WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology investment prioritization

  1. Prioritizing Information Technology Investments: Assessing the Correlations among Technological Readiness, Information Technology Flexibility, and Information Technology Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Management's dilemma, when allocating financial resources towards the improvement of technological readiness and IT flexibility within their organizations, is to control financial risk and maximize IT effectiveness. Technological readiness is people's propensity to embrace and use technology. Its drivers are optimism, innovativeness, discomfort,…

  2. Tool to Prioritize Energy Efficiency Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farese, P.; Gelman, R.; Hendron, R.

    2012-08-01

    To provide analytic support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of the Building Technology Program (BTP), NREL developed a Microsoft Excel-based tool to provide an open and objective comparison of the hundreds of investment opportunities available to BTP. This tool uses established methodologies to evaluate the energy savings and cost of those savings.

  3. Tool to Prioritize Energy Efficiency Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farese, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gelman, Rachel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    To provide analytic support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of the Building Technology Program (BTP), NREL developed a Microsoft Excel-based tool to provide an open and objective comparison of the hundreds of investment opportunities available to BTP. This tool uses established methodologies to evaluate the energy savings and cost of those savings.

  4. Prioritizing land and sea conservation investments to protect coral reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissa J Klein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral reefs have exceptional biodiversity, support the livelihoods of millions of people, and are threatened by multiple human activities on land (e.g. farming and in the sea (e.g. overfishing. Most conservation efforts occur at local scales and, when effective, can increase the resilience of coral reefs to global threats such as climate change (e.g. warming water and ocean acidification. Limited resources for conservation require that we efficiently prioritize where and how to best sustain coral reef ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we develop the first prioritization approach that can guide regional-scale conservation investments in land- and sea-based conservation actions that cost-effectively mitigate threats to coral reefs, and apply it to the Coral Triangle, an area of significant global attention and funding. Using information on threats to marine ecosystems, effectiveness of management actions at abating threats, and the management and opportunity costs of actions, we calculate the rate of return on investment in two conservation actions in sixteen ecoregions. We discover that marine conservation almost always trumps terrestrial conservation within any ecoregion, but terrestrial conservation in one ecoregion can be a better investment than marine conservation in another. We show how these results could be used to allocate a limited budget for conservation and compare them to priorities based on individual criteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Previous prioritization approaches do not consider both land and sea-based threats or the socioeconomic costs of conserving coral reefs. A simple and transparent approach like ours is essential to support effective coral reef conservation decisions in a large and diverse region like the Coral Triangle, but can be applied at any scale and to other marine ecosystems.

  5. Prioritizing land and sea conservation investments to protect coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carissa J; Ban, Natalie C; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beger, Maria; Game, Edward T; Grantham, Hedley S; Green, Alison; Klein, Travis J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Treml, Eric; Wilson, Kerrie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2010-08-30

    Coral reefs have exceptional biodiversity, support the livelihoods of millions of people, and are threatened by multiple human activities on land (e.g. farming) and in the sea (e.g. overfishing). Most conservation efforts occur at local scales and, when effective, can increase the resilience of coral reefs to global threats such as climate change (e.g. warming water and ocean acidification). Limited resources for conservation require that we efficiently prioritize where and how to best sustain coral reef ecosystems. Here we develop the first prioritization approach that can guide regional-scale conservation investments in land- and sea-based conservation actions that cost-effectively mitigate threats to coral reefs, and apply it to the Coral Triangle, an area of significant global attention and funding. Using information on threats to marine ecosystems, effectiveness of management actions at abating threats, and the management and opportunity costs of actions, we calculate the rate of return on investment in two conservation actions in sixteen ecoregions. We discover that marine conservation almost always trumps terrestrial conservation within any ecoregion, but terrestrial conservation in one ecoregion can be a better investment than marine conservation in another. We show how these results could be used to allocate a limited budget for conservation and compare them to priorities based on individual criteria. Previous prioritization approaches do not consider both land and sea-based threats or the socioeconomic costs of conserving coral reefs. A simple and transparent approach like ours is essential to support effective coral reef conservation decisions in a large and diverse region like the Coral Triangle, but can be applied at any scale and to other marine ecosystems.

  6. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP) is a method being developed by the Advanced Concepts Office, at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The TAPP method expands on current technology assessment methods by incorporating the technological structure underlying technology development, e.g., organizational structures and resources, institutional policy and strategy, and the factors that motivate technological change. This paper discusses the methods ACO is currently developing to better perform technology assessments while taking into consideration Strategic Alignment, Technology Forecasting, and Long Term Planning.

  7. Sustainability as the key to prioritize investments in public infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Bosch, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.pardo@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Civil i Ambiental, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - Barcelona Tech. (Spain); Political Science Department, University of California - Berkeley (United States); Aguado, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.aguado@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Civil i Ambiental, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - Barcelona Tech. (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Infrastructure construction, one of the biggest driving forces of the economy nowadays, requires a huge analysis and clear transparency to decide what projects have to be executed with the few resources available. With the aim to provide the public administrations a tool with which they can make their decisions easier, the Sustainability Index of Infrastructure Projects (SIIP) has been defined, with a multi-criteria decision system called MIVES, in order to classify non-uniform investments. This index evaluates, in two inseparable stages, the contribution to the sustainable development of each infrastructure project, analyzing its social, environmental and economic impact. The result of the SIIP allows to decide the order with which projects will be prioritized. The case of study developed proves the adaptability and utility of this tool for the ordinary budget management.

  8. Investment in Green Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Supratim

    Since the middle of the 1970's, there has been considerable research about how to deal with exhaustible natural resources which are essential to production. In the absence of substitution possibilities, the finite stock of these resources acts as a limiting factor to continued growth of output and hence consumption possibilities. In our first chapter, we combine a finite natural resource and human capital in the production function and look at the possibility of maintaining a non-declining or sustainable level of consumption for an infinite horizon. Our results show that the return to human capital accumulation plays a key role in ensuring this objective. In our model without physical capital, we obtain a similar result where this return must be such that the fraction of time devoted to acquiring human capital each period is at least as much as the share of natural resources in output. Our second chapter focuses on the transition from a relatively cheap exhaustible natural resource (coal, gasoline) to an expensive alternative technology assumed to be in nearly unlimited supply (wind, solar). Due to significant cost differences between fossil-fuel based energy sources and these alternative (backstop) technologies, their use is not as widespread. Public subsidies to research can however bring about innovation through cheaper production techniques which would significantly reduce the operating costs of these backstop technologies. But without sufficient incentives for investment and patent protections, individual firms typically underinvest in backstop technologies relative to the socially optimal level. In our paper, we find that this underinvestment in the backstop also leads to an under-extraction of the exhaustible natural resource. This imply firms would conserve the natural resource for too long and switch later to the alternative technology relative to the socially optimal solution. We extend the chapter to include pollution as a flow variable. Pollution from

  9. Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Investments Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    NASA is moving forward with prioritized technology investments that will support NASA's exploration and science missions, while benefiting other Government agencies and the U.S. aerospace enterprise. center dotThe plan provides the guidance for NASA's space technology investments during the next four years, within the context of a 20-year horizon center dotThis plan will help ensure that NASA develops technologies that enable its 4 goals to: 1.Sustain and extend human activities in space, 2.Explore the structure, origin, and evolution of the solar system, and search for life past and present, 3.Expand our understanding of the Earth and the universe and have a direct and measurable impact on how we work and live, and 4.Energize domestic space enterprise and extend benefits of space for the Nation.

  10. NASA Astrophysics Prioritizes Technology Development Funding for Strategic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Pham, Bruce; Ganel, Opher

    2017-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins (COR) and Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Program Offices (POs) reside at NASA GSFC and implement priorities for the NASA HQ Astrophysics Division (APD). One major aspect of the POs’ activities is managing our Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to mature technologies for future strategic missions. The Programs follow APD guidance on which missions are strategic, currently informed by the NRC’s 2010 Decadal Survey report, as well as APD’s Implementation Plan and the Astrophysics Roadmap.In preparation for the upcoming 2020 Decadal Survey, the APD has established Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) to study four large-mission concepts: the Origins Space Telescope, Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission, Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor, and X-ray Surveyor. The STDTs will develop the science case and design reference mission, assess technology development needs, and estimate the cost of their concept. A fifth team, the L3 Study Team (L3ST), was charged to study potential US contributions to ESA’s planned L3 gravitational-wave observatory.The POs use a rigorous and transparent process to solicit technology gaps from the scientific and technical communities, and prioritize those entries based on strategic alignment, expected impact, cross-cutting applicability, and urgency. Starting in 2016, the technology-gap assessments of the four STDTs and the L3ST are included in our process. Until a study team submits its final report, community-proposed changes to gaps submitted or adopted by a study team are forwarded to that study team for consideration.We discuss our technology development process, with strategic prioritization informing calls for SAT proposals and informing investment decisions. We also present results of this year’s technology gap prioritization and showcase our current portfolio of technology development projects. To date, 77 COR and 80 PCOS SAT proposals have been received, of which 18 COR and 22 PCOS projects

  11. A climatic stability approach to prioritizing global conservation investments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Iwamura

    Full Text Available Climate change is impacting species and ecosystems globally. Many existing templates to identify the most important areas to conserve terrestrial biodiversity at the global scale neglect the future impacts of climate change. Unstable climatic conditions are predicted to undermine conservation investments in the future. This paper presents an approach to developing a resource allocation algorithm for conservation investment that incorporates the ecological stability of ecoregions under climate change. We discover that allocating funds in this way changes the optimal schedule of global investments both spatially and temporally. This allocation reduces the biodiversity loss of terrestrial endemic species from protected areas due to climate change by 22% for the period of 2002-2052, when compared to allocations that do not consider climate change. To maximize the resilience of global biodiversity to climate change we recommend that funding be increased in ecoregions located in the tropics and/or mid-elevation habitats, where climatic conditions are predicted to remain relatively stable. Accounting for the ecological stability of ecoregions provides a realistic approach to incorporating climate change into global conservation planning, with potential to save more species from extinction in the long term.

  12. Economic Functions Proposal of Urgency Prioritization of Investment Projects of Operated Railway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitoňák Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the article is to describe the proposals of economic functions within the prioritization of urgency investments of operated railway bridges within a comprehensive evaluation of existing bridges. The purpose of the paper is a comprehensive assessment of existing bridges and to define determinants and determinants of decision-making and designing a mechanism of decision-making procedures of prioritized infrastructure measures in the form of repairs and reconstructions of bridges resulting from the records of supervising activities based not only on technical but also economic aspects to the railway infrastructure manager.

  13. Dual indices for prioritizing investment in decentralized HIV services at Nigerian primary health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Nancy; Oyediran, Kola' A; Mullen, Stephanie; Kolapo, Usman M

    2016-04-01

    Decentralizing health services, including those for HIV prevention and treatment, is one strategy for maximizing the use of limited resources and expanding treatment options; yet few methods exist for systematically identifying where investments for service expansion might be most effective, in terms of meeting needs and rapid availability of improved services. The Nigerian Government, the United States Government under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program and other donors are expanding services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV to primary health care facilities in Nigeria. Nigerian primary care facilities vary greatly in their readiness to deliver HIV/AIDS services. In 2012, MEASURE Evaluation assessed 268 PEPFAR-supported primary health care facilities in Nigeria and developed a systematic method for prioritizing these facilities for expansion of PMTCT services. Each assessed facility was scored based on two indices with multiple, weighted variables: one measured facility readiness to provide PMTCT services, the other measured local need for the services and feasibility of expansion. These two scores were compiled and the summary score used as the basis for prioritizing facilities for PMTCT service expansion. The rationale was that using need and readiness to identify where to expand PMTCT services would result in more efficient allocation of resources. A review of the results showed that the indices achieved the desired effect-that is prioritizing facilities with high need even when readiness was problematic and also prioritizing facilities where rapid scale-up was feasible. This article describes the development of the two-part index and discusses advantages of using this approach when planning service expansion. The authors' objective is to contribute to development of methodologies for prioritizing investments in HIV, as well as other public health arenas, that should improve cost-effectiveness and

  14. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  15. Optimal investment in learning-curve technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Seta, M.; Gryglewicz, S.; Kort, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study optimal investment in technologies characterized by the learning curve. There are two investment patterns depending on the shape of the learning curve. If the learning process is slow, firms invest relatively late and on a larger scale. If the curve is steep, firms invest earlier and on a s

  16. Revolutionizing Technology Prioritizing Emergency Vehicles in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramya Sundaram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The following study brings to the fore a technology exclusively engineered to eradicate the snags and inadequacies persisting in the existing system of traffic control and thus aims to provide a sophisticated operation and uninterrupted course for the emergency vehicles. The traffic in Indian roads has shown a tremendous rise over the years and the conventional pre-timed traffic signals and frequent traffic congestions, delaying the road commuters, have led to outrage and chaos on several occasions. This traffic management system has proved a nuisance for the effective operation of emergency vehicles, with the public adding to the woes, as each driver races along with the signal, unmindful of the emergency vehicles. A life threatening scenario ensues when emergency vehicles get blocked by the traffic, due to inefficient traffic management system and subsequently these emergency vehicles get delayed. The existing system requires manual interruption to guide other vehicles when an emergency vehicle passes through traffic junctions. It is therefore essential to implement a self-regulating and automated system in the traffic signals to facilitate smooth movement of emergency vehicles without posing a danger to other vehicles. The innovative traffic control system devised by us provides a truly dependable alternative to monitoring traffic flow when emergency vehicles pass by.

  17. The return on investment for information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, B P; Bergeron, R A

    1998-01-01

    Investment in information technology accounts for an increasingly large component of the cost of modern health care. In most businesses, a quantitative return on investment analysis forms the basis for decisions regarding technology investment. As a whole, the medical community lags behind in the quantitative analysis of the benefits of information technology. However, economic pressures are forcing health care organizations to step back and understand the implications of technology investments and how they can best be applied to create a more productive staff and, in the end, better patient care.

  18. Information Technology Investments in Research Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Examines investments that will ensure that library information technology (IT) meets future academic needs. Looks back on the introduction of IT to research libraries. Assesses outcomes of IT investments in terms of cost and service benefits, and then focuses on developing new service models. (AEF)

  19. Making Culverts Great Again: Modeling Road Culvert Vulnerability to Assist Prioritization of Local Infrastructure Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, D.; Walter, M. T.; Watkins, L.; Kaufman, Z.; Meyer, A.; Mahaney, M.

    2016-12-01

    infrastructure and prioritize future infrastructure investment.

  20. Investments in energy technological change under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ekundayo

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation addresses the crucial problem of how environmental policy uncertainty influences investments in energy technological change. The rising level of carbon emissions due to increasing global energy consumption calls for policy shift. In order to stem the negative consequences on the climate, policymakers are concerned with carving an optimal regulation that will encourage technology investments. However, decision makers are facing uncertainties surrounding future environmental policy. The first part considers the treatment of technological change in theoretical models. This part has two purposes: (1) to show--through illustrative examples--that technological change can lead to quite different, and surprising, impacts on the marginal costs of pollution abatement. We demonstrate an intriguing and uncommon result that technological change can increase the marginal costs of pollution abatement over some range of abatement; (2) to show the impact, on policy, of this uncommon observation. We find that under the assumption of technical change that can increase the marginal cost of pollution abatement over some range, the ranking of policy instruments is affected. The second part builds on the first by considering the impact of uncertainty in the carbon tax on investments in a portfolio of technologies. We determine the response of energy R&D investments as the carbon tax increases both in terms of overall and technology-specific investments. We determine the impact of risk in the carbon tax on the portfolio. We find that the response of the optimal investment in a portfolio of technologies to an increasing carbon tax depends on the relative costs of the programs and the elasticity of substitution between fossil and non-fossil energy inputs. In the third part, we zoom-in on the portfolio model above to consider how uncertainty in the magnitude and timing of a carbon tax influences investments. Under a two-stage continuous-time optimal control model, we

  1. Investing in Information Technology Pays Big Dividends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, Diana

    1999-01-01

    A college or university's investment in information technology (IT) makes possible more effective teaching methods using both traditional and IT-based techniques, as well as making both student learning and faculty use of time more productive. A possible plan for making the transition from traditional to mixed teaching methods is presented. (MSE)

  2. 32 CFR 21.680 - Technology investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 21.680 Section... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-GENERAL MATTERS Definitions § 21.680 Technology investment... of the nation's technology and industrial base. Technology investment agreements include one kind...

  3. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  4. NASA's Spaceliner Investment Area Technology Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to significantly reduce cost and improve safety over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Spaceliner Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframes, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations, and range. The ASTP program will mature these technologies through both ground and flight system testing. The Spaceliner Investment Area plans to mature vehicle technologies to reduce the implementation risks for future commercially developed reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The plan is to substantially increase the design and operating margins of the third generation RLV (the Space Shuttle is the first generation) by incorporating advanced technologies in propulsion, materials, structures, thermal protection systems, avionics, and power. Advancements in design tools and better characterization of the operational environment will allow improvements in design margins. Improvements in operational efficiencies will be provided through use of advanced integrated health management, operations, and range technologies. The increase in margins will allow components to operate well below their design points resulting in improved component operating life, reliability, and safety which in turn reduces both maintenance and refurbishment costs. These technologies have the potential of enabling horizontal takeoff by reducing the takeoff weight and achieving the goal of airline-like operation. These factors in conjunction with increased flight rates from an expanding market will result in significant improvements in safety

  5. Using Decision Analysis in Evaluation and Prioritization of Technologies for Long Term Stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, Jennifer L; Byers, James Clifford; Harbour, Gerald Lee; Hill, Susan Gardiner; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Richardson, John Grant; Southworth, Finis Hio; Weingartner, Charles Brooks

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic approach to assess and prioritize technology concepts and systems for future research and development (R&D) funding. This paper discusses the analysis and rationale used in developing an evaluation process to assist those engaged in prioritizing technologies. This paper will explain the developed evaluation process, discuss the methodology, and summarize the rationale underlying the process.

  6. Using Decision Analysis in Evaluation and Prioritization of Technologies for Long Term Stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, J.L.; Byers, J.; Harbour, J.L.; Hill, S.; Nickelson, R.A.; Richardson, J.G.; Soto, R.; Weingartner, C.B.

    2002-05-13

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic approach to assess and prioritize technology concepts and systems for future research and development (R and D) funding. This paper discusses the analysis and rationale used in developing an evaluation process to assist those engaged in prioritizing technologies. This paper will explain the developed evaluation process, discuss the methodology, and summarize the rationale underlying the process.

  7. Why Invest in Economic & Technological Development Zones?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to attract foreign direct investment, China has established 52 Statelevel Economic & technological Investment Zones (ETDZs). ETDZs lay emphasis on capital-intensive, technology-intensive, hi-tech and production export enterprises. The investment scale of every project in the zones is twice that of the rest of the country. A large number of investment projects are large projects with investment capital over US$IO million,

  8. 10 CFR 603.1340 - Technology investment agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technology investment agreement. 603.1340 Section 603.1340 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1340 Technology investment agreement. A TIA is a special type...

  9. 32 CFR 37.1375 - Technology investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 37.1375... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1375 Technology investment agreements. A special class of assistance instruments used to increase involvement...

  10. \\t Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) for the Management of Information Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) is the Information Technology (IT) governance and management methodology in use at EPA for selecting, controlling and evaluating the performance of EPA IT investments throughout the full lifecycle.

  11. Achieving a Prioritized Research and Technology Development Portfolio for the Dust Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Abel, Phillip; Delaune, Paul; Fishman, Julianna; Kohli, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    Mission architectures for human exploration of the lunar surface continue to advance as well as the definitions of capability needs, best practices and engineering design to mitigate the impact of lunar dust on exposed systems. The NASA DMP has been established as the agency focal point for dust characterization, technology, and simulant development. As described in this paper, the DMP has defined a process for selecting and justifying its R&T portfolio. The technology prioritization process, which is based on a ranking system according to weighted criteria, has been successfully applied to the current DMP dust mitigation technology portfolio. Several key findings emerged from this assessment. Within the dust removal and cleaning technologies group, there are critical technical challenges that must be overcome for these technologies to be implemented for lunar applications. For example, an in-situ source of CO2 on the moon is essential to the CO2 shower technology. Also, significant development effort is required to achieve technology readiness level TRL 6 for the electrostatic cleaning system for removal of particles smaller than 50 pm. The baseline materials related technologies require considerable development just to achieve TRL 6. It is also a nontrivial effort to integrate the materials in hardware for lunar application. At present, there are no terrestrial applications that are readily adaptable to lunar surface applications nor are there any obvious leading candidates. The unique requirements of dust sealing systems for lunar applications suggest an extensive development effort will be necessary to mature dust sealing systems to TRL 6 and beyond. As discussed here, several alternate materials and technologies have achieved high levels of maturity for terrestrial applications and warrant due diligence in ongoing assessment of the technology portfolio. The present assessment is the initial step in an ongoing effort to continually evaluate the DMP technology

  12. Unique Framework Helps Louisiana Community Prioritize Its Investments in Children and Families. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Shreveport-Bossier Community Foundation selected education, health, and poverty as funding priorities. But the foundation realized that it needed more specific guidelines on how best to distribute grants. RAND developed a framework for making investment decisions that incorporates the best of traditional decision making approaches.…

  13. NASA's Spaceliner 100 Investment Area Technology Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Spaceliner100 Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframes, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), launch systems, and operations and range. The ASTP program will mature these technologies through ground system testing. Flight testing where required, will be advocated on a case by case basis.

  14. Prioritizing climate-smart livestock technologies in rural Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shikuku, Kelvin M.; Valdivia, Roberto O.; Paul, Birthe K.; Mwongera, Caroline; Winowiecki, Leigh; Läderach, Peter; Herrero, Mario; Silvestri, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Crop-livestock production systems play an important role in the livelihoods of many rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) but are vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change. Understanding which farming options will give the highest return on investment in light of climate change

  15. Weak and Strong Compensation for the Prioritization of Public Investments: Multidimensional Analysis for Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi De Mare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the economic crisis still heavily affecting most of Europe, a possible resumption can be found in the revitalization of public and private investments. These investments should be directed not only towards the strategic areas of infrastructures and production, but also to those which allow for a higher level of the quality of life (sports facilities, parks, etc.. In such cases, the need to balance the reasons of financial sustainability with environmental and social profiles is even more evident. Thus, multicriteria techniques, supporting complex assessments, should be implemented together with a monetary feasibility study (cost-benefit analysis. Multidimensional methods allow for the aggregation of different profiles into overall indicators. This study gives an account of how the application and comparison of multi-criteria approaches based on tools characterized by a higher or lower level of compensation between criteria can broaden the spectrum of analysis of the problems and lead to a more subtle logic of funding for public works and works of public utility, with a more current and mature sharing of profitability between private investors and users of community infrastructures.

  16. COMPETITIVE INVESTMENT STRATEGIES IN ADOPTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY WITH A FURTHER NEW TECHNOLOGY ANTICIPATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghua LIU; Chulin LI

    2003-01-01

    In dynamic uncertain environments, the investment timing of the firm about adopting the existing new technology is influenced by the rival's actions and technological progress. This paper employs option games approach to present a simplified duopoly continuous time model of technology adoption.In the model, the irreversible investment in adoption of the existing new technology is in strategic competitive circumstances and facing the threat of a further new technology after the competition setting is established. The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of technological displacement on firms' strategic investment. The results show that rapid displacement of the technology encourages the leader's investment and discourages the follower's investment. Comparing with the optimal timing without the expectation of a further new technology, the firm hastens to invest when no firm has invested; however, once one firm has invested first, the firm will delay its investment. Using mixed strategy analysis, competitive investment strategies with sequential exercise and simultaneous exercise are derived.

  17. Technology transfers, foreign investment and productivity spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Talbot, Theodore Purdendu

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the productivity of host country domestic firms. We rely on a specially designed survey of over 4000 manufacturing firms in Vietnam, and separate out productivity gains along the supply chain (obtained through direct...... transfers of knowledge/technology between linked firms) from productivity effects through indirect FDI spillovers. In addition to identifying indirect vertical productivity spillovers from FDI, our results show that there are productivity gains associated with direct linkages between foreign......-owned and domestic firms along the supply chain not captured by commonly used measures of spillovers. This includes evidence of productivity gains through forward linkages for domestic firms which receive inputs from foreign-owned firms....

  18. Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and International Technology Transfer: A Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamal Saggi

    2002-01-01

    ...? Using these questions as motivation, this article surveys the recent trade literature on international technology transfer, paying particular attention to the role of foreign direct investment...

  19. Information Technology Investment Strategy Planning: Balance Scorecard Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Hendarti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research are to prepare the IT investment strategy using Balanced Scorecard approach in the company where the appropriate planning of this IT investment strategy can maximize the competitive benefit in the company, and it also to recommended a strategy of IT investment that can be implemented and measure the rate of return from the IT investment in the company. Research Method used book studies, field studies, and analysis system. Book studies from the books and journal. Field studies done by observation, interview, and questioner, and analysis system done by analyzed the ongoing system in the company. The result from this analysis is a recommendation in investment IT such as sales module, payment module, and report module. Then for the conclusion, this information technology investment planning can be develop to another investment implementation such authorized website of the company and using PDA (Personal Digital AssistantIndex Terms - Planning, Information Technology, Investment, Balance Scorecard

  20. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  1. Decision Analysis Methods Used to Make Appropriate Investments in Human Exploration Capabilities and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Hay, Jason; Reeves, John D.; Craig, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. Through pioneering, NASA seeks to address national goals to develop the capacity for people to work, learn, operate, live, and thrive safely beyond Earth for extended periods of time. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Prudent investments in capability and technology developments, based on mission need, are critical for enabling a campaign of human exploration missions. There are a wide variety of capabilities and technologies that could enable these missions, so it is a major challenge for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to make knowledgeable portfolio decisions. It is critical for this pioneering initiative that these investment decisions are informed with a prioritization process that is robust and defensible. It is NASA's role to invest in targeted technologies and capabilities that would enable exploration missions even though specific requirements have not been identified. To inform these investments decisions, NASA's HEOMD has supported a variety of analysis activities that prioritize capabilities and technologies. These activities are often based on input from subject matter experts within the NASA community who understand the technical challenges of enabling human exploration missions. This paper will review a variety of processes and methods that NASA has used to prioritize and rank capabilities and technologies applicable to human space exploration. The paper will show the similarities in the various processes and showcase instances were customer specified priorities force modifications to the process. Specifically

  2. 'Emerging technologies for the changing global market' - Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott; Goldberg, Ben; Everhart, Kurt

    1993-01-01

    This project served to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of technology efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semiquantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results will be implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

  3. 78 FR 69839 - Building Technologies Office Prioritization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... as methodology, comparing long-term benefits and end-user costs applied to various markets, end-uses... than 100 TBtu in the year 2030); Involved fuel switching (unless the analysis team deemed a technology... analysis team; Were already included in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2010 baseline, which takes...

  4. A Sustainability Assessment Methodology for Prioritizing the Technologies of Groundwater Contamination Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    More and more groundwater has 23 been polluted recently, and technologies for groundwater contamination remediation are of vital importance; however, it is usually difficult for the users to select the most suitable technology among multiple alternatives. In order to address this, this study aims...... at developing a sustainability assessment framework for prioritizing the technologies for groundwater contamination remediation by combining the concept of sustainability and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method. A criterion system which consists of six criteria in three aspects has been proposed...... for sustainability assessment of technologies for groundwater contamination remediation, and a novel MCDM method by combining the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the improved ELECTRE method has been developed for prioritizing the alternatives. In order...

  5. Financial options methodology for analyzing investments in new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of investments in longer term research and development in emerging technologies, because of the nature of such subjects, must address inherent uncertainties. Most notably, future cash flow forecasts include substantial uncertainties. Conventional present value methodology, when applied to emerging technologies severely penalizes cash flow forecasts, and strategic investment opportunities are at risk of being neglected. Use of options evaluation methodology adapted from the financial arena has been introduced as having applicability in such technology evaluations. Indeed, characteristics of superconducting magnetic energy storage technology suggest that it is a candidate for the use of options methodology when investment decisions are being contemplated.

  6. Financial options methodology for analyzing investments in new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenning, B.D. [Texas Utilities Services, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The evaluation of investments in longer term research and development in emerging technologies, because of the nature of such subjects, must address inherent uncertainties. Most notably, future cash flow forecasts include substantial uncertainties. Conventional present value methodology, when applied to emerging technologies severely penalizes cash flow forecasts, and strategic investment opportunities are at risk of being neglected. Use of options valuation methodology adapted from the financial arena has been introduced as having applicability in such technology evaluations. Indeed, characteristics of superconducting magnetic energy storage technology suggest that it is a candidate for the use of options methodology when investment decisions are being contemplated.

  7. Financing investment in environmentally sound technologies: Foreign direct investment versus foreign debt finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anyangah, Joshua Okeyo [Department of Economics, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge Alberta (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    This paper develops a screening model to examine the relationship between alternative sources of private capital and investment in environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). In the model, a polluter (agent) must secure investment funds from the international financial markets in order to upgrade its production and abatement technology. The requisite capital can be obtained via either market loans (debt finance) or foreign direct investment (FDI). Under debt finance, the foreign financier supplies only capital and the relationship between the two parties is more 'arms-length'. By contrast, under FDI, the investor delivers both capital and managerial skills. We use the model to derive the implications of debt finance for optimal investment decisions and compare them to those obtained under FDI. Investment incentives are more pronounced under debt finance. (author)

  8. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    Prioritization by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and other multi­-criteria decision-making methods. These methods can be labor-intensive, often contain cognitive or parochial bias, and do not consider the competing prioritization between mission architectures. Strategic Decision-Making (SDM) processes cannot be properly understood unless the context of the technology is understood. This makes assessing technological change particularly challenging due to the relationships "between incumbent technology and the incumbent (innovation) system in relation to the emerging technology and the emerging innovation system." The central idea in technology dynamics is to consider all activities that contribute to the development, diffusion, and use of innovations as system functions. Bergek defines system functions within a TIS to address what is actually happening and has a direct influence on the ultimate performance of the system and technology development. ACO uses similar metrics and is expanding these metrics to account for the structure and context of the technology. At NASA technology and strategy is strongly interrelated. NASA's Strategic Space Technology Investment Plan (SSTIP) prioritizes those technologies essential to the pursuit of NASA's missions and national interests. The SSTIP is strongly coupled with NASA's Technology Roadmaps to provide investment guidance during the next four years, within a twenty-year horizon. This paper discusses the methods ACO is currently developing to better perform technology assessments while taking into consideration Strategic Alignment, Technology Forecasting, and Long Term Planning.

  9. Exploring the evolution of investment pattern on advanced manufacturing technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Matthiesen, Rikke Vestergaard; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the evolution of investment pattern on advanced manufacturing technology in a manner that builds on a longitudinal perspective. Based on the data of investments in AMTs from 567 manufacturing companies this paper develops a longitudinal taxonomy defined by the evolution...

  10. The Long Conversation Maximizing Business Value from Information Technology Investment

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo, Oswaldo; González, Gastón; Ramdani, Boumediene

    2011-01-01

    For many years companies have been investing in enterprise systems and IT initiatives but they are now struggling to achieve the desired results. It takes a long time to make the best of your enterprise systems so businesses must stop looking for the next technology 'silver bullet' and instead maximize the value of existing IT investments.

  11. The Structure of Adjustment Costs in Information Technology Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunbae Chun; Sung-Bae Mun

    2005-01-01

    We examine the pattern of information technology (IT) capital adjustment using data from U.S. industries. Using the gap between actual and desired IT capital stocks, we estimate the shape of the adjustment cost function in IT investment. Both ordinary least squares and nonparametric regression estimates support irreversibility in IT investment.

  12. Which health technologies should be funded? A prioritization framework based explicitly on value for money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golan Ofra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deciding which health technologies to fund involves confronting some of the most difficult choices in medicine. As for other countries, the Israeli health system is faced each year with having to make these difficult decisions. The Public National Advisory Committee, known as ‘the Basket Committee’, selects new technologies for the basic list of health care that all Israelis are entitled to access, known as the ‘health basket’. We introduce a framework for health technology prioritization based explicitly on value for money that enables the main variables considered by decision-makers to be explicitly included. Although the framework’s exposition is in terms of the Basket Committee selecting new technologies for Israel’s health basket, we believe that the framework would also work well for other countries. Methods Our proposed prioritization framework involves comparing four main variables for each technology: 1. Incremental benefits, including ‘equity benefits’, to Israel’s population; 2. Incremental total cost to Israel’s health system; 3. Quality of evidence; and 4. Any additional ‘X-factors’ not elsewhere included, such as strategic or legal factors, etc. Applying methodology from multi-criteria decision analysis, the multiple dimensions comprising the first variable are aggregated via a points system. Results The four variables are combined for each technology and compared across the technologies in the ‘Value for Money (VfM Chart’. The VfM Chart can be used to identify technologies that are good value for money, and, given a budget constraint, to select technologies that should be funded. This is demonstrated using 18 illustrative technologies. Conclusions The VfM Chart is an intuitively appealing decision-support tool for helping decision-makers to focus on the inherent tradeoffs involved in health technology prioritization. Such deliberations can be performed in a systematic and transparent

  13. Setting an implementation research agenda for Canadian investments in global maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health: a research prioritization exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Renee; Buccioni, Matthew; Gaffey, Michelle F; Mansoor, Omair; Scott, Helen; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-01

    Improving global maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (MNCAH) is a top development priority in Canada, as shown by the $6.35 billion in pledges toward the Muskoka Initiative since 2010. To guide Canadian research investments, we aimed to systematically identify a set of implementation research priorities for MNCAH in low- and middle-income countries. We adapted the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. We scanned the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative literature and extracted research questions pertaining to delivery of interventions, inviting Canadian experts on MNCAH to generate additional questions. The experts scored a combined list of 97 questions against 5 criteria: answerability, feasibility, deliverability, impact and effect on equity. These questions were ranked using a research priority score, and the average expert agreement score was calculated for each question. The overall research priority score ranged from 40.14 to 89.25, with a median of 71.84. The average expert agreement scores ranged from 0.51 to 0.82, with a median of 0.64. Highly-ranked research questions varied across the life course and focused on improving detection and care-seeking for childhood illnesses, overcoming barriers to intervention uptake and delivery, effectively implementing human resources and mobile technology, and increasing coverage among at-risk populations. Children were the most represented target population and most questions pertained to interventions delivered at the household or community level. Investing in implementation research is critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of ensuring health and well-being for all. The proposed research agenda is expected to drive action and Canadian research investments to improve MNCAH.

  14. Notification: EPA Investments in Information Technology Products and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY14-0307, June 10, 2014. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office oflnspector General (OIG) plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA's management of information technology (IT) investments.

  15. NASA ESTO Lidar Technologies Investment Strategy: 2016 Decadal Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinia, Azita; Komar, George J.; Tratt, David M.; Lotshaw, William T.; Gaab, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) recently updated its investment strategy in the area of lidar technologies as it pertains to NASA's Earth Science measurement goals in the next decade. The last ESTO lidar strategy was documented in 2006. The current (2016) report assesses the state-of-the-art in lidar technologies a decade later. Lidar technology maturation in the past decade has been evaluated, and the ESTO investment strategy is updated and laid out in this report according to current NASA Earth science measurement needs and new emerging technologies.

  16. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  17. Output Dynamics, Technology, and Public Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic output effects of public infrastructure investment in a small open economy. We develop an overlapping generations model that includes a production externality of public capital and a wealth effect on labor supply. Public capital enters the firm's production function und

  18. Investments in technology subject to uncertainty. Analysis and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    1997-01-01

    Investments in technology are today of such a magnitude that it matters. In the paper there are three important questions. First on the question in which sense technological uncertainty can be said to be a problem. Second on strategies for diminishing technological uncertainties. Three on policy...

  19. Investments in technology subject to uncertainty. Analysis and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    1997-01-01

    Investments in technology are today of such a magnitude that it matters. In the paper there are three important questions. First on the question in which sense technological uncertainty can be said to be a problem. Second on strategies for diminishing technological uncertainties. Three on policy...

  20. Technology Prioritization: Transforming the U.S. Building Stock to Embrace Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the efforts to accelerate the transformation in the U.S. building energy efficiency sector using a new technology prioritization framework. The underlying analysis examines building energy use micro segments using the Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook and other publically available information. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has developed a prioritization tool in an effort to inform programmatic decision making based on the long-term national impact of different energy efficiency measures. The prioritization tool can be used to investigate energy efficiency measures under a variety of scenarios and has a built-in energy accounting framework to prevent double counting of energy savings within any given portfolio. This tool is developed to inform decision making and estimate long term potential energy savings for different market adoption scenarios. It provides an objective comparison of new and existing measures and is being used to inform decision making with respect to BTO’s portfolio of projects.

  1. Approach to technology prioritization in support of moon initiatives in the framework of ESA exploration technology roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleina, Sara Cresto; Viola, Nicole; Fusaro, Roberta; Saccoccia, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    Exploration technology roadmaps have been developed by ESA in the past few years and the latest edition has been released in 2015. Scope of these technology roadmaps, elaborated in consultation with the different ESA stakeholders (e.g. European Industries and Research Entities), is to provide a powerful tool for strategic, programmatic and technical decisions in support of the European role within an International Space Exploration context. In the context of preparation for possible future European Moon exploration initiatives, the technology roadmaps have been used to highlight the role of technology within Missions, Building Blocks and Operational Capabilities of relevance. In particular, as part of reference missions to the Moon that would fit in the time frame 2020 to 2030, ESA has addressed the definition of lunar surface exploration missions in line with its space exploration strategy, with the common mission goals of returning samples from the Moon and Mars and expanding human presence to these destinations in a step-wise approach. The roadmaps for the procurement of technologies required for the first mission elements of the above strategy have been elaborated through their main building blocks, i.e. Visual navigation, Hazard detection and avoidance; Sample acquisition, processing and containment system; Surface mobility elements; Tele-robotic and autonomous control systems; and Storable propulsion modules and equipment. Technology prioritization methodologies have been developed in support of the ESA Exploration Technology Roadmaps, in order to provide logical and quantitative instruments to verify choices of prioritization that can be carried out based on important, but non-quantitative factors. These methodologies, which are thoroughly described in the first part of the paper, proceed through subsequent steps. First, technology prioritization's criteria are selected; then decision trees are developed to highlight all feasible paths of combination of

  2. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  3. Investment and emission control under technology and pollution externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, Geoffrey [Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, 616 Uris Hall, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Tarui, Nori [Department of Economics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2424 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This paper studies incentives to develop advanced pollution abatement technology when technology may spillover across agents and pollution abatement is a public good. We are motivated by a variety of pollution control issues where solutions require the development and implementation of new pollution abatement technologies. We show that at the Nash equilibrium of a simultaneous-move game with R and D investment and emission abatement, whether the free rider effect prevails and under-investment and excess emissions occur depends on the degree of technology spillovers and the effect of R and D on the marginal abatement costs. There are cases in which, contrary to conventional wisdom, Nash equilibrium investments in emissions reductions exceed the first-best case. (author)

  4. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  5. Making smart investments in health information technology: core principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamka, John D

    2009-01-01

    Over the past five years, thousands of public- and private-sector employees, many volunteering their time, have worked to advance the cause of interoperable, certified, secure electronic health records. As new federal funds become available, should we invest right away or wait for technology and policy perfection? Do we leverage the accomplishments of existing national organizations, or do we start from scratch? The time to invest is now, building on the organizations we already have. To ensure wise investment, I suggest guiding principles assembled from the input of hundreds of providers, patients, payers, vendors, government employees, and standards-development organizations.

  6. COMPETITIVE INVESTMENT STRATEGIES IN NEW TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION WITH A FURTHER NEW TECHNOLOGY ANTICIPATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baojian YIN; Shigeng HU

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a general dynamic duopoly in which two firms compete in the adoption of current technology with a further new technology anticipated. Three kinds of equilibria may occur in technology adoption, namely the preemptive, sequential, and simultaneous equilibrium, depending on the level of operating costs and the first-move advantage. It shows that the faster technological innovation encourages the leader to invest earlier, while induces the follower to invest later. Furthermore,like the investment costs, with the increase of the operating costs, the follower tends to invest later,while the leader tends to invest earlier. However, the investment thresholds are more sensitive to the change of the operating costs than that of the investment costs.

