one or two embryos were transferred, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer slightly increased from 2009 (28.7%) to 2010 (32.9%).

  8. Wind turbines: current status, obstacles, trends and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, E. I.; Botsaris, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    The last decade the installation of wind farms around the world is spreading rapidly and wind energy has become a significant factor for promoting sustainable development. The scope of the present study is to indicate the present status of global wind power expansion as well as the current state of the art in the field of wind turbine technology. The RAM (reliability/availability/maintenance) section is also examined and the Levelized Cost of Energy for onshore/ offshore electricity production is presented. Negative consequences that go with the rapid expansion of wind power like accidents, environmental effects, etc. are highlighted. Especially visual impact to the landscape and noise pollution are some factors that provoke social reactions. Moreover, the complicated and long permitted process of a wind power plant, the high capital cost of the investment and the grid instability due to the intermittent nature of wind, are also significant obstacles in the development of the wind energy production. The current trends in the field of research and development of onshore and offshore wind power production are analyzed. Finally the present study is trying to achieve an estimation of where the wind industry targets for the years to come.

  9. Changes in Mothers' Psychosocial Perceptions of Technology-dependent Children and Adolescents at Home in Japan: Acknowledgement of Children's Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaki, Kaori; Kanamori, Yutaka; Ikeda, Mari; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Minowa, Hideko; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2016-06-01

    This research was conducted to reveal Japanese mothers' changing perceptions towards their technology-dependent children in the home care setting. Fourteen Japanese mothers participated in semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. "Degree of preoccupation with the child" emerged as the category representing the mothers' perceptions towards their child. Three categories emerged that represented the progression of maternal perceptions over time: "accepting the child's conditions", "mastering the management of care in various conditions", and "considering social participation for the child". First, mothers gradually accepted the conditions of their child after his/her disease and disability were known. Second, others managed technology-required care and concurrently considered the social participation of their child through daily care at home. Third, the level of preoccupation with the child was affected by the mothers' management of care and their attitude towards the social participation of their child in home care. In this study, as is widely alleged in historical recognition of Japan, mothers provided daily care almost without help from other family members. Additionally, they thought it natural and good for their children. Above all, especially in Japan, professional support for mothers are necessary so that they can take breaks from care. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Setsuro Tamaru and Fritz Haber: links between Japan and Germany in science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hideko Tamaru

    2015-04-01

    Setsuro Tamaru was my grandfather. He worked with Fritz Haber in Germany on researching the ammonia synthesis process and contributed substantially to the development of scientific research and education in Japan. Although I had never met him, I felt his existence while I grew up, since our house was built by him and had many artifacts brought back from Germany by my grandfather; e.g., a Bechstein upright piano upon which I practiced piano every day and Fritz Haber's portrait with his handwritten message hung on the wall. This is an account of my grandfather's life, concentrating on his relationship with Fritz Haber. This story goes back to a time more than a century ago. Copyright © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. JTEC Panel report on electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John; Meieran, Gene; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John; Tummala, Rao; Dehaemer, Michael J.; Holdridge, Geoff (Editor); Gamota, George

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies.

  12. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (8)First HVDC Transmission System in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampei, Masatoshi

    This paper is an episode concerning the Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link that is the first High Voltage DC Current transmission system in Japan. The effort to the commissioning of the first stage of this system is explained. Moreover, it explains the research and development executed to achieve 600MW of this system that is the final stage. In addition, the adoption episode of the frequency control method introduced for Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link is explained.

  13. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2016-03-01

    The number of assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics, ART cycles, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), and number of newborns conceived using ART have steadily increased in South Korea. This aim of this study was to describe the status of ART in South Korea between January 1 and December 31, 2011. A localized online survey was created and sent to all available ART centers via email in 2015. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized depending on whether standard in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or half-ICSI procedures were used. Thawed embryo transfer (TET) and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 36,990 ART procedures were provided by 74 clinics. Of the 30,410 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, a complete transfer was performed in 91.0% (n=27,683). In addition, 9,197 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, representing a pregnancy rate of 30.2% per oocyte pick-up and 33.2% per ET. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET procedures was three (38.1%), followed by two (34.7%) and one (14.3%). Of the 8,826 TET cycles, 3,137 clinical pregnancies (31.1%) were confirmed by ultrasonography. While the overall clinical pregnancy rate for the TET cycles performed was lower than the rate reported in 2010 (31.1% vs. 35.4%), the overall CPR for the FET cycles was higher than in 2010 (33.2% in 2011 and 32.9% in 2010). The most common number of embryos transferred in FET cycles was three, as was the case in 2010.

  14. Associations of employment status and educational levels with mortality and hospitalization in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaboyas, Angelo; Robinson, Bruce M.; Pisoni, Ronald L.; Nomura, Takanobu; Akiba, Takashi; Akizawa, Tadao; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Saito, Akira; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Inaba, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status (SES) factors such as employment, educational attainment, income, and marital status can affect the health and well-being of the general population and have been associated with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, no studies to date in Japan have reported on the prognosis of patients with CKD with respect to SES. This study aimed to investigate the influences of employment and education level on mortality and hospitalization among maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients in Japan. Methods Data on 7974 HD patients enrolled in Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study phases 1–4 (1999–2011) in Japan were analysed. Employment status, education level, demographic data, and comorbidities were abstracted at entry into DOPPS from patient records. Mortality and hospitalization events were collected during follow-up. Patients on dialysis < 120 days at study entry were excluded from the analyses. Cox regression modelled the association between employment and both mortality and hospitalization among patients < 60 years old. The association between education and outcomes was also assessed. The association between patient characteristics and employment among patients < 60 years old was assessed using logistic regression. Results During a median follow-up of 24.9 months (interquartile range, 18.4–32.0), 10% of patients died and 43% of patients had an inpatient hospitalization. Unemployment was associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.36) and hospitalization (HR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08–1.44). Compared to patients who graduated from university, patients with less than a high school (HS) education and patients who graduated HS with some college tended to have elevated mortality (HR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04–1.92 and HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02–1.82, respectively) but were not at risk for increased hospitalizations. Factors associated with unemployment included lower level of

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan: Status, Development Direction of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-20

    and Kore K.H. Kim climatic fluctuations 14 Superconducting power Germany Riese Siemens /KMV, generator development Department manager 15 Superconducting...power France Sabrie Alstom , Department generator development manager 16 Closed-cycle MHD Holland Rietjens Eindhoven University, (magnetohydrodynamics

  16. A Quantitative Examination of the Educational Technology Characteristics of Ohio Schools and Their Blue Ribbon Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from Ohio schools and the frequency of use of educational technology, a teacher's comfort level using technology, and a teacher's beliefs about the effect of educational technology on teaching and learning based upon the school's Blue Ribbon award status. The study used an ex-post facto, quantitative…

  17. 75 FR 39664 - Grant of Authority For Subzone Status Materials Science Technology, Inc. (Specialty Elastomers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority For Subzone Status Materials Science Technology, Inc... Materials Science Technology, Inc., located in Conroe, Texas, (FTZ Docket 46-2009, filed October 27, 2009... Science Technology, Inc., located in Conroe, Texas (Subzone 265C), as described in the application...

  18. Status of the Third Miniature Sensor Technology Integration Satellite Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Barnhart, David; Hurtz, Rick; McClelland, Jim; Cellarius, Mark; Meyers, AI

    1994-01-01

    The MSTI-3 satellite is the third in a series established to test, in realistic scenarios, miniature spacecraft and sensor technologies for missile detection and tracking on low-cost, low-earth orbit technology demonstration satellites. Cooperative demonstrations are planned to combine MSTI-provided target track file information, with interceptor technology tests, to fully demonstrate technologies associated with theater missile defense (TMO) targeting. The program is sponsored by the Ballist...

  19. Principles and status of neutron-based inspection technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Tsahi

    2011-06-01

    and energetically significantly different from the background, thus making them readily distinguishable. The penetrability of neutrons as probes and signatures as well as the gamma ray signatures make neutron interrogation applicable to the inspection of large conveyances such as cars, trucks, marine containers and also smaller objects like explosive mines concealed in the ground. The application of nuclear interrogation techniques greatly depends on operational requirements. For example explosive mines and IED detection clearly require one-sided inspection, which excludes transmission based inspection (e.g., transmission radiography) and greatly limits others. The technologies developed over the last decades are now being implemented with good results. Further advances have been made over the last several years that increase the sensitivity, applicability and robustness of these systems. The principle, applications and status of neutron-based inspection techniques will be reviewed.

  20. [Chapter 2. Transitions in drug-discovery technology and drug-development in Japan (1980-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Noriko; Yoshioka, Ryuzo; Matsumoto, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    In 1970s, the material patent system was introduced in Japan. Since then, many Japanese pharmaceutical companies have endeavored to create original in-house products. From 1980s, many of the innovative products were small molecular drugs and were developed using powerful medicinal-chemical technologies. Among them were antibiotics and effective remedies for the digestive organs and circulatory organs. During this period, Japanese companies were able to launch some blockbuster drugs. At the same time, the pharmaceutical market, which had grown rapidly for two decades, was beginning to level off. From the late 1990s, drug development was slowing down due to the lack of expertise in biotechnology such as genetic engineering. In response to the circumstances, the research and development on biotechnology-based drugs such as antibody drugs have become more dynamic and popular at companies than small molecule drugs. In this paper, the writers reviewed in detail the transitions in drug discovery and development between 1980 and 2010.

  1. Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooki S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syuichi OokiDepartment of Health Science, Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART.Methods: Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25–29, 30–34 (reference, 35–39, and 40+ years.Results: Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25–29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30–35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed.Conclusion: Maternal age is

  2. The effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment on computer professionals' subjective health status and productive behavior in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Maki; Asakura, Takashi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment on the subjective health status and productive behavior of computer professionals, we conducted a web-based investigation with Japanese IT-related company employees in 53 company unions. The questionnaire consisted of individual attributes, employment characteristics, working hour characteristics, company size and profitability, personal characteristics (i.e., Growth Need Strength), micro and macro stressors scale, and four outcome scales concerning the subjective health status and productive behavior. We obtained 1,049 Japanese IT-related company employees' data (response rate: 66%), and analyzed the data of computer engineers (80%; n=871). The results of hierarchical multiple regressions showed that each full model explained 23% in psychological distress, 20% in cumulative fatigue, 44% in job dissatisfaction, and 35% in intentions to leave, respectively. In micro stressors, "quantitative and qualitative work overload" had the strongest influence on both the subjective health status and intentions to leave. Furthermore, in macro stressors, "career and future ambiguity" was the most important predictor of the subjective health status, and "insufficient evaluation systems" and "poor supervisor's support" were important predictors of productive behavior as well. These findings suggest that improving not only micro stressors but also macro stressors will enhance the subjective health status and increase the productive behavior of computer professionals in Japan.

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Key Tech Center Advanced Communications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    information society . Today, information telecommunication systems are being networked through interconnections, and it is expected that such systems will play a leading role in the future flow of advanced information. Therefore in order to predict future technological developments, it is necessary to elucidate the themes of the development of communication technologies related both to network construction and administration, and to analyze user needs sufficiently. From this perspective, the Key Technology Center initiated its ’Research in Advanced Communications

  4. Role development of nurses for technology-dependent children attending mainstream schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Fumie; Suzuki, Machiko

    2015-04-01

    To describe the role development of nurses caring for medical technology-dependent children attending Japanese mainstream schools. Semi-structured interviews with 21 nurses caring for technology-dependent children were conducted and analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. Nurses developed roles centered on maintaining technology-dependent children's physical health to support children's learning with each other, through building relationships, learning how to interact with children, understanding the children and the school community, and realizing the meaning of supporting technology-dependent children. These findings support nurses to build relationships of mutual trust with teachers and children, and learn on the job in mainstream schools. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the

  6. Status quo and development trend of breast biopsy technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Wei, Lichun; Li, Jie; Zheng, Yi-Qiong; Li, Xi-Ru

    2013-01-01

    .... With the continuous advancement of diagnostic and treatment technology for breast cancer, collection of diseased tissue has also undergone a gradual transition from traditional open surgery to biopsy...

  7. Status of NASA's Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, W. J. D.; Moses, J. L.; Gorland, S. H.; Stephenson, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology program is considered. The program's three major technical areas include combustion devices, turbomachinery, and controls and monitoring. Directed toward reducing acquisition and operations risk and cost the ETO program is conducted in two serially-performed categories: technology acquisition and technology validation. The former is constituted of studies, tool building, and bench-scale experimentation. The latter involves next-step verification of the acquisition results and findings, usually leading to a test-bed validated technology 'product'.

  8. Microgravity experiments on boiling and applications: research activity of advanced high heat flux cooling technology for electronic devices in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2004-11-01

    Research and development on advanced high heat flux cooling technology for electronic devices has been carried out as the Project of Fundamental Technology Development for Energy Conservation, promoted by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan (NEDO). Based on the microgravity experiments on boiling heat transfer, the following useful results have obtained for the cooling of electronic devices. In subcooled flow boiling in a small channel, heat flux increases considerably more than the ordinary critical heat flux with microbubble emission in transition boiling, and dry out of the heating surface is disturbed. Successful enhancement of heat transfer is achieved by a capillary effect from grooved surface dual subchannels on the liquid supply. The critical heat flux increases 30-40 percent more than for ordinary subchannels. A self-wetting mechanism has been proposed, following investigation of bubble behavior in pool boiling of binary mixtures under microgravity. Ideas and a new concept have been proposed for the design of future cooling system in power electronics.

  9. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan STA 1988 White Paper Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-13

    crops, including potatoes and tangerines , in March 1988 at the national research institutes and JAERI. The irradiation of food has come to be...advanced technology seeds cul- tivation research consignment costs 1,253 1,242 100 Seed cultivation by advanced bio- 100 technology...Laboratory, Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Cultivation Laboratory Agricultural Research Center Agricultural Biological Resources Research Institute

  10. The Impact of Generational Status on Instructors' Reported Technology Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Saxon, D. Patrick; Edmonson, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of colleges and universities are equipped with the latest instructional technologies, an appreciable integration of technology has not been observed in instructional practices (Flavin, 2013; Garrison & Akyol, 2009; Salinas, 2008). The purpose of this research is to understand the impact that generational differences can…

  11. Status and prospect of radiation processing technology in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan; Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation processing technology in Malaysia is gaining acceptance by the local industry. The technology has proven to enhance the industrial efficiency, productivity and improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, variety of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been produced either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. Today, effort is being focused towards producing environmentally friendly and biodegradable materials using natural polymers. The government of Malaysia through the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has developed research program to utilize indigenous materials such as natural rubber, palm oil and polysaccharide. Radiation processing technology is used to process (crosslink/grafting/curing) the materials at a competitive cost. This technology can be applied in several industrial sectors such as automobile, aerospace, construction and healthcare. (author)

  12. Status quo and development trend of lost foam casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zitian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lost foam casting (LFC technology has been widely applied to cast iron and cast steel. However, the development of LFC for Al and Mg alloys was relatively slower than that for cast iron and cast steel. The application of LFC to Al and Mg alloys needs more effort, especially in China. In this paper, the development history of LFC is reviewed, and the application situations of LFC to Al and Mg alloys are mainly discussed. Meanwhile, the key problems of LFC for Al and Mg alloys are also pointed out. Finally, the prospects for LFC technology are discussed, and some special new LFC technologies are introduced for casting Al and Mg alloys. In future, the development trends of green LFC technology mainly focus on the special new LFC methods, metal material, coating, heat treatment, new foam materials as well as purification technology of tail gas, etc.

  13. Status quo and development trend of lost foam casting technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zitian; Jiang Wenming; Liu Fuchu; Xiao Botao

    2014-01-01

    Lost foam casting (LFC) technology has been widely applied to cast iron and cast steel. However, the development of LFC for Al and Mg aloys was relatively slower than that for cast iron and cast steel. The application of LFC to Al and Mg aloys needs more effort, especially in China. In this paper, the development history of LFC is reviewed, and the application situations of LFC to Al and Mg aloys are mainly discussed. Meanwhile, the key problems of LFC for Al and Mg aloys are also pointed out. Finaly, the prospects for LFC technology are discussed, and some special new LFC technologies are introduced for casting Al and Mg alloys. In future, the development trends of green LFC technology mainly focus on the special new LFC methods, metal material, coating, heat treatment, new foam materials as wel as puriifcation technology of tail gas, etc.

  14. Neuroscience and nanotechnologies in Japan--beyond the hope and hype of converging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushiaki, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnologies are often said to be "converging" with other technologies like biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science. And so-called "NBIC convergence" is thought to enable "enhancement" of human performance. First, I classify various kinds of enhancement. Second, I focus on the "cybernetic enhancement," to which nanotechnologies are supposed to contribute, and analyze the connection and integration of humans with machines, which could lead to the cyborgization of human beings. Third, I examine the portrayal of robot/cyborg technology in Japanese popular media, point out the tendency to empathy or ensoulment concerning robots/cyborgs, and raise the question of "ethical issues of ethical enhancement." Fourth, I compare nanotechnologies with neurotechnology and criticize the hype of "converging technologies."

  15. The Status of Basic Technology in Cross River State Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    Copyright © IAARR, 2007-2016: www.afrrevjo.net. Indexed African ... instructional materials for teaching basic technology in junior secondary school in. Cross River State and .... resource utilization. Conference paper, Nigeria Audio – visual.

  16. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Technology Development Status and Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, Extravehicular activity (EVA) technology development became a technology foundational domain under a new program Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration. The goal of the EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA technology life and limited availability of the EMUs will become a critical issue eventually. The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has vastly served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability could be an option for the future mission applications building off of the technology development over the last several years. Besides ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for

  17. Current status and future perspectives of research and development cooperation between utilities, research institutions and universities in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Yasuji [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the research and development activity in the field of electric power production, transmission and distribution in Japan. Organizations participating in the research and development are described with emphasis on theirs roles and cooperation between them. Next described are the R and D subjects and projects carried out by respective organizations. The needs and motivations of respective R and D programs are reviewed briefly together with the financial and human resources put into implementation. The R and D activities in the electric power industry are compared with those in other industrial sectors such as automobile, steel, telecommunication, etc. Mainly in terms of R and D fund. A similar comparison is made with the electric power industry in countries other than Japan. Importance of the international cooperation in stressed for further development of electric power industry and economic progress worldwide. (author) 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Comparison of Current Regulatory Status for Gene-Based Vaccines in the U.S., Europe and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Nakayama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene-based vaccines as typified by plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant viral-vectored vaccines are expected as promising solutions against infectious diseases for which no effective prophylactic vaccines exist such as HIV, dengue virus, Ebola virus and malaria, and for which more improved vaccines are needed such as tuberculosis and influenza virus. Although many preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted to date, no DNA vaccines or recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing heterologous antigens for human use have yet been licensed in the U.S., Europe or Japan. In this research, we describe the current regulatory context for gene-based prophylactic vaccines against infectious disease in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. We identify the important considerations, in particular, on the preclinical assessments that would allow these vaccines to proceed to clinical trials, and the differences on the regulatory pathway for the marketing authorization in each region.

  19. Current status of Dual Ka-band radar field campaign in Japan for GPM/DPR mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Nishikawa, Masanori; Nakamura, Kenji; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi; Hanado, Hiroshi; Minda, Haruya; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Oki, Riko; Furukawa, Kinji

    2013-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an expanded follow-on mission to TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and a GPM core satellite will carry dual frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and a GPM Microwave Imager on board. The DPR, which is being developed by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), consists of two radars; Ku-band precipitation radar (KuPR) and Ka-band radar (KaPR). The DPR is expected to advance precipitation science by expanding the coverage of observations to higher latitudes than those of the TRMM/PR, measuring snow and light rain by the KaPR, and providing drop size distribution information based on the differential attenuation of echoes at two frequencies. In order to secure the quality of precipitation estimates, ground validation (GV) of satellite data and retrieval algorithms is essential. Since end-to-end comparisons between instantaneous precipitation data observed by satellite and ground-based instruments is not enough to improve the algorithms. The error of various physical parameters in the precipitation retrieval algorithms (e.g. attenuation factor, drop size distribution, terminal velocity, density of the snow particles, etc.) will be estimated by the comparison with the ground-based observation data. A dual Ka-band radar system is developed by the JAXA for the GPM/DPR algorithm development. The dual Ka-radar system which consists of two identical Ka-band radars can measure both the specific attenuation and the equivalent radar reflectivity at Ka-band. Those parameters are important particularly for snow measurement. Using the dual Ka-radar system along with other instruments, such as a polarimetric precipitation radar, a wind-profiler radar, ground-based precipitation measurement systems, the uncertainties of the parameters in the DPR algorithm can be reduced. The verification of improvement of rain retrieval with the DPR algorithm is

  20. CURRENT STATUS AND RECLAMATION PLAN OF FORMER URANIUM MINING AND MILLING FACILITIES AT NINGYO-TOGE IN JAPAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kazuhiko; Tokizawa, Takayuki

    2003-02-27

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) conducted research and development projects on uranium exploration in Japan from 1956 to 1987. Several mine facilities, such as waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond, were retained around Ningyo-toge after the projects ended. Although there is no legal issue in the mine in accordance with related law and agreements at present, JNC has a notion that it is important to reduce the burden of waste management on future generations. Thus, the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of JNC proposed a reclamation plan for these facilities with fundamental policy, an example of safety analysis and timetables. The plan has mainly three phases: Phase I is the planning stage, and this paper corresponds to this: Phase II is the stage to perform various tests for safety analysis and site designing: Phase III is the stage to accomplish measures. Preliminarily safety analyses suggested that our supposed cover designs for both waste rock and m ill tailing are enough to keep dose limit of 1mSv/y at site boundaries. The plan is primarily based on the Japanese Mine Safety Law, also refers to ICRP recommendations, IAEA reports, measures implemented overseas, etc. because this is the first case in Japan. For the accomplishment of this plan, it is important to establish a close relationship with local communities and governments, and to maintain a policy of open-to-public.

  1. Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Iwasaki, Mayo; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-01-01

    The body size of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used as an environmental indicator of radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. However, geographical and temporal size distributions in Japan and temperature effects on size have not been established in this species. Here, we examined the geographical, temporal, and temperature-dependent changes of the forewing size of Z. maha argia in Japan. Butterflies collected in 2012 and 2013 from multiple prefectures throughout Japan demonstrated an inverse relationship of latitude and forewing size, which is the reverse of Bergmann’s cline. The Fukushima population was significantly larger than the Aomori and Miyagi populations and exhibited no difference from most of the other prefectural populations. When monitored at a single geographic locality every other month, forewing sizes were the largest in April and the smallest in August. Rearing larvae at a constant temperature demonstrated that forewing size followed the temperature-size rule. Therefore, the converse Bergmann’s rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species. Our study establishes this species as a useful environmental indicator and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution. PMID:26197998

  2. Status of diabetes treatment in Japanese adults: an analysis of the 2009 Japan Society of Ningen Dock database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiko; Moriyama, Kengo; Yamakado, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    The Japan Diabetes Society (JDS) has recommended target levels of glycemic control based on guidelines for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). The Japan Society of Ningen Dock created a database of subjects receiving annual health examinations nationwide. Using this database, we evaluated the efficacy of current treatment for patients with DM based on the JDS recommendations. This multicenter, retrospective study was conducted using data obtained from 21 institutions across Japan. In order to assess the level of glycemic control in the Japanese population, we analyzed previously obtained measurements of HbA1c in 7,180 patients 20 to 79 years of age (mean age: 57.9 ± 8.7 years, 6,007 men and 1,173 women) taking DM medications. According to the JDS guidelines, 44.7% of the patients fell into the good glycemic control group, with an HbA1c level of <7.0% while 22.4% were classified into the poor glycemic control group, with an HbA1c level of ≥ 8.0%. The control of other arteriosclerosis risk factors deteriorated as the glycemic control deteriorated. Lifestyle factors were strongly found to be associated with glycemic control in the patients receiving DM treatment. Aggressive lifestyle modification is needed to improve glycemic control in patients with DM.

  3. Current status and future tasks of the Sunshine Project. (Development of new energy technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, T.

    1983-01-01

    Since its inception in 1974, the Sunshine Project has involved advances in new energy technology in many areas. The present report covers the principal areas of activity in 1980, examining the development status of solar energy, goethermal energy, coal liquefaction and gasification, hydrogen energy, wind power, ocean thermal energy conversion, etc. Future trends and tasks of new energy technology development are discussed. (In Japanese)

  4. Present status and trend of technological developments for millimeter wave sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Toshio; Okamoto, Ken'ichi; Kitamura, Katsumi; Awaka, Jun; Manabe, Takeshi

    1989-06-01

    Millimeter wave atmospheric propagation characteristics and state-of-the-art millimeter wave component technologies are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the current status of technological developments for millimeter wave sensing systems such as automotive radars, automatic location identification systems, and industrial instrumentation radars.

  5. Status of spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Existing and planned facilities using proton accelerator driven spallation neutron source are reviewed. These include new project of neutron science proposed from Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present status of facility requirement and accelerator technology leads us to new era of neutron science such as neutron scattering research and nuclear transmutation study using very intense neutron source. (author)

  6. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kouzes, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peerani, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Aspinall, M. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Baird, K. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bakel, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Borella, M. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Bourne, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bourva, L. [Canberra Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Cave, F. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Chandra, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Zurich (Sweden); Chernikova, D. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dermody, G. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Dougan, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Ely, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fanchini, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Gavron, Victor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ishiyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Lee, T. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Martin, Ch. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); McKinny, K. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, OH (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Orton, Ch. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Pappalardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Peranteau, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Plenteda, R. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pozzi, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schear, M. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Seya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Siciliano, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, L. [Proportional Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tagziria, H. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Vaccaro, S. [DG Energy (Luxembourg); Takamine, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Weber, A. -L. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yamaguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Zhu, H. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3

  7. Status and prospects of frozen soil studies using CT technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiJie Chen; ShuPing Zhao; Wei Ma; QianTao Zhu; LiLi Xing

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of Computed Tomography (CT) technology and reviews its history, current situation, representative achievements, and use of using CT technology on frozen soil study, including auxiliary equipment specially de-signed for frozen soil studies. CT numbers are used to analyze frozen soil internal structure change, defining and exploring dam-age evolution, and use of CT images on observing soil mesostructure. Finally, this paper presents existing problems confronted by using CT in frozen soil studies, possible solutions and challenges, among which, we introduce high quality CT image processing for frozen soils, and relations between CT number change and each component change on frozen soil samples within the region of interest. It is shown that present CT technology is one of the most ideal and effective technology to study frozen soil mesostructure using non-destructive testing. CT technology will play a key role in the study and development in the field of frozen soil by means of auxiliary equipment and the digital imaging processing.

  8. PREFACE: 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium on the Fundamental and Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices and Technologies (RJUS TeraTech - 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Valeriy; Ryzhii, Viktor; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) Bauman Moscow State Technical University Moscow, Russia, 3-6 June, 2013 The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) was held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University on 3-6 June 2013 and was devoted to modern problems of terahertz optical technologies. RJUS TeraTech 2013 was organized by Bauman Moscow State Technical University in cooperation with Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) and University of Buffalo (The State University of New York, USA). The Symposium was supported by Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Moscow, Russia) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant number 13-08-06100-g). RJUS TeraTech - 2013 became a foundation for sharing and discussing modern and promising achievements in fundamental and applied problems of terahertz optical technologies, devices based on grapheme and grapheme strictures, condensed matter of different nature. Among participants of RJUS TeraTech - 2013, there were more than 100 researchers and students from different countries. This volume contains proceedings of the 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies'. Valeriy Karasik, Viktor Ryzhii and Stanislav Yurchenko Bauman Moscow State Technical University Symposium chair Anatoliy A Aleksandrov, Rector of BMSTU Symposium co-chair Valeriy E Karasik, Head of the Research and Educational Center 'PHOTONICS AND INFRARED TECHNOLOGY' (Russia) Invited Speakers Taiichi Otsuji, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Akira Satou, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Michael Shur, Electrical, Computer and System Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, USA Natasha

  9. A status of the Turbine Technology Team activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lisa W.

    1992-01-01

    The recent activities of the Turbine Technology Team of the Consortium for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Application in Propulsion Technology is presented. The team consists of members from the government, industry, and universities. The goal of this team is to demonstrate the benefits to the turbine design process attainable through the application of CFD. This goal is to be achieved by enhancing and validating turbine design tools for improved loading and flowfield definition and loss prediction, and transferring the advanced technology to the turbine design process. In order to demonstrate the advantages of using CFD early in the design phase, the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) turbines for the National Launch System (NLS) were chosen on which to focus the team's efforts. The Turbine Team activities run parallel to the STME design work.

  10. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Joint Convention of Electrical and Information Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-26

    fabricate the device. 118 Silicon-on-insulator " tecno g Refractory interconnect; A# contact formation technology Seed deposition Throuqhhole technology; fine...adapter I S D N terminal b ) Connection by built-in adaptor Figure 6. Terminal Connection to ISDN DTE T A Call setting [ manual ), Lae L e U. 24 ICall setting...11.4511 [1.441] Layer ISSN Terminal[ tbrmna] u cfon~at~e • 1.431] C 0 D E C Telephone line Hand set Call setting: Manual Automatic: (V.25 bis<->l.451

  11. THE CURRENT ACTIVITIES ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY IN JAPAN AND ITS FUTURE PROSPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the environmental regulations have been enacted to prevent pollution, the Japanese oil industry has responded by adopting a number of new technologies from over seas countries and by developing its own technologies.   Oil industry has been making great efforts to protect the environment for over three decades mentioned above. Even so we will have to make a strict commitment toward further improvements in air quality, such as the carbon dioxide, automobile emission and so on.   Since the environment protection will be more and more important in the future, oil industry must continue to try hard to preserve environment.

  12. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  13. Status quo and development trend of breast biopsy technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Wei, Lichun; Li, Jie; Zheng, Yi-Qiong; Li, Xi-Ru

    2013-02-01

    Triple assessment is a standard method for assessment of breast diseases, which includes clinical evaluation, radiographic assessment and pathological assessment. Biopsy for breast disease is the gold standard for pathological assessment, including incisional biopsy, excisional biopsy, core needle biopsy, vacuum-assisted biopsy and bite biopsy. With the continuous advancement of diagnostic and treatment technology for breast cancer, collection of diseased tissue has also undergone a gradual transition from traditional open surgery to biopsy. This review summarizes the current situation and development of breast biopsy technology to provide an insight into the latest details such as the safety and reliability as the basis for selection of the most appropriate techniques for specific settings.

  14. A Quantitative Examination of the Educational Technology Characteristics of Ohio Schools and Their Blue Ribbon Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from Ohio schools and the frequency of use of educational technology, a teacher's comfort level using technology, and a teacher's beliefs about the effect of educational technology on teaching and learning based upon the school's Blue Ribbon award status. The study used an ex-post facto,…

  15. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembit Salasoo; Ramu Chandra

    2010-02-19

    Thermal testing of a subscale locomotive sodium battery module was initiated.to validate thermal models. The hybrid trip optimizer problem was formulated. As outcomes of this project, GE has proceeded to commercialize trip optimizer technology, and has initiated work on a state-of-the-art battery manufacturing plant for high energy density, sodium-based batteries.

  16. Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).

  17. Technology status of HNF-based monopropellants for satellite propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marée, A.G.M.; Moerel, J.L.P.A.; Weiland-Veltmans, W.H.M.; Wierkx, F.J.M.; Zevenbergen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on significant technological progress made over the last few years in determining the feasibility of HNF-based monopropellants. An HNF-based monopropellant is an interesting alternative for hydrazine as monopropellant for satellite propulsion. New non-toxic monopropellants based o

  18. Technology status of HNF-based monopropellants for satellite propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marée, A.G.M.; Moerel, J.L.P.A.; Weiland-Veltmans, W.H.M.; Wierkx, F.J.M.; Zevenbergen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on significant technological progress made over the last few years in determining the feasibility of HNF-based monopropellants. An HNF-based monopropellant is an interesting alternative for hydrazine as monopropellant for satellite propulsion. New non-toxic monopropellants based o

  19. Status of Assistive Technology Instruction in University Personnel Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Margaret E.; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2012-01-01

    The reauthorization of IDEA mandates that students with a disability must be considered for assistive technology (AT). However, in order to implement the mandate, teachers and related service personnel must be knowledgeable about many aspects of AT. The purpose of this study was to gauge the extent to which personnel preparation programs believe…

  20. Biomass torrefaction technology: Techno-economic status and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Mignot, A.P.R.; Schakel, W.B.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising bioenergy pre-treatment technology, with potential to make a major contribution to the commodification of biomass. However, there is limited scientific knowledge on the techno-economic performance of torrefaction. This study therefore improves available knowledge on torre

  1. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status, potential, and research requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, B.; Feinberg, D.; Hill, A.; McIntosh, R.; Terry, K.

    1986-08-01

    Although numerous options for the production of fuels from microalgae have been proposed, our analysis indicates that only two qualify for extensive development - gasoline and ester fuel. In developing the comparisons that support this conclusion, we have identified the major areas of microalgae production and processing that require extensive development. Technology success requires developing and testing processes that fully utilize the polar and nonpolar lipids produced by microalgae. Process designs used in these analyses were derived from fragmented, preliminary laboratory data. These results must be substantiated and integrated processes proposed, tested, and refined to be able to evaluate the commercial feasibility from microalgae. The production of algal feedstocks for processing to gasoline or ester fuel requires algae of high productivity and high lipid content that efficiently utilize saline waters. Species screening and development suggest that algae can achieve required standards taken individually, but algae that can meet the integrated requirements still elude researchers. Effective development of fuels from microalgae technology requires that R and D be directed toward meeting the integrated standards set out in the analysis. As technology analysts, it is inappropriate for us to dictate how the R and D effort should proceed to meet these standards. We end our role by noting that alternative approaches to meeting the feasibility targets have been identified, and it is now the task of program managers and scientists to choose the appropriate approach to assure the greatest likelihood of realizing a commercially viable technology. 70 refs., 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  2. Status of dyslipidemia treatment in Japanese adults: an analysis of the 2009 Japan Society of Ningen Dock database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiko; Moriyama, Kengo; Yamakado, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) has recommended serum lipid management goals (SLMGs) based on the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk classification included in its 2007 guidelines for the diagnosis and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the Japanese population (JAS GL 2007). The Japan Society of Ningen Dock created a database of subjects receiving annual health examinations at 21 institutes nationwide. Using this database, we evaluated the efficacy of current treatment for patients with dyslipidemia by identifying risk factors for CHD development, based on the JAS recommendations. This multicenter, retrospective study was conducted using data obtained from 21 institutions across Japan. 17,991 adults taking dyslipidemia medications were enrolled. The JAS GL 2007 was used for evaluation. Since the guideline indicated separate goals (secondary prevention for subjects with a prior history of CHD and primary prevention for those with other CHD risk factors), we evaluated the percentages of goals met. The serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were calculated using the Friedewald formula. The LDL-C level was measured using a direct homogeneous assay if the triglycerides (TG) level was 400 mg/dL or higher. The achievement rates of the SLMGs were as follows: LDL-C, 72.3%; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 94.6%; and TG, 69.7%. Our results regarding Japanese patients receiving dyslipidemia treatment for CHD prevention identified insufficient reductions in the levels of LDL-C and TG in those at high risk for CHD and suggest the need for more aggressive lipid-lowering therapy.

  3. Current status of the AMS facility at the Tono Geoscience Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito-Kokubu, Y., E-mail: kokubu.yoko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Nishizawa, A.; Suzuki, M.; Ohwaki, Y.; Nishio, T. [Pesco Corp., Ltd., Toki, Gifu 509-5123 (Japan); Matsubara, A.; Saito, T.; Ishimaru, T.; Umeda, K.; Hanaki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The JAEA-AMS-TONO system is routinely used for {sup 14}C measurements at Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and applied to neotectonics and hydrogeology, in support of research on geosphere stability applicable to the long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste. {sup 10}Be AMS has been developed for geochronological studies to estimate sedimentation rates and exposure age of basement rocks, incorporating a gas ionization detector with a large-volume gas absorber cell. Test measurements on {sup 14}C and {sup 10}Be reference materials show the system's performance and suitability for application in the geosciences.

  4. Current status of nuclear cardiology in Japan: Ongoing efforts to improve clinical standards and to establish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2015-08-01

    Nuclear cardiology imaging tests are widely performed in Japan as clinical practice. The Japanese nuclear cardiology community has developed new diagnostic imaging tests using (123)I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid, (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET for detecting cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis. These tests have become popular worldwide. The Japanese Circulation Society and the Japanese Society of Nuclear Cardiology have published clinical imaging guidelines showing indications and standards for the new imaging tests. JSNC is currently striving to improve the standard of clinical practice and is promoting research activities.

  5. Contamination status and accumulation characteristics of metals and a metalloid in birds on Teuri Island, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Chihiro; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Suzuki, Yuya; Watanuki, Yutaka; Watanabe, Yuji; Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Teuri Island, Hokkaido in Japan is an important place for seabirds breeding. We measured the concentrations of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) and a metalloid (As) in rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) (n = 7), thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) (n = 2), spectacled guillemot (Cepphus carbo) (n = 6), slaty-backed gull (Larus schistisagus) (n = 15), jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) (n = 3), Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonica) (n = 6) and Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus azonus) (n = 2). Spectacled guillemot had high As concentrations, with its source being their feeding habitat. Concentration of Hg in kidney of jungle crow was higher than other seabird species at Teuri.

  6. Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D. This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage.

  7. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Saki; Inoue, Manami; Saito, Eiko; Abe, Sarah K; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shibuya, Kenji; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk while the results have been inconsistent. Our study aimed to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk and to explore whether this association is modified by reproductive factors and hormone receptor status of the tumor. A total of 44,444 women aged 45 to 74 years from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were included in analyses. Dietary intake assessment was performed using a validated 138-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer incidence were calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 624,423 person-years of follow-up period, 681 breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for major confounders for breast cancer risk, inverse trends were observed but statistically non-significant. Extremely high intake of fiber was associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but this should be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power. In stratified analyses by menopausal and hormone receptor status, null associations were observed except for ER-PR- status. Our findings suggest that extreme high fiber intake may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but the level of dietary fiber intake among Japanese population might not be sufficient to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

  8. Status quo and development trend of breast biopsy technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Wei, Lichun; Li, Jie; Yi-qiong ZHENG; Li, Xi-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Triple assessment is a standard method for assessment of breast diseases, which includes clinical evaluation, radiographic assessment and pathological assessment. Biopsy for breast disease is the gold standard for pathological assessment, including incisional biopsy, excisional biopsy, core needle biopsy, vacuum-assisted biopsy and bite biopsy. With the continuous advancement of diagnostic and treatment technology for breast cancer, collection of diseased tissue has also undergone a gradual t...

  9. The Status and Trends Of New Power Generation technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Science and technology development cannot leave energy, and our life is also inseparable from energy. Oil and coal in all energy is 80%. However, oil and coal are non-renewable. If precious energies would disappear, what should we do? Oil and coal combustion and release of energy we need, and it also releases harmful gases which lead to damage of our home planet. These problems forces us to develop clean and renewable new energy. This report discusses mainly three new source...

  10. Program status 3. quarter -- FY 1994: ITER and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-19

    During this quarter all technical work and documentation of the PULSAR design was completed. They also assisted UCLA in the planning of the DEMO program.In the area of RF technology, a decision was made to fabricate 4in x 4in gyrotron distributed window. An finally, they obtained good agreement between code predictions and measured data for the up and down field redeposition of tungsten in the DIMES-8 experiment.

  11. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy: Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Point-focusing concentrators under consideration for solar thermal energy use are reviewed. These concentrators differ in such characteristics as optical configuration, optical materials, structure for support of the optical elements and of the receiver, mount, foundation, drive, controls and enclosure. Concentrator performance and cost are considered. Technology development is outlined, including wind loads and aerodynamics; precipitation, sand, and seismic considerations; and maintenance and cleaning.

  12. [Status of emerging drug resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Japan during 1996: a minireview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Wakisaka, N

    1998-10-01

    A total of 192 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from the 1996 episodes in Japan were tested for their in vitro susceptibilities to 41 antimicrobial agents. Drug resistance was found with kanamycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and fosfomycin. The expression of fosfomycin resistance was greatly dependent on culture conditions and resistance was detected (e.g.) when Mueller-Hinton agar or nutrient agar supplemented with horse blood (or glucose-6-phosphate) was used as test media. All the STEC strains belonging to serotype O26 exhibited fosfomycin resistance. Multiple drug-resistant strains spread 8 of 18 prefectures examined. Out of eleven O157: H7 outbreaks, only one outbreak revealed infections due to multiple drug-resistant strains which carried an R plasmid. Tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfamethoxazole resistance, which was previously described with O157: H7 strains isolated from a large outbreak as well as sporadic cases in the United States, were also found in Japan with human and bovine isolates (but not with porcine isolates). In contrast, the STEC strains were highly susceptible to newer quinolones, cephems, trimethoprim, gentamicin, and azithromycin. No drug resistance was observed with dibekacin and minocycline.

  13. Space Science &Technology in Mauritius: Current Status and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughooputh, S. D. D. V.; Beeharry, G. K.; Golap, K.; Issur, N. H.; Somanah, R.; Rughooputh, H. C. S.; Udayashankar, N.; Mueller, K.

    Space research (with either direct or indirect spin-offs) has been instrumental in leading to accomplishments that are meant to improve our quality of life in its broadest perspective. But are we all acquainted of the now proven-use of these findings and their capabilities? What do these mean to a remote small insular developing state like Mauritius? This paper explores the recent developments in this field in Mauritius and how we intend to optimize the use of the emerging technologies. Initiatives of the University of Mauritius are highlighted.