  7. Managing Investment in Teaching and Learning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Michael; Nicol, David

    2007-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are radically changing the way that teaching and learning activities are organised and delivered within higher education (HE) institutions. A wide range of technologies is being deployed in quite complex and interactive ways, including virtual learning environments (VLEs), mobile communication…

  8. The economics of comparative effectiveness studies: societal and private perspectives and their implications for prioritizing public investments in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David; Basu, Anirban; Conti, Rena

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) can provide valuable information for patients, providers and payers. These stakeholders differ in their incentives to invest in CER. To maximize benefits from public investments in CER, it is important to understand the value of CER from the perspectives of these stakeholders and how that affects their incentives to invest in CER. This article provides a conceptual framework for valuing CER, and illustrates the potential benefits of such studies from a number of perspectives using several case studies. We examine cases in which CER provides value by identifying when one treatment is consistently better than others, when different treatments are preferred for different subgroups, and when differences are small enough that decisions can be made based on price. We illustrate these findings using value-of-information techniques to assess the value of research, and by examining changes in pharmaceutical prices following publication of a comparative effectiveness study. Our results suggest that CER may have high societal value but limited private return to providers or payers. This suggests the importance of public efforts to promote the production of CER. We also conclude that value-of-information tools may help inform policy decisions about how much public funds to invest in CER and how to prioritize the use of available public funds for CER, in particular targeting public CER spending to areas where private incentives are low relative to social benefits.

  9. IT Investment Allocation and Organizational Performance: A Study of Information Technology Investment Portfolios in Federal Government Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Ennis Jim C., III

    2011-01-01

    This study examined Federal Government Information Technology (IT) portfolio investments for twenty-seven Federal Government agencies, as provided annually to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in their Agency IT Investment Portfolio Reports (Exhibit 53), and divided Federal agency IT investments into four categories: Innovation,…

  10. Seven Benchmarks for Information Technology Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallen, David; Leach, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Offers benchmarks to help campuses evaluate their efforts in supplying information technology (IT) services. The first three help understand the IT budget, the next three provide insight into staffing levels and emphases, and the seventh relates to the pervasiveness of institutional infrastructure. (EV)

  11. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.; Murphy, M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated

  12. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.; Murphy, M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated

  13. Digital management technology and its application to investment casting enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yuan Ji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Industry 4.0, more and more investment casting enterprises are implementing production manufacturing systems, especially in the last two years. This paper summarizes three new common requirements of the digital management aspect in precision casting enterprises, and puts forward three corresponding techniques. They are: the production process tracking card technology based on the main-sub card mode; the workshop site production process processing technology based on the barcode; and the equipment data integration technology. Then, this paper discusses in detail the principle, application and effect of these technologies; to provide the reference for enterprises to move towards digital casting and intelligent casting.

  14. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  15. Some aspects of technology transfer and direct foreign investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, R.

    1978-05-01

    A model showing technology transfer to developing countries links questions of appropriations with the socio-economic reasons for technological change. The rate at which foreign capital is used is found to be directly related to after-tax profits. If the developing country raises taxes on foreign capital, the effect is to increase the proportion of domestic capital needed and to widen the technological gap between the two countries. The analysis also shows a higher gain from new techniques with increased demand volume and suggests large developing countries with similar capital to invest are more likely to generate intermediate technologies. 8 references.

  16. A Research on Investment Casting Technology of Ti Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this research, the materials and the compositions of the surface slurries were chosen by considering the characteristics of Ti investment casting. The effects of solid-liquid ratios on the properties of the slurry and the effects of baking temperatures on the flexural strength have also been investigated. Flawless shells having smooth inner surface were manufactured with proper technology. Ti and its alloys were melted and poured by water-cooled Cu crucible vacuum induction furnace. The qualities of the investment castings made accordingly were studied and analyzed.

  17. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilia Loukil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A large number of countries have enacted laws aimed at making it easier for firms to invest in their country, while many countries offer various monetary incentives and tax incentives to encourage inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The desire to attract FDI is due not only to the fact that FDI brings in new investment boosting national income and employment, but also due to the expectation that inward FDI would also provide additional spillover benefits to the local economy that can result in higher productivity growth and increased export growth. This study aims to examine the impact of foreign direct investment on innovation in developing countries. The estimation of a panel threshold model on a sample of 54 developing countries for the 1980-2009 period shows the presence of non linear effects in the relationship between FDI and innovation. We find a threshold value of technological development below which FDI has a negative impact on innovation and above which FDI has a significant positive impact on innovation. We conclude that it is not enough for economic policy to attract foreign investments, it is still necessary to support domestic firms to build an absorptive capacity allowing them to enjoy the benefits of multinational firms.

  18. Medical implants by using RP and investment casting technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Horacek

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the production technology of knee joint replacement by using rapid prototyping technology. The aim of the work is to outline the manufacturing technology intended for prototype production with the use of rapid prototyping and investment casting technology for use in orthopaedics and the surgery of knee joint replacement. The research results should make an effective contribution in the attempts to minimize the invasive surgical procedure, shorten the production of knee joint replacement as well as reduce the cost. At present, the research is focused on the preparation of STL data from CT (Computed Tomography and verification of the production technology of prototypes made using available RP technology and its evaluation.

  19. Recent Investments by NASA's National Force Measurement Technology Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) is a nationwide partnership established in 2008 and sponsored by NASA's Aeronautics Evaluation and Test Capabilities (AETC) project to maintain and further develop force measurement capabilities. The NFMTC focuses on force measurement in wind tunnels and provides operational support in addition to conducting balance research. Based on force measurement capability challenges, strategic investments into research tasks are designed to meet the experimental requirements of current and future aerospace research programs and projects. This paper highlights recent and force measurement investments into several areas including recapitalizing the strain-gage balance inventory, developing balance best practices, improving calibration and facility capabilities, and researching potential technologies to advance balance capabilities.

  20. Technology Investment Agendas to Expand Human Space Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2012-01-01

    The paper develops four alternative core-technology advancement specifications, one for each of the four strategic goal options for government investment in human space flight. Already discussed in the literature, these are: Explore Mars; Settle the Moon; accelerate commercial development of Space Passenger Travel; and enable industrial scale-up of Space Solar Power for Earth. In the case of the Explore Mars goal, the paper starts with the contemporary NASA accounting of ?55 Mars-enabling technologies. The analysis decomposes that technology agenda into technologies applicable only to the Explore Mars goal, versus those applicable more broadly to the other three options. Salient technology needs of all four options are then elaborated to a comparable level of detail. The comparison differentiates how technologies or major developments that may seem the same at the level of budget lines or headlines (e.g., heavy-lift Earth launch) would in fact diverge widely if developed in the service of one or another of the HSF goals. The paper concludes that the explicit choice of human space flight goal matters greatly; an expensive portfolio of challenging technologies would not only enable a particular option, it would foreclose the others. Technologies essential to enable human exploration of Mars cannot prepare interchangeably for alternative futures; they would not allow us to choose later to Settle the Moon, unleash robust growth of Space Passenger Travel industries, or help the transition to a post-petroleum future with Space Solar Power for Earth. The paper concludes that a decades-long decision in the U.S.--whether made consciously or by default--to focus technology investment toward achieving human exploration of Mars someday would effectively preclude the alternative goals in our lifetime.

  1. Improving America's health care system by investing in information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coye, Molly Joel; Bernstein, William S

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale investment in health care information technology (IT) infrastructure will not take place without leadership by the federal government. But how the federal government supports the financing of health care IT is critical. Health care IT development has multiple aspects, but it is fundamentally a problem of community infrastructure development. A policy approach that has had consistent success in financing our country's essential physical infrastructure in transportation and environmental protection will be well suited to fostering health care IT infrastructure as well. We propose the creation of a health care IT revolving loan fund program to invest public dollars in health care IT infrastructure projects through community-level nonprofit lending agencies.

  2. MOBILE 5G TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION INVESTMENT TIMING DECISION MAKERS CLUSTERING AND WILLINGNESS TO INVEST UNDER VOLATILE DEMAND CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Adamauskas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises need to identify the optimal timing for technological change in order to increase competitiveness and increase the value of the company in an uncertain demanding environment. Investment decisions for adopting new technologies are costly and sometimes risky because technological investments are irreversible. To simulate the process, comprehensive technological adoption regarding investment timing was used in a management decision support model. The constructed model is structured as follows: 1 historical demand paths analysis; 2 application of statistical data validity tests; 3 the forecast of market parameters regarding data arrays using the geometric Brownian motion method, based on Monte Carlo simulation; 4 determination of technological life cycle using a Hodrick–Prescott filter; 5 technological adoption time-window determination; and 6 calculation of company net present values (NPV based on change in free cash-flow. The model for mature 5G mobile markets, created and empirical tested, was performed in relation to 18 largest Europe mobile service providers, as potential decision makers operating across 33 countries. Results confirmed that selection of the technological investment time depends on companies’ strategic financial decisions and financial state. The performed simulations revealed the consequence of 5G technology investment for investor roles, clustered according to financial data within a 5-year period (2010–2014. The analyzed companies were assigned to roles of pioneers-innovators, pragmatics, followers, or laggards. Finally, it is assumed and argued that financial parameters indicate the willingness to adopt new technologies in a global technologically changing environment.

  3. Influence Diagram Use With Respect to Technology Planning and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.; DeHoff, Bryan; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2009-01-01

    Influence diagrams are relatively simple, but powerful, tools for assessing the impact of choices or resource allocations on goals or requirements. They are very general and can be used on a wide range of problems. They can be used for any problem that has defined goals, a set of factors that influence the goals or the other factors, and a set of inputs. Influence diagrams show the relationship among a set of results and the attributes that influence them and the inputs that influence the attributes. If the results are goals or requirements of a program, then the influence diagram can be used to examine how the requirements are affected by changes to technology investment. This paper uses an example to show how to construct and interpret influence diagrams, how to assign weights to the inputs and attributes, how to assign weights to the transfer functions (influences), and how to calculate the resulting influences of the inputs on the results. A study is also presented as an example of how using influence diagrams can help in technology planning and investment. The Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) used this technique to examine the impact of R&D spending on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of a space transportation system. The question addressed was the effect on the recurring and the non-recurring portions of LCC of the proportion of R&D resources spent to impact technology objectives versus the proportion spent to impact operational dependability objectives. The goals, attributes, and the inputs were established. All of the linkages (influences) were determined. The weighting of each of the attributes and each of the linkages was determined. Finally the inputs were varied and the impacts on the LCC determined and are presented. The paper discusses how each of these was accomplished both for credibility and as an example for future studies using influence diagrams for technology planning and investment planning.

  4. Investments

    CERN Document Server

    Bodie, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. McGraw-Hill's adaptive learning component, LearnSmart, provides assignable modules that help students master chapter core concepts and come to class more prepared. Bodie Investments' blend of practical and theoretical coverage combines with a complete digital solution to help your students achieve higher outcomes in the course

  5. Federal investment in health information technology: how to motivate it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Anthony G

    2005-01-01

    Health care market failures include inefficient standard making, problems with coordination among local providers to optimize care, and inability to measure quality accurately, inexpensively, or reliably. Study of other industries suggests policy directions for health information technology and the magnitude of gains from improving market functioning, which are very large. A perspective drawn from U.S. industrial history--in particular railroads and the interstate highway system--suggests an investment level roughly consistent with recent estimates drawn from the medical literature. The benefits of quick action probably outweigh the benefits of delaying and choosing the perfect funding mechanism.

  6. Technology transfers, foreign investment and productivity spillovers: evidence from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Talbot, Theodore Purdendu

    This paper provides new evidence on the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the productivity of domestic firms. Using a specially designed survey on a sample of over 7,500 manufacturing firms in Vietnam we uncover some of the mechanisms that explain productivity spillovers from....... Productivity externalities from upstream sectors are associated with joint venture foreign investors while downstream sectors experience direct technology transfers from upstream wholly foreign owned investors. Spillovers from FDI through backward linkages are also detected but only when competition from...

  7. [Mapping stakeholders' preferences in prioritization criteria for horizon scanning in healthcare technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Aline do; Vidal, Avila Teixeira; Almeida, Rosimary Terezinha de

    2016-08-01

    Filtration and prioritization are two basics steps in horizon scanning systems. This article aimed to map stakeholders' preferences in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) regarding filtration and prioritization criteria. Two filtration criteria (time horizon and innovation) and eight prioritization criteria (relevance to epidemiology, health policies, and clinical practice; potential impact on SUS budget, healthcare providers' costs, and mortality; safety; and legal, ethical, and social aspects) were selected. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to map stakeholders' preferences within and between groups. Two groups were more homogeneous and determinant for selection of prioritization criteria. Stakeholders' professional experience had more influence than institutional affiliations. The approach showed transparent criteria selection and analysis of stakeholders' individual preferences.

  8. Liquidity, Technological Opportunities, and the Stage Distribution of Venture Capital Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Henry; Mina, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of the stage distribution of European venture capital investments from 1990 to 2011. Consistent with liquidity risk theory, we find that the likelihood of investing in earlier stages increases relative to all private equity investments during liquidity crisis years. While liquidity is the main driver of acquisition investments and, to some extent, of expansion financings, technological opportunities are overall the main driver of early and late stage venture capital investments. In contrast to the dotcom crash, the recent financial crisis negatively affected the relative likelihood of expansion investments, but not of early and late stage investments. PMID:26166906

  9. Liquidity, Technological Opportunities, and the Stage Distribution of Venture Capital Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Henry; Mina, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the determinants of the stage distribution of European venture capital investments from 1990 to 2011. Consistent with liquidity risk theory, we find that the likelihood of investing in earlier stages increases relative to all private equity investments during liquidity crisis years. While liquidity is the main driver of acquisition investments and, to some extent, of expansion financings, technological opportunities are overall the main driver of early and late stage venture capital investments. In contrast to the dotcom crash, the recent financial crisis negatively affected the relative likelihood of expansion investments, but not of early and late stage investments.

  10. HOSPITAL MANAGERS' NEED FOR INFORMATION ON HEALTH TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølholm, Anne Mette; Kidholm, Kristian; Birk-Olsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is growing interest in implementing hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA) as a tool to facilitate decision making based on a systematic and multidisciplinary assessment of evidence. However, the decision-making process, including the informational needs of hospital...... decision makers, is not well described. The objective was to review empirical studies analysing the information that hospital decision makers need when deciding about health technology (HT) investments. METHODS: A systematic review of empirical studies published in English or Danish from 2000 to 2012...... was carried out. The literature was assessed by two reviewers working independently. The identified informational needs were assessed with regard to their agreement with the nine domains of EUnetHTA's Core Model. RESULTS: A total of 2,689 articles were identified and assessed. The review process resulted...

  11. Clean Technology Fund Investment Plan Approved for Concentrated Solar Power in the MENA Region

    OpenAIRE

    Coma-Cunill, Roger; Govindarajalu, Chandra; Pariente-David, Silvia; Walters, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) clean technology fund investment plan proposes co-financing of $750 million and mobilizes an additional $4.85 billion from other sources to accelerate deployment of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) by investing in the CSP expansion programs of Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. Specifically, the Investment Plan will support MENA countries to ...

  12. Technological and regulatory aspects of quality management during the life cycle of investment and construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Kropyvko Serhii Maksymovych

    2016-01-01

    The division of the life cycle of investment and construction projects in four phases, based on their technological features, is proposed in the article. Regulatory aspects of quality management during each phase of the life cycle of investment and construction projects are analyzed. The model of quality management during the phases of the life cycle of investment and construction project is developed.

  13. HOSPITAL MANAGERS' NEED FOR INFORMATION ON HEALTH TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ølholm, Anne Mette; Kidholm, Kristian; Birk-Olsen, Mette; Christensen, Janne Buck

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in implementing hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA) as a tool to facilitate decision making based on a systematic and multidisciplinary assessment of evidence. However, the decision-making process, including the informational needs of hospital decision makers, is not well described. The objective was to review empirical studies analysing the information that hospital decision makers need when deciding about health technology (HT) investments. A systematic review of empirical studies published in English or Danish from 2000 to 2012 was carried out. The literature was assessed by two reviewers working independently. The identified informational needs were assessed with regard to their agreement with the nine domains of EUnetHTA's Core Model. A total of 2,689 articles were identified and assessed. The review process resulted in 14 relevant studies containing 74 types of information that hospital decision makers found relevant. In addition to information covered by the Core Model, other types of information dealing with political and strategic aspects were identified. The most frequently mentioned types of information in the literature related to clinical, economic and political/strategic aspects. Legal, social, and ethical aspects were seldom considered most important. Hospital decision makers are able to describe their information needs when deciding on HT investments. The different types of information were not of equal importance to hospital decision makers, however, and full agreement between EUnetHTA's Core Model and the hospital decision-makers' informational needs was not observed. They also need information on political and strategic aspects not covered by the Core Model.

  14. Evaluating and prioritizing technologies for adaptation to climate change. A hands on guidance to multi criteria analysis (MCA) and the identification and assessment of related criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    The objective of this guidance is to guide consultants, decision makers and technical experts on how to facilitate discussions for prioritizing adaptation technologies, and to support the stakeholders in identifying appropriate criteria for this analysis.......The objective of this guidance is to guide consultants, decision makers and technical experts on how to facilitate discussions for prioritizing adaptation technologies, and to support the stakeholders in identifying appropriate criteria for this analysis....

  15. Measuring information technology investment among Canadian academic health sciences centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Lorraine; Leonard, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Many recent studies have attempted to accurately measure the expenditure by hospitals in the area of new information technology (IT), for example see Leonard 1998 and Pink et al. 2001. This is usually done as an exercise to compare the healthcare sector with other industries that have had much more success in implementing and leveraging their IT investment (Willcocks 1992; Chan 2000). It is normally hoped that such investigation would help explain some of the differences among the various industries and provide insight into where (and how much) future IT spending should occur in healthcare (Leonard 2004). Herein, we present the results from a study of eight Canadian academic health sciences centres that contributed data in order to analyze the amount of information technology spending in their organizations. Specifically, we focus on one specific indicator: the IT spend ratio. This ratio is defined as the percentage of total IT net costs to total hospital net operating costs, and aims to provide a "relative (or percentage) measure of spending" so as to make the comparisons meaningful. One such comparison shows that hospitals spend only 55% of the amount the financial services sector spends.

  16. 32 CFR 37.110 - What type of instruments are technology investment agreements (TIAs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What type of instruments are technology investment agreements (TIAs)? 37.110 Section 37.110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS General §...

  17. Barriers to investments in energy saving technologies. Case study for the industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    To realise future energy saving targets, the government needs to increase energy reduction rates. One option to increase energy savings is found in removing barriers to investments in cost-effective energy saving technologies. Many technologies save energ

  18. Technological and regulatory aspects of quality management during the life cycle of investment and construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropyvko Serhii Maksymovych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The division of the life cycle of investment and construction projects in four phases, based on their technological features, is proposed in the article. Regulatory aspects of quality management during each phase of the life cycle of investment and construction projects are analyzed. The model of quality management during the phases of the life cycle of investment and construction project is developed.

  19. Prioritization of engineering support requests and advanced technology projects using decision support and industrial engineering models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation and prioritization of Engineering Support Requests (ESR's) is a particularly difficult task at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) -- Shuttle Project Engineering Office. This difficulty is due to the complexities inherent in the evaluation process and the lack of structured information. The evaluation process must consider a multitude of relevant pieces of information concerning Safety, Supportability, O&M Cost Savings, Process Enhancement, Reliability, and Implementation. Various analytical and normative models developed over the past have helped decision makers at KSC utilize large volumes of information in the evaluation of ESR's. The purpose of this project is to build on the existing methodologies and develop a multiple criteria decision support system that captures the decision maker's beliefs through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes. The model utilizes the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), subjective probabilities, the entropy concept, and Maximize Agreement Heuristic (MAH) to enhance the decision maker's intuition in evaluating a set of ESR's.

  20. Prioritizing the Factors Influencing the Success of Technology Transfer by Reverse Engineering Case Study: Aviation Engines Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Shahriari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic purposes in developing countries had been reduction of their technological gap in different eras. So, technology transfer in developing countries has become one of the key factors of economic growth. But technology transfer is a difficult and complex process, so it can be unsuccessful and may waste time and money or undermine the national technology if performed without enough considering and study. Therefore, according to high ability of interior experts and scientists and country's condition to have a successful technology transfer, Reverse Engineering is used as an effective factor. In this paper supporting 15 experts and using Fuzzy Delphi Method, the effective factors on success of technology transfer by reverse engineering in aviation engines industry will be recognized and then prioritized by members of statistical sample and Analytical Network Process (ANP. Finally, we will have three components, technical knowledge for redesign, technical knowledge for producing, and organizational association with original country that are the most important among the other ten selected components.

  1. An integrated model for part-operation allocation and investments in CNC technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Slomp, J.; Suresh, N.

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of investment appraisal of new technology, specifically computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools in conjunction with optimal allocation of parts and operations on CNC machines as the investments take place. Part-operation allocation is the allocation of parts and

  2. Information Technology Investment: Agencies Can Improve Performance, Reduce Costs, and Minimize Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    strengthened management of three fundamental assets: personnel, knowledge and information, and capital property/fixed assets. Investments in information ... technology (IT) can have a dramatic impact on all three of these assets. However, an IT project’s impact comes from how the investment is selected, designed

  3. An integrated model for part-operation allocation and investments in CNC technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Slomp, J.; Suresh, N.

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of investment appraisal of new technology, specifically computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools in conjunction with optimal allocation of parts and operations on CNC machines as the investments take place. Part-operation allocation is the allocation of parts and

  4. DEFENSE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Adopting Best Practices Can Improve Innovation Investments and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    approach to organizing and executing their technology development activities by grouping them into two portfolios: incremental and disruptive, as shown in...for product development . Disruptive R&D is often sponsored by a corporate research organization , which makes project investment decisions... development investments. To develop these plans, companies solicit ideas and information from people across the organization to determine the

  5. Influence of elements of “technological revolution” on efficiency of the investment and construction sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murashova Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a new view on the investment and construction area taking into consideration the influence of information technologies and innovations. The author has pointed out the basic aspects, which could allow making a break-through in management effectiveness, if being implemented in companies’ business or in investment and construction projects. The article presents the definition of the investment and construction cycle as an integrator of innovation solutions. The paper contains the conclusion about the obvious sector development using active implementation of information modeling of the investment and construction project facilities.

  6. Analysis on Dynamic Decision-Making Model of the Enterprise Technological Innovation Investment under Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Long

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the environment of fuzzy factors including the return of market, performance of product, and the demanding level of market, we use the method of dynamic programming and establish the model of investment decision, in technology innovation project of enterprise, based on the dynamic programming. Analysis of the influence caused by the changes of fuzzy uncertainty factors to technological innovation project investment of enterprise.

  7. THE GERMAN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN INNOVATIVE AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Карина Юрьевна Ашикарьян

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization and economy modernization the special attention is paid to cooperation of the countries in the sphere of innovations and high technologies which is reached at the expense of a transfer of knowledge and technologies. One of priority instruments of innovative and technological cooperation today are direct foreign investments. Germany occupies one of leading provisions among the developed countries of the world and possesses high scientific and technical potential. The importance is got by direct investments of Germany, as main supplier of the real direct investments bringing new technologies and knowledge in economy of Russia. Thus, the German direct investments are the most important source of advanced technologies and the methods of management promoting modernization of the Russian economy and transition to an innovative way of development. Direct German investments accelerate process of integration of the Russian economy  in the world economy, improve use of various advantages of the international labor cooperation and its division, promote involvement in being formed European economic space.The article describes a role of the German direct investments in innovative and technological development of  the Russian economy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-19

  8. Technology Expenditures: A Policy Analysis in a Selected School and Return on Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Timothy Brian

    2012-01-01

    The process of retooling schools to prepare students for the Twenty-First Century requires that schools invest in technology resources and ongoing professional development for teachers to support the transformation of teaching and learning practices through technology integration. Technology resources are still considered to be educational…

  9. Applying the Theory of the Firm to Examine a Technology Startup at the Investment Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ayukawa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The investment stage of a new technology firm is when resources, opportunities, investors, and early customers first converge. Currently, technology entrepreneurs make many expensive mistakes. They invest in assets and develop capabilities that prove to have limited value. They take too long to discover and validate the product-market fit for their firms during the investment stage and run out of time and money. Understanding how theory can help entrepreneurs make decisions during the investment stage is important to accelerate new-firm formation and growth as well as to reduce the uncertainty of founders and stakeholders of technology firms. This article introduces a model developed to examine deal making during the investment stage of a new technology firm. It is an extension of a model of lateral firm scope proposed by Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom. The extensions come from considering a technology firm as being both a deal-making entity and a pool of resources during the investment stage. A deal is the result of a decision the entrepreneur and others make to coordinate (i.e., work together to achieve a common objective. Benefits from a deal include cash profits for the firm and private benefits for the entrepreneur. This extended model is then applied to examine the author’s firm which is still in the investment stage. Application of the extended model to a real-life situation generated two important insights: i when private benefits include learning from experimentation, the number of deals increases and ii at the start of the investment stage, private benefits drive deal-making, whereas at the end of the investment stage, cash profits derived from asset ownership drive deal-making.

  10. Investment Strategy of Emission-Reduction Technology in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Xiang Lou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions have serious impacts on the natural environment. Therefore, the restrictions imposed on carbon emission force enterprises to take carbon emission into consideration when making production decisions. In this paper, in the context of allowing emission trading and investment of emission reduction technology, models were presented for a two-stage supply chain to analyze the optimal investment and pricing decisions. The results indicate that manufacturer’s endurance capacity of reduction difficulty is higher in the cooperation model than in the Stackelberg game model, and that perfect coordination of supply chains can be realized by a revenue sharing contract. From the perspective of a consumer, low-carbon products mean higher price, so that subsidies or tax exemptions should be provided to keep low prices. Meanwhile, the government can promote investment in emission-reduction technologies and achieve its emission reduction targets by controlling emission trading price, strengthening emission reduction publicity and providing technology investment subsidies.

  11. The Deflector Selector: A Machine Learning Framework for Prioritizing Deflection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heerden, Elmarie; Erasmus, Nicolas; Greenberg, Adam; Nesvold, Erika; Galache, Jose Luis; Dahlstrom, Eric; Marchis, Franck

    2016-10-01

    On 15 February, 2013, a ~15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred ~33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an impact course for Earth, an impact is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious question - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found?To help answer this question, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-impacting objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on impact probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from impacting the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to

  12. A boom in energy technology innovation despite decades of stagnant investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettencourt, Luis M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trancik, Jessika A [SANTA FE INSTITUTE; Kaur, Jasleen [INDIANA UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Rates of patenting in energy technologies in the United States stagnated during a period of low federal investment in the sector from the mid-1980's through 2000. To analyze the current state of the field, we built a new comprehensive database of energy patents in the USA and worldwide aggregated by nation and technology. We show that innovation in energy technologies, as measured by numbers of new patents, has grown dramatically over the last decade both for renewable and fossil fuel-based technologies, but that traditional investment -government and private support for research and development (R&D) -has not risen commensurately. We also show that while venture capital investment in the sector has increased significantly in the last few years it lags the observed uptick in patenting. We find increasing patenting rates in nations worldwide but also differences in regional priorities, as well as a marked divergence in innovation rates across technologies. Renewable energy technologies - especially solar and wind - currently show the fastest rates of innovation, while patenting levels in nuclear fission have remained low despite relatively high levels of sustained investment. While this sharp increase of innovative activity bodes well for change in the energy sector, the future of emerging technologies may hinge on sustained investment in R&D and favorable incentives for market entry.

  13. Technology transfers, foreign investment and productivity spillovers: evidence from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Talbot, Theodore Purdendu

    FDI through vertical linkages along the supply chain. Our results suggest that domestic firms experience more productivity spillovers through forward linkages from foreign-input suppliers to domestic input users than through backward linkages from foreign customers to domestic producers of inputs......This paper provides new evidence on the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the productivity of domestic firms. Using a specially designed survey on a sample of over 7,500 manufacturing firms in Vietnam we uncover some of the mechanisms that explain productivity spillovers from...

  14. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of energy storage technologies deployed in the SGIG projects.

  15. An ANP application for identifying and prioritizing opportunities and threatens for technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Attaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been different changes in global market due to fast development of science and technology. These changes have increased competition among all existing companies and it has made it difficult for new rivals to gain market share. This paper tries to identify the opportunities and threats of technology transfer in one of world’s fastest growing gas development regions called Pars Special Economic Energy Zone. The proposed model of this paper first identify important factors influencing both opportunities as well as threats and then uses analytical hierarchy process to rank all factors. The results show that the threats were more important than the existing opportunities and among the most important threats, embargo and sales of oil were the most important ones.

  16. Returns on investments in energy-saving technologies under energy price uncertainty in Dutch greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, P.J.M.; Tongeren, van F.W.; Veen, van der H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional net present value calculations evaluating the profitability of investments in energy-saving technologies in Dutch horticultural outlays predict a much higher rate of adoption of these technologies than is actually observed. This paper tries to explain this gap by applying a real options

  17. Assessing the Economic and National Security Benefits from Publicly Funded Technology Investments: An IDA Round Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Narin, Francis; Olivastro, Dominic and Stevens, Kimberly A. " Bibliometrics / Theory , Practice, and Problems," Evaluation Review, vol. 18, no. 1...Partnerships (MEP) Program 46 Advanced Technology Program (ATP) 49 Technology Impact Measurement Issues 53 Session Three: Metrics For Multiple Policy...providing orderly information on the likely impact of proposed investments, based upon historical observation and experience. Metrics are also an

  18. A System Model of Increasing the Investment Potential of Technologically Unrelated Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Alexander G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical substantiation and the progress of practical application of the method for evaluating lagged effects of increasing the investment potential of interaction between industries in meso-level innovation systems on the example of the high-tech sector of Ukraine. The interaction data are considered in terms of their formation in such technologically unrelated sectors as the industrial sector and sector of education and sciences. It has been determined that the analytical basis to form the models of increasing the investment potential in innovation systems of meso-level should be presented by a comprehensive integrated assessment of all sectors involved in the reproduction process including technologically unrelated sectors of highly structured innovative systems. There has been proposed a system model of increasing the investment potential of the high-tech sector taking into account the optimization and synergy effects for system decisions concerning technologically unrelated sectors in economic systems of innovation type of reproduction.

  19. Assessing the capital efficiency of healthcare information technologies investments: an econometric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rodolphe; Degoulet, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    To examine the different methods that can be used in the quantification of the added value of information technologies (IT) in the health care sector. This quantification represents a major issue for decision-makers and health care professionals when they have to plan an IT investment. Articles were chosen via Medline, internet and the University of Geneva bibliographic portal. Some of the papers were obtained directly from their authors. We examine the most current methods used to evaluate IT return on investment (ROI) in the general business and in the health care sector, drawing attention on methods traditionally used in macroeconomic studies that could reveal themselves disruptive for IT ROI impact evaluation in hospitals. Financial and accounting methods can provide interesting data on a specific IT project but are usually incomplete for revealing the global IT investment influence. Econometric methods tend to demonstrate the positive impact of health care IT (HIT) on hospital production and productivity. Hospitals having higher levels of IT investment tend to deliver a higher level of clinical quality and show improved hospital cost performances. Information technologies are so intermingled with people and processes that the identification of specific IT benefit remains questionable. Using macroeconomic tools could be the best way to analyze and compute IT ROI in health care. Econometric tools take into account all types investments (inputs) and all the returns (outputs) enabling the precise measurement of IT investments impact, breakeven points, and possible threshold levels, thus providing helpful intelligence to reach the higher levels of IT governance in hospitals.

  20. Investments in information systems and technology in the healthcare: Project management mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gomes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare organisations must improve their business practices and internal procedures in order to answer the increasing demand of health professionals and the general public for more and better information. Hospitals invest massively in information systems and technology (IS/IT in the hope that these investments will improve healthcare and meet patients’ demands. The main objective of our research is to study how organisational maturity, enhanced by investments in IS/IT, project management and best practices, leads to successful projects in public healthcare organisations. The rational of our model is that organisational maturity has a positive effect on IS/IT project success, and that this success is also positively enhanced by the use of project management practices. We emphasise that this combination of approaches can increase the effectiveness of projects. Furthermore, it can also improve the confidence that the results of investments will meet stakeholders’ expectations.

  1. Fostering Entrepreneurial Investment Decision in Medical Technology Ventures in a Changing Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bettina Keppler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from a survey among public and private venture capitalists from countries which attract a large amount of venture capital investment: Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Israel. The objective is to investigate venture capitalists’ investment criteria for medical technology ventures in the start-up or expansion phase. Since existing research evaluated venture capitalists’ general investment criteria, the aim of this study is to provide specific results on entrepreneurial investment decisions for the medical technology sector, which constantly attracted a significant share of European venture capital. The research used semi-structured interviews with 39 venture capitalists and experts. The results show that venture capitalists prefer to invest in companies which develop products for treating and diagnosing diseases showing a high prevalence and large market volumes, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological diseases, and orthopaedic disorders. The study confirms that venture capitalists use a number of industry-specific criteria highly relevant in a changing business environment. These include a high medical need for the product, availability of clinical data, stage of European Conformity approval, high probability of receiving reimbursement from health insurances, medical key opinion leaders supporting technology, management’s regulatory experience and their communication ability with doctors and key opinion leaders.

  2. Science and Technology Investment Strategy for Squadron Level Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    34 Maintainers felt that some of the globally imposed training requirements, such as block training, were entirely inappropriate or overtrained . They also...system risk. He must answer the question of 442 whether or not the new technology could cause loss of life, personnel injury , mission failure, or

  3. Aerospace Technology Curriculum Guide. Invest in Success. Vo. Ed. #260.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains standards for an articulated secondary and postsecondary curriculum in aerospace technology. The curriculum standards can be used to ensure that vocational programs meet the needs of local business and industry. The first part of the document contains a task list and student performance standards for the aerospace technology…

  4. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  5. Influence of regulatory uncertainty on capacity investments – Are investments in new technologies a risk mitigation measure?

    OpenAIRE

    Schwark, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the investment decisions of power companies is vital for a regulator as particularly deficient investments in generation capacity could jeopardize the market in the long run. Considering potential risks that could hamper investments, the paper focuses on regulatory uncertainty and firms’ behavior to mitigate risk. The question of how uncertainty influences investment decisions has been explained by a number of researchers. In the specific case of regulatory uncertainty it is ag...

  6. Addressing Future Technology Challenges Through Innovation and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    thank my loving wife and children for their undying support during my fellowship and career to this point.   1   Chapter 1   Addressing...Future Technology Challenges: Innovate or Die!   I thoroughly disapprove of duels . If a man should challenge me, I would take him kindly and...forgivingly by the hand and lead him to a quiet place and kill him. - Mark Twain Duels are foolish. Mark Twain’s approach to conflict resolution is

  7. Investment appraisal of automatic milking and conventional milking technologies in a pasture-based dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, J; Shalloo, L; Foley, C; Sleator, R D; O'Brien, B

    2016-09-01

    The successful integration of automatic milking (AM) systems and grazing has resulted in AM becoming a feasible alternative to conventional milking (CM) in pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to identify the profitability of AM in a pasture-based system, relative to CM herringbone parlors with 2 different levels of automation, across 2 farm sizes, over a 10-yr period following initial investment. The scenarios which were evaluated were (1) a medium farm milking 70 cows twice daily, with 1 AM unit, a 12-unit CM medium-specification (MS) parlor and a 12-unit CM high-specification (HS) parlor, and (2) a large farm milking 140 cows twice daily with 2 AM units, a 20-unit CM MS parlor and a 20-unit CM HS parlor. A stochastic whole-farm budgetary simulation model combined capital investment costs and annual labor and maintenance costs for each investment scenario, with each scenario evaluated using multiple financial metrics, such as annual net profit, annual net cash flow, total discounted net profitability, total discounted net cash flow, and return on investment. The capital required for each investment was financed from borrowings at an interest rate of 5% and repaid over 10-yr, whereas milking equipment and building infrastructure were depreciated over 10 and 20 yr, respectively. A supporting labor audit (conducted on both AM and CM farms) showed a 36% reduction in labor demand associated with AM. However, despite this reduction in labor, MS CM technologies consistently achieved greater profitability, irrespective of farm size. The AM system achieved intermediate profitability at medium farm size; it was 0.5% less profitable than HS technology at the large farm size. The difference in profitability was greatest in the years after the initial investment. This study indicated that although milking with AM was less profitable than MS technologies, it was competitive when compared with a CM parlor of similar technology.

  8. 77 FR 5865 - American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda... current and accurate information concerning the securities of China Wind Energy, Inc. because it has...

  9. Dynamic programming to determine optimum investments in information technology on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of integrating the information about a number of information technology (IT) applications on dairy farms is gaining interest because of the potential to improve economic results. In this study optimal investment patterns involving five IT applications are evaluated: (1) automated con

  10. Correlationally Assessing the Relationship of Information Technology Investments in Electronic Medical Records to Business Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The lag in information exchange and assimilation adoption experienced by modern primary care physicians in the conduct of evidence based medicine may be affecting health care system productivity and patient quality of care. Further, interest in whether or not information technology (IT) investments show an increase in business value has increased…

  11. Correlationally Assessing the Relationship of Information Technology Investments in Electronic Medical Records to Business Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The lag in information exchange and assimilation adoption experienced by modern primary care physicians in the conduct of evidence based medicine may be affecting health care system productivity and patient quality of care. Further, interest in whether or not information technology (IT) investments show an increase in business value has increased…

  12. Investigations of Properties of Wax Mixtures Used in the Investment Casting Technology – New Investigation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zych

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of testing of the selected group of wax mixtures used in the investment casting technology, are presented in the paper. Themeasurements of the kinetics of the mixtures shrinkage and changes of viscous-plastic properties as a temperature function wereperformed. The temperature influence on bending strength of wax mixtures was determined.

  13. Measuring the strategic value of information technology investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, K.W. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Value is often perceived differently by the proponents of new information technologies and those who allocate resources and define priorities. Such differences often become a roadblock to meeting true business needs. Project justifications regularly rely on calculated cost savings, which rarely measure the full benefit of new technologies. In fact, if cost savings provide a complete picture, then the organization is probably just automating routine clerical operations and has abandoned efforts that would provide significant strategic value. Strategic value is not limited to financial calculations, but includes quality, time and risk criteria. This paper describes approaches for measuring strategic value that can provide organizations with proven techniques to improve performance, reengineer processes, benchmark performance against other suppliers, identify outsourcing opportunities, or defend themselves from pressures to outsource. Many organizations respond to tightening budgets by cutting overhead. These measurement approaches can demonstrate how overhead is critical to organizational effectiveness and how cost savings can be found, instead, by measurably improving performance throughout the organization. Finally, the paper describes efforts underway within the Department of Energy and at the Hanford Site to implement the approaches described in this paper.

  14. Review of NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Inflatable Decelerator Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, E. H.; Mnk, M. M.; James, B. F.; Moon, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program is managed by the NASA Headquarters Science Mission Directorate and is implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The ISPT objective is to fund development of promising in-space propulsion technologies that can decrease flight times, decrease cost, or increase delivered payload mass for future science missions. Before ISPT will invest in a technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the concept must be estimated to be at TRL 3. A TRL 3 signifies that the technical community agrees that the feasibility of the concept has been proven through experiment or analysis. One of the highest priority technology investments for ISPT is Aerocapture. The aerocapture maneuver uses a planetary atmosphere to reduce or alter the speed of a vehicle allowing for quick, propellantless (or using very little propellant) orbit capture. The atmosphere is used as a brake, transferring the energy associated with the vehicle's high speed into thermal energy. The ISPT Aerocapture Technology Area (ATA) is currently investing in the development of advanced lightweight ablative thermal protection systems, high temperature composite structures, and heat-flux sensors for rigid aeroshells. The heritage of rigid aeroshells extends back to the Apollo era and this technology will most likely be used by the first generation aerocapture vehicle. As a second generation aerocapture technology, ISPT is investing in three inflatable aerodynamic decelerator concepts for planetary aerocapture. They are: trailing ballute (balloon-parachute), attached afterbody ballute, and an inflatable aeroshell. ISPT also leverages the NASA Small Business Innovative Research Program for additional inflatable decelerator technology development. In mid-2004 ISPT requested an independent review of the three inflatable decelerator technologies funded directly by ISPT to validate the TRL and to identify technology maturation concerns. An

  15. Joint venture capital investment for clean technologies and their problems in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, H W

    1996-09-01

    All technological developments are aimed at improving the quality of life of a community of people. Biotechnology is a technology which allows the exploitation of microorganisms, plants and animal cells to take place within an economic framework. Developing countries are looking for programmes achieving sustainable, economical growth conducive to a higher per capita income of the community. Any joint venture which promises social advances and economic benefits will have to be rural-based. This presentation discusses the need for a change in fermentation industry attitudes to allow joint venture capital investment in clean technologies together with the problems developing countries face for the implementation of such technologies.