  14. Remote participation technologies in the EFDA Laboratories - status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); How, J.A. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2003-07-01

    More than 25 laboratories of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) have been increasingly using remote participation (RP) technologies for collaborative work on several experiments. We present an overview of the technologies that are employed to provide remote data access, remote computer access, and tele-conference. We also deal with computer network requirements, and support and documentation needs. The biggest application of these tools has been the joint scientific exploitation of the JET Facilities. Increasingly other experiments are operated as shared facilities, and the RP tools are being used in this context. For remote data access there is a clear trend towards MDSplus as common data access layer for multi-experiment data access. Secure Remote Computer access is converging on two different solutions. Video-conference is also converging on two partially inter-operable solutions, whereas the sharing of presentation material is converging on one solution. Remote Control Room participation is being used in two laboratories. Network monitoring has been developed and is now in routine use. The RP work is being done at many laboratories and is co-ordinated by EFDA. A number of items in several fields need still to be tackled and an overview of these is presented. (authors)

  15. Flip chip bumping technology-Status and update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Wolf, M. [Fraunhofer IZM, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: juergen.Wolf@izm.fraunhofer.de; Engelmann, Gunter [Fraunhofer IZM, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin (Germany); Dietrich, Lothar [Fraunhofer IZM, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin (Germany); Reichl, Herbert [Fraunhofer IZM, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-09-01

    Flip chip technology is a key driver for new complex system architectures and high-density packaging, e.g. sensor or pixel devices. Bumped wafers/dice as key elements become very important in terms of general availability at low cost, high yield and quality level. Today, different materials, e.g. Au, Ni, AuSn, SnAg, SnAgCu, SnCu, etc., are used for flip chip interconnects and different bumping approaches are available. Electroplating is the technology of choice for high-yield wafer bumping for small bump sizes and pitches. Lead-free solder bumps require an increase in knowledge in the field of under bump metallization (UBM) and the interaction of bump and substrate metallization, the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) during liquid- and solid-phase reactions. Results of a new bi-layer UBM of Ni-Cu which is especially designed for small-sized lead-free solder bumps will be discussed.

  16. Study on Technology Development Status of Genetically Modified Soybean Based on Patent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Runlian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified soybean is a product of the emerging bio-technology in the 1980s and is widely concerned all over the world. This study analyzed GM soybean related patent documents in China, the United States and Europe, aiming to find out the R and D status and trends as well as technical distribution pattern of GM soybean in the world. It analyzed the patent general tendency, regional distribution and key technologies, clarified major countries who master such technologies, relevant companies, technologies, etc. Finally, the author put forward solutions for the strategic development of GM soybean patents.

  17. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru

    2016-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature.

  18. Status of Uncooled Infrared Detector Technology at ULIS, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Tissot

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon enables ULIS to develop uncooled IRFPA with 17 µm pixel-pitch to enable the development of small power, small weight and power (SWaP and high performance IR systems. Key characteristics of amorphous silicon based uncooled IR detector is described to highlight the advantage of this technology for system operation. A full range of products from 160 x 120 to 1024 x 768 has been developed and we will focus the paper on the ¼ VGA with 17 µm pixel pitch. Readout integrated circuit (ROIC architecture is described highlighting innovations that are widely on-chip implemented to enable an easier operation by the user. The detector configuration (integration time, windowing, gain, scanning direction, is driven by a standard I²C link. Like most of the visible arrays, the detector adopts the HSYNC/VSYNC free-run mode of operation driven with only one master clock (MC supplied to the ROIC which feeds back pixel, line and frame synchronisation. On-chip PROM memory for customer operational condition storage is available for detector characteristics. Low power consumption has been taken into account and less than 60 mW is possible in analogue mode at 60 Hz. A wide electrical dynamic range (2.4V is maintained despite the use of advanced CMOS node. The specific appeal of this unit lies in the high uniformity and easy operation it provides. The reduction of the pixel-pitch turns this TEC-less ¼ VGA array into a product well adapted for high resolution and compact systems. Noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD of 35 mK and thermal time constant of 10 ms have been measured leading to 350 mK.ms figure of merit. We insist on NETD trade-off with wide thermal dynamic range, as well as the high characteristics uniformity and pixel operability, achieved thanks to the mastering of the amorphous silicon technology coupled with the ROIC design

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Symposium on Trends in Advanced Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    MRI and others. This "lift off" of the superconductivity market is due to its technological advances. As long as the present costs involved in...the simple and easy to use 77K SQUID system is completed, it is expected to open up unexpected markets in the area of sporting facilities. One cannot...c -4< 4 HF4H Hrýr- -H> 4UH ci0 ~ P P C q00 C 4E1C I IW’ P4P P4 P.4 P4 P4P 4P L 4 4P4P 4P l 4P 38 GaAs/AIGaAs MQW ALL-OPTICAL SYSTEM 10’ SEMI

  20. Technology status in support of refined technical baseline for the Spent Nuclear Fuel project. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigh, R.J.; Toffer, H.; Heard, F.J.; Irvin, J.J.; Cooper, T.D.

    1995-10-20

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) has undertaken technology acquisition activities focused on supporting the technical basis for the removal of the N Reactor fuel from the K Basins to an interim storage facility. The purpose of these technology acquisition activities has been to identify technology issues impacting design or safety approval, to establish the strategy for obtaining the necessary information through either existing project activities, or the assignment of new work. A set of specific path options has been identified for each major action proposed for placing the N Reactor fuel into a ``stabilized`` form for interim storage as part of this refined technical basis. This report summarizes the status of technology information acquisition as it relates to key decisions impacting the selection of specific path options. The following specific categories were chosen to characterize and partition the technology information status: hydride issues and ignition, corrosion, hydrogen generation, drying and conditioning, thermal performance, criticality and materials accountability, canister/fuel particulate behavior, and MCO integrity. This report represents a preliminary assessment of the technology information supporting the SNFP. As our understanding of the N Reactor fuel performance develops the technology information supporting the SNFP will be updated and documented in later revisions to this report. Revision 1 represents the incorporation of peer review comments into the original document. The substantive evolution in our understanding of the technical status for the SNFP (except section 3) since July 1995 have not been incorporated into this revision.

  1. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, Don; Gage, Peter; Kazemba, Cole; Mahzari, Milad; Nishioka, Owen; Peterson, Keith; Stackpoole, Mairead; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Young, Zion; Poteet, Carl; Splinter, Scott; Fowler, Mike; Kellerman, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The Heat shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Project is a NASA STMD and SMD co-funded effort. The goal is to develop and mission infuse a new ablative Thermal Protection System that can withstand extreme entry. It is targeted to support NASAs high priority missions, as defined in the latest decadal survey, to destinations such as Venus and Saturn in-situ robotic science missions. Entry into these planetary atmospheres results in extreme heating. The entry peak heat-flux and associated pressure are estimated to be between one and two orders of magnitude higher than those experienced by Mars Science Laboratory or Lunar return missions. In the recent New Frontiers community announcement NASA has indicated that it is considering providing an increase to the PI managed mission cost (PIMMC) for investigations utilizing the Heat Shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) and in addition, NASA is considering limiting the risk assessment to only their accommodation on the spacecraft and the mission environment. The HEEET ablative TPS utilizes 3D weaving technology to manufacture a dual layer material architecture. The 3-D weaving allows for flat panels to be woven. The dual layer consists of a top layer designed to withstand the extreme external environment while the inner or insulating layer by design, is designed to achieve low thermal conductivity, and it keeps the heat from conducting towards the structure underneath. Both arc jet testing combined with material properties have been used to develop thermal response models that allows for comparison of performance with heritage carbon phenolic. A 50 mass efficiency is achieved by the dual layer construct compared to carbon phenolic for a broad range of missions both to Saturn and Venus. The 3-D woven flat preforms are molded to achieve the shape as they are compliant and then resin infusion with curing forms a rigid panels. These panels are then bonded on to the aeroshell structure. Gaps

  2. Current Status on Stress Diagnostic Kit and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Mi Hee; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-15

    The accurate measurement of a stress level is one of the most important issues in a stress diagnosis and its measurement could be of great value in clinical medicine. Stress has a potent effect on the spirit and physical condition of an individual. There are various methods available for its measurement. Some of the commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of a stress level include analysis of the body fluids, questionnaire assessments, psychophysiological evaluations and by determining heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects. However, the existing diagnostic methods have several defects like, a low sensitivity, inaccuracy and long of operation time. In this report, we present a diagnostic technology to detect a stress level which is the origin of various diseases. This method can be of great help in providing an early diagnosis through a biosensor and might play a vital role in preventing diseases like hypochondria and hypertension. Majority of the human population is exposed to stress in one way or another and hence developing a convenient stress diagnosis kit will be of great use to all. This stress diagnostic kit and detection technology dose not involve simple a mechanical measurement or questionnaires, but is based on developing a detection kit with a high sensitivity, which will mean an easy use for common man. Individuals can undergo regular check ups and can personally diagnose their present situation of health by determining their stress levels, thus enabling them to diagnose the early onset of several stress disorders. This might help them take precautionary measures and thereby lead to a healthy life.

  3. [Localization of 8q24 break-point of Burkitt lymphoma in Japan : relationship to EBV status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, E; Ohno, H

    1997-02-01

    It has been reported that the break point of 8q24 in t (8; 14) (q24; q32) is located far up-stream from c-myc gene locus in endemic EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)-positive BL, while the break-point is located close to the 1st intron of c-myc gene in sporadic EBV-negative BL. Considering that no statistical analysis is available regarding BL in Japan, the break-point of chromosome No.8 was investigated in 13 BL/L3 cell lines (having t(8; 14)) and 4 fresh samples derived from Japanese patients, including 3 EBV-positive BL cell lines, by using long-distance PCR. In this PCR, one primer was set in the 2nd intron of the c-myc gene, and the other primer in Ig constant region gene, mu, gamma, alpha and epsilon. This long distance PCR can cover up to 30 kb. Thus, this PCR does'nt generate product, if the 8q24 break-point is located far up-stream (more than 50 kb) fom c-myc gene. In 2 of the 3 t (8; 14) EBV-positive BL lines, no product was generated in two lines(N831 and Middle 91), while a product was synthesized in one line(Akata), indicating that the 8q24 break-point is near the c-myc gene in Akata. In all the other BL/L3 lines, a product was synthesized. A larger number of BL cases are necessary to investigate in order to know which 8q24 break-point pattern is exhibited by EBV-positive BL in Japan, while this method is suitable for testing a large number of case materials.

  4. Development Status of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Pearson, Jon Boise; Godfoy, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress that has been made in the development of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The reactor simulator core and Annular Linear Induction Pump have been fabricated and assembled into a test loop at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A 12 kWe Power Conversion Unit (PCU) is being developed consisting of two 6 kWe free-piston Stirling engines. The two 6 kWe engines have been fabricated by Sunpower Inc. and are currently being tested separately prior to integration into the PCU. The Facility Cooling System (FCS) used to reject convertor waste heat has been assembled and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The structural elements, including a Buildup Assembly Platform (BAP) and Upper Truss Structure (UTS) have been fabricated, and will be used to test cold-end components in thermal vacuum prior to TDU testing. Once all components have been fully tested at the subsystem level, they will be assembled into an end-to-end system and tested in thermal vacuum at GRC.

  5. Living status, economic hardship and sleep disturbance were associated with subjective shoulder pain in survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Yabe, Yutaka; Sugawara, Yumi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kenji; Koide, Masashi; Itaya, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Tsuji, Ichiro; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-05-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and devastating Tsunami hit hard everything on the northeastern coast of Japan. This study aimed to determine socio-psychological factors for "subjective shoulder pain" of the survivors at 2 years evaluated by a self-report questionnaire. Between November 2012 to February 2013, survivors replied to the self-report questionnaire, and 2275 people consented to join this study. Living status was divided into 5 categories (1. same house as before the earthquake (reference group), 2. temporary small house, 3. apartment, 4. house of relatives or acquaintance, 5. new house) and economic hardship was divided into 4 categories (1. normal (reference group), 2. a little bit hard, 3. hard, 4. very hard). Gender, age, body mass index, living areas, smoking and drinking habits, complications of diabetes mellitus and cerebral stroke, working status, and walking time were considered as the confounding factors. Kessler Psychological Distress Scale of ≥10/24 and Athens Insomnia Scale of ≥6/24 points were defined as a presence of psychological distress and sleep disturbance, respectively. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the association of shoulder pain with living environment, economic hardship, psychological distress, and sleep disturbance at 2 years after the earthquake. There were significant differences in the risk of having shoulder pain in those with "apartment" (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.03-2.96), "house of relatives or acquaintance" (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.42-6.25), economic hardship of "hard" (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.08-2.7) and "very hard" (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.47-4.29), and sleep disturbance (OR = 2.96, 95% CI = 2.05-4.27). Living status of "apartment" and "house of relatives or acquaintance", economic hardship of "hard" and "very hard", and "sleep disturbance" were significantly associated with shoulder pain. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Silver-zinc: status of technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, A. P.; Makovetski, B.; Russell, S. J.; Serenyi, J. R.; Williams, D. C.

    Michel Yardney and Professor Henri André developed the first practical silver-zinc battery more than 55 years ago. Since then, primary and rechargeable silver-zinc batteries have attracted a variety of applications due to their high specific energy/energy density, proven reliability and safety, and the highest power output per unit weight and volume of all commercially available batteries. Although significant improvements have been achieved on traditional systems such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, and in spite of the advent of new electrochemistries such as lithium-ion and nickel/metal hydride, many users still rely on silver-zinc to satisfy their most demanding and critical requirements. Over the past few years, several of the internal components have been subject to many studies which resulted in significant improvements in the battery wet life and cycle life. Specifically, these include new separator materials which offer an alternative to the cellulosic membranes, improvements to the zinc electrode that include additives that help reduce shape-change and dendritic growth, and to a lesser extent, process changes to the silver electrode and additives to the electrolyte. In comparison, the commonly used secondary systems are lead-acid, nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion. Each has attributes which make them desirable for certain applications. Where low cost, high voltage, and high rate capability is required, the lead-acid battery is an obvious choice whenever size and weight are not critical. For applications requiring longer wet life, moderate rate capability, and high cycle life, nickel/cadmium or nickel/metal hydride can be used in spite of their poor charge retention and higher costs. Relatively newer systems are also available such as lithium-ion or lithium polymer technology which are preferred for their high voltage and excellent cycle life. Among the disadvantages of these systems are higher costs, limited configurations (usually

  7. Outline in 1997 Japan compound material academic meeting technological prize winning technology; Kenchiku, doboku kozobutsu no hoshu{center_dot}hokyo yo forukatousito no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iba, Yoshitomo.; Uemura, Masahiko.; Murakami, Shinkichi.; Saito, Makoto.; Kobayashi, Akira. [Nittetsu Composite Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-15

    That function declines in the sutra time target, and it is finally destroyed, or a construction structure thing bears putting off that life by managing efficient maintenance it is possible. The factor of the function decline of the structure thing, the degree of the decline, and so on are grasped quantitatively, and efficient repair reinforcement time and a method of construction are chosen, and you must carry it out for that. It is paying attention to the development of the method of construction to reinforce the maintenance repair of the construction structure thing by using the tip compound factor from such a viewpoint. In the beginning, a material cost was very expensive, and the recognition not to use it was very general in such a construction field. In such recognition, in Tonen Corp. incorporated company, it has paid attention to the use possibility in the construction field of the tip compound factor since early, research and development have been done continuously from 1980, that It succeeds in, and it is the method of construction that a repair reinforces a concrete structure thing by the tip material that the method of construction which got the technological prize of the Japan compound material academic meeting in 1997 moved carbon fiber to the center. (NEDO)

  8. Outline in 1997 Japan compound material academic meeting technological prize winning technology. Kenchiku, doboku kozobutsu no hoshu[center dot]hokyo yo forukatousito no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iba, Yoshitomo.; Uemura, Masahiko.; Murakami, Shinkichi.; Saito, Makoto.; Kobayashi, Akira. (Nittetsu Composite Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1999-03-15

    That function declines in the sutra time target, and it is finally destroyed, or a construction structure thing bears putting off that life by managing efficient maintenance it is possible. The factor of the function decline of the structure thing, the degree of the decline, and so on are grasped quantitatively, and efficient repair reinforcement time and a method of construction are chosen, and you must carry it out for that. It is paying attention to the development of the method of construction to reinforce the maintenance repair of the construction structure thing by using the tip compound factor from such a viewpoint. In the beginning, a material cost was very expensive, and the recognition not to use it was very general in such a construction field. In such recognition, in Tonen Corp. incorporated company, it has paid attention to the use possibility in the construction field of the tip compound factor since early, research and development have been done continuously from 1980, that It succeeds in, and it is the method of construction that a repair reinforces a concrete structure thing by the tip material that the method of construction which got the technological prize of the Japan compound material academic meeting in 1997 moved carbon fiber to the center. (NEDO)

  9. Dietary, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical assessment of the nutritional status of centenarians and elderly people in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y C; Suzuki, M; Yamamoto, S

    1997-06-01

    The population of old people has increased and nutritional disorders are common among them. The assessment of nutritional status and dietary intakes of this population is necessary in order to improve their nutritional status and reduce risk to infection and mortality. In the present study, data on the nutritional status of healthy elderly and centenarians is provided. Participants were free-living healthy volunteers (39 centenarians; 11 male and 28 female and 44 elderly in their 70s; 13 male and 31 female). Their nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements, hematological and biochemical variables. Activities of daily living (ADL) of 11 items were scored depending upon their activities with a maximum score of 5.0. Dietary survey by food recording was done for 2 days and food models were used to obtain the best estimate of food intake. Energy and nutrient intakes were compared with Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). The elderly had complete independence of physical activities, good sensory function and cognitive abilities. The physical activities of male centenarians were between the category of completely independent and independent but slow. In female centenarian participants, their physical activities were independent but slow or independent with difficulty. The functions of auditory acuity and eyesight of the centenarians were poor but their cognitive abilities were still good. The elderly subjects had short stature whereas their body weight and body mass index (BMI) were not low, especially among the women, compelling female elderly to reduce their food intake to control the weight. Energy intake of female centenarians was low. The ADL in the female centenarians was positively related to energy, suggesting that the low energy intake of the female centenarians was mainly due to their low ADL. Anthropometric, hematological and biochemical variables of the centenarians were lower or near the lower reference limit except serum lipids

  10. The Effect of Technology and Socioeconomic Status on Parental Involvement at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parents who extensively use technology and have a high socioeconomic status (SES) may become overly involved with their elementary school-aged children's education and school-related activities, an involvement which can create a lasting dependence of the children on their parents. The literature indicates high…

  11. The Effect of Technology and Socioeconomic Status on Parental Involvement at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parents who extensively use technology and have a high socioeconomic status (SES) may become overly involved with their elementary school-aged children's education and school-related activities, an involvement which can create a lasting dependence of the children on their parents. The literature indicates high…

  12. Sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and hepatitis B/C status in a working-age population: results from a national, cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Eguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. METHODS: An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items, basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items, and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item. The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (p<0.01 and negatively associated with prejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (p<0.01. Statistically significant associations were not observed between other sociodemographic characteristics and potential prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.

  13. Technology Status and the Future of Large Deployable Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Akira; Harada, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Hironori; Tsunoda, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Mitsunobu; Mizuno, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    the number of cables in the conventional S-band antenna reflector. An equilibrium shape analysis confirms that the surface error of better than 0.4 mmRMS can be achieved. reliability in defining the difficulty index of ground deployment testing for large deployable antennas. The relationship between the index value and the accuracy of results from ground deployment testing has been estimated by deployment testing of a simple deployment truss structure under both full and micro- gravity conditions. We found that the deployment reliability of a deployable structure can not be evaluated with adequate accuracy if its size exceeds 10 m.The structure must be divided into modules ofappropriate size. Basic studies on inflatable structures and flexible patch elements for future large aperture, sophisticated direct radiation array antennas are underway. Inflatable structures, which consist of rigidized materials and flexible patch elements for feed elements, are interesting candidates. In addition to these studies, distributed sensor/actuator location, non-linear vibration control method, and optimum design methods are also being addressed. They are key technologies for high performance, highly stable, and re-configurable antenna systems.

  14. Current Status and Future Development of Integrated Geophysical Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeZhanxiang

    2003-01-01

    The gap between China''s integrated geophysical technology and the world''s advanced technologies has been significantly narrowed as the result of developments in the last decade.The new technology has played a very important role in oil and gas exploration in China, especially for the purposes of targeting seismically opaque zones, decreasing exploration risk, and improving exploration efficiency in the western territories and complex areas in China. The current status and future development of non-seismic integrated geophysical teams in China is discussed.

  15. Analysis and status of post-combustion carbon dioxide capture technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhown, Abhoyjit S; Freeman, Brice C

    2011-10-15

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) undertook a multiyear effort to understand the landscape of postcombustion CO₂ capture technologies globally. In this paper we discuss several central issues facing CO₂ capture involving scale, energy, and overall status of development. We argue that the scale of CO₂ emissions is sufficiently large to place inherent limits on the types of capture processes that could be deployed broadly. We also discuss the minimum energy usage in terms of a parasitic load on a power plant. Finally, we present summary findings of the landscape of capture technologies using an index of technology readiness levels.

  16. Occupational asthma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  17. A status of the activities of the NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Combustion Devices Technology Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    The Consortium for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Applications in Propulsion Technology was established to focus on computational fluid dynamics applications in propulsion. Specific areas of effort include developing the CFD technology required to address rocket propulsion issues, validating the technology, and applying the validated technology to design problems. The Combustion Devices Technology Team was formed to implement the above objectives in the broad area of combustion driven flows. In an effort to bring CFD to bear in the design environment, the team has focused its efforts on the Space Transportation Main Engine nozzle. The main emphasis has been on the film cooling scheme used to cool the nozzle wall. Benchmark problems have been chosen to validate CFD film cooling capabilities. CFD simulations of the subscale nozzle have been made. Also, CFD predictions of the base flow resulting from this type of nozzle have been made. The status of these calculations is presented along with future plans. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  18. Information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert K.; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned a panel of U.S. experts to study the international status of satellite communications systems and technology. The study covers emerging systems concepts, applications, services, and the attendant technologies. The panel members traveled to Europe, Japan, and Russia to gather information firsthand. They visited 17 sites in Europe, 20 in Japan, and 4 in Russia. These included major manufacturers, government organizations, service providers, and associated research and development facilities. The panel's report was reviewed by the sites visited, by the panel, and by representatives of U.S. industry. The report details the information collected and compares it to U.S. activities.