  16. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ruchi; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of addition of renewable resources- solar and wind in the distribution system as deployed in the SGIG projects.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.; Stephens, T.; McManus, W.

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways. An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, Steve [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McManus, Walter [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  19. Calculation of Investments for the Distribution of GPON Technology in the village of Bishtazhin through database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to daily reports, the income from internet services is getting lower each year. Landline phone services are running at a loss,  whereas mobile phone services are getting too mainstream and the only bright spot holding together cable operators (ISP  in positive balance is the income from broadband services (Fast internet, IPTV. Broadband technology is a term that defines multiple methods of information distribution through internet at great speed. Some of the broadband technologies are: optic fiber, coaxial cable, DSL, Wireless, mobile broadband, and satellite connection.  The ultimate goal of any broadband service provider is being able to provide voice, data and the video through a single network, called triple play service. The Internet distribution remains an important issue in Kosovo and particularly in rural zones. Considering the immense development of the technologies and different alternatives that we can face, the goal of this paper is to emphasize the necessity of a forecasting of such investment and to give an experience in this aspect. Because of the fact that in this investment are involved many factors related to population, geographical factors, several technologies and the fact that these factors are in continuously change, the best way is, to store all the data in a database and to use this database for different results. This database helps us to substitute the previous manual calculations with an automatic procedure of calculations. This way of work will improve the work style, having now all the tools to take the right decision about an Internet investment considering all the aspects of this investment.

  20. News and Views: Perspectives on Graphene and Other 2D Materials Research and Technology Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Ribeiro Soares, Jenaina

    2013-01-01

    With the actual experimental realization of graphene samples, it became possible not only to exploit the special physical properties of graphene but also to exploit its technological applications. As the field developed, the discovery of other 2D materials occurred and this opened up access to a plethora of combinations of a large variety of electrical, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. Now there are large investments being made around the world to develop the graphene research ar...

  1. Evaluating the impact of investments in information technology on structural inertia in health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Lee W

    2010-01-01

    Structural inertia is the overall capacity of an organization to adapt within a market environment. This paper reviews the impact of healthcare investments in information management/information technology (IM/IT) on the strategic management concept of structural inertia. Research indicates that healthcare executives should consider the relative state of structural inertia for their firms and match them with potential IM/IT solutions. Additionally, organizations should favorably consider IM/IT solutions that are comparatively less complex.

  2. How does the design of international environmental agreements affect investment in environmentally friendly technologies?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramoglu, Basak

    2007-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/documents-de-travail/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2007.30 - ISSN : 1955-611X; This paper studies the link between the design of international environmental agreements and the incentives for the private sector to invest in cleaner technologies. More specifically, it compares the performance, in the Pareto sense, of two types of agreement: an agreement on a uniform standard with transfers ...

  3. The Mediating Effect of Innovation on the Relationship between Information Technology Investments and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Erastus

    2011-01-01

    The last couple of decades has witnessed a plethora of research studies addressing the cause-and-effect relationship between Information Technology (IT) investments and performance at the firm level. These studies elicited mixed results between IT investments and performance which led to various points of view from IT Scholars and Practitioners.…

  4. News and Views: Perspectives on Graphene and Other 2D Materials Research and Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Soares, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    With the actual experimental realization of graphene samples, it became possible not only to exploit the special physical properties of graphene but also to exploit its technological applications. As the field developed, the discovery of other 2D materials occurred and this opened up access to a plethora of combinations of a large variety of electrical, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. Now there are large investments being made around the world to develop the graphene research area and to boost graphene use in technology. Here, we discuss current research and some future prospects for this area of layered nanomaterials.

  5. Applying Internet-based Technologies to Teaching Corporate Finance and Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoming “Joe” Peng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Finance faculty are increasingly encouraged to use internet-based technologies in teaching. This paper examines students’ perceptions of finance faculty who use internet-based technologies and the impact on their learning experiences in undergraduate introductory corporate finance, investments, and MBA investments courses. The results suggest that offering all course materials online may enhance students’ learning experiences, however, the technologies may be best thought of as teaching tools. A better methodology for a finance course delivery may be that of in-classroom interactions between an instructor and the students while all the pertinent course materials are available online throughout the semester. There is a statistically significant difference between MBA (Master of Business Administration students and undergraduate business students in terms of their desire to use the internet for learning finance. Consistent with previous research, results indicate that it may not be common practice among faculty to use internet-based technologies, and that assistant professors tend to use technologies in teaching more often than their higher-ranked colleagues do.

  6. STRATEGIC EXERCISE OF REAL OPTIONS:INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin ZHU; John WEYANT

    2003-01-01

    Viewing investment projects in new technologies as real options, this paper studies the effects of endogenous competition and asymmetric information on the strategic exercise of real options. We first develop a multi-period, game-theoretic model and show how competition leads to early exercise and aggressive investment behaviors and how competition erodes option values. We then relax the typical full-information assumption found in the literature and allow information asymmetry to exist across firms. Our model shows, in contrast to the literature that payoff is independent of the ordering of exercise, that the sequential exercise of real options may generate both informational and payoff externalities. We also find some surprising but interesting results such as having more information is not necessarily better.

  7. Valuing hospital investment in information technology: does governance make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Stephen T; Van Horn, R Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the investment of patient care information technology (IT) systems by a nationwide sample of U.S. short-term acute care hospitals and the resulting impact these systems have in the productivity of institutions from 1990-1998. Of particular interest is the extent to which for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals obtain different results from the adoption of lT systems. We find that the marginal effect of IT on for-profit hospital productivity is to reduce the number of days supplied, while in not-for-profit hospitals the marginal effect of IT is to increase the quantity of services supplied. This resulting effect is consistent with the differing objectives of not-for-profit and for-profit hospitals and demonstrates the positive marginal value of IT as a sustainable and prudent investment.

  8. Technology and Education: Non-prioritized Technology in an Adaptive Society: A Socio-political View. An Occasional Paper on Man/Society/Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William G.

    This seminar paper explores the relationship between technology and society, based on the position that man has not developed a social system that gives adequate guidance to technology. The hypothesis is that if technology has no priority, then it has no purpose. Talcott Parsons' concepts of functional imperatives and pattern variables are…

  9. Technology and Education: Non-prioritized Technology in an Adaptive Society: A Socio-political View. An Occasional Paper on Man/Society/Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William G.

    This seminar paper explores the relationship between technology and society, based on the position that man has not developed a social system that gives adequate guidance to technology. The hypothesis is that if technology has no priority, then it has no purpose. Talcott Parsons' concepts of functional imperatives and pattern variables are…

  10. USING THE AHP METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE STRATEGIC INVESTMENT ALTERNATIVES OF NEW PARADIGMS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIJA RISTOVA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise adoption of a Product Life Cycle Management (PLM system is a multi-faceted process that can be simplified by choosing the right information technology (IT deployment model. Cloud computing has been described as a technological change brought about by the convergence of a number of new and existing technologies. The paper provides a review of the main developments in the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Processmethodology as a tool for decision makers to be able to do more informed decisions regarding investments in new paradigms that IT offers. The AHP methodology is a multi-objective, multi criteria decision-making approach that employs a pair-wise comparison procedure to arrive at a scale of preferences among a set of alternatives. The selection process of the alternatives is not possible from the result of the financial analysis alone. Identification of the scalability and the risks assessment as criteria’s give us the comprehensiveness of the treated problem.

  11. The Baetylus Theorem-the central disconnect driving consumer behavior and investment returns in Wearable Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A

    2016-08-01

    The Wearable Technology market may increase fivefold by the end of the decade. There is almost no academic investigation as to what drives the investment hypothesis in wearable technologies. This paper seeks to examine this issue from an evidence-based perspective. There is a fundamental disconnect in how consumers view wearable sensors and how companies market them; this is called The Baetylus Theorem where people believe (falsely) that by buying a wearable sensor they will receive health benefit; data suggest that this is not the case. This idea is grounded social constructs, psychological theories and marketing approaches. A marketing proposal that fails to recognize The Baetylus Theorem and how it can be integrated into a business offering has not optimized its competitive advantage. More importantly, consumers should not falsely believe that purchasing a wearable technology, improves health.

  12. The Baetylus Theorem—the central disconnect driving consumer behavior and investment returns in Wearable Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The Wearable Technology market may increase fivefold by the end of the decade. There is almost no academic investigation as to what drives the investment hypothesis in wearable technologies. This paper seeks to examine this issue from an evidence-based perspective. There is a fundamental disconnect in how consumers view wearable sensors and how companies market them; this is called The Baetylus Theorem where people believe (falsely) that by buying a wearable sensor they will receive health benefit; data suggest that this is not the case. This idea is grounded social constructs, psychological theories and marketing approaches. A marketing proposal that fails to recognize The Baetylus Theorem and how it can be integrated into a business offering has not optimized its competitive advantage. More importantly, consumers should not falsely believe that purchasing a wearable technology, improves health. PMID:27617162

  13. Investment appraisal for small CHP technology in biomass-fuel power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The paper is essentially an investment appraisal for small CHP (combined heat and power) technology in biomass-fuel power plant and discusses and presents data on the combustion/steam cycle technologies to demonstrate the economic viability of CHP projects using established market costs for technology and employing energy crops as biomass fuel. The data is based on the UK, where electricity prices are low, but the overseas market (where prices are higher and there is potential for UK exports) is also discussed. The report aims to synthesise up-to-date technical and economic information on biomass-fuel CHP projects of small scale and focuses on technical and financial information on equipment, capital, construction and operating costs, and revenue streams.

  14. Guide for developing an information technology investment road map for population health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jacquelyn S; Gibson, Richard F; Whittington, John; Powell, Kitty; Wozney, Brad; Knudson, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Many health systems recovering from a massive investment in electronic health records are now faced with the prospect of maturing into accountable care organizations. This maturation includes the need to cooperate with new partners, involve substantially new data sources, require investment in additional information technology (IT) solutions, and become proficient in managing care from a new perspective. Adding to the confusion, there are hundreds of population health management (PHM) vendors with overlapping product functions. This article proposes an organized approach to investing in PHM IT. The steps include assessing the organization's business and clinical goals, establishing governance, agreeing on business requirements, evaluating the ability of current IT systems to meet those requirements, setting time lines and budgets, rationalizing current and future needs and capabilities, and installing the new systems in the context of a continuously learning organization. This article will help organizations chart their position on the population health readiness spectrum and enhance their chances for a successful transition from volume-based to value-based care.

  15. Life support technology investment strategies for flight programs: An application of decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlater, Nelson J.; Simonds, Charles H.; Ballin, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    Applied research and technology development (R&TD) is often characterized by uncertainty, risk, and significant delays before tangible returns are obtained. Given the increased awareness of limitations in resources, effective R&TD today needs a method for up-front assessment of competing technologies to help guide technology investment decisions. Such an assessment approach must account for uncertainties in system performance parameters, mission requirements and architectures, and internal and external events influencing a development program. The methodology known as decision analysis has the potential to address these issues. It was evaluated by performing a case study assessment of alternative carbon dioxide removal technologies for NASA's proposed First Lunar Outpost program. An approach was developed that accounts for the uncertainties in each technology's cost and performance parameters as well as programmatic uncertainties such as mission architecture. Life cycle cost savings relative to a baseline, adjusted for the cost of money, was used as a figure of merit to evaluate each of the alternative carbon dioxide removal technology candidates. The methodology was found to provide a consistent decision-making strategy for development of new life support technology. The case study results provided insight that was not possible from more traditional analysis approaches.

  16. Making Technology Investments Profitable ROI Road Map from Business Case to Value Realization

    CERN Document Server

    Keen, Jack M

    2011-01-01

    A guide to getting the crucial business case right?every time Showing professionals how to calculate the value of typical budgeting and funding requests quickly and easily, Making Technology Investments Profitable, Second Edition applies the "Value Realization" process, using proven strategies that maximize the business payoff from IT projects. Filled with case studies, this innovative book enables managers to confidently quantify, in a matter of minutes, the true business value of funding a desired project.New edition explains how to proactively manage the conversion of a business case's valu

  17. A case for Sandia investment in complex adaptive systems science and technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Backus, George A.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Jones, Katherine A.

    2012-05-01

    This white paper makes a case for Sandia National Laboratories investments in complex adaptive systems science and technology (S&T) -- investments that could enable higher-value-added and more-robustly-engineered solutions to challenges of importance to Sandia's national security mission and to the nation. Complex adaptive systems are ubiquitous in Sandia's national security mission areas. We often ignore the adaptive complexity of these systems by narrowing our 'aperture of concern' to systems or subsystems with a limited range of function exposed to a limited range of environments over limited periods of time. But by widening our aperture of concern we could increase our impact considerably. To do so, the science and technology of complex adaptive systems must mature considerably. Despite an explosion of interest outside of Sandia, however, that science and technology is still in its youth. What has been missing is contact with real (rather than model) systems and real domain-area detail. With its center-of-gravity as an engineering laboratory, Sandia's has made considerable progress applying existing science and technology to real complex adaptive systems. It has focused much less, however, on advancing the science and technology itself. But its close contact with real systems and real domain-area detail represents a powerful strength with which to help complex adaptive systems science and technology mature. Sandia is thus both a prime beneficiary of, as well as potentially a prime contributor to, complex adaptive systems science and technology. Building a productive program in complex adaptive systems science and technology at Sandia will not be trivial, but a credible path can be envisioned: in the short run, continue to apply existing science and technology to real domain-area complex adaptive systems; in the medium run, jump-start the creation of new science and technology capability through Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research

  18. GROWTH AND VENTURE CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN TECHNOLOGY-BASED SMALL FIRMS THE CASE OF HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becsky Nagy Patricia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital backed enterprises represent a low proportion of companies, even of innovative ones. The research question was, whether these companies have an important role in innovation and economic growth in Hungary compared to other countries. In the first part of the article I present the theoretical background of technology-based small firms, highlighting the most important models and theories of the economic impact and the special development of innovative technology-oriented small firms. In the second part of the article I present the status of the most important indicators of innovation in connection with entrepreneurship, than I elaborate on the measures of start-ups, mainly the high-tech ones with high-growth potential. I describe the current position of venture capital industry, detailing the venture capital investments, with particular emphasis on classical venture capital investments that points out the number and the amount of venture capital investments financing early stage firms with high-growth potential. At the end I summarize the status of Hungarian technology-based small firms and their possibilities to get financial sources form venture capital investors, with regards to the status and the prospects of the JEREMIE program. In Hungary the number of internationally competitive firms, ready and willing to obtain venture capital, is much lower than in the US or Western European countries. Hungary could take advantage of its competitive edges in some special fields of innovation. The efficiency of information flow would reduce the information gap between the demand and the supply side of the venture capital market and more Hungarian firms could be internationally successful through venture capital financing. The recent years’ policy and special programs like JEREMIE generated more transactions, that helped to inform the entrepreneurs about venture capital and helped to co-invest public resources with private equity more

  19. Optimal Strategies for Low Carbon Supply Chain with Strategic Customer Behavior and Green Technology Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is mainly caused by excessive emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. In order to reduce carbon emissions, cap and trade policy is implemented by governments in many countries, which has significant impacts on the decisions of companies at all levels of the low carbon supply chain. This paper investigates the decision-making and coordination of a low carbon supply chain consisting of a low carbon manufacturer who produces one product and is allowed to invest in green technology to reduce carbon emissions in production and a retailer who faces stochastic demands formed by homogeneous strategic customers. We investigate the optimal production, pricing, carbon trading, and green technology investment strategies of the low carbon supply chain in centralized (including Rational Expected Equilibrium scenario and quantity commitment scenario and decentralized settings. It is demonstrated that quantity commitment strategy can improve the profit of the low carbon supply chain with strategic customer behavior. We also show that the performance of decentralized supply chain is lower than that of quantity commitment scenario. We prove that the low carbon supply chain cannot be coordinated by revenue sharing contract but by revenue sharing-cost sharing contract.

  20. Artificial intelligence and exponential technologies business models evolution and new investment opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Corea, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is a huge breakthrough technology that is changing our world. It requires some degrees of technical skills to be developed and understood, so in this book we are going to first of all define AI and categorize it with a non-technical language. We will explain how we reached this phase and what historically happened to artificial intelligence in the last century. Recent advancements in machine learning, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence technology will be addressed, and new business models introduced for and by artificial intelligence research will be analyzed. Finally, we will describe the investment landscape, through the quite comprehensive study of almost 14,000 AI companies and we will discuss important features and characteristics of both AI investors as well as investments. This is the “Internet of Thinks” era. AI is revolutionizing the world we live in. It is augmenting the human experiences, and it targets to amplify human intelligence in a future not so distant from...

  1. The influence of ceramic fibre on thermal expansion of moulding materials for investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadolski M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of dilatometric measurements presented in the paper are a supplement to the investigations concerning broadening thecomposition of ceramic slurry intended for investment casting technology with ceramic fibre matrix. An applying of fibre material and a change of rheologic characteristics of ceramic slurry have impelled to develop the method of applying the material to the pattern sets. The technology of multi-layer spraying has been found to be the most favourable method. Partial replacing of the grain silica materials with aluminosilicate materials in the fibrous form has affected the magnitude of dimensional changes taking place during the heating process. In order to determine the magnitude of these changes, there have been prepared slurries of various fibre fraction in the matrix and their thermal expansion has been examined within the temperature range of 273-1273 K

  2. Assessment of the possibility of utilisation of used ceramic moulds originated from the investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Review of wastes generated by investment casting technology and discussion on possibilities of disposal of the largest quantity waste from this technology - used ceramic mould is presented in the paper. Preliminary examinations of disintegration process of used ceramic mould conducted in various testing conditions were performed in the frame of presented research. Applied system of disintegration doesn’twarrant obtained material to be suitable for reuse in production of ceramic moulds. Investigations of the inter-phase boundary: ceramicmould-casting were performed to examine environmental harmfulness of used ceramic moulds. Additionally ecologic assessment of spentmoulds by means of it’s elution in the aspect of qualifying possibilities of it’s disposal were performed. Gained results qualify the waste from ceramic mould to storage in deposits for neutral wastes.

  3. Optimal technology choice and investment timing: A stochastic model of industrial cogeneration vs. heat-only production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickart, Marcel [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurichbergstrasse 18 (ZUE E), 8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Madlener, Reinhard [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurichbergstrasse 18 (ZUE E), 8032 Zurich (Switzerland) and DIW Berlin, Department of Information Society and Competition, Koenigin-Luise-Strasse 5, 14195 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: rmadlener@ethz.ch

    2007-07-15

    In this paper we develop an economic model that explains the decision-making problem under uncertainty of an industrial firm that wants to invest in a process technology. More specifically, the decision is between making an irreversible investment in a combined heat-and-power production (cogeneration) system, or to invest in a conventional heat-only generation system (steam boiler) and to purchase all electricity from the grid. In our model we include the main economic and technical variables of the investment decision process. We also account for the risk and uncertainty inherent in volatile energy prices that can greatly affect the valuation of the investment project. The dynamic stochastic model presented allows us to simultaneously determine the optimal technology choice and investment timing. We apply the theoretical model and illustrate our main findings with a numerical example that is based on realistic cost values for industrial oil- or gas-fired cogeneration and heat-only generation in Switzerland. We also briefly discuss expected effects of a CO{sub 2} tax on the investment decision.

  4. Understanding Information Technology Investment Decision-Making in the Context of Hotel Global Distribution Systems: a Multiple-Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    UNDERSTANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT DECISION-MAKING IN THE CONTEXT OF HOTEL GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A MULTIPLE-CASE STUDY by Daniel J. Connolly Dr. Michael D. Olsen, Chair Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management ABSTRACT This study investigates what three large, multinational hospitality companies do in practice when evaluating and making IT investment decisions. This study was launched in an attempt to 1) learn more about ...

  5. NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

  6. CROSS: A GDSS for the Evaluation and Prioritization of Engineering Support Requests and Advanced Technology Projects at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid; Lee, Seunghee

    1996-01-01

    Objective evaluation and prioritization of engineering support requests (ESRs) is a difficult task at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Project Engineering Office. The difficulty arises from the complexities inherent in the evaluation process and the lack of structured information. The purpose of this project is to implement the consensus ranking organizational support system (CROSS), a multiple criteria decision support system (DSS) developed at KSC that captures the decision maker's beliefs through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes. CROSS utilizes the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), subjective probabilities, entropy concept, and maximize agreement heuristic (MAH) to enhance the decision maker's intuition in evaluation ESRs. Some of the preliminary goals of the project are to: (1) revisit the structure of the ground systems working team (GWST) steering committee, (2) develop a template for ESR originators to provide more comple and consistent information to the GSWT steering committee members to eliminate the need for a facilitator, (3) develop an objective and structured process for the initial screening of ESRs, (4) extensive training of the stakeholders and the GWST steering committee to eliminate the need for a facilitator, (5) automate the process as much as possible, (6) create an environment to compile project success factor data on ESRs and move towards a disciplined system that could be used to address supportability threshold issues at the KSC, and (7) investigate the possibility of an organization-wide implementation of CROSS.

  7. Cap-and-trade policy: The influence on investments in carbon dioxide reducing technologies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahie, Monique

    With most of the energy produced in the state of Indiana coming from coal, the implementation of policy instruments such as cap-and-trade, which is included in the most recent climate bill, will have significant effects. This thesis provides an analysis of the effects that a cap-and-trade policy might have on the investment decisions for alternative technologies in the power plant sector in Indiana. Two economic models of representative coal-fired power plants, Gallagher (600MW) and Rockport (2600MW), are selected and used to evaluate the repowering decision of a plant for several technologies: integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), wind farm combined with natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC). The firm will make its decisions based on the net present value (NPV) of cost estimates for these CO2 reducing technologies, the cost of purchasing offsets and CO 2 allowances. This model is applied to a base case and three American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 cases derived from the Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2009b). A sensitivity analysis is done on the discount rate and capital costs. The results of the study indicate that a SCPC plant without carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the least costly compliance option for both plants under all of the cases while retrofitting the existing plant with CCS is the most expensive. Gallagher's three least expensive options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and investment in wind plus NGCC. Rockport's three least expensive compliance options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and IGCC without CCS. For both plants, when a 12% discount rate is utilized, NPV of costs are generally lower and the operation of the existing plant technology with the aid of allowances and offsets to be in compliance is the cheapest option. If capital costs were to decrease by 30%, a SCPC

  8. THE DECISION OF INVESTING IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García DÍEZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A diagnostic tool on the decision of investing in Information and Communication Technology (ICT in small and medium enterprises (SME suggested in Judith Redoli et al. (2008, showed its usefulness helping to understand how an enterprise uses ICT and ‘‘how’’ and ‘‘when’’ a company should incorporate new technological elements. The model was applied successfully in the assessment of 500 SME; as a result a technology deployment project was given to each enterprise in which a priority project was also defined. This short paper presents the second part of that study: a second assessment was made to those SME oriented to detect whether the enterprises on which the analysis was conducted did achieve the deployment of the technologies identified within six months, and the relationship between this fact and the existence of an associated grant. On the other hand, in this research the correlation between the priority project established in the first assessment and the one that was finally completed was demonstrated.

  9. Potential Opportunities for Investment in Space Technologies in Latin-America: a Case for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.

    2002-01-01

    Student, Master of Space Studies. International Space University. Strasbourg Central The objective of this paper is to analyze the possible commercial benefits that the global manufacturing space industry could obtain by investing in Latin-American countries. Spacecraft manufacturers have recently been complaining about small margins. They claim that customers demand technological advancement at the same time as they push for quick delivery and competitive prices. They also argue that operators (their main customers) do have great profits. Thus, manufacturers would like to raise the prices of their spacecraft (SpaceNews. January 7, 2002. P.17). This may sound logical, but it would be interesting to analyze if the industry could find alternative ways of saving money while remaining competitive. Mexico is a good example of a Latin-American country that has received foreign investment for establishing manufacturing and assembly plants for different industries. This has been mainly due to two special characteristics of the Mexican manufacturing workforce: low labor costs and qualified, reliable human resources. As a result, Mexican manufacturing industry has acquired a solid reputation worldwide. A similar story can be told about other industries such as electronics, computer assembly, clothes, etc. It is probably worth to make an analogy with a labor-demanding industry that already has experience in the Mexican market: the car industry has found a formula to keep manufacturing costs low while maintaining production and quality levels. Mexico currently manufactures and assembles cars for European, Japanese and American companies for the international market. If the same success story could be repeated for the spacecraft manufacturing industry, the benefits would be enormous. Manufacturers could consider relocating their plants to Mexico to manufacture and test parts or entire spacecraft. This would help reduce the cost of human labor, especially because of the long

  10. Investments on a Rugged Landscape: The Effect of Investor Population, Network Structure, and Complexity on Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Mas Tur, Elena

    in a specific technological domain. We compare which investor network structures lead to the high rates of technological change and diversity on a given technology landscape. Results from a Monte Carlo simulation indicate networked investor population to outperform the case of isolated stand-alone investors......, in terms of investor benefits as well as achieved technological change. Yet, we also find evidence for the existence of a financial “valley of death” - a certain stage in the technology life-cycle where its characteristics discourage further investments, thereby making the technology likely to “die” due...

  11. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T. [Capacity for Sustainable Development CAP SD, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  12. Valuation of clean energy investments: The case of the Zero Emission Coal (ZEC) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Frank Ernest

    Today, coal-fired power plants produce about 55% of the electrical energy output in the U.S. Demand for electricity is expected to grow in future. Coal can and will continue to play a substantial role in the future global energy supply, despite its high emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 etc.) and low thermal energy conversion efficiency of about 37%. This is due to the fact that, it is inexpensive and global reserves are abundant. Furthermore, cost competitive and environmentally acceptable energy alternatives are lacking. New technologies could also make coal-fired plants more efficient and environmentally benign. One such technology is the Zero Emission Carbon (ZEC) power plant, which is currently being proposed by the ZECA Corporation. How much will such a technology cost? How competitive will it be in the electric energy market when used as a technology for mitigating CO2 emission? If there were regulatory mechanisms, such as carbon tax to regulate CO2 emission, what would be the minimum carbon tax that should be imposed? How will changes in energy policy affect the implementation of the ZEC technology? How will the cost of the ZEC technology be affected, if a switch from coal (high emission-intensive fuel) to natural gas (low emission-intensive fuel) were to be made? This work introduces a model that can be used to analyze and assess the economic value of a ZEC investment using valuation techniques employed in the electric energy industry such as revenue requirement (e.g. cost-of-service). The study concludes that the cost of service for ZEC technology will be about 95/MWh at the current baseline scenario of using fuel cell as the power generation system and coal as the primary fuel, and hence will not be competitive in the energy markets. For the technology to be competitive, fuel cell capital cost should be as low as 500/kW with a lifetime of 20 years or more, the cost of capital should be around 10%, and a carbon tax of 30/t of CO2 should be in place

  13. Investigating the Total Cost of Technology in Schools: Tools and Strategies for Managing Technology Investments. Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, Pat

    This document describes total cost of ownership (TCO) as a useful tool in the effective planning of technology use in schools. TCO is an analysis of all the costs of computer technology in a school in comparison with the value derived from the current investment. It also includes an assessment of strategies that can be implemented to reduce costs.…

  14. Prioritizing Demand Response: How Federal Legislation and Technological Innovation Changed the Electricity Supply Market and the Need to Revitalize FERC Order 745

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. McAllister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional barriers to entry in the electricity supply marketplace are crumbling due to recent federal legislation and new technology. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC's Order 745 prioritizes the use of demand response via a uniform pricing mechanism. Through it, demand response is able to provide the same benefit as traditional electricity generation - at a reduced cost - and improve service, reliability, and market development. Consequently, the increased use of demand response reduces prices for regional grid operators, as well as commercial, institutional, and residential consumers. This Note discusses the legal, economic, and policy reasons for upholding Order 745 in the face of transformative change in the electricity supply market and evaluates the history of smart grid legislation leading up to the issuance of Order 745 in 2011. Next, it analyzes how energy intelligence hardware and software allow new entrants into the wholesale electricity supply market in hopes of capitalizing on inefficiencies in regional power distribution and the revolutionary opportunities for residential consumers through new technologies. Most importantly, this Note argues for a reversal of the D.C. Circuit’s decision to vacate Order 745 in the case EPSA v. FERC, decided in May 2014. Such a reversal is necessary because Order 745 falls within FERC’s authority under the Federal Power Act and the loss of a uniform pricing mechanism for demand response resources sold at capacity auctions will harm electricity markets.

  15. The deformation of wax patterns and castings in investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensional accuracy of the final casting of Inconel alloy 738 LC is affected by many aspects. One of them is the choice of method and time of cooling wax model for precision investment casting. The main objective was to study the initial deformation of the complex shape of the casting of the rotor blades. Various approaches have been tested for cooling wax pattern. When wax models are cooling on the air, without clamping in jig for cooling, deviations from the ideal shape of the casting are very noticeable (up to 8 mm and most are in extreme positions of the model. When blade is cooled in fixing jig in water environment, the resulting deviations compared with cooling in air are significantly larger, sometimes up to 10 mm. This itself does not mean that the final shape of the casting is dimensionally more accurate with usage of wax models, which have deviations from the ideal position smaller. Another deformation occurs when shell mould is produced around wax pattern and furthermore deformations emerge while casting of blade is cooling. This paper demonstrates first steps in describing complex process of deformations of Inconel alloy blades produced with investment casting technology by comparing results from thermal imagery, simulations in foundry simulation software ProCAST 2010 and measurements from CNC scanning system Carl Zeiss MC 850. Conclusions are so far not groundbreaking, but it seems deformations of wax pattern and deformations of castings do in some cases cancel each other by having opposite directions. Describing entirely whole process of deformations will help increase precision of blade castings so that models at the beginning and blades in the end are the same.

  16. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) proposed dual-use technology investment program in intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proposed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) precompetitive, dual-use technology investment project in robotics. New robotic technology in advanced robots, which can recognize and respond to their environments and to spoken human supervision so as to perform a variety of combined mobility and manipulation tasks in various sectors, is an obejective of this work. In the U.S. economy, such robots offer the benefits of improved global competitiveness in a critical industrial sector; improved productivity by the end users of these robots; a growing robotics industry that produces jobs and profits; lower cost health care delivery with quality improvements; and, as these 'intelligent' robots become acceptable throughout society, an increase in the standard of living for everyone. In space, such robots will provide improved safety, reliability, and productivity as Space Station evolves, and will enable human space exploration (by human/robot teams). The proposed effort consists of partnerships between manufacturers, universities, and JSC to develop working production prototypes of these robots by leveraging current development by both sides. Currently targeted applications are in the manufacturing, health care, services, and construction sectors of the U.S. economy and in the inspection, servicing, maintenance, and repair aspects of space exploration. But the focus is on the generic software architecture and standardized interfaces for custom modules tailored for the various applications allowing end users to customize a robot as PC users customize PC's. Production prototypes would be completed in 5 years under this proposal.

  17. Identifying and prioritizing the factors influencing the success of science and technology foresight in the field of economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Raieninezhad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting complex global environment, tremendous growth and increase of network communication technology in the world, strategic planning and foresight activities in science and technology have become very important. Gradually, organizations and businesses are realizing the importance of foresight; many organizations attempt to execute such activities. However, this concept is not still well known in our country and among our organizations. Therefore, recognizing the factors influencing the success of this concept is a kind of issues that the organizations and activists are faced. Thus, this research seeks to identify and to rank the factors, particularly in the areas of economy, and it has developed five hypotheses. In this paper, factors affecting the success of foresight are given in four groups of rational, structure, scope, and results. Data collection for this study is a questionnaire and the binomial tests, Pearson correlation and Friedman test have been used to prove the hypothesis. According to the analysis of data obtained from the questionnaire conducted by SPSS software, all research hypotheses were confirmed. It also became clear that the rational component had the greatest impact on the future success of science and technology in the field of economic.

  18. The behavioural aspect of green technology investments: A general positive model in the context of heterogeneous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobloch, F.; Mercure, J.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies report that firms do not invest in cost-effective green technologies. While economic barriers can explain parts of the gap, behavioural aspects cause further under-valuation. This could be partly due to systematic deviations of decision-making agents’ perceptions from normative benchmarks, a

  19. When should irrigators invest in more water-efficient technologies as an adaptation to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Yoder, J.

    2015-12-01

    The western US is expected to experience more frequent droughts with higher magnitudes and persistence due to the climate change, with potentially large impacts on agricultural productivity and the economy. Irrigated farmers have many options for minimizing drought impacts including changing crops, engaging in water markets, and switching irrigation technologies. Switching to more efficient irrigation technologies, which increase water availability in the crop root zone through reduction of irrigation losses, receives significant attention because of the promise of maintaining current production with less. However, more efficient irrigation systems are almost always more capital-intensive adaptation strategy particularly compared to changing crops or trading water. A farmer's decision to switch will depend on how much money they project to save from reducing drought damages. The objective of this study is to explore when (and under what climate change scenarios) it makes sense economically for farmers to invest in a new irrigation system. This study was performed over the Yakima River Basin (YRB) in Washington State, although the tools and information gained from this study are transferable to other watersheds in the western US. We used VIC-CropSyst, a large-scale grid-based modeling framework that simulates hydrological processes while mechanistically capturing crop water use, growth and development. The water flows simulated by VIC-CropSyst were used to run the RiverWare river system and water management model (YAK-RW), which simulates river processes and calculates regional water availability for agricultural use each day (i.e., the prorationing ratio). An automated computational platform has been developed and programed to perform the economic analysis for each grid cell, crop types and future climate projections separately, which allows us to explore whether or not implementing a new irrigation system is economically viable. Results of this study indicate that

  20. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTMENT IN TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUSESCU IONUT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to capture based on new theories of economic growth in the knowledge, based economic development, the importance of investing in information are as a new factor of production, we propose a different treatment of essential identifiable knowledge structures: technologies and information .. Meanwhile, the article aims to capture the role that information plays in this highly complex process of economic growth. I realized through this expose, a representation of specific investments in information behavior and reasoning phenomena sustainable development concepts.

  1. The value from investments in health information technology at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Colene M; Mercincavage, Lauren M; Pan, Eric C; Vincent, Adam G; Johnston, Douglas S; Middleton, Blackford

    2010-04-01

    We compare health information technology (IT) in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to norms in the private sector, and we estimate the costs and benefits of selected VA health IT systems. The VA spent proportionately more on IT than the private health care sector spent, but it achieved higher levels of IT adoption and quality of care. The potential value of the VA's health IT investments is estimated at $3.09 billion in cumulative benefits net of investment costs. This study serves as a framework to inform efforts to measure and calculate the benefits of federal health IT stimulus programs.

  2. An exploratory investigation of barriers and enablers affecting investment in renewable companies and technologies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria; Greenwell, Felicity; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Adcock, Mike; Gregory-Smith, Diana

    2013-02-06

    The last few years have seen considerable research expenditure on renewable fuel technologies. However, in many cases, the necessary sustained and long-term funding from the investment community has not been realized at a level needed to allow technologies to become reality. According to global consulting firm Deloitte's recent renewable energy report (http://www.deloitte.com/energypredictions2012), many renewable energy projects stalled or were not completed because of issues including the global economy, the state of government finances, difficulties in funding and regulatory uncertainty. This investigation concentrates on the funding aspect and explores the perceived barriers and enablers to renewable technologies within the investment and renewables community. Thematic analysis of 14 in-depth interviews with representatives from renewable energy producers, banks and investment companies identified key factors affecting the psychology of investor behaviour in renewables. Eight key issues are highlighted, including a range of barriers and enablers, the role of the government, balance between cost/risk, value/return on investment, investment time scales, personality/individual differences of investors and the level of innovation in the renewable technology. It was particularly notable that in the findings the role of the government was discussed more than other themes and generally in quite critical terms, highlighting the need to ensure consistency in government funding and policy and a greater understanding of how government decision-making happens. Specific findings such as these illustrate the value of crossing disciplinary boundaries and highlight potential further research. Behavioural science and economic psychology in particular have much to offer at the interface of other disciplines such as political science and financial economics.

  3. Case study: impact of technology investment on lead discovery at Bristol-Myers Squibb, 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, John G; Banks, Martyn N; Binnie, Alastair; Brenner, Stephen; O'Connell, Jonathan; Petrillo, Edward W

    2008-01-01

    We review strategic approaches taken over an eight-year period at BMS to implement new high-throughput approaches to lead discovery. Investments in compound management infrastructure and chemistry library production capability allowed significant growth in the size, diversity and quality of the BMS compound collection. Screening platforms were upgraded with robust automated technology to support miniaturized assay formats, while workflows and information handling technologies were streamlined for improved performance. These technology changes drove the need for a supporting organization in which critical engineering, informatics and scientific skills were more strongly represented. Taken together, these investments led to significant improvements in speed and productivity as well a greater impact of screening campaigns on the initiation of new drug discovery programs.

  4. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    This methodology serves to define a system for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi quantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). QFD is a conceptual map that provides a method of transforming customer wants and needs into quantitative engineering terms. This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives.

  5. Employee Perception of the Impact of Information Technology Investment in Organisations: a survey of the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Lo

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve their operational efficiency and to maintain their competitiveness in the market place many organisations continue to invest substantially in their Information Technology (IT capability. But how do the employees themselves view the impact and the value of IT investment? This paper considers this question in the context of the hospitality industry. More specifically, it investigates the different perception of hotel employees on the impact of organisational IT investment on (a IT usage by employees, (b employee satisfaction with the IT systems, (c changes in the level of employee performance, and (d organisational performance of the hotel. 945 hotel employees in Bali, Indonesia were surveyed to assess their perception of the organisational impact of IT. Factor analysis, analysis of variance and regression analysis were performed on the data to examine the' range of employee viewpoints. Results showed that there were significant differences among the employees' perception with respect to age, educational level, position in the hotel, and individual income. These findings suggest that even senior management may regard the investment in IT is worthwhile, there may be a divergence of opinion among the employees as to what are the real benefits of IT. In order to fully leverage the potential of their IT investment, managers should pay particular attention to shaping the views of the employees who ultimately determine whether the IT capabilities in an organisation are put to use.

  6. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Project. (b) Maximum Investment Rate—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided by this paragraph (b) or paragraph (c) of this section, the maximum EDA Investment Rate for all Projects shall, after the... needs of the Region in which the Project is located, EDA will prioritize allocations of its Investment...

  7. IT Project Prioritization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shollo, Arisa; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    In most of the large companies IT project prioritization process is designed based on principles of evidencebased management. We investigate a case of IT project prioritization in a financial institution, and in particular, how managers practice evidence-based management during this process. We use...... a rich dataset built from a longitudinal study of the prioritization process for the IT projects. Our findings indicate that managers reach a decision not only by using evidence but from the interplay between the evidence and the judgment devices that managers employ. The interplay between evidence...... and judgment devices is manifested in three ways: supplementing, substituting, and interpreting evidence. We show that while evidence does not fully determine the decision, it plays a central role in discussions, reflections, and negotiations during the IT prioritization process....

  8. NWRS Survey Prioritization Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A SMART Tool and User's Guide for aiding NWRS Station staff when prioritizing their surveys for an Inventory and Monitoring Plan. This guide describes a process and...

  9. The behavioural aspect of green technology investments: a general positive model in the context of heterogeneous agents

    OpenAIRE

    Knobloch, F.; Mercure, J.-F.

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Elsevier. Studies report that firms do not invest in cost-effective green technologies. While economic barriers can explain parts of the gap, behavioural aspects cause further under-valuation. This could be partly due to systematic deviations of decision-making agents’ perceptions from normative benchmarks, and partly due to their diversity. This paper combines available behavioural k...