  19. Photovoltaics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  20. [[Interregional marriage in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T

    1990-07-01

    Patterns in interregional marriage in Japan are examined by prefecture. Data are from the 1977, 1982, and 1987 National Fertility Surveys and are presented for distance between marriage site and birthplace, including the effects of arranged marriage and wife's labor force participation; prior living arrangements; and educational status of the couple. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  1. Japan Hadron Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, R S

    1999-01-01

    Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) is a high-intensity proton accelerator complex consisting of a 200 MeV linac, a 3 GeV booster and a 50 GeV main ring. Its status and future possibilities of realizing a versatile antiproton facility at JHF are presented.

  2. Mediating Role of Psychological Resources on the Association Between Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Current Health in the Community Adult Population of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chiemi; Kawakami, Norito; Umeda, Maki

    2015-12-01

    The majority of studies on the role of psychological resources linking childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult health have been conducted in Western countries. Empirical evidence for mediation effects of psychological resources is currently lacking in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of psychological resources (mastery and sense of coherence [SOC]) on the association between childhood SES and current health. Analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data (1,497 men and 1,764 women) from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood Study (J-SHINE) in Tokyo. Psychological resources (mastery and SOC), childhood SES (parents' education and perceived childhood SES), and current health of adults (psychological distress measured by K6 and self-rated health) were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Mastery and SOC significantly and independently mediated the association between childhood SES and current health in the total sample after adjusting for age, gender, and respondent education, regardless of type of SES or health outcome indicators. Similar mediation effects were observed for both men and women. A few gender differences were observed; specifically, SOC significantly mediated the association between parents' education and current health only among women, and it mediated the association between perceived childhood SES and current health only among men. Overall, the findings underscore the importance of the mediating role of psychological resources in the association between childhood SES and current health.

  3. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found ...

  4. Current status of health technology reassessment of non-drug technologies: survey and key informant interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leggett Laura E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Technology Reassessment (HTR is a structured, evidence-based assessment of the clinical, social, ethical and economic effects of a technology currently used in the health care system, to inform optimal use of that technology in comparison to its alternatives. Little is known about current international HTR practices. The objective of this research was to summarize experience-based information gathered from international experts on the development, initiation and implementation of a HTR program. Methods A mixed methods approach, using a survey and in-depth interviews, was adopted. The survey covered 8 concepts: prioritization/identification of potentially obsolete technologies; program development; implementation; mitigation; program championing; stakeholder engagement; monitoring; and reinvestment. Members of Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi and the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA formed the sampling frame. Participation was solicited via email and the survey was administered online using SurveyMonkey. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. To gather more in-depth knowledge, semi-structured interviews were conducted among organizations with active HTR programs. Interview questions were developed using the same 8 concepts. The hour-long interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Results Ninety-five individuals responded to the survey: 49 were not discussing HTR, 21 were beginning to discuss HTR, nine were imminently developing a program, and 16 participants had programs and were completing reassessments. The survey results revealed that methods vary widely and that although HTR is a powerful tool, it is currently not being used to its full potential. Of the 16 with active programs, nine agreed to participate in follow-up interviews. Interview participants identified early and extensive stakeholder

  5. 辐射接枝技术的应用:日本海水提铀研究的进展及现状%Application of Radiation Grafting: Progress and Status of the Extraction of Uranium From Seawater in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶林峰

    2012-01-01

    Radiation grafting has been, widely used in the preparation of new materials, including the use of radiation-induced grafting to incorporate special functional groups onto base materials for separations of metal elements. Since the late 1980's, research has been conducted in Japan to prepare sorbents with amidoxime groups for the extraction of uranium from seawater. A sorption efficiency of 1. 5 g/kg was achieved in large-scale marine tests that lasted for 30.days. Preliminary cost evaluation conducted in Japan indicates that uranium in seawater could be collected with this technology at a price that is approximately 2-3 times the market'spot price of uranium. The cost of extraction could be further reduced by optimizing the preparation of the sorbents, increasing the sorption capacity and selectivity, and improving the chemical and mechanical stability of the sorbents, making the technology of the extraction of uranium from seawater more competitive and attractive. As an example of the application of radiation grafting, this paper briefly introduces the research progress and status on the extraction of uranium from seawater in Japan. Recommendations on further research and development in this field are also discussed.%辐射技术已广泛应用于各种新材料的制备,包括使用辐射接枝技术将具有特殊性能的官能团嫁接到基体材料上,用于金属元素的分离.自20世纪80年代后期以来,日本进行了利用辐射接枝技术制备以偕胺肟为官能团的吸附剂从海水中提取铀的研究.在30天的大型海洋实验中,取得了1.5 g/kg的吸附效率.日本进行的初步的经济性评估表明,采用这种技术提铀的费用大约为铀市场现货价格(spot price)的2~3倍.如果进一步优化吸附剂的制备过程,提高吸附剂的吸附容量、选择性和稳定性,提取费用还可降低,从而使海水提铀更具有竞争力和吸引力.作为辐射技术应用的例子,本文简要介绍日本海水提

  6. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-model approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI.

  7. 日美清洁能源协议及影响分析%Analysis of Japan - U.S.Clean Energy Technologies Action Plan and its Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔成; 牛建国

    2011-01-01

    After the global financial crisis, Japan and U.S initiated the closer cooperation to reduce the cost of clean energy development and enhance the international competitiveness.METI of Japan and U.S DOE signed the cooperation agreement in the Nov.18 2010, and issued a joint statement.Japan and U.S will be promote a broad and deep cooperation on the energy smart communities initiative (ESCI), clean energy policy dialogue, as well as clean technology innovation and job creation.These kinds of cooperation will make the significant impact on the technology development and framework of the global clean energy, and we have to pay more attention to the process and take some response.%全球金融危机后,美日两国为降低清洁能源开发成本、进一步提高国际竞争力,着手开展更为密切的合作.日本经产省与美国能源部于2010年11月18日签署了相关协议,并发表了联合声明.日美两国将在能源和智能电网开启(ESCI)、日美清洁能源政策对话、以及日美清洁能源技术创新和就业创造促进政策对话等领域开展广泛而深入的合作.日美两国在清洁能源领域的合作将给全球清洁能源产业和技术格局,以及技术进步产生重大影响,值得我们予以密切关注和积极应对.

  8. Dysphagia Rehabilitation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, one of the most common causes of death in elderly people is aspiration pneumonia. Maintenance of oral hygiene and feeding functions are important elements, especially in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke, neurological diseases, and after operations on the head and neck cancer, as well as in the elderly to prevent aspiration pneumonia. It should also be noted that not only oral health care and physical therapy related to feeding functions but also dental treatment is included in the clinical management during interventions whenever needed. On the other hand, for the patients and/or elderly in need of assistance in maintaining a safe diet, it is recommended that a specialized team comprising physicians, dentists, and speech therapists in functional rehabilitation observes meal conditions of the subjects and evaluates such factors as meal contents, posture during meals, usage of dishes and cutlery, meal times, status of consciousness, perception, and motivation. First, I will present the clinical interventions to those patients, which include oral health care, dental treatment, physical therapy and meal assistance, as well as team approaches in those circumstances. In addition, clinical and basic research results will be introduced, which are expected to foster the understanding of physiology in chewing and swallowing. These results are also expected to develop the clinical technology to maintain or recover the feeding functions.

  9. Faszination Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Árokay, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Japan ist ein Ausnahmeland. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg stieg Japan rasand schnell zu einer Wirtschaftsmacht auf, heute ist es das westlichste Land im Fernen Osten. Über das Leben im modernen Japan sowie über Einschätzungen und Fehleinschätzungen dieses faszinierenden Landes in Deutschland sprach der Campus-Reporter Nils Birschmann mit der Professorin für Japanologie an der Universität Heidelberg, Frau Prof. Dr. Judit Árokay. Der Beitrag "Faszination Japan" erschien in der Sendereihe "Camp...

  10. Application Status and Trend on Anaerobic Digestion Technology Development of Sludge%污泥厌氧消化技术发展应用现状及趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2013-01-01

    The article brielfy introduces the situation of sludge anaerobic digestion technology;makes detailed description on the main research development and application status of the technology abroad and at home according to the emphasizing point in U.S.A., EU and Japan; analyzes and prospects the research key point and development trend of sludge anaerobic digestion technology in our country.%简介了污泥厌氧消化技术的情况;以美国、欧盟和日本为侧重点,对该技术在国内外的主要研究进展和应用现状做了较详细的描述;提出了国内的污泥厌氧消化技术研究重点,展望了该技术的发展趋势。

  11. Worldwide Status of CCUS Technologies and Their Development and Challenges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS is a gas injection technology that enables the storage of CO2 underground. The aims are twofold, on one hand to reduce the emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere and on the other hand to increase oil/gas/heat recovery. Different types of CCUS technologies and related engineering projects have a long history of research and operation in the USA. However, in China they have a short development period ca. 10 years. Unlike CO2 capture and CO2-EOR technologies that are already operating on a commercial scale in China, research into other CCUS technologies is still in its infancy or at the pilot-scale. This paper first reviews the status and development of the different types of CCUS technologies and related engineering projects worldwide. Then it focuses on their developments in China in the last decade. The main research projects, international cooperation, and pilot-scale engineering projects in China are summarized and compared. Finally, the paper examines the challenges and prospects to be experienced through the industrialization of CCUS engineering projects in China. It can be concluded that the CCUS technologies have still large potential in China. It can only be unlocked by overcoming the technical and social challenges.

  12. The state of the art report on the development of manufacturing technology of fusion reactor FW blanket and mock-up in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. Y.; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, H. G

    2004-08-15

    The joining technology of first wall blanket has been developed by JAERI in collaboration with Kawasaki Heavy Industry, Isuau Motors and University of Tsukuba in Japan. A variety of joining technologies including HIP, brazing, casing and friction welding was applied to the manufacturing of SS/SS and Cu/SS joint. In Be/Cu joining, it was emphasized to find the optimal HIP temperature lower than 650 .deg. C in order to avoid excessive SS sensitization because the joining of Be tile to Cu heat sink is a final processing step in the manufacturing of FW blanket. The selected HIP condition were 620 .deg. C, 150MPa and 2hr with Cu interlayer. Sample tests for joints was completed by 1995. The small scale mockup was manufactured and its performance was qualified by end of 2000. From 2001, the manufacturing and the characterization has been carried out for the larger scale mockup.

  13. Applying heat integration total site based pinch technology to a large industrial area in Japan to further improve performance of highly efficient process plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Kazuo; Hirochi, Yoshiichi [Chiyoda Corporation, Energy Frontier Business Development Office, 2-12-1 Tsurumichuo, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8601 (Japan); Tatsumi, Hiroyuki [Simulation Technology Limited, Yokohama-Kanazawa High-Tech Center, Techno-Core 5F, 1-1-1 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Shire, Tim [KBC Energy Services (Formerly Linnhoff March), Targeting House, Gadbrook Park, Northwich, Cheshire CW9 7UZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    ''Area-wide pinch technology'' which consists of R-curve analysis and Site Source Sink Profile (SSSP) analysis, was applied to Kashima industrial area, one of the biggest heavy chemical complexes in Japan. This case study demonstrates that despite the very high efficiency of the individual sites in the complex, there is a huge amount of energy saving potential through energy sharing among the various sites. In addition it was found that appropriate use of the available pinch technology tools and techniques allows an industrial area of enormous scale and complexity to be analysed conveniently. This has resulted in practical area-wide energy saving projects being proposed and implemented. (author)

  14. Employee stress status during the past decade (1982-1992) based on a nation-wide survey conducted by the Ministry of Labour in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Makino, S; Takata, T

    1997-07-01

    In this paper we will report the results of nation-wide surveys on employee health conducted and published by the Ministry of Labour in 1982, 1987, and 1992. The subjects were approximately 20,000 employees in 1982, approximately 15,000 in 1987, and approximately 16,000 in 1992, from throughout Japan. Using the results of the surveys, we will show trends in the status of employee work-related stress, as well as trends in means of relaxation over the past decade. The percentage of employees with work-related stress among all subjects gradually increased as follows: 50.6% in 1982, 55.0% in 1987, and 57.3% in 1992. The percentage of employees with work-related stress increased remarkably from 1982 through 1992 among the following groups: the 50-59 age group in males; employees in the electricity, gas, heat and water-supply industries; those in the real estate industry; administrative and managerial workers; employees of large establishments with more than 5,000 employees; and employees performing shift work involving no night duty. The problem of "human relationships in the workplace" was associated with the increasing stress levels among 50-59-year-old males, 40-49-year-old females, employees of large establishments with more than 5,000 employees, those in the real estate industry, and service workers. In terms of means of relaxing to relieve fatigue and stress, employees tended to engage in active pursuits such as "eating out and shopping" and "driving and traveling" over the past decade. In 1992, on the other hand, 22.0% of males and 5.9% of females selected "smoking" as a means of relaxation. This shows the need for stress management in the workplace in order to prevent health problems related to smoking.

  15. Mobile Technology, Cancer Prevention, and Health Status among Diverse, Low-Income Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q.; Griffith, Julia; Eddens, Katherine S.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Characterize mobile technology ownership, use, and relationship to self-reported cancer prevention behaviors and health status in a diverse, low-income sample of callers to 2-1-1. Design Secondary analyses of cross-sectional survey data from a larger trial collected from June 2010 to December 2012. Setting United Way Missouri 2-1-1 serves 99 of 114 counties and received 166,000 calls in 2011. Subjects The respondents (baseline n = 1,898; 4-month n = 1,242) were predominantly female, non-Hispanic Black, under 50, with ≤ high school education and annual income < $20,000. Measures Cell phone ownership and use and its relationship to cancer prevention services and health status were assessed via telephone-based survey using items adapted from previous research and the BRFSS. Smartphone ownership and use were also assessed. Analysis Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate associations between cell phone ownership and prevention and health status are reported. Results Three-fourths (74%) of study participants owned a cell phone and 19% owned a smartphone. Text messaging was the most popular use. Ownership was significantly associated with good to excellent health status and presence of smoke-free home policies in multivariate models. Conclusion Cell phone ownership is growing and has potential to deliver health information to low-income populations. With 16 million calls annually, the national 2-1-1 system may be a promising model and platform. PMID:24200336

  16. Update Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  17. Current status of technology development for fabrication of Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, T., E-mail: tjk@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [TBM Division, Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Status of technology developments for Indian TBM to be installed in ITER is presented. • Procedure development for EB, laser and laser-hybrid welding of RAFM steel presented. • Filler wires for RAFM steel for TIG, NG-TIG and laser-hybrid welding have been developed. • Feasibility of production of channel plate by HIP technology has been demonstrated. - Abstract: Ever since India decided to install its Lead-Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) TBM in ITER, various technologies for fabrication of Indian TBM are being pursued by IPR and IGCAR, in collaboration with various research laboratories in India. Welding consumables for joining India specific RAFM steels (IN-RAFMS), procedures for hot isostatic pressing, electron beam welding, laser and laser-hybrid welding have been developed. Considering the complex nature and limited access available for inspection, innovative inspection procedures that involved use of phased array ultrasonic and C-scan imaging are also being pursued. This paper presents the current status of these developments and provides a roadmap for the future activities planned in realizing Indian TBM for testing in ITER.

  18. Status of Solar Generator Related Technology Development Activities Supporting the Juice Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the current status of several technical development activities initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA to support the JUICE mission to the Jovian system. First of all, the qualification status of the solar cells to be used in the JUICE mission will be reported. Then, the conclusions from a dedicated activity aiming at assessing the potential degradation of triple-junction solar cells upon primary discharges will be discussed. Finally, the results on the coupon tests currently running at ESA will be presented. The coupons consist of representative solar cell assemblies including coverglasses with a conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO layer. Dedicated coverglass grounding technologies are tested on the coupons which connect the conductive coverglass surfaces to the panel ground. It will be shown how the resistivity of the materials used in the coupons evolves upon submission to extreme thermal cycles.

  19. Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project Status as of May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striepe, Scott A.; Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper includes the current status of NASA s Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project. The ALHAT team has completed several flight tests and two major design analysis cycles. These tests and analyses examine terrain relative navigation sensors, hazard detection and avoidance sensors and algorithms, and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and the guidance and navigation system using these ALHAT functions. The next flight test is scheduled for July 2010. The paper contains results from completed flight tests and analysis cycles. ALHAT system status, upcoming tests and analyses is also addressed. The current ALHAT plans as of May 2010 are discussed. Application of the ALHAT system to landing on bodies other than the Moon is included

  20. Report on survey in fiscal 2000 on the survey on succession of history of industrial technologies. Survey edition of originality and creativity of industrial machine technologies in Japan; 2000 nendo sangyo gijutsu rekishi keisho chsao hokokusho. Kokunai sangyo kikai gijutsu no dokusosei to sozosei noc hosahen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to clarify the innovation process of industrial technologies in Japan and the originality and creativity seen in the process, the case history has been introduced in relation with the researchers, engineers, and business proprietors having contributed to the innovation, and their work records. With regard to machine tools, detailed introductions were given to 'Toshisuke Takeo' who had the technological concept learned in the United States, and devoted himself in building modern machine tools, an American, 'Willian R. Gorham', who had worked actively in Japan even during the war, 'Hiroshi Hanaoka' who had made a machining center for the first time in Japan, and 'Shinkichi Nagaoka' a developer of the non-circular flat bearing. In the railway area, 'Richard Francis Trevithick' and 'Francis Henry Trevithick' , leaders of the rolling stock manufacturing technologies, 'Yasujiro Shima' who had contributed to building the foundation of the Japan's rolling stock technologies, 'Kiichi Asakura' who had contributed to establishment of the Japan's rolling stock technologies and industry standardization, and 'Hideo Shima' who had borne fruit of systematization of the Japan's railway technologies by building the Shinkansen were introduced in detail. (NEDO)

  1. Status quo and prospects of fishing technology of ocean fishery of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN De-fang; GUAN Chang-tao; HUANG Wen-qiang

    2004-01-01

    报道了我国大洋渔业技术现状,评述了技术水平、发展趋势,分析渔业技术存在的问题,提出了大洋渔业可持续发展应当进行的研究课题及建议.%This paper reports the status quo of fishing technologies of ocean fishery of China, comments on technique level and development trend and the problems existed in fishing techniques. Furthermore the paper also puts forward some suggestions and research projects to make sustainable development of ocean fishery.

  2. The Development Status and Key Technologies of Solar Powered Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Li; Wei, Zhou; Xueren, Wang

    2017-03-01

    By analyzing the development status of several typical solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) at home and abroad, the key technologies involved in the design and manufacture of solar powered UAV and the technical difficulties need to be solved at present are obtained. It is pointed out that with the improvement of energy system efficiency, advanced aerodynamic configuration design, realization of high applicability flight stability and control system, breakthrough of efficient propulsion system, the application prospect of solar powered UAV will be more extensive.

  3. Status and prospect of NDT technology for nuclear energy industry in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Innovative energy technology is considered to be one of the key solutions for meeting the challenges of climate change and energy security, which is why global leaders are focusing on enhancing energy technology R&D. In accordance with the global movements to accelerate energy R&D, the Korean government has made significant investments in a broad spectrum of energy R&D programs, including energy efficiency, resources, CCS, new and renewable energy, power generation and electricity delivery, nuclear power and nuclear waste management. In order to manage government sponsored energy R&D programs in an efficient and effective way, the government established the Korea Institute of Energy technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) in 2009. Main activities of KETEP include developing energy technology roadmaps, planning, evaluating, and managing R&D programs, fostering experts in the field of energy, promoting international cooperation programs, gathering and analyzing energy statistics, and supporting infrastructure and commercialization. KETEP assists the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy in developing national R&D strategies while also working with researchers, universities, national institutes and the private sector for their successful energy technology and deployment. This presentation consists of three parts. First, I will introduce the characteristics of energy trends and mix in Korea. Then, I'll speak about the related national R&D strategies of energy technology. Finally, I'll finish up with the status and prospect of NDT technology for nuclear energy industry in Korea. The development of the on-line structural integrity monitoring systems and the related techniques in Korean nuclear power plant for the purpose of condition based maintenance is introduced. The needs of NDT techniques for inspection and condition monitoring for GEN IV including SFR, small module reactor etc., are also discussed.

  4. 日本对数字化学习技术标准的推动%E-Learning technology standard promotion activities in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲林清

    2012-01-01

    Open technology and open standards play important roles in the progress of e-Learning.Japanese e-Learning industry,being aware of this importance,has paid a lot of attention and made various efforts to disseminate open technology and open standards in e-Learning.Among these efforts,e-Learning Consortium Japan,a group of Japanese e-Learning providers and user institutes,has implemented and operated several programs to facilitate e-Learning technology standards promotion in terms of technical resource development and engineers' skill development.This paper describes such programs including development of software modules for SCORM implementation and SCORM engineer certification program.%日本数字化学习行业认识到开放技术和开放标准的重要性,因此一直在努力推广它们;由供应商和用户机构联合成立的“日本数字化学习联盟”(e-Learning Consortium Japan)已经实施了一些项目,以推动数字化学习技术与开发的标准化工作.本文主要介绍,该联盟为实现“内容共享对象参考模型”(Sharable Content Object Reference Model,SCORM)标准方案而开展的软件模块开发项目和SCORM工程师认证项目.