  10. Impact of Investment in Information Technology on Financial Performance of Nigerian Banks: Is There a Productivity Paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILKISU KABIRU USMAN FAROUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the impact of investment in Information Technology (IT on the financial performance of banks in Nigeria. The study covers post-Banking (2006-2010 consolidation period of 5 years. The population of the study comprises of all the 24 banks, and a random sampling of 10 banks was made. The study employs secondary data generated from annual reports and accounts of the banks, records maintained by the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN reports. The data obtained were analyzed using the panel data regression model where investment in IT (hardware, software and Automated Teller Machine [ATM], total earnings (TR and total cost (TC of the 10 sampled banks were used as the independent variables while financial performance is the dependent variable, proxied by return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE, net profit margin (NPM and earnings per share (EPS. Four hypotheses were developed and tested in line with the proxies to the dependent variables. The result from the panel regression revealed that there is a significant relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables, but the test revealed that the impact of IT investment on the financial performance of Nigeria banks is significant for ROA, ROE and EPS at 5% significance level but not significant for NPM at 5% and 10% significance level. The effect of TR is positive and that of TC is negative on all the four financial performance measures, but the effect of IT investment on all the four financial performance variables is negative, which is not an expected sign. This means that an increase on IT spending leads to a decrease in the financial performance of Nigerian banks, that is to say heavy IT investment does not increase banks profitability, hence there is existence of IT productivity paradox in the Nigeria banking industry.

  11. Investment and technology upgrade of milk powder producers: A comparative study of Chinese and Dutch firms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Dai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the feasibility of investing in a new milk powder factory, based on a case study of leading domestic producers in China and Netherlands. A key issue is the cost of the project, but a high cost does not mean it is not economically feasible, nor does a low cost guarantee the investment. Instead, systematic indicators should be used to associate the cost with profitability, returns to assets and corporate strategy. Limitations: It is worth noting that the ...

  12. Historical Analysis of Investment in Solar Energy Technologies (2000-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, C. E.; Margolis, R. M.; Bartlett, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The solar energy industry experienced unprecedented growth in the eight years from 2000 to 2007, with explosive growth occurring in the latter half of this period. From 2004 to 2007, global private sector investment in solar energy increased by almost twenty-fold, marking a dramatic increase in the short span of four years. This paper examines the timing, magnitude, focus and location of various forms of investment in the solar energy sector. It analyzes their trends to provide an understanding of the growth of the solar industry during the past eight years and to identify emerging themes in this rapidly evolving industry.

  13. A research proposal for investigating the effect of foreign direct investments on technology transfer in the Arabian Gulf (GCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahat, Kaher; Whelan, Susan

    2015-02-01

    In terms of hosting countries perspectives, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) could have a positive effect on its developing economy, by transferring, both: resources of finance in addition to the international technology (ITT) (Choi, 1997). Multinational companies (MNC) are engaging in the transferring of the new technology, internally as well as licensing older one; they create "Spillover" (Knowledge) for facilitating the transfer of ITT in line with geographical location, period of investment, and the type of industry. Furthermore, the effect of these spillovers depends on the level of transferring this knowledge based on FDI attraction policies of the host country (Huang, 2009). Considering the Arabian Gulf council countries (GCC) as "FDI- rich hosting countries", who are not seeking for financial resources, i.e., they already have a huge financial capacity for funding their different projects, even though FDI has been powerfully presented in GCC . They saw noticeable increases in FDI inflows beginning in 2002, (www.unctad.org.fdistatistics). Therefore by assumption, FDI inflows to GCC could positively affect their economic growth through transferring the advanced technology, in order to build up their level of technology (productivity growth) as well as their economic diversification strategy. If so how this Knowledge could be diffused and measured in order to maximize its benefit and enhancing the productivity growth, and what is the current status of (GCC).

  14. Maximizing the return on investments in information technology by incorporating best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Most system administrators know what needs to be done to make their systems secure and manageable but these needs are tough to sell to upper management in a tight economy. However, system administrators using industry accepted best practices can calculate a return on investment for budgeting purposes, justifying expenses by comparing them with expected costs if such practices are not in place.

  15. Residential Customer Enrollment in Time-based Rate and Enabling Technology Programs: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects undertaking Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS), which examine the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort presents an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior.

  16. 13 CFR 107.1520 - How a Licensee computes and allocates Prioritized Payments to SBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees... represents your Accumulated Prioritized Payments, unearned Adjustments and unearned Charges. (2) Distribution Account. The Distribution Account is a liability account. Its balance represents your unpaid...

  17. The Interplay Between Evidence and Judgment in the IT Project Prioritization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shollo, Arisa; Constantiou, Ioanna; Kreiner, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Strategic decisions concerning IT investments are based on a project prioritization process designed to accommodate evidence-based management and rational decision-making. Our empirical study of IT project prioritization in a financial institution shows how managers reach decisions under norms...

  18. Prioritized Experience Replay

    OpenAIRE

    Schaul, Tom; Quan, John; Antonoglou, Ioannis; Silver, David

    2015-01-01

    Experience replay lets online reinforcement learning agents remember and reuse experiences from the past. In prior work, experience transitions were uniformly sampled from a replay memory. However, this approach simply replays transitions at the same frequency that they were originally experienced, regardless of their significance. In this paper we develop a framework for prioritizing experience, so as to replay important transitions more frequently, and therefore learn more efficiently. We u...

  19. Flooding: Prioritizing protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peduzzi, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    With climate change, urban development and economic growth, more assets and infrastructures will be exposed to flooding. Now research shows that investments in flood protection are globally beneficial, but have varied levels of benefit locally.

  20. Optimal Cycle Time and Preservation Technology Investment for Deteriorating Items with Price-sensitive Stock-dependent Demand Under Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita H.; Shah, Arpan D.

    2014-04-01

    The article analyzes economic order quantity for the retailer who has to handle imperfect quality of the product and the units are subject to deteriorate at a constant rate. To control deterioration of the units in inventory, the retailer has to deploy advanced preservation technology. Another challenge for the retailer is to have perfect quality product. This requires mandatory inspection during the production process. This model is developed with the condition of random fraction of defective items. It is assumed that after inspection, the screened defective items are sold at a discounted rate instantly. Demand is considered to be price-sensitive stock-dependent. The model is incorporating effect of inflation which is critical factor globally. The objective is to maximize profit of the retailer with respect to preservation technology investment, order quantity and cycle time. The numerical example is given to validate the proposed model. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to work out managerial issues.

  1. The missing technology: an international comparison of human capital investment in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frogner, Bianca K

    2010-01-01

    This article explores human capital investment to understand cross-sectional variation and differences in growth of health spending among the US, Australia and Canada. Using a human capital model developed by Mincer, the article examines how rate of return to schooling and years of schooling impact wage rate levels in healthcare. The model is extended to approximate the probable trajectory of healthcare wage rate growth and thus the impact on health spending. The results suggest that a higher rate of return to schooling and a more educated healthcare workforce in the US may contribute to higher healthcare wage rates and thus contribute to higher health spending levels than in Canada and Australia. The results also suggest that average healthcare wage rates are growing at the rate of potential GDP; healthcare wage rates are not driving the growth of health spending.

  2. Prioritized Abduction with CHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2008-01-01

    A class of Prioritized Abductive Logic Programs (PrioALPs) is introduced and an implementation is developed in CHR for solving abductive problems, providing minimal explanations with best-first search. Priorities may represent probabilities or a cost function to be optimized. Compared with other...... weighted and probabilistic versions of abductive logic programming, the approach is characterized by higher generality and a flexible and adaptable architecture which incorporates integrity constraints and interaction with external constraint solvers. A PrioALP is translated in a systematic way into a CHR...

  3. Shared Investment by NIS and National Labs Develops Cutting-Edge Safeguards Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Williams, Laura S.

    2012-04-01

    This article, regarding a new technology for detecting undeclared enrichment at gas centrifuge enrichment plants, was written for the DOE/NNSA NA-24 Highlights, a newsletter intended for public release.

  4. Critical external factors behind hotels' investments in innovation and technology in emerging urban destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido Fernández, Juan Ignacio; Sáez Cala, Antonia; Figueroa Domecq, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The decision-making processes of tourism firms are being conditioned by the profound transformations taking place in both client demand and destination dynamics. This new scenario requires an increased level of information, innovation and technology if tourism firms are to remain competitive. In particular, information and communication technologies (ICTs) can provide competitive advantages by improving a firm’s knowledge of its own internal structures and of the milieu i...

  5. Investments in Fossil Energy Technology: How the Government's Fossil Energy R&D Program Has Made a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    America has the technological capacity to change its energy future. There is no reason, for example, why our nation must continue following a path of rising oil imports when billions of barrels of crude oil remain in domestic oil fields. There is no reason why we cannot continue to use our abundant supplies of high-value, low-cost coal when we have the scientific know-how to remove virtually all of its pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is no reason why we cannot turn increasingly to clean-burning natural gas and tap the huge supplies we know exist within our borders. We remain a nation rich in the fuels that have powered economic growth. Today 85 percent of the energy we use to heat our homes and businesses, generate our electricity, and fuel our vehicles comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas. As we move toward a new century, the contributions of these fuels will grow. By 2015, the United States is likely to require nearly 20 percent more energy than it uses today, and fossil fuels are projected to supply almost 88 percent of the energy Americans will consume. We have the scientific know-how to continue using our fossil fuel wealth without fear of environmental damage or skyrocketing costs. The key is technology - developing cutting edge concepts that are beyond the private sector's current capabilities. Some of the most important innovations in America's energy industry are the results of investments in the Federal government's fossil energy research and development programs. Today, our air and water are cleaner, our economy is stronger, and our industries are more competitive in the global market because these programs have produced results. This booklet summarizes many of these achievements. It is not a comprehensive list by any means. Still, it provides solid evidence that the taxpayers' investment in government fossil energy research has paid real and measurable dividends.

  6. CONDITIONS OF INVESTMENT DECISION-MAKING IN AREA OF RFID TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Jankowska-Mihułowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of the electronic product code (EPC in an enterprise may turn out to be one of the choices in the future. The subject of this article is an analysis preceding decisive conditions in an investment process of its implementation. These reflections are preceded by the research in Polish enterprises, aiming at an estimation of the possibility of the RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification transponder commercialisation (market potential being consistent with the EPC requirements. Conducting such research in the future will lead to a decrease in the decision gap among managers within the scope of the possibility of implementing the innovative solution described, as well as the anticipated business results.  Methods of analysis and synthesis have been applied, within the theory of decision-making and telecommunications. An interdisciplinary approach to the issue in question constitutes the added value of this article.  The conclusion comprises a synthesis of the article contents—crucial decisive areas that require monitoring and simultaneous estimation (now and in the future regarding implementation of the electronic product code in an organization. In general, these areas are macro environment, competitive environment, strategic potential of an organization, and managers’ decisiveness.

  7. China’s Outward Foreign Direct Investment:The Role of Natural Resources and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; WANG; ZHIHONG; YU

    2014-01-01

    Using the data of China’s OFDI in more than 150 host countries or regions for the period of 1991-2009, in this paper we examine the underlying motivations and locational determinants of China’s OFDI, with a focus on the role of natural resources and technology. Our findings indicate that the host country’s natural resource abundance, interacted with its institutional quality, is a crucial determinant of China’s OFDI. There is strong evidence that in the recent period of 2003-2009, the host country’s overall natural resource abundance, oil abundance and metal abundance had a sizable positive effect on China’s OFDI. In particular, China’s OFDI was driven to resource-abundant countries with poor institutional quality and governance, and this pattern was strongest for oil but not metal resources. However, we find little evidence supporting the resourceseeking motivation in the pre-2003 period. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for the technology-exploiting motivation but not for the technology-seeking hypothesis. We show that, when the host is a lowincome country, China’s OFDI increases if the host country’s technology is more backward, indicating that Chinese investors might be taking advantage of their technology gap relative to the local firms.

  8. Influenza Vaccine: Federal Investments in Alternative Technologies and Challenges to Development and Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    late 1990s and early 2000s, detection of the H5N1 avian influenza (also known as “bird flu”) virus in animals raised concerns among experts that it or...of infection by, for example, the H5N1 avian influenza virus (also known as “bird flu”). Alternative technologies that can be used in producing...genes. Recombinant technology is currently used in U.S.-marketed vaccines against other diseases, such as hepatitis B and the human papillomavirus

  9. Foreign Direct Investment and Technology Spillovers:Evidence from China’s manufacturing industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>FDI will cause technological advance in host industry by its spillover effects.The approaches of technology spillover include horizontal spillover and vertical spillover.Most scholars do research on the two kinds of spillover effects separately. Therefore,by using panel data and Malquist index of China’s manufactuting industry, this paper analyses the two spillover effects of FDI on China’s manufacturing industry in one frame in order to test scientifically the spillover effects of FDI on China’s manufacturing industry.

  10. Modeling and Analysis in Support of Decision Making for Technological Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhart, S

    2003-06-11

    Engineering design, resource allocation, military operations, and investment strategies share a major common trait, which is, to a large extent, independent of their different origins, specific features, and intended goals. The unifying trait is the fact that, in any of these endeavors, one has to make reasonable choices, at multiple levels of decision making, among various possible and sometimes competing prospective solutions to an important and consequential practical problem. While the specifics of the problem depend on application, context, additional constraints, etc., the ultimate--albeit imprecise--goal in all these activities is to ''optimize performance,'' which is to have maximal success/profit/return with minimal time/effort/investment. In general, the underlying system is ruled by complex and often unknown dynamics, and affected by various uncertainties, which are unknown as well; on the other hand, there are numerous levels of decision making, which result in a hierarchical structure in the decision process (tree) that is both asynchronous and non-deterministic. Usually, indifferent of the specific application, as one lowers the level of decision making, alternatives depend on fewer independent variables and models become more detailed and physics/engineering based. On the contrary, at higher levels, various components aggregate and decision making is based more on fuzzier criteria instead of readily quantifiable physics/engineering details. Moreover, decisions are strongly influenced by the educational and personal biases of the people who take them. In some instances, this may blur, if not totally obfuscate objective comparisons between various options. Therefore, a crucial point in decision-making is properly understanding and quantifying the tradeoffs, including all their future relevant consequences. Since the interaction between various choices is an intricate nonlinear process, the focus shifts from the dynamics itself to

  11. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  12. A Methodology for Assessing the Military Benefits of Science and Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    ratio (BCR) greater than 2 to 1. In the area of biology, intrinsic chemical markers (ICMs) provide a means for verifying that food is fully...1.7 million per year. Since the current wastage due to less than optimal quality is about 20%, the savings due to avoiding wastage is about $2.2...3) focusing commercial capabilities on Army needs, such as food preparation, packaging, and preservation technologies that enabled the development

  13. Achieving ’Appropriate’ Levels of Investment in Technological Change: What Have We Learned,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    impact of various mechanisms the government might use to stimulate civilian R&D spending and the more rapid diffusion of technological innova - tion. The...Review of Economics and Business, Spring 1977, pp. 7-29; and Richard R.Nelson and Sidney G. Winter, "In Search of a Useful Theory of Innova - tion...that has characterized much of economists’ previous thinking about innova - tion--the distinction between resource allocation decisions involving

  14. Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has launched the Zero-Net-Energy (ZNE) Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) in order to develop commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge energy-efficient technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. We examine how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cos...

  15. Energy Technology Investments: Maximizing Efficiency Through a Maritime Energy Portfolio Interface and Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    Schneck is a certified Lean Six Sigma Black Belt and a graduate of the Georgia Institute of Technology with Highest Honors and a degree in Industrial...Portfolio Interface and Decision Aid Kathleen Schneck Herren Associates Senior Engineering Consultant Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Glen Sturtevant...Navy a tvos - FYI6 Fundl09 (V1) _n_ . ... _lv_ ... ___ l ~ I ~ I 2010 I 2Qll I 20u r\\Mdio,g ($1𔃻) Belt • (SM) -~1ilestones and Decision Points

  16. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    their primary heating source with secondary heating e.g. a woodstove. This choice results in increased indoor air pollution with fine particles causing health effects. We integrate health cost due to use of woodstoves into household optimisation of heating expenditures. The results show that due...... for private consumers decrease by 66% when all have the option to shift to the technology with lowest variable costs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights reserved...

  17. 预期更新技术出现时新技术采用中经营成本对投资策略的影响%IMPACT OF OPERATING COSTS ON INVESTMENT STRATEGIES IN NEW TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION WITH A FURTHER NEW TECHNOLOGY ANTICIPATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷宝健; 胡适耕; 雷冬霞

    2006-01-01

    The adoption of new technologies often represents acrucial component of firms' investment decisions.This paper studies a dynamic duopoly model in which two firms compete in adoption of current technology with afurther new technology anticipated.Here it is assumed that the operating costs are not zero which has more explanatory power of the real world.There exist three kinds of equilibria that may occur in adoption of current technology,which mainly depends on the level of operating costs and the first-move advantage.It shows that the faster technological substitution or innovation encourages the leader to invest earlier while induces the follower to invest later.Furthermore,like the investment costs,with the increase of operating costs the follower tends to invest later while the leader tends to invest earlier,the investment thresholds are more sensitive to the change of operating costs than that of investment costs.

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment Agreements? A Appendix A to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...

  19. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    their primary heating source with secondary heating e.g. a woodstove. This choice results in increased indoor air pollution with fine particles causing health effects. We integrate health cost due to use of woodstoves into household optimisation of heating expenditures. The results show that due...... heating comfort is minimised. The private solution may deviate from the socio-economical optimal solution and we suggest changes to policy to incentivise the individuals to make choices more in line with the socio-economic optimal mix of energy savings and technologies. The households can combine...

  20. HIMSS Venture+ Forum and HX360 Provide Industry View of Health Technology Innovation, Startup and Investment Activity; Advancing the New Model of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burde, Howard A; Scarfo, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Presented by HIMSS, the Venture+ Forum program and pitch competition provides a 360-degree view on health technology investing and today's top innovative companies. It features exciting 3-minute pitch presentations from emerging and growth-stage companies, investor panels and a networking reception. Recent Venture+ Forum winners include TowerView Health, Prima-Temp, ActuaiMeds and M3 Clinician. As an industry catalyst for health IT innovation and business-building resource for growing companies and emerging technology solutions, HIMSS has co-developed with A VIA, a new initiative that addresses how emerging technologies, health system business model changes and investment will transform the delivery of care. HX360 engages senior healthcare leaders, innovation teams, investors and entrepreneurs around the vision of transforming healthcare delivery by leveraging technology, process and structure.

  1. Airline return-on-investment model for technology evaluation. [computer program to measure economic value of advanced technology applied to passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    This report presents the derivation, description, and operating instructions for a computer program (TEKVAL) which measures the economic value of advanced technology features applied to long range commercial passenger aircraft. The program consists of three modules; and airplane sizing routine, a direct operating cost routine, and an airline return-on-investment routine. These modules are linked such that they may be operated sequentially or individually, with one routine generating the input for the next or with the option of externally specifying the input for either of the economic routines. A very simple airplane sizing technique was previously developed, based on the Brequet range equation. For this program, that sizing technique has been greatly expanded and combined with the formerly separate DOC and ROI programs to produce TEKVAL.

  2. Effects of climate uncertainties on welfare optimal investment streams into mitigation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, H.; Kriegler, E.; Lessmann, K.; Lorenz, A.

    2009-04-01

    We discuss a stylised portfolio of climate change mitigation options and ask the following question: what is the intertemporally optimal mix of these options under the boundary condition of a climate guardrail and uncertainty about the temperature response to rising carbon dioxide concentrations? We impose a guardrail that requires the increase of global mean temperature T to be limited to 2K with at least a minimum probability P (e.g., P=0.75). The uncertainty about the temperature response is captured by a PDF for climate sensitivity and ocean heat uptake. For economic optimisation, we use an ensemble-version of the growth model MIND [1]. As a key results we show that robust climate protection paths will require aggressive mitigation measures [2]. In this context it is also possible to ask for the economic potential of reducing uncertainty in climate sensitivity [3] and ocean heat uptake [4] that is generically by orders of magnitude larger than the costs induced by the related research programmes. References [1] O. Edenhofer., N. Bauer, E. Kriegler: The Impact of Technological Change on Climate Protection and Welfare: Insights from the Model MIND. Ecological Economics, 54 (2-3): 277-292 (2005). [2] H. Held, E. Kriegler, K. Lessmann, O. Edenhofer, Efficient Climate Policies under Technology and Climate Uncertainty, Energy Economics, in press. [3] T. Schneider von Deimling, H. Held, A. Ganopolski, S. Rahmstorf, Climate sensitivity estimated from ensemble simulations of glacial climates, Climate Dynamics 27, 149-163, DOI 10.1007/s00382-006-0126-8 (2006). [4] A. Lorenz, Diploma Thesis, U Potsdam (2007).

  3. Prioritizing like nuclear smugglers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, S A

    1999-07-01

    An individual or group attempting to smuggle nuclear material out of a country has a choice of what border crossing to use and how to do it. If it is possible to think like a smuggler and determine what preferences one would have, then we could protect those smuggler-preferred border crossings first. Thinking like a smuggler requires that one understand a host of things: who is likely to smuggle and what might they have obtained, where they might have gotten it, and where they would like to deliver or sell it, how they will attempt to pass customs, how they might travel on both sides of the border, and what influences they might have on customs officials. After collecting data on criminology, geography, and much else, it is necessary to paste the data together into scenarios to ensure that self-consistent smuggling plans are created. These lead to counter-smuggling opportunities. Smuggling by amateurs turns out to be of a different class than professional smuggling, and needs to be countered differently. This work also assists in formulating key policy questions useful to guide counter-smuggling efforts. This methodology was developed for DOE/NN-43 for assistance with prioritization within the Second Line of Defense program.

  4. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 1: Abatement share and investment in low-carbon technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model described herein takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. By using an endogenous economic growth module with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth, as economic activity intensifies greenhouse gas emissions that in turn cause economic damage due to climate change. Different types of fossil fuels and different technologies produce different volumes of carbon dioxide in combustion. The shares of different fuels and their future evolution are not known. We assume that the dynamics of hydrocarbon-based energy share and their replacement with renewable energy sources in the global energy balance can be modeled into the 21st century by use of logistic functions. Various climate change mitigation policy measures are considered. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs merely as an unproductive loss of income, we consider abatement activities also as an investment in overall energy efficiency of the economy and decrease of overall carbon intensity of the energy system. The paper shows that these efforts help to reduce the volume of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, lower temperature deviations, and lead to positive effects in economic growth.

  5. An Evaluation of Requirement Prioritization Techniques with ANP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed ali Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates an evaluation of seven software requirements prioritization methods (ANP, binary search tree, AHP, hierarchy AHP, spanning tree matrix, priority group and bubble sort. Based on the case study of local project (automation of Mobilink franchise system, the experiment is conducted by students in the Requirement Engineering course in the department of Software Engineering at the University of Science and Technology Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Parameters/ measures used for the experiment are consistency indication, scale of measurement, interdependence, required number of decisions, total time consumption, time consumption per decision, ease of use, reliability of results and fault tolerance; on which requirements prioritization techniques are evaluated. The results of experiment show that ANP is the most successful prioritization methodology among all the available prioritization methodologies.

  6. 广州公共科技投入问题研究%Study on Problems of Guangzhou Investment in Public Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑霞

    2012-01-01

    近10年来,广州公共科技投入中出现的总量有限,投入结构不合理、转制机构过多、市属机构科研能力薄弱等问题日益明显.政府应在市场化进一步深化过程下,正确定位公共科技投入的政策,有效发挥公共科研机构组织的作用,克服市场化经济中的一些偏离现象,真正体现公共科技的作用.%In the newly ten years, Guangzhou ranks the first in Guangdong in public science and technology, yet it is just the average level of the whole country, far lower than some other big cities. It has the obvious problems such as lack of the overall investment, unfitness in investment structure, too many units transferred and relative weakness of Guangdong - oriented units. Based on the problems mentioned above, Guangzhou government, in the deepening of the market economy, should make correct policies of the investment in public science and technology, effectively moderate the function of public science and technology organizations and overcome some behaviour in market economy in order to show the real function of the public science and technology.

  7. Retention payoff-based cost per day open regression equations: Application in a user-friendly decision support tool for investment analysis of automated estrus detection technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K A; Heersche, G; Bewley, J M

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the economic implications of investing in automated estrus detection (AED) technologies can be overwhelming for dairy producers. The objectives of this study were to develop new regression equations for estimating the cost per day open (DO) and to apply the results to create a user-friendly, partial budget, decision support tool for investment analysis of AED technologies. In the resulting decision support tool, the end user can adjust herd-specific inputs regarding general management, current reproductive management strategies, and the proposed AED system. Outputs include expected DO, reproductive cull rate, net present value, and payback period for the proposed AED system. Utility of the decision support tool was demonstrated with an example dairy herd created using data from DairyMetrics (Dairy Records Management Systems, Raleigh, NC), Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (Columbia, MO), and published literature. Resulting herd size, rolling herd average milk production, milk price, and feed cost were 323 cows, 10,758kg, $0.41/kg, and $0.20/kg of dry matter, respectively. Automated estrus detection technologies with 2 levels of initial system cost (low: $5,000 vs. high: $10,000), tag price (low: $50 vs. high: $100), and estrus detection rate (low: 60% vs. high: 80%) were compared over a 7-yr investment period. Four scenarios were considered in a demonstration of the investment analysis tool: (1) a herd using 100% visual observation for estrus detection before adopting 100% AED, (2) a herd using 100% visual observation before adopting 75% AED and 25% visual observation, (3) a herd using 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI) before adopting 100% AED, and (4) a herd using 100% TAI before adopting 75% AED and 25% TAI. Net present value in scenarios 1 and 2 was always positive, indicating a positive investment situation. Net present value in scenarios 3 and 4 was always positive in combinations using a $50 tag price, and in scenario 4, the $5

  8. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation’s Investments in Broadening Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education through Research and Capacity Building

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been used to increase the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM, including women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. While many are famil...

  9. Determining the directions of increasing the innovative potential of the region by developing innovative technologies and competences when preparing and implementing large investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Kramin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the directions of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects in the Republic of Tatarstan. Methods methodology of project management institutional approach. Results it is proved that the main largescale directions of innovative potential development in the Republic of Tatarstan as a result of preparation and implementing of Universiade 2013 in Kazan are knowledge management information technologies risk management. It is shown that in the framework of the considered innovative areas a complete system was formed of competences of employees and managers in the fields of education trade hospitality and service. Scientific novelty the key directions were defined of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects by the example of the World Summer Student Games in Kazan in 2013. Practical significance on the basis of specific examples the authors illustrate the practiceoriented mechanism of innovative potential development of a region as a result of implementation of large investment projects. nbsp

  10. A paperless course on structural engineering programming: investing in educational technology in the times of the Greek financial recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sextos, Anastasios G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the structure of an undergraduate course entitled 'programming techniques and the use of specialised software in structural engineering' which is offered to the fifth (final) year students of the Civil Engineering Department of Aristotle University Thessaloniki in Greece. The aim of this course is to demonstrate the use of new information technologies in the field of structural engineering and to teach modern programming and finite element simulation techniques that the students can in turn apply in both research and everyday design of structures. The course also focuses on the physical interpretation of structural engineering problems, in a way that the students become familiar with the concept of computational tools without losing perspective from the engineering problem studied. For this purpose, a wide variety of structural engineering problems are studied in class, involving structural statics, dynamics, earthquake engineering, design of reinforced concrete and steel structures as well as data and information management. The main novelty of the course is that it is taught and examined solely in the computer laboratory ensuring that each student can accomplish the prescribed 'hands-on' training on a dedicated computer, strictly on a 1:1 student over hardware ratio. Significant effort has also been put so that modern educational techniques and tools are utilised to offer the course in an essentially paperless mode. This involves electronic educational material, video tutorials, student information in real time and exams given and assessed electronically through an ad hoc developed, personalised, electronic system. The positive feedback received from the students reveals that the concept of a paperless course is not only applicable in real academic conditions but is also a promising approach that significantly increases student productivity and engagement. The question, however, is whether such an investment in educational technology is indeed

  11. Investment Avenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2012-11-01

    Investors are a heterogeneous group, they may be large or small, rich or poor, expert or lay man and not all investors need equal degree of protection (Mayya, 1996). An investor has three objectives while investing his money, namely safety of invested money, liquidity position of invested money and return on investment. The return on investment may further be divided into capital gain and the rate of return on investment as interest or dividend. Among all investment options available, securities are considered the most challenging as well as rewarding. Securities include shares, debentures, derivatives, units of mutual funds, Government securities etc. An investor may be an individual or corporate legal entity investing funds with a view to derive maximum economic advantage from investment such as rate of return, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and convenience of investment.The Capital market facilitates mobilization of savings of individuals and pools them into reservoir of capital which can be used for the economic development of a country. An efficient capital market is essential for raising capital by the corporate sector of the economy and for the protection of the interest of investors in corporate securities. There arises a need to strike a balance between raising of capital for economic development on one side and protection of investors on the other. Unless the interests of investors are protected, raising of capital, by corporates is not possible. Like, the primary objective of a senior citizenís asset allocation is the generation of regular income.

  12. RUSSIAN INDUSTRY INVESTMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pochukaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual deficiency of investment into Russian industry innovative development increases its technological drag from industries of countries with developed markets. Although the rate of investment into real sectors of Russian economics mid 2000 was higher compared to the previous period, annual investment amounts were much lower than in 1990. At present, highest investment amounts are directed to industry extractive branches and to the commerce. Amounts invested to various economy branches do not correspond to their contribution to the country’sGross Added Product; particularly underinvested are manufacturing industry branches. At present, foreign share in the country economy total investment makes 15–18%. Recently, most interesting for foreigners was investment to machine-building branches with overwhelming part (for example, 90% in 2007–2008 of foreign investment into the machine-building industry being directed to creation of new automobile plants. Today, first place in the list of foreign investors’ preferences in Russia is taken by the machine-tool construction sector.

  13. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine R&D Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Albert N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D (ACE R&D) is one of the subprograms within DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office. The ACE subprogram's R&D is conducted in cooperation with the DOE Combustion Research Facility (CRF). This report summarizes the findings from a retrospective study of the net benefits to society from investments by DOE (both EERE and cooperative CRF efforts) in laser diagnostic and optical engine technologies and combustion modeling for heavy-duty diesel engines.

  14. A three pronged approach to community scale renewable energy: Education, incremental capital investment and smart grid technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeo, Anna E.

    ; first hand exposure to technology, providing a sense of independence that strengthens communities, and developing a direct link between the energy people use and how that energy is created. Ultimately community scale renewable energy projects help bolster support for large-scale projects that are imperative to making real and lasting progress towards reducing emissions. Finally, technological advancements in renewable energy generation, energy storage and distribution systems, are imperative to replacing fossil fuels. The shift towards a higher penetration of renewable energy into the electric grid can be realized with the implementation of a more sophisticated smart grid, which uses dynamic demand response to alter demand to follow generation. Introduction of tidal power can serve to further stabilize the grid and reduce the amount of storage required. This work describes an interdisciplinary approach to addressing issues of energy, and thereby climate, through substantive efforts in three concentrations; energy literacy education, community driven renewable energy projects based on incremental capital investment and a smart, micro grid encompassing tidal power and other renewable energy source.

  15. Logistics or patient care: which features do independent Finnish pharmacy owners prioritize in a strategic plan for future information technology systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerling, Anna M; Haikala, Veikko E; Bell, J Simon; Airaksinen, Marja S

    2010-01-01

    To determine Finnish community pharmacy owners' requirements for the next generation of software systems. Descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study. Finland during December 2006. 308 independent pharmacy owners. Survey listing 126 features that could potentially be included in the new information technology (IT) system. The list was grouped into five categories: (1) drug information and patient counseling, (2) medication safety, (3) interprofessional collaboration, (4) pharmacy services, and (5) pharmacy internal processes. Perceived value of potential features for a new IT system. The survey was mailed to all independent pharmacy owners in Finland (n = 580; response rate 53% [n = 308]). Respondents gave priority to logistical functions and functions related to drug information and patient care. The highest rated individual features were tracking product expiry (rated as very or quite important by 100% of respondents), computerized drug-drug interaction screening (99%), an electronic version of the national pharmaceutical reference book (97%), and a checklist-type drug information database to assist patient counseling (95%). In addition to the high ranking for logistical features, Finnish pharmacy owners put a priority on support for cognitive pharmaceutical services in the next IT system. Although the importance of logistical functions is understandable, the owners demonstrated a commitment to strategic health policy goals when planning their business IT system.

  16. THE EVALUATION SYSTEM OF DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY ON THE PRE-INVESTMENT STAGE THROUGH NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Kostsikava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the Soviet Union design solutions were evaluated according to different criteria and indicators. At the present stage of evaluation systems of design solutions stands systemengineering doctrine is allocated. It is complemented by the theory of efficiency and financial sustainability investment project in view of the general market concept. Also great attention is paid to the virtual object modeling. It is urgent to include the behavior prediction of an investment construction project model at each stage of its life cycle. The high cost of all phases of this life cycle makes it necessary to calculate the feasibility of the investment. Very urgent to do it as accurately as possible and before we start of design works on the stage of the investment plan evaluation. Belarus has legislated pre-investment stage of construction project development. To evaluate the design solution at this stage is necessary to develop an investment justification, a project management plan and a business plan. They will evaluate and will compare several options for future objects by the complex. This requires not only time, but considerable financial costs. In order to optimize the process to develop an evaluation system design solutions based on existing projects. It allows the customer (investor choose design solutions to build the object without developing of pre-design documentations for several options. This system it is advisable to try out the example of apartment house building with the assistance of the national fund of project documentation and objects-analogues data bank. The developed evaluation system of design solutions for residential real estate objects in the pre-investment stage is supposed to use the theory of neural networks and neyroprogramming. This system bases on the input parameters projects. The hidden layer neurons are trained to choose suitable projects of apartment houses with their classification. The projects will be classified

  17. Investment Invited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    T he 2006 Major Projects Investment Consultation and Talks, an investment promotion fair, jointly sponsored by the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce and the Nanjing Municipal Government, will be held at the Nanjing International Expo Center from May 28 to 30. Organizers of the event also include Nanjing's neighboring cities of

  18. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...... of underinvestment and, hence, induces cutting down investment. On the other hand, severely constrained firms benefit more by getting closer to the first-best investment implying higher investment....

  19. California Institute of Technology: Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program (CECIP) was initiated in 2009. It manages $8 million within an existing fund in the school's endowment, which had been created to finance capital projects. Any member of the Caltech community may submit a project proposal, and projects are considered for approval as long as they have at least a 15…

  20. Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in low and middle-income countries : a comparative cross-sectoral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Sasso, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the trends in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows worldwide across sectors and across value-chain activities, with a particular focus on low- and middle-income countries in comparison with advanced countries. We begin by discussing the growing fragmentation of global produ

  1. A Framework for Event Prioritization in Cyber Network Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-15

    myong H. KAng Jim Z. Luo ALex VeLAZqueZ Center for High Assurance Computer Systems Information Technology Division July 15, 2014 Approved for public...OF ABSTRACT A Framework for Event Prioritization in Cyber Network Defense Anya Kim, Myong H. Kang, Jim Z. Luo, and Alex Velazquez Naval Research

  2. Savannah River Site prioritization of transition activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.H.

    1993-11-01

    Effective management of SRS conversion from primarily a production facility to other missions (or Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D)) requires a systematic and consistent method of prioritizing the transition activities. This report discusses the design of a prioritizing method developed to achieve systematic and consistent methods of prioritizing these activities.

  3. Effect of risk aversion on prioritizing conservation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Maloney, Richard F; Joseph, Liana N; Bennett, Joseph R; Di Fonzo, Martina M I; Probert, William J M; O'Connor, Shaun M; Densem, Jodie P; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-04-01

    Conservation outcomes are uncertain. Agencies making decisions about what threat mitigation actions to take to save which species frequently face the dilemma of whether to invest in actions with high probability of success and guaranteed benefits or to choose projects with a greater risk of failure that might provide higher benefits if they succeed. The answer to this dilemma lies in the decision maker's aversion to risk--their unwillingness to accept uncertain outcomes. Little guidance exists on how risk preferences affect conservation investment priorities. Using a prioritization approach based on cost effectiveness, we compared 2 approaches: a conservative probability threshold approach that excludes investment in projects with a risk of management failure greater than a fixed level, and a variance-discounting heuristic used in economics that explicitly accounts for risk tolerance and the probabilities of management success and failure. We applied both approaches to prioritizing projects for 700 of New Zealand's threatened species across 8303 management actions. Both decision makers' risk tolerance and our choice of approach to dealing with risk preferences drove the prioritization solution (i.e., the species selected for management). Use of a probability threshold minimized uncertainty, but more expensive projects were selected than with variance discounting, which maximized expected benefits by selecting the management of species with higher extinction risk and higher conservation value. Explicitly incorporating risk preferences within the decision making process reduced the number of species expected to be safe from extinction because lower risk tolerance resulted in more species being excluded from management, but the approach allowed decision makers to choose a level of acceptable risk that fit with their ability to accommodate failure. We argue for transparency in risk tolerance and recommend that decision makers accept risk in an adaptive management

  4. 13 CFR 107.1540 - Distributions by Licensee-Prioritized Payments and Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-Prioritized Payments and Adjustments. 107.1540 Section 107.1540 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees...

  5. Semantic prioritization of novel causative genomic variants

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imane

    2017-04-17

    Discriminating the causative disease variant(s) for individuals with inherited or de novo mutations presents one of the main challenges faced by the clinical genetics community today. Computational approaches for variant prioritization include machine learning methods utilizing a large number of features, including molecular information, interaction networks, or phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate the PhenomeNET Variant Predictor (PVP) system that exploits semantic technologies and automated reasoning over genotype-phenotype relations to filter and prioritize variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets. We demonstrate the performance of PVP in identifying causative variants on a large number of synthetic whole exome and whole genome sequences, covering a wide range of diseases and syndromes. In a retrospective study, we further illustrate the application of PVP for the interpretation of whole exome sequencing data in patients suffering from congenital hypothyroidism. We find that PVP accurately identifies causative variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets and provides a powerful resource for the discovery of causal variants.

  6. MANTECH (Manufacturing Technology) Prioritization Methodology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    700 comparions are involved. However, the Lotus 1-2-3 computer program, which was designed for this kind of calculation, can provide a spread sheet...evaluations. Because of the recent birth of this effort, project selection is implicit in the in-house process of origination. However, the following

  7. Creative Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Prices for Chinese art are shattering records locally and internationally. Is the investment well placed?Mem Aziz is brimming with confidence about the future of his business in China. Director of Australia’s Redrock Gallery,

  8. Place prioritization for biodiversity content

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sahotra Sarkar; Anshu Aggarwal; Justin Garson; Chris R Margules; Juliane Zeidler

    2002-07-01

    The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the procedure is demonstrated with two analyses, one data set consisting of the distributions of termite genera in Namibia, and the other consisting of the distributions of bird species in the Islas Malvinas/Falkland Islands. The attributes that data sets should have for the effective and reliable application of such procedures are discussed. The procedure used here is compared to some others that are also currently in use.

  9. Code Coverage Based Test Case Selection and Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Beena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Regression Testing is exclusively executed to guarantee the desirable functionality of existing softwareafter pursuing quite a few amendments or variations in it. Perhaps, it testifies the quality of the modifiedsoftware by concealing the regressions orsoftware bugs in both functional and non-functional applicationsof the system. In fact, the maintenance of test suite is enormous as it necessitates a big investment of timeand money on test cases on a large scale. So, minimizing the test suite becomesthe indispensable requisiteto lessen the budget on regression testing. Precisely, this research paper aspires to present an innovativeapproach for the effectiveselection and prioritization of test cases which in return may procure a maximumcode average.

  10. Architecture-driven requirements prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Quality requirements are main drivers for architectural decisions of software systems. However, in practice they are often dismissed during development, because of initially unknown dependencies and consequences that complicate implementation. To decide for meaningful, feasible quality requirements and trade them off with functional requirements, tighter integration of software architecture evaluation and requirements prioritization is necessary. In this position paper, we propose a tool-supp...

  11. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-08

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/.