  5. The impact of western science and technology on 'ukiyo-e' prints and book illustrations in late eighteenth and nineteenth century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Morris

    2011-01-01

    In the Edo period (c. 1600-1868), exposure to Western art, science and technology encouraged Japanese 'ukiyo-e' (pictures of the floating world) artists to experiment with Western perspective in woodblock prints and book illustrations. We can see its early influence in the work of Utagawa Hiroshige (1787-1858), as well as Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1797-1861). Unlike Hiroshige, Kuniyoshi lived to see the opening of the port of Yokohama to trade with the West in 1859. A whole genre of Yokohama prints emerged and one of the key artists was Utagawa Sadahide (1807-1873). In his illustrated books entitled 'Yokohama kaikō kenbunshi' (A Record of Things Seen and Heard in the Open Port of Yokohama) (1862), Sadahide plays with perspective in an effort to represent the dynamic changes that Japan was undergoing in its encounter with the West at the time. In the work of later artists such as Hiroshige III (1843-1894), Kobayashi Kiyochika (1847-1915) and Inoue Yasuji (1864-1889), we can see growing efforts to depict light, shadow and depth, and a continuing fascination with the steam locomotive and the changes occurring in the Tokyo-Yokohama region as Japan entered the Meiji period (1868-1912).

  6. Rearming Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    roughly ~’ Ibid., pp. 14-16, 27-30. 12 3.5 percent of their GDP towards defense while Japan spends slightly over 1 percent. Yet, when compared with...runs up huge trade surpluses in its commerce with the United States and Western Europe. Conversely, Japan spends just slightly over one percent of...its GNP on defense indicating to many in the U.S. and Western Europe that Japan is enjoying a free ride and waxing rich under American military

  7. Recent progress on tritium technology research and development for a fusion reactor in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Iwai, Y.; Isobe, K.; Yamada, M.; Kurata, R.; Edao, Y. [Tritium Technology Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura (Japan); Suzuki, T.; Oyaizu, M.; Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Technology Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) manages 2 tritium handling laboratories: Tritium Processing Laboratory (TPL) in Tokai and DEMO-RD building in Rokkasho. TPL has been accumulating a gram level tritium safety handling experiences without any accidental tritium release to the environment for more than 25 years. Recently, our activities have focused on 3 categories, as follows. First, the development of a detritiation system for ITER. This task is the demonstration test of a wet Scrubber Column (SC) as a pilot scale (a few hundreds m{sup 3}/h of processing capacity). Secondly, DEMO-RD tasks are focused on investigating the general issues required for DEMO-RD design, such as structural materials like RAFM (Reduced Activity Ferritic/Martensitic steels) and SiC/SiC, functional materials like tritium breeder and neutron multiplier, and tritium. For the last 4 years, we have spent a lot of time and means to the construction of the DEMO-RD facility and to its licensing, so we have just started the actual research program with tritium and other radioisotopes. This tritium task includes tritium accountancy, tritium basic safety research such as tritium interactions with various materials, which will be used for DEMO-RD and durability. The third category is the recovery work from the Great East Japan earthquake (2011 earthquake). It is worth noting that despite the high magnitude of the earthquake, TPL was able to confine tritium properly without any accidental tritium release.

  8. Status of combustion-modification technology for utility-boiler NO/sub x/ control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report documents significant developments in the subject area of combustion modifications as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The primary emphasis is on the status of NO/sub x/ control technology, but related topics, such as boiler corrosion and hazardous emissions during modified-combustion operation, are also discussed. This report is intended as a complement to the 1977 Assessment of NO/sub x/ Control Technology for Coal-Fired Utility Boilers (ANL/ECT-3, Appendix D). A synopsis of recent NO/sub x/ field-test programs undertaken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is presented along with a status report on the major boiler manufacturers' low-NO/sub x/ burner/boiler development efforts. Because of concerns that low-NO/sub x/ operating modes may increase boiler-tubewall corrosion and increase polycyclic-organic-matter (POM) and SO/sub 3/ emissions, discussions of recent test programs and analytical studies on these topics are also included.

  9. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  10. 日本柴油机排放技术的进展(英文)%Diesel Emission Technology Development in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    渡部陽[日本; 南利貴

    2013-01-01

    The pioneering research works on the high pressure fuel injection and the pilot injection technologies are introduced to overview the pathway of the engine emission technology development in Japan. In the ifrst decade of the 21 century, the diesel engine technology realized an ideal combustion as an internal combustion engine, like exhaust gas regeneration (EGR) lean burn combustion. Another breakthrough was made in new after treatment systems. The real world problems of the after treatment are discussed in pursuance of further improvement. Since the diesel passenger car market is smal in Japan, the diesel engine technology development has mostly been driven by commercial vehicle engine technologies. However, driving conditions of commercial vehicles (trucks and buses) and the sulphur content in fuel are different in different countries. These factors signiifcantly affect diesel emission control strategies and design.%该文介绍了日本在高压燃料喷射和导向喷射技术的领先研究工作,回顾日本的柴油机排放技术进展之路。柴油发动机技术方面,在本世纪初的十年内,已经实现了某种内燃机的典型燃烧,例如某种废气回收(EGR)稀薄燃烧引擎系统。新的后处理系统获得了类似的突破。讨论了后处理进一步改进的实际问题。由于日本的柴油乘用车市场不大,因此,柴油机技术在日本的进展一直受到商用机动车引擎需求的驱动。各国商业车辆(客车和卡车)驾驶条件及燃料含硫量的差别,将会明显地影响柴油机排放控制策略和柴油机设计。

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, International Society of Electrochemistry Meeting (40th) Held in Kyoto on 17-22 Sep 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Selected "extended abstracts" presented at the 40th International Society of Electrochemistry Meeting held 17-22 Sep 89 in Kyoto, sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the Commemorative Association for the Japan World Exposition, and Organized by the Science Council of Japan and the Electrochemical Society of Japan.

  12. The Development and Characteristics of Science and Technology Diplomacy in Japan%日本科技外交的发展历程与特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翼燕; 刘润生

    2016-01-01

    The concept of science and technology (S&T) diplomacy is formally put forward by Japan’s Council for Science and Technology Policy (CSTP) in 2008, and in 2011, the S&T diplomacy is promoted to national importance in “the Fourth Science and Technology Basic Plan”. This paper introduced the development of Japan’s S&T diplomacy, S&T diplomacy layout and its characteristics. According to the experience of Japan, some suggestions are put forward for the development of China’s S&T diplomacy.%2008年日本综合科学技术会议正式提出科技外交概念,2011年《第4期科学技术基本计划》将科技外交上升到国家战略高度。本文介绍了日本科技外交的发展历程,科技外交的布局和特点,结合日本的相关经验,对我国的科技外交发展提出建议。

  13. Green Cooperation Underway between China and Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun

    2011-01-01

    @@ The China-Japan Green Expo 2011, held in early June, marks the first large-scale cooperation between the two countries, after Japan's devastating earthquake and tsunami. Companies based in China and Japan, Chinese government ministries and other organizations attended the expo to exhibit products and technologies that promote environmental conservation.In addition, experts from industry, government and academia hosted seminars to introduce environment-related technologies.

  14. Recycling of waste printed circuit boards: a review of current technologies and treatment status in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-05-30

    From the use of renewable resources and environmental protection viewpoints, recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) receives wide concerns as the amounts of scrap PCBs increases dramatically. However, treatment for waste PCBs is a challenge due to the fact that PCBs are diverse and complex in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Recycle technology for waste PCBs in China is still immature. Previous studies focused on metals recovery, but resource utilization for nonmetals and further separation of the mixed metals are relatively fewer. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a proper recycle technology for waste PCBs. In this paper, current status of waste PCBs treatment in China was introduced, and several recycle technologies were analyzed. Some advices against the existing problems during recycling process were presented. Based on circular economy concept in China and complete recycling and resource utilization for all materials, a new environmental-friendly integrated recycling process with no pollution and high efficiency for waste PCBs was provided and discussed in detail.

  15. [Surveying the status of continuous blood purification technology application in Chinese pediatric intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leilei; Lu, Guoping

    2014-03-01

    To learn application status of continuous blood purification (CBP) in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), to provide reference to promote the development of CBP technology. The survey of CBP application was conducted using questionnaire in 40 hospitals providing intensive care, which included children's hospitals and the pediatric sections of general hospitals from 28 provinces/municipalities/autonomous regions in China during March to July of 2012. Totally 38 hospital replied, 25 hospitals carried out CBP technology, first carried out in 1997, the median year was 2008, 21 hospitals' PICU could independently carry out CBP device, 18 hospitals had the nurses who could professionally operate, routinely maintain the device. Continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration was the largest implementation mode of CBP, accounting for 51.9%. Twenty-three hospitals used ordinary heparin, and 2 hospitals used low molecular weight heparin; 21 hospitals chose activated partial thromboplastin time as the coagulation testing, due to lack of equipment, only four hospitals chose activated clotting time as coagulation testing. Only 3 hospitals could apply before and after dilution joint technology. Kidney failure is still the disease accounting for the highest proportion of diseases requiring CBP application, accounting for 38.1%, followed by sepsis, 19.1%, drug poisoning 16.7%. CBP started 10 years ago, and got attention and promotion nearly five years ago in China, but the associated personnel, equipment were inadequate, anticoagulation, before and after dilution and other technical applications were not complete enough, high volume hemofiltration mode was seldom used.

  16. Review of production status of heavy steel castings and key technologies for their manufacture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Jinwu; Huang Tianyou; Liu Baicheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiates on domestic status of heavy steel casting production, with a special focus on hydraulic turbine castings for Three Gorges Project. In China, there is magnificent demand for heavy castings with the rapid growth of the national economy in recent years and the expected high growth in the coming 10 to 20 years. Some heavy and large castings such as mill housing and hydraulic turbine runner crown, blade and band for Three Gorges Project have been successfully made. However, the domestic production capability is still far from meeting the gigantic requirements. The domestic capability still lags behind the world class level, and a lot of heavy castings still depend on import. The paper also gives a particular introduction of the key technologies in the manufacturing of heavy steel castings like metal melting, foundry technology, heat treatment technology and numerical simulation technique, etc.In addition, several case studies on the application of numerical simulation in the production of heavy steel castings are presented.

  17. Review of production status of heavy steel castings and key technologies for their manufacture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Baicheng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper expatiates on domestic status of heavy steel casting production, with a special focus on hydraulic turbine castings for Three Gorges Project. In China, there is magnificent demand for heavy castings with the rapid growth of the national economy in recent years and the expected high growth in the coming 10 to 20 years. Some heavy and large castings such as mill housing and hydraulic turbine runner crown, blade and band for Three Gorges Project have been successfully made. However, the domestic production capability is still far from meeting the gigantic requirements. The domestic capability still lags behind the world class level, and a lot of heavy castings still depend on import. The paper also gives a particular introduction of the key technologies in the manufacturing of heavy steel castings like metal melting, foundry technology, heat treatment technology and numerical simulation technique, etc. In addition, several case studies on the application of numerical simulation in the production of heavy steel castings are presented.

  18. The Effects of ICT Environment on Teachers' Attitudes and Technology Integration in Japan and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kodai; Frederiksen, Sarah; Jones, LeAnne; Kobayashi, Michiko; Mukoyama, Yui; Yamagishi, Taku; Sadaki, Kengo; Ishizuka, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) environment on teachers' attitude toward technology integration in Japanese and U.S. elementary schools. Teacher's attitude plays an important role in influencing the effectiveness of ICT education from a variety of perspectives. A number of studies have been…

  19. Status of the technologies for the production of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Pareschi, G; Baba, H; Bähr, J; Bonardi, A; Bonnoli, G; Brun, P; Canestrari, R; Chadwick, P; Chikawa, M; Carton, P -H; de Souza, V; Dipold, J; Doro, M; Durand, D; Dyrda, M; Förster, A; Garczarczyk, M; Giro, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Hrabovski, M; Jeanney, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Lessio, L; Mandat, D; Mariotti, M; Medina, C; Michałowski, J; Micolon, P; Nakajima, D; Niemiec, J; Nozato, A; Palatka, M; Pech, M; Peyaud, B; Pühlhofer, G; Rataj, M; Rodeghiero, G; Rojas, G; Rousselle, J; Sakonaka, R; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Schultz, C; Shu, S; Stinzing, F; Stodulski, M; Teshima, M; Travniczek, P; van Eldik, C; Vassiliev, V; Wiśniewski, Ł; Wörnlein, A; Yoshida, T

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation very high-energy gamma-ray observatory, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than current instruments. CTA will comprise several tens of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) operated in array-mode and divided into three size classes: large, medium and small telescopes. The total reflective surface could be up to 10,000 m2 requiring unprecedented technological efforts. The properties of the reflector directly influence the telescope performance and thus constitute a fundamental ingredient to improve and maintain the sensitivity. The R&D status of lightweight, reliable and cost-effective mirror facets for the CTA telescope reflectors for the different classes of telescopes is reviewed in this paper.

  20. Biological Technology and Industry Development Trend in Japan%日本生物科技与产业的发展动向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴松

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies and analyzes the biological technology and industry development trend in Japan, with four aspects of market, industrial technology, research and development, as well as technology and industry policies. The Japanese government makes top-level design as a national strategic plan for biological technology and industry, to promote coordinated health and medical development strategy. Approaches have included: continuing to increase ifnancial input, to break through the key technologies such as regenerative medicine with a whole nation systems, promoting open innovation, to strengthen the industry-academic-government cooperation;constructing the Trinity technology innovation chain ecosystem for life science research, biotechnology innovation, and technology achievements transformation systems, renewing supervision system and mechanism, to bridge the valley of death of innovation,etc. The Japanese approaches for the development and innovation of biological technology and industry worth learning from.%本文从市场、产业技术、研究开发以及技术与产业政策四个方面介绍与分析了日本生物科技与产业的发展动向。日本政府从国家战略高度对生物科技与产业进行顶层设计,统筹推进健康与医疗战略。其采取的举措包括:持续加大财政投入,以举国体制突破再生医疗等重点方向关键技术;推动开放创新,强化官产学合作;构建生命科学研究、生物技术创新、生物科技成果转化体系三位一体的技术创新链生态系统;创新监管体制机制,填平科技成果产业化创新的“死亡之谷”等。日本推动生物科技与产业创新发展的做法值得我们学习借鉴。

  1. Korea-Japan Joint Research on Development of Seismic Capacity Evaluation and Enhancement Technology Considering Near-Fault Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil; Kim, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Ohtori, Yasuki; Shiba, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Masato [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-12-15

    Several recent improved methods for the EGFM are introduced in order to avoid artificial holes seen in the synthetic acceleration spectrum. Furthermore evaluation of input ground motions at Wolsung NPP are performed by varying the source parameters that may control the high-frequency wave radiation and the deviation of the synthetic motions are revealed. The PSHA case studies for four NPP sites (Wolsung, Kori, Uljin, Younggwang) are performed. In the analysis, site-specific attenuation equations developed for Korean NPP sites are employed, and the seismic hazards for the target sites are evaluated in the case where the four kind of seismic source models are considered. Moreover, the PSHA for Wolsung and Younggwang are conducted by using the site-specific attenuation equation with the index of response spectra and the uniform hazard spectra are evaluated for the two sites. The supporting tool for seismic response analysis and the evaluation tool for evaluating annual probability of failure were integrated in the frame of the seismic risk assessment system. Then, the tools were applied to the seismic risk assessment of the conventional EDG and isolated EDG. General information such as earthquake parameters and regional distribution of seismic intensity is summarized on the 2005 West Off Fukuoka earthquake. Then, the observed strong motion records in Japan and Korea sites are compiled, and regional distribution of peak accelerations are represented. Moreover, the peak accelerations of the records are compared with the values estimated from the existing attenuation equations.

  2. Musterland Japan?

    OpenAIRE

    Weidner, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    Im Gegensatz zu Japan ist in den westeuro­päischen Ländern die Umweltpolitik erst seit Beginn der achtziger Jahre in heftige Bewe­gung geraten. Den Anstoß hierzu gaben wie in Japan in den sechziger Jahren vor allem Umweltschadensfälle größeren Ausmaßes, wodurch Regierungen, Verwaltungen und umweltbelastende Betriebe unter starken Handlungsdruck gesetzt wurden. Seitdem gehören Umweltfragen in nahezu allen Indu­strieländern zu den zentralen politischen Themen. Trotz teilweise beeindrucken...

  3. Japan-Australia co-operative program on research and development of technology for the management of high level radioactive wastes. Final report 1985 to 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.; Vance, E.; Lumpkin, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Mitamura, H.; Banba, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The overall aim of the Co-operative Program has been to promote the exchange of information on technology for the management of High-Level Wastes (HLW) and to encourage research and development relevant to such technology. During the 13 years that the Program has been carried out, HLW management strategies have matured and developed internationally, and Japan has commenced construction of a domestic reprocessing and vitrification facility for HLW. The HLW management strategy preferred is a national decision. Many countries are using vitrification, direct disposal of spent fuel or a combination of both to handle their existing wastes whereas others have deferred the decision. The work carried out in the Co-operative Program provides strong scientific evidence that the durability of ceramic waste forms is not significantly affected by radiation damage and that high loadings of actinide elements can be incorporated into specially designed ceramic waste forms. Moreover, natural minerals have been shown to remain as closed systems for U and Th for up to 2.5 b y. All of these results give confidence in the ability of second generation waste forms, such as Synroc, to handle future waste arisings that may not be suitable for vitrification 87 refs., 15 tabs., 22 figs.

  4. New Technologies and Systems for High Quality Citrus Fruit Production, Labor-saving and Orchard Construction in Mountain Areas of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunihisa MORINAGA; Osamu SUMIKAWA; Osamu KAWAMOTO; Hiroyasu YOSHIKAWA; Seiji NAKAO; Masahiko SHIMAZAKI; Shin-no-suke KUSABA; Norihiro HOSHI

    2005-01-01

    Novel technologies have been necessary for improving fruit quality and productivity of citrus,labor-saving and orchard conservation on steep slope lands since aging of growers and decrease in the number of successors is remarkable in mountain areas of southwestern Japan. The purpose of this paper is to introduce new technologies for improving citrus production that have been developed in recent years. A new fruit quality control system using drip irrigation and liquid fertilization technique combined with year-round plastic mulching was developed, and it enables high quality and stable citrus fruit production. Water and/or nutrient solution is automatically supplied through drip tubes that are laid under the mulching sheets to give adequate water stress, so as to improve sugar and acid content of fruit. A new transportation system for steep sloping citrus orchards, which is a combination of the monorail system and contour narrow paths, was suggested. A small walking cultivator was developed to explain the procedure of narrow path excavation. After introducing the narrow path, working hours for fertilizer and chemical herbicide application were reduced. Disaster prevention mapping of citrus orchards on slope lands was developed based on computer-aided seepage estimation and topographic data. The mapping can show zones of both ascending flow and descending flow of underground water during heavy rains in citrus orchards. The mapping is considered to be effective for the management of orchards and prevention of erosion on slope lands.

  5. MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee. Seventh semi-annual status report, April 1991--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    This seventh semi-annual status report of the MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee (TTIRC) summarizes activities of the TTIRC during the period April 1991 through September 1991. It includes a summary and minutes of the General Committee meeting, progress summaries of ongoing POC contracts, discussions pertaining to technical integration issues in the POC program, and planned activities for the next six months. The meeting included test plan with Western coal, seed regeneration economics, power management for the integrated topping cycle and status of the Clean Coal Technology Proposal activities. Appendices cover CDIF operations HRSR development, CFFF operations etc.

  6. MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee. Seventh semi-annual status report, April 1991--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    This seventh semi-annual status report of the MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee (TTIRC) summarizes activities of the TTIRC during the period April 1991 through September 1991. It includes a summary and minutes of the General Committee meeting, progress summaries of ongoing POC contracts, discussions pertaining to technical integration issues in the POC program, and planned activities for the next six months. The meeting included test plan with Western coal, seed regeneration economics, power management for the integrated topping cycle and status of the Clean Coal Technology Proposal activities. Appendices cover CDIF operations HRSR development, CFFF operations etc.

  7. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  8. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993 have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. Discussions. China’s usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. Conclusions. More human and material resources need to be invested in China’s usability research, particularly in HIT.