  12. Coupled Climate–Economy–Biosphere (CoCEB model – Part 2: Deforestation control and investment in carbon capture and storage technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Z. Ogutu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the global climate–economy–biosphere (CoCEB model developed in Part 1 to investigate economic aspects of deforestation control and carbon sequestration in forests, as well as the efficiency of carbon capture and storage (CCS technologies as policy measures for climate change mitigation. We assume – as in Part 1 – that replacement of one technology with another occurs in terms of a logistic law, so that the same law also governs the dynamics of reduction in carbon dioxide emission using CCS technologies. In order to take into account the effect of deforestation control, a slightly more complex description of the carbon cycle than in Part 1 is needed. Consequently, we add a biomass equation into the CoCEB model and analyze the ensuing feedbacks and their effects on per capita gross domestic product (GDP growth. Integrating biomass into the CoCEB and applying deforestation control as well as CCS technologies has the following results: (i low investment in CCS contributes to reducing industrial carbon emissions and to increasing GDP, but further investment leads to a smaller reduction in emissions, as well as in the incremental GDP growth; and (ii enhanced deforestation control contributes to a reduction in both deforestation emissions and in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, thus reducing the impacts of climate change and contributing to a slight appreciation of GDP growth. This effect is however very small compared to that of low-carbon technologies or CCS. We also find that the result in (i is very sensitive to the formulation of CCS costs, while to the contrary, the results for deforestation control are less sensitive.

  13. Energy Saving Melting andRevert Reduction Technology (E0SMARRT): Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimension for Investment Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Cannell; Dr. Mark Samonds; Adi Sholapurwalla; Sam Scott

    2008-11-21

    The investment casting process is an expendable mold process where wax patterns of the part and rigging are molded, assembled, shelled and melted to produce a ceramic mold matching the shape of the component to be cast. Investment casting is an important manufacturing method for critical parts because of the ability to maintain dimensional shape and tolerances. However, these tolerances can be easily exceeded if the molding components do not maintain their individual shapes well. In the investment casting process there are several opportunities for the final casting shape to not maintain the intended size and shape, such as shrinkage of the wax in the injection tool, the modification of the shape during shell heating, and with the thermal shrink and distortion in the casting process. Studies have been completed to look at the casting and shell distortions through the process in earlier phases of this project. Dr. Adrian Sabau at Oak Ridge National Labs performed characterizations and validations of 17-4 PH stainless steel in primarily fused silica shell systems with good agreement between analysis results and experimental data. Further tasks provided material property measurements of wax and methodology for employing a viscoelastic definition of wax materials into software. The final set of tasks involved the implementation of the findings into the commercial casting analysis software ProCAST, owned and maintained by ESI Group. This included: o the transfer of the wax material property data from its raw form into separate temperature-dependent thermophysical and mechanical property datasets o adding this wax material property data into an easily viewable and modifiable user interface within the pre-processing application of the ProCAST suite, namely PreCAST o and validating the data and viscoelastic wax model with respect to experimental results

  14. LOCAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE IMPACT OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL DECISIONS ON THE ENVIRONMENT UNDER THE RISK-RELATED CONDITIONS OF MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin VELEV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of globalization in a worldwide scale is even more noticeable in the each country during period of world economic crisis due to the differences in the economic status, deformed by the crisis phenomena. In that case, the conflict between global tendencies and local manifestations in the regional aspect of economic phenomena is even more evidently noticeable as a direct reflection of the resource deficiency. The mineral resources are directly related to that process, not only as a first phase of the transformation of the raw material potential for each country, but also as a serious violator of the ecological equilibrium as a result of the applied technologies. Each country is enforced to resolve the various issues related to preserving the own resource potential as much as possible and to subordinate its investment and technological decisions to an integrated and in-depth utilization in compliance with the sustainable development of society

  15. ExpoCast: Exposure Science for Prioritization and Toxicity Testing (T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) has a mission to integrate modern computing and information technology with molecular biology to improve Agency prioritization of data requirements and risk assessment of chemicals. Recognizing the critical need for ...

  16. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  17. Exploring the internalization rationale for international investment: wholly owned subsidiary versus technology licensing in the worldwide chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Ashish; Fosfuri, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Globalization has underlined the need for firms to exploit technological capabilities on a global scale. This study attempts to make a comprehensive investigation of various factors influencing the choice between wholly owned subsidiary and technology licensing as a strategy for expansion abroad. To underpin our main research questions, we rely on different theoretical contributions which have variously emphasized the importance of cultural distance, learning, nature of technology and competi...

  18. Water2Invest: Global facility for calculating investments needed to bridge the climate-induced water gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jairus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Meijer, Karen; van Aalst, Maaike; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Decision makers responsible for climate change adaptation investments are confronted with large uncertainties regarding future water availability and water demand, as well as the investment cost required to reduce the water gap. Moreover, scientists have worked hard to increase fundamental knowledge on climate change and its impacts (climate services), while practical use of this knowledge is limited due to a lack of tools for decision support under uncertain long term future scenarios (decision services). The Water2Invest project aims are to (i) assess the joint impact of climate change and socioeconomic change on water scarcity, (ii) integrate impact and potential adaptation in one flow, (iii) prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. Global water availability is computed between 2006 and 2100 using the PCR-GLOBWB water resources model at a 6 minute spatial resolution. Climate change scenarios are based on the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that defines four CO2 emission scenarios as representative concentration pathways. Water demand is computed for agriculture, industry, domestic, and environmental requirements based on socio-economic scenarios of increase in population and gross domestic product. Using a linear programming algorithm, water is allocated on a monthly basis over the four sectors. Based on these assessments, the user can evaluate various technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socioeconomic effects of these investments are evaluated, such as environmental flows or downstream effects. A scheme is developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty

  19. 基于网络DEA的科技创新型企业投资效率评价分析%The Evaluation and Analysis of Investment Efficiency of Scientific and Technological Innovation Oriented Enterprises Based on Network DEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佑元; 王婷

    2016-01-01

    Investment efficiency is the key factor affecting the enterprise value . In the transformation process of dividing investment on the basis of sub-stage , we should establish investment efficiency model and indicator system as well as adopt two -stage network DEA to measure the improvement degree of the investment ratio and non -efficiency investment of Chinese listed technological innovators . The empirical results show that the investment efficiency of listed technological innovators at sub -stage is lower , and the investment redundancy in three areas of R&D expenditure , intangible assets and long -term investment is very obvious . But the investment efficiency of most list-ed companies at the two stages tends to become doubly efficient over time .%企业投资效率是影响企业价值的关键因素.本文在划分投资转化过程子阶段的基础上构建投资效率评价模型及指标体系 ,运用二阶段网络DEA方法测算我国创业板科技创新型上市公司2012~2014年投资效率值及非效率投资的改进程度.实证结果表明 ,科技创新型上市公司利润产生子阶段投资效率较低 ,并且研发支出、无形资产以及长期投资三方面的投资冗余现象明显 ,但是多数上市公司两个阶段的投资效率随着时间的推移逐渐趋向双重高效.

  20. 模糊环境下不对称企业的技术创新投资期权博弈分析%Option-Game Approach to Analyze Technology Innovation Investment With Cost Asymmetry Under the Fuzzy Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭英双; 衡爱民; 龙勇; 吴宏伟; 江礼梅

    2011-01-01

    Basing on the asymmetric duopoly option-game model with investment cost asymmetry, this research discusses the present value of profit flows and the sunk investment costs for the trapezoidal fuzzy number, and Firms' technology innovation investment strategy is analyzed. It constructs followers, leaders of investment value and investment threshold of fuzzy expressions under the fuzzy environment to conduct numerical analysis. And it is concluded that there is still existing the best increasing investment strategy under fuzzy environment, with the development of the trapezoidal fuzzy number of the sunk cost of expected investment, the investment value of business declines, but the critical value for the investment ascends. This offers a kind of explanation to the investment strategies under the fuzzy environment.%本文在不对称双头垄断期权博弈模型基础上讨论了利润流现值和沉没投资成本为梯形模糊数的情形并进行了扩展,对企业技术创新投资策略进行了分析。构建了模糊环境下追随者、领导者的投资价值和投资临界值的模糊表达式并进行数值分析。分析表明模糊环境下仍存在最优投资策略,随着梯形模糊数的沉没投资成本期望值的增加,企业的投资价值下降而投资临界值上升。为模糊环境下投资决策提供了一种解释。

  1. Army Reserve Capabilities-Based Prioritization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-15

    journal databases such as JSTOR , ABI Inform, Proquest, and Emerald; syllabi for courses in strategic management and planning at Harvard, MIT, Wharton, and...methodology for prioritization. • Secure, database repository of appropriate bins, criteria or metrics for prioritization. • Reproducible...Prioritization PPBC/SRG Initial POM Database turned over to Army Budget TGM Issued ARB Final POM/BES Decisions Price/Rate Changes Other Fact-of-Life Changes

  2. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. 己内酰胺生产技术进展及项目投资分析%Caprolactam production technological prowess and project investment analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 冯美平

    2013-01-01

    The caprolactam production technologies were briefly introduced. The latest progress in caprolactam production technology was described in detail, including butadiene process, cyclohexene hydration, cyclohexanone oxime gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement, cyclohexanone oximation. The ammoximation process and hydroxylammonium phosphate ( HPO) process were compared and analyzed for caprolactam. It was pointed out that the ammoximation process had the characteristics of simple process, moderate conditions, low-level three wastes and low investment. The investment prospects of caprolactam projects were analyzed. It was put forward that SINOPEC should carefully conduct project evaluation in order to avoid risk while constructing a caprolactam project applying the cyclohexanone ammoximation process with the independent intellectual property or traditional cy-clohexane route.%简述了己内酰胺生产现状;详述了己内酰胺生产技术最新进展,包括丁二烯工艺、环己烯水合工艺、环己酮肟气相贝克曼重排新工艺、环己酮氨肟化工艺;对比剖析了己内酰胺氨肟化新工艺技术与HPO法技术,指出环己酮氨肟化新工艺具有流程简化,反应条件温和,三废少,投资少的特点;并对己内酰胺项目投资前景进行分析,提出中石化采用环己酮氨肟化法自主技术及环己烷法生产工艺路线新建己内酰胺项目并做好项目评估,规避项目风险.

  4. Investments in fossil energy technology: How the government's fossil energy R&D program has made a difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1997-03-01

    America has the technological capacity to change its energy future. There is no reason, for example, why our nation must continue following a path of rising oil imports when billions of barrels of crude oil remain in domestic oil fields. There is no reason why we cannot continue to use our abundant supplies of high-value, low-cost coal when we have the scientific know-how to remove virtually all of its pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is no reason why we cannot turn increasingly to clean-burning natural gas and tap the huge supplies we know exist within our borders. We remain a nation rich in the fuels that have powered economic growth. Today 85 percent of the energy we use to heat our homes and businesses, generate our electricity, and fuel our vehicles comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas. As we move toward a new century, the contributions of these fuels will grow. By 2015, the United States is likely to require nearly 20 percent more energy than it uses today, and fossil fuels are projected to supply almost 88 percent of the energy Americans will consume. We have the scientific know-how to continue using our fossil fuel wealth without fear of environmental damage or skyrocketing costs. The key is technology - developing cutting edge concepts that are beyond the private sector's current capabilities. Some of the most important innovations in America's energy industry are the results of investments in the Federal government's fossil energy research and development programs. Today, our air and water are cleaner, our economy is stronger, and our industries are more competitive in the global market because these programs have produced results. This booklet summarizes many of these achievements. It is not a comprehensive list by any means. Still, it provides solid evidence that the taxpayers' investment in government fossil energy research has paid real and measurable dividends.

  5. Investment Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Mihaela Vãsioiu

    2008-01-01

    The economic, financial and monetary changes had serious consequences not only on the level of providing the finance necessary for the development process but also on the level of providing the finance required for importing the basic food needs and rendering necessary production inputs. All these problems show the importance of “Banks” generally and “Investment Banks” particularly in the emerging and underdeveloped countries. Banks as financial institution or intermediary mobilize either nat...

  6. ICT Investment and Productivity: A Provincial Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sharpe; Jean-François Arsenault

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, Statistics Canada, for the first time, made available estimates of information and communication technology (ICT) investment by province. Given the importance of ICT investment for productivity growth, these data are important for the comparative analysis and understanding of productivity growth by province. The objective of this report is to present the basic data on ICT investment and ICT investment per worker in Canada and the ten provinces over the 1981-2007 period. The first par...

  7. Problem Prioritization in Usability Evaluation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Severity assessments enable prioritization of problems encountered during usability evaluations and thereby provide a device for guiding the utilization of design resources. However, designers' response to usability evaluations is also influenced by other factors, which may overshadow severity....... With the purpose of enhancing the impact of severity assessments, this study combines a field study of factors that influence the impact of evaluations with an experimental study of severity assessments made during usability inspections. The results show that even in a project receptive to input from evaluations...... their impact was highly dependent on conducting evaluations early. This accorded with an informal method that blended elements of usability evaluation and participatory design and could be extended with user-made severity assessments. The major cost associated with the evaluations was not finding but fixing...

  8. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment... ADDRESSES. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lesa A. Johnson, Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. All comments received in...

  9. Human capital and the adoption of information and communications technologies: Evidence from investment climate survey of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar MUGHAL; Diawara, Barassou

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of human capital on the adoption and diffusion of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) in the Pakistani firms using the World Bank Enterprise Survey 2002-07. The paper considers various indicators of human capital and measures of ICT adoption and diffusion. On-the-job training, manager's level of qualification and production workers' level of education are found to positively determine the use of emails, website and other means of communication in a ...

  10. Applying Modern Portfolio Theory and the Capital Asset Pricing Model to DoD’s Information Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    performs poorly. According to Elder & Westra, companies like Walt Disney Co., AT&T and Sprint Corporation are some of the few companies who decided to... Expansion Option (platform technologies, acquisitions, open architecture)  Contraction Option (outsourcing, alliances)  Compound...TELCOM should consider one or more of the following real options: option to wait; option to execute; or expansion option. The option to wait would

  11. ROMANIAN INVESTMENT POLICY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hategan Anca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the year 2009, the European Union, as well as the rest of the world, was affected by the economic and financial crisis, and one of the effects reflected in the decrease of foreign direct investment (FDI projects and also in the reduction of their host locations. Creating a healthy economic environment, that should be efficient for any form of international investment , represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. This paper concentrates on analyzing our country’s attractiveness from the international investor’s point of view, it also focuses on the Romanian investment policy, its investment climate, as well as on identifying or valuating the strengths and opportunities offered by Romania. The advantages of the foreign direct investments are universally recognized and they basically include the expansion of the production capacity and income, job creation, technologically diffusion and economic development. Creating an appropriate economic environment, that is efficient for any form of international investments represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. OECD member states experience, for example, outlines the advantages of a functional legal and normative climate, based on the principles of transparency and non discrimination, that are essential for attracting foreign investments. In the actual competition for attracting FDI, every state tries to offer as many incentives to the future foreign investors. The Romanian investment policy sets out incentives in a non-discriminatory and transparent way offering the investors the specific criteria. The Romanian business environment has improved significantly in recent years, driven in particular by EU accession. Major progress has been recorded in areas such as the fiscal environment, rule of law, the fight against corruption and property registration. When considering our country a possible location for the development of their businesses, the foreign

  12. Investment in Renewable Energies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Recalde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the enabling conditions of the energy policy of a developing country such as Argentina, are crucial for the deployment of renewable energy investments. The conclusions highlights that the low institutional quality of the country shapes enabling conditions and reduce effect of the instruments of the energy policy, dropping incentives for investment in renewable technologies in the country. Therefore, in order to promote renewable technologies investments efficiently, the institutional framework of countries must be seriously improved.

  13. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  14. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  15. Prioritizing obesity in the city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jennifer Asanin; Elliott, Susan J

    2012-02-01

    A decade ago, the World Health Organization declared obesity to be a global epidemic. Accordingly, there is a growing body of research examining how "obesogenic environments" contribute to the increasing prevalence of obesity. Using the ANGELO Framework, this research explores the role of municipal policies and practices in constructing obesogenic environments in two Southern Ontario cities in order to examine how socio-cultural and political environments shape excess body weight. Data was collected from municipal policy documents, public health websites, and key informants in Hamilton and Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Results indicate that while the cities took different approaches to dealing with obesity, they both reflected the cities' overall prioritizing of health. Additionally, the findings reveal the pervasiveness of values and attitudes held in the socio-cultural environment in further shaping (and being shaped by) political as well as economic and physical environments in the cities. The importance of explicitly acknowledging the official discourse of the city, which this study demonstrates to be a significant factor in constructing obesogenic environments, is highlighted. Theoretical contributions and policy implications are also discussed.

  16. Sustainability Decision Support Framework for Industrial System Prioritization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Wei, Shunan; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2016-01-01

    A multicriteria decision-making methodology for the sustainability prioritization of industrial systems is proposed. The methodology incorporates a fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process method that allows the users to assess the soft criteria using linguistic terms. A fuzzy Analytic Network Process...... method is used to calculate the weights of each criterion, which can tackle the interdependencies and interactions among the criteria. The Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation approach is used to prioritize the sustainability sequence of the alternative systems. Moreover......, a sensitivity analysis method was developed to investigate the most critical and sensitive criteria. The developed methodology was illustrated by a case study to rank the sustainability of five alternative hydrogen production technologies. The advantages of the developed methodology over the previous approaches...

  17. A multicriteria prioritization model to support public safety planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Morais Gurgel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Setting out to solve operational problems is a frequent part of decision making on public safety. However, the pillars of tactics and strategy are normally disregarded. Thus, this paper focuses on a strategic issue, namely that of a city prioritizing areasin which there is a degree of occurrences for criminality to increase. A multiple criteria approach is taken. The reason for this is that such a situation is normally analyzed from the perspective of the degree of police occurrences. The proposed model is based on a SMARTS multicriteria method and was applied in a Brazilian City. It combines a multicriteria method and a Monte Carlo Simulation to support an analysis of robustness. As a result, we highlight some differences between the model developed and police occurrences model. It might support differentiated policies for zones, by indicating where there should be strong actions, infrastructure investments, monitoring procedures and others public safety policies.

  18. Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Today's investment decisions in key sectors such as energy, forestry or transport have significant impacts on the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades. Given the economic and environmental long-term implications of capital investment and retirement, a climate mitigation regime should aim to encourage capital investment in climate-friendly technologies. Many factors affect technology choice and the timing of investment, including investor expectations about future prices and policies. Recent international discussions have focused on the importance of providing more certainty about future climate policy stringency. The design of commitment periods can play a role in creating this environment. This paper assesses how the length of commitment periods influences policy uncertainty and investment decisions. In particular, the paper analyses the relationship between commitment period length and near term investment decisions in climate friendly technology.

  19. Whether the Information Investment can Improve the Technology Efficiency of Industrial Listing Corporation%信息技术投资是否提高了工业上市公司的技术效率?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of information technology investments on its technical efficiency of China's Industrial List-ing Corporation between 2000 and 2012 . The panel Stochastic Frontier (PSFA) models and the translog production function , are used to calculated the technical efficiency of listing corporation . Moreover , it analyzed the influence factors of information technology investment on technical efficiency by Panel Data model . Results indicate that information technology investment are not to enhance the efficiency of Indus-trial Listing Corporation . However , enterprise governance , scale , industry , regional and other factors can significantly affect the efficien-cy of technology . This shows that China's Industrial Listing Corporation may be excessive investment in information technology , or did not play its role through effective management . Therefore , at the micro level , the integration of informatization and industrialization is not in-creasing investment in information technology , but to improve the management level , give full play to the role of information technology in-vestment .%本文分析了我国工业上市公司2000~2012年间信息技术投资对其技术效率的影响。采用面板随机前沿(PSFA )模型,通过超越对数生产函数,计算了上市公司的技术效率,并用面板数据模型分析了信息技术投资等因素对技术效率的影响。结果发现信息技术投资并没有给工业上市公司带来效率提升,而企业公司治理、规模、行业、地域等因素却对技术效率具有显著的影响。这说明我国工业上市公司可能存在信息技术投资过度,或者没有通过有效地管理发挥其作用。因此,在微观层面上,信息化与工业化融合并不是不断增加信息技术投资,而是要提高管理水平,充分发挥信息技术投资的作用。

  20. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation’s Investments in Broadening Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education through Research and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sylvia M.; Singer, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been used to increase the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM, including women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. While many are familiar with these long-standing programmatic efforts, BP is also a key component of NSF’s strategic plans, has been highlighted in National Science Board reports, and is the focus of ongoing outreach efforts. The majority of familiar BP programs, such as the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (now 25 years old), are housed in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources. However, fellowship programs such as the Graduate Research Fellowships and Postdoctoral Research Fellowships under the Directorate for Biological Sciences (and parallel directorates in other STEM disciplines) are frequently used to address underrepresentation in STEM disciplines. The FY2016 and FY2017 budget requests incorporate funding for NSF INCLUDES, a new cross-agency BP initiative that will build on prior successes while addressing national BP challenges. NSF INCLUDES invites the use of innovative approaches for taking evidence-based best practices to scale, ushering in a new era in NSF BP advancement. PMID:27587853

  1. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation's Investments in Broadening Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education through Research and Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sylvia M; Singer, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been used to increase the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM, including women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. While many are familiar with these long-standing programmatic efforts, BP is also a key component of NSF's strategic plans, has been highlighted in National Science Board reports, and is the focus of ongoing outreach efforts. The majority of familiar BP programs, such as the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (now 25 years old), are housed in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources. However, fellowship programs such as the Graduate Research Fellowships and Postdoctoral Research Fellowships under the Directorate for Biological Sciences (and parallel directorates in other STEM disciplines) are frequently used to address underrepresentation in STEM disciplines. The FY2016 and FY2017 budget requests incorporate funding for NSF INCLUDES, a new cross-agency BP initiative that will build on prior successes while addressing national BP challenges. NSF INCLUDES invites the use of innovative approaches for taking evidence-based best practices to scale, ushering in a new era in NSF BP advancement.

  2. First Priority, an expert system for prioritizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, G.R.; Hopson, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Prioritizing lists of diverse entities such as projects, tasks, documents, recommendations or physical locations is a necessary part of business at DOE facilities. A key issue is whether or not this necessary and problematic activity of prioritizing is performed in a methodical, defensible and traceable manner, especially when the goals are hard to compare and measure. Sound methods of prioritizing are often not employed because of their complexity or difficulty in implementation. To overcome these problems, WSRC is developing an expert system. First Priority, which will provide individuals or committees a comprehensive process for prioritizing lists of any sort. A set of windows, editors, and pull-down menus guide the user in building and modifying an (inverted) weighted tree structure which represents the goals the prioritization is to advance. The process of building this structure is divided into four stages which are generally followed in order. These stages are: building the goal tree, ordering the goal tree nodes, weighting the goal tree nodes, and designing measurement methods for each leaf node. Based on the resultant structure an evaluation module is generated to evaluate the items of the list. This list is then prioritized and grouped into user-defined categories, taking into account cost or other resources. Additional First Priority tools provide sensitivity analysis, graphical displays of data, and reporting.

  3. First Priority, an expert system for prioritizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, G.R.; Hopson, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    Prioritizing lists of diverse entities such as projects, tasks, documents, recommendations or physical locations is a necessary part of business at DOE facilities. A key issue is whether or not this necessary and problematic activity of prioritizing is performed in a methodical, defensible and traceable manner, especially when the goals are hard to compare and measure. Sound methods of prioritizing are often not employed because of their complexity or difficulty in implementation. To overcome these problems, WSRC is developing an expert system. First Priority, which will provide individuals or committees a comprehensive process for prioritizing lists of any sort. A set of windows, editors, and pull-down menus guide the user in building and modifying an (inverted) weighted tree structure which represents the goals the prioritization is to advance. The process of building this structure is divided into four stages which are generally followed in order. These stages are: building the goal tree, ordering the goal tree nodes, weighting the goal tree nodes, and designing measurement methods for each leaf node. Based on the resultant structure an evaluation module is generated to evaluate the items of the list. This list is then prioritized and grouped into user-defined categories, taking into account cost or other resources. Additional First Priority tools provide sensitivity analysis, graphical displays of data, and reporting.

  4. Environment investment: transition from end-investment to multi-investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Luqiang

    2006-01-01

    Environmental investment must change its direction from end-investment to multi-investment, such as ecological construction, recycling economy and environmental protection. Only it can meet the needs of breaking the bottleneck of resources and environment for Chinese sustainable development. And the transition can help us realize low-cost and high-speedy increasing of economy, as well as the construction of ecological health, beautiful environment, economic development and harmonious new society. Material recycling in ecosystem can run well by self-organization and self-regulation by nature with low-cost and even non-cost. So, the environmental investment in ecological construction should be the profits maximum investment. Butit needs country's support in financial policy on ecological or environmental compensation. Recycling economy is a brand-new pattern ofeconomic growth, which formed gradually in the course of mankind exploring and practicing sustainable development. Fountainhead prevention, reducing and whole processing control are its significant characteristics,which are different from any former economic and environmental protection system. Investing in technology development and relevant industry of recycling economy should be the other major field of environment investment in China in the future.

  5. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  6. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  7. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins technology development programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark; Pham, Thai

    2014-07-01

    NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices, established in 2011, reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The offices serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the programs' technology development activities and technology investment portfolio, funded by NASA's Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program. We currently fund 19 technology advancements to enable future PCOS and COR missions to help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The programs' goal is to promote and support technology development needed to enable missions envisioned by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) Decadal Survey report [1] and the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2]. These include technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and a 4m-class UV/optical telescope to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies, as a post-Hubble observatory with significantly improved sensitivity and capability.

  8. 上市公司的科技投入对公司绩效的贡献度研究%Research on the Contribution of Science and Technology Investment to Company Performance of Listing Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗声明

    2014-01-01

    科技创新是经济发展、社会进步的动力源泉,坚定发展自主创新是我国上市公司提高核心竞争能力的必由之路。本文以科学地评价科技投入对我国上市公司绩效的贡献度为核心研究内容,遴选了 R&D 科技投入和其它科技投入及其派生指标作为科技投入的表征变量,遴选了产品销售收入、净利润、净资产收益率、每股收益率及其增长率作为公司绩效的表征变量,并通过相关分析和回归分析展开了实证分析。实证分析的结论表明,科技投入和我国上市公司绩效之间存在一定的关联,但影响作用并不明显。针对这一实际问题,本文给出了相应的政策建议,以期让科技投入更好地促进上市公司绩效的提升。%Technology innovation is the source of economic development and social progress . Independent innovation is the route which can improve the core competition ability of listing corporation .In this paper ,the contribution of science and technology investment was researched for company performance of listing corporation . R&D investment and other investment have been selected as the variables which can express science and technology investment ,and four variables are also selected to express company performance of listing corpo-ration such as product sales revenue ,net profit , return on net assets ,and earnings per share .Empirical analysis show that there is a cer-tain correlation between science and technology investment and listing corporation performance ,but the effect is not obvious .According to this problem , corresponding policy recommendations have been given in order to make science and technology investment to better promote the listing corporation performance .

  9. The Risk Criteria for Discriminating Technology Innovation Investment Decision Errors of High-tech Enterprises%判别高新技术企业技术创新投资决策错误的风险准则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边云岗; 郭开仲

    2014-01-01

    The technological innovation of high-tech enterprises is a high-risk activity. High-risk means the probability of obtaining high risk gain or suffering large risk loss. Therefore, the correct decision on technological innovation investment is help-ful to maximize the investment income. Through an analysis of the law on technological innovation investment risk-benefit, it is found that an optimal degree of risk and a critical degree of risk exist in the technological innovation investment objectives. For rational decision makers, a risk tolerance interval including the optimal degree of risk should be determined, based on the enterprise's own risk tolerance and business strategy, as a the risk criteria for discriminating technology innovation investment decision errors, and an error function should be created to measure the degree of the investment decision error based on the error-eliminating theory in order to take appropriate remedial measures. Finally, a wrong decision example is analyzed to illustrate the risk criteria is scientific and rational.%高新技术企业的技术创新是一种高风险活动,高风险意味着面临获得高风险收益或遭受高风险损失的可能。因此,正确的技术创新投资决策有利于实现收益的最大化。通过对企业技术创新投资风险收益规律的分析发现,企业技术创新投资客观上存在最佳风险度和临界风险度,认为对于理性的技术创新投资决策者而言,应根据企业自身的风险承担能力和经营战略,确定包括最佳风险度在内的风险容忍区间,作为判别技术创新投资决策错误的风险准则,并通过消错理论中的错误函数度量投资决策错误的程度,以便采取相应的补救措施。最后通过错误投资决策的实例分析,说明了该风险准则的科学性和合理性。

  10. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Wind Energy R&D Program: Impact of Selected Energy Technology Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelsoci, Thomas M. [Delta Research Co., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This benefit-cost analysis focuses on the DOE Wind Energy Program's public sector R&D investments and returns. The analysis accounts for the program's additionality – that is, comparing what has happened as a result of the program to what would have happened without it. The analysis does not address the return on the investments of private companies ("private returns"). Public returns on the program's investments from 1976 to 2008 are identified and analyzed using retrospective analysis.

  11. Outward Foreign Direct Investment from India

    OpenAIRE

    Saikia, Dilip

    2009-01-01

    India has been continually attracting massive foreign investments since the opening up of its economy with a series of liberalization policies in the early 1990s. This inward FDI plays an important role in the Indian economy as a financier of her BOP. However in recent years, India has been fast emerging as an exporter of large foreign direct investment. An increasing number of Indian firms are resorting to outward investment in order to access new technologies, skills and managerial expertis...

  12. China Curbs the Investment in Copper Smelting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>According to a recent document released by the State Development and Reform Commission (SDRC), the investment in copper smelting by China’s enterprises will be put under strict control so as to prevent the blind investment and duplication in copper smelting projects at low technical standard. The document stipulated a series of conditions including equipment, technology, energy consumption and environmental protection.

  13. The Investment Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Is marketing an expense or an investment? Most accountants will claim that marketing is an expense, and clearly that seems true when cutting the checks to fund these efforts. When it is done properly, marketing is the best investment. A key principle to Smart Marketing is the Investment Paradigm. The Investment Paradigm is understanding that every…

  14. Market Power and Investment in Renewable Electricity Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Rune Ramsdal; Misir, Nihat

    while incurring lower investment costs. We additionally find that highly convex investment cost greatly diminishes the impact of market power on the investment decisions. Furthermore, for both the strategic firm and the social planner, fixed baseload generation is preferable during low installed...... approach to evaluate the investment decisions. In our paper we do not only focus on the differences in costs for different technologies but also on the differences in operation of those technologies and how those differences impact the optimal investment decisions. In our model, the one-time investment...... of installed capacity in the market. In the numerical results, we find that the strategic firm tends to invest at a higher demand trigger level and lower capacity compared to the social planner for both the baseload and peakload investment cases. Hence, the strategic firm is expected to invest at a later date...

  15. Illustrating anticipatory life cycle assessment for emerging photovoltaic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ben A; Foley, Rider W; Prado-Lopez, Valentina; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Eisenberg, Daniel A; Hottle, Troy A; Sadowski, Jathan; Flanagan, William P; Fisher, Angela; Laurin, Lise; Bates, Matthew E; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Fraser, Matthew P; Guston, David H

    2014-09-16

    Current research policy and strategy documents recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in research and development (R&D) to guide emerging technologies toward decreased environmental burden. However, existing LCA practices are ill-suited to support these recommendations. Barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. Overcoming these challenges requires methodological advances that help identify environmental opportunities prior to large R&D investments. Such an anticipatory approach to LCA requires synthesis of social, environmental, and technical knowledge beyond the capabilities of current practices. This paper introduces a novel framework for anticipatory LCA that incorporates technology forecasting, risk research, social engagement, and comparative impact assessment, then applies this framework to photovoltaic (PV) technologies. These examples illustrate the potential for anticipatory LCA to prioritize research questions and help guide environmentally responsible innovation of emerging technologies.

  16. Prioritizing dermatoses: rationally selecting guideline topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgonjen, R.J.; Everdingen, J.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Spuls, P.I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guideline (CPG) development starts with selecting appropriate topics, as resources to develop a guideline are limited. However, a standardized method for topic selection is commonly missing and the way different criteria are used to prioritize is not clear. OBJECTIVES:

  17. Prioritizing tests for software fault localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Piel, E.A.B.; Gross, H.-G.; Van Gemund, A.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Paper submitted for review at QSIC'10 Test prioritization techniques select test cases that maximize the confidence on the correctness of the system when the resources for quality assurance (QA) are limited. In the event of a test failing, the fault at the root of the failure has to be localized, a

  18. Prioritizing emerging zoonoses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Havelaar (Arie); F. van Rosse (Floor); C. Bucura (Catalin); M.A. Toetenel (Milou); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); D. Kurowicka (Dorota); A.J.P. Heesterbeek (Hans); N. Speybroeck (Niko); M.F.M. Langelaar (Merel); J.W.B. van der Giessen (Joke); R.M. Cooke (Roger); M.A.H. Braks (Marieta)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. Methodology/Principal Findings: A risk

  19. Prioritizing Emerging Zoonoses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, A.H.; Rosse, F.; Bubura, C.; Toetenel, M.A.; Haagsma, J.A.; Kurowicka, D.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. Methodology/Principal Findings A risk score was based on

  20. Prioritizing emerging zoonoses in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; van Rosse, F.; Bucura, C.; Toetenel, M.A.; Haagsma, J.A.; Kurowicka, D.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073321427; Speybroeck, N.; Langelaar, M.F.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.; Cooke, R.M.; Braks, M.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. A risk score was based on seven criteria, reflecting assessments of

  1. Prioritizing Emerging Zoonoses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, A.H.; Van Rosse, F.; Bucura, C.; Toetenel, M.A.; Haagsma, J.A.; Kurowicka, D.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Speybroeck, N.; Langelaar, M.F.M.; Cooke, R.M.; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. Methodology/Principal Findings: A risk score was based

  2. Behavioral Correlates of Prioritizing Popularity in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Den Broek, Nina; Deutz, Marike H F; Schoneveld, Elke A.; Burk, William J.; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about individual differences in adolescents’ motivation to achieve and maintain popularity. This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the associations between popularity and adjustment outcomes in late adolescence. Participants were 314 Dutch eleventh-g

  3. Prioritizing tests for software fault localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Piel, E.A.B.; Gross, H.-G.; Van Gemund, A.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Paper submitted for review at QSIC'10 Test prioritization techniques select test cases that maximize the confidence on the correctness of the system when the resources for quality assurance (QA) are limited. In the event of a test failing, the fault at the root of the failure has to be localized,

  4. Prioritizing dermatoses: rationally selecting guideline topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgonjen, R.J.; Everdingen, J.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Spuls, P.I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guideline (CPG) development starts with selecting appropriate topics, as resources to develop a guideline are limited. However, a standardized method for topic selection is commonly missing and the way different criteria are used to prioritize is not clear. OBJECTIVES:

  5. 基于大数据技术的金融投资实验室建设探讨%Discussion on Construction of Financial Investment Laboratory Based on Large Data Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂小东; 黄羽中

    2014-01-01

    This article, taking a science and engineering college in Guangzhou as the background, expounds problems and defects existed in the financial investment in colleges and universities under the conditions of the large data and engineering, puts forward how to plan and construct the demonstration laboratory of financial investment and reform traditional teaching pattern of financial investment by hadoop technology and Linux platform technology, thus can make original conceptual teaching into the teaching combining practice and theory to cultivate the students' practical ability. Finally this article expounds the present achievements and future goals of the college.%本文以广州某理工科高校为背景,针对大数据及工科环境下高校金融投资教学存在的不足提出如何通过hadoop技术以及Linux平台对金融投资示范实验室进行建设规划从而将传统的金融投资教学模式进行改革,使原来的概念教学转变为实践与理论并重的教学从而提高了学生的能力。最后本文阐述了学校现阶段取得的成果以及未来的建设目标。

  6. Investment under Uncertain Climate Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of payment probability as an important component of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under uncertain climate policy). In modeling power plant investment decisions, most existing literature uses the expected carbon price (e.g., the price...... actually be faced in the case of a particular investment. This concept helps explain both the surge of activity in 2005–2006 and the subsequent decline in interest in coal-fired power plant development in the U.S. The data for this case study comes from an extensive online survey of 700 U.S. energy...... design better incentives for investing in low-carbon technologies...

  7. Enabling task-based information prioritization via semantic web encodings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, James R.

    2016-05-01

    Modern Soldiers rely upon accurate and actionable information technology to achieve mission objectives. While increasingly rich sensor networks for Areas of Operation (AO) can offer many directions for aiding Soldiers, limitations are imposed by current tactical edge systems on the rate that content can be transmitted. Furthermore, mission tasks will often require very specific sets of information which may easily be drowned out by other content sources. Prior research on Quality and Value of Information (QoI/VoI) has aimed to define ways to prioritize information objects based on their intrinsic attributes (QoI) and perceived value to a consumer (VoI). As part of this effort, established ranking approaches for obtaining Subject Matter Expert (SME) recommendations, such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) have been considered. However, limited work has been done to tie Soldier context - such as descriptions of their mission and tasks - back to intrinsic attributes of information objects. As a first step toward addressing the above challenges, this work introduces an ontology-backed approach - rooted in Semantic Web publication practices - for expressing both AHP decision hierarchies and corresponding SME feedback. Following a short discussion on related QoI/VoI research, an ontology-based data structure is introduced for supporting evaluation of Information Objects, using AHP rankings designed to facilitate information object prioritization. Consistent with alternate AHP approaches, prioritization in this approach is based on pairwise comparisons between Information Objects with respect to established criteria, as well as on pairwise comparison of the criteria to assess their relative importance. The paper concludes with a discussion of both ongoing and future work.

  8. Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Technology Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, B. Thai; Clampin, M.; Werneth, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Program Office was established in FY11 and resides at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The office serves as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters for PCOS Program related matters. We present an overview of the Program’s technology management activities and the Program’s technology development portfolio. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology needs and the Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations. This process improves the transparency and relevance of technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and leverages the technology investments of external organizations by defining a need and a customer. Goals for the PCOS Program envisioned by the National Research Council’s (NRC) “New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics” (NWNH) Decadal Survey report include science missions and technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray, and inflation probe science.

  9. Investment innovation trends: Factor-based investing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Centineo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and current trend among investment practitioners (known also under the notion smart beta. It aims at familiarizing with this investment approach from a practical perspective and highlighting its diversifying benefits in a portfolio context with the potential to outperform the market on risk-adjusted basis.

  10. Investigation into How Managers Justify Investments in IT Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Richmond Ikechukwu

    2012-01-01

    Organization leaders are dependent on information technology for corporate productivity; however, senior managers have expressed concerns about insufficient benefits from information technology investments. The problem researched was to understand how midsized businesses justify investments in information technology infrastructure. The purpose of…

  11. Specialized Investment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Robert S.

    1970-01-01

    The informational needs of the investing public should be met by the public library. Suggestions for specialized investment information services with broad appeal, technical charts, and advisory services which public libraries might consider purchasing. (JS)

  12. Socially Responsible Investing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Stang, Andreas

    This paper analyzes the Scandinavian market for Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) mutual funds in order to determine the returns from discriminatory investment decision compared to the return from conventional portfolios. The analysis is conducted on 642 Scandinavian equity mutual funds...

  13. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  14. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...

  15. Foreign Investment Expanded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paid-in foreign direct investment in China totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year on year Foreign investment in China has continued robust growth despite the new corporate income tax poli- cies. Figures from the National Bureau of Statistics show that paid-in foreign direct investment(FDI)(excluding investment from foreign financial institutions)totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year

  16. R & D STRATEGIC INVESTMENT IN AN ASYMMETRICAL CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minggao XUE; Pu GONG

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes R & D investment decisions in an asymmetrical case. The investment decisions share three important characteristics. First, the investment is completely irreversible. Second,there are two kinds of uncertainties over the future returns from the investment and over technology in R & D process, respectively. Third, there is strategic competition in the asymmetrical case. This article presents the optimal investment threshold values and the optimal investment rule of high-efficient firm (leader), and shows that the investment threshold values are reduced by competition of two firms.Finally, the mixed investment strategies for two firms, the probability that each firm separately exercises the option to invest, and the probability that two firms simultaneously exercise the option are given in the paper.