  9. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  10. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  11. Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference (9th) Held in Tsukuba, Japan on 4-8 April 2005. Book of Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    8M2-585-8655 FAX: +8142-583-5119 E-mail : fuiii@tmit.ac.jp Haruki Takegahara Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology Kohichiro OYAMA...DESIGN of SATELLITE SYSTEMS against SPACECRAFT CHARGING Noriyoshi Onodera, Yoichi Murakami , Hideaki Koakutsu Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Phone

  12. Aim to unify the narrow band imaging (NBI) magnifying classification for colorectal tumors: current status in Japan from a summary of the consensus symposium in the 79th Annual Meeting of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinji; Sano, Yasushi

    2011-05-01

    At present, there are many narrow band imaging (NBI) magnifying observation classifications for colorectal tumor in Japan. To internationally standardize the NBI observation criteria, a simple classification system is required. When a colorectal tumor is closely observed using the recent high-resolution videocolonoscope, a pit-like pattern on the tumor can be observed to a certain degree without magnification. In the symposium we could have a consensus that we will name the pit-like pattern as 'surface pattern.' Using the NBI system, the microvessels on the tumor surface can also be recognized to a certain degree. When the NBI system is used, the structure is emphasized, and consequently, the surface pattern can be recognized easily. Recently, an international cooperative group was formed and consists of members from Japan, the USA and Europe, which is named as the Colon Tumor NBI Interest Group. This group has developed a simple category classification (NBI international colorectal endoscopic [NICE] classification), which classifies colorectal tumors into types 1-3 even by closely observing colorectal tumors using a high-resolution videocolonoscope (Validation study is now ongoing by Colon Tumor NBI Interest Group.). The key advantage of this is simplification of the NBI classification. Although the magnifying observation is the best for getting detailed NBI findings, both close observation and magnifying observation using the NICE classification might give almost similar results. Of course the NICE classification can be used more precisely with magnification. In this report we also refer the issues on NBI magnification, which should be solved as early as possible.

  13. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  14. China's Imports Status for Japan's Waste and Suggestions%中国对日本废弃物进口贸易现状与对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕亭; 李严丽; 林召兴; 董桂云

    2014-01-01

    通过对1999-2010年12年间中国与日本的废弃物贸易数据等的分析,发现中国是日本废弃物出口的最大对象国,也是美国废弃物出口的高增长市场。通过理论和现实层面的分析,得出中国废弃物处理的边际社会成本低、再生资源需求大、日本出口废弃物获益高等因素是日本等发达国家向中国出口废弃物的主要动因的结论。鉴于中国已经成为废弃物进口大国,面临巨大环境风险的实际情况,提出了中国加强进口废弃物全产业链与环境管理的对策建议。%Through analyzing the trade data between China and Japan from 1999 to 2010, this paper finds that China is the largest recipient of Japan's exports of waste, is also a high growth market for U.S. waste exports, through theoretical and practical level analysis, obtain results that the low marginal social cost of China's waste disposal, large demand for renewable resources, high benefit of Japan's waste exports and other factors are the main drivers Japan and other developed countries to export waste to China. Given that China has become a major importer of waste and facing enormous environmental risks, this paper proposes suggestions that China should strengthen the whole industry chain of imported waste and environmental management.

  15. Laser-assisted rapid prototyping in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Yash P.

    2002-04-01

    In the recent past years, developments in the rapid prototyping of various parts have taken new dynamic turns in manufacturing technology. Besides the use of new materials, unrelenting demands for the downsizing of miniature components in the micro-domain have expanded the application area of the rapid prototype product. Their requirements with reduced time lag have forced the manufacturers to adopt and develop innovative techniques which meet these demands. In order to overcome this problem, several techniques, predominantly laser stereolithography, have successfully been used in Japan for the past several years to generate a complex micro-/macro part of polymer resin based in two- or three-dimensional domains. The main disadvantage of this process is that they consist of two or more steps for producing metallic/metal-matrix composite microstructures. But recently developed new technologies of selective laser sintering/generating and ballistic particles manufacturing processes offer the possibility of the direct generation of these microstructures in a single step process. The last two processes actually have limitations on the feature size produced, due to the minimum size of the molten droplet. But the selective laser sintering technique can bind the particles by melting together at the interfacial grain contact area only and thus producing smaller feature sizes. Based upon these techniques, the present paper aims to review the current status and the future prospective of laser assisted rapid prototyping in Japan.

  16. Status of teaching elementary science for English learners in science, mathematics and technology centered magnet schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Alyson Kim

    According to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (2001), one in three students speaks a language other than English. Additionally, the Commission stated that a student is considered to be an English learner if the second language acquisition is English. In California more than 1.4 million English learners enter school speaking a variety of languages, and this number continues to rise. There is an imminent need to promote instructional strategies that support this group of diverse learners. Although this was not a California study, the results derived from the nationwide participants' responses provided a congruent assessment of the basic need to provide effective science teaching strategies to all English learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of elementary science teaching practices used with English learners in kindergarten through fifth grade in public mathematics, science, and technology-centered elementary magnet schools throughout the country. This descriptive research was designed to provide current information and to identify trends in the areas of curriculum and instruction for English learners in science themed magnet schools. This report described the status of elementary (grades K-5) school science instruction for English learners based on the responses of 116 elementary school teachers: 59 grade K-2, and 57 grade 3-5 teachers. Current research-based approaches support incorporating self-directed learning strategy, expository teaching strategy, active listening strategies, questioning strategies, wait time strategy, small group strategy, peer tutoring strategy, large group learning strategy, demonstrations strategy, formal debates strategy, review sessions strategy, mediated conversation strategy, cooperative learning strategy, and theme-based instruction into the curriculum to assist English learners in science education. Science Technology Society (STS) strategy, problem-based learning strategy, discovery learning

  17. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1984-09-01

    This document is a concise report of a study performed to build the groundwork for Office of Energy Systems Research (ESR) international monitoring efforts. The study explores the status of research and technology developments in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. Ten technology areas that can be applied to improving the efficiency of energy use and that are relevant to ESR research programs were examined.

  18. Global mining risk footprint of critical metals necessary for low-carbon technologies: the case of neodymium, cobalt, and platinum in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansai, Keisuke; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Kondo, Yasushi; Shigetomi, Yosuke; Suh, Sangwon

    2015-02-17

    Meeting the 2-degree global warming target requires wide adoption of low-carbon energy technologies. Many such technologies rely on the use of precious metals, however, increasing the dependence of national economies on these resources. Among such metals, those with supply security concerns are referred to as critical metals. Using the Policy Potential Index developed by the Fraser Institute, this study developed a new footprint indicator, the mining risk footprint (MRF), to quantify the mining risk directly and indirectly affecting a national economy through its consumption of critical metals. We formulated the MRF as a product of the material footprint (MF) of the consuming country and the mining risks of the countries where the materials are mined. A case study was conducted for the 2005 Japanese economy to determine the MF and MRF for three critical metals essential for emerging energy technologies: neodymium, cobalt and platinum. The results indicate that in 2005 the MFs generated by Japanese domestic final demand, that is, the consumption-based metal output of Japan, were 1.0 × 10(3) t for neodymium, 9.4 × 10(3) t for cobalt, and 2.1 × 10 t for platinum. Export demand contributes most to the MF, accounting for 3.0 × 10(3) t, 1.3 × 10(5) t, and 3.1 × 10 t, respectively. The MRFs of Japanese total final demand (domestic plus export) were calculated to be 1.7 × 10 points for neodymium, 4.5 × 10(-2) points for cobalt, and 5.6 points for platinum, implying that the Japanese economy is incurring a high mining risk through its use of neodymium. This country's MRFs are all dominated by export demand. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications and future research directions for measuring the MFs and MRFs of critical metals. For countries poorly endowed with mineral resources, adopting low-carbon energy technologies may imply a shifting of risk from carbon resources to other natural resources, in particular critical metals, and a trade

  19. Phase Change Materials: Technology Status and Potential Defence Applications (Review Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCM are being utilised world over for energy storage and temperature smoothening applications. Defence Laboratory Jodhpur (DLJ has initiated a R&D programme to apply PCM in solving many heat related problems being faced by Indian forces during desert operations specially failure of mission-critical components. Under the programme, special organic PCM (Patent application no. 2258/DEL/2007 and low melting metal alloys have been developed well tuned to desert diurnal cycle. The PCM panels, when applied as an internal lining in buildings, structures and vehicles can moderate the extreme temperature within human tolerable range (below 40 °C without the use of any external power for cooling. The panels can also act as power saver in air conditioned buildings. A cool vest has also been developed with chargeable PCM packs to provide comfortable microenvironment to a soldier on field duty (below 30 °C for 2-3 hrs. To improve reliability of mission critical electronic instruments during desert operation, technology of absorptive PCM heat sinks is under development at DLJ. The special heat sink will absorb heat generated by component for critical mission (up to 1 hr independent of environment temperature and thus ensure smooth functioning of critical components even in extreme hot conditions. In present paper status of PCM technology world over has been reviewed along with the brief account of research on PCM at DLJ.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(6, pp.576-582, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.363

  20. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident on Assisted Reproductive Technology in Fukushima Prefecture: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masako; Fujimori, Keiya; Yasumura, Seiji; Nakai, Akihito

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidences and obstetric outcomes of women who conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures in Fukushima Prefecture before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Information was collected and analyzed from 12,070 women who conceived with or without ART in Fukushima Prefecture during the 9 months before and after the disaster. During the 9 months before and after the disaster, 138 (2.0%) and 102 (1.9%) women conceived with in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), respectively. The proportion of women who conceived with IVF-ET decreased during the 2 months immediately after the disaster, but returned to pre-disaster levels 3 months after the disaster. In the case of women who conceived without IVF-ET, the incidences of preterm birth and low birth weight increased after the disaster. In contrast, women who conceived with IVF-ET did not differ significantly in obstetric outcomes before and after the disaster but had a higher incidence of cesarean section and low birth weight compared to those conceived without IVF-ET, regardless of the study period. The influence of the disaster on woman who conceived using ART procedures was minimal.

  1. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hori, Masato [JAEA; Kawakubo, Yoko [JAEA; Mcclelland - Kerr, J [NNSA

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  2. Japan Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-09

    its warers unless Japan withdraws its objections to the IWC by April i. Abe pointed to the strong American influence on world-wide support of a...squadron of five SH-3 Sea King antisubmarine helicopters which it carries for a squadron of six model H [helicopters] equipped with radar for monitoring ...which appeared in the American newspaper The CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR on 3 May 1983, introduced a statement by Commander (Holcomb) to the effect that

  3. Japan Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    said Monday. In return, Japan has obtained the right to extend its air service beyond Kuala Lumpur to any further point of its choosing, the...System (MAS) and Northwest Orient Airlines will be dropped, the sources said. JAL and MAS will be allowed to begin new services via Kuala Lumpur and...secondary wood manufacturing and tourism , the leader of a state investment mission said Monday. James M. Root, leader of the 19-member mission, said

  4. Japan Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Japan Socialist Party General Secretary Tsuruo Yamaguchi: "The Deceptiveness of Breaking Through the Defense - Spending Limit of 1 Percent of GNP...Agency Budget Proposal 22 Defense Facilities Administration Agency Budget Proposal 41 Breaking of Defense - Spending Limit Criticized (Tsuruo...such as the high yen and decline in the price of oil. (1) Total Amount Fiscal 1987 defense related expenditures are 3,517.4 billion yen, an

  5. Status of an advanced radioisotope space power system using free-piston Stirling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.A,; Qiu, S.; Erbeznik, R.M.; Olan, R.W.; Welty, S.C.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a free-piston Stirling engine technology project to demonstrate a high efficiency power system capable of being further developed for deep space missions using a radioisotope (RI) heat source. The key objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years or longer on deep space missions. Primary issues being addressed for Stirling space power systems are weight and the vibration associated with reciprocating pistons. Similar weight and vibration issues have been successfully addressed with Stirling cryocoolers, which are the accepted standard for cryogenic cooling in space. Integrated long-life Stirling engine-generator (or convertor) operation has been demonstrated by the terrestrial Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) and other Stirling Technology Company (STC) programs. Extensive RSG endurance testing includes more than 40,000 maintenance-free, degradation-free hours for the complete convertor, in addition to several critical component and subsystem endurance tests. The Stirling space power convertor project is being conducted by STC under DOE Contract, and NASA SBIR Phase II contracts. The DOE contract objective is to demonstrate a two-convertor module that represents half of a nominal 150-W(e) power system. Each convertor is referred to as a Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC). The ultimate Stirling power system would be fueled by three general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules, and is projected to produce substantially more electric power than the 150-watt target. The system is capable of full power output with one failed convertor. One NASA contract, nearing completion, uses existing 350-W(e) RG-350 convertors to evaluate interactivity of two back-to-back balanced convertors with various degrees of electrical and mechanical interaction. This effort has recently provided the first successful synchronization of two convertors by means of parallel

  6. European accomplishments in regulation of the family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor, ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This procedure is allowed in, for instance, United Kingdom, but not allowed in France, Switzerland, and Italy. Considering genetics elements in this situation there is no doubt on fatherhood - father is a man whose sperm is used for insemination, regardless of the fact if frozen sperm or frozen embryo is used in the procedure. Nevertheless, until 2008 in United Kingdom, the husband/partner was not considered as legal father, because of the fact that the child was born after his death. Heterologous artificial insemination could be used in three different situations. First, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of different sexes. Second, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex and the third if a single woman is an only subject. Most recent procedure is the one in which subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex, specifically two women. This procedure is allowed in the United Kingdom and Sweden. In these legislatures, there is a rule that the woman who delivers the child is legal mother, and her spouse/partner is a second parent of the child. The most recent procedure of egg donation is a donation of only a part of an egg, mitochondrial DNA. In this case, there are in fact three genetic parents of the child: two genetic mothers and a father. Legally, the child has one mother (the woman who delivers a child and a father. One of potential outcomes of the recent research is the ability to create human embryo without any male genetic contribution - by

  7. Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe and has survival outcomes similar to those of open surgery in elderly patients with a poor performance status: subanalysis of a large multicenter case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hinoi, Takao; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Ohdan, Hideki; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Suzuka, Ichio; Fukunaga, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Endo, Shungo; Tagami, Soichi; Idani, Hitoshi; Ichihara, Takao; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    It remains controversial whether open or laparoscopic surgery should be indicated for elderly patients with colorectal cancer and a poor performance status. In those patients aged 80 years or older with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2 or greater who received elective surgery for stage 0 to stage III colorectal adenocarcinoma and had no concomitant malignancies and who were enrolled in a multicenter case-control study entitled "Retrospective study of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for elderly patients" that was conducted in Japan between 2003 and 2007, background characteristics and short-term and long-term outcomes for open surgery and laparoscopic surgery were compared. Of the 398 patients included, 295 underwent open surgery and 103 underwent laparoscopic surgery. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between open surgery and laparoscopic surgery patients, except for previous abdominal surgery and TNM stage. The median operation duration was shorter with open surgery (open surgery, 153 min; laparoscopic surgery, 202 min; P cancer patients with a poor performance status is safe and not inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival.

  8. Regulatory organizations for physicians' status and administrative sanctions on physicians: - examining the framework of government administrative systems for physicians in Japan based on a questionnaire survey conducted on 13 national medical associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Yasuhiko; Higuchi, Norio; Kuroyanagi, Tatsuo; Nudeshima, Jiro

    2014-05-01

    Society bestows professional privilege on physicians. At the same time, it expects physicians to strive constantly to improve their ethics and quality in medical expertise. In every nation, some level of government is responsible for certifying or licensing physicians and imposes strict management, including revoking licenses from inappropriate physicians or providing severe sanctions for misconduct or conduct unbecoming of a physician. In reality, however, it is difficult to reduce the number of inappropriate or indiscreet physicians, and each nation faces its own challenges. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 13 national medical associations, including some major Western countries, regarding the licensing of physicians, the organizations managing their medical practice status, and the data and grounds for administrative sanctioning of physicians. We then examined the circumstances in Japan based on the survey results and pointed out the domestic issues.

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE STYLE AND HEALTH-STATUS OF MALE STUDENTS AT A NATIONAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    池本, 幸雄; 出村, 慎一; 長澤, 吉則; 山次, 俊介; 島田, 茂; 南, 雅樹

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of life style and health-status of male students at a National College of Technology. A questionnaire consisting of 75 items on life style and health-status was administered to 581 healthy male students aged 15 to 20 years. The frequencies and proportions for each item were computed, and the proportion-differences were examined using one-way analysis of variance. Quite a few students have some exercise habit, and they exercise more than...

  10. The Effect of Micro and Macro Stressors in the Work Environment on Computer Professionals' Subjective Health Status and Productive Behavior in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TOMINAGA, Maki; ASAKURA, Takashi; AKIYAMA, Tsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment on the subjective health status and productive behavior of computer professionals, we conducted a web-based investigation...

  11. JTEC monograph on biodegradable polymers and plastics in Japan: Research, development, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    A fact-finding team of American scientists and engineers visited Japan to assess the status of research and development and applications in biodegradable polymers. The visit was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and industry. In Japan, the team met with representatives of 31 universities, government ministries and institutes, companies, and associations. Japan's national program on biodegradable polymers and plastics evaluates new technologies, testing methods, and potential markets for biodegradables. The program is coordinated by the Biodegradable Plastics Society of Japan, which seeks to achieve world leadership in biodegradable polymer technology and identify commercial opportunities for exploiting this technology. The team saw no major new technology breakthroughs. Japanese scientists and engineers are focusing on natural polymers from renewable resources, synthetic polymers, and bacterially-produced polymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates, poly(amino acids), and polysaccharides. The major polymers receiving attention are the Zeneca PHBV copolymers, Biopol(registered trademark), poly(lactic acid) from several sources, polycaprolactone, and the new synthetic polyester, Bionolle(registered trademark), from Showa High Polymer. In their present state of development, these polymers all have major deficiencies that inhibit their acceptance for large-scale applications.

  12. The status of lightweight photovoltaic space array technology based on amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Kaschmitter, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Ultralight, flexible photovoltaic (PV) array of amorphous silicon (a-Si) was identified as a potential low cost power source for small satellites. A survey was conducted of the status of the a-Si PV array technology with respect to present and future performance, availability, cost, and risks. For existing, experimental array blankets made of commercial cell material, utilizing metal foil substrates, the Beginning of Life (BOL) performance at Air Mass Zero (AM0) and 35 C includes total power up to 200 W, power per area of 64 W/sq m and power per weight of 258 W/kg. Doubling of power per weight occurs when polyimide substrates are used. Estimated End of Life (EOL) power output after 10 years in a nominal low earth orbit would be 80 pct. of BOL, the degradation being due to largely light induced effects (-10 to -15 pct.) and in part (-5 pct.) to space radiation. Predictions for the year 1995 for flexible PV arrays, made on the basis of published results for rigid a-Si modules, indicate EOL power output per area and per weight of 105 W/sq m and 400 W/kg, respectively, while predictions for the late 1990s based on existing U.S. national PV program goals indicate EOL values of 157 W/sq m and 600 W/kg. Cost estimates by vendors for 200 W ultralight arrays in volume of over 1000 units range from $100/watt to $125/watt. Identified risks include the lack of flexible, space compatible encapsulant, the lack of space qualification effort, recent partial or full acquisitions of US manufacturers of a-Si cells by foreign firms, and the absence of a national commitment for a long range development program toward developing of this important power source for space.

  13. Investigating potential for effects of environmental endocrine disrupters on wild populations of amphibians in UK and Japan: status of historical databases and review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Daniel B; Larroze, Severine; Takase, Minoru; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu; Santo, Noriaki

    2007-01-01

    Concern over global declines among amphibians has resulted in increased interest in the effects of environmental contaminants on amphibian populations, and more recently, this has stimulated research on the potential adverse effects of environmental endocrine disrupters in amphibians. Laboratory studies of the effects of single chemicals on endocrine-relevant endpoints in amphibian, mainly anuran, models are valuable in characterizing sensitivity at the individual level and may yield useful bioassays for screening chemicals for endocrine toxicity (for example, thyroid disrupting activity). Nevertheless, in the UK and Japan as in many other countries, it has yet to be demonstrated unequivocally that the exposure of native amphibians to endocrine disrupting environmental contaminants results in adverse effects at the population level. Assessing the potential of such effects is likely to require an ecoepidemiological approach to investigate associations between predicted or actual exposure of amphibians to (endocrine disrupting) environmental contaminants and biologically meaningful responses at the population level. In turn, this demands recent but relatively long-term population trend data. We review two potential sources of such data for widespread UK anurans that could be used in such investigations: records for common frogs and common toads in several databases maintained by the Biological Records Centre (UK Government Centre for Ecology and Hydrology), and adult toad count data from 'Toads on Roads' schemes registered with the UK wildlife charity 'Froglife'. There were little abundance data in the BRC databases that could be used for this purpose, while count data from the Toads on Roads schemes is potentially confounded by the effects of local topology on the detection probabilities and operation of nonchemical anthropogenic stressors. For Japan, local and regional surveys of amphibians and national ecological censuses gathering amphibian data were reviewed to

  14. A review on the current status and production technology of {sup 32,} {sup 33}P-orthophosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ul Jae; Han, Hyun Soo; Cho, Woon Kap; Kuznetsov, Rostislav A

    2000-10-01

    The current status of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P-Orthophosphoric acid production technology is reviewed. The following aspects of the technology are covered: - production of phosphorus-32 and phosphorus-33 using various nuclear reactions; - chemical properties of sulfur and phosphorus effecting the technology of radioactive phosphorus production; - chemical state of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P in neutron irradiated sulfur; - the technology of radioactive phosphorus isolation from neutron irradiated target and orthophosphoric acid production; - purification of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P-orthophosphoric acid from impurities and some related problems, like the nature of impurities, the storage of the final product, etc. - the quality control procedures of carrier-free ({sup 32}, {sup 33}P)-orthophosphoric acid preparations.

  15. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  16. National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies Institute. Status report, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.

    1997-12-31

    The National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) program is intended to pool support, talent, and technologies of the industries dependent upon drilling and excavation technologies to initiate, coordinate, and sustain programs capable of developing substantial technological advances. The NADET Institute has been funded by the DOE Office of Geothermal Technologies and is now supporting seven projects aimed at advanced geothermal drilling technologies. The Institute seeks to broaden its base of funding and technological support from both government and industry sources. Encouraging progress has been made with the support of dues-paying industrial members and industrial sponsorship of a substantial drilling research study.