  17. Why Foreign Direct Investment- Albanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Luçi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among other financial inflows, foreign direct investment makes a major stimulus to economic growth in many developing countries. The ability to deal with two major obstacles, namely, the shortages of financial resources and the lack of technology and skills, has put foreign direct investments in the centre of attention for policy-makers, particularly in developing countries. Albania is committed to maintaining an open environment for investments. This is vital for a long-term and sustainable economic growth. As a lowsavings developing economy, with high domestic investment requirements, Albania needs to attract foreign direct investment in order to support domestic investment financing requirements. However, Albania has not been successful in obtaining substantial and consistent FDI inflows. Furthermore, the meagre inflows that the country has received have not been utilized appropriately to enhance the economic performance. The type of FDI and its structural composition matter as much for economic growth. This paper reviews the recent evidence on the scale of FDI to Albania. The paper reviews also some of the main areas of the existing policy framework for inward FDI in Albania among the major factors determining foreign companies' decisions to invest in Albania. We discuss these issues and try to make the case for a more coherent, harmonized and transparent framework to cover all foreign direct investment into Albania. The regulation of inward investment is one of several policy and institutional variables likely to influence the volume of FDI.

  18. Modeling Sustainment Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    forecast the consequences of various alternatives? Sustainment Investment: the Problem Operations Supplying the fleet, customer support, etc...Modeling Sustainment Investment May 2015 © 2015 Carnegie Mellon University Context We are managing the sustainment of a system. • Some modernization ...Modeling Sustainment Investment May 2015 © 2015 Carnegie Mellon University The process is inside the gray box. Customers are outside. Work input

  19. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins programs manage Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Thronson, Harley; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-07-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" and "Are we alone?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos2 (PCOS), Cosmic Origins3 (COR), and Exoplanet Exploration Program4 (ExEP) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the

  20. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos and Cosmic Origins Technology Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher

    2016-01-01

    The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" and "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) and Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report [1], the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP) [2] as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" [3]. These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the Astrophysics Division's main investment method to mature technologies

  1. Study of technical feasibility and the payback period of the invested capital for the installation of a grid-connected photovoltaic system at the library of the Technological Federal University of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Marin Campos, Ana Katherine Rodríguez Manrique, Bruno Victor Kobiski, Eloy Fassi Casagrande Júnior, Jair Urbanetz Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the technical feasibility, and the payback period of the capital invested to install a Grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV system on the rooftop of the library of the Technological Federal University of Parana (UTFPR, Curitiba campus. The rooftop has 897 square meters, and the photovoltaic modules will be used to supply electricity to four consumption scenarios. It is hoped that with the normative resolution 482 of the National Agency of Electric Energy (ANEEL, published in April 2012, the payback period on the initial investment of the PV system is shorter than when there was no such resolution. It is known that, although the resolution represents a breakthrough for inserting the Grid-connected Photovoltaic power generation, it is still not enough to expand this technology. The high tax of the PV equipment and the absence of incentives for this form of generation still prevent large-scale use. In addition, this article also shows the PV systems installed in Florianópolis (LABSOLAR / UFSC and Curitiba, such as the Green Office (GO, which is situated at the Technological Federal University of Parana.

  2. A methodology for comprehensive strategic planning and program prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczynski, Christopher Michael

    2008-10-01

    This process developed in this work, Strategy Optimization for the Allocation of Resources (SOAR), is a strategic planning methodology based off Integrated Product and Process Development and systems engineering techniques. Utilizing a top down approach, the process starts with the creation of the organization vision and its measures of effectiveness. These measures are prioritized based on their application to external world scenarios which will frame the future. The programs which will be used to accomplish this vision are identified by decomposing the problem. Information is gathered on the programs as to the application, cost, schedule, risk, and other pertinent information. The relationships between the levels of the hierarchy are mapped utilizing subject matter experts. These connections are then utilized to determine the overall benefit of the programs to the vision of the organization. Through a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm a tradespace of potential program portfolios can be created amongst which the decision maker can allocate resources. The information and portfolios are presented to the decision maker through the use of a Decision Support System which collects and visualizes all the data in a single location. This methodology was tested utilizing a science and technology planning exercise conducted by the United States Navy. A thorough decomposition was defined and technology programs identified which had the potential to provide benefit to the vision. The prioritization of the top level capabilities was performed through the use of a rank ordering scheme and a previous naval application was used to demonstrate a cumulative voting scheme. Voting was performed utilizing the Nominal Group Technique to capture the relationships between the levels of the hierarchy. Interrelationships between the technologies were identified and a MOGA was utilized to optimize portfolios with respect to these constraints and information was placed in a DSS. This

  3. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Foreign investment contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.

  4. Business-oriented prioritization: A novel graphical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, R. [Centro de Mineria, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: rpascual@ing.puc.cl; Del Castillo, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 2777, Santiago (Chile); Louit, D. [Komatsu Chile, Av. Americo Vespucio 0631, Quilicura, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Mineria, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Knights, P. [Division of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, 4072 (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    Traditionally, Pareto analysis has been used to select the most critical components and failure modes of a system. A clear disadvantage of this technique is that it requires preselecting a single criterion to establish priorities. More recently, a graphical log-scatter diagram technique has been proposed. It considers three key performance indicators simultaneously: reliability (MTBF), maintainability (MTTR), and unavailability (D). This technique considers only times and does not include economical effects explicitly. This article extends both techniques to explicitly consider both direct and indirect costs to prioritize from the point of view of an asset manager or from a maintenance decision-maker, as required. Due to the economic-based approach of this article, cost discounting is also considered inside financial costs such as-but not limited to-reliability-related investments. Also, the results are displayed on simple and accessible graphs which make them particularly useful for conveying results to non-technical managers. The methodology is illustrated by analyzing a shovel from the copper mine industry, and it clearly shows how the proposed technique facilitates business oriented decisions and how they should change under different market conditions.

  5. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  6. Prioritization: A Means of Achieving Positive Rural Development In Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rural development occupies a priority place in agenda of Nigeria’s national development. However, the gap between scarce and stingy allocation of resources by Governments and rural people’s needs calls for prioritization in the areas of investment with regards to rural development. This paper examined the priority areas for rural development in Nigeria. Data on the needs of rural dwellers were randomly collected in 2006, 2008 and 2010 respectively. The rural dwellers were interviewed in each of the years using questionnaire and oral discussions. The questionnaire centered on rural dwellers needs among many alternatives such as Irrigation Facility, Roads, Markets, Portable Water Supply, Clinics/Hospitals, Electricity, Loan, Schools/Education and farm inputs. Analysis of variance, (ANOVA using the general linear models procedure was used in data analysis. Results show that majority of rural farmers’ needs are in order of preference Potable Water Supply, Roads, Farm Inputs, Loan and Schools/Education. The implication is that future rural development projects and Programs if directed towards these areas will help to accelerate the improvement of rural dwellers welfare and help to reduce the number of rural to urban migrating, resulting in rural stability and integrated rural development.

  7. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...... a complexity results overview for the problem of deciding the winner in the game....

  8. Intelligence Investment of Communist China,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-17

    INTELLIGENCE INVESTMENT OF COMMUNIST CHINA By: Wang Lingling English pages: 51 Source: Chinese Communist Affairs, Vol. 26, Nr. 4, 1983, pp. 35-45...Education Is a necessary channel for the transfer of science and technology to social productive force. Under the prerequisite that "Communist China has...poor understanding of education held by the leaders. The financial income of Communist China was about H)O-120 billion Chinese yuans, (Comment of

  9. High Leverage Technologies for In-Space Assembly of Complex Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Doris; Bowman, Lynn M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Gilman, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In-space assembly (ISA), the ability to build structures in space, has the potential to enable or support a wide range of advanced mission capabilities. Many different individual assembly technologies would be needed in different combinations to serve many mission concepts. The many-to-many relationship between mission needs and technologies makes it difficult to determine exactly which specific technologies should receive priority for development and demonstration. Furthermore, because enabling technologies are still immature, no realistic, near-term design reference mission has been described that would form the basis for flowing down requirements for such development and demonstration. This broad applicability without a single, well-articulated mission makes it difficult to advance the technology all the way to flight readiness. This paper reports on a study that prioritized individual technologies across a broad field of possible missions to determine priority for future technology investment.

  10. Text mining in cancer gene and pathway prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Riedlinger, Gregory; Szolovits, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Prioritization of cancer implicated genes has received growing attention as an effective way to reduce wet lab cost by computational analysis that ranks candidate genes according to the likelihood that experimental verifications will succeed. A multitude of gene prioritization tools have been developed, each integrating different data sources covering gene sequences, differential expressions, function annotations, gene regulations, protein domains, protein interactions, and pathways. This review places existing gene prioritization tools against the backdrop of an integrative Omic hierarchy view toward cancer and focuses on the analysis of their text mining components. We explain the relatively slow progress of text mining in gene prioritization, identify several challenges to current text mining methods, and highlight a few directions where more effective text mining algorithms may improve the overall prioritization task and where prioritizing the pathways may be more desirable than prioritizing only genes.

  11. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...... investment model identified. Implications of the altered investment problem are investigated when the dynamics between portfolio risk, expected return and responsibility is considered. Relying on the definition of a responsible investor, it is shown how superior investment opportunities can emerge when...... standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible...

  12. Real Options Analysis of Electricity Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggedal, Ane Marte

    2012-07-01

    This thesis utilizes real options analysis for evaluating investment opportunities in the electricity sector. It also formally tests how investors in hydropower plants have included uncertainty when considering their investment opportunities. The real options method applies financial options theory to quantify the value of management flexibility and is chosen due to three important characteristics of investments in the electricity sector. First; the investment is completely or partially irreversible, second; the investor can choose when to invest in the facility, and third; there is uncertainty in several factors affecting the cash flows of the investments. Factors of uncertainty include the development of electricity prices, policies, technological advances, and macroeconomics measures.Four papers are included in this thesis. Paper 1, Upgrading hydropower plants with storage: Timing and capacity choice, presents a valuation framework for deciding when to upgrade an existing hydropower plant and which capacity to choose. The second paper, Transmission capacity between Norway and Germany: A real options analysis, sheds light on when two electricity markets, in this case Norway and Germany, should be connected through a sub sea cable. The investor can choose when to invest and the capacity of the cable, and may also choose to invest sequentially. Paper 3, Optimal timing and capacity choice for pumped hydropower storage, investigates when investment in a pumped hydropower plant with storage should be undertaken and what the capacity of the facility should be. Whereas the three first papers investigate investment opportunities, Paper 4, Uncertain climate policy decisions and investment timing: Evidence from small hydropower plants, studies when investors in small hydropower plants chose to invest. The analyses disclose whether the net present value approach or the real options method best describe the investment decisions made by the investors. Viewing investment

  13. Disease Gene Prioritization Using Network and Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Gady; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Xu, Jinbo; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia; Börnigen, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Identifying high-confidence candidate genes that are causative for disease phenotypes, from the large lists of variations produced by high-throughput genomics, can be both time-consuming and costly. The development of novel computational approaches, utilizing existing biological knowledge for the prioritization of such candidate genes, can improve the efficiency and accuracy of the biomedical data analysis. It can also reduce the cost of such studies by avoiding experimental validations of irrelevant candidates. In this study, we address this challenge by proposing a novel gene prioritization approach that ranks promising candidate genes that are likely to be involved in a disease or phenotype under study. This algorithm is based on the modified conditional random field (CRF) model that simultaneously makes use of both gene annotations and gene interactions, while preserving their original representation. We validated our approach on two independent disease benchmark studies by ranking candidate genes using network and feature information. Our results showed both high area under the curve (AUC) value (0.86), and more importantly high partial AUC (pAUC) value (0.1296), and revealed higher accuracy and precision at the top predictions as compared with other well-performed gene prioritization tools, such as Endeavour (AUC-0.82, pAUC-0.083) and PINTA (AUC-0.76, pAUC-0.066). We were able to detect more target genes (9/18/19/27) on top positions (1/5/10/20) compared to Endeavour (3/11/14/23) and PINTA (6/10/13/18). To demonstrate its usability, we applied our method to a case study for the prediction of molecular mechanisms contributing to intellectual disability and autism. Our approach was able to correctly recover genes related to both disorders and provide suggestions for possible additional candidates based on their rankings and functional annotations. PMID:25844670

  14. Explicit criteria for prioritization of cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consensus techniques have been used previously to create explicit criteria to prioritize cataract extraction; however, the appropriateness of the intervention was not included explicitly in previous studies. We developed a prioritization tool for cataract extraction according to the RAND method. Methods Criteria were developed using a modified Delphi panel judgment process. A panel of 11 ophthalmologists was assembled. Ratings were analyzed regarding the level of agreement among panelists. We studied the effect of all variables on the final panel score using general linear and logistic regression models. Priority scoring systems were developed by means of optimal scaling and general linear models. The explicit criteria developed were summarized by means of regression tree analysis. Results Eight variables were considered to create the indications. Of the 310 indications that the panel evaluated, 22.6% were considered high priority, 52.3% intermediate priority, and 25.2% low priority. Agreement was reached for 31.9% of the indications and disagreement for 0.3%. Logistic regression and general linear models showed that the preoperative visual acuity of the cataractous eye, visual function, and anticipated visual acuity postoperatively were the most influential variables. Alternative and simple scoring systems were obtained by optimal scaling and general linear models where the previous variables were also the most important. The decision tree also shows the importance of the previous variables and the appropriateness of the intervention. Conclusion Our results showed acceptable validity as an evaluation and management tool for prioritizing cataract extraction. It also provides easy algorithms for use in clinical practice.

  15. Chemicals Giant Optimistic about Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Fenmei

    2002-01-01

    @@ A top official of the US company Dupont said his business will increase investment in China for new manufacturing projects as well as developments of technology and human resources. Charles Holliday,chairman of Dupont, said the Chinese market is becoming increasingly important for DuPont.Holliday was Dupont's key policy maker for its investment in China during the 1990s, when he served as top executive for the company's AsiaPacific operations.

  16. Prioritization and Ranking Problems Exporting Iranian Saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Askandari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to prioritize and rank problems exporting Iranian saffron. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on issues related to data and information collected from questionnaires, with 816% reliability is used. In this study, the sample of managers and sales and marketing company is exporting Iranian saffron is the sample size of 231 subjects. The results of this study are positive and significant relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables of export performance of export barriers exist.

  17. A decision making model for investment and development of construction panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Azizi; Mohammad Modarres

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to select the best alternative for the development of construction panels as well as investment in its manufacturing in Iran. Three alternatives are considered, cement-bonded wood composite product, substituted products (such as concrete panel)sandwich panel and a mixture of them. We apply the analytic network process (ANP) to achieve this goal. A hierarchy is designed to prioritize benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR) by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) ratings approach. To evaluate the “control criteria” of the system, a control hierarchy is also created and prioritized by applying the Analytic Network Process (ANP). A total of four major control criteria in the system are prioritized where each one controls a decision network evaluated using ANP. The final synthesis of the system shows cement-bonded wood composite product is the best choice among three potential alternatives for the investment and development.

  18. Environmental cost of using poor decision metrics to prioritize environmental projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, David J; Gibson, Fiona L

    2016-04-01

    Conservation decision makers commonly use project-scoring metrics that are inconsistent with theory on optimal ranking of projects. As a result, there may often be a loss of environmental benefits. We estimated the magnitudes of these losses for various metrics that deviate from theory in ways that are common in practice. These metrics included cases where relevant variables were omitted from the benefits metric, project costs were omitted, and benefits were calculated using a faulty functional form. We estimated distributions of parameters from 129 environmental projects from Australia, New Zealand, and Italy for which detailed analyses had been completed previously. The cost of using poor prioritization metrics (in terms of lost environmental values) was often high--up to 80% in the scenarios we examined. The cost in percentage terms was greater when the budget was smaller. The most costly errors were omitting information about environmental values (up to 31% loss of environmental values), omitting project costs (up to 35% loss), omitting the effectiveness of management actions (up to 9% loss), and using a weighted-additive decision metric for variables that should be multiplied (up to 23% loss). The latter 3 are errors that occur commonly in real-world decision metrics, in combination often reducing potential benefits from conservation investments by 30-50%. Uncertainty about parameter values also reduced the benefits from investments in conservation projects but often not by as much as faulty prioritization metrics. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Determinants of Discretionary Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Sujit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have focused on discretionary investments such as research and development (R&D and advertisement as value-creating activities. This empirical research article examines the determinants of the discretionary investment policy of food sector firms in India. The study aims to analyze the impact of financial policies and firm characteristics on the discretionary investment strategy of the food industry firms. The article uses the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM to understand the drivers of discretionary investment policy of food sector firms. The study finds that investment policy of firms is a major determinant of profitability of food sector firms. Higher investments in capital expenditures and working capital result in higher profitability. Management efficiency significantly influences firm profitability. The results suggest that riskier firms in food sector might focus on R&D investments as a strategy to generate more cash flows. Size of firm is negatively related to R&D intensity. Smaller firms in food sector tend to invest more in R&D. The study does not provide evidence to suggest that profitable firms invest more in R&D activities.

  20. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...... to benefit from their personal preferences and to remain rational actors in the financial market....

  1. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible......Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...

  2. Health Technology Assessment and patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mulcahy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA is a process used to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and costeffectiveness of health technologies by a systematic review of clinical, economic, and utilization research.

    Despite widespread investment in patient safety technologies in the U.K., U.S., and elsewhere, little HTA has been done to establish the clinical or cost-effectiveness of these technologies. The HTA and patient safety literature suggests there are four categories of patient safety HTA, including HTA for existing safety technologies, underutilized safety technologies, emerging safety technologies, as well as safety aspects of technologies with a non-safety primary purpose.

    Recent HTA and other research, including a 2002 evidencebased evaluation of patient safety technologies from the U.S. Agency for Health Research and Quality, provide an important foundation for a more comprehensive approach to patient safety HTA. However, HTA programs must address prioritization, methodology, and dissemination challenges introduced by patient safety technologies before significant progress can Te made.

  3. Prioritizing dermatoses: rationally selecting guideline topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonjen, R J; van Everdingen, J J E; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Spuls, Ph I

    2015-08-01

    Clinical practice guideline (CPG) development starts with selecting appropriate topics, as resources to develop a guideline are limited. However, a standardized method for topic selection is commonly missing and the way different criteria are used to prioritize is not clear. To select and prioritize dermatological topics for CPG development and elucidate criteria dermatologists find important in selecting guideline topics. All 410 dermatologists in the Netherlands were asked to create a top 20 of dermatological topics for which a guideline would be desirable, regardless of existing guidelines. They also rated, on a 5-point Likert scale, 10 determinative criteria derived from a combined search in literature and across (inter)national guideline developers. Top 20 topics received scores ranging from 0.01 to 0.2 and combined scores yielded a total score. The 118 surveys (response 29%) identified 157 different topics. Melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are top priority guideline topics. Venous leg ulcer, vasculitis, varicose veins, urticaria, acne, Lyme borreliosis, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, pruritus, syphilis, lymphoedema, decubitus ulcer, hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenic alopecia and bullous pemphigoïd complete the top 20. A further 15 topics have overlapping confidence intervals. Mortality and healthcare costs are regarded as less important criteria in topic selection (P topics. Respondents mostly agree with (inter)national guideline programmes and literature concerning the criteria important to selecting guideline topics. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Prioridades estratégicas em serviços de pós-venda de uma empresa de manufatura de base tecnológica Strategic prioritization in after-sales services in a manufacturing technology center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Afonso Sellitto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi construir uma estrutura de temas estratégicos em serviços de pós-venda de uma empresa de manufatura de base tecnológica. O artigo faz uma revisão sobre operações e estratégia de pós-venda e apresenta a metodologia de pesquisa, o método de trabalho e os resultados de um caso-piloto em uma empresa de fabricação de equipamentos eletrônicos industriais. O método compreendeu sessões de grupos focados com especialistas que construíram uma estrutura de quatro temas estratégicos e vinte e três fatores de competição em pós-venda. A estrutura foi testada em questionário respondido por gestores da operação. Foram indagadas a importância e o desempenho da empresa nos fatores de competição da estrutura. Verificou-se que o fator reparos em bancada ou oficina tem mais desempenho que importância e está sobrevalorizado pela gestão. Também se verificou que os fatores testes acelerados, uso de confiabilidade em projeto e em garantia e uso de sistemas de informação para prospecção e para tratamento de clientes estão subvalorizados e poderiam receber mais recursos em uma eventual reformulação da estratégia de pós-venda. Os outros fatores mostraram-se equilibrados: os desempenhos avaliados são similares às importâncias atribuídas. Na continuidade, a pesquisa será estendida aos distribuidores da empresa que operam em campo a estratégia de pós-venda.This paper aimed at constructing a structure for strategic themes in after-sales services of a manufacturing technology center. After-sales service operations and strategy are reviewed and the research methodology, and the findings of a case study in an industrial electronic equipment manufacturer were presented. The method included team work that together with experts developed a structure composed of four strategic themes and twenty-three after sale competitive factors. The structure was tested by a questionnaire administered to operations managers

  5. Ship to Shore Data Communication and Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Graw – Hill, 2007. Maier, Mark W. and Eberhardt Rechtin. The Art of System Architecting. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2009. Morris, M...Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach. New York, New York: Mc Graw – Hill, 2010. Rognlie, A. B. “An Analysis of Return on Investment of the

  6. PV investment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueser, Pius [Nova Energy GmbH, (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly about how the PV market in Europe has been growing, and which elements are going to determine if this market succeed or failed not only in Europe but also in the rest of the world. In the first part of this presentation, it is mentioned how in 2005 the development of some PV technologies triggered the PV market growth without any marketing control. Then, there are explained the aspects that changed such situation out of control, therefore, it emerged the beginning of the consolidation of this market. There are briefly explained those factors that are going to determine if this market succeed or failed in the future. Finally, there are given examples of some the PV investments. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente de la manera en como ha crecido el Mercado de sistemas fotovoltaicos en Europa, asi tambien se mencionan los elementos fundamentales que determinaran el exito o fracaso de este mercado, no solamente en Europa sino tambien en el resto del mundo, en un futuro. En la primera parte de esta presentacion, se describe como en el 2005, debido al desarrollo de algunas tecnologias fotovoltaicas se desencadeno el crecimiento desenfrenado del mercado fotovoltaico. Despues, se explican los aspectos que hicieron que dicho crecimiento tomara su curso, teniendo como resultado el inicio de un mercado mas consolidado. Se explican brevemente los factores que determinaran si este mercado encuentra el exito o el fracaso en un futuro. Finalmente, se dan ejemplos de algunas adquisiciones fotovoltaicas.

  7. INVESTMENT FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages

  8. Methodology for Prioritization of Investments to Support the Army Energy Strategy for Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Law 109-58]; 10 CFR 433; 10 CFR 435 2 High Performance and Sustainable Building Guidance: i) new construction and major renovations must comply with...and Sustainable Building : EO 13423, sec 2(f), states that design principles must be applied to new and replacement buildings. All agencies must

  9. Indicators of responsible investing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Responsible investment has witnessed significant changes in the past decade. It is estimated that about one fifth of assets under management in the US and about half of all assets under management in the EU are done on the basis of one of the seven responsible investment strategies. This paper discu

  10. Investing in the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THIS month the pretty coastal city of Xiamen is buzzing with African visitors and while they will be taking in the tourist attractions in their spare time,the focus of the visit is the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation,held on the sidelines of China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT).

  11. Investment in Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Operating a financial investment company in an unstable economy is not easy. But the right training at Vanguard ensures satisfied customers. The company made an investment of its own in learning and development that paid off big in 2009. The learning offerings, both innovative and efficient, keep its workers updated on strategies that bring…

  12. Sanitation investments in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y.; Awunyo-Akaba, J.; Gyapong, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district...... with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged...... with local livelihoods and investments in private sanitation in rapidly changing rural and peri-urban communities of Ghana. Sanitation policy makers and programme managers must acknowledge that these profound local, ethnic and economic forces are shaping people’s abilities and motivations for sanitation...

  13. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  14. Supply Chain Coordination of Upstream Technological Innovation Investment under Stochastic Demand%上游企业技术创新的供应链协调机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪莲; 邓峰

    2013-01-01

    A supply chain game model about upstream technological innovation investment to decrease manufacture costs is constructed. The research illustrates that decentralized decision of the manufacturer' s innovation investment cannot coordinate the supply chain. A contract of supply chain coordination based on quantity discount schedule is proposed. The results show that manufacturer can provide infinite quantity discounts for coordination of supply chain. Furthermore, the conditions which are feasible to all supply chain members are pointed out, and an analysis on sharing the after - coordination profits is presented.%在随机需求条件下,建立了上游制造商技术创新投入降低生产成本的供应链博弈模型.研究发现,在分散决策情况下,制造商的创新投入无法达到供应链整体最优,为此提出了使供应链达到协调的数量折扣契约,结果证明这样的数量折扣有无穷多个;进一步指出了该契约可以为各方接受所需的条件,并对供应链协调后的利润分配问题进行探讨.

  15. Investment Lending as a Method Of Investment Projects Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Urvantseva

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the genesis consideration of "investment loan" definition. The author provides comparative characteristics of the main forms of investment projects financing involving credit institution. A generalized definition of the project financing and investment lending essence are suggested.

  16. Investment Lending as a Method Of Investment Projects Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Urvantseva

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the genesis consideration of "investment loan" definition. The author provides comparative characteristics of the main forms of investment projects financing involving credit institution. A generalized definition of the project financing and investment lending essence are suggested.

  17. Editorial Introduction: Prioritizing the Future, Collaborating in the Present, and Archiving the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. McGeary

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This is an exciting time for libraries and technology, and libraries have the opportunity now to build strong collaborations that both preserves our rich history and prioritizes our future. This issue shines a light on a unique blending of priorities old and new, detailed analysis of our past, and creative solutions that enhance the mission of libraries. Libraries big and small have the chance to impact our communities for the better. Come along, it's going to be a great ride.

  18. Prioritization of interventions for strengthening architectural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mehdizadeh Saradj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Architectural heritage is continuously exposed to natural disasters, such as strong earthquakes and this highlights the importance of reducing their vulnerability. While it is not possible to simultaneously strengthen all architectural heritage structures due to the limited skilled labour and budget restrictions, different buildings may need different treatments due to differences in exposure to seismic hazard, relative importance and vulnerability. Therefore, there is a need for a decision making strategy to find optimized solutions to achieve the highest possible stability and benefits. The primary objective of this research is to develop a practical step-by-step decision making process for the planning and prioritization of interventions in architectural heritage structures based on the level of seismic hazard, vulnerability and condition assessment, available preservation and strengthening techniques, compatibility with conservation ethics, available budget and expected benefits in various time schedules. The proposed methodology, is shown by diagram and mathematical formulae, and is demonstrated through a case study example.

  19. Data Partitioning Technique for Improved Video Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Amin Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A compressed video bitstream can be partitioned according to the coding priority of the data, allowing prioritized wireless communication or selective dropping in a congested channel. Known as data partitioning in the H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec, this paper introduces a further sub-partition of one of the H.264/AVC codec’s three data-partitions. Results show a 5 dB improvement in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR through this innovation. In particular, the data partition containing intra-coded residuals is sub-divided into data from: those macroblocks (MBs naturally intra-coded, and those MBs forcibly inserted for non-periodic intra-refresh. Interactive user-to-user video streaming can benefit, as then HTTP adaptive streaming is inappropriate and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC codec is too energy demanding.

  20. Use of a modified Delphi panel to identify and weight criteria for prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, N; Schuepbach-Regula, G; Braam, P; Falzon, L C

    2015-09-01

    Zoonotic diseases have a significant impact on public health globally. To prevent or reduce future zoonotic outbreaks, there is a constant need to invest in research and surveillance programs while updating risk management strategies. However, given the limited resources available, disease prioritization based on the need for their control and surveillance is important. This study was performed to identify and weight disease criteria for the prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Switzerland using a semi-quantitative research method based on expert opinion. Twenty-eight criteria relevant for disease control and surveillance, classified under five domains, were selected following a thorough literature review, and these were evaluated and weighted by seven experts from the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office using a modified Delphi panel. The median scores assigned to each criterion were then used to rank 16 notifiable and/or emerging zoonoses in Switzerland. The experts weighted the majority of the criteria similarly, and the top three criteria were Severity of disease in humans, incidence and prevalence of the disease in humans and treatment in humans. Based on these weightings, the three highest ranked diseases were Avian Influenza, Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis, and Bovine Tuberculosis. Overall, this study provided a preliminary list of criteria relevant for disease prioritization in Switzerland. These were further evaluated in a companion study which involved a quantitative prioritization method and multiple stakeholders.

  1. Making Energy-Efficiency and Productivity Investments in Commercial Buildings: Choice of Investment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    This study examines the decision to invest in buildings and the types of investment decision rules that may be employed to inform the ''go--no go'' decision. There is a range of decision making tools available to help in investment choices, which range from simple rules of thumb such as payback periods, to life-cycle analysis, to decision theoretic approaches. Payback period analysis tends to point toward lower first costs, whereas life-cycle analysis tends to minimize uncertainties over future events that can affect profitability. We conclude that investment models that integrate uncertainty offer better explanations for the behavior that is observed, i.e., people tend to delay investments in technologies that life-cycle analysis finds cost-effective, and these models also lead to an alternative set of policies targeted at reducing of managing uncertainty.

  2. ADAPTIVE CONTENT BASED TEXTUAL INFORMATION SOURCE PRIORITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Mitra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide-web offers a posse of textual information sources which are ready to be utilized for several applications. In fact, given the rapidly evolving nature of online data, there is a real risk of information overload unless we continue to develop and refine techniques to meaningfully segregate these information sources. Specifically, there is a dearth of content-oriented and intelligent techniques which can learn from past search experiences and also adapt to a user’s specific requirements during her current search. In this paper, we tackle the core issue of prioritizing textual information sources on the basis of the relevance of their content to the central theme that a user is currently exploring. We propose a new Source Prioritization Algorithm that adopts an iterative learning approach to assess the proclivity of given information sources towards a set of user-defined seed words in order to prioritise them. The final priorities obtained serve as initial priorities for the next search request. This serves a dual purpose. Firstly, the system learns incrementally from several users’ cumulative search experiences and re-adjusts the source priorities to reflect the acquired knowledge. Secondly, the refreshed source priorities are utilized to direct a user’s current search towards more relevant sources while adapting also to the new set of keywords acquired from that user. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm progressively improves the system’s ability to discern between different sources, even in the presence of several random sources. Further, it is able to scale well to identify the augmented information source when a new enriched information source is generated by clubbing existing ones.

  3. COGNITION ON WORK OF INVESTMENT PROMOTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝华

    2009-01-01

    @@ FIRST CHAPTER As I was working as an investment promotion director for many years in an investment promotion board and an administrative committee of APEC Science and Technology Industrial Zone,Mong with my colleagues,we have developed over 150 joint ventures and WOFEs(wholly Owned Foreign Enterprises).As a result,I am well awflYe of the key issues that foreign Investors need,wish,like and also what they dislike as well,along with the reasons,rationale and the principle guiding them.I'd like to present my cognitions on work of investment promotion through summarizing my working experience and study recognition for these years,and hopefully to create a guide for how to make well-done on investment promotion job on which every regional govemment puts more attention and emphasis for it could assist and accelerate its local economy.

  4. FACTORS DETERMINING THE INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Avtsinov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.In the article we can see relevance of the research aimed at creating a favorable investment climate in the country and its regions, as a necessary condition for solving the problems of modernization of industrial production, the introduction of scientific and technological progress in all spheres of public life, the implementation of large-scale social and productive programs. In the study we justify the theoretical principles and reveal the essence of the relationship concepts: investment climate, investment attractiveness and investment activity. It is proved that the investment attractiveness should be considered as a sign of factorial and important component of the investment climate in the region, and investment activity as a sign score. In the study we can see a wide range of factors shaping favorable conditions for investment activities. The author focuses on the importance of non-traditional factors shaping the investment attractiveness of such as reducing the time to connect to power grid, information communication, improvement of tax reporting procedures, clarity of customs work, the introduction of regulations for obtaining permits for construction of facilities and reducing the number of required documents. This article analyzes of the indices and the key factors of investment attractiveness of the Voronezh region, which attract investment, exceeding the national average. The main ones are the development of new industrial parks with good transport, engineering, business infrastructure. Investors in the region have favorable conditions to carry on business on the prepared sites with painted communications, junctions, allowing them to reduce production costs, while correspondingly increasing the investment attractiveness of the area. Success of the attracting investment in the Voronezh region is largely due to the introduction standard of the executive bodies of state power, including 15 documents designed to make the

  5. Investment Evaluation Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial criteria used for evaluation of the enterprise are not numerous; however, they are causing heated discussion on whether using a criterion at the expense of another. The most utilized financial criteria used in the ranking of investment alternatives are: the net present value criterion, the internal rate of return criterion, the payback period limit criterion and last, but not least, the profitability index criterion. These criteria have in mind, in the first place: \tinvestments impact on enterprise profitableness and results, by recording the future positive cash-flow \tinvestments influence on the balance of an enterprise, traced through the evolution, on one side of the working capital , on the other hand, the size of necessary working capital \tincidence of the investment project on enterprise risk level Therefore, to ensure the best possible decision making, investors must choose of using, and why not, even construction of relevant indicators regarding the opportunity of an investment decision in one alternative or another. It is advisable to take into account a number of principles, which are nothing more than to highlight various aspects of technical analysis of investment projects. As a result, it is preferable not to neglect the value of money in time problem, solved by using dynamic indicators of investment; investment project analysis with reference the binomial risk - profitableness, ensuring that profitableness of an investment is directly proportional to the risk category in which is framed; the basis for the investment decision to materialize with the help of marginal cash flow analysis and, certainly not with the help of paper profits; taking into consideration the fiscal policy of the company; elimination of the inflationary phenomenon in the decision process; targeting of low risk investment projects, because this risk adds to the whole risk of the enterprise etc.

  6. Investment Projects in Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Project of passenger vehicle with annual production capacity 5000 sets of Changchun FAW Passenger Vehicle Co.,Ltd. 1.1 Basic information of project undertaker FAW Passenger Vehicle Co.,Ltd.is a full-funded subsidiary of FAW Group in China and founded on September 30,2002.The company headquarters is located at Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone of Jilin Province with superior investment environment,covering an area of 12.6hm2,with total assets RMB 1.03 billion Yuan.

  7. Prioritizing Test Cases Using Business CriticalityTest Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Khandai; Arup Abhinna Acharya; Durga Prasad Mohapatra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Software maintenance is an important and costly activity of the software development lifecycle. Regression testing is the process of validating modifications introduced in a system during software maintenance. It is very inefficient to re-execute every test case in regression testing for small changes. This issue of retesting of software systems can be handled using a good test case prioritization technique. A prioritization technique schedules the test cases for execution so that the test cases with higher priority executed before lower priority. The objective of test case prioritization is to detect fault as early as possible. Early fault detection can provide a faster feedback generating a scope for debuggers to carry out their task at an early stage. Model Based Prioritization has an edge over Code Based Prioritization techniques. The issue of dynamic changes that occur during the maintenance phase of software development can only be addressed by maintaining statistical data for system models, change models and fault models. In this paper we present a novel approach for test case prioritization by evaluating the Business Criticality Value (BCV of the various functions present in the software using the statistical data. Then according to the business criticality value of various functions present in the change and fault model we prioritize the test cases are prioritized.

  8. Cost-Prioritized Droop Schemes for Autonomous AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two cost-prioritized droop sche- mes for distributed generators (DGs) in a rural or islanded microgrid. Dispatch prioritization of the schemes allows autonomous identification of the appropriate DGs for generation, in accordance to the overall load conditions of the microgrid....

  9. False memory and importance: can we prioritize encoding without consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; McDonough, Ian M; Castel, Alan D

    2013-10-01

    Given the large amount of information that we encounter, we often must prioritize what information we attempt to remember. Although critical for everyday functioning, relatively little research has focused on how people prioritize the encoding of information. Recent research has shown that people can and do selectively remember information assigned with higher, relative to lower, importance. However, the mechanisms underlying this prioritization process and the consequences of these processes are still not well understood. In the present study, we sought to better understand these prioritization processes and whether implementing these processes comes at the cost of memory accuracy, by increasing false memories. We used a modified form of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, in which participants studied DRM lists, with each list paired with low, medium, or high point values. In Experiment 1, encoding higher values led to more false memories than did encoding lower values, possibly because prioritizing information enhanced relational processing among high-value words. In Experiment 2, disrupting relational processing selectively reduced false memories for high-value words. Finally, in Experiment 3, facilitating relational processing selectively increased false memories for low-value words. These findings suggest that while prioritizing information can enhance true memory, this process concomitantly increases false memories. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these prioritization processes depends on the ability to successfully engage in relational processing. Thus, how we prioritize the encoding of incoming information can come at a cost in terms of accurate memory.

  10. Investment in the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学文

    2004-01-01

    As we enter the end of the first economic quarter of 2004, statistics are indicating that by the end the year direct foreign investment will hit an all time high. However, as is often the case, economy and trade is not a one-way-street.This is why this month we take a closer look at Chinese investments abroad.While the footprints of Chinese investment can be discovered without greatdifficulty in America and Europe, CIB this month explores a similar trend emerging in countries such as Thailand, Bangladesh and Africa.

  11. 茂名地区科技投入产出案例分析%A Case Study on Regional Science and Technology Investment Outputs---In the Case of Maoming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杨勋

    2013-01-01

    The situation of regional science and technology development could be reflected objectively by analyzing the rela-tionship between regional technological investment and scientific research achievements. Based on the statistical analysis of the number of S&T personnel、R&D spending、scientific research achievements and etc in 2005—2011, this article had studied the problems existing in the science and technology development of Maoming among the 6 years, and proposed some advices as well.%  分析一个地区的科技投入与科技成果产出之间的关系,能客观地反映该地区的科技发展现状。文章通过对茂名市2005—2011年度科技活动人员、经费投入支出、科技成果产出等的统计分析,探讨了茂名市这6年间在科技发展方面的情况及存在的问题,并提出解决问题的几点建议。

  12. Carbon capture and storage-Investment strategies for the future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammerstorfer, Margarethe, E-mail: margarethe.rammerstorfer@wu-wien.ac.at [Institute for Corporate Finance, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Administration, Heiligenstaedter Strasse 46-48, A - 1190 Vienna (Austria); ENRAG GmbH - Energy Research and Advisory Group, Getreidemarkt 9, A - 1060 Vienna (Austria); Eisl, Roland [ENRAG GmbH - Energy Research and Advisory Group, Getreidemarkt 9, A - 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-11-15

    The following article deals with real options modeling for investing into carbon capture and storage technologies. Herein, we derive two separate models. The first model incorporates a constant convenience yield and dividend for the investment project. In the second model, the convenience yield is allowed to follow a mean reverting process which seems to be more realistic, but also increases the model's complexity. Both frameworks are to be solved numerically. Therefore, we calibrate our model with respect to empirical data and provide insights into the models' sensitivity toward the chosen parameter values. We found that given the recently observable prices for carbon dioxide, an investment into C O2-storage facilities is not profitable. - Highlights: > Real options modeling for investing into carbon capture and storage technologies. > Given the recently observable prices for carbon dioxide, an investment into CO{sub 2}-storage facilities is not profitable. > Investment decision is mainly affected by risk free rate and volatility.

  13. Catering to Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    How a Hong Kong businesswoman became the mainland’s first overseas investor china has been the biggest recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) among developing nations for 16 consecutive years.

  14. China Welcomes Global Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is making an effort to building a fair market to attract overseas investment,China’s vice-premier told the gathering of CEOs in Beijing, adding that the meeting with its influence,will promote global business cooperation.

  15. Heartfelt and Heady Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskeaux, Charlie D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how institutions of higher education are taking a fresh look at socially responsible investing, seeking to grow endowments while taking a stand against unhealthy or unjust corporate practices. (EV)

  16. Placing US Air Force Information Technology Investment Under the "Nanoscope" A Clear Vision of Nanotechnology’s Impact on Computing in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    development. Phase change memory (PCM) should be introduced to the market shortly. Magnetic random access memory ( MRAM ) is available from Freescale...radiation hard, random access memory. Some examples that employ magnetoresistance technology or MRAM exist today. Nantero has produced prototype devices...development. Phase change memory (PCM) should be introduced to the market shortly. 97 Magnetic random access memory ( MRAM ) is available from

  17. Impact of Information Technology (IT Investments on the Cost Efficiency of Indian Private Sector Banks-A Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Surulivel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research study explores the Cost efficiency of Indian Private Sector banks by employing Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA. This paper empirically evaluated the impact of Information Technology (IT on the Cost efficiency of the Indian private sector banks .The present study is based on panel data over the period of 2009-2013. For this study, all the 13 old private sector banks and 7 new private sector banks of India are being considered. This study identifies the average cost efficiency of old private sector banks found to be 94.9% and for new private sector banks 82.6% over the entire period of study. The findings of this study suggest that to some extent IT impact the cost efficiency of Indian private sector banks. Some of Old private sector bank cost inefficiency reduced by 28% for the study period by Information Technology (IT and for New private sector banks cost inefficiency reduced by 11.3% Information Technology (IT. Thus, Information Technology contributes to cost efficiency to both old and new private sector banks.