  17. Status of lipid management using lifestyle modification in Japanese adults: an analysis of the 2009 Japan Society of Ningen Dock database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiko; Moriyama, Kengo; Yamakado, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) has recommended serum lipid management goals (SLMGs) based on the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk classification included in its 2007 guidelines for the diagnosis and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the Japanese population (JAS GL 2007). The Japan Society of Ningen Dock created a database of subjects receiving annual health examinations. Using this database, we evaluated the lifestyles of patients with dyslipidemia by identifying risk factors for CHD development based on the JAS recommendations. A total of 223,407 adults (men: 138,435; women: 84,972) aged between 20 and 79 years were enrolled in the analysis. Those who were already being treated for dyslipidemia and had a history of CHD were excluded. CHD risk factors in the JAS GL 2007, such as an advanced age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking habits, a family history of coronary artery disease, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, were used for the evaluation. The subjects were categorized into three groups (Categories I, II and III) according to the number of risk factors other than the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. We evaluated the percentage of goals met during primary prevention in each group. The serum LDL-C levels were calculated using the Friedewald formula. The LDL-C levels were measured using a direct homogeneous assay if the triglyceride level was ≥400 mg/dL. Overall, 72.9% of the subjects achieved their SLMGs. Most subjects (>90%) with no CHD risk factors other than the LDL-C level in Category I achieved their SLMGs, while less than half of the subjects in Category III achieved their goal. Smoking cessation and medication administration should be considered in patients in Categories II and III.

  18. Thermophotovoltaic potential applications for civilian and industrial use in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    1999-03-01

    Investigative research on potential market for TPV power sources in Japan has been focused on how TPV can contribute to energy conservation and environmental protection and harmony. The application needs for TPV were surveyed in comparison with conventional engine or turbine generators and developing power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, etc. The investigation on the performance of commercial generators shows that regarding system efficiency, TPV can compete with conventional generators in the output power class of tens of kW. According to the sales for small scale generators in Japan, most of the generators below 10 kW class are utilized mainly for construction, communication, leisure, and that 10-100 kW class generators are for cogeneration in small buildings. Waste heat recovery in dispersed furnaces is another potential application of compact TPV cells. Exhaust heat from small scale incinerators and industrial furnaces is undesirable to be recorded into electricity due to excessive heat loss of the smaller steam turbine generators. Solar powered TPV is also of our concern as a natural energy use. From the viewpoint of applicability for TPV, portable generators cogeneration systems, and solar power plants were selected for our system consideration. Intermediate report on the feasibility study concerning such TPV systems is given as well as the review of the current status of competing power generation technologies in Japan.

  19. MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee. Fifth semi-annual status report, April 1990--September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This fifth semi-annual status report of the MHD Technology Transfer, Integration, and Review Committee (TTIRC) summarizes activities of the TTIRC during the period April 1990 through September 1990. It includes summaries and minutes of committee meetings, progress summaries of ongoing Proof-of-Concept (POC) contracts, discussions pertaining to technical integration issues in the POC program, and planned activities for the next six months.

  20. HIT-Sanyo: Revolutionary technology, what is the truth and what a hoax? New technology from Japan tested in Germany; ''Sanyo-HIT: Revolutionaere Technik oder mehr Schein als Sein?''. Neue Technik aus Japan in Deutschland erprobt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, T. [Atmosphaere GmbH, Laatzen (Germany); Kohake, D. [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Fachbereich Elektrotechnik; Rossner, M. [Fachhochschule Coburg (Germany). Fachbereich Elektrotechnik und Informatik

    2004-07-01

    The new modules from Japanese manufacturer Sanyo with the HIT-Technology are supposed to have the worlds best efficiency. In addition the manufacturer claims that by the HIT-Technology the modules supply more energy output compared to conventional crystalline solar modules. This article tries to prove these statements by outdoor investigation. Measurements of one grid connected system, which contains Sanyo, Kyocera and Ersol modules, show that Sanyo modules have at least 7% more energy output than the other modules. DC-measurements at Sanyo and BP modules even prove that due to the low temperature coefficient the Sanyo modules cope better with high cell temperatures compared to the BP ones. In addition the inspection sheets given by Sanyo seem to contain lower power data than determined in field measurements which may be caused by the different spectral consistence of the test light in Japan. The data collected during the second half of 2003 reveals that systems with Sanyo modules can provide 7% and more plus of energy output than systems with other well-known modules. Nevertheless it will be interesting to gather long time data of plants with Sanyo modules in order to achieve a statement of how the energy output evolves during the period of at least one year. (orig.)

  1. JPRS Report, East Asia, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    three-dimensional mensuration engineering, and with Charmilles Technologies S.A. (Switzerland) in electronic discharging machines. This international...RATE MOVEMENT IN A DAY Spot rate; March 31, 1987; Japan time Citibank hikes prime rats Baker worries about Dollar drop Baldridge sayi market

  2. The Status of Technology and Engineering Education in the United States: A Fourth Report of the Findings from the States (2011-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Johnny J.; Dugger, William E., Jr.; Starkweather, Kendall N.

    2012-01-01

    Technology and engineering education continues to evolve as it becomes more apparent that students need this information to become more successful in college and careers. The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA ) has tracked the status of technology education in the United States in three separate studies over the…

  3. Adoption of precision agriculture technologies in India and in some developing countries: Scope, present status and strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinaki Mondal; Manisha Basu

    2009-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic changes in some developing countries, including India, are creating new scopes for application of precision agriculture (PA). The implications of dramatic shifts for economic development, urbanization and energy consumption in some devel-oping countries are immense. High-tech nature of traditional PA technologies developed in advanced countries created a real challenge for engineers to search suitable PA technologies for developing countries. It is expected that application of balanced soft and hard PA technologies based on the need of specific socio-economic condition of a country will make PA suitable for developing countries also. 'Soft' PA depends mainly on visual observation of crop and soil and management decision based on experience and intuition, rather than on statistical and scientific analysis. 'Hard' PA utilizes all modern technologies such as GPS, RS, and VRT. Three components, namely, 'single PA technology', 'PA technology package' (for the user to select one or combination) and 'integrated PA technology', have been identified as a part of adoption strategies of PA in the developing countries. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to find out the scope, the present status and the strategies for adoption of PA in India and in some developing countries. Application of PA in cash crop, plan-tation crop, etc. has been discussed. Application of some medium and low-tech PA tools such as chlorophyll meter and leaf colour chart. in small farms has been included. This exhaustive review of the present status of PA in India and in some developing countries is expected to help to find out the adoption trend and direction of future research. Detailed strategy for the adoption of PA in India has also been proposed.

  4. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix B. Assessment of status of technology for solvent refining of coal. 1977 technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report reviews the technology and environmental impacts of the solvent refined coal process to produce clean solid fuel (SRC-I). Information on SRC-I pilot plant operation, process design, and economics is presented. A bibliography of current available literature in this technology area, divided into fourteen categories with abstracts of the references, is appended. The history, current operations, and future plans for the SRC pilot plants at Fort Lewis and Wilsonville are reviewed. Process data generated at these pilot plants for various coals are used as a basis for a conceptual commercial plant design with a capacity to process 20,000 tons per day (TPD) of prepared coal. Block flow diagrams, material balances, an energy balance, and a list of raw materials for the plant are also provided. Capital cost estimates for a 20,000 TPD coal feed plant derived from four prior economic studies range from $706 million to $1093 million in 1976 dollars. The annual net operating cost is estimated at $238.6 million (1976 dollars) and the average product cost at $2.71/MM Btu based on utility financing (equity 25:debt 75) with $25/ton as the delivered price of the dry coal. The report also discusses special technical considerations associated with some of the process operations and major equipment items and enumerates technical risks associated with the commercialization of the SRC-I process.

  5. Current status of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy; Barbosa, Laercio; Perna, Allan F.N. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Numerous and systematic studies performed in different countries for many decades resulted in the explicit conclusion that radon exposure, as well as its progeny, is the main cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. All three natural radon isotopes ({sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and {sup 219}Rn) are produced in the three principal natural radioactive decay chains. Specifically, the {sup 222}Rn is produced by the decay series of {sup 238}U and proceeded from {alpha}-decay of {sup 226}Ra. Current work describes the present status and obtained results concerning indoor radon survey in dwellings, radon in water supply and soil gas tests performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR) within Curitiba urban area. For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN (GE) and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD, Genitron/SAPHYMO) connected to the air pump with filter vessels and to specially developed in our Laboratory the Soil Gas Probe. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.) connected to special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. Obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m{sup 3} which is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of studied artesian wells, collected samples of water presented the average {sup 222}Rn activity about 60 Bq/L which is 6 times bigger than maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented the radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, it was identified the radioactivity of radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts which are soluble in water and almost

  6. The Status of Technology-Enhanced Education and Service Delivery in Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Gina R.; Huber, Mary J.; Wilson, Josephine F.; Embree, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the upsurge of technology-enhanced rehabilitation education programs and telerehabilitation services, to provide examples of these advancements, and to discuss the implications of this technology for education and the field including the unique advantage to developing technological skills through…

  7. [The status quo and future prospects of emergency medical service systems in Japan in view of the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruga, Tohru

    2016-02-01

    Considering the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources contributing to emergency medical service(EMS) systems at present and in the future in Japan, the author has explained the present states and future prospects of EMS systems in our country. EMS in remote places in this country is now consisting of the concentration of limited human resources, and is therefore suggestive of the EMS systems in the future, because we will have to deal with the possible exhaustion of EMS in our superannuated society progressing now and in the future. And also EMS systems will have to be maintained in the future with concerted efforts of all the medical staffs. The transferring the medical doctors' tasks to those of nurses and other staffs, that is to say the task shifting has just authorized by recent laws, and so the task shifting will be useful in the future EMS systems performed by all kinds of medical workers, in whom general physicians will be included as they are to be distributed throughout this country in the future.

  8. Cytochrome p450 induction and gonadal status alteration in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) associated with the discharge of dioxin contaminated effluent to the Hikiji River, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Nakai, Kiyotaka; Aoto, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Aiko; Ushikoshi, Ryoko; Hirose, Hitomi; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2003-05-01

    Accumulations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls were analyzed in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected in the Hikiji River, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan in which dioxin contaminated effluent was released during the period starting from November 1992 to March 2000. Higher levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents were observed in carps collected downstream to the dioxin release site (contaminated site) than the reference site. Modulations of cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzyme in liver, serum estrogen concentration and gonadal somatic index (GSI) were also measured as biomarkers for the contaminants. Total CYP content in livers was markedly higher in male and female carps from the contaminated site relative to the reference site fish. The expression level of the cytochrome p450 1A and Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were significantly higher in female carps from the contaminated site than from the reference site. A lower level of plasma estrogen was observed in carps from the contaminated site. The GSI in female carps from the contaminated site was smaller than that recorded at the reference site. The present study indicates that dioxins released to the Hikiji River might induce the CYP enzyme and inhibit the reproductive functions in common carps dwelling downstream from the release site.

  9. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Rogers, Adam Zachary; Simmons, R. F.; Palethorpe, S. J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  10. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  11. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    1999-10-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. K. Herbst; J. A. McCray; R. J. Kirkham; J. Pao; S. H. Hinckley

    1999-09-30

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  13. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  14. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  15. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  16. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Rogers, A.Z.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethrope, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  17. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    2 microns for grinding, 1.5 microns for polishing, and 0.3 microns for polishing. Figure 3 shows various types of artificial bioceramic materials...materi als of long bones tificial finger"joints Figure 3. Areas of Application of Artificial Bones and Joints Made of Bioceramics Onishi examined

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Cosmetics, and Medical Instruments Act." To be exact, the artificial joint in question is an artificial knee joint called " Bioceram ," which has been sold...machinery, automobile parts, and electronic parts of the Ceramics Department and bioceram (medical material), solar energy, electronic equipment... Bioceramics --including artificial teeth and artificial bones--in which Kyocera was taking a great lead has recently hit an impasse due to the

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-06

    kerosine + S02), exfoliation of the alumina layer of the cathode insulating wall (water-cooled copper base alumina thermally sprayed type) was observed...approaches 49. Expanded applications of nuclear development 50. Enhanced national security 51. Repercussions for other sectors such as genes, cytology

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    animal which has fed to satiety suddenly resumes _ eating after the animal’s hunger sensory center was stimulated with electric pulses and continues...to protect the body from danger. Other body reactions in which the adrenocor- tical hormones play the major role and which have close relations with...controlling eating habits. There, the so-called hunger sensory center and full-stomach center are functioning in a competing fashion. For example, an

  1. Japan Report, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of drainage water; this is a very important field. There is Minamata disease, which has now become a globll problem, and similar pollution from...was the cause of Minamata disease. Moreover, there are high hopes in the energy field as well. After all, the sZvZ7e of combustible energy is a

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-03

    The members of the above Expert Council are: Yuichi Shiokawa (Professor Emeritus, Juntendo Univer- sity), Chairman; Yoji Igawa (Chief investigator...AIDS diagnosis and treatment (FY85) Team leader: Y. Shiokawa (Professor emeritus, Juntendo University) Research team on AIDS infection and onset...mechanisms (FY86 - ) Team leader: Y. Shiokawa (Professor emeritus, Juntendo University) Research team on Pharma- ceuticals development (FY86

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    residua because of the low vapor pressure of Cu chloride , and the other is that the residual chlorine tends to bring about corrosion. In regard to... battery effects. In any case, in the case of submicron rule wiring etching, the films to be etched are different from the conventional ones...Silver was deposited by vacuum evaporation on this film to form source and drain electrodes, and an aluminium electrode was formed to serve as a current

  4. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    urgent need to appropriately deal with these fundamental and qual- itative issues in order to realize the information society . In other words, we...Comprehensive Software Policy The steady supplying of good software is a necessary condition for the realization of the information society . The demand for...to the advanced information society is the realization of marked improvements in the reliability and performance of information-related equipment

  5. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    coal development and export will worsen. The production of natural gas will also decrease along with decreasing crude oil production . Even atomic power...amount of required crude oil production of the consolidated balance of OPEC, including the declining sub- stitute energy supply capacity, is

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    laboratories is managed by Yukio Sugino (head of the Central Research Laboratory, who is an authority on molecular biology. Masahiko Fujino, who will be...for research and development. The Association organized a "Committee on Extending the Useful Life of Nuclear Power Plants" (chairman: Y. Mishima

  7. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-25

    Ernaehrungsphysiologie Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie Institut fuer Biochemie, Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet Instituto di Chimica, Facolt’ di Medicina ...properly promote and manage the HFSP as an interna - tional program through cooperation among many coun- tries. To this end, the Organization must be...established and managed on the basis of the following premises: (1) The implementation scheme should be open interna - tionally. a. All activities

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    vortex, which is caused by the separation that occurred in the back side of the blade, flowing to the downstream and reattaching . Like this, for...of the mecha- nism of nerve information and the directional determination strategy). b. Effective double approach (a) Improvement of SD training...b. To provide controller and controlling methods for the manual, vocal, pedal, nerves and muscles, and nerve /electromyogram system that comes in

  9. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-02

    conductive film: Electrochromic film: Optical electrode film: Catalyst carrier: Superconductor: v2o5 BaTi03, PbTi03, KTi03, KTa03 LiNb03...depth measurement and forward obstacle detection. For echo sounding, this ship uses a synchronous pinger as the echo sounder transmitter and an LBL as...to synchronous pinger sounds on the seabed as reference points the submersible’s LBL detects the directions of their respective sound sources on

  10. Japan Report, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-02

    1, methanol) - 83.5"C Bacillus subtilis PCI 219 > 100 UV absorption in Meoll (e) 1 ,, 232nm (33000) AlicrococcuLs luteus ATCC 9341 > 100 (shoulder...TrickOphyton rubrumr > 100 1285. 1258. 1160. 1100, Candida albicans > 100 1043, 965. 820 Soccharomyces sake > 100 Rf value 0.33 (ethyl acetate: (Kiecselgel 60...kitittlyciln, a lnew anibiotitc fromnUeaa:Srcua td fanwiii stretomci.1 1,J. Atibotic S(rA, (4)tumor antibiotics Kazusarnycin, J. Anti - st141 mci -, 146 An

  11. JPRS Report. Science & Technology: Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    prerequisite of the new materials is that the environment not be damaged . The characteristic as a fusion material is a factor to limit ways of...thermoelastic stress in the thermal stationary state has been possible up to now, we also wish to conduct an elastoplastic analysis taking into consideration...the heat history, and to establish a prestrain design on this basis. Moreover, in the future we wish to conduct analysis of elastoplastic thermal

  12. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    manufacture 1,000 kW new type cell power storage system pilot plant. Also, to conduct new type cell system test using simulated power transmission ...system 1.878 r 1411 [ ESB 1.737J 1,791 r 751 LESA 1.715J To conduct operational research on a bench plant consisting of 100 kW class...as this power storage system promotes preserving the environment and can be installed in cities, it is possible to decrease transmission power

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    8217Jf *-’ ■■■■’"■’•■■•■"■•■v. ■ y punp l ode fft’ti ■■■".*.*.’.•■».’.’.*•; T7 ftir 02 Stabilized ziroonia .Cur-»-, rent < VIH ) ! Closed syster

  14. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    alcohol from biomass Fractionation of fatty acids consisting of natural fats and oxls Treatment of heavy hydrocarbons Deasphaltation from...sharp, 4) the pure level is high, 5) the amount of alkali metal, etc., contained in the new product is small. Thanks to these features, it has become...cases and an airtight seal excelling in heat resistance, water resistance, and durability can be made. (5) Pretreatment and primer treatment are not

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    overcoming the "quenching" the traditional trains , the Linear Maglev system allows phenomena. one transformer station to be able to control one train only...limitless dreams and hopes for the training and securing, (2) ample R&D funding, (3) infor- progress of science. At the same time, this discovery gave...with an Takagi-When you say an intelligent material, which is, engineering training , are least familiar with some of the let’s say, a bone, do you mean

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    added in various configurations. Here, DA, DAAD, DADA , and DDAA show possible positions for the donors and the acceptors. The numeral following each...the expanse and the deviation of wave functions varies with molecular length. 35 DAAD detuning energy 0.2eV 3000 E DA 1500 DADA DDAA Low molecular

  17. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Thermal Fluid Dynamics Department and the Kadota Institute have conducted research directed at their respective environments: aero - dynamic...Isolation valve Observation window .Illumination mirror Sample AC meter —CZD Vacuum pump Illumination window * Isolation valve ^ Shutter ...the Japanese navy was betting all its might on the flight of the jet aircraft "Kitsuka". The body was made by Nakashima Aero - plane and the engine

  18. JPRS Report. Science & Technology: Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    as PLZT and zirconia . As a display device there is an electrochromic display (ECD) and electro- luminescence (EL). Since Bell Laboratories of the...Trench. The direct observation from the (Nautile) and the analysis of specimens sampled provided evidence that First Kashima Seamount was crowned

  19. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    hemodialysis . During hemodialysis , heparin is used for the prevention of thrombus formation. However, if heparin is used, even hemorrhage from a...properties and, in particular, in the strength and deforma- tion of the amorphous alloy, and tried to produce a ribbon specimen of a definite form that... definite applications of fibers. Also, it can be said that this increase holds the key to the growth of the industrial world related to fibers. 85

  20. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    8, 47 (1988). 7. P. D. Zavitsanos and A. Gatti, "The Use of Self- Propagating Reactions for the Synthesis of High Density Titanium Diboride." 8...Contents: The insulating coating is removed; pickling ; metal plating with Sb, Zn, Sn and Ni; 0.76 W/kg (before treatment: 0.91) 28. Powders for

  1. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    glutamic acid and an amino group of cysteine forming a peptide bond (Figure 1). It is ubiquitous in animals, higher plants, bacteria, and fungi . Its...diseases and cancer therapy in combination with anticancer agents. Recently its important roles in vivo have been recognized. These include its

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-02

    whereby giant pulse is attained. The Pockels Q-switching cell element is KDP crystal (potassium dihydrogen phosphate , KH2P04 This Q-switching cell...bond and Filler strengthen ing Buffer layer provision Shrink fit method Shear strength junction part 30 kg/mm2 300°C 10 kg/mm2 300°C 9

  3. JPRS Report. Science & Technology: Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    for NBR, CR, and EPDM which have been in use, the adoption of fluoric rubber, acrylic rubber, and hydrin rubber attracts attention. Adhesives have...Although Si3Ni,. is the main component, other materials such as SiC, PSZ (partial stabilization zirconia), and A1203 are currently under investi- gation...application is greatly expected to be achieved by conquering several subjects such as mate- rial development, stability of quality, and establishment of

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-13

    Streptococcus equinus 0. 66 ± 0. 01 0.19 0.04 47 Streptococcus mitis 0. 65 ± 0. 01 0.27 0.09 33 Streptococcus salivarius 0. 66 ± 0. 01 0.42 0.15 36... Streptococcus sanguis, Str. equinus, and Str. mitis. The gram-negative bacteria are the Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Proteus vulgaris... Streptococcus sanguis 0. 68 ± 0. 01 0.45 0.12 27 Staphylococcus aureus 0. 67 ± 0. 01 0.33 0.13 38 Staphylococcus epidermidis 0. 68 ± 0. 01 0.47 0.19 40