  18. Invigorating Private Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao set in motion the policies and measures to encourage and guide the sound development of private investment at an executive meeting of the State Council on March 24. While aimed at improving the overall private investment environment, these measures will help promote China’s economic restructuring and maintain its growth momentum, said Sun Lijian,a professor of finance at Fudan University in Shanghai, in an article for Shanghai Securities News.Edited excerpts follow:

  19. Invigorating Private Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao set in motion the policies and measures to encourage and guide the sound development of private investment at an executive meeting of the State Council on March24.While aimed at improving the overall private investment environment,these measures will help promote China's economic restructuring and maintain its growth momentum,said Sun Lijian,a professor of finance at Fudan University in Shanghai,in an article for Shanghai Securities News.

  20. Essays in Infrastructure Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Finkenzeller, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The importance of asset allocation is widely discussed in the academic literature and free of any controversy. It constitutes the essential foundation of investment decisions and is the main determinant of portfolio performance. However, there is no consensus on how much wealth should be allocated on a given asset class, as this depends on numerous variables such as return expectations, risk aversion, macroeconomic circumstances, illiquidity and the specific investment horizon. The original b...

  1. Investing in the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THIS month the pretty coastal city of Xiamen is buzzing with African visitors and while they will be taking in the tourist attractions in their spare time,the focus of the visit is the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation, held on the sidelines of China International Fair for Investment and Trade(CIFIT). Chinese government policymakers and business leaders will be on hand at the

  2. Guiding Overseas Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ In line with China's economic development,a policy introduced earlier this year was meant to optimize the structure of and serve as a guideline in utilizing foreign capital and dircct such investment to China's central and western regions. Now, a new scheme is dem-onstrating the Chinese Government's determi-nation and confidence to further improve the investment environment for foreign capital and enhance its policy initiative.

  3. The Characteristics of Foreign Direct Investments in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pero PETROVIĆ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The international movement of capital takes place in three main forms,namely: international mobility of credit capital, portfolio investments and foreign direct investments. Foreign direct investments(Greenfield investments today are considered as the most desirableform of international capital. They represent such type ofcapital investment in the company through which ownership controlover the company is being acquired. Direct investment of capital canbe made in the existing company(modernization, expansion, etc.abroad,or in the construction of a new capacities("Greenfield investment". In both cases the capital owner decides where to invest capital, how to organize production, takes care of the conditions of placements,the financial results of operations and the like, but alsobears the risk of doing business. Therefore,foreign direct investmentscarry the highest business risk, but also bring the most revenue orprofit.Foreign direct investments(FDIplay a key role in economicdevelopment. When it comes to the exporting countries, export of capital allows increased use of capacities, expansion of markets andnew technology development, and essentially comes down to profit maximization,especially in medium and long term. When it comes toimporting countries, import of capital provides an additional accumulation, transfer of new technologies and know-­‐how without needto purchase a license, higher exports, the ability to finance new investments which affects the growth of employment,income, laborproductivity, increase of budget revenues and other effects. Thepaper analyzes the main characteristics of FDI in Serbia.

  4. Investing in health: the economic case Report of the WISH Investing in Health Forum 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Yamey

    2017-05-01

    -term economic prosperity and growth. Public financing has the benefit of being more efficient and better at controlling costs than private financing and is the only sustainable way to reach UHC. In addition, people put a high economic value on the protection against financial risk that public financing provides. This report addresses three key questions: 1 What is the economic rationale for investing in health?; 2 what is the best way to finance health?, and 3 which interventions should be prioritized?

  5. Cyber Security: A Crisis of Prioritization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — ... The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy then provided a formal charge, asking PITAC members to concentrate their efforts on the focus,...

  6. Japanese investment in Peru: limits of developmental investment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Japanese Investment in Latin America was considerable in the 1960s and 1970s, but the investment never took off in the developmental style as in East Asia. The author examines why Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Peru did not follow the pattern of developmental investment, analyzing the elements involved regarding policies in Peru and particular circumstances in Japan in the 1990 decade.

  7. Analysis of foreign direct investment in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Domesová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign direct investments are joined with the process of world globalisation. Foreign direct investments are carried out especially by multinational companies. The basic forms of the foreign direct investments are “greenfield” investments and “brownfield“ investments in the form of the privatization. The Czech Republic has shown mass inflow of foreign direct investments since 1998. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the inflow of foreign direct investments in the context of the balance of payments and the evaluation their impact on the outside economic equilibrium and gross value added in the Czech Republic. The subject of the analysis is the identification of the most important factors of foreign direct investments inflow and the classification of foreign direct investments inflow from the point of view of branches and technological intensity of production as well. The aim is fulfilled by analysis of selected indicators of the balance of payments, analysis of gross value added and international comparison of foreign direct investments inflow in countries of Visegrad Group. The results show the part of privatization in foreign capital inflow, increasing import intensity and export efficiency linked with foreign direct investments. The results are subject of research focused on the process of world globalisation and regional development.

  8. Optimal Investment Control of Macroeconomic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ke-jie; LIU Chuan-zhe

    2006-01-01

    Economic growth is always accompanied by economic fluctuation. The target of macroeconomic control is to keep a basic balance of economic growth, accelerate the optimization of economic structures and to lead a rapid, sustainable and healthy development of national economies, in order to propel society forward. In order to realize the above goal, investment control must be regarded as the most important policy for economic stability. Readjustment and control of investment includes not only control of aggregate investment, but also structural control which depends on economic-technology relationships between various industries of a national economy. On the basis of the theory of a generalized system, an optimal investment control model for government has been developed. In order to provide a scientific basis for government to formulate a macroeconomic control policy, the model investigates the balance of total supply and aggregate demand through an adjustment in investment decisions realizes a sustainable and stable growth of the national economy. The optimal investment decision function proposed by this study has a unique and specific expression, high regulating precision and computable characteristics.

  9. Investing in river health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J

    2002-01-01

    Rivers provide society with numerous returns. These relate to both the passive and extractive uses of the resources embodied in river environments. Some returns are manifest in the form of financial gains whilst others are non-monetary. For instance, rivers are a source of monetary income for those who harvest their fish. The water flowing in rivers is extracted for drinking and to water crops and livestock that in turn yield monetary profits. However, rivers are also the source of non-monetary values arising from biological diversity. People who use them for recreation (picnicking, swimming, boating) also receive non-monetary returns. The use of rivers to yield these returns has had negative consequences. With extraction for financial return has come diminished water quantity and quality. The result has been a diminished capacity of rivers to yield (non-extractive) environmental returns and to continue to provide extractive values. A river is like any other asset. With use, the value of an asset depreciates because its productivity declines. In order to maintain the productive capacity of their assets, managers put aside from their profits depreciation reserves that can be invested in the repair or replacement of those assets. Society now faces a situation in which its river assets have depreciated in terms of their capacity to provide monetary and non-monetary returns. An investment in river "repair" is required. But, investment means that society gives up something now in order to achieve some benefit in the future. Society thus has to grapple wih the choice between investing in river health and other investments--such as in hospitals, schools, defence etc. - as well as between investing in river health and current consumption--such as on clothes, food, cars etc. A commonly used aid for investment decision making in the public sector is benefit cost analysis. However, its usefulness in tackling the river investment problem is restricted because it requires all

  10. Let's Spur Recovery by Investing in Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Charles B.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1990s, the Internet and digital technologies brought astonishing gains in worker productivity and national prosperity. Today, people can leverage that investment and buoy economic recovery by hiring people to move the collections of libraries and cultural-memory organizations--the raw material of the information age--to the Web. Investing…

  11. Enrollment Management as a Portfolio Investment Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an information technology model designed to enable the consideration of enrollment management decisions in a portfolio context. Annual enrollment management decisions represent an important investment in a college's reputation. While the short run imperative to fill each incoming class is important, the long run implications of each…

  12. Optimal Diversity in Investments with Recombinant Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.; Zeppini-Rossi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We address the notion of dynamic, endogenous diversity and its role in theories of investment and technological innovation. We develop a formal model of an innovation arising from the combination of two existing modules with the objective to optimize the net benefits of diversity. The model takes

  13. Optimal diversity in investments with recombinant innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeppini-Rossi, P.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of dynamic, endogenous diversity and its role in theories of investment and technological innovation is addressed. We develop a formal model of an innovation arising from the combination of two existing modules with the objective to optimize the net benefits of diversity. The model takes

  14. Optimal diversity in investments with recombinant innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeppini, P.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The notion of dynamic, endogenous diversity and its role in theories of investment and technological innovation is addressed. We develop a formal model of an innovation arising from the combination of two existing modules, with the objective to optimize the net benefits of diversity. The model takes

  15. Prioritizing emerging zoonoses in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie H Havelaar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A risk score was based on seven criteria, reflecting assessments of the epidemiology and impact of these pathogens on society. Criteria were weighed, based on the preferences of a panel of judges with a background in infectious disease control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pathogens with the highest risk for the Netherlands included pathogens in the livestock reservoir with a high actual human disease burden (e.g. Campylobacter spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Coxiella burnetii or a low current but higher historic burden (e.g. Mycobacterium bovis, rare zoonotic pathogens in domestic animals with severe disease manifestations in humans (e.g. BSE prion, Capnocytophaga canimorsus as well as arthropod-borne and wildlife associated pathogens which may pose a severe risk in future (e.g. Japanese encephalitis virus and West-Nile virus. These agents are key targets for development of early warning and surveillance.

  16. Bug Prioritization to Facilitate Bug Report Triage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaweria Kanwal; Onaiza Maqbool

    2012-01-01

    The large number of new bug reports received in bug repositories of software systems makes their management a challenging task.Handling these reports manually is time consuming,and often results in delaying the resolution of important bugs. To address this issue,a recommender may be developed which automatically prioritizes the new bug reports.In this paper,we propose and evaluate a classification based approach to build such a recommender.We use the Na(ǐ)ve Bayes and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers,and present a comparison to evaluate which classifier performs better in terms of accuracy.Since a bug report contains both categorical and text features,another evaluation we perform is to determine the combination of features that better determines the priority of a bug.To evaluate the bug priority recommender,we use precision and recall measures and also propose two new measures,Nearest False Negatives (NFN) and Nearest False Positives (NFP),which provide insight into the results produced by precision and recall.Our findings are that the results of SVM are better than the Na(ǐ)ve Bayes algorithm for text features,whereas for categorical features,Na(ǐ)ve Bayes performance is better than SVM.The highest accurácy is achieved with SVM when categorical and text features are combined for training.

  17. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  18. Prioritized System Science Targets for Heliophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James Frederick; Christensen, Andrew B.; SaintCyr, Orville Chris; Posner, Arik; Giles, Barbara L.

    2009-01-01

    Heliophysics is a discipline that investigates the science at work from the interface of Earth and space, to the core of the Sun, and to the outer edge of our solar system. This solar-interplanetary-planetary system is vast and inherently coupled on many spatial, temporal and energy scales. The Sun's explosive energy output creates complicated field and plasma structures that when coupled with our terrestrial magnetized space, generates an extraordinary complex environment that has practical implications for humanity as we are becoming increasingly dependent on space-based assets. This immense volume of our cosmic neighborhood is the domain of heliophysics. Understanding this domain and the dominant mechanisms that control the transfer of mass and energy requires a system approach that addresses all aspects and regions of the system. The 2009 NASA Heliophysics Roadmap presents a science-focused strategic approach to advance the goal of heliophysics: why does the Sun vary; how do the Earth and heliosphere respond; and what are the impacts on humanity? This talk will present the top 6 prioritized science targets to understand the coupled heliophysics system as presented in the 2009 NASA Heliophysics Roadmap. An exposition of each science target and how it addresses outstanding questions in heliophysics will be discussed.

  19. Impact of Outward Foreign Direct Investment in the export structure upgrading technology%对外直接投资对出口技术复杂度的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫莎; 李玲

    2015-01-01

    Technical structure of export quality has a significant impact on the quality of a country’s foreign trade.The introduction of OFDI in the theoretical model Metilz,analysis of its impact on the technical structure of exports,Using the modified method of net exports technical complexity estimates the structure of export technology,and empirical test of the impact of 29 provinces 2002—2008 OFDI impact on exports technology structure.OFDI by reverse technology spillover ways to re-duce transition costs of export enterprises,optimize the industrial structure of the country,so as to promote the export of technology to upgrade the structure.Excluding the impact of processing trade,Compared to FDI and import trade,OFDI role in promoting the export of more significant technical structure.In addition,Impact of physical capital per capita and R&D investment is positive,and the role of human capital and institutional factors is negative,strengthen investment in education,accelerate institutional change helps to reduce the negative impact of human capital and institutional factors on the export of technical structures.Furthermore,empirical tests show that sub -region,the level of foreign investment in Midwest is not high,thus affecting the technical structure of exports is also not clear the eastern region.%出口技术结构对一国的对外贸易质量有着重要影响。将对外直接投资引入 Metilz 理论模型,分析其对出口技术结构的影响,利用修正的出口技术复杂度对出口技术结构进行测算,并实证检验我国29个省市2002—2008年 OFDI对出口技术结构的影响。结果表明:OFDI 通过逆向技术溢出途径降低出口企业的转型成本,优化国内的产业结构,从而促进出口技术结构的升级。剔除了加工贸易的影响后,相比 FDI 和进口贸易,OFDI 对出口技术结构的促进作用更显著。此外,人均物质资本与研发投入的影响为正,而人力资本与制度

  20. Assessment and Quantization of Risks of Technology Sourcing Outward Foreign Direct Investment of Chinese Enterprises%中国企业技术获取型对外直接投资风险量化与评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘素昆; 代丽

    2014-01-01

    为了更好的防范技术获取型对外直接投资的风险,本文在考量政治风险、经济风险和文化风险的基础上,结合技术获取型对外直接投资的特点,加入技术风险指标,对中国企业技术获取型对外直接投资风险进行量化与评估。首先,采用主成分分析法量化风险;然后,通过聚类分析法评估风险等级。实证研究结果表明:2003~2011年期间,20个样本国家中,低风险国家都是发达国家;中等风险国家有4个,其中只有1个是发展中国家;高风险国家全都是发展中国家,包括印度、南非、墨西哥、巴西和俄罗斯;2008年后,多数发展中国家的风险在不断改善,但很多发达国家的风险却逐渐上升。因此,中国企业应针对不同东道国的风险变化特点,采取措施规避风险。%〔Abstract〕 In order to help Chinese enterprises to avoid risks of technology sourcing outward foreign direct investment , the authors make a quantitative assessment of risks of technology sourcing outward foreign direct investment in this paper . On the basis of assessment of political risks , economic risks and cultural risks , the authors added index of technological risks according to characteristics of technology sourcing outward foreign direct investment . At first , they use principal components analysis to qualify risks . Then , they make an assess-ment of risks through cluster analysis . The empirical results show that risks of developed countries among all of the 20 sample countries is low during the period from 2003 to 2011 . There are four medium risk countries , but only one is developing country . Risks of all develop-ing sample countries are high . Developing sample countries include India , South Africa , Mexico , Brazil and Russia in this paper . How-ever , risks of most developing countries are becoming lower after 2008 . Risks of many developed countries are on the contrary . Therefore

  1. Causality relations between foreign direct investment and portfolio investment volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Gozgor, Giray; Erzurumlu, Yaman O.

    2010-01-01

    Following the liberalization of financial markets, Goldstein and Razin (2006) show that there is an information based trade-off between foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment, our paper examines the causality relations between foreign direct investment and volatility of foreign portfolio investment. Utilizing monthly and quarterly data set of Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and Turkey, volatility of portfolio investments, which indicated evidence of ARCH effects for all fou...

  2. Analysis on the Utilization of Foreign Investment and Technology Transfer in China Automobile Industry%我国汽车工业利用外资和技术转移的分析与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬武; 刘勇

    2012-01-01

    汽车工业的发展对我国事关重要.在我国的汽车工业发展过程中,外资起到重要作用.通过对汽车工业发展历程的总结,分析我国汽车工业在利用外资和技术引进中的正面和负面影响,提出我国汽车工业利用外资的相关政策性建议,包括:加强政府宏观管理,完善相关市场法规;对自主品牌给予大力扶持,尤其是对于民营自主品牌;鼓励发展外向型经济,支持汽车和零部件的出口;弘扬民族精神,给民族品牌营造良好的消费环境等.%Automobile manufacturing is a vital industry in China. Foreign investment has made huge contributions in China automobile industry development. This research sifts through the history of China automobile industry and analyzes positive as well as negative influences of the introduction of foreign investment and technologies in industry. It then discusses policy implications in this area, including enhancing governmental regulation in terms of making market rules and policies better, encouraging domestic brands - especially those owned by domestic private companies, promoting export - oriented car and car parts manufacturing and active PR campaign for domestic brands.

  3. Requirements Prioritization: Challenges and Techniques for Quality Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullah Awais

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Every organization is aware of the consequences and importance of requirements for the development of quality software product whether local or global. Requirement engineering phase of development with focus on the prioritization of requirements is going under huge research every day because in any development methodology, all requirements cannot be implemented at same time so requirements are prioritized to be implemented to give solution as early as possible in phases as scheduled in incremental fashion. Numerous frameworks and practices have been devised, in progress and some being discovered day by day. With such huge knowledge database and research available, it has always been confusing to decide which technique to follow to gain maximum results. Thus many projects fail because of the wrong choice in requirement prioritization because it’s really difficult to employ right technique and framework at right time. And problems do not end here rather due to strict deadlines, it’s often best to develop system in parts by different team members dispersed globally with diverse methodologies and differences and in this situation it becomes more difficult to prioritize requirements. Main focus would be on ETVX based prioritization [1] for in house development and requirement prioritization of software developed globally by diverse team members [2]. This paper will try to provide an overview of different prioritization techniques for software requirement, and a critical analysis of ETVX based model will be presented to highlight issues and challenges in this proposed model of requirement prioritization in [1] and improved version of this model will be presented while an analysis of requirement prioritization for software developed in global environment [2] also be presented.

  4. Foreign direct investment and urban concentrations: unbundling spatial lags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelhekke, S.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2009-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is seen as a way to import technology and catch up with economic leaders. It is therefore important to understand why some countries attract more investments by multinationals than others. We expand the set of common determinants of FDI with urban agglomerations and a

  5. Return on Investment for Workplace Training: The Canadian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Jennifer C.; Cozzarin, Brian P.; Formaneck, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    One of the central problems in managing technological change and maintaining a competitive advantage in business is improving the skills of the workforce through investment in human capital and a variety of training practices. This paper explores the evidence on the impact of training investment on productivity in 14 Canadian industries from 1999…

  6. Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-15

    foreigners acquire existing U.S. firms and those in which foreigners establish new firms — termed “ greenfield ” investments. New investments are often...proven technologies or techniques they have successfully transferred to the United States. Small foreign ventures , experimenting with unproven

  7. 价格与技术不确定条件下的发电商碳捕获投资模型及分析%The Power Producer's Carbon Capture Investment Model and its Analysis under Price and Technology Uncertainties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新华; 叶泽; 李薇

    2012-01-01

    In the 21st century, the emissions of greenhouse gases has brought serious threats to human being's living environment. This growing concern has made carbon emission reduction an important topic in the international community. Because the energy industry is the main producer of carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) , understanding its carbon emission reduction strategy is of prime importance in the sustainable movement. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) investment is a major research field about carbon emission in power producers. This research area contains many uncertainties, such as technology uncertainty, carbon trade price uncertainty and the equilibrium uncertainty of power transaction market. At present, most literatures model the carbon capturing investment as an irreversible investment problem based on the real option theory, and generally consider only one kind of uncertainty. This paper presents an oligopoly power producer's carbon capture investment model under CCS technology uncertainty and carbon trade price uncertainty, and investigates the impact of relevant parameters and policy-related investment subsidy on investment threshold based on the analysis and numerical simulation of the model. Recent literatures on carbon trade price in Europe show that CO2 trade price follows the Geometric Brownian motion. Based on the findings of these literatures, this paper assumes that CCS technology follows the Poisson process, presents an oligopoly power producer's CCS investment value function, and obtains two variables partial differential equations with Bellman equation and Ito's Lemma. By defining a new stochastic variable based on the ratio of carbon trade price to CCS investment triggered by CCS technology progress, we can obtain the analytic solutions of the investment value function. In addition, based on the value matching and smooth pasting conditions of the real option theory, we can obtain the oligopoly power producer's CCS investment threshold conditions; invest

  8. Holistic Physical Risk and Crises Prioritization Approaches to Solve Cyber Defense Conundrums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Oboni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade the techniques and tools of cyber attacks have become more sophisticated, the distinctions between actors and threats have become blurred and attack prospects more worrying. The informational threat can hit any type of civilian or military controls, fixed or mobile infrastructures, putting them down or greatly reducing their service capabilities with direct and indirect physical / economic impacts from tactical or local scale to strategic / national and international level. It has been shown that broad spectrum protection investments and particularly poorly prioritized ones are not efficient as oftentimes they are limited in scope by other operational requirements. So it is simply not possible to protect each property from each threat. The cyberdefense must be rooted on intelligence based on prioritized Risk Management and not on standardized audits and practice of indolent regulations, written a priori, or the biased advice of fear monger solutions sellers. RM offers ultimately support for operational decisions and protection (mitigation, provided that we want to define the level of acceptable risk reduction /mitigation and that we formulate measurable performance targets to achieve .

  9. 我国对外直接投资的逆向技术外溢效应研究%A Research on the Technological Spillovers Effects of China's Outward Direct Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇怡; 吴建军

    2012-01-01

    本文选取我国对外直接投资比较集中且技术水平比较发达的九个国家(地区),利用我国和九国(地区)对外直接投资与技术创新的投入产出数据,测算我国的全要素生产率、母国和东道国的研发资本存量,实证分析了我国直接投资到这些国家(地区)所产生的逆向技术外溢程度。研究结果表明,我国通过对外直接投资渠道获得的国外研发资本存量能给母国带来正的技术外溢效应,只是由于我国对外直接投资相对吸引外资而言发展缓慢,因而其技术外溢效应相对较低。%In an opening economy, how China makes use of various techno- logical spillovers channels to get advanced technology abroad and improves its di- gestion, absorption, and re-innovation capability already becomes an important is- sue for building an innovation-oriented country. This paper analyzes the reverse technological spillover mechanism of home country through Outward Direct Invest- ment. It selects nine countries (regions) which are more concentrated of China' s ODI and have advanced technology, and analyzes the reverse technology spill- over effect of China's ODI by estimating China's total factor productivity and the home and host countries R&D capital stock on the basis of relevant data of China and nine countries (regions) . The empirical results show that there are positive technological spillovers effects of foreign R&D capital stocks through China's ODI in the home country. The technological spillovers effects are rela- tively low since the development of China's ODI is slower than FDI.

  10. 基于实物期权方法的新兴技术项目投资时机和投资规模选择%Analysis firm's optimal investing time and scale of emerging technology based on the real option approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁皓; 张宗益

    2012-01-01

    以新兴技术项目投资为背景,修改了实物期权理论中投资机会永生和资产价格随机游走的假设,建立了新兴技术项目的实物期权定价模型,给出了新兴技术项目最佳投资时机和投资规模的表达式,并以此为基础进一步探讨了风险和投资时限对投资时机和投资规模的影响规律,最后通过数值算例验证了结论并指出了影响程度的变动规律.研究结果表明:对投资有时限的新兴技术项目来说,风险的增加会导致投资时机呈现出先提前再延迟的趋势、投资规模呈现出先递减再递增的趋势;投资时限的增加会导致投资时机提前,但对投资规模并无影响.%This paper relaxes the assumptions of infinitely expiration of investing options and random walk of prices in standard real option based on the analysis of emerging technology investment projects. A real option model has been established to value the emerging technology project, and the optimal investing time and the optimal capacity have been provided to discuss the effect of risk and expiration. Using a numerical example, the conclusions are validated and an analysis about degree of influence is presented. The results show that: to the emerging technology project which has finitely expiration, for low levels of risk an increase in risk accelerate the investment time and decrease the capacity of investment, while for high levels of risk an increase in risk delay the investment time and increase the capacity of investment. In addition, an increase in the expiration time can accelerate the investment time, while has no effect on the capacity of investment.

  11. Investing in SADC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2011-01-01

    @@ "Cihina is willing to in-crease the imports from the SADC, encourage enterprises with strength and good reputation to invest in SADC countries.Both sides should further strengthen cooperation in economy and trade, investment, finance, energy resources, infrastructure and other fields, to realize mutual benefits and the win-win," said Chinese vice premier Wang Qishan recently on the opening ceremony for China and Southern African Development Community (SADC) Economic and Trade Forum. This is the first time for China, the largest trade partner of SADC, to hold a forum for entrepreneurs and investors from both sides in Beijing and investors, aiming at further promoting the trade and investment.Chinese vice Premier Wang Qishan and Pohamba, rotating chairman of SADC and president of Namibia, attended the ceremony and made speeches.Under the witness of Wang and Pohamba, CCPIT and the secretariat of SADC signed cooperation documents.

  12. Irreversible investments revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein I.; Hoff, Ayoe

    2007-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, non-linear dynamic model in continuous time is presented for the purpose of finding the optimal combination of exploitation and capital investment in optimal renewable resource management. Non-malleability of capital is incorporated in the model through an asymmetric cost......-function of investment, and investments can be both positive and negative. Exploitation is controlled through the utilisation rate of available capital. A novel feature in this model is that there are costs associated with the available capital whether it is utilised or not. And, in contrast to most of the previous...... literature, the state variables, namely the physical capital and the biological resource, enter the objective function. Due to the nonlinearities in this model some of the results are in sharp contrast to previous literature....

  13. On Imprecise Investment Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Krzysztof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The return rate is considered here as a fuzzy probabilistic set. Then the expected return is obtained as a fuzzy subset in the real line. This result is a theoretical foundation for new investment strategies. All considered strategies result of comparison profit fuzzy index and limit value. In this way we obtain an imprecise investment recommendation. Financial equilibrium criteria are a special case of comparison of the profit index and the limit value. The following criteria are generalized here: the Sharpe's Ratio, the Jensen's Alpha and the Treynor's Ratio. Moreover, the safety-first criteria are generalized here for the fuzzy case. The Roy Criterion, the Kataoka Criterion and the Telser Criterion are also generalized. Obtained results show that proposed theory is useful for the investment applications.

  14. Suggestion from NADC for China Overseas Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the primary statistics,till the end of 2008,non-financial investments from China totaled US$140 billion or so,involving 170 countries and regions in the world.Through investments and coooeration,Chinese companies extend their operations into global market,diversify their business and improve the level and technology and management,and also the international competitive ability.Meanwhile,they contribute to local economic development by bringing job positions and taxes,and boosting the construction of infrastructure like education,sanitation,transportation and so on.

  15. Optimization of the investment casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martinez-Hernandez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping is an important technique for manufacturing. This work refers to the manufacture of hollow patterns made of polymeric materials by rapid prototyping technologies for its use in the preparation of ceramic molds in the investment casting process. This work is focused on the development of a process for manufacturing patterns different from those that currently exist due to its hollow interior design, allowing its direct use in the fabrication of ceramic molds; avoiding cracking and fracture during the investment casting process, which is an important process for the foundry industry.

  16. 对熔模铸造现行制壳工艺的改进和讨论%Improvement and Discussion on Current Shell Moulding Technology of Investment Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄炳荣; 景宗梁

    2012-01-01

    Silicon sol shell moulding technology with medium-temperature pattern material is the main technology in production of investment castings at home and abroad. However, production cycle of this technology is too long, and casting defects often occur due to the surface defects of shell mold. Some measures were adopted, such as adding anti-cracking agent to the surface slurry, drying the surface layer by strong wind, using big size colloidal particle in surface slurry, cancelling the prewetting before coating second layer, cancelling coating of the silicon sol before the surface coating. The results show that the surface strength of shell mold is increased, defects on the surface of shell mold are decreased, drying time of coating is shortened, and the qualified rate of the castings is increased.%中温模料硅溶胶制壳工艺是目前国内外用于精密铸件生产的主流工艺.然而此工艺的制壳生产周期长,而且存在因面层型壳缺陷导致铸件缺陷的问题.采用了面层浆料加入防裂剂、面层大风力干燥、面层采用大粒径硅溶胶、取消涂二层前预湿、取消涂面层前沾硅溶胶的工艺举措.结果表明,面层型壳的强度得到了提高,面层型壳的缺陷减少,涂层干燥时间缩短,铸件一次性合格率增大.

  17. An Invasive Plant Inventory and Early Detection Prioritization Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2010-2013, Utah State University partnered with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to conduct invasive plant prioritization workshops and inventories on...

  18. Points to consider for prioritizing clinical genetic testing services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Franziska; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    of prioritization criteria would be desirable. A decision process following the accountability for reasonableness framework was undertaken, including a multidisciplinary EuroGentest/PPPC-ESHG workshop to develop shared prioritization criteria. Resources are currently too limited to fund all the beneficial genetic......Given the cost constraints of the European health-care systems, criteria are needed to decide which genetic services to fund from the public budgets, if not all can be covered. To ensure that high-priority services are available equitably within and across the European countries, a shared set...... testing services available in the next decade. Ethically and economically reflected prioritization criteria are needed. Prioritization should be based on considerations of medical benefit, health need and costs. Medical benefit includes evidence of benefit in terms of clinical benefit, benefit...

  19. a comparative study of prioritized handoff schemes with guard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    These performance metrics are computed by using the analytical expressions developed for these the analytical expressions .... generic prioritization schemes have been proposed. .... dynamic channel allocation (DCA) strategy. The modified ...

  20. Habitat inventory for prioritized management on Madison WMD

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on a project at Madison Wetland Management District to implement a standardized decision making tool developed to prioritize Waterfowl Production Area's...

  1. Using farmer-prioritized vertisol management options for enhanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using farmer-prioritized vertisol management options for enhanced green gram ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... soil management options needed to be instituted) it was at the marketing stage that this force was directed.

  2. 基于RFID技术的零售型供应链投资决策研究%Investment Decision-Making in Retail Supply Chain with RFID Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范体军; 张丽; 李琳; 徐燕翼

    2013-01-01

    This paper conducts a research on RFID technology investment decision-making in a two-level retail supply chain suffering from inventory misplacement and shrinkage.The models of the supply chain with and without RFID technology are constructed and analyzed,in which buy back contracts are introduced to realize supply chain Pareto dominance.Then the cost threshold at which RFID adoption becomes profitable for both partners in retail supply chain is obtained.The results show that buy back contracts can coordinate the supply chain under implementation of RFID.And the higher production costs and inventory costs of commodities,the higher misplacement rate and shrinkage rate,the willingness of supply chain enterprises to invest in RFID will be stronger.%基于报童模型,同时考虑零售型供应链中的商品错放和损耗引起的库存不准确,从供应链协调的角度研究了RFID技术投资决策问题.首先,构建并对比投资RFID技术前后2种情形下的供应链利润模型,分别设计回购契约对分散型供应链进行协调;然后,通过对2种情形下协调前后的供应链各方利润的对比和分析,得出了RFID技术的投资决策条件,为供应链中相关企业实施RFID技术提供了相应的参考.结果表明:采用RFID技术后回购契约可以实现供应链的协调;商品的单位生产成本和库存成本越高,商品错放率和损耗率越高,供应链企业投资RFID的意愿越强.

  3. Guiding Overseas Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Detailed tasks have been assigned to different government departments to attract and utilize foreign capital In line with China’s economic development,a policy introduced earlier this year was meant to optimize the structure of and serve as a guideline in utilizing foreign capital and direct such investment to China’s central and western regions. Now,a new scheme is demonstrating the Chinese Government’s determination and confidence to further improve the investment environment for foreign capital and enhance its policy initiative.

  4. Real estate investment dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is motivated by the steadily increasing interest in the dynamic relationship between the macro-economy and the real estate sector. One of the main issues in this respect is to study the investment dynamics. Since the bursting of the U.S. housing bubble in 2006 is identified as the point of origin of the so called subprime crises, which led to the collapse of the U.S. financial system, the dynamics of real estate investments is of particular interest. In the first part of my the...

  5. National Nanotechnology Initiative Investments by Agency and Program Component Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — Data represents National Nanotechnology Initiative investments by agency and program component area (PCA) from FY 2001 through FY 2010 (requested). While this data...

  6. Expanding educational access and opportunities: The globalization and foreign direct investment of multinational corporations and their influence on STEM, project-based learning and the national science and technology fair in schools in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Joaquin G.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the influence of globalization and the foreign direct investment (FDI) of multinational corporations (MNCs) on the curriculum in schools in Costa Rica. The study focused primarily on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Project-Based Learning (PBL), 21st century skills, and the national science and technology fair. The high influx of MNCs such as Intel has changed the global and educational culture of the country increasing the number of knowledge-based workers in Costa Rica. As a result, policy changes have been instituted in education to mirror the demands of sustaining the country's global economy. This study was supported by the creation of three research questions that would attempt to answer 1) the extent that teachers implementing STEM curriculum trace their practices back to policy, globalization, and multinational corporations as well as the extent to which the economic growth of Costa Rica and STEM education are related, 2) how mandating the national science and technology fair has influenced 21st century skills through project-based learning and the use of technology by teachers and its impact on curriculum and instruction, and 3) how has the national science and technology fair policy changed the value of STEM education for students, teachers, and educational leaders. To further understand the outcome of this study, four theoretical frameworks were applied that included, Spring's theory of world educational culture, Friedman's world flatteners, Wagner's 21st century skills and partnerships for 21st century skills, and Slough and Milam's STEM project-based learning theoretical framework. Each framework was applied to support the changes to the educational system; survival skills necessary to compete in the global job market; application of 21st century skills in the classroom and in the science projects students created. A research team comprised of 14 doctoral students, led by Dr

  7. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  8. IT Project Evaluation and Investment Decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄东兵; 张世英

    2004-01-01

    There are many kinds of real options,which are valuable,in each phase of the lifetime of an information technology(IT)project.However,in the current IT investment decision theory,real options that embedded in IT projects are not considered. In this paper, the process of IT project decision and implementation is fully analyzed, the real options that may be embedded in an IT project are identified, and a real option analysis (ROA) method is proposed for evaluation of an IT project under uncertain business environment. ROA employs Black-Scholes expansion model and cancels the assumption that the cost of project is certain. The numerical example manifests that the ROA can better evaluate IT project and select the IT investment alternative. Finally, a road map is provided to help selecting the suitable evaluation method to make IT investment decision.

  9. Prioritization of strategies to approach the judicialization of health in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pinzón-Flórez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe strategies that contribute to the comprehensive approach to the judicialization of health in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS A search was structured to identify articles presenting strategies to approach the judicialization of health. A survey was designed, which included actors of the health system and judiciary sector. We prioritized the strategies qualified by more than the 50.0% of the participants as “very relevant”. Strategies were categorized according to: governance, provision of services, human resources, information systems, financing, and medical products. RESULTS We included 64 studies, which identified 50 strategies, related to the sub-functions and components of health systems. Of the 165 people who answered the survey, 80.0% were aged 35-64 years. The distribution of men and women was homogeneous. Half of the respondents were from Colombia (20.0%, Uruguay (16.9%, and Argentina (12.7%. We prioritized strategies that addressed aspects of generation of useful scientific evidence for decision making according to the health needs of the population, empowerment for the society, and creating spaces for discussion of measures of inclusion or exclusion of health technologies. The executive and judiciary decision makers prioritized questions that dealt with strategies that would ensure accountability. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study contribute to the identification of effective strategies to approach the phenomenon of judicialization of health, guaranteeing the right to health.

  10. Evaluating Animal Health Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rushton, J.; Raboisson, D.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Economic evaluation of livestock diseases can either estimate their impact in terms of disease losses and treatment costs or it can examine the value of investments in coordinated disease control or eradication programmes. The latter evaluations can be ex ante and ex post and are useful in determini

  11. Bringing up Private Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese Government promises private investors a bigger role in the country’s booming industry sector Encouraging and guiding healthy development of private investment was at the forefront of the State Council’s latest measures to invigorate the private sector.

  12. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  13. Inflation Protected Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Mahlstedt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is presented, which is based on traditional asset classes and Markov-switching models. Different stock market, as well as inflation regimes are identified, and within those regimes, the inflation hedging potential of stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and gold are investigated. Within each regime, we determine optimal investment portfolios driven by the investment idea of protection from losses due to changing inflation if inflation is rising or high, but decoupling the performance from inflation if inflation is low. The results clearly indicate that these asset classes behave differently in different stock market and inflation regimes. Whereas in the long-run, we agree with the general opinion in the literature that stocks and bonds are a suitable hedge against inflation, we observe for short time horizons that the hedging potential of each asset class, especially of real estate and commodities, depend strongly on the state of the current market environment. Thus, our approach provides a possible explanation for different statements in the literature regarding the inflation hedging properties of these asset classes. A dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is developed, which combines inflation protection and upside potential. This strategy outperforms standard buy-and-hold strategies, as well as the well-known 1 N -portfolio.

  14. Beyond the Investment Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…

  15. Increasing investment in Nagqu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Nagqu has successfully commenced investment to its major construction projects from January to September of 2004. An official of the Local Development and Reform Commission remarks, that according to their plan,they should complete 75 new-started and restored projects,

  16. Investing in Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD

  17. Investing in Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD

  18. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    BusinessWeek recently published an article reporting that China is becoming hostile to foreign capital and that China's policy on foreign investment will change to reflect that attitude. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, explains China's position in an article posted on People's Daily Online.

  19. Investment and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob B.

    2006-01-01

    A severe collapse of fixed capital formation distinguished the onset of the Great Depression from other investment downturns between the world wars. Using a model estimated for the years 1890-2000, we show that the expected profitability of capital measured by Tobin's q, and the uncertainty surro...... of the depression: rather, its slump helped to propel the wider collapse...

  20. Huge Investment Needed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China needs a massive investment to maintain its rampant economic boom-at least a 20 percent annual growth rate, according to Fan Gang, Deputy Director of the National Economic Research Institute and a member of the central bank's Monetary Policy Committee.

  1. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  2. Investment Insight Opportunities Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Over the next five years, China will be shitting its focus to more balanced development and what it sees as quality growth. Its two main strategies are promoting innovation-with the government-backed industrial upgrading-and strengthening the rural economy. This shift will lead to massive investment and fresh, wealth-making opportunities. In the stock

  3. Boardroom Network Location and Investment Expenditure in Technological Innovation:Research on the Technology-Intensive Firms in A-Share%董事会网络位置与企业技术创新投入——基于技术密集型上市公司的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马连福; 张琦; 王丽丽

    2016-01-01

    基于社会网络视角,以2010—2013年中国技术密集型上市公司数据为样本,研究董事会网络位置与企业技术创新投入的关系,并检验了产权性质与创新环境对以上关系的影响.结果显示:董事会网络位置对企业技术创新投入有显著的积极影响;相比国有企业,董事会网络位置对民营企业技术创新投入的促进效用更显著;与市场化程度较低的地区相比,在市场化程度较高的地区董事会网络位置对技术创新投入的提升效用更显著.结果表明,董事会网络位置、产权性质及创新环境是影响企业技术创新投入的重要因素.%From the social network perspective, based on the samples of China's a-share listed companies of tech-nology-intensive industries from 2010 to 2013, this paper studies how the boardroom network location influences investment expenditure in technological innovation, and tests the influences of property rights and innovation envi-ronment on the above relationship. The results show that the boardroom network location has significant positive influence on technology innovation investment. Boardroom network location can effectively improve technological innovation expenditure in private-own enterprises. Compared with the lower marketized regions, the utility of board-room network location improving technological innovation expenditure is more significant in higher marketized re-gions. This study shows that the boardroom network location, property rights and innovation environment are im-portant factors influencing investment expenditure in technological innovation.

  4. EPA CHEMICAL PRIORITIZATION COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IN 2005 THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY (NCCT) ORGANIZED EPA CHEMICAL PRIORITIATION COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE (CPCP) TO PROVIDE A FORUM FOR DISCUSSING THE UTILITY OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENIG (HTS) AND VARIOUS TOXICOGENOMIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR CH...