  5. Japan Report, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-15

    tyrosyladenylic acid (Tyr-AMP) and TyrRS complex was defined by 2.7 A resolving power, and it is inferred that there are 11 hydrogen bonds between...like above, a protein or its mutual reaction to a substrate is defined by high resolving power, display by computer graphics is highly effective. It...recently received an order from Kokusai Denshin Denwa Co.. Ltd. (KDD) of Tokyo for an unmanned subsea vehicle, "Shinkai Marcas ," which can conduct

  6. Japan Report, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-26

    manufacture of the chemical. Among other examples of similar reactions are the synthesis of cumene hydroperoxide, the raw material of phenol, which...involves irradiation of cumene with XeCl-laser under an oxygen atmosphere, leading to the cleavage of a C-H bond and a chain reaction with a quantum...responsive to detectors are converted by enzymic reactions , and are highly responsive. Moreover, the specificity of enzymes amplifies the signals

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-29

    type AO-resin adopts divinylbenzene (DVB) as a bridging agent. II- type resin uses tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDM), a hydrophile bridging...tion speed. The improvement of the parent resin itself can provide a higher uranium adsorption speed. Although the II- type resin increased its...uranium adsorption speed, it showed a great change in volume at the time of adsorption and desorption. Til- type resin uses a mixture of TEGDM and DVB

  8. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    current was calculated by Bean model . The 3 dimensions of the sample for DC magnetic measurements were 2*2*5 mm .AC susceptibility was measured by a...important for the application of superconductor at high field, usually, Bean model is used to determine magnetic current from magnetic loop at high...of J^, shown in Fig. 4, was calculated by Bean model J =30 AM/d, where d was the dimension of the sample (about 2 mm). Our experiments [11

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    insulating materia ^ Side support L^Sfh of ’&r airframe (Gr/Pl) Figure 2.3 Example of Trial-Manufactured Nickel TPS 103 Figure 2 3 shows a product...parts, equipment and systems in order to keep its balance with GNP. Construction results are shown in Figure 12. (*) s Optoelectronization index

  10. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-31

    Alleviating FGMs 1 r-t CO •H U a) 4J CO Auto- exo- thermic reac- tion s 00 A 4-1 •H CO g M e l t i n g po in t, °C H e a t s t...locations of the view’ports for the two submersibles, and Figure 3 shows a comparison of the fields of view on the sea floor . In Figure 3, Shinkai 2000...Field of View on the Sea Floor Key: 1. Field of view to the left of both eyes (43 degrees) 2. Field of view to the left of both eyes when the angle

  11. Status of clean vehicle technologies and impact of the accompanying public policies; Etat des filieres de vehicules propres et impact des politiques publiques d'accompagnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The French inter-ministry committee for clean vehicles (CIVP) published in 1999 a report about the status of development of the different clean vehicle technologies (electric-powered, LPG-fueled, natural gas fueled, hybrid, fuel cells) and accompanied by recommendations for public policies. A re-evaluation of these technologies was planned by the end of 2002 and is the purpose of this document. The first part makes a status of the actions carried out by the public authorities since the previous CIVP report. The second part presents the present day situation of the LPG, natural gas and electric technologies. It describes also the recent advances in the classical technologies (gasoline and diesel engines) and includes a part about battery technologies and about the use of bio-fuels. The status of each technology is presented both for France and for foreign countries and with its perspectives of evolution. (J.S.)

  12. Japan's Lunar Exploration Program and Its Contribution to International Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Kato, Manabu; Matsumoto, Kohtaro; Hashimoto, Tatsuaki

    . JAXA built its Lunar and Planetary Exploration Center (JSPEC) last April. JSPEC is doing not only the moon but planetary exploration encompassing from science to so-called exploration. JSPEC elaborates strategies of science and technology, program planning and promotion of Space Exploration activities through domestic and international collaborations. And at the same time, the Specific R&D activities for engineering and science development, operation and other related activities for spacecraft are also performed there, including the research and analysis of scientific and technical aspects for future missions. Simply speaking, the JSPEC of JAXA looks at both Exploration together with Science Missions. The activity includes the Moon, Mars and NEOs plus Primitive Bodies where humans someday may stay or may utilize in future. This January, the Lunar Exploration WG was established under the government, and started the strategic discussion at the government level on how to go about the lunar exploration in Japan. The program strategy made a report this January and made a recommendation that Japan should have a lunar lander until middle of 2010s. JAXA started its 2nd 5-year plan from 2008, and JAXA completed the MDR (Mission Definition Review) for the SELENE-2 last July, and established the Phase-A study team for it. JAXA believes it leads to International Cooperation, Discovery and Innovation and shall consist of two types of missions. The first one is the Robotic Lunar Missions, in which JAXA will make an in-depth scientific measurements and utilization, until the middle of 2010s. The other one is the Human Lunar Missions, in which the missions anyhow shall be autonomous with its own objectives, making use of humans related technologies, while pursuing the Japanese astronaut on the moon as early as possible in international activity to commensurate with its international status. As to its Independent Lunar Surface activity by Japan's own space systems assets still

  13. MSC POOL技术及其发展现状%MSC POOL Technology and Its Development Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓉; 李旭

    2011-01-01

    Based on technical research of MSC POOL, the definition and principle of MSC POOL technology are elaborated in a detail. The development status of various manufacturers for MSC POOL technology are summarized. Some typical business examples with MSC POOL technology and the benefits brought by MSC POOL technology in the practical application are analyzed. Finallyt some problems brought by MSC POOL technology and development trend of MSC POOL technology are proposed.%在对MSC POOL技术调研的基础上,详细阐述了MSC POOL技术的定义及原理,然后总结各个厂家针对MSCPOOL技术的发展状况,分析各地的一些典型商用MSC POOL技术实例以及MSC POOL技术在实际应用中所带来的优势,并总结了MSC POOL技术带来的一些问题,展望MSCPOOL技术未来的发展趋势.

  14. Interactions between psychological stress and drinking status in relation to diet among middle-aged men and women: a large-scale cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Kaori; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between psychological stress (PS) and drinking status in relation to diet among middle-aged Japanese men and women in a large-scale cross-sectional study. The study population included 5,587 middle-aged Japanese men and 2,718 middle-aged Japanese women who underwent annual health checkups. The subjects were divided into 2 groups (non-drinkers and drinkers) and classified as having low, moderate, or high self-reported PS levels. Energy-adjusted food and nutrient consumption was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using a general linear model, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each self-reported PS level in the 2 groups (non-drinkers and drinkers) and the interactions between self-reported PS levels and drinking status were calculated. In men, pork and beef; squid, octopus, shrimp, and clams; eggs; mushrooms; Japanese-style sweets; ice cream; bread; Chinese noodles; coffee; and soda as foods and protein, animal protein, fat, animal fat, carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, cholesterol, vitamin D, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, niacin, pantothenic acid, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc as nutrients significantly interacted with self-reported PS levels and drinking status (p for interaction <0.05 for all). No specific interactions were found in women. These findings suggest interactions between PS levels and drinking status with consumption of some foods and nutrients, especially macronutrient intake, in men but not in women.

  15. Coffee, green tea, and caffeine consumption and subsequent risk of bladder cancer in relation to smoking status: a prospective study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2009-02-01

    Coffee and caffeine consumption are thought to increase the risk of bladder cancer. However, few studies have stratified this risk by smoking status, which is a potential confounder. Here, we investigated the association between coffee, green tea (another major source of caffeine), and caffeine, and bladder cancer incidence in relation to smoking status. We conducted a population-based prospective study in a cohort of Japanese, comprising a total of 49 566 men and 54 874 women aged 40–69 years who reported their coffee and green tea consumption at baseline. During follow-up from 1990 through 2005, 164 men and 42 women were newly diagnosed with bladder cancer. Cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, with a strong dose–response relationship. Coffee was positively associated with bladder cancer risk in men, without statistical significance. When stratified by smoking status, coffee and caffeine consumption were associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in never- or former-smoking men, with hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) in the highest categories of coffee (one or more cups per day) and caffeine consumption compared with the lowest of 2.24 (95% CI = 1.21–4.16) and 2.05 (95% CI = 1.15–3.66), respectively. In conclusion, cigarette smoking was confirmed as a risk factor for bladder cancer. Coffee and caffeine may be associated with an increased bladder cancer risk in never or former smokers among Japanese men.

  16. Impressions of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Fangyuan

    2013-01-01

    <正>The eight-day visit to Japan seemed to be a beautiful dream that ended before I woke up. However, in the dream I saw the future of China-Japan friendship. On March 4, flying to Japan, I thought all the way: "What kind of a country is Japan? Is it really as orderly and

  17. Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    BROADBENT, Kaye

    2005-01-01

    Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development ...

  18. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  19. Vertical-axis wind turbines -- The current status of an old technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Vertical-axis wind turbine technology is not well understood, even though the earliest wind machines rotated about a vertical axis. The operating environment of a vertical-axis wind turbine is quite complex, but detailed analysis capabilities have been developed and verified over the last 30 years. Although vertical-axis technology has not been widely commercialized, it exhibits both advantages and disadvantages compared to horizontal-axis technology, and in some applications, it appears to offer significant advantages.

  20. Status of (137)Cs contamination in marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model two years simulation following the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct (137)Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, (137)Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed (137)Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow (137)Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported (137)Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of (137)Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of (137)Cs, i

  1. The Status and Trends of Isotopes Technology and Application——Based on NTR Printed by IAEA in Last Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hua-ming

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year IAEA organizes experts to produce a review on nuclear technology and its application all over the world, namely NTR (Nuclear Technology Review, in which the status of isotopes technologies and applications are totally involved. From recent five years’ reports (2010-2014, the forward concerning isotope technology and applications were presented, such as radioisotopes produced by accelerator, stable- and radio- isotopes and their applications to environment, nuclear medicine, food and agriculture. etc.

  2. Computer-aided technology for fabricating complete dentures: systematic review of historical background, current status, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidra, Avinash S; Taylor, Thomas D; Agar, John R

    2013-06-01

    Computer-aided technology is an emerging method for fabricating complete dentures. Consolidated information about historical background, current status, and scope for the future is lacking. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the existing literature on computer-aided technology for fabricating complete dentures and provide the reader with a historical background, current status, and future perspectives on this emerging technology. An electronic search of the English language literature between the periods of January 1957 and June 2012 was performed by using PubMed/MEDLINE with the following specific search terms: CAD-CAM complete dentures, digital complete dentures, computer dentures, designed dentures, machined dentures, manufactured dentures, milled dentures, and rapid prototyping dentures. Additionally, the search terms were used on the Google search engine to identify current commercial manufacturers and their protocols. A total of 1584 English language titles were obtained from the electronic database, and the systematic application of exclusion criteria resulted in the identification of 8 articles pertaining to computer-aided technology for complete dentures. Since the first published report in 1994, multiple authors have described different theoretical models and protocols for fabricating complete dentures with computer-aided technology. Although no clinical trials or clinical reports were identified in the scientific literature, the Google search engine identified 2 commercial manufacturers in the United States currently fabricating complete dentures with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology for clinicians world-wide. These manufacturers have definitive protocols in place and offer exclusive dental materials, techniques, and laboratory support. Their protocols contrast with conventional paradigms for fabricating complete dentures and allow the fabrication of complete dentures in 2 clinical appointments

  3. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. [300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report is an in-depth review and analysis of particulate control technologies applicable to coal-fired utility boilers. Sources and characteristics of fly ash, applicable emission regulations, and measurement techniques are also discussed. Available control technologies (electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, and wet scrubbers) are described in detail. In each case, the theory of operation, factors affecting performance, representative installations, costs, and secondary environmental impacts are analyzed. Techniques under development for improving the performance or extending the capabilities of existing technologies are described. Advanced alternative technologies now in the research stage are also evaluated.

  4. A Rearmed Japan: Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Japan started its initial rearmament effort. Japan’s defense expenditures have fluctuated from near 3% of GNP to as low...Klein, Donald W. " Japan 1979: The Second Oil Crisis’ Asian Survey, January 1980. Lee, William T. "Soviet Defense Expenditures in an Era of SALT." United...relationship to the options Japan can take. In very general terms, Japan has two options: to solely rely on the D.S.-Japanese Mutual Defense Treaty for

  5. Status of the fast mission: Micro-satellite formation flying for technology, science and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Maessen, D.C.; Gill, E.K.A.; Moon, S.G.; Zheng, G.

    2009-01-01

    FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) is a cooperative Dutch Chinese formation flying mission led by Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in the Netherlands and Tsinghua University in China. It is expected to be the first international micro-satellite formation f

  6. Status of the fast mission: Micro-satellite formation flying for technology, science and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Maessen, D.C.; Gill, E.K.A.; Moon, S.G.; Zheng, G.

    2009-01-01

    FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) is a cooperative Dutch Chinese formation flying mission led by Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in the Netherlands and Tsinghua University in China. It is expected to be the first international micro-satellite formation

  7. Status of the fast mission: Micro-satellite formation flying for technology, science and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Maessen, D.C.; Gill, E.K.A.; Moon, S.G.; Zheng, G.

    2009-01-01

    FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) is a cooperative Dutch Chinese formation flying mission led by Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in the Netherlands and Tsinghua University in China. It is expected to be the first international micro-satellite formation f

  8. Proceedings of the fifth Australia-Japan workshop on plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The fifth Australia-Japan Workshop on Plasma Diagnostics was held at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Naka, Japan, from December 15 to 17 in 1999. The first workshop was held at JAERI, Naka in 1989, and the workshops have been held almost every two years in Australia and Japan under the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of Australia on cooperation in the field of Science and Technology. In the workshops, latest research works for plasma diagnostics and plasma experiment have been presented and discussed. The research works of both countries have been developed, and the mutual understanding became deeper through the workshops. In the fifth workshop, the statuses of JT-60U (JAERI), LHD (National Institute for Fusion Science) and H-1NF (Australian National University) were introduced, and the latest research works for plasma diagnostics were also presented. The active and deeper discussions were performed. This report contains twenty-eight papers presented at the workshop. The 25 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. The Status Quo and Prospect of Chinese-funded Enterprises Technology Transfer to Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Guang; Li Xinfeng; Chen Mo

    2015-01-01

    Weak technical foundation is an important bottleneck to restrict economic growth of African countries. To promote the technological progress of Africa, the Chinese African strategy always encourages and supports Chinese-funded enterprises to transfer technology to Africa, but it is worth nothing that the critique by some African scholars and local communities on technology transfer to Africa by the Chinese-funded enterprises is spreading. In fact, in order to implement the "localization" strategy, develop African market or honor cooperation agreement on additional technical transfer, Chinese-funded enterprises always adhere to actively carrying out technology transfer to Africa, and have made certain achievements in improving the host countries’ technical environment, increasing labor income and others. In order to cope with the challenges and dispel the crisis of public opinion, China should uphold the concept of "teaching how to fish" and push forward the continuous upgrading and optimization of technology transfer to Africa all-dimensionally.

  10. The USAF Phillips Laboratory sodium-sulfur battery technology program: Results and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, Marc E.; Somerville, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Tests performed on NaS batteries are reported. The results of safety and abuse testing, shock and vibration tests, cell failure on warm-up, freeze thaw, overtemperature conditions, electrolyte fracture, overdischarge, and short circuit tests are presented along with GEO and LEO cycle tests and the status of the NaS cell flight tests.

  11. Forward Osmosis in India: Status and Comparison with Other Desalination Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Dhruv; Gupta, Lovleen; Dhingra, Rijul

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in demand of freshwater and depleting water sources, it is imperative to switch to seawater as a regular source of water supply. However, due to the high total dissolved solid content, it has to be desalinated to make it drinkable. While desalination technologies have been used for many years, mass deployment of such technologies poses a number of challenges like high energy requirements as well as high negative environmental impact through side products and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is to present a sustainable technology for desalination. Forward osmosis, an emerging technology, is compared with the other commonly used technologies worldwide, namely, multieffect distillation, multistage flash distillation, and reverse osmosis as well as other emerging technologies like vapour compression, solar humidification dehumidification, nanofiltration, and freezing desalination. As energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions are one of the major concerns of desalination, this paper concludes that forward osmosis is an emerging sustainable technology for seawater desalination. This paper then presents the challenges involved in the application of forward osmosis in India and presents a plant setup. In the end, the cost comparison of a forward osmosis and reverse osmosis plant has been done and it was concluded that forward osmosis is economically better as well.

  12. FY 1997 report on the survey of history and heritages of industrial technology. Survey of the originality and creativity of electrical and electronic engineering in Japan; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (sangyo gijutsu rekishi keisho chosa). Kokunai sangyo no denki denshi gijutsu no dokusosei sozosei no chosahen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For selection of future technological themes and developmental techniques, survey was made on the history of development of electrical and electronic engineering and industry in Japan. The Technical Committee for History of Electrical Engineering of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan has diffused various activities on the history research into a society since establishment in April, 1990. Hearing survey which is extremely important for technology succession has been carried out continuously since 1991 for 3 honorary members of this institute who are pioneers of electrical and electronic engineering innovation in Japan. Importance of creative innovative technology development is increasing more and more, and `finding a guide into tomorrow by taking lessons from the past` is one of techniques for technology development. Publication and opening on Internet of the hearing survey results are under consideration as public service. Preparation of the database of the hearing results is also necessary for promotion of these activities. 17 refs.

  13. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  14. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Zhifu [Dept. of Isotope, China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1998-10-01

    The research and application of the technology of isotopes and radiation have been reviewed. Since the setup of the China`s first nuclear reactor at China Institute of Nuclear Energy in 1958, the technology of isotopes and radiation has been developed significantly. A research and application system has formed a considerable state. The technology of isotopes and radiation has been taken into the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and scientific research. The main achievements are on radiopharmaceuticals, radiation source, radiation process, and radioactive tracers. (author)

  15. Status of Technology in Domestic Nitrogenous Fertilizer Industry%我国氮肥工业技术状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹占高; 凌晓东; 常怀春

    2012-01-01

    分析了国外、国内氮肥工业生产装置的技术状况,罗列了大、中、小型合成氨装置和尿素装置的消耗情况.介绍了我国氮肥生产装置关键部位具有国内或国际水平的新技术的开发与应用情况.%An analysis is made of the status of technology used in the production units of foreign and domestic nitrogenous fertilizer industry, and consumption levels are listed for large-, medium- and small-scale ammonia and urea units. A presentation is given of the development and application of new technology at domestic or international level used in key locations of domestic nitrogenous fertilizer production units.

  16. Teachers and Tea-Fetchers – What the Future Holds for Japan's Junior College Graduates: Female student perceptions of the status, purpose, and value of a Junior College education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKER, Patricia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Japan, enrolments in junior colleges, previously the higher education destination of choice for nearly 500 000 women a year at their peak in 1990, has plummeted recently to half that number. It is therefore of interest to investigate the quality of experience and post-graduation aspirations of the decreasing numbers of women who have elected to take up the short- term route. This study investigates the mission of the junior college in the 21st century, the quality and status of the courses, the extent to which they prepare women for their career goals, and the value of the exit qualification in the employment market. In an intensive period of fieldwork in a small college on the Tokyo/Yokohama borders in the summer of 2005 the views of students and their tutors were elicited. It was found that, on the whole, high numbers of women were resigned to the gendered roles for which they have been socialized throughout their life course but that a growing minority were resolved to use their junior college degree to open up possibilities for further study and enter an arena where their economic outcomes could be expanded.

  17. Advances for prosthetic technology from historical perspective to current status to future application

    CERN Document Server

    LeMoyne, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the advances in transtibial prosthetic technology and targets research in the evolution of the powered prosthesis such as the BiOM, which was derived from considerable research and development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The concept of the book spans the historical evolution of prosthetic applications from passive to new and futuristic robotic prosthetic technologies.  The author describes the reasons for amputation, surgical procedures, and an historical perspective of the prosthesis for the lower limb. He also addresses the phases and sub-phases of gait and compensatory mechanisms arising for a transtibial prosthesis and links the compensatory mechanisms to long-term morbidities.  The general technologies for gait analysis central to prosthetic design and the inherent biomechanics foundations for analysis are also explored.  The book reports on recent-past to current-term applications with passive elastic prostheses.  The core of the book deals with futuristic robo...

  18. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Development and Maturation Status for NF Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Blosser, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzales, G.; Hamm, K.; Kazemba, C.; Ma, J.; Mahzari, M.; Milos, F.; Nishioka, O.; Peterson, K.; Poteet, C.; Prabhu, D.; Splinter, S.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.; Young, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASA's Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  19. Status of Wireless Technologies Used For Designing Home Automation System - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish J. Ingle

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “Automation” have just started flourishing, companies have developed automated systems of their own to control alarms, sensors, actuators and video cameras and moving further the concept of automated buildings is being recognized. This Paper attempts to study standards / technologies which are used for Home Automation. In brief, concern of this Paper is to cover the detail Technical aspects of the Home Automation Standard/ Technology.

  20. Forward Osmosis in India: Status and Comparison with Other Desalination Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Dhruv; Gupta, Lovleen; Dhingra, Rijul

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in demand of freshwater and depleting water sources, it is imperative to switch to seawater as a regular source of water supply. However, due to the high total dissolved solid content, it has to be desalinated to make it drinkable. While desalination technologies have been used for many years, mass deployment of such technologies poses a number of challenges like high energy requirements as well as high negative environmental impact through side products and CO2 emissions. Th...