  5. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  6. Within-season increase in parental investment in a long-lived bird species: investment shifts to maximize successful reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N A; Griesser, M

    2015-01-01

    In nest-building species predation of nest contents is a main cause of reproductive failure and parents have to trade off reproductive investment against antipredatory behaviours. While this trade-off is modified by lifespan (short-lived species prioritize current reproduction; long-lived species prioritize future reproduction), it may vary within a breeding season, but this idea has only been tested in short-lived species. Yet, life history theory does not make any prediction how long-lived species should trade off current against future reproductive investment within a season. Here, we investigated this trade-off through predator-exposure experiments in a long-lived bird species, the brown thornbill. We exposed breeding pairs that had no prior within-season reproductive success to the models of a nest predator and a predator of adults during their first or second breeding attempt. Overall, parents reduced their feeding rate in the presence of a predator, but parents feeding second broods were more risk sensitive and almost ceased feeding when exposed to both types of predators. However, during second breeding attempts, parents had larger clutches and a higher feeding rate in the absence of predators than during first breeding attempts and approached both types of predators closer when mobbing. Our results suggest that the trade-off between reproductive investment and risk-taking can change in a long-lived species within a breeding season depending on both prior nest predation and renesting opportunities. These patterns correspond to those in short-lived species, raising the question of whether a within-season shift in reproductive investment trade-offs is independent of lifespan. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Community investment in wind farms: funding structure effects in wind energy infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Joshua A; Day, Jennifer E

    2015-03-03

    Wind energy development is an increasingly popular form of renewable energy infrastructure in rural areas. Communities generally perceive socioeconomic benefits accrue and that community funding structures are preferable to corporate structures, yet lack supporting quantitative data to inform energy policy. This study uses the Everpower wind development, to be located in Midwestern Ohio, as a hypothetical modeling environment to identify and examine socioeconomic impact trends arising from corporate, community and diversified funding structures. Analysis of five National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jobs and Economic Development Impact models incorporating local economic data and review of relevant literature were conducted. The findings suggest that community and diversified funding structures exhibit 40-100% higher socioeconomic impact levels than corporate structures. Prioritization of funding sources and retention of federal tax incentives were identified as key elements. The incorporation of local shares was found to mitigate the negative effects of foreign private equity, local debt financing increased economic output and opportunities for private equity investment were identified. The results provide the groundwork for energy policies focused to maximize socioeconomic impacts while creating opportunities for inclusive economic participation and improved social acceptance levels fundamental to the deployment of renewable energy technology.

  8. 金融危机背景下山东省财政科技投入与自主创新绩效关系分析%The Analysis of Relations between Financial Technology Investment and Independent Innovation Performance in Shandong Province under the Background of the Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小军; 吴爱华

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the actuality of government R&D investment of Shandong Province, and discovers that government R&D investment gets lower in the financial crisis. Then the paper discovers the long equilibrium relations between government R&D investment and independent innovation performance by quantitative analysis and finds their leverage is more obvious in the financial crisis. Then there is more realistic meaning for the construction of Shandong peninsula manufacturing base by increasing government investment in science and technology and forming diversified R&D investment mode.%分析山东省政府财政科技投入现状,发现金融危机下政府科技投入出现回落.通过定量分析表明政府财政科技投入与自主创新绩效之间存在长期均衡关系,而且金融危机下政府财政科技投入对自主创新绩效的“杠杆效应”更加显著,那么加大政府财政科技投入力度、形成多元化的R&D投入模式对山东半岛制造业基地建设更具有现实意义.

  9. Evaluation Of Investments In Science, Technology And Innovation: Applying Scientific and Technical Human Capital Framework For Assessment of Doctoral Students In Cooperative Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonchuk, Olena

    This dissertation builds on an alternative framework for evaluation of science, technology and innovation (STI) outcomes - the scientific & technical (S&T) human capital which was developed by Bozeman, Dietz and Gaughan (2001). At its core, this framework looks beyond simple economic and publication metrics and instead focuses on scientists' social capital. The premise of the framework is that science does not happen in vacuum and that resources embedded in scientists' social networks are important and enduring outcomes of the scientific process that were not being captured by traditional metrics. This dissertation examines social capital of science and engineering (S&E) graduate students, an underrepresented group of stakeholders in STI evaluations. S&E graduate students are unique for several reasons. In comparison with students in other disciplines, S&E graduate students have a greater proportion of international students; are widely employed by industry in numbers exceeded only by business graduates. And, most importantly, S&E graduates pursue education in fields that contribute the most to the US innovation capacity. This dissertation introduces a multidimensional measure of social capital based on the network theory of social capital proposed by Nan Lin (1999). According to Lin, social capital consists of three components: availability of resources and social embeddedness in one's network and mobilization of these resources. In order to address these elements, the dissertation employs two studies that focus on different components of social capital. Study 1 looks at accessibility of resources in students' social networks and whether students would be likely to mobilize them by using a proxy measure of norms and values about collaborations. The study also addresses the effect of social capital on students' experiences and outcomes, specifically, on their satisfaction and perceived career preparedness. The researcher investigates the mechanisms that explain

  10. ESG Integration and the Investment Management Process : Fundamental Investing Reinvented

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duuren, Emiel; Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how conventional asset managers account for environmental, social and governance factors (ESG) in their investment process. We do so on the basis of an international survey among fund managers. We find that many conventional managers integrate responsible investing in their investment

  11. NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS, INFORMATION AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available National competitiveness has been the subject of attention in academic and entrepeneurial forums as well as a matter of concern for governmental, industrial, and education-form policy makers. In this paper, we discuss the conditions for national competitiveness in terms of the innovation systems, foreign direct investment, technological capabilities, innovation and institutions. Innovative countries benefit from localized learning that may be exploited within and across borders. Participation in research networks is not the sole avenue to development when in presence of an attitude that promotes learning and the adoption of the most recent technologies. Key-words: Technological Development. National Competitiveness

  12. Valuing the attributes of renewable energy investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Ariel [Economics Department, University of Glasgow, Adam Smith Building, Glasgow G12 8RT (United Kingdom); Hanley, Nick; Wright, Robert [Economics Department, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many countries' strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of these external costs and benefits for the case of renewable technologies in Scotland, a country which has set particularly ambitious targets for expanding renewable energy. The external effects we consider are those on landscape quality, wildlife and air quality. We also consider the welfare implications of different investment strategies for employment and electricity prices. The methodology used to do this is the choice experiment technique. Renewable technologies considered include hydro, on-shore and off-shore wind power and biomass. Welfare changes for different combinations of impacts associated with different investment strategies are estimated. We also test for differences in preferences towards these impacts between urban and rural communities, and between high- and low-income households. (author)

  13. The most influential investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, L

    1993-01-01

    Investment in women's education possibly has a greater return than investing in areas such as power generation. Education is an economic issue. When the self-fulfilling prophecy of girls' lack of education yielding lower economic worth is compared with the self-fulfilling prophecy of educated women having healthy children and greater earning ability, there is no doubt which scenario is more beneficial to the individual and society. Wages of educated female workers rise by 20%, and personal hygiene and public health improvements contribute to lower fertility and infant mortality. In Pakistan, educating an additional 1000 girls/year would cost $40,000 in 1990 prices. Each year of schooling would reduce the under-5 year child mortality rate by 10%. 1000 women with an extra year of schooling would prevent 60 infant deaths, which if prevented through health care interventions would cost an estimated $48,000. Female fertility would be reduced by about 10% for an extra year of schooling, and thus would avert 660 births or a saving $43,000. Social improvement alone is worth the extra cost. Investing in female education means establishing scholarship funds, providing more free books and other supplies, adapting curricula to cultural and practical concerns, and hiring female teachers. Increasing female primary school enrollment to equal boys enrollment in low income countries would mean educating an extra 25 million girls every/year at a total cost of about $938 million. Equalizing secondary school enrollment would entail educating an extra 21 million girls at a cost of $1.4 billion. The total cost of $2.4 billion constitutes less than .25% of the gross domestic product of low income countries, less than 1% of investment in new capital goods, and less than 10% of defense spending. Investment statistics on power plants in a sample of 57 developing countries showed a return on physical plant assets of less than 4% over the past 3 years and less than 6% over the past 10 years

  14. Impact of Governmental Investment on Science & Technology Innovation:Empirical Test Based on Panel Data of 40 countries from 1982 to 2010%政府科技投入对科技创新的影响研究--基于40个国家1982-2010年面板数据的实证检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴芸

    2014-01-01

    In the era of economic globalization, science & technology innovation is attracted more and more im-portance, and governmental investment in science & technology innovation increases in most countries. However, the issue that how the governmental investment influence science & technology innovation lacks of specialized multinational cross-time inspection. The research question of this paper is 'Whether and how governmental invest-ment plays a positive role in promoting science & technology innovation?' We analyze panel data from 40 coun-tries worldwide from 1982 to 2010, estimating the model of Pooled OLS, model of Fixed Effects and model of Heteroskedasticity-Robust Fixed Effects. Regression analysis leads to the following conclusions. Governmental in-vestment significantly promotes science & technology innovation. Furthermore, the efficiency of the capital use of governmental investment in science & technology innovation is low now, and should be improved.%在经济全球化时代,各国都重视科技创新,加大了政府对科技创新的资金投入。但是,政府科技投入对科技创新的影响缺乏专门的、跨国跨时间段的考察。提出“政府科技投入是否以及在多大程度上对科技创新起到积极的促进作用”的研究议题,分析40个国家1982-2010年的面板数据,进行混合最小二乘法、固定效应模型、异方差稳健型固定效应模型三种模型的估计。通过回归分析得出以下结论:政府科技投入显著促进科技创新;政府用于促进科技创新的科技投入资金使用效率较低,尚需改进。

  15. Survive another day: does uncertain financing affect the composition of investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Garicano, Luis; Steinwender, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    We expect firms that face uncertainty about their access to the financial markets to prioritize shorter term investments over longer term ones. Using a high quality panel data set, and a difference-in-differences approach to control for demand effects, we study whether this has been indeed the case after the sharp deterioration of the financial conditions for firms in the European periphery. Specifically, we compare Spanish manufacturing firms which are foreign owned (and thus have alternativ...

  16. The spatial patterns of Korean investments and their effects on regional development in Indonesia until 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rijanta

    2013-07-01

    The research reveals that Korean investments in the world are mainly directed to USA, Europe and Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian Region has been the most important destination of Korean investment in the last three decades due to the availability of cheaper labor force, abundant natural resources, and favorable climate for investment and with little exception political stability. Recent investments are also directed to more capital intensive and more advance technology, thus facilitating the transfer of technology_ The distribution of Korean investment in Indonesia as any other foreign investments tends to be clustering in the surrounding areas of Jakarta, known as the Bogor, Tangerang; Bekasi (BOTABEK Region where some 65 percent of foreign investment is located.. The effects of Korean investment on regional development at national level in Indonesia are very limited, but there is a substantial effect on the regional production structure, economic growth and employment generation at local-regional level, more especially in the main industrial agglomeration of the BOTABEK Region.

  17. Prioritization of Potential Mates' History of Sexual Fidelity During a Conjoint Ranking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilski, Justin K; Wade, T Joel; Welling, Lisa L M

    2014-07-01

    This series of studies is the first to use conjoint analysis to examine how individuals make trade-offs during mate selection when provided information about a partner's history of sexual infidelity. Across three studies, participants ranked profiles of potential mates, with each profile varying across five attributes: financial stability, physical attractiveness, sexual fidelity, emotional investment, and similarity. They also rated each attribute separately for importance in an ideal mate. Overall, we found that for a long-term mate, participants prioritized a potential partner's history of sexual fidelity over other attributes when profiles were ranked conjointly. For a short-term mate, sexual fidelity, physical attractiveness, and financial stability were equally important, and each was more important than emotional investment and similarity. These patterns contrast with participants' self-reported importance ratings of each individual attribute. Our results are interpreted within the context of previous literature examining how making trade-offs affect mate selection. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. RISKS IN INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Tatiana A. Ykovleva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of investment risks and their causes, as well as provides a detailed classification of investment risks. The authors reveal the essence and content of the investment process, risk management, providing material for presentation in the form of a diagram. In conclusion, the article explains the use of the system of specialized institutions as a way to exclude the basic, or primary investment risk.

  19. The place of foreign direct investment in the global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gutowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI plays an extraordinary and growing role in global business. It can provide a firm with new markets and marketing channels, cheaper production facilities, access to new technology, products, skills and financing. For a host country or the foreign firm which receives the investment, it can provide a source of new technologies, capital, processes, products, organizational technologies and management skills and as such can provide a strong impetus to economic development. The sea change in trade and investment policies and the regulatory environment globally in the past decade, including trade policy and tariff liberalization, easing of restrictions on foreign investment and acquisition in many nations, and the deregulation and privitazation of many industries, has probably been been the most significant catalyst for FDI’s expanded role.

  20. Combination of real options and game-theoretic approach in investment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasteh, Abdollah

    2016-02-01

    Investments in technology create a large amount of capital investments by major companies. Assessing such investment projects is identified as critical to the efficient assignment of resources. Viewing investment projects as real options, this paper expands a method for assessing technology investment decisions in the linkage existence of uncertainty and competition. It combines the game-theoretic models of strategic market interactions with a real options approach. Several key characteristics underlie the model. First, our study shows how investment strategies rely on competitive interactions. Under the force of competition, firms hurry to exercise their options early. The resulting "hurry equilibrium" destroys the option value of waiting and involves violent investment behavior. Second, we get best investment policies and critical investment entrances. This suggests that integrating will be unavoidable in some information product markets. The model creates some new intuitions into the forces that shape market behavior as noticed in the information technology industry. It can be used to specify best investment policies for technology innovations and adoptions, multistage R&D, and investment projects in information technology.

  1. Thailand : Investment Climate Assessment Update

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an up-to-date assessment of the investment climate of Thailand. As the socio-economic framework in which enterprises operate including infrastructure, policies and regulations improving the investment climate is helpful for productivity and economic growth. The report is based mainly on the results of the second round of the Thailand Productivity and Investment Climate...

  2. Legal restrictions and Investment Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Scholtens, B.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of legal restrictions on investment growth at the firm level. With the help of a unique firm-level survey database, we analyze whether firm investments are related to the efficiency and quality of the judiciary. Furthermore, we analyze whether the investment behavior of large a

  3. Legal restrictions and investment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Scholtens, B.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of legal restrictions on investment growth at the firm level. With the help of a unique firm-level survey database, we analyze whether firm investments are related to the efficiency and quality of the judiciary, Furthermore, we analyze whether the investment behavior of large a

  4. Investment Opportunities & Job Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai Vacancies from Chinajob.com China Pacific Insurance (Group) Co. Ltd. Senior Investment Manager and Senior Accounting Analyst are needed, full time; annual salary: $50,000-100,000. China Europe International Business School wants professors or people with doctoral degrees to teach Accounting, Finance, Human Resources and Management, Strategic and General Management, Carving out Management, Production and Transportation Management, and Information Management Systems, full time. Salary starts at $1...

  5. EBRD equity investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The EBRD is the largest investor in private equity funds, mainly focusing on growth and expansion in countries of operation. The significant support to its private equity fund managers accelerates the development and institutionalisation of the private equity industry in the region. For EBRD, equity investments are made indirectly through regional and sector funds. These funds are created by groups of investors, mostly private, to which the EBRD participates with capital.

  6. Investments into education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2006-01-01

    groups with differing human capital and welfare levels. Depending on the parameters of the model, a temporary or permanent public investment into human capital formation is needed to overcome steady states with low human capital and welfare levels. Furthermore, even the best steady state is suboptimal...... when the human capital is privately provided. This inefficiency can be removed by a permanent public subsidy for education....

  7. Prioritization of Disease Susceptibility Genes Using LSM/SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lejun; Yang, Ronggen; Yan, Qin; Sun, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of genetics in diseases is one of the most important tasks in the postgenome era. It is generally too expensive and time consuming to perform experimental validation for all candidate genes related to disease. Computational methods play important roles for prioritizing these candidates. Herein, we propose an approach to prioritize disease genes using latent semantic mapping based on singular value decomposition. Our hypothesis is that similar functional genes are likely to cause similar diseases. Measuring the functional similarity between known disease susceptibility genes and unknown genes is to predict new disease susceptibility genes. Taking autism as an instance, the analysis results of the top ten genes prioritized demonstrate they might be autism susceptibility genes, which also indicates our approach could discover new disease susceptibility genes. The novel approach of disease gene prioritization could discover new disease susceptibility genes, and latent disease-gene relations. The prioritized results could also support the interpretive diversity and experimental views as computational evidence for disease researchers.

  8. RePizer:a framework for prioritization of software requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saif Ur Rehman KHAN; Sai Peck LEE; Mohammad DABBAGH; Muhammad TAHIR; Muzafar KHAN; Muhammad ARIF

    2016-01-01

    The standard software development life cycle heavily depends on requirements elicited from stakeholders. Based on those requirements, software development is planned and managed from its inception phase to closure. Due to time and resource constraints, it is imperative to identify the high-priority requirements that need to be considered first during the software devel-opment process. Moreover, existing prioritization frameworks lack a store of historical data useful for selecting the most suitable prioritization technique of any similar project domain. In this paper, we propose a framework for prioritization of software re-quirements, called RePizer, to be used in conjunction with a selected prioritization technique to rank software requirements based on defined criteria such as implementation cost. RePizer assists requirements engineers in a decision-making process by retrieving historical data from a requirements repository. RePizer also provides a panoramic view of the entire project to ensure the judicious use of software development resources. We compared the performance of RePizer in terms of expected accuracy and ease of use while separately adopting two different prioritization techniques, planning game (PG) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that RePizer performed better when used in conjunction with the PG technique.

  9. Consequence Prioritization Process for Potential High Consequence Events (HCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Sarah G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This document describes the process for Consequence Prioritization, the first phase of the Consequence-Driven Cyber-Informed Engineering (CCE) framework. The primary goal of Consequence Prioritization is to identify potential disruptive events that would significantly inhibit an organization’s ability to provide the critical services and functions deemed fundamental to their business mission. These disruptive events, defined as High Consequence Events (HCE), include both events that have occurred or could be realized through an attack of critical infrastructure owner assets. While other efforts have been initiated to identify and mitigate disruptive events at the national security level, such as Presidential Policy Directive 41 (PPD-41), this process is intended to be used by individual organizations to evaluate events that fall below the threshold for a national security. Described another way, Consequence Prioritization considers threats greater than those addressable by standard cyber-hygiene and includes the consideration of events that go beyond a traditional continuity of operations (COOP) perspective. Finally, Consequence Prioritization is most successful when organizations adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, engaging both cyber security and engineering expertise, as in-depth engineering perspectives are required to recognize and characterize and mitigate HCEs. Figure 1 provides a high-level overview of the prioritization process.

  10. Interaction Among Construction Investment, Other Investment and GDP in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑思齐; 刘洪玉

    2004-01-01

    With Granger causality method, this paper examines the causal dynamics among three economic fundamentals: construction investment, other investment and the gross domestic product (GDP). Short-run and long-run interactive effects among these three time series are analyzed from 1981 to 2001. The empirical results show that construction investment has a stronger short-run effect on economic growth than other investment, and economic growth has a long-term effect on both construction and other investments. These findings indicate that construction investment is an important factor influencing short-term economic growth fluctuations, with its growth stimulating economic growth and its slumps leading to downside fluctuations. At the same time, investment growth cannot be sustained without the support of the national economy. These empirical results have important implications for economic policy makers in China.

  11. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    Chinese companies and their global partners. However, Chinese outbound investment faces many hurdles both at home and outside. This article analyzes some of the main aspects in relation to regulatory hurdles, political obstacles as well as environmental, labor and financial challenges primarily focusing......-Government seeks to develop new business sectors and to attract foreign investment, including investments from China, to develop especially its mineral resources. China now is the second largest economy in the world and the outbound investments by Chinese companies presents unprecedented opportunities for both...... on investments in the mining industry....

  12. Cyber Security: A Crisis of Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Infrastructure Protection ( CIIP ) become the focal point for coordinating Federal cyber security R&D efforts. This working group should be strengthened...the: • Interagency Working Group on Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (IWG/ CIIP ), which is part of the National Science and Technology...the agencies’ cyber security research programs and agendas – has largely been missing. The Committee notes that the IWG/ CIIP has recently begun a

  13. Prioritizing positivity: an effective approach to pursuing happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalino, Lahnna I; Algoe, Sara B; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2014-12-01

    A decade of research reveals the benefits of positive emotions for mental and physical health; however, recent empirical work suggests the explicit pursuit of happiness may backfire. The present study hypothesized that the pursuit of happiness is not inherently self-defeating; in particular, individuals who seek positivity, as exemplified by how they make decisions about how to organize their day-to-day lives, may be happier. This individual difference is labeled prioritizing positivity. In a community sample of young to older adults (N = 233), prioritizing positivity predicted a host of well-being outcomes (positive emotions, depressive symptomology). In addition, people high in prioritizing positivity have greater resources, and these links are explained by more frequent experiences of positive emotions. In sum, the present study suggests that seeking happiness, although a delicate art, may be a worthwhile pursuit.

  14. Prioritizing Positivity: An Effective Approach to Pursuing Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalino, Lahnna I.; Algoe, Sara B.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2017-01-01

    A decade of research reveals the benefits of positive emotions for mental and physical health; however, recent empirical work suggests the explicit pursuit of happiness may backfire. The present study hypothesized that the pursuit of happiness is not inherently self-defeating; in particular, individuals who seek positivity, as exemplified by how they make decisions about how to organize their day-to-day lives, may be happier. This individual difference is labeled prioritizing positivity. In a community sample of young to older adults (N = 233), prioritizing positivity predicted a host of well-being outcomes (positive emotions, depressive symptomology). In addition, people high in prioritizing positivity have greater resources, and these links are explained by more frequent experiences of positive emotions. In sum, the present study suggests that seeking happiness, although a delicate art, may be a worthwhile pursuit. PMID:25401290

  15. Scientists' Prioritization of Communication Objectives for Public Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudo, Anthony; Besley, John C

    2016-01-01

    Amid calls from scientific leaders for their colleagues to become more effective public communicators, this study examines the objectives that scientists' report drive their public engagement behaviors. We explore how scientists evaluate five specific communication objectives, which include informing the public about science, exciting the public about science, strengthening the public's trust in science, tailoring messages about science, and defending science from misinformation. We use insights from extant research, the theory of planned behavior, and procedural justice theory to identify likely predictors of scientists' views about these communication objectives. Results show that scientists most prioritize communication designed to defend science from misinformation and educate the public about science, and least prioritize communication that seeks to build trust and establish resonance with the public. Regression analyses reveal factors associated with scientists who prioritize each of the five specific communication objectives. Our findings highlight the need for communication trainers to help scientists select specific communication objectives for particular contexts and audiences.

  16. Gene Prioritization by Compressive Data Fusion and Chaining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinka Žitnik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Data integration procedures combine heterogeneous data sets into predictive models, but they are limited to data explicitly related to the target object type, such as genes. Collage is a new data fusion approach to gene prioritization. It considers data sets of various association levels with the prediction task, utilizes collective matrix factorization to compress the data, and chaining to relate different object types contained in a data compendium. Collage prioritizes genes based on their similarity to several seed genes. We tested Collage by prioritizing bacterial response genes in Dictyostelium as a novel model system for prokaryote-eukaryote interactions. Using 4 seed genes and 14 data sets, only one of which was directly related to the bacterial response, Collage proposed 8 candidate genes that were readily validated as necessary for the response of Dictyostelium to Gram-negative bacteria. These findings establish Collage as a method for inferring biological knowledge from the integration of heterogeneous and coarsely related data sets.

  17. R&D investments fostering horizontal mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Cabolis, C.; Manasakis, C.; MORENO, Diego; Petrakis, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We study a homogenous good triopoly in which firms first choose their cost-reducing R&D investments and consider alternative merger proposals, and then compete à la Cournot in the ensuing industry. We identify conditions under which both horizontal mergers and non integration are sustained by Coalition-Proof Nash equilibria (CPNE). These conditions involve the effectiveness of the R&D technology, as well as the distribution of the bargaining power between the acquirer and the acquiree, which ...

  18. Energy Return on Investment - Fuel Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W; Simon, A J; Fratoni, M; Smith, C; Schwab, P; Murray, P

    2012-06-06

    This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios. This paper is based on a study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a parallel evaluation by AREVA Federal Services LLC, both of which were sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program. The focus of the LLNL effort was to develop a methodology that can be used by the FCT program for such analysis that is consistent with the broader energy modeling community, and the focus of the AREVA effort was to bring industrial experience and operational data into the analysis. This cooperative effort successfully combined expertise from the energy modeling community with expertise from the nuclear industry. Energy Return on Investment is one of many figures of merit on which investment in a new energy facility or process may be judged. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered by a facility divided by the energy used to construct, operate and decommission that facility. While EROI is not the only criterion used to make an investment decision, it has been shown that, in technologically advanced societies, energy supplies must exceed a minimum EROI. Furthermore, technological history shows a trend towards higher EROI energy supplies. EROI calculations have been performed for many components of energy technology: oil wells, wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, biofuels, and nuclear reactors. This report represents the first standalone EROI analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing (or recycling) facilities.

  19. Throughput centered prioritization of machines in transfer lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, R., E-mail: rpascual@ing.puc.cl [Physical Asset Management Lab, Centro de Mineria, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Godoy, D. [Physical Asset Management Lab, Centro de Mineria, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Louit, D.M. [Komatsu Chile S.A., Av. Americo Vespucio 0631, Quilicura, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    In an environment of scarce resources and complex production systems, prioritizing is key to confront the challenge of managing physical assets. In the literature, there exist a number of techniques to prioritize maintenance decisions that consider safety, technical and business perspectives. However, the effect of risk mitigating elements-such as intermediate buffers in production lines-on prioritization has not yet been investigated in depth. In this line, the work proposes a user-friendly graphical technique called the system efficiency influence diagram (SEID). Asset managers may use SEID to identify machines that have a greater impact on the system throughput, and thus set prioritized maintenance policies and/or redesign of buffers capacities. The tool provides insight to the analyst as it decomposes the influence of a given machine on the system throughput as a product of two elements: (1) system influence efficiency factor and (2) machine unavailability factor. We illustrate its applicability using three case studies: a four-machine transfer line, a vehicle assembly line, and an open-pit mining conveyor system. The results confirm that the machines with greater unavailability factors are not necessarily the most important for the efficiency of the production line, as it is the case when no intermediate buffers exist. As a decision aid tool, SEID emphasizes the need to move from a maintenance vision focused on machine availability, to a systems engineering perspective. - Highlights: > We propose a graphical technique to prioritize machines in production lines. > The tool is called 'system efficiency influence diagram' (SEID). > It helps setting prioritized maintenance policies and/or redesign of buffers. > The SEID technique focuses on system efficiency and throughput. > We illustrate its applicability using three case studies.

  20. Gender Differences in Investment Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Bayyurt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explore how women and men differ in their individual investment preferences. Although there are some studies for the investors in developed countries, the subject has been overlooked in emerging and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, this study is the first empirical study exploring the investment behaviors of women and men by focusing on an emerging country, Turkey. For the purpose to find out how investment preferences of men and women differ towards six investment tools, namely, gold, foreign currency, funds, common stocks, real estates, and time deposits, a discriminant analysis and a logistic regression were exercised. The results revealed that while men investors prefer common stocks and real estate to invest women investors are more risk averse and invest fund, time deposit and gold. There is no significant difference between men and women in foreign currency investment.

  1. Gender Differences in Investment Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Bayyurt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explore how women and men differ in their individual investment preferences. Although there are some studies for the investors in developed countries, the subject has been overlooked in emerging and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, this study is the first empirical study exploring the investment behaviors of women and men by focusing on an emerging country, Turkey. For the purpose to find out how investment preferences of men and women differ towards six investment tools, namely, gold, foreign currency, funds, common stocks, real estates, and time deposits, a discriminant analysis and a logistic regression were exercised. The results revealed that while men investors prefer common stocks and real estate to invest women investors are more risk averse and invest fund, time deposit and gold. There is no significant difference between men and women in foreign currency investment.

  2. Research of Investment Projects Searching technology based on Images change detection%基于变化检测的投资项目搜索技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 李万茂; 高连如; 向冬梅; 倪金生

    2011-01-01

    一些露于地表的固定资产投资项目可用遥感影像变化检测的方法自动的搜索并检测出来。其间需要完成对两幅不同时向的影像完成几何校正、影像配准、直方图匹配、影像做差、二值化、小斑去除、搜索结果修正等一系列工作。如果算法参数设置合理,其中大部分操作流程可以使用计算机自动实现。本文详细描述了本智能搜索技术的核心算法与技术流程,并通过基于TitanImage二次开发工具实验证明了其可行性。%Some Fixed Assets Investment Projects which are exposed on the land surface can be automatically detected by change detection methods of remote sensing images. A series of operations on two images of different times must be finished before detections, such as the Geometry Correction, Image Registration, Histogram Matching, Image Subtraction, Image Binarization and Spot Reduction and so on. All these can be automatic performed by computers if proper algorithm parameters are set. The kernel algorithms and technological flow are discussed in this paper, and it was implemented in the statistic system by using Titan Image Software Tool kit, which proved the application feasibility.

  3. Investment Irreversibility and Precautionary Savings in General Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejarque, João

    Partial equilibrium models suggest that when uncertainty increases, agents increase savings and at the same time reduce investment in irreversible goods. This paper characterizes this problem in general equilibrium with technology shocks, additive output shocks and shocks to the marginal efficiency...... if the shocks affect the marginal efficiency of investment. For all types of shocks, when concavity of the utility function is moderate or high, the irreversibility constraint never binds and the increase in variance has a negligible impact. Persistence in the shock process induces precautionary savings rather...... than irreversibility effects. If shocks are idiosyncratic and affect a cross section of agents over capital, an increase in their variance may induce an increase in aggregate investment even if all agents have an incentive to invest less, because zero investment is now an active lower bound for part...

  4. Chalenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Barbosa Silva Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investment in general and in Brazil particularly. The study is based on literature review and statistical data show that foreign direct investments have important effects on the business environment of the host country as they bring productivity improvement, formal employment and income generation, increase on the export level, establishment of firms with high innovation standards and the capacity to improve the quality of national products, with some degree of technology diffusion, increases in the network of suppliers and possible buyers, and the introduction of new strategies of business management, logistics as well as other ways of modernizing industrial structures. It concludes that the major benefits from foreign direct investments are the change on local companies strategies. The study also shows that investments are concentrated on most developed areas and that there is no specific strategy for investment attraction to the less economically favored areas of Brazil.

  5. Investing in Marine Scrubber under Uncertainty with Real Option Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liping; Hansen, Carsten Ørts

    works that examine the economic feasibility of scrubber retrofitting through the net present value rule, this paper applies the Real Option Analysis to find the optimal investment strategies. The proposed decision-making framework addresses the uncertainty and the value of deferral option embedded......Scrubber technology is one of the valid alternatives to comply with the tightening sulphur regulation. Due to the high uncertainty associated with the oil price and shipping market, making decision about whether and when to invest in marine scrubber is very difficult. In contrast to the previous...... in the scrubber investment. The multiple sources of investment uncertainties are explicitly analyzed and integrated in the modeling by using Rainbow option. The results demonstrate that the value of the scrubber investment has significantly increased for several cases by considering the deferral option...

  6. INVESTMENTS AND INVESTMENT INCENTIVES IN THE BALKAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHMET YÜCE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Balkan region, located in the south eastern part of the European Continent, is composed Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia, Greece with a portion of the Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey. Southeast Europe are composed of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia and Albania which known as the Western Balkans countries. That international investments are assessed on a regional and global scale in the Balkans, these investments gained importance after the 1990s with political, social and geographical variation. In the 2000s, after legal and administrative framework oriented reforms of investments which are continuations of global integration efforts, development of the investment opportunities in Balkans have been considered positively. While the investment incentive structures and rates differ on the basis of the countries, they are of capital importance for investors. After the 2008 global economic crisis which has happened because of the economic shrinkage on global scale, despite the worries for political and economic unsteadiness in specific countries, development of investments in Balkans has not been affected in a negative way. In this study development of investment in Balkans is analysed with negative and positive factors, investment opportunities and incentives are examined on the basis of countries. The Balkans gain acceleration positively thanks to the reforms of investment opportunities on the national scope. As to the need of investment development oriented local and international coordinated programme and approach is an important issue that should be analysed.

  7. Research to Inform Nutrient Thresholds and Prioritization of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The information in this presentation focuses on SSWR's 4.02 project, which will advance the science needed to inform decisions to prioritize watersheds and nutrient sources for nutrient management and define appropriate nutrient levels for the nation’s waters, two important elements of EPA’s framework for managing nutrient pollution. The information in this presentation focuses on SSWR's 4.02 project, which will advance the science needed to inform decisions to prioritize watersheds and nutrient sources for nutrient management and define appropriate nutrient levels for the nation’s waters, two important elements of EPA’s framework for managing nutrient pollution.

  8. Investment, regulation, and uncertainty: managing new plant breeding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2014-01-01

    As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases.   This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline.

  9. Integrated Program of Experimental Diagnostics at the NNSS. An Integrated, Prioritized Work Plan for Diagnostic Development and Maintenance and Supporting Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-09-01

    This Integrated Program of Experimental Diagnostics at the NNSS is an integrated prioritized work plan for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), program that is independent of individual National Security Enterprise Laboratories’ (Labs) requests or specific Subprograms being supported. This prioritized work plan is influenced by national priorities presented in the Predictive Capability Framework (PCF) and other strategy documents (Primary and Secondary Assessment Technologies Plans and the Plutonium Experiments Plan). This document satisfies completion criteria for FY 2010 MRT milestone #3496: Document an integrated, prioritized work plan for diagnostic development, maintenance, and supporting capability. This document is an update of the 3-year NNSS plan written a year ago, September 21, 2009, to define and understand Lab requests for diagnostic implementation. This plan is consistent with Lab interpretations of the PCF, Primary Assessment Technologies, and Plutonium Experiment plans.

  10. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...... adaptation of the home choose ownership. This article analyses the consumer's optimization. The model provides an explanation for the observation that homeowners typically live in larger dwelling units than tenants. It also provides an explanation for a high price of housing services tending to reduce...

  11. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a model where ownership improves efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only by adapting...... the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...

  12. VALUATION AND INVESTMENT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment professionals, particularly financial analysts or security analysts evaluate securities and try to determine characteristics of securities and to identify mispriced securities. For that purpose they use different models to estimate the intrinsic value of the common stocks. Traditional valuation models based on the present value of future cash flows are affected by estimated growth rate of the variable used and by the investor’s required rate of return. These models can be used for valuing fixed income securities, such as bonds and preferred stocks. However, in valuing companies with significant growth opportunities they have to expand traditional analysis with option valuation.

  13. Input price risk and optimal timing of energy investment: choice between fossil- and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murto, Pauli; Nese, Gjermund

    2002-05-01

    We consider energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost, estimates of two different power plant types. (author)

  14. Priority environmental investment programme: Development and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegovan Zoran M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is created to serve as a methodological base and possible work plan for Assistance in Priority Environmental Investment Programme Development and Implementation in the Republic of Serbia. It will contribute to improved mechanisms for selection of priority environmental investments. Also, the paper should outline a scope of work for technical assistance for Republic of Serbia in developing mechanisms for identifying and selecting priority environmental investments. The main feature of the long-term environmental policy in the Republic of Serbia is absence of integrated approach, which goes hand by hand with the international environmental standards, and lack of efficient economic instruments and regulations. It causes an inadequate technology policy and location of the polluters. Besides that there has been a lack of appropriate environmental monitoring system good enough to provide efficient ex-ante and ex-post protection. It has caused a lot of environmental damages so that a completely new approach in the field of environment is expected to be created out of which the Priority Environmental Investment Programme (PEIP should be a main tool for experience of good environmental governance in the Republic of Serbia as well as in the region of SEE.

  15. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  16. Information Technology Investment and Firm Performance:A Perspective from Institutional Theory and Social Networks%信息技术投资与企业绩效的关系研究--制度理论与社会网络视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继学; 高照军

    2013-01-01

    Whether investments in information technology (IT) have an impact on firm performance has been and continues to be a major problem for information systems researchers and practitioners. This study discusses and empirically tests the effects of institutions and social networks on the impact of IT investment on firm perfor-mance with the sample consisting of top 500 listed China corporations in 2009. Results indicate that IT software investment could improve firm performance, and the development of institutions positively moderates the relation-ship between IT hardware investment or IT total investment and firm performance, and inter-organizational net-work further positively moderates the effect of institutions on the relationship between IT hardware investment or IT total investment and firm performance for firms located in coastal area. The study extends the framework that shows the relationship between IT investment and firm performance.%  信息技术投资能否对企业绩效产生影响一直是信息系统研究者和实践者关心的一个热点问题。选取2009年中国上市企业500强作为样本,研究了制度、社会网络对信息技术投资与企业绩效之间关系的影响。研究发现,信息技术软件投资能够提高企业绩效;制度能够正向调节信息技术硬件投资和信息技术总投资与企业绩效之间的关系;对于沿海地区的企业,社会网络能够进一步调节制度对信息技术硬件投资和信息技术总投资与企业绩效之间关系的影响。扩展了信息技术投资与企业绩效之间关系的研究框架。

  17. The Study of Optimization of Human Capital Investment Portfolio about Talent in High Technology Industry in the New Normal%经济新常态下高技术产业人力资本投资组合优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张樨樨; 陆世晴

    2015-01-01

    Under the economic environment of the new normal ,Industry leaders neglected the human capital investment portfolio led to that human capital input donnot match the output .In fact ,the human capital investment return rate is low but people have high expectations of investment .By constructing the simulation model based on C -D production function ,We make a research on human capital investment portfolio from the empirical perspective .The results show thatthe health careinvestment ,formal education investment and training investment is conducive to the overall improvement of the output .In addition ,We realized that the investment of social security is not conducive to the overall output in short term . When the high technology enterprise organization make a plan about human capital investment portfolio ,this article can provide reference for them .%目前,对人力资本投资组合关注的失衡化导致人力资本投入与产出不对等的现象频发。投资深化的溢出性期望与人力资本投资收益率低下的无奈现实形成鲜明的冲击性反差。通过构建基于C-D生产函数的仿真模型,深化对高技术产业人力资本投资组合研究,解析人力资本投资组合中健康保健投入、正规教育投入以及培训投入对整体产出的异质化作用,进一步明确社会保障投入对整体产出的“假性抑制作用”。在不忽视薪资与培训等传统方式方法的同时,通过重视健康保健投入与多元化社会保障投入逐步实现高技术产业人力资本投资的优化组合。

  18. Clinician-identified problems and solutions for delayed diagnosis in primary care: a PRIORITIZE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor Car, Lorainne; Papachristou, Nikolaos; Bull, Adrian; Majeed, Azeem; Gallagher, Joseph; El-Khatib, Mona; Aylin, Paul; Rudan, Igor; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip; Vincent, Charles

    2016-09-09

    interventions requiring relatively minor investment. Rankings of identified problems and solutions can serve as an aid to policy makers and commissioners of care in prioritization of scarce healthcare resources.

  19. Commodities and Stock Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.

  20. The Good Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John E; Fresne, Julie A; Youngclaus, James A

    2017-07-01

    The authors reflect on the article in this issue entitled "Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education" by Marcu and colleagues, which makes a compelling case that a medical school education is a good investment, no matter what financing option students use, from federal service programs to federal loans. The lead author of this Commentary shares lessons learned from his own medical school education, which was funded by an Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship, and from his current position interacting with medical students across the United States.Regardless of the financing path they choose, all students should understand basic financial concepts and the details of the various pathways that are available to pay for their medical school education, as well as how each could potentially impact their own future and that of their families. One underappreciated aspect of financing a medical school education is that federal repayment scenarios can link loan payments to income, rather than debt levels, which means that all physicians are able to afford their loan payments no matter what specialty they practice, what they are paid, or where they live.Medical education, while expensive, remains the good investment. An MD degree can lead to a lifetime of personal fulfillment and societal contributions. Everyone, with rare exceptions, accepted to a U.S. medical school will be able to finance their medical education via a path that aligns with their personal values and priorities.